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  1. National Information Utility Seeks to Serve Schools Nationwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Outlines the pros and cons of the National Information Utility Program, which is designed to provide current updatable courseware to schools nationwide. The information is broadcast over FM radio and television signals to facilities subscribing to the utility. (MD)

  2. Proximity of US schools to major roadways: a nationwide assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Samantha L; Eliot, Melissa N; Carlson, Lynn; Finn, Jennifer; MacIntosh, David L; Suh, Helen H; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Long-term exposure to traffic pollution has been associated with adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents. A significant number of schools may be located near major roadways, potentially exposing millions of children to high levels of traffic pollution, but this hypothesis has not been evaluated nationally. We obtained data on the location and characteristics of 114,644 US public and private schools, grades prekindergarten through 12, and calculated their distance to the nearest major roadway. In 2005-2006, 3.2 million students (6.2%) attended 8,424 schools (7.3%) located within 100 m of a major roadway, and an additional 3.2 million (6.3%) students attended 8,555 (7.5%) schools located 100-250 m from a major roadway. Schools serving predominantly Black students were 18% (95% CI, 13-23%) more likely to be located within 250 m of a major roadway. Public schools eligible for Title I programs and those with a majority of students eligible for free/reduced price meals were also more likely to be near major roadways. In conclusion, 6.4 million US children attended schools within 250 m of a major roadway and were likely exposed to high levels of traffic pollution. Minority and underprivileged children were disproportionately affected, although some results varied regionally.

  3. Impact of the school lunch program on overweight and obesity among junior high school students: a nationwide study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, A; Lee, J S; Kobayashi, Y

    2018-06-05

    Japan has experienced a low prevalence of childhood obesity. The Japanese nationwide school lunch program is suggested to have helped this phenomenon, but it has not been proven. From official statistics, we combined annual data for 2006-15 about the prefecture-level school lunch coverage rate for public junior high school students and the prefecture-level nutritional indicators calculated by randomly selected age-sex groups of 13-15-year olds: the percentage of overweight, obese or underweight children, who are 20% heavier, 30% heavier or 20% lighter than the standard weight by sex, age and height; and mean body weight (kg) or height (cm). We estimated the impact of the school lunch coverage rate on the nutritional indicators in subsequent years, adjusting for the lagged dependent variable and dummies for prefecture, age and year. A 10 percentage point increase in the prefecture-level school lunch coverage rate significantly decreased the percentage of overweight (0.37%, 95% CI: 0.18-0.56) and obesity (0.23%, 0.10-0.37) in subsequent years among boys, but not among girls. No significant effect on the percentage of underweight or mean body weight/height was observed for either sex. Appropriate nutritional intake through school lunch may be effective to reduce childhood obesity.

  4. Patient safety education at Japanese medical schools: results of a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shoichi; Kamishiraki, Etsuko; Starkey, Jay

    2012-05-10

    Patient safety education, including error prevention strategies and management of adverse events, has become a topic of worldwide concern. The importance of the patient safety is also recognized in Japan following two serious medical accidents in 1999. Furthermore, educational curriculum guideline revisions in 2008 by relevant the Ministry of Education includes patient safety as part of the core medical curriculum. However, little is known about the patient safety education in Japanese medical schools partly because a comprehensive study has not yet been conducted in this field. Therefore, we have conducted a nationwide survey in order to clarify the current status of patient safety education at medical schools in Japan. Response rate was 60.0% (n = 48/80). Ninety-eight-percent of respondents (n = 47/48) reported integration of patient safety education into their curricula. Thirty-nine percent reported devoting less than five hours to the topic. All schools that teach patient safety reported use of lecture based teaching methods while few used alternative methods, such as role-playing or in-hospital training. Topics related to medical error theory and legal ramifications of error are widely taught while practical topics related to error analysis such as root cause analysis are less often covered. Based on responses to our survey, most Japanese medical schools have incorporated the topic of patient safety into their curricula. However, the number of hours devoted to the patient safety education is far from the sufficient level with forty percent of medical schools that devote five hours or less to it. In addition, most medical schools employ only the lecture based learning, lacking diversity in teaching methods. Although most medical schools cover basic error theory, error analysis is taught at fewer schools. We still need to make improvements to our medical safety curricula. We believe that this study has the implications for the rest of the world as a

  5. Patient safety education at Japanese medical schools: results of a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeda Shoichi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety education, including error prevention strategies and management of adverse events, has become a topic of worldwide concern. The importance of the patient safety is also recognized in Japan following two serious medical accidents in 1999. Furthermore, educational curriculum guideline revisions in 2008 by relevant the Ministry of Education includes patient safety as part of the core medical curriculum. However, little is known about the patient safety education in Japanese medical schools partly because a comprehensive study has not yet been conducted in this field. Therefore, we have conducted a nationwide survey in order to clarify the current status of patient safety education at medical schools in Japan. Results Response rate was 60.0% (n = 48/80. Ninety-eight-percent of respondents (n = 47/48 reported integration of patient safety education into their curricula. Thirty-nine percent reported devoting less than five hours to the topic. All schools that teach patient safety reported use of lecture based teaching methods while few used alternative methods, such as role-playing or in-hospital training. Topics related to medical error theory and legal ramifications of error are widely taught while practical topics related to error analysis such as root cause analysis are less often covered. Conclusions Based on responses to our survey, most Japanese medical schools have incorporated the topic of patient safety into their curricula. However, the number of hours devoted to the patient safety education is far from the sufficient level with forty percent of medical schools that devote five hours or less to it. In addition, most medical schools employ only the lecture based learning, lacking diversity in teaching methods. Although most medical schools cover basic error theory, error analysis is taught at fewer schools. We still need to make improvements to our medical safety curricula. We believe that this

  6. Differences in school environment, school policy and actions regarding overweight prevention between Dutch schools. A nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buijs Goof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. Methods In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years. Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Results Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (coresponsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. Conclusion This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.

  7. Exploring facilitating factors and barriers to the nationwide dissemination of a Dutch school-based obesity prevention program "DOiT": a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; van Mechelen, W.; Paulussen, T.G.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The evidence-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is a school-based obesity prevention program for 12 to 14-year olds attending the first two years of prevocational education. This paper describes the study protocol applied to evaluate (a) the nationwide

  8. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Schools Following 8 Years of Mandating Legislation in Denmark: A Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Zinckernagel, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Wissenberg, Mads; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen; Weeke, Peter; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-03-14

    School cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has become mandatory in many countries, but whether legislation has translated into implementation of CPR training is largely unknown. We assessed CPR training of students following 8 years of legislative mandates in Denmark. A nationwide cross-sectional survey of Danish school leadership (n=1240) and ninth-grade homeroom teachers (n=1381) was carried out for school year 2013-2014. Qualitative interviews and the Theory of Planned Behavior were used to construct the survey. Logistic regression models were employed to identify factors associated with completed CPR training. Information from 63.1% of eligible schools was collected: 49.3% (n=611) of leadership and 48.2% (n=665) of teachers responded. According to teachers, 28.4% (95% CI 25.0% to 32.0%) and 10.3% (95% CI 8.1% to 12.8%) of eligible classes had completed CPR and automated external defibrillator training, respectively. Among leadership, 60.2% (95% CI 56.2% to 64.1%) reported CPR training had occurred during the 3 years prior to the survey. Factors associated with completed CPR training included believing other schools were conducting training (odds ratio [OR] 9.68 [95% CI 4.65-20.1]), awareness of mandating legislation (OR 4.19 [95% CI 2.65-6.62]), presence of a school CPR training coordinator (OR 3.01 [95% CI 1.84-4.92]), teacher feeling competent to conduct training (OR 2.78 [95% CI 1.74-4.45]), and having easy access to training material (OR 2.08 [95% CI 1.57-2.76]). Despite mandating legislation, school CPR training has not been successfully implemented. Completed CPR training was associated with believing other schools were conducting training, awareness of mandating legislation, presence of a school CPR training coordinator, teachers teacher feeling competent to conduct training, and having easy access to training material. Facilitating these factors may increase rates of school CPR training. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the

  9. High School Physics Courses & Enrollments: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2014-01-01

    This report examines enrollments in high school physics during the 2012-13 school year. Based on data from the most recent survey (which includes both public and private high schools in the U.S.), it is estimated that 39% of the class of 2013 took high school physics before graduating. During the 2012-13 school year, 1.38 million students were…

  10. Life satisfaction and resilience in medical school – a six-year longitudinal, nationwide and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronvold Nina T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the relationship between life satisfaction among medical students and a basic model of personality, stress and coping. Previous studies have shown relatively high levels of distress, such as symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts in medical undergraduates. However despite the increased focus on positive psychological health and well-being during the past decades, only a few studies have focused on life satisfaction and coping in medical students. This is the first longitudinal study which has identified predictors of sustained high levels of life satisfaction among medical students. Methods This longitudinal, nationwide questionnaire study examined the course of life satisfaction during medical school, compared the level of satisfaction of medical students with that of other university students, and identified resilience factors. T-tests were used to compare means of life satisfaction between and within the population groups. K-means cluster analyses were applied to identify subgroups among the medical students. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the subgroups. Results Life satisfaction decreased during medical school. Medical students were as satisfied as other students in the first year of study, but reported less satisfaction in their graduation year. Medical students who sustained high levels of life satisfaction perceived medical school as interfering less with their social and personal life, and were less likely to use emotion focused coping, such as wishful thinking, than their peers. Conclusion Medical schools should encourage students to spend adequate time on their social and personal lives and emphasise the importance of health-promoting coping strategies.

  11. Life satisfaction and resilience in medical school – a six-year longitudinal, nationwide and comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldstadli, Kari; Tyssen, Reidar; Finset, Arnstein; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Gronvold, Nina T; Ekeberg, Oivind; Vaglum, Per

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examined the relationship between life satisfaction among medical students and a basic model of personality, stress and coping. Previous studies have shown relatively high levels of distress, such as symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts in medical undergraduates. However despite the increased focus on positive psychological health and well-being during the past decades, only a few studies have focused on life satisfaction and coping in medical students. This is the first longitudinal study which has identified predictors of sustained high levels of life satisfaction among medical students. Methods This longitudinal, nationwide questionnaire study examined the course of life satisfaction during medical school, compared the level of satisfaction of medical students with that of other university students, and identified resilience factors. T-tests were used to compare means of life satisfaction between and within the population groups. K-means cluster analyses were applied to identify subgroups among the medical students. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the subgroups. Results Life satisfaction decreased during medical school. Medical students were as satisfied as other students in the first year of study, but reported less satisfaction in their graduation year. Medical students who sustained high levels of life satisfaction perceived medical school as interfering less with their social and personal life, and were less likely to use emotion focused coping, such as wishful thinking, than their peers. Conclusion Medical schools should encourage students to spend adequate time on their social and personal lives and emphasise the importance of health-promoting coping strategies. PMID:16984638

  12. Nationwide survey of energy conservation in public school districts: Institutional, organizational, and technical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, N.E.; Ettinger, G.A.; Gaines, L.L.; Kier, P.H.; Miller, K.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Kammerud, R.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes the responses to a mail survey sent to superintendents and other administrators of public school districts. The survey was part of an evaluation project for the USDOE Institutional Conservation Program (ICP). The goal of the project is to identify the most successful energy conservation measures (equipment and activities) available to the institutional buildings sector. To accomplish this goal, four specific research objectives were defined: To determine the impact of the ICP grants program on fostering energy efficiency and saving energy; to determine key characteristics of institutional conservation efforts outside the federal program; To determine the technical, organizational, and Institutional conditions that create the opportunity for energy conservation measures (ECMS) to be most effective; and to identify key technology transfer opportunities. This report focuses on those characteristics of school districts (and the schools within those districts) that might influence the identification, implementation, operation, and impacts of institutional energy conservation efforts. Information about institutional characteristics was gathered through a mail survey of public school districts and private schools. The first mailing resulted in responses from 90 of the 823 public school districts selected through a combination cluster-and-stratification sampling technique and 64 of the 1,700 private schools selected as a stratified random sample. Remaining project resources were used to collect data to achieve a statistically sound sample of a total of 250 public school districts by telephone interviews. In doing so, some questions had to be dropped. Responses from both the mall surveys and the telephone interviews of public school districts were combined into one data set. This report describes results for all 250 districts.

  13. High School Physics Availability: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors share their analysis of the data from over 3,500 high schools in the U.S. beginning with an examination of the availability of physics in U.S. high schools. The schools in their sample are a nationally-representative random sample of the almost 25,000 high schools in forty-nine of the fifty states. Table 1 shows the…

  14. Preschool and Children's Outcomes in Elementary School: Have Patterns Changed Nationwide Between 1998 and 2010?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassok, Daphna; Gibbs, Chloe R; Latham, Scott

    2018-04-17

    This study employs data from both kindergarten cohorts of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n ~ 12,450 in 1998; n ~ 11,000 in 2010) to assess whether associations between preschool participation and children's academic and behavioral outcomes-both at school entry (M age  = 5.6 years in both cohorts) and through third grade-have changed over time. Findings are strikingly similar across these two, nationally representative, U.S. cohorts: preschool is positively associated with academic outcomes and negatively associated with behavioral outcomes both at school entry and as children progress through school. Heterogeneity is documented with respect to child and preschool characteristics. However, there is no evidence that associations between preschool and medium-term child outcomes differ by elementary school characteristics. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  15. Effective nationwide school-based participatory extramural program on adolescent body mass index, health knowledge and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Jimenez, Camille C; Lim, Jean; Isasi, Carmen R; Blank, Arthur E; Lounsbury, David W; Fredericks, Lynn; Bouchard, Michelle; Faith, Myles S; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2018-01-16

    Adolescent obesity is a major public health concern. Open to all high school students regardless of weight status, HealthCorps is a nationwide program offering a comprehensive high school-based participatory educational program to indirectly address obesity. We tested a hypothesis that the HealthCorps program would decrease BMI z-scores among overweight or obese students, and reduce obesity rates, and evaluated its effects on health knowledge and behaviors. HealthCorps aimed to improve student knowledge and behaviors regarding nutrition quality, physical activity, sleep, breakfast intake, and mental resilience. Participating students received through HealthCorps coordinators weekly or bi-weekly classroom lessons either for a semester or a year in addition to various during- and after-school health-promoting activities and mentorship. Self-reported height and weight were collected along with questionnaires assessing knowledge and behaviors during 2013-2014 academic year among 14 HealthCorps-participating New York City high schools. This quasi experimental two-arm pre-post trial included 611 HealthCorps and 221 comparison arm students for the analytic sample. Sex-specific analyses stratified by weight status were adjusted for age and Hispanic ethnicity with clustering effects of schools and students taken into account. HealthCorps female overweight/obese and obese student had a significant decrease in BMI z-scores (post-pre delta BMI z-score = -0.16 (95%CI = (-0.26, -0.05), p = 0.004 for the former; and = -0.23 (-0.44, -0.03), p = 0.028, for the latter) whereas comparison female counterparts did not. The HealthCorps students, but not the comparison students, had a significant increase for all knowledge domains except for the breakfast realm, and reported a greater number of significant behavior changes including fruit and vegetable intake and physical activities. The HealthCorps program was associated with reduced BMI z-score in overweight/obese and obese

  16. Use of Language Sample Analysis by School-Based SLPs: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Stacey L.; Owens, Robert E., Jr.; Ireland, Marie; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines use of language sample analysis (LSA) by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs), including characteristics of language samples, methods of transcription and analysis, barriers to LSA use, and factors affecting LSA use, such as American Speech-Language-Hearing Association certification, number of years'…

  17. Personality traits and types predict medical school stress: a six-year longitudinal and nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Dolatowski, Filip C; Røvik, Jan Ole; Thorkildsen, Ruth F; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Grønvold, Nina T; Vaglum, Per

    2007-08-01

    Personality types (combinations of traits) that take into account the interplay between traits give a more detailed picture of an individual's character than do single traits. This study examines whether both personality types and traits predict stress during medical school training. We surveyed Norwegian medical students (n = 421) 1 month after they began medical school (T1), at the mid-point of undergraduate Year 3 (T2), and at the end of undergraduate Year 6 (T3). A total of 236 medical students (56%) responded at all time-points. They were categorised according to Torgersen's personality typology by their combination of high and low scores on the 'Big Three' personality traits of extroversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness. We studied the effects of both personality types (spectator, insecure, sceptic, brooder, hedonist, impulsive, entrepreneur and complicated) and traits on stress during medical school. There was a higher level of stress among female students. The traits of neuroticism (P = 0.002) and conscientiousness (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of stress, whereas female gender was absorbed by neuroticism in the multivariate model. When controlled for age and gender, 'brooders' (low extroversion, high neuroticism, high conscientiousness) were at risk of experiencing more stress (P = 0.02), whereas 'hedonists' (high extroversion, low neuroticism, low conscientiousness) were more protected against stress (P = 0.001). This is the first study to show that a specific combination of personality traits can predict medical school stress. The combination of high neuroticism and high conscientiousness is considered to be particularly high risk.

  18. Who Teaches High School Physics? Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Tyler, John

    2014-01-01

    During the 2012-13 academic year, the authors collected data from a representative national sample of over 3,500 public and private high schools across the U.S. to inquire about physics availabilities and offerings. This report describes their findings.

  19. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: a nationwide survey at German medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix

    2009-05-12

    Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education in emergency medical care.

  20. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  1. Nationwide survey on pediatric CT among children of public health and school nurses to examine a possibility for a follow-up study on radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Ban, N.; Ojima, M.; Yoshinaga, S.; Akahane, K.; Fujii, K.; Toyota, M.; Hamada, F.; Kouriyama, C.; Akiba, S.; Kunugita, N.; Shimada, Y.; Kai, M.

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted in Japan on paediatric CT among children of public health and school nurses to examine a possibility for a follow-up study on radiation effects. A survey questionnaire was sent out to 3173 public primary and junior high schools and 317 public health centres during October to December in 2009. According to the collected responses, 410 (16.2 %) children received the CT scans and the total number of CT scans was 585. Most of respondents expressed a high interest in radiation health effects and an intent to participate in the epidemiological study that will follow-up the health conditions of children. This study provides information to discuss the feasibility of the epidemiological study on health effects in children who received CT scans. (authors)

  2. Profile of subjective quality of life and its correlates in a nation-wide sample of high school students in an Arab setting using the WHOQOL-Bref

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohaeri Jude U

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upsurge of interest in the quality of life (QOL of children is in line with the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, which stressed the child's right to adequate circumstances for physical, mental, and social development. The study's objectives were to: (i highlight how satisfied Kuwaiti high school students were with life circumstances as in the WHOQOL-Bref; (ii assess the prevalence of at risk status for impaired QOL and establish the QOL domain normative values; and (iii examine the relationship of QOL with personal, parental, and socio-environmental factors. Method A nation-wide sample of students in senior classes in government high schools (N = 4467, 48.6% boys; aged 14-23 years completed questionnaires that included the WHOQOL-Bref. Results Using Cummins' norm of 70% - 80%, we found that, as a group, they barely achieved the well-being threshold score for physical health (70%, social relations (72.8%, environment (70.8% and general facet (70.2%, but not for psychological health (61.9%. These scores were lower than those reported from other countries. Using the recommended cut-off of SD of population mean, the prevalence of at risk status for impaired QOL was 12.9% - 18.8% (population age-adjusted: 15.9% - 21.1%. In all domains, boys had significantly higher QOL than girls, mediated by anxiety/depression; while the younger ones had significantly higher QOL (p Conclusion Poorer QOL seemed to reflect a circumstance of social disadvantage and poor psychosocial well-being in which girls fared worse than boys. The findings indicate that programs that address parental harmony and school programs that promote study-friendly atmospheres could help to improve psychosocial well-being. The application of QOL as a school population health measure may facilitate risk assessment and the tracking of health status.

  3. Clinician-scientist MB/PhD training in the UK: a nationwide survey of medical school policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Vanes, Ashton; Ho, Guiyi; Cox, Timothy M

    2015-12-30

    This study surveyed all UK medical schools regarding their Bachelor of Medicine (MB), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) (MB/PhD) training policy in order to map the current training landscape and to provide evidence for further research and policy development. Deans of all UK medical schools registered with the Medical Schools Council were invited to participate in this survey electronically. The number of medical schools that operate institutional MB/PhD programmes or permit self-directed student PhD intercalation. Medical school recruitment procedures and attitudes to policy guidance. 27 of 33 (81%) registered UK medical schools responded. Four (14%) offer an institutional MB/PhD programme. However, of those without institutional programmes, 17 (73%) permit study interruption and PhD intercalation: two do not (one of whom had discontinued their programme in 2013), three were unsure and one failed to answer the question. Regarding student eligibility, respondents cited high academic achievement in medical studies and a bachelor's or master's degree. Of the Medical schools without institutional MB/PhD programmes, 5 (21%) have intentions to establish a programme, 8 (34%) do not and 3 were unsure, seven did not answer. 19 medical schools (70%) considered national guidelines are needed for future MB/PhD programme development. We report the first national survey of MB/PhD training in the UK. Four medical schools have operational institutional MB/PhD programmes, with a further five intending to establish one. Most medical schools permit study interruption and PhD intercalation. The total number MB/PhD students yet to graduate from medical school could exceed 150, with 30 graduating per year. A majority of medical school respondents to this survey believe national guidelines are required for MB/PhD programme development and implementation. Further research should focus on the MB/PhD student experience. Discussion regarding local and national MB/PhD policies between medical

  4. At S.C. School, Behavior Is One of the Basics: A Charleston Middle School Joins the Growing Number Nationwide That Use PBIS Strategies to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Learning "how to be a Haut Gap student" is one of the basics at Charleston's Haut Gap Middle School. Along with reading, science, and mathematics classes, every student at Haut Gap Middle School takes a course in how to be a Haut Gap student. For most students, the class is 40 minutes a day for nine weeks. But it can last 18 weeks for…

  5. What High School Physics Teachers Teach: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, John; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    During the 2012-13 academic year, the Statistic Research Center (SRC) collected data from a representative national sample of over 3,500 public and private high schools across the U.S. to inquire about physics availabilities and offerings. This report describes their findings. SRC takes two different approaches to describe the characteristics of…

  6. High School Physics Textbooks, Resources and Teacher Resourcefulness: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    What textbooks are physics teachers using? How highly do they rate those textbooks? What other types of materials do teachers use? The textbooks and other resources used by high school physics teachers in the US have evolved along with the changing demands of physics classes and the evolving set of options available to teachers. In this report,…

  7. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; van Mechelen, W.; Brug, J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials.

  8. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chin A. Paw, Mai J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials. Methods: We revisited the Intervention Mapping (IM)…

  9. Relationship Between Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries Among Japanese Preschool Children with Relatively Low Sugar Intake (Japan Nursery School SHOKUIKU Study): A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saido, Miyuki; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    The WHO has recently proposed to halve the recommendation for free sugar intake from 10 to 5 % of energy intake to reduce the incidence of diseases such as obesity and dental caries. The Japanese population is suitable to confirm the appropriateness of this proposal, because dietary sugar intake in Japan is exceptionally low among developed countries. We sought to establish a method to estimate dietary sugar intake in Japan and to examine the relationship between sugar and the number of dental caries using data obtained from the Japan Nursery School SHOKUIKU study. Dietary intake during the preceding month and the number of caries was examined in children aged 5-6 years using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children completed by their guardians and another questionnaire on lifestyle. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used for the analysis. When subjects were ranked into quintiles by the proportion of energy from free sugar, those in higher quintiles had more caries than those in the lowest quintile. On close analysis, the number of caries among children with a relatively small proportion of energy intake from free sugar (3.18-3.77 %) was not significantly different from that in the lowest group (0.95-3.17 %). The recent proposition of WHO might be valid, because the adverse effect of relatively small proportion (approximately less than 5 %) of energy intake from free sugar on caries was not detected among the subjects in this study. However, more study will be necessary to reach a conclusion.

  10. 77 FR 10183 - Reissuance of Nationwide Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Civil Works Program (Engineer Circular 1165- 2-211). The current Engineer Circular applies to Corps..., Corps of Engineers Reissuance of Nationwide Permits; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 34..., Corps of Engineers RIN 0710-AA71 Reissuance of Nationwide Permits AGENCY: Army Corps of Engineers, DoD...

  11. Nationwide rural well water survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkka-Niemi, K.; Sipilae, A.; Hatva, T.; Hiisvirta, L.; Lahti, K.; Alfthan, G.

    1993-01-01

    The quality of water in 1 421 drinking-water wells was monitored in a nationwide well water study. Samples were taken once from all wells, and during three seasons from 421 wells. The wells were selected in such a way that me sample would be as representative as possible of the quality of the drinking-water in households' own wells in rural areas. The study comprised general water quality parameters, influence of sampling season, and factors related to the type, the condition and the pollution of the wells. In part of the well waters selenium, radioactivity and pesticides were determined. The effect of plumbing materials on the quality of water was also examined. (33 refs., 148 figs., 71 tabs.)

  12. Anger and Impulsivity Among Japanese Adolescents: A Nationwide Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Osamu; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Munezawa, Takeshi; Ikeda, Maki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Higuchi, Susumu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Nakagome, Sachi; Suzuki, Kenji; Ohida, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of anger and impulsivity and its associated factors through a nationwide survey of junior and senior high school adolescent students in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire covering (1) personal data, (2) lifestyle, (3) mental health status, and (4) feelings of anger and impulsivity was distributed to junior and senior high school students in Japan. Among the total of 10,955 junior high schools and 5,115 senior high schools nationwide, 130 and 110 were randomly selected, respectively. Of those, 92 junior and 80 senior high schools participated in the survey. The survey period was from December 2008 to the end of January 2009. A total of 95,680 questionnaires were collected. After excluding invalid responses, the remaining 94,777 responses (response rate: 62.3%) were analyzed. From the questions regarding anger and impulsivity, 8.7% (95% CI, 8.5%-8.9%) and 7.5% (95% CI, 7.3%-7.7%) of the participants were considered to have experienced intense anger and impulsivity, respectively. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds ratios for experiencing intense feelings of anger were significantly higher (all P values breakfast, did not wish to go to university, had short sleep duration, had decreased positive feelings, had increased depressive feelings, or used mobile phones for longer hours. The odds ratios for experiencing intense impulsivity were significantly higher among students who smoked, consumed alcohol, skipped breakfast, did not participate in club activities, had short sleep duration, had decreased positive feelings, had increased depressive feelings, or used mobile phones for longer hours. The results suggest that healthy lifestyle habits, good sleep habits, and improved mental health are important for preventing intense feelings of anger and impulsivity among adolescents. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. 2008 TIGER/Line Nationwide Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset contains a nationwide build of the 2008 TIGER/Line datasets from the US Census Bureau downloaded in April 2009. The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract...

  14. Sunray project - A long-term, nationwide educational process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, Anneli

    2000-01-01

    The Sunray project is a nationwide educational process coordinated by the Economic Information Bureau (TaT Group) for ninth graders in Finnish comprehensive schools. The project aims at giving thorough and versatile information on radiation within the framework of various subjects (physics, biology, domestic science, history, European languages, mother tongue, health education etc.). The Sunray project covers all ninth graders of the existing 600 Finnish comprehensive schools; in all involving some 65 000 pupils. The project, which has been repeated five times, was initiated as part of the European Science and Technology week in 1995. During the first two years it was strongly linked with the science week as natural sciences were seen as a good framework for the chosen perspective. Since 1997, the project has been run as an event in its own right. The project has applied the method of processing integrated groups of themes, which is an objective of the comprehensive school system and the experimental method of science. As schools make their own decisions about the educational programmes to be adopted every semester, the project has been marketed to schools at the beginning of May. The TaT Group has arranged marketing events in some 10 localities in Finland. The Economic Information Bureau of Finland coordinates the project and in 1995-2000 the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Finnish Energy Industries' Federation, the Finnish Electricity Association, Fortum Oyj and Teollisuuden Voima Oy have participated in the project

  15. Concussion in High School Sports: Overall Estimate of Occurrence Is Not Available, but Key State Laws and Nationwide Guidelines Address Injury Management. Testimony before the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives. GAO-10-569T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Linda T.

    2010-01-01

    Participation in school sports can benefit children but also carries a risk of injury, including concussion. Concussion is a brain injury that can affect memory, speech, and muscle coordination and can cause permanent disability or death. Concussion can be especially serious for children, who are more likely than adults both to sustain a…

  16. Here Comes "McSchool."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Marilee C.

    1991-01-01

    Whittle Communications, Inc. plans to launch a nationwide chain of private, for-profit schools and sell its proprietary educational products, instructional technology, and management services to school boards. Whittle schools will enroll children aged 3 months to 18 years, schedule hours coinciding with parents' working days, and operate…

  17. Leading Schools through Major Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Sarosh

    2013-01-01

    Changing even the smallest things in schools is hard--just ask any principal who has overseen a rescheduling of bus routes. So imagine the difficulty of getting a school to move its curriculum and instruction from familiar learning requirements to brand-new nationwide standards. Yet this is exactly the sort of change public schools in 45 states…

  18. Comprehensive School Safety Initiative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Justice, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) developed the Comprehensive School Safety Initiative in consultation with federal partners and Congress. It is a research-focused initiative designed to increase the safety of schools nationwide through the development of knowledge regarding the most effective and sustainable school safety interventions and…

  19. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry depart...

  20. Charter Schools and Students with Disabilities: Legal and Practice Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michelle E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2018-01-01

    As of the 2013-2014 school year, about 2.5 million school-age students attended charter schools nationwide. Because charter schools are publicly funded entities, they are required to adhere to all federal nondiscriminatory laws as well as the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. This legal brief provides an overview of charter schools,…

  1. Simulating Nationwide Pandemics: Applying the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis System to Human Infectious Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombroski, M; Melius, C; Edmunds, T; Banks, L E; Bates, T; Wheeler, R

    2008-09-24

    This study uses the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) system developed for foreign animal diseases to assess consequences of nationwide human infectious disease outbreaks. A literature review identified the state of the art in both small-scale regional models and large-scale nationwide models and characterized key aspects of a nationwide epidemiological model. The MESA system offers computational advantages over existing epidemiological models and enables a broader array of stochastic analyses of model runs to be conducted because of those computational advantages. However, it has only been demonstrated on foreign animal diseases. This paper applied the MESA modeling methodology to human epidemiology. The methodology divided 2000 US Census data at the census tract level into school-bound children, work-bound workers, elderly, and stay at home individuals. The model simulated mixing among these groups by incorporating schools, workplaces, households, and long-distance travel via airports. A baseline scenario with fixed input parameters was run for a nationwide influenza outbreak using relatively simple social distancing countermeasures. Analysis from the baseline scenario showed one of three possible results: (1) the outbreak burned itself out before it had a chance to spread regionally, (2) the outbreak spread regionally and lasted a relatively long time, although constrained geography enabled it to eventually be contained without affecting a disproportionately large number of people, or (3) the outbreak spread through air travel and lasted a long time with unconstrained geography, becoming a nationwide pandemic. These results are consistent with empirical influenza outbreak data. The results showed that simply scaling up a regional small-scale model is unlikely to account for all the complex variables and their interactions involved in a nationwide outbreak. There are several limitations of the methodology that should be explored in future

  2. Professional fulfillment and parenting work-life balance in female physicians in Basic Sciences and medical research: a nationwide cross-sectional survey of all 80 medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Marui, Eiji

    2017-09-15

    In Japan, the field of Basic Sciences encompasses clinical, academic, and translational research, as well as the teaching of medical sciences, with both an MD and PhD typically required. In this study, it was hypothesized that the characteristics of a Basic Sciences career path could offer the professional advancement and personal fulfillment that many female medical doctors would find advantageous. Moreover, encouraging interest in Basic Sciences could help stem shortages that Japan is experiencing in medical fields, as noted in the three principal contributing factors: premature resignation of female clinicians, an imbalance of female physicians engaged in research, and a shortage of medical doctors in the Basic Sciences. This study examines the professional and personal fulfillment expressed by Japanese female medical doctors who hold positions in Basic Sciences. Topics include career advancement, interest in medical research, and greater flexibility for parenting. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was distributed at all 80 medical schools in Japan, directed to 228 female medical doctors whose academic rank was assistant professor or higher in departments of Basic Sciences in 2012. Chi-square tests and the binary logistic regression model were used to investigate the impact of parenthood on career satisfaction, academic rank, salary, etc. The survey response rate of female physicians in Basic Sciences was 54.0%. Regardless of parental status, one in three respondents cited research interest as their rationale for entering Basic Sciences, well over twice other motivations. A majority had clinical experience, with clinical duties maintained part-time by about half of respondents and particularly parents. Only one third expressed afterthoughts about relinquishing full-time clinical practice, with physicians who were parents expressing stronger regrets. Parental status had little effect on academic rank and income within the Basic Sciences, CONCLUSION

  3. Prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a nationwide sample of Arab high school students: association with family characteristics, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim A; Ohaeri, Jude U; Gado, Osama M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were first, to assess the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a stratified random sample of Kuwaiti high school students and second, to explore the association of child abuse with parental characteristics, subjective quality of life (QOL), self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. We assessed the students for experience of abuse by their mothers, fathers, and others, using standard scales on psychological, physical and sexual abuse. They also completed the short version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument; the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a scale for anxiety and depression. We obtained responses from 4,467 students (49% boys), mean age 16.9 years. About 18, 15, and 18%, indicated that for at least six times in the past 12 months, they experienced psychological abuse by their mothers, fathers and others, respectively. The corresponding figures for lifetime experience were similar. The respective figures for experience of physical abuse during the past 12 months were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.4%. For lifetime experience, the corresponding figures were 3.4, 5.3, and 5.8%. The girls had significantly higher physical/psychological abuse scores. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence of sexual attacks (8.6%) and someone threatening the subjects with sex (5.9%). The prevalence of someone sexually exposing themselves to the students (15.3%) and unwanted touching of sexual parts (17.4%) was significantly higher among the boys. Over one-third of those abused had experienced multiple abuses. Child abuse was significantly associated with parental divorce, diminished QOL and self-esteem, high scores on anxiety/depression, and difficulty with studies, and social relationships. In the regression analysis involving only the abuse indices, psychological abuse by mothers was the most important predictor of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (11.5-19.7% of variance). Good quality of

  4. School Choice and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility is examined that school choice programs could be a means to reducing the achievement gap. Data based on meta-analytic research and the examination of nationwide data sets suggest that school choice programs that include private schools could reduce the achievement gap by 25%. The propounding of this possibility is based on research…

  5. GreatSchools.org Finds Its Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    GreatSchools.org neatly ranks more than 136,000 traditional public, private, and charter schools nationwide on a scale of 1 to 10, based on state test scores. But what often draws readers are the gossipy insider comments posted by parents, students, and teachers, and the star ratings those commenters contribute. The growth of online school rating…

  6. A Dutch Nationwide Bariatric Quality Registry: DATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelemeijer, Youri Q M; Liem, Ronald S L; Nienhuijs, Simon W

    2017-12-22

    In the Netherlands, the number of bariatric procedures increased exponentially in the 90s. To ensure and improve the quality of bariatric surgery, the nationwide Dutch Audit for Treatment of Obesity (DATO) was established in 2014. The audit was coordinated by the Dutch Institute for Clinical Auditing (DICA). This article provides a review of the aforementioned process in establishing a nationwide registry in the Netherlands. In collaboration with the DATO's scientific committee and other stakeholders, an annual list of several external quality indicators was formulated. This list consists of volume, process, and outcome indicators. In addition to the annual external indicators, the database permits individual hospitals to analyze their own data. The dashboard provides several standardized reports and detailed quality indicators, which are updated on a weekly base. Since the start, all 18 Dutch bariatric centers participated in the nationwide audit. A total of 21,941 cases were registered between 2015 and 2016. By 2016, the required variables were registered in 94.3% of all cases. A severe complicated course was seen in 2.87%, and mortality in 0.05% in 2016. The first-year follow-up shows a > 20% TWL in 86.1% of the registered cases. The DATO has become rapidly a mature registry. The well-organized structure of the national audit institution DICA and governmental funding were essential. However, most important were the bariatric teams themselves. The authors believe reporting the results from the registry has already contributed to more knowledge and acceptance by other health care providers.

  7. Impact of nationwide centralization of pancreaticoduodenectomy on hospital mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, R. F.; Besselink, M. G. H.; van der Tweel, I.; de Hingh, I. H. J. T.; van Eijck, C. H. J.; Dejong, C. H. C.; Porte, R. J.; Gouma, D. J.; Busch, O. R. C.; Molenaar, I. Q.

    Background: The impact of nationwide centralization of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) on mortality is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in hospital volumes and in-hospital mortality after PD in the Netherlands between 2004 and 2009. Methods: Nationwide data on International

  8. Impact of nationwide centralization of pancreaticoduodenectomy on hospital mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, R. F.; Besselink, M. G. H.; van der Tweel, I.; de Hingh, I. H. J. T.; van Eijck, C. H. J.; Dejong, C. H. C.; Porte, R. J.; Gouma, D. J.; Busch, O. R. C.; Molenaar, I. Q.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The impact of nationwide centralization of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) on mortality is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in hospital volumes and in-hospital mortality after PD in the Netherlands between 2004 and 2009. Methods: Nationwide data on International

  9. Details from the Dashboard: Charter Schools by Geographic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    While a majority of charter schools nationwide operate in urban and suburban areas, charter schools exist in all corners of the nation, and are expanding into all types of communities. This "Details from the Dashboard" report presents statistics on the number of charter schools and students enrolled in charter schools by the four geographic…

  10. Solutions for Failing High Schools: Converging Visions and Promising Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legters, Nettie; Balfanz, Robert; McPartland, James

    Promising solutions to the failings of traditional comprehensive high schools were reviewed to identify basic principles and strategies for improving high schools nationwide. Selected research studies, policy documents, and promising high school programs were reviewed. The review revealed the following principles for helping high schools better…

  11. School Climate for Academic Success: A Multilevel Analysis of School Climate and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Darren; Davis, Jonathan Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationship between school climate and academic achievement. Using the Educational Longitudinal Survey (ELS, 2002), and a sample of 16,258 students and 1954 schools nationwide, we found that student-level perception of school climate--especially the student learning environment--was highly predictive of academic…

  12. Nationwide Genomic Study in Denmark Reveals Remarkable Population Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Jørgensen, Frank G; Als, Thomas D; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Espeseth, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hultman, Christina M; Kjærgaard, Peter C; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ∼800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany, and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen, and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R 2 = 0.639 ± 0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Learning from High School Students' Lived Experiences of Reading E-Books and Printed Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    E-book sales are down nationwide, and younger readers are proving to be surprisingly persistent in their preference for printed books. Although 66% of schools nationwide offer e-books, adoption is growing at a slower than expected rate. This study takes a closer look at high school students' experiences as they read John Steinbeck's fictional…

  14. Is threat the only modulator of attentional selectivity? Redefining the Easterbrook hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Barratt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A Commentary on Threat but not Arousal Narrows Attention: Evidence from Pupil Dilation and Saccade Control by van Steenbergen,H., ,Band,G.P.H. and Hommel,B.(2011).Front.Psychol.2:281. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00281....

  15. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4342 (96% participated. Two self-rated questionnaires (one demographics and one Young's Internet addiction scale were filled b the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. 962 (22.2% of the study participants were labeled as having "internet addiction." Males were significantly more likely to be an internet addict (P<0.001. Students whose father and/or mother had a doctorate degree were most likely to have Internet addiction (P<0.001 for both. Job engagement of mothers was significantly associated with students' internet addiction, and the least rate of addiction was observed when the mother was a housewife (P<0.001; having no exercise was associated with the highest rate of Internet addiction (P<0.001. Stepwise logistic regression models showed gender (male, older age, mother's occupation, family's financial status (either very high or very low, low quality of family relationship, and students' lower levels of religious devotion were significantly associated with having Internet addiction. This study showed that Internet addiction in Iranian adolescents is prevalent, and has several independent factors, from which, family relations is most likely to be modifiable. Improvements in family relations and more strict parental supervision, especially when mothers have active job employment, are recommended.

  16. Nationwide cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sudan: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Young-Ha; Lee, Keon Hoon; Cho, Dae Seong; Lee, Jinmoo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Elhag, Mousab Siddig; Khaled, Soheir Gabralla Ahmad; Elnimeiri, Mustafa Khidir Mustafa; Siddig, Nahid Abdelgadeir Ali; Abdelrazig, Hana; Awadelkareem, Sarah; Elshafie, Azza Tag Eldin; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Amin, Mutamad

    2017-09-12

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are target neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of preventive chemotherapy, but the control and elimination of these diseases have been impeded due to resource constraints. Few reports have described study protocol to draw on when conducting a nationwide survey. We present a detailed methodological description of the integrated mapping of schistosomiasis and STHs on the basis of our experiences, hoping that this protocol can be applied to future surveys in similar settings. In addition to determining the ecological zones requiring mass drug administration interventions, we aim to provide precise estimates of the prevalence of these diseases. A school-based cross-sectional design will be applied for the nationwide survey across Sudan. The survey is designed to cover all districts in every state. We have divided each district into 3 different ecological zones depending on proximity to bodies of water. We will employ a probability-proportional-to-size sampling method for schools and systematic sampling for student selection to provide adequate data regarding the prevalence for schistosomiasis and STHs in Sudan at the state level. A total of 108,660 students will be selected from 1811 schools across Sudan. After the survey is completed, 391 ecological zones will be mapped out. To carry out the survey, 655 staff members were recruited. The feces and urine samples are microscopically examined by the Kato-Katz method and the sediment smears for helminth eggs respectively. For quality control, a minimum of 10% of the slides will be rechecked by the federal supervisors in each state and also 5% of the smears are validated again within one day by independent supervisors. This nationwide mapping is expected to generate important epidemiological information and indicators about schistosomiasis and STHs that will be useful for monitoring and evaluating the control program. The mapping data will also be used for overviewing

  17. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) is a unique and powerful database designed to support various types of analyses of national readmission rates for all...

  18. HCUP Nationwide Emergency Department Database (NEDS) Restricted Access File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) was created to enable analyses of emergency department (ED) utilization patterns and support public health...

  19. A nationwide radon concentration survey project in Japan. Outdoor and workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, S.; Kanno, N.; Ohashi, N.; Abukawa, J.

    2003-01-01

    Nationwide survey for outdoor and workplace radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in Japan were carried out to evaluate the effective dose to the general public due to 222 Rn and its progeny. The 222 Rn concentration was measured by using passive-type radon/thoron discriminative monitor equipped with polycarbonate films. Concentration of 222 Rn was calculated from etch pit counts appeared on the polycarbonate film after chemical and electrochemical etching. For outdoor 222 Rn survey, the monitors were installed at about 700 points throughout Japan on every quarters of the fiscal year 1997 to 1999. The mean concentration of outdoor 222 Rn concentration was 6.1 Bq m -3 from the results of 696 measurement points. Seasonal variation of outdoor 222 Rn was found to be minimal in July to September, and maximal in October to December. For workplace 222 Rn survey, the monitors were installed at about 700 points in four categories (office, factory, school and hospital) on every quarters of the fiscal year 2000 to 2002. Nationwide mean 222 Rn concentration in workplaces was found to be 22.7 Bq m -3 for 2000 and 20.7 Bq m -3 for 2001, respectively. Seasonal variation of 222 Rn concentration measured at office, factory, school and hospital were also found to be minimal in July to September, and maximal in October to December. (author)

  20. School Psychologists' Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Travis G.

    2004-01-01

    School Psychologistsâ Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later (ABSTRACT) This study was designed to replicate nationwide surveys completed in 1982 and 1992. The purpose was to examine and describe the levels of job satisfaction and the relationship between the variables in a national sample of school psychologists belonging to the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). The sample for this study consisted of respondents who reported being full-time school practitioners. ...

  1. Unhealthy lifestyle, poor mental health, and its correlation among adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihata, Takeo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Ohida, Takashi; Minowa, Masumi; Wada, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayashi, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between mental health and lifestyles of adolescents using samples representative of Japanese adolescents nationwide. The survey was conducted between December 2004 and January 2005 among students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools. Self-administered questionnaires addressed lifestyles, sleeping habits, and mental health status. Of 103 650 questionnaires collected, 85 158 were analyzed. Population characteristics associated with poor mental health were being female, being a senior high school student, skipping breakfast, not participating in extracurricular activities, not consulting parents about personal matters, parental smoking, students' smoking or alcohol use, poor subjective sleep assessment, and short or long sleeping duration. Smoking and anxiety disorders are associated with an elevation in acculturative stress in adolescents. Prepossessing adolescents are in subclinical depression. Results suggest that lifestyles approaches in preventions that target students can be effective in reaching high-risk populations. © 2012 APJPH.

  2. Birth order and paediatric allergic disease: A nationwide longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Yorifuji, T; Fujii, Y; Yashiro, M; Okada, A; Ikeda, M; Doi, H; Tsukahara, H

    2018-05-01

    Environmental factors seem to be related to the incidence of allergic disease. Children with a later birth order are often exposed to environments, where pathogens and endotoxins can be found, and thus have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases. Therefore, birth order is regarded as an indicator that reflects post-natal environment. However, longitudinal studies are limited on this subject. This study sought to elucidate the relationships between birth order and allergic disease. From a nationwide longitudinal study that followed children born in 2001 (n = 47 015), we selected doctors' visits for 3 types of allergic disease-bronchial asthma, food allergy and atopic dermatitis-from infancy to 12 years of age and conducted binomial log-linear regression analysis to evaluate the associations between birth order and these diseases. We adjusted for the child and parental factors and estimated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome. The associations between birth order and bronchial asthma were diverse; later birth order increased the risk in early childhood, but decreased the risks during school age. For example, the adjusted RR comparing third-born or higher and first-born children was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35) between 30 and 42 months of age, but was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.89) between 10 and 11 years. Later birth order was generally protective for food allergy but increased the risk of atopic dermatitis. The influence of birth order depended on the type of allergic disease and the childhood period. Childhood is unique in terms of physical and immunological development, and the immune response to the post-natal environment in childhood appears to be heterogeneous. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Nationwide survey of US integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebastchi, Amir H; Yuh, David D

    2014-08-01

    Integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residency programs have recently been implemented in the United States. We report the results of the first published nationwide survey assessing the motivations, satisfaction, and ambitions of integrated 6-year residents. A 63-question web-based survey was distributed to 83 residents enrolled in 21 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited integrated 6-year programs in November 2013. There was an outstanding 69% response rate. The median age of integrated 6-year residents was 29 years with women comprising 24%. A clear majority had faculty mentorship (95%) and significant clinical exposure in medical school. Focused (100%) and abbreviated (74%) training curricula were identified as the top advantages of integrated 6-year programs; the format itself was a significant factor (46%) in career choice. Most integrated 6-year residents (95%) were satisfied with their program; 80.7% were satisfied with their operative experience thus far. Career plans skewed toward adult cardiac surgery (67%), followed by pediatric cardiac (24%) and general thoracic (9%) surgery; 49% were not particularly concerned about future employment, with 65% foreseeing an increase in opportunities. Specialized training (eg, aortic, heart failure, minimally invasive, congenital) was anticipated by 77%. Most integrated 6-year residents envision an academic career (94.7%). This survey takes an important snapshot of the nascent integrated 6-year format. Mentorship and intense clinical exposure are critical in attracting applicants. Purported advantages of the format are holding true among integrated 6-year residents, with the majority satisfied with their programs. These early data indicate that this format holds significant promise in attracting and retaining highly qualified trainees to academic cardiothoracic surgery. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Downside Seen in Rush to Hire School-Based Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    With nightmare visions of a gunman stalking school halls, districts often rush to hire police officers to patrol their campuses after news of a school shooting. Critics of that impulsive response, which has been in high gear nationwide since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings in December, acknowledge the concern for student and staff…

  5. Variation in interoperability across clinical laboratories nationwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaishali; McNamara, Lauren; Dullabh, Prashila; Sawchuk, Megan E; Swain, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    To characterize nationwide variation and factors associated with clinical laboratories': (1) capabilities to send structured test results electronically to ordering practitioners' EHR systems; and (2) their levels of exchange activity, as measured by whether they sent more than three-quarters of their test results as structured data to ordering practitioners' EHR systems. A national survey of all independent and hospital laboratories was conducted in 2013. Using an analytic weighted sample of 9382 clinical laboratories, a series of logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify organizational and area characteristics associated with clinical laboratories' exchange capability and activity. Hospital-based clinical laboratories (71%) and larger clinical laboratories (80%) had significantly higher levels of capability compared to independent (58%) and smaller laboratories (48%), respectively; though all had similar levels of exchange activity, with 30% of clinical laboratories sending 75% or more of their test results electronically. In multivariate analyses, hospital and the largest laboratories had 1.87 and 4.40 higher odds, respectively, of possessing the capability to send results electronically compared to independent laboratories (pLaboratories located in areas with a higher share of potential exchange partners had a small but significantly greater capability to send results electronically and higher levels of exchange activity(pClinical laboratories' capability to exchange varied by size and type; however, all clinical laboratories had relatively low levels of exchange activity. The role of exchange partners potentially played a small but significant role in driving exchange capability and activity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Mentoring in Schools: An Impact Study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Kauh, Tina J.; McMaken, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring involved 1,139 9- to 16-year-old students in 10 cities nationwide. Youth were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (receiving mentoring) or a control group (receiving no mentoring) and were followed for 1.5 school years. At the end of the first school…

  7. Aortic events in a nationwide Marfan syndrome cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Kristian A; Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Hove, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome is associated with morbidity and mortality due to aortic dilatation and dissection. Preventive aortic root replacement has been the standard treatment in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic dilatation. In this study, we present aortic event data from a nationwide Marfan...... syndrome cohort. METHOD: The nationwide cohort of Danish Marfan syndrome patients was established from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Cause of Death Register, where we retrieved information about aortic surgery and dissections. We associated aortic events with age, sex, and Marfan syndrome...

  8. Nationwide and population-based prescription patterns in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns and changes in these patterns over the last decade for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in mental healthcare, using population-based and nationwide data, and to relate the findings to recommendations from...... international guidelines. METHODS: A population-based, nationwide study was carried out. It included register-based longitudinal data on all patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from the entire Danish population, and all prescription data...

  9. Implementing a nationwide criteria-based emergency medical dispatch system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel S; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Sørensen, Jan Nørtved

    2013-01-01

    A criteria-based nationwide Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) system was recently implemented in Denmark. We described the system and studied its ability to triage patients according to the severity of their condition by analysing hospital admission and case-fatality risks.......A criteria-based nationwide Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) system was recently implemented in Denmark. We described the system and studied its ability to triage patients according to the severity of their condition by analysing hospital admission and case-fatality risks....

  10. Validity evidence of the Social and Emotional Nationwide Assessment (SENNA 1.0 Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Pancorbo

    Full Text Available Abstract: Given the necessity of adequate instruments to measure socio-emotional skills, this study aimed to obtain validity evidence of the Social and Emotional Nationwide Assessment inventory (SENNA 1.0. The instrument was administered to a sample of 634 students (59% females with a mean age of 16.3 years (SD = 1.21, from eight secondary schools of the Federal District ] of Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a six factor structure that explained 42.7% of the common variance, while confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equational modeling analysis showed a moderate fit to the data. Reliability coefficients of the factor scores varied between .66 and .89. The coefficients of the convergent validity with the Reduced Scale of the Big Five Personality Factors (ER5FP had a mean value of .59. In conclusion, the results indicate satisfactory evidence for the score validity of the SENNA 1.0 inventory.

  11. Older people dying with dementia: a nationwide study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, K.; van den Block, L.; Echteld, M.; Boffin, N.; Bilsen, J.; van Casteren, V.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Large-scale nationwide data describing the end-of-life characteristics of older people with dementia are lacking. This paper describes the dying process and end-of-life care provided to elderly people with mild or severe dementia in Belgium. It compares with elderly people dying without

  12. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.

  13. School Choice: Private School Choice Programs Are Growing and Can Complicate Providing Certain Federally Funded Services to Eligible Students. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-16-712

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Voucher and education savings account (ESA) programs fund students' private school education expenses, such as tuition. In school year 2014-15, 22 such school choice programs were operating nationwide, all but one of which was state funded. Under two federal grant programs, one for students with disabilities and one for students from disadvantaged…

  14. Success at Scale in Charter Schooling. Education Outlook. No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven F.

    2009-01-01

    KIPP KEY Academy in Washington, D.C. North Star Academy in Newark. Roxbury Prep in Boston. Amistad Academy in New Haven. These, and perhaps two hundred other high-performing schools nationwide, are the bright lights of the charter school movement. Despite social and economic disadvantages, their students not only trounce their district peers on…

  15. Controlling Special Education Costs at the School District Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Describes the financing of a New York school district for emotionally disturbed children. Summarizes suggestions for controlling special education costs at the district level obtained from a nationwide sample of school business officials. Among the suggestions offered are to include a review of private placements and an annual caseload review,…

  16. Embedding Mental Health Support in Schools: Learning from the Targeted Mental Health in Schools (TaMHS) National Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Miranda; Humphrey, Neil; Belsky, Jay; Deighton, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The Targeted Mental Health in Schools (TaMHS) programme was a nationwide initiative that funded mental health provision in schools for pupils at risk of or already experiencing mental health problems. The implementation, impact and experience of this programme was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative methodology involving three main…

  17. A High School Counselor's Leadership in Providing School-Wide Screenings for Depression and Enhancing Suicide Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Anne; Abel, Nicholas R.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health issues and suicidal thoughts and actions among school-aged children and adolescents is a serious issue. This article examines the scope of the problem nationwide and provides a brief overview of the literature regarding the effectiveness of school-wide screening programs for depression and suicide risk. The authors…

  18. Schools Facing the Expiration of Windows XP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Microsoft's plans to end support for Windows XP, believed to be the dominant computer operating system in K-12 education, could pose big technological and financial challenges for districts nationwide--issues that many school systems have yet to confront. The giant software company has made it clear for years that it plans to stop supporting XP…

  19. Two Years of Case Management: Final Findings from the Communities in Schools Random Assignment Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Leigh M.; Corrin, William; Granito, Kelly; Haider, Zeest; Somers, Marie-Andrée; Cerna, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    While high school graduation rates are on the rise nationwide, too many students still never reach that milestone, with 7,000 on average dropping out every day. Recognizing that many students need additional support to succeed in school, Communities In Schools (CIS) works to provide and connect students with integrated support services to keep…

  20. Perceptions of Middle School Teachers about an Anti-Bullying Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Robin; Maldonado, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, K-12 schools throughout the United States have garnered nationwide attention because of bullying problems. Bullying impacts schools in various ways: student performance and self-regard, and it creates an environment of hostility in schools. Many factors contribute to the problem, including socioeconomic status, low self-esteem,…

  1. How to Know when Dramatic Change Is on Track: Leading Indicators of School Turnarounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Julie; Ableidinger, Joe

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, national policymakers have placed new emphasis on "school turnarounds" as a strategy for rapid, dramatic improvement in chronically failing schools, calling on education leaders to turn around performance in the 5,000 lowest-achieving schools nationwide. This goal may seem daunting, given the dismal success rates of…

  2. Human Resources Management: Onboarding Program and Trainer's Guide for Charter School Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    The applied dissertation project focused on the development of a comprehensive onboarding program and Trainer's Guide specifically developed for charter school management employees. Charter school education has grown significantly in the last several decades with over 6,100 charter schools that are currently serving students nationwide. Formal or…

  3. Opposite Sides of the Same Coin? Exploring the Connections between School Absenteeism and Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard O.

    2018-01-01

    Mobile students and absent students are important subsets of at-risk students in schools and districts nationwide. As such, student mobility and school absenteeism are two challenges in K-12 education with significant policy and equity implications. Although both issues are at the nexus of schooling and society and there is an apparent overlap in…

  4. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-03

    This podcast is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.  Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  5. Polydrug use among college students in Brazil: a nationwide survey

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Lúcio Garcia de; Alberghini,Denis Guilherme; Santos,Bernardo dos; Andrade,Arthur Guerra de

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the frequency of polydrug use (alcohol and illicit drugs) among college students and its associations with gender and age group. Methods: A nationwide sample of 12,544 college students was asked to complete a questionnaire on their use of drugs according to three time parameters (lifetime, past 12 months, and last 30 days). The co-use of drugs was investigated as concurrent polydrug use (CPU) and simultaneous polydrug use (SPU), a subcategory of CPU that involves the ...

  6. Nationwide survey of resuscitation education in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, H; Silfvast, T; Turpeinen, A; Paakkonen, H; Uusaro, A

    2009-09-01

    Good-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is highlighted in the International Resuscitation Guidelines, but clinically the quality of CPR is often poor. Education of CPR has a major role in the primary skills imparted to students. Different methods can be used to teach CPR quality. We evaluated the current status of their usage in Finland institutes teaching students of emergency medicine at different levels. The following institutes were included in an anonymous survey: medical schools (teaching future physicians), universities of applied sciences (paramedics), colleges (emergency medical technicians) and emergency services college (fire-fighters). Hours of teaching theory lessons of CPR and hours of small group training were evaluated. In particular, we focussed on the teaching methods for adequate chest compression rate and depth. Twenty-one of 30 institutes responded to the questionnaire. The median for hours of theory lessons of CPR was 8h (range: 2-28 h). The median for hours of small group training was 10 (range: 3-40 h). The methods of teaching adequate chest compression rate were instructors' visual estimation in 28.5% of the institutions, watch in 33.3%, metronome in 9.5% and manikins' graphic in 28.5% of institutions. The methods of teaching adequate chest compression depth were instructors' visual estimation in 33.3%, in manikins light indicators in 23.8% and manikins' graphics in 52.3% of institutions. The hours of theoretic lessons and small group training vary widely among different institutes. In one-third of institutions, the instructor's visual estimation was a sole method used to teach adequate chest compression rate and depth. Different technical methods were surprisingly seldom used.

  7. Which young physicians are satisfied with their work? A prospective nationwide study in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeberg Oivind

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated personality and medical school variables in regard to job satisfaction after graduation. It is of great importance to investigate these factors because this information may be used in the recruitment/admittance process to medical schools, and possibly to improve medical education. Methods We conducted a nationwide prospective 10-year follow-up study of medical students at all medical schools in Norway. They were approached three times during their medical training: at very beginning (T1, in the middle (T2, in the last year of medical school (T3, and then four years after graduation (T4. There were 210 participants who responded on all four occasions. Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Scale, which was used as the outcome variable. In addition to conducting multiple regression analysis for the total sample, we also conducted similar analyses separately for men and women. Results Among the demographic and personality variables, 'having a father who is a physician' and 'interpersonal functioning (being withdrawn' were significantly associated with job satisfaction at T4. Among the medical school variables, 'well-being with peers', 'identification with the doctor's role at the end of curriculum', 'perceived medical school stress', and 'perceived clinical skills' were significantly associated with job satisfaction. In the multiple regression analysis only 'father as a physician' and 'perceived clinical skills' yielded an independent influence on the outcome variable in separate analyses within sub-groups of male and female students, 'perceived clinical skills' differentiated among woman only, while 'well-being with peers' differentiated only among men. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that the young physicians who are the most satisfied in their work are those whose fathers are physicians and those who have a high level of perceived clinical skills at the end of

  8. A practical report of “Studies in School Mental Health” at graduate school coursework toward the development of mental health literacy education in elementary and secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    今田, 雄三

    2018-01-01

    According to changes in social environment, practicing regional psychological assistance should be extended to nationwide contribution for people’s mental health enhancement. In response to the changes, the author reports the details of the 2017 coursework "Studies School Mental Health" at graduate school. As the unique practice of this university, graduate students training for psychological experts at elementary and secondary school education cultivate practical skills for mental health lit...

  9. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  10. School Leaders' Use of Twitter to To Engage the School Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzan, Sheri Lustig

    2017-01-01

    Social media and the ways in which educational leaders choose to utilize it their schools is at the forefront of professional development throughout numerous districts across Long Island and nationwide. While many districts have incorporated various models of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram into their standard communication…

  11. A Measure for Pupils' Inconsistency of Response to a Self-Report Instrument of Attitudes toward School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darom, Efraim; Rich, Yisrael

    1983-01-01

    To measure pupils' inconsistency in replying to a self-report questionnaire regarding attitudes toward school, 6,000 elementary and secondary school students participated in a nation-wide project to construct and validate the Israeli Quality of School Life Questionnaire (IQSL). (PN)

  12. Infections as risk factor for autoimmune diseases - A nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Philip Rising; Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Deleuran, Bent Winding

    2016-01-01

    Viruses, bacteria and other infectious pathogens are the major postulated environmental triggers of autoimmunity. In the present nation-wide study we describe the association between infections and 29 autoimmune diseases. We used the Danish Civil Registration System to identify 4.5 million persons...... to the etiology of autoimmune diseases together with genetic factors....... born between 1945 and 2000. Information on infections and autoimmune diseases was obtained from the Danish Hospital Register. The cohort was followed from 1977 to 2012. Incidence rate ratios for developing an autoimmune disease were estimated using poisson regression. We found an association between...

  13. A nationwide low-level waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The National Governors' Association, in conjunction with the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program, invited various representatives of states, regions, and federal agencies to comment on their perceptions of what major features would constitute a nationwide low-level waste management system. Three meetings were conducted and this report summarizes results of those meetings. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 placed primary responsibility on the states for disposal of low-level waste. Although initial efforts of states have been directed toward establishing compacts, it is evident that a successful long term system requires significant cooperation and communication among states, regions, federal agencies, and Congress

  14. 16 CFR 610.2 - Centralized source for requesting annual file disclosures from nationwide consumer reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provide a consumer report to a third party relating to a consumer, regardless of whether the consumer report is owned by that nationwide consumer reporting agency or by an associated consumer reporting... agency for the purpose of providing consumer reports, provided that the nationwide consumer reporting...

  15. 75 FR 9277 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0712] Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA...

  16. 77 FR 64382 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0712] Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0712.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction...

  17. 77 FR 2349 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0712] Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction...

  18. 75 FR 25320 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0712] Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0712.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction...

  19. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on... statement for the continued nationwide aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands... Forest Service is working to restore fire-adapted ecosystems through prescribed fire, other fuel...

  20. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-12

    School districts across the country are under pressure to reduce their cost of operations and ensure their budgets are spent wisely. School bus fleets operate more than 675,000 buses in the United States, and many school districts have found the answer to their budget woes in the form of propane, or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Propane is a reliable, domestic fuel, and it's used in approximately 2% of school buses nationwide.

  1. A Review of the Research on Magnet Schools. Information Capsule. Volume 1105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    Nationwide, magnet programs enroll more than twice the number of students served by charter schools, making them the most popular form of school choice. Across the U.S., over 1.5 million U.S. children attend magnet schools. In Miami-Dade County Public Schools, over 42,000 students are enrolled in magnet programs. The bulk of this report focuses on…

  2. Nutrition Information at the Point of Selection in High Schools Does Not Affect Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Alice Jo; Choi, Kyunghee; Ragg, Mark; King, Amber; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Nutrition information can be an important component of local wellness policies. There are very few studies regarding nutrition information at the point of selection (POS) in high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posting entree nutrition information at the POS in high schools nationwide.…

  3. National Study of School Psychologists' Use of Evidence-Based Assessment in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rachel; Ruble, Lisa; Esler, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand predictors of evidence-based assessment practices for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nationwide, 402 school psychologists were surveyed for their knowledge of and training and experience with ASD on assessment practices, including reported areas of training needs. The majority of school psychologists reported…

  4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in schools following 8 years of mandating legislation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Zinckernagel, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    AND RESULTS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey of Danish school leadership (n=1240) and ninth-grade homeroom teachers (n=1381) was carried out for school year 2013-2014. Qualitative interviews and the Theory of Planned Behavior were used to construct the survey. Logistic regression models were employed...

  5. Preparing Secondary Stem Teachers for High-Need Schools: Challenges of an Urban Residency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Rubén; Duchaine, Ellen L.; Reynosa, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Teaching residency programs that blend coursework with clinical experiences have emerged nationwide to prepare aspiring teachers for the demanding reality of teaching in high-need urban schools. The Teaching Residency Program for Critical Shortage Areas was created to help urban school districts with the challenge of recruiting and retaining…

  6. The Library at School: Effects on reading attitude and reading frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, F.; Kleijnen, E.; Broekhof, K.; van Dalen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose ‐ This paper aims to describe the effects of the Dutch policy program the Library at School on primary school pupils' leisure book reading and attitude towards reading books, in the first year of the nationwide implementation of the program. Design/methodology/approach ‐ In monitoring the

  7. Federal School Improvement Grants (SIGs): How Capacity and Local Conditions Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsko, Sarah; Lake, Robin; Bowen, Melissa; Cooley Nelson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the federal government committed over $3 billion nationwide to help states and districts turn around their worst-performing schools. The U.S. Department of Education intended for the School Improvement Grants (SIGs) to spur dramatic change.This report looks at the results of a field study of the first-year implementation of those grants…

  8. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Schools Following 8 Years of Mandating Legislation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Zinckernagel, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    AND RESULTS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey of Danish school leadership (n=1240) and ninth-grade homeroom teachers (n=1381) was carried out for school year 2013-2014. Qualitative interviews and the Theory of Planned Behavior were used to construct the survey. Logistic regression models were employed...

  9. The Privacy Problem: Although School Librarians Seldom Discuss It, Students' Privacy Rights Are under Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2011-01-01

    Every day in school libraries nationwide, students' privacy rights are under attack, but many principals, teachers, parents, and community members do not know much about these rights. Even though school librarians are among the strongest proponents of privacy, the subject is rarely discussed, probably because state and federal laws can be…

  10. Contracting Out Schools: The First Year of the Philadelphia Diverse Provider Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkley, Katrina; Mundell, Leah; Riffer, Morgan

    2004-01-01

    Educators nationwide focused on Philadelphia in the summer of 2001 as politicians and policy makers explored the possibility of a state takeover of the city's school system, a seismic power shift that would produce the largest privatization of a public school district in American history. The findings reported in this document are based on…

  11. A Year after Columbine: Public Looks to Parents More than Schools To Prevent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, Washington, DC.

    An April 2000 telephone survey queried a nationwide sample of 1,000 adults, including 283 parents of children ages 5 to 17 years, concerning school violence and other issues in the news. The vast majority of those surveyed said they believe it is the responsibility of parents to ensure that school shootings, such as occurred at Columbine High…

  12. "Are We Architects or Construction Workers?" Re-Examining Teacher Autonomy and Turnover in Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Charter school teachers nationwide expressed greater autonomy compared to traditional public school teachers at the turn of the century. But is this trend changing? The recent proliferation of Charter Management Organizations (CMOs), which often have prescriptive organizational models, has raised questions around how teachers perceive autonomy and…

  13. Internet use in radiology: results of a nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorbeck, F; Zimmermann, C; Vorbeck-Meister, I; Kainberger, F; Imhof, H

    1999-08-01

    Purpose: To determine the number of radiologists who currently have Internet access, their use patterns on the Internet for Radiology purposes, the web sites they would recommend, and the potential site access to the Internet that they would like to see in the future. In addition, this study analyzed the best way to find nationwide radiological sites and their content. Materials and Methods: In a nationwide survey, 854 Austrian radiologist were asked to fill out and return a questionnaire about Internet access, current problems, current and future use, which web site they recommend, and about the use of e-mail. Next, the available nationwide radiological sites were searched with seven major search engines using 37 different keywords, as well as by category search, and by searching for links on the homepages of the radiological departments of all Universities of Austria. Then, the offered information of the founded pages was classified in categories. Results: Of the 210 (24.6%) radiologists who returned the questionnaire, 154 (73%) had Internet access. Time expenditure was considered the main problem using the Internet. The Internet was used for literature research by 69% of the radiologists with Internet access, for e-mail by 60%, and for congress information by 57%. In future, 43% would like to read electronic journals more often and 39% would like to use the web more intensively for scientific congresses. At the present time, we found 17 radiological web sites in Austria. The most promising way to find these sites was to use the search engines Alta Vista and Hotbot. Fifteen (88%) sites offered information for patients, seven (41%) for radiologists, five (29%) for students, and four (24%) for researchers. Summary: Many radiologists in Austria already have Internet access, although time expenditure was considered the main problem with Internet use. Survey responses showed a need for electronic journals. To our point of view, Universities and radiological societies

  14. Internet use in radiology: results of a nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorbeck, F.; Zimmermann, C.; Vorbeck-Meister, I.; Kainberger, F.; Imhof, H.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the number of radiologists who currently have Internet access, their use patterns on the Internet for Radiology purposes, the web sites they would recommend, and the potential site access to the Internet that they would like to see in the future. In addition, this study analyzed the best way to find nationwide radiological sites and their content. Materials and Methods: In a nationwide survey, 854 Austrian radiologist were asked to fill out and return a questionnaire about Internet access, current problems, current and future use, which web site they recommend, and about the use of e-mail. Next, the available nationwide radiological sites were searched with seven major search engines using 37 different keywords, as well as by category search, and by searching for links on the homepages of the radiological departments of all Universities of Austria. Then, the offered information of the founded pages was classified in categories. Results: Of the 210 (24.6%) radiologists who returned the questionnaire, 154 (73%) had Internet access. Time expenditure was considered the main problem using the Internet. The Internet was used for literature research by 69% of the radiologists with Internet access, for e-mail by 60%, and for congress information by 57%. In future, 43% would like to read electronic journals more often and 39% would like to use the web more intensively for scientific congresses. At the present time, we found 17 radiological web sites in Austria. The most promising way to find these sites was to use the search engines Alta Vista and Hotbot. Fifteen (88%) sites offered information for patients, seven (41%) for radiologists, five (29%) for students, and four (24%) for researchers. Summary: Many radiologists in Austria already have Internet access, although time expenditure was considered the main problem with Internet use. Survey responses showed a need for electronic journals. To our point of view, Universities and radiological societies

  15. Examining the Relationship between Creativity and Equitable Thinking in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Sarah R.; Kaufman, James C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationship between creativity and equitable thinking and the individual differences in personality, demographic, and experiential factors that influence both concepts as they affect each other. Given the nationwide push to increase equity in public schools, interventions beyond teaching about equity are becoming…

  16. School-Aged Victims of Sexual Abuse: Implications for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishon, Phillip M.

    Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…

  17. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…

  18. Censorship becomes Way of Life for High School Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopenhaver, Lillian Lodge

    1995-01-01

    Censorship has become routine for many student media operations at high schools nationwide, with First Amendment rights of student editors and staff members violated daily. After a brief history of American freedom of the press and censorship, the paper discusses responsibilities of administrators and advisors to student free expression. (SM)

  19. The American Public School Teacher: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Darrel; Baer, Justin

    2011-01-01

    At its heart are the National Education Association's "Status of the American Public School Teacher" surveys, which are conducted every five years and offer unprecedented insights into the professional lives and experiences of teachers nationwide. This volume analyzes and summarizes the survey's findings, while also offering commentaries…

  20. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Umene-Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, were used. RESULTS: Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0% responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0% experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. CONCLUSIONS: A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  1. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by ‘high-burnout’; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. Aims The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. Method We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Results Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. Conclusions A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout. PMID:23418435

  2. Dysejaculation after laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy: a nationwide questionnaire study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Joakim Mutahi; Linderoth, Gitte; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner

    2012-01-01

    or genitals during sexual activity was reported by 88 patients (10.9%), and 19 patients (2.4%) reported that the pain had impaired their sexual activity to a moderate or severe degree. Older patients and patients with longer follow-up had lower prevalence of pain during sexual activity. CONCLUSIONS......BACKGROUND: Dysejaculation and pain from the groin and genitals during sexual activity represent a clinically significant problem in up to 4% of younger males after open inguinal herniorrhaphy. The aim of this questionnaire study is to assess the prevalence of dysejaculation and pain during sexual...... activity after laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy on a nationwide basis. METHODS: The study population comprised all men aged 18-50 years registered in the Danish Hernia Database (n = 1,671) who underwent primary laparoscopic herniorrhaphy between January 1, 1998 and November 30, 2009. Questionnaires...

  3. Nation-Wide Mobile Network Energy Evolution Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Eva; Frank, Philipp; Micallef, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Mobile network operators are facing a challenging dilemma. While on the one hand they are committed to reducing their carbon emissions, and energy consumption, they are also required to continuously upgrade existing networks, ensuring that the relentless growth in data traffic can still be suppor......Mobile network operators are facing a challenging dilemma. While on the one hand they are committed to reducing their carbon emissions, and energy consumption, they are also required to continuously upgrade existing networks, ensuring that the relentless growth in data traffic can still...... be supported. In most cases, these upgrades increase the energy consumption of the network even further. This paper presents a nation-wide case study, based on a commercial network of a leading European operator, intended to provide a clear understanding of how the energy consumption of mobile networks...... is expected to evolve from 2012 until 2020. The study also considers an efficient network capacity evolution path, including base station equipment improvement forecasts....

  4. Performance of clinical mammography: a nationwide study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Allan; Vejborg, Ilse; Severinsen, Niels

    2006-01-01

    that clinical mammography worked best in patient populations of purely symptomatic women. Our data indicate that to increase the accuracy of clinical mammography at the community level, the presence of an experienced radiologist should be prioritized ahead of raising the clinic size.......Clinical mammography is the key tool for breast cancer diagnosis, but little is known about the impact of the organisational set-up on the performance. We evaluated whether organisational factors influence the performance of clinical mammography. Clinical mammography data from all clinics...... in Denmark in the year 2000 were collected and linked to cancer outcome. Use of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene register for identification of radiology clinics ensured comprehensive nationwide registration. We used the final mammographic assessment at the end of the imaging work-up to determine...

  5. Familial aggregation of congenital hydrocephalus in a nationwide cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Nørgaard; Rostgaard, Klaus; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate familial aggregation of primary congenital hydrocephalus in an unselected, nationwide population. Based on the Danish Central Person Register, we identified all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008 and their family members (up to third......-degree relatives). Information on primary congenital hydrocephalus was obtained from the National Patient Discharge Register. Using binomial log-linear regression, we estimated recurrence risk ratios of congenital hydrocephalus. An alternative log-linear regression model was applied to quantify the genetic effect...... and the maternal effect. Of 1 928 683 live-born children, 2194 had a diagnosis of idiopathic congenital hydrocephalus (1.1/1000). Of those, 75 (3.4%) had at least one other family member with primary congenital hydrocephalus. Significantly increased recurrence risk ratios of primary congenital hydrocephalus were...

  6. A nationwide study on anastomotic leakage after colonic cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Peter-Martin; Jorgensen, L N; Andreasen, A H

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is a major challenge in colorectal cancer surgery due to increased morbidity and mortality. Possible risk factors should be investigated differentially, distinguishing between rectal and colonic surgery in large-scale studies to avoid selection bias and confounding....... Method: The incidence and risk factors associated with AL were analysed in an unselected nation-wide prospective cohort of patient subjected to curative colonic cancer surgery with primary anastomosis and entered into The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database between May 2001 and December 2008. Results......: AL occurred in 593 (6.4%) of 9333 patients. Laparoscopic surgery (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.70; P = 0.03); left hemicolectomy (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50-2.72) or sigmoid colectomy (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.32-2.17; P = 0.01); intraoperative blood loss (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1...

  7. Clinical Knowledge Governance Framework for Nationwide Data Infrastructure Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Antje; Haarbrandt, Birger; Marschollek, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The availability of semantically-enriched and interoperable clinical information models is crucial for reusing once collected data across institutions like aspired in the German HiGHmed project. Funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, this nationwide data infrastructure project adopts the openEHR approach for semantic modelling. Here, strong governance is required to define high-quality and reusable models. Design of a clinical knowledge governance framework for openEHR modelling in cross-institutional settings like HiGHmed. Analysis of successful practices from international projects, published ideas on archetype governance and own modelling experiences as well as modelling of BPMN processes. We designed a framework by presenting archetype variations, roles and responsibilities, IT support and modelling workflows. Our framework has great potential to make the openEHR modelling efforts manageable. Because practical experiences are rare, prospectively our work will be predestinated to evaluate the benefits of such structured governance approaches.

  8. Cholecystectomy in Danish children--a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langballe, Karen Oline; Bardram, Linda

    2014-01-01

    into the secure Web site by the surgeon immediately after the operation. In the present analysis, we have included children ≤ 15 years from the five year period January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. RESULTS: In the study period 35,444 patients were operated with a cholecystectomy. Of these, 196 (0.5%) were ≤ 15......BACKGROUND: An increase in the frequency of cholecystectomy in children has been described during the last decades. Part of the reason is that more cholecystectomies in children are performed for dyskinesia of the gallbladder and not only for gallstone disease. We conducted the first nationwide...... study to describe outcome of cholecystectomies performed in children in Denmark by using data from the national Danish Cholecystectomy Database (DCD). METHODS: In the DCD, two data sources were combined: administrative data from the National Patient Registry (NPR) and clinical data entered...

  9. Nationwide peritoneal dialysis nurse training in Thailand: 3-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiyuenwong, Jutiporn; Mahatanan, Nanta; Jiravaranun, Somsong; Boonyakarn, Achara; Rodpai, Somrak; Eiam-Ong, Somchai; Tungsanga, Kriang; Dhanakijcharoen, Prateep; Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak

    2011-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) center is not possible to operate if there is no availability of dedicated PD nurse. Generally, the nurse has to play many roles, including educator coordinator, and sometimes leader. As professionalism, the PD nurses need to have both theoretical and practical skills. With the tremendous leap of PD population after the launch of "PD First" policy in Thailand, the shortage of skillful PD nurse is concerned. Hence, the nationwide PD nurse training course was established with the collaborations of many organizations and institutes. Until now, 3 generations of 225 PD nurses are the productions of the course. This number represents 80 percent of PD nurses distributed throughout the whole nation. The survey operated in the year 2010 demonstrated that the output of the course was acceptable in terms of quality since most of the trained PD nurses had a confidence in taking care of PD patients. The quality of patient care is good as indicated by KPIs.

  10. Shifts in the architecture of the Nationwide Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Leslie; Sundwall, David; Lenert, Michael Edward

    2012-01-01

    In the midst of a US $30 billion USD investment in the Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN) and electronic health records systems, a significant change in the architecture of the NwHIN is taking place. Prior to 2010, the focus of information exchange in the NwHIN was the Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO). Since 2010, the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) has been sponsoring policies that promote an internet-like architecture that encourages point to-point information exchange and private health information exchange networks. The net effect of these activities is to undercut the limited business model for RHIOs, decreasing the likelihood of their success, while making the NwHIN dependent on nascent technologies for community level functions such as record locator services. These changes may impact the health of patients and communities. Independent, scientifically focused debate is needed on the wisdom of ONC's proposed changes in its strategy for the NwHIN.

  11. Ambulatory Care Visits to Pediatricians in Taiwan: A Nationwide Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yu Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pediatricians play a key role in the healthy development of children. Nevertheless, the practice patterns of pediatricians have seldom been investigated. The current study analyzed the nationwide profiles of ambulatory visits to pediatricians in Taiwan, using the National Health Insurance Research Database. From a dataset that was randomly sampled one out of every 500 records among a total of 309,880,000 visits in 2012 in the country, 9.8% (n = 60,717 of the visits were found paid to pediatricians. Children and adolescents accounted for only 69.3% of the visits to pediatricians. Male pediatricians provided 80.5% of the services and the main workforces were those aged 40–49 years. The most frequent diagnoses were respiratory tract diseases (64.7% and anti-histamine agents were prescribed in 48.8% of the visits to pediatricians. Our detailed results could contribute to evidence-based discussions on health policymaking.

  12. Aortic events in a nationwide Marfan syndrome cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Kristian A; Stochholm, Kirstine; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper; Gregersen, Pernille A; Vejlstrup, Niels; Østergaard, John R; Gravholt, Claus H; Andersen, Niels H

    2017-02-01

    Marfan syndrome is associated with morbidity and mortality due to aortic dilatation and dissection. Preventive aortic root replacement has been the standard treatment in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic dilatation. In this study, we present aortic event data from a nationwide Marfan syndrome cohort. The nationwide cohort of Danish Marfan syndrome patients was established from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Cause of Death Register, where we retrieved information about aortic surgery and dissections. We associated aortic events with age, sex, and Marfan syndrome diagnosis prior or after the first aortic event. From the total cohort of 412 patients, 150 (36.4 %) had an aortic event. Fifty percent were event free at age 49.6. Eighty patients (53.3 %) had prophylactic surgery and seventy patients (46.7 %) a dissection. The yearly event rate was 0.02 events/year/patient in the period 1994-2014. Male patients had a significant higher risk of an aortic event at a younger age with a hazard ratio of 1.75 (CI 1.26-2.42, p = 0.001) compared with women. Fifty-three patients (12.9 %) were diagnosed with MFS after their first aortic event which primarily was aortic dissection [n = 44 (83.0 %)]. More than a third of MFS patients experienced an aortic event and male patients had significantly more aortic events than females. More than half of the total number of dissections was in patients undiagnosed with MFS at the time of their event. This emphasizes that diagnosing MFS is lifesaving and improves mortality risk by reducing the risk of aorta dissection.

  13. The Dutch Pancreas Biobank within the Parelsnoer Institute : A nationwide Biobank of pancreatic and periampullary diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, Marin; Gerritsen, Arja; Van Hilst, Jony; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Bonsing, Bert A.; Brosens, Lodewijk A.; Bruno, Marco J.; Van Dam, Ronald M.; Dijk, Frederike; Van Eijck, Casper H.; Farina Sarasqueta, Arantza; Fockens, Paul; Gerhards, Michael F.; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Van Der Harst, Erwin; De Hingh, Ignace H.; Van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Huysentruyt, Clément J.; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost M.; Van Laarhoven, Cornelis J.; Van Laarhoven, Hanneke W.; Liem, Mike S.; De Meijer, Vincent E.; Van Rijssen, L. Bengt; Van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Suker, Mustafa; Verhagen, Judith H.; Verheij, Joanne; Verspaget, Hein W.; Wennink, Roos A.; Wilmink, Johanna W.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Boermeester, Marja A.; Busch, Olivier R.; Besselink, Marc G.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Large biobanks with uniform collection of biomaterials and associated clinical data are essential for translational research. The Netherlands has traditionally been well organized in multicenter clinical research on pancreatic diseases, including the nationwide multidisciplinary Dutch

  14. The Dutch Pancreas Biobank Within the Parelsnoer Institute : A Nationwide Biobank of Pancreatic and Periampullary Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, Marin; Gerritsen, Arja; van Hilst, Jony; Bijlsma, Maarten F; Bonsing, Bert A; Brosens, Lodewijk A; Bruno, Marco J; van Dam, Ronald M; Dijk, Frederike; van Eijck, Casper H; Farina Sarasqueta, Arantza; Fockens, Paul; Gerhards, Michael F; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Huysentruyt, Clément J; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost M; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W; Liem, Mike S; de Meijer, Vincent E; van Rijssen, L Bengt; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Suker, Mustafa; Verhagen, Judith H; Verheij, Joanne; Verspaget, Hein W; Wennink, Roos A; Wilmink, Johanna W; Molenaar, I Quintus; Boermeester, Marja A; Busch, Olivier R; Besselink, Marc G

    OBJECTIVES: Large biobanks with uniform collection of biomaterials and associated clinical data are essential for translational research. The Netherlands has traditionally been well organized in multicenter clinical research on pancreatic diseases, including the nationwide multidisciplinary Dutch

  15. Report to Congress : recapitalization plan for the nationwide differential global positioning system (NDGPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has developed a recpitlaization plan to reduce technical, cost, and programmatic risks of the DOT-funded inland segment of the Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS)

  16. Complications and frequency of redo antireflux surgery in Denmark: a nationwide study, 1997-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P.; Bendixen, A.; Iversen, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outcomes after redo fundoplication (RF) in recurrent gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are debatable, and they may include lower success rates with higher postoperative morbidity and mortality than outcomes after primary fundoplication (PF). However, data from large, nationwide...

  17. Energy-Smart Building Choices: How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Smart Schools Team

    2001-01-01

    Most K-12 schools could save 25% of their energy costs by being smart about energy. Nationwide, the savings potential is$6 billion. While improving energy use in buildings and busses, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning, with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. This brochure, targeted to school facilities managers and business officials, describes how schools can become more energy efficient

  18. A School in Every Village: Educational Reform in a Northeast China County, 1904-31. Contemporary Chinese Studies Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderVen, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Qing dynasty implemented a series of institutional reforms to shore up its power. The most important were a nationwide school system and the abolition of the centuries-old civil examinations. "A School in Every Village" recounts how villagers and local state officials in Haicheng County enacted orders to establish…

  19. The Condition of Secondary School Physics Education in the Philippines: Recent Developments and Remaining Challenges for Substantive Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleans, Antriman V.

    2007-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the state of Philippine secondary school physics education using data from a nationwide survey of 464 schools and 767 physics teachers and at identifying challenges for substantive improvements. Teacher-related indicators revealed academic qualification deficiency, low continuing professional involvements,…

  20. Comparison of Passive and Active Air Sampling (PAAS) Methods for PCBs – A Pilot Study in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCBs were used extensively in school building materials (caulk and lighting fixture ballasts) during the approximate period of 1950-1978. Most of the schools built nationwide during this period have not had indoor air sampling conducted for PCBs. Passive air sampling holds promi...

  1. Re-training High School Teachers of English in Brazil: The Experience of the Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes de Matos, Francisco

    The Yazigi Project for the Teaching of English in Brazilian High Schools, a 2-year, nationwide program for the retraining of high school teachers of English as a foreign language, involved 2,210 teachers and a team of 60 teacher trainers and retrainers. Each training session lasted 6 days and totalled a minimum of 30 hours, with a maximum of 50…

  2. How School Districts Can Support Deeper Learning: The Need for Performance Alignment. Executive Summary. Deeper Learning Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Meredith I.; Rainey, Lydia R.

    2015-01-01

    School district leaders nationwide aspire to help their schools become vibrant places for learning--where students have meaningful academic opportunities "and" develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills, the ability to communicate effectively, and other deeper learning capacities that are essential to success in later life.…

  3. [Experiences of a nation-wide integrated program for healthy body weight among students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chiang, Li-Chi; Chien, Li-Yin; Chang, Po-Lun; Hung, Yung-Tai

    2007-10-01

    Taiwan has good support systems for obesity prevention and management. The percentage of elementary school students with normal body weight, however, has undergone a sustained decrease to 55%. Many factors are associated with this trend, such as lack of physical activity, dissatisfaction with body image, unbalanced dietary pattern, and unsupportive environment. Even though the rate of overweight and obesity is under control, the rate of underweight among girls has undergone a sustained increase, to 28%. Nurses therefore organized the "Aid students to fit" project, which emphasizes the bipolar issue of overweight and underweight. This national project is sponsored by the Ministry of Education and is expected to establish a beneficial environment, in which students can easily adopt healthy lifestyles and increase self-esteem. The program incorporates the AID triangle concept (Active, Image, Diet) and five strategies for achieving the goals. These strategies are: 1. Develop a persuasive statement to fit in with the philosophies of parents, students and teachers. 2. Set up measurable behavior indices and slogans. (Active life: 210 minutes per week. Image: confident and elegant. Diet: balanced and wise choice of low fat and high fiber foods.) 3. Establish a nation-wide interactive surveillance system for body weight control. 4. Develop an internet system that emphasizes tailored case management for overweight students. 5. Develop a supportive teaching plan, material, and aids to promote a healthy school environment. Five modeling schools, moreover, can be used to demonstrate the program. Educators can also download a free teaching plan, material, and aids at the website for healthy weight management (www.ym.edu.tw/active/aid). The authors brought together scholars from eight universities to accomplish the program. In support of the program, the Taiwan Ministry of Education addressed the new recommendation for physical activity which is to engage in moderate intensity

  4. [Nationwide survey of alcohol drinking and alcoholism among Japanese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Matsushita, Sachio; Shirasaka, Tomonobu; Hiro, Hisanori; Higuchi, Susumu

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the characteristics of alcohol use among Japanese adults and prevalence of alcohol dependence in Japan, we conducted a nationwide survey on alcohol drinking behavior and alcohol dependence among Japanese adults using a representative sampling method. We sampled 3500 adults from throughout the entire country using a stratified random sampling method with two-step stratification, and carried out a home visit interview survey. A total of 2547 people (72.8%) responded to the survey. The survey period was June, 2003. The questionnaire contained questions about the frequency and quantity of alcohol use, 'hazardous use of alcohol' and 'alcohol dependence' according to the ICD-10 definition, several screening scales on problem use of alcohol (CAGE, KAST, AUDIT), life-time prevalence of 24 alcohol related diseases, smoking status, dysgryphia, and nightcap drinking. The number of respondents was, 1184 males, and 1363 females. Lifetime alcohol drinking, and weekly drinking, and daily drinking rates were 95.1%, 64.4%, and 36.2% for males, 79.0%, 27.5%, and 7.5% for females, respectively. Average daily alcohol consumption was 3.7 units for males, and 2.0 units for females (1 unit = 10 g pure alcohol). The proportion of drinkers who drank alcohol 4 units or more daily was 28.9% for males, and 7.6% for females, and that for 6 units or more was 12.7% for males, and 3.4% for females. The proportion of flasher was 41.2% for males, and 35.0% for females. Among screening questions, problem drinking was most frequently identified using AUDIT (score 12 points or more, 150 persons), followed by KAST (2 points or more, 100 persons) and CAGE (2 points or more, 98 persons). The number of subjects who met the ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence was 24, while the number who engaged in hazardous alcohol use was 64. This study revealed that problem drinking and alcohol dependence are a serious problem in Japanese general population. The problem of females drinking may be

  5. Exposures to Walkability and Particulate Air Pollution in a Nationwide Cohort of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Features of neighborhoods associated with walkability (i.e., connectivity, accessibility, and density) may also be correlated with levels of ambient air pollution, which would attenuate the health benefits of walkability. Objectives We examined the relationship between neighborhood walkability and ambient air pollution in a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study spanning the entire United States using residence-level exposure assessment for ambient air pollution and the built environment. Methods Using data from the Nurses’ Health Study, we used linear regression to estimate the association between a neighborhood walkability index, combining neighborhood intersection count, business count, and population density (defined from Census data, infoUSA business data, and StreetMap USA data), and air pollution, defined from a GIS-based spatiotemporal PM2.5 model. Results After adjustment for Census tract median income, median home value, and percent with no high school education, the highest tertile of walkability index, intersection count, business count, and population density was associated with a with 1.58 (95% CI 1.54, 1.62), 1.20 (95% CI 1.16, 1.24), 1.31 (95% CI 1.27, 1.35), and 1.84 (95% CI 1.80, 1.88) μg/m3 higher level of PM2.5 respectively, compared to the lowest tertile. Results varied somewhat by neighborhood socioeconomic status and greatly by region. Conclusions This nationwide analysis showed a positive relationship between neighborhood walkability and modeled air pollution levels, which were consistent after adjustment for neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. Regional differences in the air pollution-walkability relationship demonstrate that there are factors that vary across region that allow for walkable neighborhoods with low levels of air pollution. PMID:26397775

  6. Neighborhood walkability and particulate air pollution in a nationwide cohort of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E; Laden, Francine

    2015-10-01

    Features of neighborhoods associated with walkability (i.e., connectivity, accessibility, and density) may also be correlated with levels of ambient air pollution, which would attenuate the health benefits of walkability. We examined the relationship between neighborhood walkability and ambient air pollution in a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study spanning the entire United States using residence-level exposure assessment for ambient air pollution and the built environment. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study, we used linear regression to estimate the association between a neighborhood walkability index, combining neighborhood intersection count, business count, and population density (defined from Census data, infoUSA business data, and StreetMap USA data), and air pollution, defined from a GIS-based spatiotemporal PM2.5 model. After adjustment for Census tract median income, median home value, and percent with no high school education, the highest tertile of walkability index, intersection count, business count, and population density was associated with a with 1.58 (95% CI 1.54, 1.62), 1.20 (95% CI 1.16, 1.24), 1.31 (95% CI 1.27, 1.35), and 1.84 (95% CI 1.80, 1.88) µg/m(3) higher level of PM2.5 respectively, compared to the lowest tertile. Results varied somewhat by neighborhood socioeconomic status and greatly by region. This nationwide analysis showed a positive relationship between neighborhood walkability and modeled air pollution levels, which were consistent after adjustment for neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. Regional differences in the air pollution-walkability relationship demonstrate that there are factors that vary from region to region that allow for walkable neighborhoods with low levels of air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The US CDC Centers for public health preparedness : building a nationwide exemplar network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.A.; Paulson, G.; Perry, E. [New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). School of Public Health

    2005-07-01

    The network of Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP) was created by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in response to the perception that public health professionals were inadequately prepared to respond to terrorism incidents, natural disasters and similar major events. The events of September 11, 2001 and the subsequent anthrax attacks confirmed the wisdom of a concerted approach to emergency preparedness. This paper provides an outline of the network's recent activities as well as a review of the rationale, history and progress of the network to date. In the most recent grant cycle, each center was required to allocate 20 per cent of its resources to network-wide activities, including contribution of CPHP-developed materials to a central resource center maintained by the Association of Schools of Public Health. The materials are publicly available and are to be used in the development of training programs; the establishment of 19 or more exemplar groups that focus on specific preparedness-related knowledge domains such as mental health, educational evaluation methods and field epidemiology, who are also expected to develop tool kits of validated and fully described training materials for use by any CPHP person or group. The outcome of the CPHP network activities is the development of a more comprehensive and robust core of preparedness training materials that aim to facilitate rapid and effective training, while at the same time eliminating redundancy and duplication of effort. It was concluded that the expenditure of 20 per cent of center funds on network development activities is forcing the academically based CPHPs to adopt a new collaborative paradigm in order to ensure effective nationwide preparedness. 3 refs.

  8. Inpatient charges and mental illness: Findings from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 1999–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim E Banta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Jim E Banta1, Ivorie Belk1, Kedon Newton1, Abdullah Sherzai21Department of Health Policy and Management, 2Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USAAbstract: Inpatient costs related to mental illness are substantial, though declining as a percentage of overall mental health treatment costs. The public sector has become increasingly involved in funding and providing mental health services. Nationwide Inpatient Sample data for the years 1999–2007 were used to: 1 examine Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance charges related to mental illness hospitalizations, including trends over time; and 2 examine trends in mental comorbidity with physical illness and its effect on charges. There were an estimated 12.4 million mental illness discharges during the 9-year period, with Medicare being the primary payer for 4.3 million discharges, Medicaid for 3.3 million, private insurance for 3.2 million, and 1.6 million for all other payers. Mean inflation-adjusted charges per hospitalization were US$17,528, US$15,651, US$10,539, and US$11,663, respectively. Charges to public sources increased for schizophrenia and dementia-related discharges, with little private/public change noted for mood disorders. Comorbid mood disorders increased dramatically from 1.5 million discharges in 1999 to 3.4 million discharges in 2007. Comorbid illness was noted in 14.0% of the 342 million inpatient discharges during the study period and was associated with increased charges for some medical conditions and decreased charges for other medical conditions.Keywords: hospital charges, comorbidity, mood disorders, dementia, schizophrenia

  9. Nearly 1.4 Million High School Physics Students--Enrollments in AP and Second-Year Courses up 26% Even though Number of Graduates down in 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2014-01-01

    Since 1987, the Statistical Research Center at the American Institute of Physics has regularly conducted a nationwide survey of high school physics teachers to take a closer look at physics in U.S. high schools. We contact all of the teachers who teach at least one physics course at a nationally representative sample of all U.S. high schools-both…

  10. Endoscopic training: A nationwide survey of French fellows in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Aurélien; Conroy, Guillaume; Le Baleur, Yann; Winkler, Jérôme; Palazzo, Maxime; Treton, Xavier

    2018-04-01

    During their 4 years of training, French fellows in gastroenterology should acquire theoretical and practical competency in gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. To evaluate the delivery of endoscopy training to French GI fellows and perception of learning. A nationwide electronic survey was carried out of French GI fellows using an anonymous, 17-item electronic questionnaire. A total of 291 out of 484 (60%) GI fellows responded to the survey. Only 40% of subjects had access to theoretical training and/or virtual simulators. Only 49% and 35% of fourth year fellows had reached the threshold numbers of EGD and colonoscopies recommended by the European section and Board of gastroenterology and hepatology. Sixty-two percent and 57% of trainees reported having insufficient knowledge in interpreting gastric and colic lesions. Access to dedicated endoscopy activity for at least 8 weeks during the year was the only independent factor associated with the achievement of the recommended annual threshold number of procedures. The access of fellows to theoretical training and to preclinical virtual simulators is still insufficient. Personalized support and regular assessment of cognitive and technical acquisition over the 4 years of training seems to be necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards a systematic nationwide screening strategy for MODY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Beverley; Colclough, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    MODY is an early-onset monogenic form of diabetes. Correctly identifying MODY is of considerable importance as diagnosing the specific genetic subtype can inform the optimal treatment, with many patients being able to discontinue unnecessary insulin treatment. Diagnostic molecular genetic testing to confirm MODY is expensive, so screening strategies are required to identify the most appropriate patients for testing. In this issue of Diabetologia, Johansson and colleagues (DOI 10.1007/s00125-016-4167-1 ) describe a nationwide systematic screening approach to identify individuals with MODY in the paediatric age range. They focused testing on patients negative for both GAD and islet antigen 2 (IA-2) islet autoantibodies, thereby ruling out those with markers of type 1 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes in this age group. This commentary discusses the advantages and limitations of the approach, and the caution required when interpreting variants of uncertain pathogenicity identified from testing whole populations rather than targeting only patients with a strong MODY phenotype.

  12. Nationwide survey of cobalt-60 teletherapy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.L.; Kearly, F.E.; Wyckoff, H.O.; Gitlin, J.N.; Reffit, E.B.; Shangold, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    The Bureau of Radiological Health and the National Bureau of Standards conducted a nationwide survey of cobalt-60 teletherapy facilities to determine their accuracy in delivery of a prescribed dose to a phantom. Participation was obtained from 684 respondents or 75 percent of US facilities. For each cobalt-60 unit the average dose recorded on five dosimeters was within 5 percent of the prescribed value for 83 percent of the respondents and only exceeded a 10 percent difference for 3 percent of the respondents. Sufficient information for reconstruction of dose calculations was available for 87 percent of the participating facilities. Of these reconstructed calculations, 56 percent were within 1 percent of the prescribed dose of 300 rads. The analysis of data from the survey showed that better performance were related to a number of factors. Among these were expressing the machine calibration in terms of dose rate, performing the machine calibration on an annual basis, and correcting for source decay on a monthly basis. Larger facilities achieved better results than smaller facilities when calculating the absorbed dose rate. Also, each 4 machine characteristics (isocentric mounting, short exposure time, high normalized output, and long treatment distance) were related to better performance with regard to both dosimeter readings and calculated doses. Larger facilities were more likely to be using a cobalt-60 unit having those characteristics

  13. Fertility Treatment and Childhood Epilepsy - a Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura Ozer; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fertility treatment includes hormonal stimulation of the woman and in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos that may influence prenatal brain development. We aimed to investigate the association between fertility treatment and childhood epilepsy, including specific types of treatm......BACKGROUND: Fertility treatment includes hormonal stimulation of the woman and in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos that may influence prenatal brain development. We aimed to investigate the association between fertility treatment and childhood epilepsy, including specific types...... of treatment and indications, as well as subtypes of epilepsy. METHODS: In this nationwide birth cohort study, we included all pregnancies in Denmark resulting in live-born singletons, 1995-2003. Children conceived by fertility treatment and children developing epilepsy (until 2013) were identified from Danish...... national registers. RESULTS: A total of 565,116 pregnancies were included; 8,071 children (1.4%) developed epilepsy. Children conceived after ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination had a slightly higher risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00, 1...

  14. Social media adoption in local health departments nationwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Mueller, Nancy L; Snider, Doneisha

    2013-09-01

    We examined whether characteristics of local health departments (LHD) and their geographic region were associated with using Facebook and Twitter. We also examined the number of tweets per month for Twitter accounts as an indicator of social media use by LHDs. In 2012, we searched for Facebook and Twitter accounts for 2565 LHDs nationwide, and collected adoption date and number of connections for each account. Number of tweets sent indicated LHD use of social media. LHDs were classified as innovators, early adopters, or nonadopters. Characteristics of LHDs were compared across adoption categories, and we examined geographic characteristics, connections, and use. Twenty-four percent of LHDs had Facebook, 8% had Twitter, and 7% had both. LHDs serving larger populations were more likely to be innovators, tweeted more often, and had more social media connections. Frequency of tweeting was not associated with adoption category. There were differences in adoption across geographic regions, with western states more likely to be innovators. Innovation was also higher in states where the state health department adopted social media. Social media has the potential to aid LHDs in disseminating information across the public health system. More evidence is needed to develop best practices for this emerging tool.

  15. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Tourette Syndrome: A Nationwide Register Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivonen, Susanna; Chudal, Roshan; Joelsson, Petteri; Ekblad, Mikael; Suominen, Auli; Brown, Alan S; Gissler, Mika; Voutilainen, Arja; Sourander, Andre

    2016-02-01

    This is the first nationwide register-based study to examine the relationship between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome. A total of 767 children diagnosed with Tourette syndrome were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Each case was matched to four controls. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with Tourette syndrome when comorbid with ADHD (OR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.2-13.5, p = 0.027 for exposure during first trimester, OR 1.7, 95 % CI, 1.05-2.7, p = 0.031 for exposure for the whole pregnancy). There was no association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and Tourette syndrome without comorbid ADHD (OR 0.5, 95 % CI 0.2-1.3, p = 0.166, OR 0.9, 95 % CI 0.7-1.3, p = 0.567). Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms behind the association between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome with comorbid ADHD.

  16. Polydrug use among college students in Brazil: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia de; Alberghini, Denis Guilherme; Santos, Bernardo dos; Andrade, Arthur Guerra de

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the frequency of polydrug use (alcohol and illicit drugs) among college students and its associations with gender and age group. A nationwide sample of 12,544 college students was asked to complete a questionnaire on their use of drugs according to three time parameters (lifetime, past 12 months, and last 30 days). The co-use of drugs was investigated as concurrent polydrug use (CPU) and simultaneous polydrug use (SPU), a subcategory of CPU that involves the use of drugs at the same time or in close temporal proximity. Almost 26% of college students reported having engaged in CPU in the past 12 months. Among these students, 37% had engaged in SPU. In the past 30 days, 17% college students had engaged in CPU. Among these, 35% had engaged in SPU. Marijuana was the illicit drug mostly frequently used with alcohol (either as CPU or SPU), especially among males. Among females, the most commonly reported combination was alcohol and prescribed medications. A high proportion of Brazilian college students may be engaging in polydrug use. College administrators should keep themselves informed to be able to identify such use and to develop educational interventions to prevent such behavior.

  17. Workplace Victimization and Discrimination in China: A Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping

    2017-09-01

    Workplace victimization and discrimination have been intensively studied in the West, especially on the antecedents and consequences of this phenomenon. Surprisingly, little is known about the incidence and associated health problems of workplace victimization and discrimination in contemporary China. Using a representative nationwide sample of 1,138 Chinese employees conducted in 2015, this study attempted to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences of workplace victimization and discrimination in China. It is found that the prevalence rate of preceding 5-year workplace discrimination and victimization was 33% and 12.9%, respectively. Male employees who perceived higher work gains were less likely to experience workplace victimization and those who had higher career efficacy and unemployment anxiety were more likely to experience job discrimination or victimization. Female employees who received tertiary education were less likely to experience job discrimination and being married tended not to experience workplace victimization. Perceived job discrimination had negative impact on male employees' job satisfaction as well as on female employees' happiness. The implications of these findings are finally discussed in the Chinese context.

  18. An extensible database architecture for nationwide power quality monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuecuek, Dilek; Inan, Tolga; Salor, Oezguel; Demirci, Turan; Buhan, Serkan; Boyrazoglu, Burak [TUBITAK Uzay, Power Electronics Group, TR 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Akkaya, Yener; Uensar, Oezguer; Altintas, Erinc; Haliloglu, Burhan [Turkish Electricity Transmission Co. Inc., TR 06490 Ankara (Turkey); Cadirci, Isik [TUBITAK Uzay, Power Electronics Group, TR 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Hacettepe University, Electrical and Electronics Eng. Dept., TR 06532 Ankara (Turkey); Ermis, Muammer [METU, Electrical and Electronics Eng. Dept., TR 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Electrical power quality (PQ) data is one of the prevalent types of engineering data. Its measurement at relevant sampling rates leads to large volumes of PQ data to be managed and analyzed. In this paper, an extensible database architecture is presented based on a novel generic data model for PQ data. The proposed architecture is operated on the nationwide PQ data of the Turkish Electricity Transmission System measured in the field by mobile PQ monitoring systems. The architecture is extensible in the sense that it can be used to store and manage PQ data collected by any means with little or no customization. The architecture has three modules: a PQ database corresponding to the implementation of the generic data model, a visual user query interface to enable its users to specify queries to the PQ database and a query processor acting as a bridge between the query interface and the database. The operation of the architecture is illustrated on the field PQ data with several query examples through the visual query interface. The execution of the architecture on this data of considerable volume supports its applicability and convenience for PQ data. (author)

  19. Nationwide Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 contamination in natural rivers of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Uchii, Kimiko; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2012-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) disease is a significant threat for common and koi carp cultivators and for freshwater ecosystems. To determine the prevalence of CyHV-3 in Japanese rivers, a nationwide survey of all national class-A rivers was undertaken in the Summer of 2008. The virus was concentrated from river water samples using the cation-coated filter method. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 90 rivers, representing 90% of 103 successfully analysed rivers. More than 100,000 copies of CyHV-3 DNA per litre of sample were detected in four rivers, higher than that reported during the Yura River outbreak in 2007. For CyHV-3-positive rivers, the log CyHV-3 density was negatively correlated with the water temperature on the sampling date and positively correlated with the suspended solids and dissolved oxygen, which are annually averaged for each river. Our results demonstrate that virus detection using molecular biology techniques is a powerful tool for monitoring the presence of CyHV-3 in natural environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antithyroid Drugs and Congenital Malformations: A Nationwide Korean Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2018-03-20

    Untreated or insufficiently treated Graves disease in pregnancy may pose risks to both mother and fetus. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) are the treatment mainstay, but the potential teratogenic effect of these drugs has prompted clinicians to question the safe management of this vulnerable population. To examine the association between maternal prescriptions for ATDs and congenital malformations in live births. Nationwide cohort study. Korean National Health Insurance database. A cohort of 2 886 970 completed pregnancies linked to live-born infants in 2 210 253 women between 2008 and 2014. Maternal prescriptions for ATDs in the first trimester. The risk for overall and organ-specific congenital malformations in offspring, with logistic regression models used to control for potential confounders. 12 891 pregnancies (0.45%) were exposed to ATDs during the first trimester. The prevalence of malformations in exposed offspring was 7.27%, compared with 5.94% in offspring of women who were not prescribed ATDs during pregnancy (P 495 mg) during the first trimester was associated with an increased risk for malformations compared with a low dose (1 to 126 mg) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.87 [CI, 1.06 to 3.30]). The study used a prescription claims database to assess ATD exposure. Exposure to ATDs during the first trimester was associated with increased risk for congenital malformations, particularly for pregnancies in which women received prescriptions for MMI or both ATDs. None.

  1. Fifth nationwide survey on radiation oncology of China in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Weibo; Yuyun; Chen Bo; Tian Fenghua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In order to find out the present status of Chinese Radiation Oncology, the Chinese Society of Radiation Oncology did the fifth nationwide survey on Radiation Oncology in China. Methods: Questionnaire forms had been sent through the board member of Chinese Society of Radiation Oncology to each center throughout the country. The forms, after filing, were returned for analysis. Results: On September 30th, 2006, there were 952 radiation oncology centers. They possess personnel: 5247 doctors including 2 110 residents, 1181 physicists, 6864 nurses, 4559 technicians and 1141 engineers. For equipment: There were 918 linear accelerators, 472 telecobalt units, 146 deep X-ray machine, 827 simulators, 214 CT simulators, 400 brachytherapy units, 400 treatment planning system, 796 dosimeters, 467 X-knife, 149 γ-knife (74 for head only, 75 for the head and body). Treatment: 35 503 beds (35 centers did not report the number of beds), 42 109 patients treated per day, 409 440 new patients were treated per year (no report from 45 centers). Conclusion: Radiation oncology has been developing rapidly in the last 5 years either in quantity or in quality. They are still being considered insufficient in proportion to our population. Training programs and development of QA and QC system ate needed. (authors)

  2. A nationwide survey of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Kira, R.; Ishizaki, Y.; Sakai, Y.; Sanefuji, M.; Ichiyama, T.; Oka, A.; Kishi, T.; Kimura, S.; Kubota, M.; Takanashi, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Tamai, H.; Natsume, J.; Hamano, S.; Hirabayashi, S.; Maegaki, Y.; Mizuguchi, M.; Minagawa, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kira, J.; Kusunoki, S.; Hara, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiologic features of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) of the CNS in Japan. Methods: We conducted a nationwide survey and collected clinical data on children with ADS aged 15 years or younger, who visited hospitals between 2005 and 2007. Results: Among 977 hospitals enrolled, 723 (74.0%) responded to our inquiries and reported a total of 439 patients as follows: 244 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 117 with multiple sclerosis (MS), 14 with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and 64 with other ADS. We collected and analyzed detailed data from 204 cases, including those with ADEM (66), MS (58), and NMO (10). We observed the following: (1) the estimated annual incidence rate of pediatric ADEM in Japan was 0.40 per 100,000 children (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34–0.46), with the lowest prevalence in the north; (2) the estimated prevalence rate of MS was 0.69 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.58–0.80), with the lowest prevalence in the south; (3) NMO in Japan was rare, with an estimated prevalence of 0.06 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.04–0.08); and (4) the sex ratio and mean age at onset varied by ADS type, and (5) male/female ratios correlated with ages at onset in each ADS group. Conclusions: Our results clarify the characteristic clinical features of pediatric ADS in the Japanese population. PMID:27742816

  3. Walking school bus programs in U.S. public elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-07-01

    Active transportation to school provides an important way for children to meet physical activity recommendations. The "walking school bus" (WSB) is a strategy whereby adults walk with a group of children to and from school along a fixed route. This study assessed whether school-organized WSB programs varied by school characteristics, district policies, and state laws. School data were gathered by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of U.S. public elementary schools during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 school years (n = 632 and 666, respectively). Corresponding district policies and state laws were obtained. Nationwide, 4.2% of schools organized a WSB program during 2008-2009, increasing to 6.2% by 2009-2010. Controlling for demographic covariates, schools were more likely to organize a WSB program where there was a strong district policy pertaining to safe active routes to school (OR = 2.14, P law requiring crossing guards around schools (OR = 2.72, P laws are associated with an increased likelihood of elementary schools organizing these programs. Policymaking efforts may encourage schools to promote active transportation.

  4. Occurrence and in vitro bioactivity of estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid compounds in a nationwide screen of United States stream waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro bioactivity concentrations and chemical concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and glucocorticoids from a nationwide screen of United States stream water...

  5. Nationwide lithological interpretation of cone penetration tests using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Schokker, Jeroen; Harting, Ronald; de Bruijn, Renée

    2017-04-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) systematically produces 3D stochastic geological models of the Dutch subsurface. These voxel models are regarded essential in answering subsurface-related questions on, for example, aggregate resource potential, groundwater flow, land subsidence hazard and the planning and realization of large-scale infrastructural works. GeoTOP is the most recent and detailed generation of 3D voxel models. This model describes 3D stratigraphical and lithological variability up to a depth of 50 m using voxels of 100 × 100 × 0.5 m. Currently, visually described borehole samples are the primary input of these large-scale 3D geological models, both when modeling architecture and composition. Although tens of thousands of cone penetration tests (CPTs) are performed each year, mainly in the reconnaissance phase of construction activities, these data are hardly used as geological model input. There are many reasons why it is of interest to utilize CPT data for geological and lithological modeling of the Dutch subsurface, such as: 1) CPTs are more abundant than borehole descriptions, 2) CPTs are cheaper and easier to gather, and 3) CPT data are more quantitative and uniform than visual sample descriptions. This study uses CPTs and the lithological descriptions of associated nearby undisturbed drilling cores collected by the GSN to establish a nationwide reference dataset for physical and chemical properties of the shallow subsurface. The 167 CPT-core pairs were collected at 160 locations situated in the North, West and South of the Netherlands. These locations were chosen to cover the full extent of geological units and lithological composition in the upper 30 to 40 m of the subsurface in these areas. The distance between the CPT location and associated borehole is small, varying between 0 and 30 m, with an average of 6 m. For each 2 cm CPT interval the data was automatically annotated with the lithoclass from the associated core using a

  6. Pilot projects and nation-wide immunization in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxton, D

    1984-01-01

    These studies identify possibilities for expanding immunization coverage in India and show that there have been positive experiences in going to scale with immunizationation at the district level. Reasons for success are discussed. The promotion of social awareness and participation through all available channels is of central importance. Continuing attention should be directed to vaccine supply and distribution systems, program management and manpower training, especially at the community level. There are many opportunities for extending involvement in immunization efforts and broad-spectrum programs beyond the confines of the health system, and for flexibility in program organization. Planning must incorporate political commitment as well as the provision of adequate financial resources. India launched the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1978. 6 diseases are currently on the official schedule for progressive nation-wide immunization: tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, whooping cough, diptheria, tetanus and typhoid. The experiences of 3 efforts in Dewas, in Bidar, (2 rural areas), and in Delhi (an urban area) are covered. Immunization coverage before the intensive efforts did not exceed 30%. Major elements of program organization were: nonhealth sector political and administrative involvement from the state; multisectoral planning committees at different levels; household surveys to identify children to be immunized; training sessions for each category of workers; and strengthening the cold chain. Factors in operational design and implementation include: vaccination posts in the community; selection of acceptable vaccination days; reminders the day before vaccination; collection of children; immunization cards as a device for informing about next round; counteraction of side-effects; follow-up of drop-outs; monitoring for corrective action involving all participants; and formal evaluation by local medical colleges. Intensive immunization in the 3 pilot sites

  7. Religious beliefs and alcohol control policies: a Brazilian nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Lucchetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The connection between lower alcohol use and religiousness has been extensively examined. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed how religion and religiousness influence public policies. The present study seeks to understand the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes toward alcohol use. Methods: A door-to-door, nationwide, multistage population-based survey was carried out. Self-reported religiousness, religious attendance, and attitudes toward use of alcohol policies (such as approval of public health interventions, attitudes about drinking and driving, and attitudes toward other alcohol problems and their harmful effects were examined. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounders and to assess explanatory variables. Results: The sample was composed of 3,007 participants; 57.3% were female and mean age was 35.7 years. Religiousness was generally associated with more negative attitudes toward alcohol, such as limiting hours of sale (p < 0.01, not having alcohol available in corner shops (p < 0.01, prohibiting alcohol advertisements on TV (p < 0.01, raising the legal drinking age (p < 0.01, and raising taxes on alcohol (p < 0.05. Higher religious attendance was associated with less alcohol problems (OR: 0.61, 95%CI 0.40-0.91, p = 0.017, and self-reported religiousness was associated with less harmful effects of drinking (OR: 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.88, p = 0.009. Conclusions: Those with high levels of religiousness support more restrictive alcohol policies. These findings corroborate previous studies showing that religious people consume less alcohol and have fewer alcohol-related problems.

  8. Hypothyroidism incidence in and around pregnancy: a Danish nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S L; Carlé, A; Olsen, J; Laurberg, P

    2016-11-01

    Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All women who gave birth to a singleton live-born child in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403 958) were identified, and data on hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism and redeemed prescriptions of thyroid hormone were extracted. The overall incidence rate (IR) of hypothyroidism during 1997-2010 and the IR in three-month intervals before, during and after the woman's first pregnancy in the study period were calculated and compared with the IR of hyperthyroidism. Altogether 5220 women were identified with onset of hypothyroidism from 1997 to 2010 (overall IR 92.3/100 000/year) and 1572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs overall IR in the rest of the study period: first trimester: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66-1.19), second trimester: 0.71 (0.52-0.97), third trimester: 0.29 (0.19-0.45)) and increased after birth with the highest level at 4-6 months postpartum (IRR 3.62 (2.85-4.60)). These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy increase. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Sexual offending runs in families: A 37-year nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Långström, Niklas; Babchishin, Kelly M; Fazel, Seena; Lichtenstein, Paul; Frisell, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Sexual crime is an important public health concern. The possible causes of sexual aggression, however, remain uncertain. We examined familial aggregation and the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to sexual crime by linking longitudinal, nationwide Swedish crime and multigenerational family registers. We included all men convicted of any sexual offence (N = 21,566), specifically rape of an adult (N = 6131) and child molestation (N = 4465), from 1973 to 2009. Sexual crime rates among fathers and brothers of sexual offenders were compared with corresponding rates in fathers and brothers of age-matched population control men without sexual crime convictions. We also modelled the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors to the liability of sexual offending. We found strong familial aggregation of sexual crime [odds ratio (OR) = 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.5-5.9] among full brothers of convicted sexual offenders. Familial aggregation was lower in father-son dyads (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 3.2-4.4) among paternal half-brothers (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.5-2.9) and maternal half-brothers (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.4). Statistical modelling of the strength and patterns of familial aggregation suggested that genetic factors (40%) and non-shared environmental factors (58%) explained the liability to offend sexually more than shared environmental influences (2%). Further, genetic effects tended to be weaker for rape of an adult (19%) than for child molestation (46%). We report strong evidence of familial clustering of sexual offending, primarily accounted for by genes rather than shared environmental influences. Future research should possibly test the effectiveness of selective prevention efforts for male first-degree relatives of sexually aggressive individuals, and consider familial risk in sexual violence risk assessment.

  10. A Job Analysis for K-8 Principals in a Nationwide Charter School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumings, Laura; Coryn, Chris L. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although no single technique on its own can predict job performance, a job analysis is a customary approach for identifying the relevant knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAO) necessary to successfully complete the job tasks of a position. Once the position requirements are identified, the hiring process is…

  11. Teen Bands to Battle on a National Stage: NAMM Expands Its SchoolJam Showcase with a Little Help from MENC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    SchoolJam, a popular teen musicians' showcase in Texas that provides recognition for young performers as well as funding for their school music programs, is about to go nationwide. The competition, which NAMM, the International Music Products Association, brought to the United States from Germany in 2007, allows groups of musicians age 13 to 18 to…

  12. School Absenteeism: An Online Survey via Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Verena; Schneider, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    School absenteeism is a significant social and public health problem. However, existing prevalence rates are often not representative due to biased assessment processes at schools. The present study assessed school absenteeism in Germany using a nationwide online self-report survey. Although our definition of school absenteeism was more conservative than in previous studies, nearly 9 % of the 1359 high school students reported school absenteeism within the past 7 days. Absent students lived less often with both parents, were on average of lower socioeconomic status, and reported more emotional problems, behavioral problems and less prosocial behavior than attending students. Being an indicator of a wide variety of problems in children and adolescents, school absenteeism deserves much more attention. Future directions for research and implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed.

  13. Gender differences in sudden cardiac death in the young-a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Bjune, Thea

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young has been described with no distinction between genders. SCD occurs more often in men (SCDm) than women (SCDw), but this disparity is not understood and has not been investigated systematically in a nationwide setting. Our objective......=0.02) and died less often in a public place (16 vs. 26%, p=0.01). Age at death, ratios of autopsies and sudden unexplained deaths, and comorbidities, did not differ. Causes of SCD were largely comparable between genders. The incidence rate of SCDw was half of that of SCDm (1.8 vs. 3.6 per 100...... was to report gender differences in SCD in the young in a nationwide (Denmark) setting. Methods: All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years nationwide in Denmark between 2000 and 2009 were included. Death certificates and autopsy reports were obtained. The extensive health care registries in Denmark were used...

  14. Evaluating a nationwide recreational football intervention: Recruitment, attendance, adherence, exercise intensity, and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preinterven......-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness.......The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population......). RHR was lowered (푃 health...

  15. A security framework for nationwide health information exchange based on telehealth strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, B B; Haiqi, Ahmed; Zaidan, A A; Abdulnabi, Mohamed; Kiah, M L Mat; Muzamel, Hussaen

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on the situation of health information exchange (HIE) in the context of a nationwide network. It aims to create a security framework that can be implemented to ensure the safe transmission of health information across the boundaries of care providers in Malaysia and other countries. First, a critique of the major elements of nationwide health information networks is presented from the perspective of security, along with such topics as the importance of HIE, issues, and main approaches. Second, a systematic evaluation is conducted on the security solutions that can be utilized in the proposed nationwide network. Finally, a secure framework for health information transmission is proposed within a central cloud-based model, which is compatible with the Malaysian telehealth strategy. The outcome of this analysis indicates that a complete security framework for a global structure of HIE is yet to be defined and implemented. Our proposed framework represents such an endeavor and suggests specific techniques to achieve this goal.

  16. Approaching target: A service for nationwide deformation monitoring in Denmark using Sentinel-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Broge, Niels Henrik

    processes in both the public and private sectors. This will inevitably lead to significant economic savings. The test study makes up part of the foundation for establishing a nationwide service. As such, the results over the test sites will be presented to a broad range of end-users to identify their needs...... tailored to specific needs, which increases the probability of its implementation in both the public and private sectors. Presenting the results obtained on the road to setting up a nationwide deformation monitoring will clearly demonstrate the potentials arising with the continuous stream of Sentinel-1......Building upon decades of experience with deformation monitoring from repeated precision leveling and GNSS measurements as well as more recent time series analyses of ERS, Envisat, and Sentinel-1 imagery, we are now working towards a nationwide mapping using Sentinel-1 Interferometric Wide Swath...

  17. A Nationwide Medical Student Assessment of Oncology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Malcolm D; Patel, Krishnan R; Burt, Lindsay M; Hirsch, Ariel E

    2016-12-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA, but there is minimal data on how oncology is taught to medical students. The purpose of this study is to characterize oncology education at US medical schools. An electronic survey was sent between December 2014 and February 2015 to a convenience sample of medical students who either attended the American Society for Radiation Oncology annual meeting or serve as delegates to the American Association of Medical Colleges. Information on various aspects of oncology instruction at participants' medical schools was collected. Seventy-six responses from students in 28 states were received. Among the six most common causes of death in the USA, cancer reportedly received the fourth most curricular time. During the first, second, and third years of medical school, participants most commonly reported 6-10, 16-20, and 6-10 h of oncology teaching, respectively. Participants were less confident in their understanding of cancer treatment than workup/diagnosis or basic science/natural history of cancer (p oncology-oriented clerkship. During each mandatory rotation, Oncology education is often underemphasized and fragmented with wide variability in content and structure between medical schools, suggesting a need for reform.

  18. A Nationwide Census of ICU Capacity and Admissions in Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranpurev Mendsaikhan

    Full Text Available In Mongolia, a Central Asian lower-middle income country, intensive care medicine is an under-resourced and-developed medical specialty. The burden of critical illness and capacity of intensive care unit (ICU services in the country is unknown. In this nationwide census, we collected data on adult and pediatric/neonatal ICU capacities and the number of ICU admissions in 2014. All hospitals registered to run an ICU service in Mongolia were surveyed. Data on the availability of an adult and/or pediatric/neonatal ICU service, the number of available ICU beds, the number of available functional mechanical ventilators, the number of patients admitted to the ICU, and the number of patients admitted to the study hospital were collected. In total, 70 ICUs with 349 ICU beds were counted in Mongolia (11.7 ICU beds/100,000 inhabitants; 1.7 ICU beds/100 hospital beds. Of these, 241 (69% were adult and 108 (31% pediatric/neonatal ICU beds. Functional mechanical ventilators were available for approximately half of the ICU beds (5.1 mechanical ventilators/100,000 inhabitants. While all provincial hospitals ran a pediatric/neonatal ICU, only dedicated pediatric hospitals in Ulaanbaatar did so. The number of adult and pediatric/neonatal ICU admissions varied between provinces. The number of adult ICU beds and adult ICU admissions per 100,000 inhabitants correlated (r = 0.5; p = 0.02, while the number of pediatric/neonatal ICU beds and pediatric/neonatal ICU admissions per 100,000 inhabitants did not (r = 0.25; p = 0.26. In conclusion, with 11.7 ICU beds per 100,000 inhabitants the ICU capacity in Mongolia is higher than in other low- and lower-middle-income countries. Substantial heterogeneities in the standardized ICU capacity and ICU admissions exist between Mongolian provinces. Functional mechanical ventilators are available for only half of the ICU beds. Pediatric/neonatal ICU beds make up one third of the national ICU capacity and appear to meet or even

  19. Awareness of Diagnostic Error among Japanese Residents: a Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Shimizu, Taro; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2018-04-01

    Residents' understanding of diagnostic error may differ between countries. We sought to explore the relationship between diagnostic error knowledge and self-study, clinical knowledge, and experience. Our nationwide study involved postgraduate year 1 and 2 (PGY-1 and -2) Japanese residents. The Diagnostic Error Knowledge Assessment Test (D-KAT) and General Medicine In-Training Examination (GM-ITE) were administered at the end of the 2014 academic year. D-KAT scores were compared with the benchmark scores of US residents. Associations between D-KAT score and gender, PGY, emergency department (ED) rotations per month, mean number of inpatients handled at any given time, and mean daily minutes of self-study were also analyzed, both with and without adjusting for GM-ITE scores. Student's t test was used for comparisons with linear mixed models and structural equation models (SEM) to explore associations with D-KAT or GM-ITE scores. The mean D-KAT score among Japanese PGY-2 residents was significantly lower than that of their US PGY-2 counterparts (6.2 vs. 8.3, p ITE scores correlated with ED rotations (≥6 rotations: 2.14; 0.16-4.13; p = 0.03), inpatient caseloads (5-9 patients: 1.79; 0.82-2.76; p ITE scores (ß = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.34-0.41) and indirectly associated with ED rotations (ß = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.02-0.10), inpatient caseload (ß = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.003-0.08), and average daily minutes of study (ß = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.09-0.17). Knowledge regarding diagnostic error among Japanese residents was poor compared with that among US residents. D-KAT scores correlated strongly with GM-ITE scores, and the latter scores were positively associated with a greater number of ED rotations, larger caseload (though only up to 15 patients), and more time spent studying.

  20. Shedding Light: Private "For Profit" Training Providers and Young Early School Leavers. NCVER Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myconos, George; Clarke, Kira; te Riele, Kitty

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the oft-criticised segment of the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia--private, for-profit registered training organisations (RTOs)--with the aim of gaining a clearer understanding of the approaches they adopt in training 15 to 19-year-olds who have left school early. Through a nationwide survey…

  1. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student-Generated Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses ordinary least squares, logit and probit regressions, along with chi-square analysis applied to nationwide data from the New Zealand ratemyteacher website to establish if there is any correlation between student ratings of their teachers and the socioeconomic status of the school the students attend. The results show that students…

  2. Selecting Growth Measures for Use in School Evaluation Systems: Should Proportionality Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Mark; Koedel, Cory; Parsons, Eric; Podgursky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The specifics of how growth models should be constructed and used for educational evaluation is a topic of lively policy debate in states and school districts nationwide. In this article, we take up the question of model choice--framed within a policy context--and examine three competing approaches. The first approach, reflected in the popular…

  3. Familial Risks of Kidney Failure in Sweden: A Nationwide Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Akrawi, Delshad Saleh; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Zöller, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The value of family history as a risk factor for kidney failure has not been determined in a nationwide setting. AIM: This nationwide family study aimed to determine familial risks for kidney failure in Sweden. METHODS: The Swedish multi-generation register on 0-78-year-old subjects were linked to the Swedish patient register and the Cause of death register for 1987-2010. Individuals diagnosed with acute kidney failure (n = 10063), chronic kidney failure (n = 18668), or unspecifie...

  4. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putkonen Hanna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57. A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle and 4 (antisocial. Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective and facets 1 (interpersonal and 2 (affective. The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide

  5. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics - a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-05-06

    The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to 19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995-2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents or near relatives than the

  6. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  7. High School Physics Teacher Preparation: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Tyler, John

    2015-01-01

    This report examines teachers' self-assessed preparedness to teach physics, their membership in professional organizations, and where they turn for help when they have questions. Almost every teacher reports feeling at least adequately prepared to teach basic physics knowledge and the application of physics to everyday experience. The smallest…

  8. Development of a nationwide consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan: a modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Tamba, Kaichiro; Takamiya, Yusuke; Morita, Tatsuya; Bito, Seiji; Otaki, Junji

    2012-07-01

    There is currently no consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan, although the Cancer Control Act proposed in 2007 covers the dissemination of palliative care. To develop a nationwide consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan using a modified Delphi method. We adopted the following three-step method: (1) a workshop to produce the draft syllabus; (2) a survey-based provisional syllabus; (3) Delphi rounds and a panel meeting (modified Delphi method) to produce the working syllabus. Educators in charge of palliative medicine from 63% of the medical schools in Japan collaborated to develop a survey-based provisional syllabus before the Delphi rounds. A panel of 32 people was then formed for the modified Delphi rounds comprising 28 educators and experts in palliative medicine, one cancer survivor, one bereaved family member, and two medical students. The final consensus syllabus consists of 115 learning objectives across seven sections as follows: basic principles; disease process and comprehensive assessment; symptom management; psychosocial care; cultural, religious, and spiritual issues; ethical issues; and legal frameworks. Learning objectives were categorized as essential or desirable (essential: 66; desirable: 49). A consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education was developed using a clear and innovative methodology. The final consensus syllabus will be made available for further dissemination of palliative care education throughout the country.

  9. Under Pressure: Job Security, Resource Allocation, and Productivity in Schools under No Child Left Behind

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Reback; Jonah Rockoff; Heather L. Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    We conduct the first nationwide study of incentives under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, which requires states to punish schools failing to meet target passing rates on students' standardized exams. States' idiosyncratic policies created variation in the risk of failure among very similar schools in different states, which we use to identify effects of accountability pressure. We find NCLB lowers teachers' perceptions of job security, shifts time towards specialist teachers in high-stak...

  10. Peer Attachment, Perceived Parenting Style, Self-concept, and School Adjustments in Adolescents with Chronic Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong-Ah Ahn, PhD, RN; Sunhee Lee, PhD, RN

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify how peer attachment and parenting style differentially affect self-concept and school adjustment in adolescents with and without chronic illness. Methods: A cross-sectional study using multiple group analysis on the Korean panel data was used. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used and the survey was conducted in 2013 on 2,092 first-year middle school students in Korea. We used standardized instruments by the N...

  11. Association between physical fitness and academic achievement in a cohort of Danish school pupils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Porsborg; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Vardinghus-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Time spent on physical activity in elementary school has been altered to improve core academics. However, little is known about the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement. We examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement......) ). Academic achievement was measured 1 school year later through a series of mandatory exams within the humanities, sciences, and all obligatory defined exams. Parental income and education were drawn from nationwide registers. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association. RESULTS...

  12. Incidence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa : a nationwide population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, A.; Hoek, H. W.; Linna, M. S.; Raevuori, A.; Sihvola, E.; Bulik, C. M.; Rissanen, A.; Kaprio, J.

    Background. Little is known about the epidemiology of bulimia nervosa outside clinical settings. We report the incidence, prevalence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa using for the first time a nationwide Study design. Method. To assess the incidence and natural course and outcomes of DSM-IV bulimia

  13. Mortality in myasthenia gravis: A nationwide population-based follow-up study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie S; Danielsen, Ditte H; Somnier, Finn E

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In previous studies of myasthenia gravis (MG), increased mortality has been reported. The aim of this study was to estimate mortality in patients with acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR-Ab-seropositive) MG in a nationwide population-based, long-term follow-up study...

  14. 75 FR 52323 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... solar experts employed by the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. EERE's... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical... Act) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION...

  15. Nationwide Study on the Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Patients With Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Usman; Egeberg, Alexander; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2016-01-01

    inflammatory disease and in view of potentially overlapping inflammatory mechanisms, we investigated the risk of AAA in patients with psoriasis in a nationwide cohort. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The study comprised all Danish residents aged ≥18 years followed up from January 1, 1997, until diagnosis of AAA...

  16. Statin use after acute myocardial infarction: a nationwide study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gislason, Gunnar H; Abildstrom, Steen Z

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To study outpatient statin use after first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Denmark between 1995 and 2002 and to determine the predictors of statin use. METHODS: This is a nationwide population-based study using administrative registries. Patients with first AMI between 1995 and 2002 ol...

  17. Fat watch: A nationwide campaign in the Netherlands to reduce fat intake-effect evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wechem, S.N. van; Brug, J.; Assema, P. van; Kistemaker, C.; Riedstra, M.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the nationwide Fat Watch campaign aiming at a reduction in fat consumption was organized from 1991 onwards. This study describes the effects of the first three consecutive campaign years on attention to fat, diet and health, attitudes, self-efficacy expectations and intentions

  18. A Nationwide Random Sampling Survey of Potential Complicated Grief in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasunao; Kishimoto, Junji; Asukai, Nozomu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of significant loss, potential complicated grief (CG), and its contributing factors, we conducted a nationwide random sampling survey of Japanese adults aged 18 or older (N = 1,343) using a self-rating Japanese-language version of the Complicated Grief Brief Screen. Among them, 37.0% experienced their most significant…

  19. Epidemiology of inclusion body myositis in the Netherlands : A nationwide study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badrising, UA; Maat-Schieman, M; van Duinen, SG; Breedveld, F; van Doorn, P; van Engelen, B; van den Hoogen, F; Hoogendijk, J; Howeler, C; de Jager, A; Jennekens, F; Koehler, P; van der Leeuw, H; de Visser, M; Verschuuren, JJ; Wintzen, AR

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on inclusion body myositis (IBM) are scarce, and possibly biased, because they are derived from larger neuromuscular centers. The present nationwide collaborative cross-sectional study, which culminated on July 1, 1999, resulted in identification of 76 patients with IBM and the

  20. 75 FR 33818 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Nationwide Limited Public Interest... Funds Provided Under ARRA AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Indian Health... generally familiar with the conditions of availability, the potential alternatives for each detailed...

  1. Epidemiology of valvular heart disease in a Swedish nationwide hospital-based register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andell, Pontus; Li, Xinjun; Martinsson, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Transitions in the spectrum of valvular heart diseases (VHDs) in developed countries over the 20th century have been reported from clinical case series, but large, contemporary population-based studies are lacking. METHODS: We used nationwide registers to identify all patients...

  2. A nationwide population analysis of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses and nonmedical working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Che Huang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our nationwide population-based study revealed increased risks of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses compared with those among nonmedical working women. The large-scale observation of the increased antenatal and perinatal complications draws attention to the health issues faced by nursing personnel who represent one of the most important workforces in the healthcare system.

  3. Palliative sedation at home in the Netherlands: a nationwide survey among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, T.; Klinkenberg, M.; Deliens, L.; Eliel, M.; Rietjens, J.A.C.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim. This paper is a report of a nationwide study conducted to assess experiences of nurses involved in palliative sedation at home after introduction of a physicians' guideline for palliative sedation. Background. Most studies investigating the practice of palliative sedation focus on physicians'

  4. Antibiotics in Dutch general practice: nationwide electronic GP database and national reimbursement rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, A.E.; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Dijk, L. van

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: In order to assess whether different databases generate information which can be reliable compared with each other, this study aimed to assess to which degree prescribing rates for systemic antibiotics from a nationwide electronic general practitioner (GP) database correspond with national

  5. 75 FR 81284 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment and... Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Nationwide Use of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High... potential impacts of each alternative on the human and natural environments. DATES: Comments and related...

  6. Impact of a Nationwide Training Program in Minimally Invasive Distal Pancreatectomy (LAELAPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A.; Daams, Freek; van Dam, Ronald M.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; van Eijck, Casper H.; Festen, Sebastiaan; Gerhards, Michael F.; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H.; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; de Kleine, Ruben H.; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J.; Lips, Daan J.; Luyer, Misha D.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Patijn, Gijs A.; Roos, Daphne; Scheepers, Joris J.; van der Schelling, George P.; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Vriens, Menno R.; Wijsman, Jan H.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Busch, Olivier R.; Hilal, Mohammed Abu; Besselink, Marc G.; de Boer, Marieke T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the feasibility and impact of a nationwide training program in minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP).Summary of Background Data:Superior outcomes of MIDP compared with open distal pancreatectomy have been reported. In the Netherlands (2005 to 2013) only 10% of distal

  7. Mass Communication and Journalism Faculty and Their Electronic Communication with College Students: A Nationwide Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Brigitta R.; Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 700 U.S. journalism and mass communication faculty reported their perceptions of student e-mail use via a Web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on content of e-mail received by faculty and made comparisons based on faculty gender. Nearly half of the respondents reported that they occasionally receive e-mails from students before a…

  8. Methods of Suicide among Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2010-01-01

    A 3-year nationwide population-based data set was used to explore methods of suicide (violent vs. nonviolent) and possible contributing factors among cancer patients in Taiwan. A total of 1,065 cancer inpatients who committed suicide were included as our study sample. The regression shows that those who had genitourinary cancer were 0.55 times (p…

  9. A Nationwide Survey of Nonspeech Oral Motor Exercise Use: Implications for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lof, Gregory L.; Watson, Maggie M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: A nationwide survey was conducted to determine if speech-language pathologists (SLPs) use nonspeech oral motor exercises (NSOMEs) to address children's speech sound problems. For those SLPs who used NSOMEs, the survey also identified (a) the types of NSOMEs used by the SLPs, (b) the SLPs' underlying beliefs about why they use NSOMEs, (c)…

  10. 75 FR 65010 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... intellectual content and dollar-value items associated with solar PV energy generation. The Buy American...)(ii)]. However, determining where final manufacturing occurs in the context of the solar production... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Limited Public...

  11. A nationwide registry-based cohort study of incidence of tonsillectomy in Denmark, 1991-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Marie Louise; Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Rasmussen, Stig Hebbelstrup Rye

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update tonsillectomy incidence rates in Denmark and identify whether the incidence rates vary between geographical areas in the country during the period 1991-2012. DESIGN: This was a retrospective nationwide cohort study using data from the comprehensive Danish patient registries. ...

  12. 75 FR 10246 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery... nationwide categorical waivers of the Buy American requirements of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act... domestic manufacturers for these products. This strategy will ensure that all future determinations of...

  13. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E. G.; Roskott, A. M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G. J.; Serlie, M. J.; Tabbers, M. M.; Damen, G.; Olthof, E. D.; Jonkers, C. F.; Kloeze, J. H.; Ploeg, R. J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Rings, E. H. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date prevalence of CIF and

  14. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E. G.; Roskott, A. M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G. J.; Serlie, M. J.; Tabbers, M. M.; Damen, G.; Olthof, E. D.; Jonkers, C. F.; Kloeze, J. H.; Ploeg, R. J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Rings, E. H. H. M.

    Background & aims: Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date

  15. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Roskott, A.M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G.J.A.; Serlie, M.J.; Tabbers, M.M.; Damen, G.M.; Olthof, E.D.; Jonkers, C.F.; Kloeze, J.H.; Ploeg, R.J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Rings, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date

  16. Nationwide Network of TalentPoints: The Hungarian Approach to Talent Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Peter; Rajnai, Gabor; Sulyok, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 a novel approach to talent support was promoted by several talent support programmes in Hungary. The new idea was a network approach. The nationwide network of so-called TalentPoints and its framework, the Hungarian Genius Program, gained substantial European Union funding in 2009, and today it is growing rapidly. A novel concept of talent…

  17. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.

  18. Evaluating quantitative and qualitative models: An application for nationwide water erosion assessment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Stroosnijder, L

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the candidacy of one qualitative response model and two quantitative models for a nationwide water erosion hazard assessment in Ethiopia. After a descriptive comparison of model characteristics the study conducts a statistical comparison to evaluate the explanatory power of the

  19. Evaluating quantitative and qualitative models: an application for nationwide water erosion assessment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the candidacy of one qualitative response model and two quantitative models for a nationwide water erosion hazard assessment in Ethiopia. After a descriptive comparison of model characteristics the study conducts a statistical comparison to evaluate the explanatory power of the

  20. Configuration of the nationwide-grid expansion in Cuba for the period 2000-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodirguez, B

    1999-01-01

    Using the prediction of the growth in electric energy consumption, a study is made of the configuration of the Nationwide-Grid (NWG) for that period. The study makes due consideration of the principle of diversity of the Energy Sources, assessing among the candidates; biomass, fossil fuels and nuclear energy

  1. 47 CFR Appendix B to Part 1 - Nationwide Programmatic Agreement for the Collocation of Wireless Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., the FCC and the Council have agreed that these measures should be incorporated into a Nationwide... Commission (FCC) establishes rules and procedures for the licensing of wireless communications facilities in the United States and its Possessions and Territories; and, Whereas, the FCC has largely deregulated...

  2. Trends in birth asphyxia, obstetric interventions and perinatal mortality among term singletons: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Sabine; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Schaaf, Jelle M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate trends in birth asphyxia and perinatal mortality in the Netherlands over the last decade. A nationwide cohort study among women with a term singleton pregnancy. We assessed trends in birth asphyxia in relation to obstetric interventions for fetal

  3. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  4. Problem behavior of individuals with down syndrome in a nationwide cohort assessed in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M.; Fekkes, M.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Detmar, S.B.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess problem behavior in adolescents with Down syndrome and examine the association with sex and severity of intellectual disability. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional data of a Dutch nationwide cohort of Down syndrome children aged 16-19 years were collected using a written parental

  5. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  6. Compilation of a soil map for Nigeria: a nation-wide soil resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a nation-wide soil and land form inventory of Nigeria. The data compilation was conducted in the framework of two projects with the objective to calculate agricultural production potential under different input levels and assess the water erosion hazard. The information on spatial distribution ...

  7. Quality assessment of 26,304 herniorrhaphies in Denmark: a prospective nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Nielsen, M; Kehlet, H; Strand, L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Groin hernia repair is one of the most frequent operations, but there is no consensus about surgical or anaesthetic technique. Furthermore, no nationwide studies have been done. Our aim was to investigate outcome results of groin hernia surgery to improve quality of treatment. METHODS...

  8. Old age and forgoing treatment: a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Pereira, S.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Heide, A.; van Delden, J.J.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ageing of the population raises the need to study forgoing treatment decisions among older people. Aim To describe the incidence and decision-making of forgoing treatment and identify age-related differences. Methods A nationwide study of a stratified sample from the Statistics

  9. Old age and forgoing treatment : a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Sandra Martins; Pasman, H. Roeline; van der Heide, Agnes; van Delden, Johannes J. M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.

    Background The ageing of the population raises the need to study forgoing treatment decisions among older people. Aim To describe the incidence and decision-making of forgoing treatment and identify age-related differences. Methods A nationwide study of a stratified sample from the Statistics

  10. 77 FR 60680 - Development of the Nationwide Interoperable Public Safety Broadband Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... public comment on the conceptual network architecture presentation made at the FirstNet Board of... business plan considerations. NTIA also seeks comment on the general concept of how to develop applications... network based on a single, nationwide network architecture called for under the Middle Class Tax Relief...

  11. Differences in investigations of sudden unexpected deaths in young people in a nationwide setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inherited disease may be causative in many young sudden unexpected death cases. Autopsy is essential in the counselling of the bereaved, as the family of the victim may be at risk too. In a nationwide setting operating under the same set of laws, we hypothesized that regional differen...

  12. Mental health problems in Austrian adolescents: a nationwide, two-stage epidemiological study applying DSM-5 criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gudrun; Zeiler, Michael; Waldherr, Karin; Philipp, Julia; Truttmann, Stefanie; Dür, Wolfgang; Treasure, Janet L; Karwautz, Andreas F K

    2017-12-01

    This is a nationwide epidemiological study using DSM-5 criteria to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in a large sample of Austrian adolescents between 10 and 18 years including hard-to-reach samples. A sample of 3615 adolescents from four cohorts (school grades 5, 7, 9, 11; age range 10-18 years) was recruited from 261 schools, samples of unemployed adolescents (n = 39) and adolescents from mental health institutions (n = 137) were added. The Youth Self-Report and SCOFF were used to screen for mental health problems. In a second phase, the Childrens' Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders was used to make point and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Mental health service use was also assessed. Point prevalence and lifetime prevalence rates for at least one psychiatric disorder were 23.9% and 35.8%. The highest lifetime prevalence rates were found for anxiety disorders (15.6%), neurodevelopmental disorders (9.3%; ADHD 5.2%) and depressive disorders (6.2%). Forty-seven percent of adolescents with a lifetime psychiatric disorder had a second diagnosis. Internalising disorders were more prevalent in girls, while neurodevelopmental disorders and disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders were more prevalent in boys. Of those with a lifetime psychiatric disorder, 47.5% had contacted mental health services. Of the residual 52.5% who had not contacted mental health services, 18.1% expressed an interest in treatment. DSM-5 mental health disorders are highly prevalent among Austrian adolescents. Over 50% had or were interested in accessing treatment. Early access to effective interventions for these problems is needed to reduce burden due to mental health disorders.

  13. Planting local seed for growth to nationwide E/PO efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N.; Beisser, K.; Mendez, F.; Cockrell, D.; Wilhide, B.

    the expanding knowledge of space science. They experience the process involved in planning/launching a simulated space mission, including design/fabrication of instrumentation for a spacecraft. They are part of a Mission Team that built a spacecraft scale model complete with instrumentation and even give a full mission overview oral presentation to their peers. During this 2 week experience, the students interact with the APL scientists and engineers directly responsible for the featured missions. Scientists and engineers team up with Comcast Cablevision of Maryland, Cable in the Classroom, and the Maryland State Department of Education to give Maryland middle school students a true outer space experience focusing on specific NASA missions. The students move from behind their desks to behind the scenes of a deep- space mission at JHU/APL. The students hear mission briefings and take part in a special student press conference with mission team members. They don clean-room suits and tour the Lab's space facilities, including the Mission Operations Center, the space environment simulation lab, the vibration test lab, and the satellite communications facility. These local programs for outreach opportunities have often served as the test bed for national programs and partnerships. In this presentation we will review the local programs to show how the organizations benefit from the partnership with APL and also how the APL outreach programs gain a much wider and more appreciative audience. We will also show how these programs are being expanded to a more nationwide focus.

  14. Cardiovascular health awareness and the effect of an educational intervention on school-aged children in a rural district of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhab Ray

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Awareness of CVD and its risk factors was far from optimal among the adolescent school-aged children in this study. A school-based educational program may help improve awareness of CVD and reduce the future disease burden in the community. The results of this study may be useful in formulating a nationwide school health program to deal with the emerging epidemic of CVD in countries such as India.

  15. A New Vision for Teacher Professional Growth & Support: Six Steps to a More Powerful School System Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    One of a series of Education Resource Strategies (ERS) publications and tools, this paper explores important ways to organize and invest in Professional Growth & Support that strengthen teaching capacity and effectiveness at the system level. It draws on research, ERS experience with urban school systems nationwide, and detailed analyses of…

  16. Digital Game Playing Motives among Adolescents: Relations to Parent-Child Communication, School Performance, Sleeping Habits, and Perceived Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Marjut; Rimpela, Arja; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Lintonen, Tomi

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this research were to describe Finnish adolescents' different motives for digital game playing, and to examine relations between digital game playing and parent-child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. A questionnaire was used to assess a nationwide postal sample of 12-18-year-old Finns (6761…

  17. The Effect of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and School Experiences on Depression: A National Study of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…

  18. Nationwide program of education for undergraduates in the field of disaster medicine: development of a core curriculum centered on blended learning and simulation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Tengattini, Marco; Carenzo, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, effective models of disaster medicine curricula for medical schools have been established. However, only a small percentage of medical schools worldwide have considered at least basic disaster medicine teaching in their study program. In Italy, disaster medicine has not yet been included in the medical school curriculum. Perceiving the lack of a specific course on disaster medicine, the Segretariato Italiano Studenti in Medicina (SISM) contacted the Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale in Medicina di Emergenza e dei Disastri ed Informatica applicata alla didattica e alla pratica Medica (CRIMEDIM) with a proposal for a nationwide program in this field. Seven modules (introduction to disaster medicine, prehospital disaster management, definition of triage, characteristics of hospital disaster plans, treatment of the health consequences of different disasters, psychosocial care, and presentation of past disasters) were developed using an e-learning platform and a 12-hour classroom session which involved problem-based learning (PBL) activities, table-top exercises, and a computerized simulation (Table 1). The modules were designed as a framework for a disaster medicine curriculum for undergraduates and covered the three main disciplines (clinical and psychosocial, public health, and emergency and risk management) of the core of "Disaster Health" according to the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) international guidelines for disaster medicine education. From January 2011 through May 2013, 21 editions of the course were delivered to 21 different medical schools, and 524 students attended the course. The blended approach and the use of simulation tools were appreciated by all participants and successfully increased participants' knowledge of disaster medicine and basic competencies in performing mass-casualty triage. This manuscript reports on the designing process and the initial outcomes with respect to learners

  19. Methodology of the National School-based Health Survey in Malaysia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings. © 2014 APJPH.

  20. Birth weight, sex, and celiac disease: a nationwide twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuja-Halkola R

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Kuja-Halkola,1 Benjamin Lebwohl,1,2 Jonas Halfvarson,3 Louise Emilsson,4–6 Patrik K Magnusson,1 Jonas F Ludvigsson1,2,7,8 1Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Medicine, Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4Department of Health Management and Health Economy, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 5Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 6Centre for Clinical Research, Vårdcentralen Värmlands Nysäter, County Council of Värmland, Värmland, 7Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 8Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Objective: Earlier research suggests that birth weight may be associated with celiac disease (CD, but the direction of association has been unclear potentially due to confounding effect from genetic and intrafamilial factors. Through within-twin analyses, we aimed to minimize confounding effects such as twins that share genetic and early environmental exposures.Materials and methods: Using the Swedish Twin Registry, we examined the birth weight of 146,830 twins according to the CD status. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to a small intestinal biopsy reports.Results: The prevalence of diagnosed CD was 0.5% (n=669, and we included 407 discordant pairs of CD–non-CD twins. Comparing the 669 CD patients with non-CD twins, the association between birth weight and future CD was not statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] per 1000 g increase in birth weight: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.97–1.38. In males, the association was positive and statistically significant (OR=1.50; 95% CI

  1. Outcome after resuscitation beyond 30 minutes in drowned children with cardiac arrest and hypothermia : Dutch nationwide retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieboom, J. K.; Verkade, H. J.; Burgerhof, J. G.; Bierens, J. J.; van Rheenen, P. F.; Kneyber, M. C.; Albers, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the outcome of drowned children with cardiac arrest and hypothermia, and to determine distinct criteria for termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in drowned children with hypothermia and absence of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN Nationwide retrospective cohort study.

  2. [Nationwide evaluation of German university teaching methods in neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, A-S; Zupanic, M; Isenmann, S

    2015-06-01

    Germany is confronted with a lack of medical doctors and an increasing need for neurologists in particular. In order to recruit future doctors in neurology it is essential to attract young students when still at university. This article presents the first German national survey of medical students' acceptance of teaching methods in neurology. The participants evaluated teaching methods and examination formats and were asked about their preferences. The survey was based on a questionnaire distributed to 22 German medical schools and 1245 participating students. Interactive teaching methods, especially courses in practical examinations, clinical internships and bedside teaching were highly rated among the students. In contrast, multiple choice tests, as one of the most widespread examination methods, were poorly rated compared to practical and oral examinations. For most of the students it was not decisive, in which semester teaching of neurology took place, while the majority asked for additional and more intensive neurological education. The data give an overview of teaching of neurology in Germany and students' assessment of various approaches. The results should be utilized towards reorientation of future curricula that should aim at innovative and even more practically oriented teaching.

  3. Nationwide trends in glucose-lowering drug use, Denmark, 1999-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Diana Hedevang; Rungby, Jørgen; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2016-01-01

    drugs and reported the total number of users and the prevalence of users per 1,000 inhabitants in 1-year intervals for all glucose-lowering drug classes. RESULTS: The annual prevalence of glucose-lowering drug users increased more than twofold from 19 per 1,000 inhabitants in 1999 (n=98,362) to 41 per 1...... changed substantially reflecting the recommendations of metformin as first-line treatment. The newer glucose-lowering drug classes have been well received.......PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine nationwide population-based time trends in the utilization of all glucose-lowering drugs in Denmark from 1999 to 2014. METHODS: Based on nationwide data from the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics, we retrieved sales statistics on glucose-lowering...

  4. Robotic versus open pediatric ureteral reimplantation: Costs and complications from a nationwide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael P; Leow, Jeffrey J; Varda, Briony K; Logvinenko, Tanya; Yu, Richard N; Nelson, Caleb P; Chung, Benjamin I; Chang, Steven L

    2016-12-01

    We sought to compare complications and direct costs for open ureteral reimplantation (OUR) versus robot-assisted laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation (RALUR) in a sample of hospitals performing both procedures. Anecdotal reports suggest that use of RALUR is increasing, but little is known of the outcomes and costs nationwide. The aim was to determine the costs and 90-day complications (of any Clavien grade) in a nationwide cohort of pediatric patients undergoing OUR or RALUR. Using the Premier Hospital Database we identified pediatric patients (age robotic experience, and that outcomes for these procedures should be carefully and systematically tracked. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heritability of Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia Spectrum Based on the Nationwide Danish Twin Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilker, Rikke; Helenius, Dorte; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    sample. The estimated 79% heritability of SZ is congruent with previous reports and indicates a substantial genetic risk. The high genetic risk also applies to a broader phenotype of SZ spectrum disorders. The low concordance rate of 33% in monozygotic twins demonstrates that illness vulnerability......BACKGROUND: Twin studies have provided evidence that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to schizophrenia (SZ) risk. Heritability estimates of SZ in twin samples have varied methodologically. This study provides updated heritability estimates based on nationwide twin data...... the heritability of SZ to be 79%. When expanding illness outcome to include SZ spectrum disorders, the heritability estimate was almost similar (73%). CONCLUSIONS: The key strength of this study is the application of a novel statistical method accounting for censoring in the follow-up period to a nationwide twin...

  6. Embedding mental health support in schools: Learning from the Targeted Mental Health in Schools (TaMHS) national evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Wolpert, M; Humphrey, N; Belsky, J; Deighton, J

    2013-01-01

    The Targeted Mental Health in Schools (TaMHS) programme was a nationwide initiative that funded mental health provision in schools for pupils at risk of or already experiencing mental health problems. The implementation, impact and experience of this programme was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative methodology involving three main studies: (1) a 1-year RCT involving 8658 8-10 year olds and 6583 11-13 year olds, (2) a 3-year longitudinal study involving 3346 8-10 year olds and 2647 1...

  7. Informing the teachers on nuclear energy issues. A nationwide information service in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1994-01-01

    The IK (Nuclear Information Group), founded in 1975, was given the task to broaden the knowledge of and to strengthen the public acceptance on nuclear energy, with the basic principles of nationwide activity and limitation to selected target groups. Documentary books, periodical publications and audio-visual media for teachers and pupils are developed to argue clearly and frankly and to win the interest for the topics. 1 fig

  8. Cardiovascular disease in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta — a nationwide, register-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Gram, Jeppe; Langdahl, Bente L.; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Diederichsen, Axel CP; Abrahamsen, Bo; Brixen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary connective tissue disease often due to mutations in genes coding for type 1 collagen. Collagen type 1 is important in the development of the heart and vasculature. Little is known about the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in OI.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of symptomatic CVD in OI.DESIGN: A Danish nationwide, population-based and register-based longitudinal open cohort study.PARTICIPANTS: All patients registered with the diag...

  9. Building Nation-Wide Information Infrastructures in Healthcare through Modular Implementation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanestad, Margunn; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2011-01-01

    initiatives, where a national project failed to deliver interoperable Electronic Patient Record (EPR) systems while a small, local solution grew and now offers a nation-wide solution for sharing patient record information. We apply II theory, specifically the five design principles proposed by Hanseth...... of the installed base, which current II theory advocates. Here we articulate and exemplify a modular implementation strategy as an approach that also addresses the challenges related to mobilization and organization of multiple stakeholders....

  10. Finding sensory profilers amongst red wine composition: a novel nationwide approach

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, A. J.; Ávila, P.; Silva, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the signaling/profiling potential of wine compounds and the physicochemical and bioclimatic winerelated measurements on a nationwide sensory scale of red wine typicality. Color tonality evolved from violet-purple in cooler northern regions to ruby-garnet in hotter southern regions. Acidity and astringency were enhanced from south to north. Conversely, alcohol and viscosity progressed southward. Bitterness was primarily affected by inland-coastal influe...

  11. Consequences of persistent pain after lung cancer surgery: a nationwide questionnaire study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, K; Ravn, J; Nikolajsen, L

    2011-01-01

    post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) and its social consequences have been inconsistently investigated as most studies were either small sized, focused on a limited number of risk factors or included heterogeneous surgical procedures. The current objectives were to obtain detailed information on...... on the consequences of PTPS after thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) from homogenous unselected nationwide data, and to suggest mechanisms for the development of PTPS....

  12. Familial aggregation of gout and relative genetic and environmental contributions: a nationwide population study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J.; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Valdes, Ana M.; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine familial aggregation of gout and to estimate the heritability and environmental contributions to gout susceptibility in the general population. \\ud \\ud METHODS: Using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database in Taiwan, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of data collected from 22 643 748 beneficiaries of the NHI in 2004; among them 1 045 059 individuals had physician-diagnosed gout. We estimated relative risks (RR) of gout in individual...

  13. Marijuana use and inpatient outcomes among hospitalized patients: analysis of the nationwide inpatient sample database

    OpenAIRE

    Vin?Raviv, Neomi; Akinyemiju, Tomi; Meng, Qingrui; Sakhuja, Swati; Hayward, Reid

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between marijuana use and health outcomes among hospitalized patients, including those hospitalized with a diagnosis of cancer. A total of 387,608 current marijuana users were identified based on ICD?9 codes for marijuana use among hospitalized patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database between 2007 and 2011. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between marijuana use and heart failur...

  14. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates: A Nationwide Registry Based Study from 1901 to 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Priskorn, L?rke; Jensen, Tina Kold; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

    2015-01-01

    Objective Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. Design A descriptive nationwide Danish study using birth registries from 1901?2014. Setting Information on women?s age at childbirth was obtained by using records from primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. Participants Mothers to 8,024,9...

  15. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.  Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  16. Nationwide Macroeconomic Variables and the Growth Rate of Bariatric Surgeries in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzo, Everton; Ramos, Almino Cardoso; Pareja, José Carlos; Chaim, Elinton Adami

    2018-06-06

    The effect of nationwide economic issues on the necessary expansion in the number of bariatric procedures remains unclear. This study aims to determine whether there are correlations between the growth rate in the number of bariatric surgeries and the major macroeconomic variables over time in Brazil. It is a nationwide analysis regarding the number of bariatric surgeries in Brazil and the main national macroeconomic variables from 2003 through 2016: gross domestic product (GDP), inflation rate, and the unemployment rate, as well as the evolution in the number of registered bariatric surgeons. There were significant positive correlations of the growth rate of surgeries with the early variations of the GDP (R = 0.5558; p = 0.04863) and of the overall health expenditure per capita (R = 0.78322; p = 0.00259). The growth rate of the number of bariatric surgeries was not correlated with the unemployment and inflation rates, as well as with the growth rate of available bariatric surgeons. There were direct relationships between the growth rate of bariatric surgeries and the evolutions of the GDP and health care expenditure per capita. These variables appear to influence the nationwide offer of bariatric surgery.

  17. Risk factors for pneumonia among patients with Parkinson's disease: a Taiwan nationwide population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang YP

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yang-Pei Chang,1 Chih-Jen Yang,2 Kai-Fang Hu,3 A-Ching Chao,4 Yu-Han Chang,5 Kun-Pin Hsieh,6 Jui-Hsiu Tsai,7 Pei-Shan Ho,8,9 Shen-Yang Lim101Department of Neurology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, 4Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, 5Department of Management, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, 6School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, 7Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, 8Faculty of Dental Hygiene, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 9Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 10Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala lumpur, MalaysiaObjective: Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, few studies have been performed to explore the risk factors for pneumonia development in patients with PD.Methods: We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with PD to identify the risk factors for these patients developing pneumonia. Participants with newly diagnosed PD between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled from the 2000–2010 National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We compared patients with PD with an incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia vs those without, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of pneumonia.Results: Of the 2,001 enrolled patients (mean follow-up duration 5.8 years, range: 2.7–14.7 years, 381 (19.0% had an incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia during the study period. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified older age group (≥80 years of age, hazard ratio [HR] =3.15 [95% confidence interval 2.32–4.28], male sex (HR =1.59 [1.29–1.96], certain geographic regions (northern, HR =1.36 [1.04–1.78], southern and eastern, HR =1.40 [1.05–1.88], rural areas (HR =1.34 [1.05–1.72], chronic heart

  18. What Do Primary and Secondary School Teachers Know About ADHD in Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr-Jensen, Christina; Steen-Jensen, T.; Bang-Schnack, Maria

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify what primary and secondary school teachers know about ADHD in children and, furthermore, to identify which factors predict their knowledge. METHOD: A 29-item questionnaire about ADHD was distributed to a random, nationwide, and representative sample of Danish primary...... and secondary school teachers. Data were analyzed descriptively and by hierarchical regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 528 teachers were included. Most teachers identified the symptoms of ADHD (79%-96%) and effective classroom intervention strategies (75%-98%). However, knowledge about other...... knowledge about ADHD to successfully include and manage children with ADHD and, additionally, to ensure positive working environments for teachers and support constructive school-home working collaborations....

  19. Certified Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Certified schools must provide specific information regarding the school, the nature and requirements of the educational program, location and contact information,...

  20. School District Wellness Policies: Evaluating Progress and Potential for Improving Children's Health Five Years after the Federal Mandate. Brief Report. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; Resnick, Elissa; Schneider, Linda; Schermbeck, Rebecca; Adcock, Tessa; Carrion, Violeta; Chaloupka, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This brief report updates data published in August 2010 from the most comprehensive, ongoing nationwide analysis of written wellness policies. It includes data from the 2006-07 through the 2010-11 school years, which were the first five years following the required implementation date for wellness policies. The major findings and trends presented…

  1. How Is Gender Integrated in the Curricula of Dutch Medical Schools? A Quick-Scan on Gender Issues as an Instrument for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Mans, Linda J. L.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2006-01-01

    Medical education has not taken on board the growing awareness of sex and gender differences. A nation-wide project to incorporate sex and gender in medical education aims to establish longitudinal gender and sex specific curricula in all Dutch medical schools that move beyond sex and gender differences in reproduction. A baseline assessment was…

  2. Frequency and risk factors of COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations: a nationwide study in Greece (Greek Obstructive Lung Disease Epidemiology and health ecoNomics: GOLDEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulos EC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evangelos C Alexopoulos,1 Foteini Malli,2 Eirini Mitsiki,3 Eleni G Bania,2 Christos Varounis,3 Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis1 1School of Social Sciences, Hellenic Open University, Patras, 2Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, 3Medical Department, Novartis Hellas, Athens, Greece Background: COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations have been associated with poor prognosis for the COPD patient.Objective: To evaluate the frequency and risk factors of COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and admissions to intensive care units (ICUs in Greece by a nationwide cross-sectional study.Materials and methods: A nationwide observational, multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in the clinical practice setting of respiratory medicine physicians over a 6 month-period (October 2010 to March 2011. A total of 6,125 COPD patients were recruited by 199 respiratory physicians.Results: Participants had a median age of 68.0 years, 71.3% were males, and 71.8% suffered from comorbidities. The median disease duration was 10.0 years. Of the patients, 45.3% were classified as having GOLD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III or IV COPD. Patients with four or more comorbidities had 78.5% and threefold-higher than expected number of exacerbations and hospitalizations, respectively, as well as fivefold-higher risk of admission to the ICU compared to those with no comorbidities. Obese patients had 6.2% fewer expected exacerbations compared to those with a normal body mass index. Patients with GOLD stage IV had 74.5% and fivefold-higher expected number of exacerbations and hospitalizations, respectively, and nearly threefold-higher risk of admission to the ICU compared to stage I patients. An additional risk factor for exacerbations and hospitalizations was low compliance with treatment: 45% of patients reported forgetting to take their medication, and 81% reported a

  3. Connecting primary care clinics and community pharmacies through a nationwide electronic prescribing network: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Gagnon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of medication is at the heart of primary care, but is also the cause for major health concerns. It is therefore important to examine the prescription of medication process.Objective This study identifies the barriers and facilitators perceived by community pharmacists and primary care physicians concerning the adoption of a nationwide electronic prescribing (e-prescribing network in the province of Quebec, Canada.Methods We used purposive sampling to identify the most intensive users of the e-prescribing network. We conducted phone and in-person interviews. Interviews were transcribed, and we analysed their content with NVivo, using the clinical adoption framework (CAF for the codification of the data.Results We interviewed 33 pharmacists, 2 pharmacy technicians, 11 physicians and 3 clinic managers. Adoption of the e-prescribing network was fairly low. The respondents underlined adaptation of their work environment, openness to change and perception of benefits as facilitators to the adoption of the network. However, important barriers were perceived, including system quality issues and paper prescriptions being the only legal document in the prescribing process. Even if respondents recognised that the e-prescribing network can offer substantial benefits to the prescribing process, issues still persisted and raised barriers to the full use of such a network, especially in a context where different local information systems are connected within a nationwide e-prescribing network.Conclusion This study, based on the CAF, provides a better understanding of the factors related to the adoption of a nationwide e-prescribing network connecting primary care clinics and community pharmacies. 

  4. Current Cytology Practices in Korea: A Nationwide Survey by the Korean Society for Cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ji Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Limited data are available on the current status of cytology practices in Korea. This nationwide study presents Korean cytology statistics from 2015. Methods A nationwide survey was conducted in 2016 as a part of the mandatory quality-control program by the Korean Society for Cytopathology. The questionnaire was sent to 208 medical institutions performing cytopathologic examinations in Korea. Individual institutions were asked to submit their annual cytology statistical reports and gynecologic cytology-histology correlation data for 2015. Results Responses were obtained from 206 medical institutions including 83 university hospitals, 87 general hospitals, and 36 commercial laboratories. A total of 8,284,952 cytologic examinations were performed in 2015, primarily in commercial laboratories (74.9%. The most common cytology specimens were gynecologic samples (81.3%. Conventional smears and liquid-based cytology were performed in 6,190,526 (74.7% and 2,094,426 (25.3% cases, respectively. The overall diagnostic concordance rate between cytologic and histologic diagnoses of uterine cervical samples was 70.5%. Discordant cases were classified into three categories: category A (minimal clinical impact, 17.4%, category B (moderate clinical impact, 10.2%, and category C (major clinical impact, 1.9%. The ratio of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to squamous intraepithelial lesion was 1.6 in university hospitals, 2.9 in general hospitals, and 4.9 in commercial laboratories. Conclusions This survey reveals the current status and trend of cytology practices in Korea. The results of this study can serve as basic data for the establishment of nationwide cytopathology policies and quality improvement guidelines in Korean medical institutions.

  5. A multicenter nationwide reference intervals study for common biochemical analytes in Turkey using Abbott analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarda, Yesim; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Aslan, Diler; Aybek, Hulya; Ari, Zeki; Taneli, Fatma; Coker, Canan; Akan, Pinar; Sisman, Ali Riza; Bahceci, Onur; Sezgin, Nurzen; Demir, Meltem; Yucel, Gultekin; Akbas, Halide; Ozdem, Sebahat; Polat, Gurbuz; Erbagci, Ayse Binnur; Orkmez, Mustafa; Mete, Nuriye; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Kiyici, Aysel; Vatansev, Husamettin; Ozturk, Bahadir; Yucel, Dogan; Kayaalp, Damla; Dogan, Kubra; Pinar, Asli; Gurbilek, Mehmet; Cetinkaya, Cigdem Damla; Akin, Okhan; Serdar, Muhittin; Kurt, Ismail; Erdinc, Selda; Kadicesme, Ozgur; Ilhan, Necip; Atali, Dilek Sadak; Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Noyan, Tevfik; Can, Murat; Bedir, Abdulkerim; Okuyucu, Ali; Deger, Orhan; Agac, Suret; Ademoglu, Evin; Kaya, Ayşem; Nogay, Turkan; Eren, Nezaket; Dirican, Melahat; Tuncer, GulOzlem; Aykus, Mehmet; Gunes, Yeliz; Ozmen, Sevda Unalli; Kawano, Reo; Tezcan, Sehavet; Demirpence, Ozlem; Degirmen, Elif

    2014-12-01

    A nationwide multicenter study was organized to establish reference intervals (RIs) in the Turkish population for 25 commonly tested biochemical analytes and to explore sources of variation in reference values, including regionality. Blood samples were collected nationwide in 28 laboratories from the seven regions (≥400 samples/region, 3066 in all). The sera were collectively analyzed in Uludag University in Bursa using Abbott reagents and analyzer. Reference materials were used for standardization of test results. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, RIs were derived by a parametric method employing the modified Box-Cox formula and compared with the RIs by the non-parametric method. Three-level nested ANOVA was used to evaluate variations among sexes, ages and regions. Associations between test results and age, body mass index (BMI) and region were determined by multiple regression analysis (MRA). By ANOVA, differences of reference values among seven regions were significant in none of the 25 analytes. Significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed for 10 and seven analytes, respectively. MRA revealed BMI-related changes in results for uric acid, glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltransferase. Their RIs were thus derived by applying stricter criteria excluding individuals with BMI >28 kg/m2. Ranges of RIs by non-parametric method were wider than those by parametric method especially for those analytes affected by BMI. With the lack of regional differences and the well-standardized status of test results, the RIs derived from this nationwide study can be used for the entire Turkish population.

  6. Results of a nationwide biogas measurement programme; Ergebnisse des bundesweiten Biogasmessprogramms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, P. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany); Rieger, C.; Ehrmann, T.; Helffrich, D.; Kissel, R.; Melcher, F.

    2005-07-01

    Sixty biogas plants selected for representativeness were assessed on the basis of uniform technical and scientific criteria in a nationwide survey aimed at obtaining a current picture of the performance, functioning and economic efficiency of modern biogas plants. Every plant was monitored over a period of at least 12 months for all relevant process and operating data as well as for quantities, types and composition of material streams and the plant's overall energy efficiency in order to arrive at a comparative assessment. The survey also included a search for functional or technical weak points and a calculation of the specific costs of gas production.

  7. Use and benefits of public access defibrillation in a nation-wide network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are known to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this study was to examine the use and benefit of public-access defibrillation (PAD) in a nation-wide network. We primarily sought to assess survival at 1 month...... to exercise (42% vs. 0%), and with improved 30-day survival (69% vs. 15%, p=0.001). Among those presenting with a shockable rhythm, 20 (65%) had Return of Spontaneous Circulation upon arrival of EMS and 8 (26%) were conscious, which emphasizes the diagnostic value of ECG downloads from AEDs. Survival could...

  8. Antiarrhythmic therapy and risk of death in patients with atrial fibrillation: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Skøtt; Hansen, Morten Lock; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the risk of death associated with antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy in a nationwide unselected cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients admitted with AF in Denmark from 1995 to 2004 and their subsequent use of AADs were identified...... with flecainide, 3745 (2.6%) propafenone, 23,346 (16.5%) sotalol, and 10,376 (7.3%) amiodarone. Annualized mortality rates were 2.54, 4.25, 5.29, and 7.42 per year per 100 person years for flecainide, propafenone, sotalol, and amiodarone, respectively. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models did not show...

  9. A nationwide study on readmission, morbidity, and mortality after umbilical and epigastric hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, T; Kehlet, H; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2011-01-01

    stay, risk of readmission, complications, and mortality  1 day. Readmissions occurred in 5.3% of cases (open 4.9%; laparoscopic 10.5%). In the majority of patients readmissions were due to wound-related problems (haematoma, bleeding and/or infection) (46%), seroma (19%), or pain (7%). At 30 days......, complications and mortality occurred in 4.1% (open 3.7%; laparoscopic 8.2%) and 0.1% (open 0.1%; laparoscopic 0.4%), respectively. CONCLUSION: This first prospective nationwide study on elective umbilical and epigastric hernia repair found low morbidity and mortality but a high readmission rate mostly because...

  10. The Decline of the Autopsy in Rhode Island and Nationwide: Past Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Alex; Anthony, Douglas

    2016-10-04

    The autopsy has long been a fundamental aspect of medical practice and research. However, in the last 50 years, the proportion of deaths for which an autopsy is performed has decreased dramatically. Here we examine some of the reasons for the decline of the autopsy, as well as several interventions that have been proposed to revive it. We also present autopsy utilization data from the Lifespan system, which mirrors nationwide trends. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-10.asp].

  11. Occupational Tuberculosis in Denmark through 21 Years Analysed by Nationwide Genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mathias Klok; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Andersen, Peter Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a well-known occupational hazard. Based on more than two decades (1992-2012) of centralized nationwide genotyping of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive TB patients in Denmark, we compared M. tuberculosis genotypes from all cases notified as presumed occupational (N...... = 130) with M. tuberculosis genotypes from all TB cases present in the country (N = 7,127). From 1992 through 2006, the IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) method was used for genotyping, whereas from 2005 to present, the 24-locus-based Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit...

  12. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Enrolments 2016-2017 Enrolments for the school year 2016-2017 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on 7, 8 and 9 March 2016 from 8 to 10 am at the Nursery School. Registration forms will be available from Thursday 3rd March. More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/.

  13. The Association between Use of Mobile Phones after Lights Out and Sleep Disturbances among Japanese Adolescents: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munezawa, Takeshi; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Minowa, Masumi; Suzuki, Kenji; Higuchi, Susumu; Mori, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Ryuichiro; Ohida, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the use of mobile phones after lights out and sleep disturbances among Japanese adolescents. Design and Setting: This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. The targets were students attending junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Sample schools were selected by cluster sampling. Self-reported anonymous questionnaires were sent to schools for all students to fill out. Participants: A total of 95,680 adolescents responded. The overall response rate was 62.9%, and 94,777 questionnaires were subjected to analysis. Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: Daily mobile phone use, even if only for a brief moment every day, was reported by 84.4%. Moreover, as for use of mobile phones after lights out, 8.3% reported using their mobile phone for calling every day and 17.6% reported using it for sending text messages every day. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that mobile phone use for calling and for sending text messages after lights out was associated with sleep disturbances (short sleep duration, subjective poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia symptoms) independent of covariates and independent of each other. Conclusion: This study showed that the use of mobile phones for calling and for sending text messages after lights out is associated with sleep disturbances among Japanese adolescents. However, there were some limitations, such as small effect sizes, in this study. More studies that examine the details of this association are necessary to establish strategies for sleep hygiene in the future. Citation: Munezawa T; Kaneita Y; Osaki Y; Kanda H; Minowa M; Suzuki K; Higuchi S; Mori J; Yamamoto R; Ohida T. The association between use of mobile phones after lights out and sleep disturbances among Japanese adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey. SLEEP 2011;34(8):1013-1020. PMID:21804663

  14. Snacks, beverages, vending machines, and school stores: a comparison of alternative and regular schools in Minnesota, 2002 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Davey, Cynthia; MacLehose, Richard F; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2015-01-01

    In US secondary schools, vending machines and school stores are a common source of low-nutrient, energy-dense snacks and beverages, including sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat salty snacks, and candy. However, little is known about the prevalence of these food practices in alternative schools, which are educational settings for students at risk of academic failure due to truancy, school expulsion, and behavior problems. Nationwide, more than 5,000 alternative schools enroll about one-half million students who are disproportionately minority and low-income youth. Principal survey data from a cross-sectional sample of alternative (n=104) and regular (n=339) schools collected biennially from 2002-2008 as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Minnesota School Health Profiles were used to assess and compare food practice prevalence over time. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate prevalence, adjusting for school demographics. Over time, food practice prevalence decreased significantly for both alternative and regular schools, although declines were mostly modest. However, the decrease in high-fat, salty snacks was significantly less for alternative than regular schools (-22.9% vs -42.2%; Pvending machines and school stores in alternative schools than regular schools, which may contribute to increased snacking behavior among students and extra consumption of salt, fat, and sugar. Study findings support the need to include alternative schools in future efforts that aim to reform the school food environment. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly.

  16. School Facilities and Sustainability-Related Concepts: A Study of Hellenic Secondary School Principals’, Teachers’, Pupils’ and Parents’ Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Zepatou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective building environment sustainability frameworks and practices need to take users’ opinions into account. For this purpose, a survey questionnaire was developed and the “Panhellenic survey of school spaces, materials and environmental-comfort conditions in secondary schools and perceptions, stances and attitudes of pupils, teachers, principals and parents towards sustainable construction and the selection and use of materials in schools that are friendly to the environment and human health” was conducted nationwide with a random stratified sample of 170 Hellenic public secondary schools. Selected findings are presented and discussed here. These show that existing school facilities are primarily rated as good and that selection and use of materials friendly to the environment and human health are extremely important. User groups believe that they should participate in planning/selecting sustainable solutions for schools. An Index of 10 School Environment Desired Outcomes associated with environmentally friendly and health-friendly materials selection and use was devised. Relevant factors were extracted and interpreted. The research establishes users’ subjective opinions that may be considered and integrated into procedures for improving school buildings, assessing and selecting environmentally friendly materials and implementing strategies for sustainable school design, building and operation.

  17. Nationwide Database of Surgical Treatment Pattern for Patients With Stress Urinary Incontinence in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yong Cho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeNationwide database regarding stress urinary incontinence (SUI is important for evaluating treatment patterns for SUI and for establishing appropriate national policies regarding SUI management. The purpose of this present study was to investigate surgical treatment patterns for women with SUI and analyze the current status of SUI management in Korea by using a nationwide database.MethodsData used for investigating the surgical trends and changes in Korea were retrieved from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service from 2008 to 2011.ResultsThe number of surgical cases of SUI decreased continuously from 2008 to 2011. The proportion of transvaginal surgery using a midurethral sling increased continuously. Sling procedures were most commonly performed for women in their 40s followed by women in their 50s. Transvaginal surgery using a single sling or a readjustable sling was performed from 5.6% to 6.1%, which showed no significant change in the number of surgical cases.ConclusionsThere is a growing need for an appropriate national welfare policy and budget to care for aged and super-aged women in Korea. The early detection and intervention of silent SUI should be actively considered as an important preventive strategy to improve the quality of life in younger women.

  18. Clinical aspects of a nationwide epidemic of severe haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudmundsdottir Helga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Report a nationwide epidemic of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC O103:H25 causing hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS in children. Methods Description of clinical presentation, complications and outcome in a nationwide outbreak. Results Ten children (median age 4.3 years developed HUS during the outbreak. One of these was presumed to be a part of the outbreak without microbiological proof. Eight of the patients were oligoanuric and in need of dialysis. Median need for dialysis was 15 days; one girl did not regain renal function and received a kidney transplant. Four patients had seizures and/or reduced consciousness. Cerebral oedema and herniation caused the death of a 4-year-old boy. Two patients developed necrosis of colon with perforation and one of them developed non-autoimmune diabetes. Conclusion This outbreak of STEC was characterized by a high incidence of HUS among the infected children, and many developed severe renal disease and extrarenal complications. A likely explanation is that the O103:H25 (eae and stx2-positive strain was highly pathogen, and we suggest that this serotype should be looked for in patients with HUS caused by STEC, especially in severe forms or outbreaks.

  19. Toward a Nationwide Mobile-Based Public Healthcare Service System with Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-wen Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a nationwide public healthcare service system with the integration of cloud technology, wireless sensor networks, and mobile technology to provide citizens with convenient and professional healthcare services. The basic framework of the system includes the architectures for the user end of wireless physiological examinations, for the regional healthcare cloud, and for national public healthcare service system. Citizens with chronic conditions or elderly people who are living alone can use the wireless physiological sensing devices to keep track of their health conditions and get warning if the system detects abnormal signals. Through mobile devices, citizens are able to get real-time health advice, prompt warning, health information, feedback, personalized support, and intervention ubiquitously. With the long-term tracking data for physiological sensing, reliable prediction models for epidemic diseases and chronic diseases can be developed for the government to respond to and control diseases immediately. Besides, such a nationwide approach enables government to have a holistic understanding of the public health information in real time, which is helpful to establish effective policies or strategies to prevent epidemic diseases or chronic diseases.

  20. Decrease in seroprevalence of Hepatitis A after the implementation of nationwide disposable tableware use in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Wei-Chih

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan is an endemic area of viral hepatitis, including hepatitis A, which is transmitted mainly from the fecal-oral route. In order to reduce the transmission through food intake, the government implemented a policy of nationwide disposal tableware use in public eating places in 1982. We conducted a study to estimate the seroprevalence of Hepatitis A in a group of workers in Taiwan in 2005, determine the risk factors, and compare seroprevalence to published estimates in Taiwan to evaluate changes in the seroprevalence after the implementation of the nationwide disposal tableware use. Methods We recruited workers of an industrial park during their annual health examinations in 2005 and measured their anti-hepatitis A virus IgG titer using microparticle enzyme immunoassay. We compared the seroprevalence across different birth cohorts within the study population and also analyzed data from previous studies. Results The overall sero-positive rate was 22.0% in the 11,777 participants. The rate was much lower among those who were covered by the program since birth (born after 1982 in comparison with those who were not (2.7% vs. 25.3%, p Conclusions Data from both the current and previous studies in different time periods supported the effectiveness of disposal tableware in preventing the transmission of hepatitis A.

  1. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P 99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  2. Exposure to Mebendazole and Pyrvinium during Pregnancy: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Torp-Pedersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Families with children are frequently exposed to pinworm infection and treatment involves the whole family. Information on consequences of exposure during, pregnancy is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure to pyrvinium and mebendazole before, during, and after pregnancy in a Danish nationwide cohort. Methods. From nationwide administrative registers, we identified 718, 900 births in Denmark between January 1997 and December 2007 as well as maternal prescription data of anthelmintics and maternal characteristics. Redemption of a prescription for pyrvinium or mebendazole was used to identify exposure. Results. 4715 women redeemed a prescription for pyrvinium or mebendazole during pregnancy; 1606 for pyrvinium, 2575 for mebendazole, and 534 for both drugs. Having >2 children compared to having no previous children was associated with exposure to pyrvinium (OR: 7.1, 95% CI: 5.8–8.7 and mebendazole (OR: 20.8, 95% CI: 17.3–24.9. Conclusion. 4715 pregnant women redeemed a prescription for either mebendazole or pyrvinium. We believe the exposure to be even higher since pyrvinium is also sold over-the-counter. Limited information on birth outcomes is available at present time, and considering the number of exposed pregnancies, we recommend that studies are to be undertaken to assess the safety of pyrvinium and mebendazole during pregnancy.

  3. A nationwide survey of radon concentration in Japan. Indoor, outdoor and workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Tetsuya; Oikawa, Shinji; Kanno, Nobuyuki; Abukawa, Johji; Higuchi, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace radon concentrations were surveyed in Japan. These surveys were conducted to estimate the natural radiation dose due to radon and its progeny for the general public. The radon concentration was measured using passive type radon monitor. The number of radon monitors were installed at indoor, outdoor and workplace for 940 houses, 705 points and 705 sites, respectively. The radon concentration was measured for one year at each measurement site. Annual mean radon concentration was obtained from four quarters measurements of 47 prefectures in Japan. The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace annual mean radon concentration were 15.5 Bq m -3 , 6.1 Bq m -3 and 20.8 Bq m -3 , respectively. Their radon concentration shows approximately a logarithmic normal distribution. Workplace showed relatively high radon concentration compared with other environments, may be due to construction materials and low ventilation rate. The indoor radon concentration found to be seasonal variation and architectural dependences. Seasonal variation and regional distribution of outdoor radon concentration was also observed. From the results of these radon surveys, the annual effective dose to the general public due to radon and its progeny was estimated to be 0.49 mSv y -1 in Japan. (author)

  4. Risk of psoriasis in patients with childhood asthma: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeberg, A; Khalid, U; Gislason, G H; Mallbris, L; Skov, L; Hansen, P R

    2015-07-01

    Psoriasis and asthma are disorders driven by inflammation. Psoriasis may carry an increased risk of asthma, but the reverse relationship has not been investigated. To investigate the risk of psoriasis in subjects with childhood asthma in a nationwide Danish cohort. Data on all Danish individuals aged 6-14 years at study entry between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2011 (n = 1,478,110) were linked at an individual level in nationwide registers. Incidence rates per 10,000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, concomitant medication and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression models. There were 21,725 cases of childhood asthma and 6586 incident cases of psoriasis. There were 5697 and 889 incident cases of mild and severe psoriasis, respectively. The incidence rates of overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 4.49, 3.88 and 0.61 for the reference population, and 5.95, 5.18 and 0.83 for subjects with childhood asthma, respectively. The IRRs for overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 3.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.16-7.17], 5.03 (95% CI 2.48-10.21) and 2.27 (95% CI 0.61-8.42) for patients with childhood asthma. Childhood asthma was associated with a significantly increased risk of psoriasis. Further studies are warranted to determine the clinical significance and effects of therapeutic interventions on this association. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Nationwide analysis of adrenocortical carcinoma reveals higher perioperative morbidity in functional tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Punam P; Rubio, Gustavo A; Farra, Josefina C; Lew, John I

    2017-08-25

    Current adrenalectomy outcomes for functional adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) remain unclear. This study examines nationwide in-hospital post-adrenalectomy outcomes for ACC. A retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2006-2011) to identify unilateral adrenalectomy patients for functional or nonfunctional ACC was performed. Patient demographics, comorbidities and postoperative outcomes were evaluated by t-test, Chi-square and multivariate regression. Of 2199 patients who underwent adrenalectomy, 87% had nonfunctional and 13% had functional ACC (86% hypercortisolism, 16% hyperaldosteronism, 4% hyperandrogenism). Functional ACC patients had significantly more comorbidities, and experienced certain postoperative complications more frequently including wound issues, adrenocortical insufficiency and acute kidney injury with longer hospital stay compared to nonfunctional ACC (P analysis, functional ACC was an independent prognosticator for wound complications (28.1, 95%CI 4.59-176.6). Patients with functional ACC manifest significant comorbidities with certain in-hospital complications. Such high-risk patients require appropriate preoperative medical optimization prior to adrenalectomy. Patients with functional adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) have significant preoperative comorbidities and experience higher rates of certain postoperative complications including wound complications, hematoma formation, adrenal insufficiency, pulmonary embolism and acute kidney injury. Functional ACC patients also necessitate longer hospitalizations. These patients should undergo appropriate preoperative counseling in preparation for adrenalectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A nationwide web-based automated system for early outbreak detection and rapid response in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilan Liao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Timely reporting, effective analyses and rapid distribution of surveillance data can assist in detecting the aberration of disease occurrence and further facilitate a timely response. In China, a new nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak detection and rapid response was developed in 2008. The China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS was developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention based on the surveillance data from the existing electronic National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System (NIDRIS started in 2004. NIDRIS greatly improved the timeliness and completeness of data reporting with real time reporting information via the Internet. CIDARS further facilitates the data analysis, aberration detection, signal dissemination, signal response and information communication needed by public health departments across the country. In CIDARS, three aberration detection methods are used to detect the unusual occurrence of 28 notifiable infectious diseases at the county level and to transmit that information either in real-time or on a daily basis. The Internet, computers and mobile phones are used to accomplish rapid signal generation and dissemination, timely reporting and reviewing of the signal response results. CIDARS has been used nationwide since 2008; all Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC in China at the county, prefecture, provincial and national levels are involved in the system. It assists with early outbreak detection at the local level and prompts reporting of unusual disease occurrences or potential outbreaks to CDCs throughout the country.

  7. Nationwide occurrence of radon and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, T. R.

    1985-10-01

    The nationwide study, which began in November of 1980, was designed to systematically sample water supplies in all 48 contiguous states. The results of the study will be used, in cooperation with EPA's Office of Drinking Water, to estimate population exposures nationwide and to support possible future standards for radon, uranium, and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies. Samples from more than 2500 public water supplies representing 35 states were collected. Although we sampled only about five percent of the total number of groundwater supplies in the 48 contiguous states of the US, those samples represent nearly 45 percent of the water consumed by US groundwater users in the 48 contiguous states. Sample results are summarized by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and population weighted arithmetic mean for each state and the entire US. Results include radon, gross alpha, gross beta, Ra-226, Ra-228, total Ra, U-234, U-238, total U, and U-234/U-238 ratios. Individual public water supply results are found in the appendices. 24 refs., 91 figs., 51 tabs.

  8. Psoriasis carries an increased risk of venous thromboembolism: a danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    . In an unselected nationwide cohort, we used multivariate Poisson regression models controlling for age, gender, comorbidity, concomitant medication, socio-economic data, and calendar year, to assess the risk of VTE associated with psoriasis. A total of 35,138 patients with mild and 3,526 patients with severe...... psoriasis were identified and compared with 4,126,075 controls. Patients with psoriasis had higher incidence rates per 1000 person-years of VTE than controls (1.29, 1.92, and 3.20 for controls, mild psoriasis, and severe psoriasis, respectively). The rate ratio (RR) of VTE was elevated in all patients...... with psoriasis with RR 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21–1.49) and RR 2.06 (CI 1.63–2.61) for mild and severe psoriasis, respectively. Exclusion of patients with malignancies, and censoring of patients undergoing surgery did not alter the results. Conclusion This nationwide cohort study indicates...

  9. Institutional racism in public health contracting: Findings of a nationwide survey from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, H; Doole, C; McKenna, B; McCreanor, T

    2018-02-01

    Public institutions within New Zealand have long been accused of mono-culturalism and institutional racism. This study sought to identify inconsistencies and bias by comparing government funded contracting processes for Māori public health providers (n = 60) with those of generic providers (n = 90). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected (November 2014-May 2015), through a nationwide telephone survey of public health providers, achieving a 75% response rate. Descriptive statistical analyses were applied to quantitative responses and an inductive approach was taken to analyse data from open-ended responses in the survey domains of relationships with portfolio contract managers, contracting and funding. The quantitative data showed four sites of statistically significant variation: length of contracts, intensity of monitoring, compliance costs and frequency of auditing. Non-significant data involved access to discretionary funding and cost of living adjustments, the frequency of monitoring, access to Crown (government) funders and representation on advisory groups. The qualitative material showed disparate provider experiences, dependent on individual portfolio managers, with nuanced differences between generic and Māori providers' experiences. This study showed that monitoring government performance through a nationwide survey was an innovative way to identify sites of institutional racism. In a policy context where health equity is a key directive to the health sector, this study suggests there is scope for New Zealand health funders to improve their contracting practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nationwide Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  11. Sleep apnea and the subsequent risk of Parkinson’s disease: a 3-year nationwide population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou PS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ping-Song Chou,1 Chiou-Lian Lai,1–3 Yii-Her Chou,4,5,* Wei-Pin Chang6,* 1Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, 4Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, 5Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 6School of Health Care Administration, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Sleep apnea (SA-induced chronic intermittent hypoxia increases oxidative stress and inflammation, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD. This study evaluated the risk of PD following SA diagnosis.Patients and methods: This was a 3-year nationwide population-based matched cohort study using claims data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, Taiwan. We analyzed 1,944 patients diagnosed as having SA between 1997 and 2005 and a matched cohort of 9,720 non-SA patients from the NHIRD. Patients with a history of PD were excluded. Each patient was followed up for 3 years to evaluate subsequent PD development.Results: Of the 11,664 patients, 17 (0.9% and 38 (0.4% from the SA and matched non-SA cohorts, respectively, were subsequently diagnosed as having PD during follow-up. After adjustments for potential confounders, the SA cohort had a 1.85-fold higher risk of PD than the non-SA cohort (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.02–3.35; P=0.042. After age and sex stratification, PD development was independently associated with SA only in men (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; 95% CI =1.11–4.63; P<0.05 and in patients aged ≥60 years (adjusted HR, 1.93; 95% CI =1.01–3.71; P<0.05.Conclusion: Our study suggests that patients with SA are at an increased longitudinal risk of PD. Furthermore, age and male sex are independently

  12. Job stress in young physicians with an emphasis on the work-home interface: a nine-year, nationwide and longitudinal study of its course and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røvik, Jan Ole; Tyssen, Reidar; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Ekeberg, Oivind; Moum, Torbjørn; Vaglum, Per

    2007-10-01

    Although physicians are known to experience more stress than other workers, knowledge is lacking on the course of stress from a longitudinal perspective. This study explored the course of and contributors to, different dimensions of early career job-stress among physicians by means of a nationwide mail survey, with a particular emphasis on stress relating to the work-home interference. All physicians graduating from all four Norwegian universities in 1993 / 94 (N=631), responded during their final year of medical school (N=522), during their internship (N=402), in their 4th postgraduate year (N=422), and in their 10th postgraduate year (N=390). The mean observation period was 9.2 yr (SD=0.5). The main outcomes were job stress dimensions derived from an established job stress questionnaire (Cooper / Tyssen), with emphasis placed on dimensions of the work-home interference. Stress relating to the work-home interference increased during the observation period for both genders (repeated measures: beta=0.06, pstress relating to emotional pressure, time pressure, and fear of complaints and criticism, decreased. Stress relating to the work-home interference increased during their early career, mainly due to a lack of adaptive reduction in work hours and an increased number of children. Neuroticism, conscientiousness, and lack of support from one's partner and colleagues, appeared to be predictive of this stress.

  13. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  14. Private Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...

  15. of Schools*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elementary Schools' (1908) and the 'School Health Service. Regulations' (1953). ... to the social and medical changes which have taken place during the past 20 years. ... both by mass media, and group discussion between teachers and the ...

  16. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Facts School Meals Smart Snacks Celebrations & Rewards Food and Beverage Marketing Water Access Healthy Eating Learning Opportunities Staff ... Services Acute & Emergency Care Care Coordination Chronic Disease Management Family Engagement Chronic ... Allergies Oral Health Local School Wellness Policy Whole ...

  17. Teacher networking: A nationwide approach to supportary instructional use of computers in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Moonen, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The PIT Project is an initiative in The Netherlands whose goal is to stimulate the increased, effective integration of information technology in curriculum-area instruction in lower-secondary schools. Beginning with the 1993-94 school year and involving nearly 20% of all lower-secondary schools,

  18. The Supervision of Information Technology Classrooms in Turkey: A Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisoglu, Salih Pasa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how primary school supervisors carry out their roles concerning information and communications technology (ICT) based classrooms in public primary schools in Turkey. Data were collected via a questionnaire from 583 primary school supervisors working in 17 different provinces. Statistical programs were used…

  19. Unveiling the Teachers' Profiles through an INSET (In Service Training) Course of Greek Primary School Teachers in the Pedagogy of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) In-Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand for change in the infusion of ICT pedagogy in education a nationwide project was launched in Greece on May 2008. An INSET course for primary school teachers in the pedagogy of ICT in classroom instruction. The writer, aimed to study the teachers' views about certain aspects of the training experience in terms of the…

  20. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries: Case study of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstens, S.M., E-mail: sjoerd.kerstens@rhdhv.com [Royal HaskoningDHV, P.O. Box 1132, 3800 BC, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Spiller, M., E-mail: marc.spiller@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Leusbrock, I., E-mail: ingo.leusbrock@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Zeeman, G., E-mail: grietje.zeeman@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a government policy to nationwide planning is missing. Therefore, we propose a framework to facilitate the nationwide planning process for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste services. The framework requires inputs from government planners and experts in the formulation of starting points and targets. Based on a limited number of indicators (population density, urban functions) three outputs are generated. The first output is a visualization of the spatial distribution of wastewater and solid waste systems to support regional priority setting in planning and create awareness. Secondly, the total number of people served, budget requirements and distribution of systems is determined. Thirdly, the required budget is allocated to the responsible institution to assure effective implementation. The determined budgets are specified by their beneficiaries, distinguishing urban, rural, poor and non-poor households. The framework was applied for Indonesia and outputs were adopted in the National Development Plan. The required budget to reach the Indonesian government's 2019 target was determined to be 25 billion US$ over 5 years. The contribution from the national budget required a more than fivefold increase compared to the current budget allocation in Indonesia, corresponding to an increase from 0.5 to 2.7 billion US$ per year. The budget for campaigning, advocacy and institutional strengthening to enable implementation was determined to be 10% of the total budget. The proposed framework is not only suitable for Indonesia, but could also be applied to any developing country that aims to increase access to wastewater and solid waste facilities. - Highlights: • A nationwide

  1. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries: Case study of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstens, S.M.; Spiller, M.; Leusbrock, I.; Zeeman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a government policy to nationwide planning is missing. Therefore, we propose a framework to facilitate the nationwide planning process for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste services. The framework requires inputs from government planners and experts in the formulation of starting points and targets. Based on a limited number of indicators (population density, urban functions) three outputs are generated. The first output is a visualization of the spatial distribution of wastewater and solid waste systems to support regional priority setting in planning and create awareness. Secondly, the total number of people served, budget requirements and distribution of systems is determined. Thirdly, the required budget is allocated to the responsible institution to assure effective implementation. The determined budgets are specified by their beneficiaries, distinguishing urban, rural, poor and non-poor households. The framework was applied for Indonesia and outputs were adopted in the National Development Plan. The required budget to reach the Indonesian government's 2019 target was determined to be 25 billion US$ over 5 years. The contribution from the national budget required a more than fivefold increase compared to the current budget allocation in Indonesia, corresponding to an increase from 0.5 to 2.7 billion US$ per year. The budget for campaigning, advocacy and institutional strengthening to enable implementation was determined to be 10% of the total budget. The proposed framework is not only suitable for Indonesia, but could also be applied to any developing country that aims to increase access to wastewater and solid waste facilities. - Highlights: • A nationwide

  2. Excess Mortality in Women and Young Adults With Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma: A Swedish Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Daniel S; Nilsson, Anna G; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Trimpou, Penelope; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Andersson, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism of various etiologies have excess mortality. The mortality in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), regardless of pituitary function, is less well studied. Our aim was to investigate mortality in patients with NFPA and to examine whether age at diagnosis, gender, tumor treatments, or hormonal deficiencies influence the outcome. NFPA patients were identified and followed up in nationwide health registries in Sweden, 1987-2011. The criteria for identification were tested and validated in a subpopulation of the patients. This was a nationwide, population-based study. A total of 2795 unique patients with NFPA (1502 men, 1293 women) were identified and included in the study. Mean age at diagnosis was 58 years (men, 60 y; women, 56 y) and mean follow-up time was 7 years (range 0-25 y). There were no interventions. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and annual incidence rates were calculated using the Swedish population as reference and presented with 95% confidence intervals. Annual incidence of NFPA was 20.3 (18.8-21.9) cases per 1 million inhabitants. During the observation period, 473 patients died against an expected 431, resulting in an SMR of 1.10 (1.00-1.20). Patients diagnosed at younger than 40 years of age had an increased SMR of 2.68 (1.23-5.09). The SMR for patients with hypopituitarism (n = 1500) was 1.06 (0.94-1.19), and for patients with diabetes insipidus (n = 145), it was 1.71 (1.07-2.58). The SMR was increased in women with NFPA (1.29; 1.11-1.48) but not in men (1.00; 0.88-1.12). Women, but not men, with a diagnosis of hypopituitarism and/or diabetes insipidus also had an increased mortality ratio. SMRs due to cerebrovascular (1.73; 1.34-2.19) and infectious diseases (2.08; 1.17-3.44) were increased, whereas the SMR for malignant tumors was decreased (0.76; 0.61-0.94). This nationwide study of patients with NFPA showed an overall excess mortality in women and in patients with a young age at diagnosis

  3. The first nationwide evaluation of robotic general surgery: a regionalized, small but safe start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormer, Blair A; Dacey, Kristian T; Williams, Kristopher B; Bradley, Joel F; Walters, Amanda L; Augenstein, Vedra A; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Heniford, B Todd

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the most commonly performed robotic-assisted general surgery (RAGS) procedures in a nationwide database and compare them with their laparoscopic counterparts. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried from October 2008 to December 2010 for patients undergoing elective, abdominal RAGS procedures. The two most common, robotic-assisted fundoplication (RF) and gastroenterostomy without gastrectomy (RG), were individually compared with the laparoscopic counterparts (LF and LG, respectively). During the study, 297,335 patients underwent abdominal general surgery procedures, in which 1,809 (0.6 %) utilized robotic-assistance. From 2009 to 2010, the incidence of RAGS nearly doubled from 573 to 1128 cases. The top five RAGS procedures by frequency were LG, LF, laparoscopic lysis of adhesions, other anterior resection of rectum, and laparoscopic sigmoidectomy. Eight of the top ten RAGS were colorectal or foregut operations. RG was performed in 282 patients (0.9 %) and LG in 29,677 patients (99.1 %). When comparing RG with LG there was no difference in age, gender, race, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), postoperative complications, or mortality; however, length of stay (LOS) was longer in RG (2.5 ± 2.4 vs. 2.2 ± 1.5 days; p < 0.0001). Total cost for RG was substantially higher ($60,837 ± 28,887 vs. $42,743 ± 23,366; p < 0.0001), and more often performed at teaching hospitals (87.2 vs. 50.9 %; p < 0.0001) in urban areas (100 vs. 93.0 %; p < 0.0001). RF was performed in 272 patients (3.5 %) and LF in 7,484 patients (96.5 %). RF patients were more often male compared with LF (38.2 vs. 32.3 %; p < 0.05); however, there was no difference in age, race, CCI, LOS, or postoperative complications. RF was more expensive than LF ($37,638 ± 21,134 vs. $32,947 ± 24,052; p < 0.0001), and more often performed at teaching hospitals (72.4 vs. 54.9 %; p < 0.0001) in urban areas (98.5 vs. 88.7 %; p < 0.0001). This nationwide

  4. Incorporation of Satellite Data and Uncertainty in a Nationwide Groundwater Recharge Model in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Westerhoff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A nationwide model of groundwater recharge for New Zealand (NGRM, as described in this paper, demonstrated the benefits of satellite data and global models to improve the spatial definition of recharge and the estimation of recharge uncertainty. NGRM was inspired by the global-scale WaterGAP model but with the key development of rainfall recharge calculation on scales relevant to national- and catchment-scale studies (i.e., a 1 km × 1 km cell size and a monthly timestep in the period 2000–2014 provided by satellite data (i.e., MODIS-derived evapotranspiration, AET and vegetation in combination with national datasets of rainfall, elevation, soil and geology. The resulting nationwide model calculates groundwater recharge estimates, including their uncertainty, consistent across the country, which makes the model unique compared to all other New Zealand estimates targeted towards groundwater recharge. At the national scale, NGRM estimated an average recharge of 2500 m 3 /s, or 298 mm/year, with a model uncertainty of 17%. Those results were similar to the WaterGAP model, but the improved input data resulted in better spatial characteristics of recharge estimates. Multiple uncertainty analyses led to these main conclusions: the NGRM model could give valuable initial estimates in data-sparse areas, since it compared well to most ground-observed lysimeter data and local recharge models; and the nationwide input data of rainfall and geology caused the largest uncertainty in the model equation, which revealed that the satellite data could improve spatial characteristics without significantly increasing the uncertainty. Clearly the increasing volume and availability of large-scale satellite data is creating more opportunities for the application of national-scale models at the catchment, and smaller, scales. This should result in improved utility of these models including provision of initial estimates in data-sparse areas. Topics for future

  5. A nation-wide study of the family aggregation and risk factors in anorexia nervosa over three generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Helenius, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often anorexia nervosa (AN) and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared with control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, year of birth, and degree of urbanization in terms of risk factors...

  6. A Nationwide Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Drug Use among Adults in Iceland 2003-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geirs, D. P.; Pottegård, Anton; Halldorsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we leveraged on complete nationwide prescription data for the total adult population in Iceland (N=227,000) to examine how attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs have been used over the past decade. In particular, we aimed to describe the prevalence, incidence and du...

  7. The Ripple Effect of Virginia Tech: Assessing the Nationwide Impact on Campus Safety and Security Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Chris; Johnson, Gina

    2008-01-01

    This report is the result of a nationwide survey conducted in March 2008 of student life officers and campus safety directors to assess the impact of the April 2007 shootings at Virginia Tech on campus safety and security policy and practice. Discussion areas include: (1) Student Privacy vs. Need-to-Know; (2) Prevention, Mitigation and Recovery;…

  8. Perspectives of nursing professionals and older adults differ on aspects of care for older people after a nationwide improvement program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Wehrens, R.; Oldenhof, L.; Bal, R.; Francke, A.L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The perspectives of nursing professionals might differ from those of older adults when it comes to care for older people. This cross-sectional study compares the views of older adults with the views of nursing professionals on the quality of care after a nationwide improvement program

  9. Perspectives of nursing professionals and older adults differ on aspects of care for older people after a nationwide improvement program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M. (Lisanne Marlieke); R.L.E. Wehrens (Rik); L.E. Oldenhof (Lieke); R.A. Bal (Roland); Francke, A.L. (Anneke)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The perspectives of nursing professionals might differ from those of older adults when it comes to care for older people. This cross-sectional study compares the views of older adults with the views of nursing professionals on the quality of care after a nationwide

  10. Epilepsy in Individuals with a History of Asperger's Syndrome: A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the…

  11. Risk of cerebrovascular events in persons with and without HIV: A Danish nationwide population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Christensen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To assess the risk of cerebrovascular events (CVE) in HIV-infected individuals and evaluate the impact of proven risk factors, injection drug abuse (IDU), immunodeficiency, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and family-related risk factors. DESIGN:: Nationwide, population...

  12. Family aggregation and risk factors of obsessive-compulsive disorders in a nationwide three-generation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bisgaard, Charlotte; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2013-01-01

    This nationwide register-based study investigates how often obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) with different age at diagnosis occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addresses the impact of certain risk factors, that is, sex, degree of urbanization, year...

  13. THE OCCURRENCE OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS OF HEALTH CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER: RESULTS OF A NATIONWIDE DBP OCCURRENCE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The motivation for this Nationwide Disinfection By-product (DBP) Occurrence Study was two-fold: First, more than 500 DBPs have been reported in the literature, yet there is almost no quantitative occurrence information for most. As a result, there is significant uncertainty ove...

  14. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan: Analysis of the 2000–2009 Nationwide Health Insurance database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Der Jiang

    2012-11-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of diabetes, including type 1, remained stable over this 10-year period in Taiwan. However, the incidence rate in men aged 20–59 years was higher than that in age-matched women. With our nationwide database, subgroup analysis of DM incidence can be performed to refine our health policies for the prevention, screening, and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Stage of presentation and visual outcome of patients screened for familial retinoblastoma: nationwide registration in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhof, S. M.; Moll, A. C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, A. Y. N.

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands a comprehensive programme for screening just after birth for familial retinoblastoma is taking place. In this report the stage of the disease at the time of detection, by way of screening, and the long term visual outcome in these patients was evaluated. A nationwide,

  16. Perinatal mortality and morbidity in a nationwide cohort of 529,688 low-risk planned home and hospital births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de jonge, A.; van der Goes, B. Y.; Ravelli, A. C. J.; Amelink-Verburg, M. P.; Mol, B. W.; Nijhuis, J. G.; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Buitendijk, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal mortality and severe perinatal morbidity between planned home and planned hospital births, among low-risk women who started their labour in primary care. DESIGN: A nationwide cohort study. SETTING: The entire Netherlands. POPULATION: A total of 529,688 low-risk women

  17. Mass Communication and Journalism Faculty's Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Email Communication with College Students: A Nationwide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood; Brunner, Brigitta R.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 700 US journalism and mass communication faculty (all teaching personnel) reported their perceptions of student email use via a web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on the content of email sent by faculty to students, email's effectiveness, and email's effect on student learning. Comparisons were made based on faculty gender,…

  18. Delusional disorder in old age and the risk of developing dementia: a nationwide register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Alex; Lopez, Ana G; Lauritzen, Lise

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether very late first-contact delusional disorder carries a risk for later development of dementia. METHODS: By linkage of the psychiatric and the somatic nationwide registers of all out- and in-patients with hospital contact in Denmark, we included all 60+ patients with f...

  19. A nationwide survey concerning practices in pessary use for pelvic organ prolapse in The Netherlands : identifying needs for further research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzel, Joost; Roovers, Jan Paul; van der Vaart, C. H.; Broekman, Bart; Vollebregt, Astrid; Hakvoort, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis: To identify practice variation in management of patients with a vaginal pessary for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods: A nationwide survey was sent to all Dutch gynecologists with a special interest in urogynecology. Results: The response rate was 59 %. Of the

  20. A nationwide survey concerning practices in pessary use for pelvic organ prolapse in The Netherlands: identifying needs for further research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Velzel (Joost); J.P. Roovers (Jan Paul); C.H. Van der Vaart; B.M.W. Broekman (Bart); A. Vollebregt (Astrid); R. Hakvoort (Robert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction and hypothesis: To identify practice variation in management of patients with a vaginal pessary for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods: A nationwide survey was sent to all Dutch gynecologists with a special interest in urogynecology. Results: The response rate was 59 %. Of

  1. A nationwide survey concerning practices in pessary use for pelvic organ prolapse in The Netherlands: identifying needs for further research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzel, Joost; Roovers, Jan Paul; van der Vaart, C. H.; Broekman, Bart; Vollebregt, Astrid; Hakvoort, Robert

    2015-01-01

    To identify practice variation in management of patients with a vaginal pessary for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). A nationwide survey was sent to all Dutch gynecologists with a special interest in urogynecology. The response rate was 59 %. Of the respondents, 13 % had a written protocol for pessary

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors : A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Boot, Annemieke M; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedy L; Granzen, Bernd; Sen Han, K; Janssens, Geert O; Michiels, Erna M; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vandertop, W Peter; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Kremer, Leontien C M; Caron, Hubert N; van Santen, Hanneke M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived ≥ 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedy L.; Granzen, Bernd; Sen Han, K.; Janssens, Geert O.; Michiels, Erna M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vandertop, W. Peter; van Vuurden, Dannis G.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Caron, Hubert N.; van Santen, Hanneke M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived ≥ 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S.C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, A.Y.; Boot, A.M.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Granzen, B.; Han, K.; Janssens, G.O.; Michiels, E.M.; Trotsenburg, A.S. van; Vandertop, W.P.; Vuurden, D.G. van; Kremer, L.C.; Caron, H.N.; Santen, H.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived >/= 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Nationwide Conservation Voltage Reduction on Peak-Load Shaving Using SOMAS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Ryul Nam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new method to evaluate the effects of nationwide conservation voltage reduction (CVR on peak-load shaving, using substation operating results management system (SOMAS data. Its evaluation is based on a national CVR factor, which is defined as the weighted average of CVR factors associated with all transformer banks and weighting coefficients are determined by the reconstructed loads corresponding to each transformer bank. To make use of the data resulting from nationwide CVR without installing additional measuring devices, we adopt a linearized static-load model with a linearizing parameter. SOMAS data are used to evaluate the effects of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system. Evaluation results show that the national CVR factor of the Korean power system has small values in the summer season and large values in the winter season. This means that the effect of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system presents stronger benefits during winter months.

  6. Launch of patient-centered website is associated with reduced health care utilization: a nationwide natural experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, W.; Bonten, T.; Waal, M. de; Drenthen, T.; Smeele, I.; Nielen, M.; Chavannes, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care costs and utilization are rising. High quality patient-centered online information may reduce health care utilization, but evidence of the effect of online health information on health care utilization is scarce. We hypothesized that the release of a nationwide evidence-based

  7. A nationwide Danish cohort study challenging the categorisation into right-sided and left-sided colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The categorisation of colon cancer (CC) into right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) disease may not capture more subtle variances in aetiology and prognosis. In a nationwide study, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics and survival of RCC versus LCC and of the complete range of CC...

  8. Is compliance with hospital accreditation Associated with length of stay and acute readmission? A Danish nationwide population-base study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falstie-Jensen, Anne Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Hollnagel, Erik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between compliance with hospital accreditation and length of stay (LOS) and acute readmission (AR). DESIGN: A nationwide population-based follow-up study from November 2009 to December 2012. SETTING: Public, non-psychiatric Danish hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: In-...

  9. School Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    School phobia is a serious disorder affecting up to 5% of elementary and middle school children. Long-term consequences include academic failure, diminished peer relationships, parental conflict, and development of additional psychiatric disorders. Hiding behind such common physical symptoms as headaches, stomachaches, and fatigue, school phobia…

  10. School Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964

    The importance of insurance in the school budget is the theme of this comprehensive bulletin on the practices and policies for Texas school districts. Also considered is the development of desirable school board policies in purchasing insurance and operating the program. Areas of discussion are: risks to be covered, amount of coverage, values,…

  11. School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

  12. Nursery School

    CERN Document Server

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    Enrolments 2015-2016 Enrolments for the school year 2015-2016 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on: Monday 2, Tuesday 3 and Thursday 4 March 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/

  13. School Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    The 1973 court cases relating to school property continued a trend toward litigating constitutional issues. For instance, a larger number of cases dealt with the relationship between the location and construction of school buildings and school desegregation plans. This chapter reviews the status and development of case law relating to school…

  14. School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  15. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Design Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Setting Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. Participants The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3–4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. Results 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m2 vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (−0.218 and −0.082 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6–11 and 6–10 years of age, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood growth was more variable among the affected prefectures, possibly as a result of different speeds of recovery. PMID:27056593

  16. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-04-07

    To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3-4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m(2) vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (-0.218 and -0.082 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6-11 and 6-10 years of age, respectively. These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood growth was more variable among the affected prefectures, possibly as a result of different speeds of recovery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. The effect of the introduction of a nationwide DUR system where local DUR systems are operating--The Korean experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mira; Park, Young-Taek; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Jung, Chai Young; Kim, Sukil

    2015-11-01

    Outpatient clinics in Korea usually have local DUR (drug utilisation review) systems, which are integrated with EMRs or health insurance claims submission systems. Whenever, the government announces a list of drug contraindications, each local DUR system loads the list and applies it in practice. In December 2010, a nationwide DUR system was introduced. This study is to investigate the impact of the nationwide DUR system on prescribing practices where local DUR systems are already operating. Between January 2009 and December 2012 the monthly number of drugs per prescription was retrieved from the health insurance claims data warehouse at the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA). The monthly proportions of 3 DDI (drug-drug interaction) pairs, 6 drug-age contraindications, and 3 drug-pregnancy contraindications from January 2007 to December 2012, at the outpatient clinic level, were also retrieved. An interrupted time series analysis was used for controlling government announcements of drug contraindications. There was no difference in the number of drugs per prescription before and after the introduction of the nationwide DUR system. Most proportions of the 3 DDI pairs, 6 drug-age contraindications, and 3 drug-pregnancy contraindications, were significantly reduced following the government announcement of drug contraindications in the short term and/or long term. The number of drugs per prescription was not related to the nationwide DUR introduction in places where local DUR systems are operating. The introduction of duplicate guidelines, in locations where the guidelines were already well followed, is considered to be the main reason for this. Furthermore, the Doctor's ignorance of alerts, and their continued substitution of regulated drugs, for non-regulated drugs, likely played a role in nullifying the effectiveness of the nationwide DUR system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Leadership and characteristics of nonprofit mental health peer-run organizations nationwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Hayes, Stephania L

    2015-04-01

    Mental health peer-run organizations are nonprofits providing venues for support and advocacy among people diagnosed as having mental disorders. It has been proposed that consumer involvement is essential to their operations. This study reported organizational characteristics of peer-run organizations nationwide and how these organizations differ by degree of consumer control. Data were from the 2012 National Survey of Peer-Run Organizations. The analyses described the characteristics of the organizations (N=380) on five domains of nonprofit research, comparing results for organizations grouped by degree of involvement by consumers in the board of directors. Peer-run organizations provided a range of supports and educational and advocacy activities and varied in their capacity and resources. Some variation was explained by the degree of consumer control. These organizations seemed to be operating consistently with evidence on peer-run models. The reach of peer-run organizations, and the need for in-depth research, continues to grow.

  19. The Crisis Map of the Czech Republic: the nationwide deployment of an Ushahidi application for disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Jiří; Marek, Lukáš; Pászto, Vít; Valůch, Jaroslav

    2017-10-01

    Crisis mapping is a legitimate component of both crisis informatics and disaster risk management. It has become an effective tool for humanitarian workers, especially after the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Ushahidi is among the many mapping platforms on offer in the growing field of crisis mapping, and involves the application of crowdsourcing to create online and interactive maps of areas in turmoil. This paper presents the Crisis Map of the Czech Republic, which is the first such instrument to be deployed nationwide in Central Europe. It describes the methodologies used in the preparatory work phase and details some practices identified during the creation and actual employment of the map. In addition, the paper assesses its structure and technological architecture, as well as its potential possible development in the future. Lastly, it evaluates the utilisation of the Crisis Map during the floods in the Czech Republic in 2013. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  20. Assessing land use/cover changes: a nationwide multidate spatial database for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Jean-François; Velázquez, Alejandro; Díaz-Gallegos, José Reyes; Mayorga-Saucedo, Rafael; Alcántara, Camilo; Bocco, Gerardo; Castro, Rutilio; Fernández, Tania; Pérez-Vega, Azucena

    2004-10-01

    A nationwide multidate GIS database was generated in order to carry out the quantification and spatial characterization of land use/cover changes (LUCC) in Mexico. Existing cartography on land use/cover at a 1:250,000 scale was revised to select compatible inputs regarding the scale, the classification scheme and the mapping method. Digital maps from three different dates (the late 1970s, 1993 and 2000) were revised, evaluated, corrected and integrated into a GIS database. In order to improve the reliability of the database, an attempt was made to assess the accuracy of the digitalisation procedure and to detect and correct unlikely changes due to thematic errors in the maps. Digital maps were overlaid in order to generate LUCC maps, transition matrices and to calculate rates of conversion. Based upon this database, rates of deforestation between 1976 and 2000 were evaluated as 0.25 and 0.76% per year for temperate and tropical forests, respectively.

  1. A nationwide analysis of socioeconomic outcomes after hip and knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Jakob; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Total hip and knee replacement (THA and TKA) are successful operations based on patient-reported outcomes and short-term socioeconomic evaluations. However, other data have shown problems regarding persistent pain and function. No detailed large-scale, long-term socioeconomic data...... exist on income and total health expenses before and after THA and TKA compared with a matched reference population (RP). METHODS: From the unique nationwide Danish registers, a total of 128,109 patients undergoing primary THA and TKA were followed from up to 12 years before to up to 12 years after...... surgery. The economic analysis of the total costs before and after surgery were divided into annual healthcare costs (outpatient services, inpatient admissions, prescription drugs and physician office visits), home care and loss of income and compared with a matched RP. RESULTS: Healthcare costs increased...

  2. Hospital implementation of resuscitation guidelines and review of CPR training programmes: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anders S; Lauridsen, Kasper G; Adelborg, Kasper; Løfgren, Bo

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guideline implementation and CPR training in hospitals. This nationwide study included mandatory resuscitation protocols from each Danish hospital. Protocols were systematically reviewed for adherence to the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2010 guidelines and CPR training in each hospital. Data were included from 45 of 47 hospitals. Adherence to the ERC basic life support (BLS) algorithm was 49%, whereas 63 and 58% of hospitals adhered to the recommended chest compression depth and rate. Adherence to the ERC advanced life support (ALS) algorithm was 81%. Hospital BLS course duration was [median (interquartile range)] 2.3 (1.5-2.5) h, whereas ALS course duration was 4.0 (2.5-8.0) h. Implementation of ERC 2010 guidelines on BLS is limited in Danish hospitals 2 years after guideline publication, whereas the majority of hospitals adhere to the ALS algorithm. CPR training differs among hospitals.

  3. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptom Profile: Results from Nationwide General Population Surveys in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Maeng Je; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated gender differences in symptom profiles of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Korean general population. Data were pooled from the series of nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001, 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of the 18,807 participants, 507 (397 women and 110 men) were diagnosed with MDD within the prior 12 months. In agreement with previous studies, women with MDD appeared to be more vulnerable to experiencing atypical depressive episodes defined as depression with two or more symptoms of fatigue, increased appetite and hypersomnia (P differences in symptomatology of MDD in the general Korean population, and the results are comparable to previous investigations from western societies. Assumingly, the intercultural similarity in female preponderance to atypical depression might reflect the common biological construct underlying the gender difference in mechanism of MDD. In clinical settings, gender differences of MDD should be carefully considered, because these features could be related with treatment response and drug side effects.

  4. Acute Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Nationwide Matched-cohort Study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegård, Jakob; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe

    2018-01-01

    . Pancreatic cancer risk was expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Cox models were stratified by age, sex, and year of pancreatitis diagnosis and adjusted for alcohol- and smoking-related conditions, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Results We...... included 41,669 patients diagnosed with incident acute pancreatitis and 208,340 comparison individuals. Patients with acute pancreatitis had an increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared with the age- and sex-matched general population throughout the follow-up period. The risk decreased over time......Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, findings from studies on this association are conflicting. We investigated the association between acute pancreatitis and increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods We conducted a nationwide, population...

  5. The Danish HD Registrya nationwide family registry of HD families in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, M.; Budtz-Jorgensen, E.; Boonen, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    -8:100 000. 1451 individuals in the DHR had the size of the HTT CAG repeat determined of which 975 had 36 CAG repeats or more (mean ± SD: 43,5 ± 4,8). Two unrelated individuals were compound heterozygous for alleles ≥36 CAGs, and 60 individuals from 34 independent families carried an intermediate allele.......The Danish Huntington's Disease Registry (DHR) is a nationwide family registry comprising 14 245 individuals from 445 Huntington's disease (HD) families of which the largest family includes 845 individuals in 8 generations. 1136 DNA and/or blood samples and 18 fibroblast cultures are stored...... in a local biobank. The birthplace of the oldest HD carrier in each of the 261 families of Danish origin was unevenly distributed across Denmark with a high number of families in the middle part of the peninsula Jutland and in Copenhagen, the capital. The prevalence of HD in Denmark was calculated to be 5...

  6. Strategies from a nationwide health information technology implementation: the VA CART story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Tamára L; McDonell, Mary; Helfrich, Christian D; Jesse, Robert L; Fihn, Stephan D; Rumsfeld, John S

    2010-01-01

    The VA Cardiovascular Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking (CART) system is a customized electronic medical record system which provides standardized report generation for cardiac catheterization procedures, serves as a national data repository, and is the centerpiece of a national quality improvement program. Like many health information technology projects, CART implementation did not proceed without some barriers and resistance. We describe the nationwide implementation of CART at the 77 VA hospitals which perform cardiac catheterizations in three phases: (1) strategic collaborations; (2) installation; and (3) adoption. Throughout implementation, success required a careful balance of technical, clinical, and organizational factors. We offer strategies developed through CART implementation which are broadly applicable to technology projects aimed at improving the quality, reliability, and efficiency of health care.

  7. Danish nationwide registers for public health and health-related research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Fedyszyn, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The Nordic countries have a strong tradition of using nationwide social and health registers for research purposes. The aim of the current paper is to provide an overview of the Danish population-based registers in public health and health-related research, and to discuss their strengths...... and limitations. METHODS: Danish registers on somatic and psychiatric hospital contacts as well as care provided by general practitioners were reviewed. The availability of demographic, individual-level variables of relevance for health-related research was summarized. RESULTS: Since 1968, every person living...... of prescribed medications, and a complete follow-up with respect to causes of death support public health studies surveying trends of prevalence and incidence. Historical data on psychiatric and somatic hospitalizations since 1969 and 1977, respectively, allow an in-depth assessment of the burden of disease...

  8. Diagnostic delay experienced among gynecological cancer patients: a nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine M; Ottesen, Bent; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine diagnostic delay among gynecological cancer patients. DESIGN: Nationwide study. SETTING: The cohort comprised all women receiving their first treatment for cervical, endometrial, or ovarian cancer between 1 October 2006 and 1 December 2007 in four of the five centers...... for gynecological cancer surgery in Denmark. SAMPLE: Of the 911 women alive, 648 participated, resulting in a response rate of 71.1%; of these, 30.1% were diagnosed with cervical cancer, 31.0% with endometrial cancer, and 38.9% with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Questionnaire survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnostic...... experiencing very long delays. Ovarian cancer patients experienced significantly shorter delays compared with other gynecological cancer patients in all parts of the health care system. CONCLUSIONS: Delays occur in all parts of the diagnostic process, suggesting that a multifaceted approach should be adopted...

  9. Sudden death in young persons with uncontrolled asthma--a nationwide cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullach, Anders Juul; Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic disease among young adults, and several studies have reported increased mortality rates in patients with asthma. However, no study has described sudden unexpected death in a nationwide setting in patients with uncontrolled asthma. We defined uncontrolled...... in preventing sudden unexpected deaths. We therefore aimed to describe clinical characteristics, symptoms, causes of death, and contact with the healthcare system prior to sudden unexpected death in young persons with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: Through the review of death certificates, we found 625 sudden...... individuals who suffered from uncontrolled asthma. This corresponds to an incidence rate of 0.32 per 100,000 person-years. The cause of death in 31 cases (63%) was sudden cardiac death, and in 13 cases (27%), it was a fatal asthma attack. Symptoms (chest pain, dyspnea, seizures, general malaise, syncope...

  10. Nationwide study of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1-35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in persons aged 1-35 years in a nationwide setting (5.38 million people) by systematic evaluation of all deaths. Methods and results All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included....... Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. The National Patient Registry was used to retrieve information on prior medical history. All autopsy reports were read and the cause of death was revised based on autopsy findings. We identified 625 cases of sudden unexpected death (10......% of all deaths), of which 156 (25%) were not autopsied. Of the 469 autopsied cases, 314 (67%) were SCD. The most common cardiac cause of death was ischaemic heart disease (13%); 29% of autopsied sudden unexpected death cases were unexplained. In 45% of SCD cases, the death was witnessed; 34% died during...

  11. An observational nationwide register based cohort study on lamotrigine versus lithium in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2012-01-01

    It is not clear whether the effectiveness of lamotrigine versus lithium differs for patients with bipolar disorder treated in clinical practice. We compared rates of switch to, or add on of, another psychotropic, and rates of psychiatric hospitalization for patients treated with lamotrigine...... or lithium in clinical practice. Using linkage of nationwide Danish registers we identified 730 patients who received lamotrigine and 3518 patients received lithium subsequent to a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings during a period from 1995 to 2006. The overall rate of switch...... to or add on of another psychotropic (the opposite drug of interest (lithium or lamotrigine), antidepressants, antipsychotics or other anticonvulsants than lamotrigine) was increased for lamotrigine compared with lithium (HR = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.23-3.04), regardless of whether the index episode was depressive...

  12. Lithium and renal and upper urinary tract tumors - results from a nationwide population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A recent alarming finding suggested an increased risk of renal tumors among long-term lithium users. The objectives of the present study were to estimate rates of renal and upper urinary tract tumors (RUT), malignant and benign, among individuals exposed to successive prescriptions...... for lithium, anticonvulsants, and other psychotropic agents used for bipolar disorder, and among unexposed individuals. METHODS: This was a nationwide, population-based longitudinal study including time-specific data from all individuals exposed to lithium (n = 24,272) or anticonvulsants (n = 386,255), all...... individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (n = 9,651), and a randomly selected sample of 1,500,000 from the Danish population. The study period was from 1995 to 2012, inclusive. Outcomes were hazard rate ratios (HR) for RUT in three groups: (i) combined malignant and benign, (ii) malignant, and (iii...

  13. An observational nationwide register based cohort study on lamotrigine versus lithium in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-01-01

    It is not clear whether the effectiveness of lamotrigine versus lithium differs for patients with bipolar disorder treated in clinical practice. We compared rates of switch to, or add on of, another psychotropic, and rates of psychiatric hospitalization for patients treated with lamotrigine...... or lithium in clinical practice. Using linkage of nationwide Danish registers we identified 730 patients who received lamotrigine and 3518 patients received lithium subsequent to a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings during a period from 1995 to 2006. The overall rate of switch...... to or add on of another psychotropic (the opposite drug of interest (lithium or lamotrigine), antidepressants, antipsychotics or other anticonvulsants than lamotrigine) was increased for lamotrigine compared with lithium (HR = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.23-3.04), regardless of whether the index episode was depressive...

  14. Social inequalities in stage at diagnosis of rectal but not in colonic cancer: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We investigated stage at diagnosis in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) among 15 274 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed in 1996-2004 nationwide in Denmark. The effect of SES on the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis was analysed using logistic regression models....... A reduction in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis was seen in elderly rectal cancer patients with high income, living in owner-occupied housing and living with a partner. Among younger rectal cancer patients, a reduced risk was seen in those having long education. No social gradient was found...... among colon cancer patients. The social gradient found in rectal cancer patients was significantly different from the lack of association found among colon cancer patients. There are socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis of a rectal, but not a colonic, cancer...

  15. Socioeconomic position and stage at diagnosis of head and neck cancer - a nationwide study from DAHANCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Maja Halgren; Bøje, Charlotte Rotbøl; Kjær, Trille Kristina

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic position and advanced stage HNSCC at diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Men and women with HNSCC diagnosed between 1992 and 2008 were identified in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) database, which contains detailed information on all cases of HNSCC treated in Denmark. Individual...... information on the following four socioeconomic indicators: highest attained educational level, cohabitation status, disposable income and degree of urbanisation were obtained from Statistics Denmark. For the 9683 cases on which there was full information, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) for a diagnosis...... for hypopharynx cancer patients living in rural areas or provincial cities. Having one or more comorbid conditions was associated with an increased OR for advanced stage oral cancer but with a decreased OR for oropharynx cancer. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide population-based study, socioeconomic differences...

  16. The Effect of Minimum Wages on Adolescent Fertility: A Nationwide Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Lindsey Rose

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effect of minimum wage laws on adolescent birth rates in the United States. I used a difference-in-differences approach and vital statistics data measured quarterly at the state level from 2003 to 2014. All models included state covariates, state and quarter-year fixed effects, and state-specific quarter-year nonlinear time trends, which provided plausibly causal estimates of the effect of minimum wage on adolescent birth rates. A $1 increase in minimum wage reduces adolescent birth rates by about 2%. The effects are driven by non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adolescents. Nationwide, increasing minimum wages by $1 would likely result in roughly 5000 fewer adolescent births annually.

  17. Long-term mortality in patients diagnosed with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis: A Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Omland, Lars Haukali

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term mortality, the causes of death and the incidence of cancer in listeria meningitis patients. METHODS: Nationwide, population-based cohort study including all adult patients diagnosed with listeria meningitis from 1977 to 2006 and alive 1 year after diagnosis......, and an age-and gender-matched, population control cohort. Kaplan-Meier tables, Cox regression analysis and cumulative incidence function were used as outcome analyses. RESULTS: We identified 114 listeria meningitis patients and 1026 population controls. The adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for listeria...... meningitis patients the first 5 years of follow-up was 2.35(95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-3.45) thereafter the MRR was 0.93(95% CI: 0.56-1.55). Listeria meningitis patients had an increased risk of death due to cancer the first 5 years of follow-up, and in the same period patients above 50 years of age...

  18. Use of Pregabalin - A Nationwide Pharmacoepidemiological Drug Utilization Study with Focus on Abuse Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, O; Pottegård, A; Damkier, P

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pregabalin is currently approved for the treatment of epilepsy, generalized anxiety disorder and neuropathic pain with a licensed dosage range of 150 mg to 600 mg/day. Growing concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin is partly based on reports of pregabalin being used...... in dosages that exceed the approved therapeutic range. METHODS: To identify predictors of pregabalin use above recommended dosage, we conducted a pharmacoepidemological drug utilization study using the Danish nationwide registers. We deployed 4 measures of abuse: high use (≥600 mg/day) or very high use (≥1...... 200 mg/day) over a 6- or 12-month period, respectively. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify patient and treatment characteristics that were associated with either abuse marker. RESULTS: Out of 42 520 pregabalin users 4 090 (9.6%) were treated with more than 600 mg/day for 6 months and 2...

  19. Rapidly increasing use of proton pump inhibitors prescribed in primary care: a nationwide observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Peter; Hansen, Jane Møller; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Antisecretory drugs (ADs) are often prescribed in primary care for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Reimbursement modifications have been made in Denmark to minimize costs related to use of ADs. However knowledge about development in use of ADs over the past decade and the impacts...... of the reimbursement modifications is sparse. Research questions: How has use of ADs developed in Denmark 2001-2011? Which impacts have the reimbursement modifications had on the use of ADs? Methods: The Register of Medicinal Product Statistics includes all sales and redeemed prescriptions nationwide covering...... through the years 2001-2011 were used. Data from prescriptions redeemed by persons younger than 20 years were excluded. Prescriptions for ulcerogenic drugs (acetylsalicylic acid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) redeemed by persons aged 65 years and older were included since ulcer prophylaxis...

  20. The Association between Infections and General Cognitive Ability in Young Men - A Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael E; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising

    2015-01-01

    nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort of all 161,696 male conscripts during the years 2006-2012 who were tested for cognitive ability, which was based on logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning at a mean age of 19.4 years. Test scores were converted to a mean of 100.......00 and with a standard deviation (SD) of 15. Data were analyzed as a cohort study with severe infections requiring hospitalization as exposure using linear regression. RESULTS: Adjusted effect sizes were calculated with non-exposure to severe infections as reference, ranging from 0.12 SD to 0.63 SD on general cognitive...... of infections (Mean: -9.44; 95%CI: -13.2 to -5.69; corresponding to 0.63 SD). Hospital contacts with infections had occurred in 35% of the individuals prior to conscription. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of a wide range of possible confounders, significant associations between infections and cognitive ability were...

  1. Cardiovascular disease in a nationwide population of Danish women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Nybo, Mads

    2018-01-01

    , or dyslipidemia. PCOS Denmark (N = 18,112) included women with PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. PCOS Odense University Hospital (OUH, N = 1165) was an embedded cohort including premenopausal women with PCOS and clinical and biochemical examination. Three age-matched controls were included per patient...... in PCOS Denmark (N = 52,769). The main study outcome was CVD events including hypertension and dyslipidemia defined according to nationwide in- and outpatient hospital contact diagnosis codes and/or inferred from filled medicine prescriptions. RESULTS: The age at inclusion was median (quartiles) 29 (23...... Denmark regarding risk of CVD. Age, BMI, blood pressure, lipid status, and glycemic status predicted development of CVD in PCOS OUH. CONCLUSION: The event rate of CVD including hypertension and dyslipidemia was higher in PCOS compared to controls. The risk of developing CVD must be considered even...

  2. Sense and Sensibility: The Case for the Nationwide Inclusion of Engineering in the K-12 Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Robert E.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Batterson, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The competitive status of the United States is inextricably linked to innovation just as innovation is inseparable from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. To stay competitive in innovation requires that the United States produce a 21st century workforce complete with requisite education, training, skills, and motivation. If we accept a priori that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education are crucial to competitiveness and innovation and that, in terms of innovation, mathematics, science, and engineering are interdependent, why are mathematics and science uniformly ubiquitous in the K-12 curriculum while engineering is conspicuously absent? We are passionate in our belief that the uniform addition of engineering to the K-12 curriculum will help ensure that the nation has "the right" 21st Century workforce. Furthermore, we believe that a nationwide effort, led by a coalition of engineering academics, practitioners, and societies is required to turn this goal into reality. However, accomplishing this goal necessitates, as we are reminded by the title of Jane Austen's timeless novel, "Sense and Sensibility", a workable solution that seeks the "middle ground" between passion and reason. We begin our paper by making two essential points: Engineers are not scientists. Engineering exists separate from science, has its own specialized knowledge community apart from science, and it is largely responsible for many of the most significant advancements and improvements in the quality of our life. Our workable solution requires that K-12 education, nationwide, accommodate the inclusion of engineering as a stand alone curriculum and we offer three reasons to support our position: (1) workforce development, (2) stimulating interest in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses and careers, and (3) creating a technologically literate society. We conclude with some thoughts on how this important goal can be accomplished.

  3. Design and implementation of the first nationwide, web-based Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Fengbo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2010, with an endorsement from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Society of Nephrology launched the first nationwide, web-based prospective renal data registration platform, the Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS, to collect structured demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for dialysis cases, as well as to establish a kidney disease database for researchers and policy makers. Methods The CNRDS program uses information technology to facilitate healthcare professionals to create a blood purification registry and to deliver an evidence-based care and education protocol tailored to chronic kidney disease, as well as online forum for communication between nephrologists. The online portal https://www.cnrds.net is implemented as a Java web application using an Apache Tomcat web server and a MySQL database. All data are stored in a central databank to establish a Chinese renal database for research and publication purposes. Results Currently, over 270,000 clinical cases, including general patient information, diagnostics, therapies, medications, and laboratory tests, have been registered in CNRDS by 3,669 healthcare institutions qualified for hemodialysis therapy. At the 2011 annual blood purification forum of the Chinese Society of Nephrology, the CNRDS 2010 annual report was reviewed and accepted by the society members and government representatives. Conclusions CNRDS is the first national, web-based application for collecting and managing electronic medical records of patients with dialysis in China. It provides both an easily accessible platform for nephrologists to store and organize their patient data and acts as a communication platform among participating doctors. Moreover, it is the largest database for treatment and patient care of end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients in China, which will be beneficial for scientific research and epidemiological investigations aimed at

  4. Design and implementation of the first nationwide, web-based Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fengbo; Zhang, Dong; Wu, Jinzhao; Zhang, Yunfeng; Yang, Qing; Sun, Xuefeng; Cheng, Jing; Chen, Xiangmei

    2012-02-28

    In April 2010, with an endorsement from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Society of Nephrology launched the first nationwide, web-based prospective renal data registration platform, the Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS), to collect structured demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for dialysis cases, as well as to establish a kidney disease database for researchers and policy makers. The CNRDS program uses information technology to facilitate healthcare professionals to create a blood purification registry and to deliver an evidence-based care and education protocol tailored to chronic kidney disease, as well as online forum for communication between nephrologists. The online portal https://www.cnrds.net is implemented as a Java web application using an Apache Tomcat web server and a MySQL database. All data are stored in a central databank to establish a Chinese renal database for research and publication purposes. Currently, over 270,000 clinical cases, including general patient information, diagnostics, therapies, medications, and laboratory tests, have been registered in CNRDS by 3,669 healthcare institutions qualified for hemodialysis therapy. At the 2011 annual blood purification forum of the Chinese Society of Nephrology, the CNRDS 2010 annual report was reviewed and accepted by the society members and government representatives. CNRDS is the first national, web-based application for collecting and managing electronic medical records of patients with dialysis in China. It provides both an easily accessible platform for nephrologists to store and organize their patient data and acts as a communication platform among participating doctors. Moreover, it is the largest database for treatment and patient care of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in China, which will be beneficial for scientific research and epidemiological investigations aimed at improving the quality of life of such patients. Furthermore, it is a

  5. Public attitudes toward practice by medical students: a nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kyoko; Sakuma, Mio; Seki, Susumu; Morimoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    It is essential for medical students to interact directly with patients. However, patients may be reluctant to be seen by medical students in settings in which they may also be seen by senior staff. To understand patients' attitudes toward practice by medical students and consider the factors involved in obtaining patients' cooperation, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey. We randomly selected 2,400 adult participants from all over Japan. Trained research assistants inquired about participants' experiences and attitudes toward practice by medical students using a questionnaire. We compared differences in attitudes between participants who were accepting of practice by medical students and those who were not, as well as differences between participants who had experienced practice by a medical student versus those who had not. A total of 1,109 (46%) participants were included in the study. Eleven percent (117/1109) of the participants had experienced practice by a medical student. One fourth of participants were accepting of practice by medical students, and experienced participants were significantly more likely to be accepting of practice by medical students than inexperienced participants (45% vs. 24%, ppractice by medical students among accepting participants with previous experiences included "polite," "kind," and "hard-working." Fifty-nine percent (637/1088) of participants indicated that they would request a senior staff member's supervision when being seen by a medical student. The present nationwide survey suggests that education emphasizing bedside manner may be effective in promoting patients' cooperation of medical students. In addition, providing information to patients about medical students and efforts to increase supervision during clinical clerkship should be emphasized to foster the public's cooperation.

  6. A report on operating a nationwide human milk bank in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hoon Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : A human milk bank collects, processes, eliminates, and stores breast milk from donors and provides breast milk to those in need. The authors hereby present the experiences and the objective lessons obtained through operating a nationwide human milk bank over a period of 2 years. Methods : The characteristics of the donors and the recipients and the amounts of breast milk donated, processed, and received at the East-West Neo Medical Center Human Milk Bank were investigated from August 2007 to August 2009. Results : The donor pool consisted of 131 first-time donors and 39 repeat donors who made 341 and 127 donations, respectively. Seventy-nine percent of the donors resided in the Seoul-Kyunggi area, and 60% of the donors were in their 30s. Most information and motivation came from the Internet (66% or television (14%. A total of 2,736 L of breast milk was collected, and 1,979 L were processed. The cumulative number of recipients was 160 preterm or full-term infants and 21 adults, each group receiving the breast milk 337 and 41 times, respectively. In total, infants received 1,663 L and adults received 179 L. Conclusion : Through the present study, the role and importance of a human milk bank in collecting, pasteurizing, and storing surplus breast milk in through sanitary, medically proven methods and providing this breast milk to recipients could be appreciated and reevaluated. The authors believe that a national support system is necessary to expand this practice to a nationwide scale.

  7. Excess Mortality in Patients Diagnosed With Hypothyroidism: A Nationwide Cohort Study of Singletons and Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Almind, Dorthe; Christensen, Kaare; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity, an association with increased mortality is still debated. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism influences mortality. Methods: In an observational cohort study from January 1, 1978 until December 31, 2008 using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers, 3587 singletons and 682 twins diagnosed with hypothyroidism were identified. Hypothyroid individuals were matched 1:4 with nonhypothyroid controls with respect to age and gender and followed over a mean period of 5.6 years (range 0–30 years). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Comorbidity was evaluated using the Charlson score (CS). Results: In singletons with hypothyroidism, the mortality risk was increased (HR 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41–1.65). Although the effect attenuated, hypothyroidism remained associated with increased mortality when evaluating subjects with a CS = 0 (HR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05–1.44). In twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid twin had excess mortality compared with the corresponding euthyroid cotwin (HR 1.40; 95% CI 0.95–2.05). However, after stratifying for zygosity, hypothyroidism was associated with excess mortality in dizygotic twin pairs (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.00–2.58), whereas the association attenuated in monozygotic pairs (HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.55–2.05). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is associated with an excess mortality of around 50%, which to some degree is explained by comorbidity. In addition, the finding of an association between hypothyroidism and mortality within disease discordant dizygotic but not monozygotic twin pairs indicates that the association between hypothyroidism and mortality is also influenced by genetic confounding. PMID:23365121

  8. Perceptions of the Inpatient Training Experience: A Nationwide Survey of Gastroenterology Program Directors and Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navin L; Perencevich, Molly L; Trier, Jerry S

    2017-10-01

    Inpatient training is a key component of gastroenterology (GI) fellowship programs nationwide, yet little is known about perceptions of the inpatient training experience. To compare the content, objectives and quality of the inpatient training experience as perceived by program directors (PD) and fellows in US ACGME-accredited GI fellowship programs. We conducted a nationwide, online-based survey of GI PDs and fellows at the conclusion of the 2016 academic year. We queried participants about (1) the current models of inpatient training, (2) the content, objectives, and quality of the inpatient training experience, and (3) the frequency and quality of educational activities on the inpatient service. We analyzed five-point Likert items and rank assessments as continuous variables by an independent t test and compared proportions using the Chi-square test. Survey response rate was 48.4% (75/155) for PDs and a total of 194 fellows completed the survey, with both groups reporting the general GI consult team (>90%) as the primary model of inpatient training. PDs and fellows agreed on the ranking of all queried responsibilities of the inpatient fellow to develop during the inpatient service. However, fellows indicated that attendings spent less time teaching and provided less formal feedback than that perceived by PDs (p < 0.0001). PDs rated the overall quality of the inpatient training experience (p < 0.0001) and education on the wards (p = 0.0003) as better than overall ratings by fellows. Although GI fellows and PDs agree on the importance of specific fellow responsibilities on the inpatient service, fellows report experiencing less teaching and feedback from attendings than that perceived by PDs. Committing more time to education and assessment may improve fellows' perceptions of the inpatient training experience.

  9. Nationwide Estimates of 30-Day Readmission in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidy, Farhaan S; Donnelly, John P; McCullough, Louise D; Tyson, Jon E; Miller, Charles C; Boehme, Amelia K; Savitz, Sean I; Albright, Karen C

    2017-05-01

    Readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge for ischemic stroke is an important quality of care metric. We aimed to provide nationwide estimates of 30-day readmission in the United States, describe important reasons for readmission, and sought to explore factors associated with 30-day readmission, particularly the association with recanalization therapy. We conducted a weighted analysis of the 2013 Nationwide Readmission Database to represent all US hospitalizations. Adult patients with acute ischemic stroke including those who received intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator and intra-arterial therapy were identified using International Classification of Diseases -Ninth Revision codes. Readmissions were defined as any readmission during the 30-day post-index hospitalization discharge period for the eligible patient population. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals for overall 30-day readmissions and for unplanned and potentially preventable readmissions are reported. Survey design logistic regression models were fit for determining crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for association between recanalization therapy and 30-day readmission. Of the 319 317 patients with acute ischemic stroke, 12.1% (95% confidence interval, 11.9-12.3) were readmitted. Of these, 89.6% were unplanned and 12.9% were potentially preventable. More than 20% of all readmissions were attributable to acute cerebrovascular disease. Readmitted patients were older and had a higher comorbidity burden. After controlling for age, sex, insurance status, and comorbidities, patients who underwent recanalization therapy had significantly lower odds of 30-day readmission (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.89). Up to 12% of patients with ischemic stroke get readmitted within 30 days post-discharge period, and recanalization therapy is associated with 11% to 23% lower odds of 30-day readmission. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Endoscopic management and outcomes of pregnant women hospitalized for nonvariceal upper GI bleeding: a nationwide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Dinani, Amreen M; Pivovarov, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    Upper GI endoscopy has an important diagnostic and therapeutic role in the management of nonvariceal upper GI bleeding (NVUGB). To characterize nationwide patterns of utilization of upper GI endoscopy in pregnant women with NVUGB and to assess health outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Participating hospitals from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1998-2007. Pregnant and age-matched nonpregnant women admitted for NVUGB. The study population was classified as pregnant women with NVUGB (n = 1210) and nonpregnant women with NVUGB (n = 6050). Rate of upper GI endoscopy, maternal mortality, fetal death/complications, and premature delivery. Pregnant women were less likely than nonpregnant women to undergo upper GI endoscopy (26% vs 69%; P < .0001) even after adjustment for comorbidities, transfusion requirement, and the presence of hypovolemic shock (adjusted odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.22). Among those who underwent endoscopy, pregnant women were less likely to undergo the procedure within 24 hours of admission (50% vs 57%; P = .02). Mortality was lower among pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women (0% vs 0.6%; P = .006). In comparing outcomes between those who did and did not undergo endoscopy, there was no difference in fetal loss (0.2% vs 0.6%), fetal distress/complications (2.7% vs 2.6%), or premature delivery (7.3% vs 6.4%). The study was based on administrative data. A conservative nonendoscopic approach is common in the management of pregnant women with NVUGB and is not associated with worse maternal or fetal outcomes. Upper GI endoscopy is, however, safe when judiciously implemented in the actively bleeding patient. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychologists involved in cancer palliative care in Japan: A nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kasumi; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Matsubara, Mei; Oba, Akira; Hirai, Kei; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify, using a nationwide survey, what is perceived as necessary knowledge and skills for psychologists involved in cancer palliative care in Japan, the expectations of medical staff members, and the degree to which these expectations are met. We conducted a questionnaire survey of psychologists involved in cancer palliative care. A total of 419 psychologists from 403 facilities were asked to fill out the questionnaire and return it anonymously. Some 401 psychologists (89 males, 310 females, and 2 unspecified; mean age, 37.2 ± 9.5 years) responded about necessary knowledge and skills for psychologists working in cancer palliative care, the necessity for training, expectations at their current workplace, and the degree to which expectations are met. More than 90% of participants responded that many kinds of knowledge and skills related to the field of cancer palliative care are necessary. Over 80% of participants indicated a necessity for training related to these knowledge and skills. Although more than 50% (range, 50.1-85.8%) of participants responded that such services as "cooperation with medical staff within a hospital," "handling patients for whom psychological support would be beneficial," and "assessment of patients' mental state" were expected at their workplace, fewer than 60% (31.4-56.9%) responded that they actually performed these roles. Our results show that many psychologists in cancer palliative care feel unable to respond to the expectations at their current workplace and that they require more adequate knowledge and skills related to cancer palliative care to work effectively. No other nationwide surveys have generated this type of information in Japan, so we believe that the results of our study are uniquely important.

  12. Symptoms Before Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome: A Nationwide Study Among the Young in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Engstrøm, Thomas; Albert, Christine M; Haunsø, Stig; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob

    2015-07-01

    No studies in an unselected and nationwide setting have characterized the symptoms and medical history of patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). The aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptoms and medical history of patients before the presentation of SADS. We have previously identified all of the autopsied sudden cardiac deaths (SCD; n = 314) in Danes aged 1-35 years between 2000 and 2006. After comprehensive pathological and toxicological investigation did not reveal a cause of SCD, 136 of the patients were identified as SADS. The National Patient Registry was utilized to obtain information on all in- and outpatient activity in Danish hospitals. All medical records from hospitals and general practitioners, including death certificates and autopsy reports were reviewed. Before death, 48 (35%) SADS patients had cardiac symptoms; among these, 30 (22%) had contacted the healthcare system. Antecedent symptoms (symptoms >24 hours before death) were present in 34 (25%) patients. Prodromal symptoms (symptoms ≤24 hours before death) were present in 23 (17%) patients. Cardiac symptoms included chest pain (n = 16, 12%), dyspnea (n = 18, 13%), palpitations (n = 2, 1%), presyncope/syncope (n = 23, 17%), and aborted SCD (n = 2, 1%). In addition, seizures (n = 25, 18%) were prevalent. In 61 (45%) SADS cases, no previous medical history were recorded. In this unselected, nationwide study of 136 young SADS patients, 35% had experienced cardiac symptoms before death, most commonly presyncope/syncope, but only one out of five had contacted a healthcare provider with cardiac symptoms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A nationwide survey of NDMA in raw and drinking water in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Mari; Oya, Masami; Kosaka, Koji

    2009-05-15

    A nationwide survey of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in both raw and finished water samples from drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Japan was conducted. NDMA was analyzed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). NDMA was detected in 15 of 31 raw water samples collected in the summer at concentrations up to 2.6 ng/L, and in 9 of 28 raw water samples collected in winter at concentrations up to 4.3 ng/L. The NDMA concentrations were higher in raw water samples collected from treatment plants with catchment areas that have high population densities. The NDMA concentrations were higher in river water samples collected from the east and west of Japan than in those collected from other areas. NDMA was detected in 10 of 31 finished samples collected in summer at reduced concentrations of up to 2.2 ng/L, while 5 of 28 finished samples collected in winter showed NDMA concentrations up to 10 ng/L. The highest NDMA levels were detected in finished water samples collected from the Yodo River basin DWTP, which uses ozonation. Furthermore, evaluation of the process water produced at six advanced water treatment plants was conducted. Influent from the Yodo River indicated that the NDMA concentration increased during ozonation to as high as 20 ng/L, and then decreased with subsequent biological activated carbon treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first nationwide evaluation of NDMA concentrations in water conducted in Japan to date.

  14. Fatherhood status and risk of prostate cancer: nationwide, population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirén, Sara M; Drevin, Linda I; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Akre, Olof; Holmberg, Erik C; Robinson, David E; Garmo, Hans G; Stattin, Pär E

    2013-08-15

    Previous studies have shown a decreased risk of prostate cancer for childless men; however, the cause of the association remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of prostate cancer by fatherhood status, also considering potential confounding factors. In a case-control study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0, a nationwide, population-based cohort, data on number of children, marital status, education, comorbidity and tumor characteristics obtained through nationwide healthcare registers and demographic databases for 117,328 prostate cancer cases and 562,644 controls, matched on birth year and county of residence, were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for prostate cancer overall and by risk category, adjusting for marital status and education. Childless men had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to fathers, OR = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.82-0.84), and risk was lower for low-risk prostate cancer, OR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.72-0.77), than for metastatic prostate cancer, OR = 0.93 (95% CI = 0.90-0.97). Adjustment for marital status and education attenuated the association in the low-risk category, adjusted OR = 0.87 (95% CI = 0.84-0.91), whereas OR for metastatic cancer remained virtually unchanged, adjusted OR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88-0.96). Our data indicate that the association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer to a large part is due to socioeconomic factors influencing healthcare-seeking behavior including testing of prostate-specific antigen levels. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  15. Fatherhood status and risk of prostate cancer: Nationwide, population-based case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirén, Sara M; Drevin, Linda I; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Akre, Olof; Holmberg, Erik C; Robinson, David E; Garmo, Hans G; Stattin, Pär E

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a decreased risk of prostate cancer for childless men; however, the cause of the association remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of prostate cancer by fatherhood status, also considering potential confounding factors. In a case–control study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0, a nationwide, population-based cohort, data on number of children, marital status, education, comorbidity and tumor characteristics obtained through nationwide healthcare registers and demographic databases for 117,328 prostate cancer cases and 562,644 controls, matched on birth year and county of residence, were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for prostate cancer overall and by risk category, adjusting for marital status and education. Childless men had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to fathers, OR = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.82–0.84), and risk was lower for low-risk prostate cancer, OR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.72–0.77), than for metastatic prostate cancer, OR = 0.93 (95% CI = 0.90–0.97). Adjustment for marital status and education attenuated the association in the low-risk category, adjusted OR = 0.87 (95% CI = 0.84–0.91), whereas OR for metastatic cancer remained virtually unchanged, adjusted OR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88–0.96). Our data indicate that the association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer to a large part is due to socioeconomic factors influencing healthcare-seeking behavior including testing of prostate-specific antigen levels. PMID:23354735

  16. Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis and Risk of Pneumonia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shao; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Liu, Chia-Yen; Lin, Meng-Hung; Chang, Geng-He; Tsai, Yao-Te; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Objective To investigate pneumonia risk among patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). Study Design Retrospective population-based cohort study. Setting This study used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a nationwide population-based database. Subjects and Methods A total of 419 patients newly diagnosed with UVFP between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2013, were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a nationally representative database of 1 million randomly selected patients. Moreover, 1676 patients without UVFP were matched to patients with UVFP at a 1:4 ratio based on age, sex, socioeconomic status, urbanization level, and site-specific cancers. Patients were followed up until death or the end of the study period (December 31, 2013). The primary outcome was the occurrence of pneumonia. Results The cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly higher for patients with UVFP than those without UFVP ( P < .001). The adjusted Cox proportional hazard model showed that UVFP was significantly associated with a higher incidence of pneumonia (hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.35-2.86; P < .001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that UVFP was an independent risk factor of pneumonia for 4 subgroups: young (18-50 years), older (≥51 years), male, and cancer. Conclusion This is the first nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between UVFP and pneumonia. The findings indicate that UVFP is an independent risk factor of pneumonia. Given the study results, physicians should be aware of the potential for pneumonia occurrence following UVFP.

  17. An expanded nationwide view of chronic kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Mott, Susan A; Mc Donald, Stephen P

    2016-11-01

    We summarize new knowledge that has accrued in recent years on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Indigenous Australians. CKD refers to all stages of preterminal kidney disease, including end-stage kidney failure (ESKF), whether or not a person receives renal replacement therapy (RRT). Recently recorded rates of ESKF, RRT, non-dialysis CKD hospitalizations and CKD attributed deaths were, respectively, more than sixfold, eightfold, eightfold and threefold those of non-Indigenous Australians, with age adjustment, although all except the RRT rates are still under-enumerated. However, the nationwide average Indigenous incidence rate of RRT appears to have stabilized. The median age of Indigenous people with ESKF was about 30 years less than for non-Indigenous people, and 84% of them received RTT, while only half of non-Indigenous people with ESKF did so. The first-ever (2012) nationwide health survey data showed elevated levels of CKD markers in Indigenous people at the community level. For all CKD parameters, rates among Indigenous people themselves were strikingly correlated with increasing remoteness of residence and socio-economic disadvantage, and there was a female predominance in remote areas. The burden of renal disease in Australian Indigenous people is seriously understated by Global Burden of Disease Mortality methodology, because it employs underlying cause of death only, and because deaths of people on RRT are frequently attributed to non-renal causes. These data give a much expanded view of CKD in Aboriginal people. Methodologic approaches must be remedied for a full appreciation of the burden, costs and outcomes of the disease, to direct appropriate policy development. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  18. Risk of pneumonia in patients with isolated minor rib fractures: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Wai; Teng, Ying-Hock; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Han-Wei; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Chou, Ming-Chih; Yeh, Chao-Bin

    2017-01-13

    Isolated minor rib fractures (IMRFs) after blunt chest traumas are commonly observed in emergency departments. However, the relationship between IMRFs and subsequent pneumonia remains controversial. This nationwide cohort study investigated the association between IMRFs and the risk of pneumonia in patients with blunt chest traumas. Nationwide population-based cohort study. Patients with IMRFs were identified between 2010 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Non-traumatic patients were matched through 1:8 propensity-score matching according to age, sex, and comorbidities (namely diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) with the comparison cohort. We estimated the adjusted HRs (aHRs) by using the Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 709 patients with IMRFs and 5672 non-traumatic patients were included. The primary end point was the occurrence of pneumonia within 30 days. The incidence of pneumonia following IMRFs was 1.6% (11/709). The aHR for the risk of pneumonia after IMRFs was 8.94 (95% CI=3.79 to 21.09, ppneumonia following IMRFs. In the IMRF group, presence of single or two isolated rib fractures was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia with aHRs of 3.97 (95% CI 1.09 to 14.44, ppneumonia following IMRFs is low, patients with two isolated rib fractures were particularly susceptible to pneumonia. Physicians should focus on this complication, particularly in elderly patients and those with COPD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. [Structures and concepts for nationwide outbreak management in a federal state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidel, J; Feil, F

    2013-01-01

    With pandemic influenza in 2009/2010 and an EHEC outbreak in 2011, the Federal Republic of Germany experienced two extensive outbreaks in the course of only 3 years. Although both infectiological crises were comparatively successfully coped with, certain aspects have been critically examined. One point of criticism has been the presumption that federal structures may not be well suited for the management of a nationwide outbreak. This has been linked to the request for a central authority with responsibility. In fact, centralized as well as federal structures have advantages and disadvantages during infectiological crises. However, the "first response," i.e., immediate action against the spreading of infectious diseases, has to take place locally anyway. Regional differences, even in the context of a nationwide outbreak, might well demand regional action. After all, the federal structure of the Republic of Germany is deliberately firmly rooted in the German constitution, and there are no indications that this may change in the near future. Suitable concepts and structures should be used so as to benefit from the advantages and avoid the disadvantages of a federal state. The current structures are described, and improvements that may be necessary are discussed. The existing structures are shown to be entirely appropriate in allowing necessary decisions to be made and a fast transmission of information even in a federal state. Occasional shortcomings are seen as mainly due to the inadequate implementation of already existing regulations and partly to the ambition of a few spotlight seekers rather than to actual inadequacies of existing federal structures.

  20. Risk Factors for Fatal Hyperglycaemia Confirmed by Forensic Postmortem Examination - A Nationwide Cohort in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Lotta; Jönsson, Anna K.; Zilg, Brita; Östgren, Carl Johan; Druid, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. Methods A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem. The forensic findings stored in the National Forensic Medicine Database were linked to nationwide registers. Cases that died due to confirmed hyperglycemia with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were identified and living controls with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were randomly selected in the Swedish prescribed drug register and matched on age and sex. Information on comorbidities, dispensed pharmaceuticals, clinical data and socioeconomic factors were obtained for cases and controls. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with fatal hyperglycaemia. Results During the study period 322 individuals, mostly males (79%) with the mean age of 53.9 years (SD.± 14) died due to confirmed hyperglycaemia. Risk factors for fatal hyperglycaemia included; insulin treatment (OR = 4.40; 95%CI,1.96, 9.85), poor glycaemic control (OR = 2.00 95%CI,1.23, 3.27), inadequate refill-adherence before death (OR = 3.87; 95%CI,1.99, 7.53), microvascular disease (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.84, 5.79), psychiatric illness (OR = 2.30; 95% CI,1.32, 4.01), substance abuse (OR = 8.85; 95%CI,2.34, 35.0) and/or living alone (OR = 2.25; 95%CI,1.21, 4.18). Conclusions/Interpretation Our results demonstrate the importance of clinical attention to poor glycaemic control in subjects with psychosocial problems since it may indicate serious non-adherence, which consequently could lead to fatal hyperglycaemia. PMID:27768720

  1. Hysterectomy in Germany: a DRG-based nationwide analysis, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Merrill, Ray M; Kuss, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    Hysterectomy is among the more common surgical procedures in gynecology. The aim of this study was to calculate population-wide rates of hysterectomy across Germany and to obtain information on the different modalities of hysterectomy currently performed in German hospitals. This was done on the basis of nationwide DRG statistics (DRG = diagnosis-related groups) covering the years 2005-2006. We analyzed the nationwide DRG statistics for 2005 and 2006, in which we found 305 015 hysterectomies. Based on these data we calculated hysterectomy rates for the female population. We determined the indications for each hysterectomy with an algorithm based on the ICD-10 codes, and we categorized the operations on the basis of their OPS codes (OPS = Operationen- und Prozedurenschlüssel [Classification of Operations and Procedures]). The overall rate of hysterectomy in Germany was 362 per 100 000 person-years. 55% of hysterectomies for benign diseases of the female genital tract were performed transvaginally. Bilateral ovariectomy was performed concomitantly in 23% of all hysterectomies, while 4% of all hysterectomies were subtotal. Hysterectomy rates varied considerably across federal states: the rate for benign disease was lowest in Hamburg (213.8 per 100 000 women per year) and highest in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania (361.9 per 100 000 women per year). Hysterectomy rates vary markedly from one region to another. Moreover, even though recent studies have shown that bilateral ovariectomy is harmful to women under 50 who undergo hysterectomy for benign disease, it is still performed in 4% of all hysterectomies for benign indications in Germany.

  2. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates: A Nationwide Registry Based Study from 1901 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

    2015-01-01

    Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. A descriptive nationwide Danish study using birth registries from 1901-2014. Information on women's age at childbirth was obtained by using records from primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. Mothers to 8,024,969 live births. Mothers were stratified according to age at childbirth to determine total and age specific fertility rates. Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than the corresponding five year younger age groups (25-29, 30-34 and 35-39, respectively) have had for the last 65 years. On average, women gave birth to two children after the age of 30 and one or more child after 35 years of age in the beginning of the 1900s. Furthermore, women more than 40 years of age accounted for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong determinants of fertility in women above 30 years of age.

  3. Working and training conditions of residents in pediatric surgery: a nationwide survey in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reismann, M; Ellerkamp, V; Dingemann, J

    2010-09-01

    As in other surgical specialties, increasing concern has been expressed worldwide about the shortage of trainees in pediatric surgery training programs. We performed a nationwide survey to investigate the current situation in Germany. An internet-based nationwide survey comprising 36 questions on training conditions in pediatric surgery was linked to the homepage of the German Society of Pediatric Surgery from June to September 2008. Statements on the following aspects were evaluated by responding residents using a scale from 1 (I do not agree at all) to 5 (I fully agree): workplace, cooperation with colleagues, head of the department, cooperation with other specialties, training and research conditions. A median value of 3 indicated an unsatisfactory assessment, with at least 50% of respondents giving an indifferent or negative response. 70 questionnaires were completed. Some of the evaluations revealed problematic areas. In particular, statements regarding working hours revealed dissatisfaction among the responding doctors. The median value accorded the statement "I am satisfied with the current working time regulation" was 2.9. With regard to departmental heads, some criticisms were directed against a perceived lack of soft skills. According to the respondents, their involvement in decision-making processes was insufficient ("We are involved in decision-making processes affecting our working conditions" - median value 2.4). Residents were also dissatisfied with the feedback they received for their work ("I get enough feedback regarding my achievement" - median value 2.6). Another problem area was career development ("I will finish my specialist training in time" - median value 2.9). However, these points did not affect overall satisfaction. Trainee satisfaction with regulations on working hours is low. Despite a general satisfaction with all fields appraised, improvements in various individual areas, e. g., the attitude of departmental heads and strategies of

  4. Parental and perinatal risk factors for sexual offending in men: a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, K M; Seto, M C; Sariaslan, A; Lichtenstein, P; Fazel, S; Långström, N

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies suggest parental and perinatal risk factors are associated with later offending. It remains uncertain, however, if such risk factors are similarly related to sexual offending. We linked socio-demographic, family relations, and perinatal (obtained at birth) data from the nationwide Swedish registers from 1973 to 2009 with information on criminal convictions of cases and control subjects. Male sex offenders (n = 13 773) were matched 1:5 on birth year and county of birth in Sweden to male controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. To examine risk-factor specificity for sexual offending, we also compared male violent, non-sexual offenders (n = 135 953) to controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. Predictors included parental (young maternal or paternal age at son's birth, educational attainment, violent crime, psychiatric disorder, substance misuse, suicide attempt) and perinatal (number of older brothers, low Apgar score, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, congenital malformations, small head size) variables. Conditional logistic regression models found consistent patterns of statistically significant, small to moderate independent associations of parental risk factors with sons' sexual offending and non-sexual violent offending. For perinatal risk factors, patterns varied more; small for gestational age and small head size exhibited similar risk effects for both offence types whereas a higher number of older biological brothers and any congenital malformation were small, independent risk factors only for non-sexual violence. This nationwide study suggests substantial commonalities in parental and perinatal risk factors for the onset of sexual and non-sexual violent offending.

  5. Design and implementation of the first nationwide, web-based Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In April 2010, with an endorsement from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Society of Nephrology launched the first nationwide, web-based prospective renal data registration platform, the Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS), to collect structured demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for dialysis cases, as well as to establish a kidney disease database for researchers and policy makers. Methods The CNRDS program uses information technology to facilitate healthcare professionals to create a blood purification registry and to deliver an evidence-based care and education protocol tailored to chronic kidney disease, as well as online forum for communication between nephrologists. The online portal https://www.cnrds.net is implemented as a Java web application using an Apache Tomcat web server and a MySQL database. All data are stored in a central databank to establish a Chinese renal database for research and publication purposes. Results Currently, over 270,000 clinical cases, including general patient information, diagnostics, therapies, medications, and laboratory tests, have been registered in CNRDS by 3,669 healthcare institutions qualified for hemodialysis therapy. At the 2011 annual blood purification forum of the Chinese Society of Nephrology, the CNRDS 2010 annual report was reviewed and accepted by the society members and government representatives. Conclusions CNRDS is the first national, web-based application for collecting and managing electronic medical records of patients with dialysis in China. It provides both an easily accessible platform for nephrologists to store and organize their patient data and acts as a communication platform among participating doctors. Moreover, it is the largest database for treatment and patient care of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in China, which will be beneficial for scientific research and epidemiological investigations aimed at improving the quality of life of

  6. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality. A Nationwide Analysis in 272 Chinese Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Yin, Peng; Meng, Xia; Liu, Cong; Wang, Lijun; Xu, Xiaohui; Ross, Jennifer A; Tse, Lap A; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong; Zhou, Maigeng

    2017-07-01

    Evidence concerning the acute health effects of air pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in developing countries is quite limited. To evaluate short-term associations between PM 2.5 and daily cause-specific mortality in China. A nationwide time-series analysis was performed in 272 representative Chinese cities from 2013 to 2015. Two-stage Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to estimate regional- and national-average associations between PM 2.5 concentrations and daily cause-specific mortality. City-specific effects of PM 2.5 were estimated using the overdispersed generalized additive models after adjusting for time trends, day of the week, and weather conditions. Exposure-response relationship curves and potential effect modifiers were also evaluated. The average of annual mean PM 2.5 concentration in each city was 56 μg/m 3 (minimum, 18 μg/m 3 ; maximum, 127 μg/m 3 ). Each 10-μg/m 3 increase in 2-day moving average of PM 2.5 concentrations was significantly associated with increments in mortality of 0.22% from total nonaccidental causes, 0.27% from cardiovascular diseases, 0.39% from hypertension, 0.30% from coronary heart diseases, 0.23% from stroke, 0.29% from respiratory diseases, and 0.38% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There was a leveling off in the exposure-response curves at high concentrations in most, but not all, regions. The associations were stronger in cities with lower PM 2.5 levels or higher temperatures, and in subpopulations with elder age or less education. This nationwide investigation provided robust evidence of the associations between short-term exposure to PM 2.5 and increased mortality from various cardiopulmonary diseases in China. The magnitude of associations was lower than those reported in Europe and North America.

  7. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a

  8. Price and Healthfulness of Snacks in 32 YMCA After-School Programs in 4 US Metropolitan Areas, 2006-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffarian, Rebecca S.; Andry, Analisa; Lee, Rebekka M.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Wiecha, Jean L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A common perception is that healthful foods are more expensive than less healthful foods. We assessed the cost of beverages and foods served at YMCA after-school programs, determined whether healthful snacks were more expensive, and identified inexpensive, healthful options. Methods We collected daily snack menus from 32 YMCAs nationwide from 2006 to 2008 and derived prices of beverages and foods from the US Department of Agriculture price database. Multiple linear regression was...

  9. A Space-Age University without Campus or Faculty Offers Its TV Courses Nationwide via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1987-01-01

    The National Technological University, a consortium of engineering schools, offers programs based on satellite transmissions of live and videotaped graduate courses to industrial sites around the country. (MSE)

  10. [School bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, J; Van Paemel, S; Pitchot, W

    2018-02-01

    School bullying consists of harassment behaviours in a school setting and is characterized by violence acts, mockery or even humiliations between students. More recently, with the development of new technologies, our society has seen the cyber-bullying born. This new type of harassment "on-line" comes and intersects the harassment at school. After the description of a clinical situation, we describe the impact of this phenomenon on the different actors concerned, the lines for prevention and for appropriate support.

  11. SCHOOL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tsinghua SEM Gets EQUIS Accreditation The School of Economies and Management of Tsinghua University(Tsinghua SEM)was awarded accreditation from the European Quality’ Improvement System(EQUIS)at the end of February 2008.This makes Tsinghua SEM the first business school on the Chinese mainland to be accredited by EQUIS.Together with the accreditation awarded by AACSB International (the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business)in 2007,Tsinghua SEM becomes the only business school on the Chinese mainland to be accredited by both AACSB and EQUIS,two of the most prestigious international accreditations of management education.

  12. Nursery school

    CERN Document Server

    Jardin d'enfants

    2010-01-01

    * * * * * Enrollments 2010-2011 Monday 8, Tuesday 9 and Wednesday 10 March From 8:00 to 10:00 at the Nursery School   Registration forms will be available from 5th March onwards: At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary tel: 73604, Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress tel: 77925, Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch On the pages of the Nursery School website http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2010-2011%20EN.pdf  

  13. Nursery School

    CERN Document Server

    Jardin d'enfant

    2012-01-01

      Enrollments 2012-2013  Monday 5, Tuesday 6 and Wednesday 7 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School  Registration forms will be available from 2nd March onwards: – At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary   Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch, tel : 73604. – At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress    Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch, tel : 77925. – On the pages of the Nursery School website    http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2012-2013%20EN.pdf

  14. Nationwide Risk-Based PCB Remediation Waste Disposal Approvals under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 761.61(c)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about Nationwide Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Remediation Waste Disposal Approvals under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 761.61(c)

  15. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Afterschool and Summer Learning Support to Communities Nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative is the only federal funding source dedicated exclusively to before-school, afterschool, and summer learning programs. Each state education agency receives funds based on its share of Title I funding for low-income students at high-poverty, low performing schools. Funds are also…

  16. Letter regarding article "Primary coronary angioplasty for ST-°©‐Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Qatar: First nationwide program"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Badreldin Elshazly

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor: In their article “Primary Coronary Angioplasty for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI in Qatar: First Nationwide Program”, Gehani et al. developed an impressive plan to implement primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI for the first time in Qatar [1]. As a graduate of Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, I have witnessed immense improvement in the Qatari healthcare system over the past few years. From building the new state of the art Heart Hospital to developing the first unified nationwide primary PCI program in the world, there is no doubt that Qatar has made an immense leap towards implementing world-class cardiovascular healthcare in the Middle East.

  17. Nationwide, Multicenter, Retrospective Study on High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo, E-mail: yoshioka@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kotsuma, Tadayuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Komiya, Akira [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Department of Urology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Kariya, Shinji [Department of Radiology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi (Japan); Konishi, Koji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Nonomura, Norio [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, Eiichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Nishimura, Kensaku [Department of Urology, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Fujiuchi, Yasuyoshi; Kitamura, Hiroshi [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Yamagami, Takuji [Department of Radiology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi (Japan); Yamasaki, Ichiro [Department of Urology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi (Japan); Nishimura, Kazuo [Department of Urology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan); Itami, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To present, analyze, and discuss results of a nationwide, multicenter, retrospective study on high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) as monotherapy for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1995 through 2013, 524 patients, 73 (14%) with low-risk, 207 (40%) with intermediate-risk, and 244 (47%) with high-risk prostate cancer, were treated with HDR-BT as monotherapy at 5 institutions in Japan. Dose fractionations were 27 Gy/2 fractions for 69 patients (13%), 45.5 Gy/7 fractions for 168 (32%), 49 Gy/7 fractions for 149 (28%), 54 Gy/9 fractions for 130 (25%), and others for 8 (2%). Of these patients, 156 (30%) did not receive androgen deprivation therapy, and 202 patients (39%) did receive androgen deprivation therapy <1 year, 112 (21%) for 1-3 years, and 54 (10%) for >3 years. Median follow-up time was 5.9 years (range, 0.4-18.1 years), with a minimum of 2 years for surviving patients. Results: After 5 years, respective actuarial rates of no biochemical evidence of disease, overall survival, cause-specific survival, and metastasis-free survival for all patients were 92%, 97%, 99%, and 94%. For low/intermediate/high-risk patients, the 5-year no biochemical evidence of disease rates were 95%/94%/89%, the 5-year overall survival rates were 98%/98%/94%, the 5-year cause-specific survival rates were 98%/100%/98%, and the 5-year metastasis-free survival rates were 98%/95%/90%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of late grade 2 to 3 genitourinary toxicity at 5 years was 19%, and that of late grade 3 was 1%. The corresponding incidences of gastrointestinal toxicity were 3% and 0% (0.2%). No grade 4 or 5 of either type of toxicity was detected. Conclusions: The findings of this nationwide, multicenter, retrospective study demonstrate that HDR-BT as monotherapy was safe and effective for all patients with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer.

  18. Primary Sjogren's syndrome and the risk of acute pancreatitis: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Ching; Chang, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Chen, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jin Hua

    2017-08-11

    Studies on the risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) are limited. We evaluated the effects of pSS on the risk of acute pancreatitis in a nationwide, population-based cohort in Taiwan. Population-based retrospective cohort study. We studied the claims data of the >97% Taiwan population from 2002 to 2012. We identified 9468 patients with pSS by using the catastrophic illness registry of the National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. We also selected 37 872 controls that were randomly frequency matched by age (in 5 year bands), sex and index year from the general population. We analysed the risk of acute pancreatitis by using Cox proportional hazards regression models including sex, age and comorbidities. From 23.74 million people in the cohort, 9468 patients with pSS (87% women, mean age=55.6 years) and 37 872 controls were followed-up for 4.64 and 4.74 years, respectively. A total of 44 cases of acute pancreatitis were identified in the pSS cohort versus 105 cases in the non-pSS cohort. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the incidence rate of acute pancreatitis was significantly higher in the pSS cohort than in the non-pSS cohort (adjusted HR (aHR) 1.48, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.12). Cyclophosphamide use increased the risk of acute pancreatitis (aHR 5.27, 95% CI 1.16 to 23.86). By contrast, hydroxychloroquine reduced the risk of acute pancreatitis (aHR 0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.55). This nationwide, retrospective cohort study demonstrated that the risk of acute pancreatitis was significantly higher in patients with pSS than in the general population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Nationwide, Multicenter, Retrospective Study on High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Komiya, Akira; Kariya, Shinji; Konishi, Koji; Nonomura, Norio; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Eiichi; Nishimura, Kensaku; Fujiuchi, Yasuyoshi; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yamagami, Takuji; Yamasaki, Ichiro; Nishimura, Kazuo; Teshima, Teruki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Itami, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To present, analyze, and discuss results of a nationwide, multicenter, retrospective study on high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) as monotherapy for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1995 through 2013, 524 patients, 73 (14%) with low-risk, 207 (40%) with intermediate-risk, and 244 (47%) with high-risk prostate cancer, were treated with HDR-BT as monotherapy at 5 institutions in Japan. Dose fractionations were 27 Gy/2 fractions for 69 patients (13%), 45.5 Gy/7 fractions for 168 (32%), 49 Gy/7 fractions for 149 (28%), 54 Gy/9 fractions for 130 (25%), and others for 8 (2%). Of these patients, 156 (30%) did not receive androgen deprivation therapy, and 202 patients (39%) did receive androgen deprivation therapy 3 years. Median follow-up time was 5.9 years (range, 0.4-18.1 years), with a minimum of 2 years for surviving patients. Results: After 5 years, respective actuarial rates of no biochemical evidence of disease, overall survival, cause-specific survival, and metastasis-free survival for all patients were 92%, 97%, 99%, and 94%. For low/intermediate/high-risk patients, the 5-year no biochemical evidence of disease rates were 95%/94%/89%, the 5-year overall survival rates were 98%/98%/94%, the 5-year cause-specific survival rates were 98%/100%/98%, and the 5-year metastasis-free survival rates were 98%/95%/90%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of late grade 2 to 3 genitourinary toxicity at 5 years was 19%, and that of late grade 3 was 1%. The corresponding incidences of gastrointestinal toxicity were 3% and 0% (0.2%). No grade 4 or 5 of either type of toxicity was detected. Conclusions: The findings of this nationwide, multicenter, retrospective study demonstrate that HDR-BT as monotherapy was safe and effective for all patients with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer.

  20. Rainfall recharge estimation on a nation-wide scale using satellite information in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Rogier; White, Paul; Moore, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Models of rainfall recharge to groundwater are challenged by the need to combine uncertain estimates of rainfall, evapotranspiration, terrain slope, and unsaturated zone parameters (e.g., soil drainage and hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface). Therefore, rainfall recharge is easiest to estimate on a local scale in well-drained plains, where it is known that rainfall directly recharges groundwater. In New Zealand, this simplified approach works in the policy framework of regional councils, who manage water allocation at the aquifer and sub-catchment scales. However, a consistent overview of rainfall recharge is difficult to obtain at catchment and national scale: in addition to data uncertainties, data formats are inconsistent between catchments; the density of ground observations, where these exist, differs across regions; each region typically uses different local models for estimating recharge components; and different methods and ground observations are used for calibration and validation of these models. The research described in this paper therefore presents a nation-wide approach to estimate rainfall recharge in New Zealand. The method used is a soil water balance approach, with input data from national rainfall and soil and geology databases. Satellite data (i.e., evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and terrain) aid in the improved calculation of rainfall recharge, especially in data-sparse areas. A first version of the model has been implemented on a 1 km x 1 km and monthly scale between 2000 and 2013. A further version will include a quantification of recharge estimate uncertainty: with both "top down" input error propagation methods and catchment-wide "bottom up" assessments of integrated uncertainty being adopted. Using one nation-wide methodology opens up new possibilities: it can, for example, help in more consistent estimation of water budgets, groundwater fluxes, or other hydrological parameters. Since recharge is estimated for the entire land

  1. Association of UV radiation with Parkinson disease incidence: A nationwide French ecologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravietz, Adam; Kab, Sofiane; Wald, Lucien; Dugravot, Aline; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Moisan, Frédéric; Elbaz, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D is thought to contribute to brain health, but it is unclear whether low vitamin D levels are associated with increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using ultraviolet B (UV-B) as a surrogate for vitamin D levels, we conducted a nationwide ecologic study in France in order to examine the association of UV-B with PD incidence. Methods: We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. UV-B data from the solar radiation database were derived from satellite images. We estimated PD incidence (2010–2012) at the canton level (small administrative French unit) and used multilevel Poisson regression to examine its association with UV-B (2005 annual average), after adjustment for age, sex, deprivation index, density of neurologists, smoking, proportion of agricultural land, and vitamin D supplementation. Results: Analyses are based on 69,010 incident PD patients. The association between UV-B and PD incidence was quadratic (P<0.001) and modified by age (P<0.001). Below 70y, incidence was higher in the bottom quintile (relative risk, RR Q1:45-49y =1.18, 95% CI=1.08–1.29) compared with the middle UV-B quintile, and lower in the top quintile (RR Q5:45-49y =0.85 [0.77–0.94]). An opposite pattern was observed in older subjects (RR Q1:85-89y =0.92 [0.89–0.96]; RR Q5:85-89y =1.06 [1.02–1.11]). Analysis based on continuous UV-B yielded similar conclusions. Conclusions: In this nationwide study, there was an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. This study suggests that reasonable UV-B exposure is associated with lower PD risk in younger persons and that future studies should examine dose-response relations and take age into account. - Highlights: • There is an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. • Reasonable UV-B exposure is beneficial in younger persons for the risk of PD. • Our findings are consistent with a role of vitamin D

  2. Association of UV radiation with Parkinson disease incidence: A nationwide French ecologic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravietz, Adam [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Kab, Sofiane [Santé publique France, Direction santé travail, F-94415 Saint-Maurice (France); CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France); Wald, Lucien [MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University, Sophia Antipolis (France); Dugravot, Aline [CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France); Singh-Manoux, Archana [CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France); Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Moisan, Frédéric [Santé publique France, Direction santé travail, F-94415 Saint-Maurice (France); Elbaz, Alexis, E-mail: alexis.elbaz@inserm.fr [Santé publique France, Direction santé travail, F-94415 Saint-Maurice (France); CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Vitamin D is thought to contribute to brain health, but it is unclear whether low vitamin D levels are associated with increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using ultraviolet B (UV-B) as a surrogate for vitamin D levels, we conducted a nationwide ecologic study in France in order to examine the association of UV-B with PD incidence. Methods: We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. UV-B data from the solar radiation database were derived from satellite images. We estimated PD incidence (2010–2012) at the canton level (small administrative French unit) and used multilevel Poisson regression to examine its association with UV-B (2005 annual average), after adjustment for age, sex, deprivation index, density of neurologists, smoking, proportion of agricultural land, and vitamin D supplementation. Results: Analyses are based on 69,010 incident PD patients. The association between UV-B and PD incidence was quadratic (P<0.001) and modified by age (P<0.001). Below 70y, incidence was higher in the bottom quintile (relative risk, RR{sub Q1:45-49y}=1.18, 95% CI=1.08–1.29) compared with the middle UV-B quintile, and lower in the top quintile (RR{sub Q5:45-49y}=0.85 [0.77–0.94]). An opposite pattern was observed in older subjects (RR{sub Q1:85-89y}=0.92 [0.89–0.96]; RR{sub Q5:85-89y}=1.06 [1.02–1.11]). Analysis based on continuous UV-B yielded similar conclusions. Conclusions: In this nationwide study, there was an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. This study suggests that reasonable UV-B exposure is associated with lower PD risk in younger persons and that future studies should examine dose-response relations and take age into account. - Highlights: • There is an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. • Reasonable UV-B exposure is beneficial in younger persons for the risk of PD. • Our findings are consistent with a

  3. Nationwide trends in glucose-lowering drug use, Denmark, 1999–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen DH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Diana Hedevang Christensen,1 Jørgen Rungby,2,3 Reimar Wernich Thomsen1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Endocrinology, Gentofte University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine nationwide population-based time trends in the utilization of all glucose-lowering drugs in Denmark from 1999 to 2014. Methods: Based on nationwide data from the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics, we retrieved sales statistics on glucose-lowering drugs and reported the total number of users and the prevalence of users per 1,000 inhabitants in 1-year intervals for all glucose-lowering drug classes. Results: The annual prevalence of glucose-lowering drug users increased more than twofold from 19 per 1,000 inhabitants in 1999 (n=98,362 to 41 per 1,000 in 2014 (n=233,230. Metformin use increased more than sevenfold during the period and was used by 30 of 1,000 inhabitants in 2014, while the prevalence of insulin use increased 1.8-fold to 13 per 1,000 in 2014. After peaking in 2007, use of sulfonylurea halved to 6 per 1,000 in 2014. Newer drug classes including the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors, and the sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors had reached a considerable position by 2014, with 4 per 1,000, 6 per 1,000, and 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, respectively; however, the use of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists and sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in elderly people remained low. Thiazolidinediones decreased to virtually no use (0.03 per 1,000 in 2014. Conclusion: The use of glucose-lowering drugs has doubled during 1999–2014. The pattern of glucose-lowering drug use has changed substantially reflecting the recommendations of metformin as first-line treatment. The newer glucose-lowering drug classes have been well received

  4. A nationwide survey of the quality of antimalarials in retail outlets in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harparkash; Goodman, Catherine; Thompson, Eloise; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Masanja, Irene; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

    2008-01-01

    Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are available in African communities. This study aimed to assess the quality of antimalarials available from retail outlets across mainland Tanzania. We systematically purchased samples of oral antimalarial tablets from retail outlets across 21 districts in mainland Tanzania in 2005. A total of 1080 antimalarial formulations were collected including 679 antifol antimalarial samples (394 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and 285 sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine), 260 amodiaquine samples, 63 quinine samples, and 51 artemisinin derivative samples. A systematic subsample of 304 products was assessed for quality by laboratory based analysis to determine the amount of the active ingredient and dissolution profile by following the published United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) monogram for the particular tablet being tested. Products for which a published analytical monogram did not exist were assessed on amount of active ingredient alone. Overall 38 or 12.2% of the samples were found to be of poor quality. Of the antifolate antimalarial drugs tested 13.4% were found to be of poor quality by dissolution and content analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nearly one quarter (23.8%) of quinine tablets did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution and quantification analysis. Quality of amodiaquine drugs was relatively better but still unacceptable as 7.5% did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution analysis. Formulations of the artemisinin derivatives all contained the stated amount of active ingredient when analysed using HPLC alone. Substandard antimalarial formulations were widely

  5. A nationwide survey of the quality of antimalarials in retail outlets in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harparkash Kaur

    Full Text Available Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are available in African communities. This study aimed to assess the quality of antimalarials available from retail outlets across mainland Tanzania.We systematically purchased samples of oral antimalarial tablets from retail outlets across 21 districts in mainland Tanzania in 2005. A total of 1080 antimalarial formulations were collected including 679 antifol antimalarial samples (394 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and 285 sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine, 260 amodiaquine samples, 63 quinine samples, and 51 artemisinin derivative samples. A systematic subsample of 304 products was assessed for quality by laboratory based analysis to determine the amount of the active ingredient and dissolution profile by following the published United States Pharmacopoeia (USP monogram for the particular tablet being tested. Products for which a published analytical monogram did not exist were assessed on amount of active ingredient alone. Overall 38 or 12.2% of the samples were found to be of poor quality. Of the antifolate antimalarial drugs tested 13.4% were found to be of poor quality by dissolution and content analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Nearly one quarter (23.8% of quinine tablets did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution and quantification analysis. Quality of amodiaquine drugs was relatively better but still unacceptable as 7.5% did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution analysis. Formulations of the artemisinin derivatives all contained the stated amount of active ingredient when analysed using HPLC alone.Substandard antimalarial formulations were

  6. Nationwide prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and viral genotype distribution in 37 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Guo, Xiao-Lei; Wisman, G Bea A; Schuuring, Ed; Wang, Wen-Feng; Zeng, Zheng-Yu; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Shang-Wei

    2015-07-04

    Type-specific high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection is related to cervical carcinogenesis. The prevalence of hrHPV infection varies geographically, which might reflect the epidemiological characteristics of cervical cancer among different populations. To establish a foundation for HPV-based screening and vaccination programs in China, we investigated the most recent HPV prevalence and genotypic distributions in different female age groups and geographical regions in China. In 2012, a total of 120,772 liquid-based cytological samples from women enrolled for population- or employee-based cervical screening in 37 Chinese cities were obtained by the Laboratory of Molecular Infectious Diseases of Guangzhou KingMed. A total of 111,131 samples were tested by Hybrid Capture II and the other 9,641 were genotyped using the Tellgenplex™ HPV DNA Assay. The total positive rate for hrHPV was 21.07 %, which ranged from 18.42 % (Nanchang) to 31.94 % (Haikou) and varied by region. The regions of Nanchang, Changsha, Hangzhou, Chengdu, Fuzhou, Guangdong, and Guiyang could be considered the low prevalence regions. Age-specific prevalence showed a "two-peak" pattern, with the youngest age group (15-19 years) presenting the highest hrHPV infection rate (30.55 %), followed by a second peak for the 50-60-year-old group. Overall, the most prevalent genotypes were HPV16 (4.82 %) and HPV52 (4.52 %), followed by HPV58 (2.74 %). Two genotypes HPV6 (4.01 %) and HPV11 (2.29 %) were predominant in the low-risk HPV (lrHPV) type, while the mixed genotypes HPV16 + 52 and HPV52 + 58 were most common in women with multiple infections. This study shows that HPV infection in China has increased to the level of an "HPV-heavy-burden" zone in certain regions, with prevalence varying significantly among different ages and regions. Data from this study represent the most current survey of the nationwide prevalence of HPV infection in China, and can serve as valuable reference to guide nationwide cervical cancer

  7. Electronic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Educator, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "The Electronic School" features a special forum on computer networking. Articles specifically focus on network operating systems, cabling requirements, and network architecture. Tom Wall argues that virtual reality is not yet ready for classroom use. B.J. Novitsky profiles two high schools experimenting with CD-ROM…

  8. Hacker School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Leonard

    1993-01-01

    The author reminisces about his educational experience at a small school in Maine during the late 1930s, revealing the respect he extended toward his teachers, what it was like to grow up during this time period, and his feelings upon returning to the now vacant school. (LP)

  9. Democratic Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W., Ed.; Beane, James A., Ed.

    This book illustrates how educators in four U.S. communities committed themselves to preparing students for the democratic way of life. In four narratives, educators directly involved in four different school-reform efforts describe how they initiated demographic practices in their educational settings. The four schools serve as reminders that…

  10. School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Héctor A.

    2015-01-01

    The school performance study of students is, due to its relevance and complexity, one of the issues of major controversy in the educational research, and it has been given special attention in the last decades. This study is intended to show a conceptual approach to the school performance construct, contextualizing the reality in the regular basic…

  11. IEEE Computer Society/Software Engineering Institute Watts S. Humphrey Software Process Achievement (SPA) Award 2016: Nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-05

    better able to manage demand, and predict project success. Strategic Aspirations • Business leaders rely on IT for trusted advice and technology... strategic alignment, business value, and our ability to deliver. By ensuring that we are working on the right things at the right time, we are...one of over 20 different business unit leaders . In this model Nationwide benefited from deep business partner relationships and strong domain

  12. The psychosocial work environment among physicians employed at Danish oncology departments in 2009. A nationwide cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2013-01-01

    Working as a physician at an oncology department has some distinctive characteristics that may lead to a stressful work environment. The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide description of the work conditions of all oncologists in Denmark. By comparing the results of the present...... study with those of a similar study carried out in 2006, the aim was furthermore to elucidate changes in the psychosocial work environment over time....

  13. Identifying effective actions to guide volunteer-based and nationwide conservation efforts for a ground-nesting farmland bird

    OpenAIRE

    Santangeli, Andrea; Arroyo, Beatriz; Millon, Alexandre; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Modern farming practices threaten wildlife in different ways, and failure to identify the complexity of multiple threats acting in synergy may result in ineffective management. To protect ground-nesting birds in farmland, monitoring and mitigating impacts of mechanical harvesting is crucial. Here, we use 6 years of data from a nationwide volunteer-based monitoring scheme of the Montagu's harrier, a ground-nesting raptor, in French farmlands. We assess the effectiveness of alternative nest pro...

  14. Statin therapy and mortality in HIV-infected individuals; a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that statins possess diverse immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. As statins might attenuate inflammation, statin therapy has been hypothesized to reduce mortality in HIV-infected individuals. We therefore used a Danish nationwide cohort of HIV......-infected individuals to estimate the impact of statin use on mortality before and after a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease or diabetes....

  15. Comment on the article titled "Increased Incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Polymyositis: A Nationwide Cohort Study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parperis, Konstantinos

    2017-10-03

    With interest, I read the recent article in Arthritis Care and Research titled "Increased Incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Polymyositis: A Nationwide Cohort Study" (1). Tseng at al (1) conducted a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan, exploring a link between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and polymyositis (PM). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Organization of school health education in obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Woźniak-Holecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal body weight poses a risk of the development of various health disorders, having a negative impact on the quality and length of life. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children is estimated to be 10–20%. In Poland this figure reaches 18%. A war on the epidemic obesity waged from the youngest age of the child is a strategy that brings long-term health benefits for the entire population. Apart from the family, the school is the second important educational environment responsible for conducting health education activities among children and teenagers. School health education programs should be implementing by teachers in collaboration with other school staff, parents and the broadly understood local community. Comprehensive health education aiming at combating obesity should cover the entire population of school children and teenagers, with special attention given to high risk groups. The school, undertaking health education activities aimed at preventing abnormal body weight, should implement nationwide programs for the prevention of obesity, and should also pursue its own health education program based on its curriculum. In most cases, development of obesity at children results from improper eating habits and insufficient physical activity, and therefore school health education programs aimed at the prevention of overweight and obesity should focus on these two most important modifiable risk factors of abnormal body weight.

  17. School reintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeney, P

    1995-01-01

    School reintegration programs have been developed to enhance a positive sense of self-worth in a child who has been burned. The premise of these programs is that cognitive and affective education about children with burns will diminish the anxiety of the patient with burns, the patient's family, faculty and staff of the school, and the students. Five principles guide school reentry programs: (1) preparation begins as soon as possible; (2) planning includes the patient and family; (3) each program is individualized; (4) each patient is encouraged to return to school quickly after hospital discharge; and (5) burn team professionals remain available for consultation to the school. Reintegration programs can vary in format depending on patient and/or family need and capability of the burn team, thus allowing flexibility in assisting every child with burns make the transition from hospital patient to normal living.

  18. Nursery School

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Registration of school year of 2014-2015 at the Nursery school of Cern Staff Association     Dear parents, We would like to inform you that the dates of enrolments will be 3, 4 and 5th March 2014 from 8:00 a.m to 10:00 a.m at the nursery school Bulding 562. Reminder : From 0-2 years, your child goes to the nursery, from 2-4 to the kindergarten, and from 4 years onwards, your child will join the school, following the program of first and second year of primary school (première and deuxième primaire in the Swiss system), which corresponds to the moyenne and grande section in France.

  19. Tree biomass in the Swiss landscape: nationwide modelling for improved accounting for forest and non-forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, B; Gomez, A; Mathys, L; Gardi, O; Schellenberger, A; Ginzler, C; Thürig, E

    2017-03-01

    Trees outside forest (TOF) can perform a variety of social, economic and ecological functions including carbon sequestration. However, detailed quantification of tree biomass is usually limited to forest areas. Taking advantage of structural information available from stereo aerial imagery and airborne laser scanning (ALS), this research models tree biomass using national forest inventory data and linear least-square regression and applies the model both inside and outside of forest to create a nationwide model for tree biomass (above ground and below ground). Validation of the tree biomass model against TOF data within settlement areas shows relatively low model performance (R 2 of 0.44) but still a considerable improvement on current biomass estimates used for greenhouse gas inventory and carbon accounting. We demonstrate an efficient and easily implementable approach to modelling tree biomass across a large heterogeneous nationwide area. The model offers significant opportunity for improved estimates on land use combination categories (CC) where tree biomass has either not been included or only roughly estimated until now. The ALS biomass model also offers the advantage of providing greater spatial resolution and greater within CC spatial variability compared to the current nationwide estimates.

  20. Modeling a National Collaborative Digital Library for Malaysian Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Edzan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the conceptualisation of a model for a collaborative digital library specially tailored for Malaysian secondary schools, which will support classroom teaching and learning. The move towards collaboratively building the contents of a digital library is a fairly recent trend and it simulates an environment where partners are empowered to participate in building and up keeping the knowledge contents of the system. The conceptualisation of a Malaysian digital library is in line with the governments efforts in establishing SMART schools. However, various issues such as identifying local resources, ascertaining the needs of it users, and establishing a framework to meet these needs, must be addressed before the digital library can be fully implemented. It may be approached through the establishment of test beds in a particular learning institution, before nationwide implementation.

  1. The association between school exam grades and subsequent development of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffie Damgaard; Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Petersen, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    and bipolar I disorder (BD-I) has not been studied. Therefore, we aimed to study the association between school exam grades and subsequent development of BD and BD-I while adjusting for parental history of mental disorder. METHODS: We conducted a register-based nationwide cohort study following 505 688......OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have indicated that both high and low school grades are associated with development of bipolar disorder (BD), but these studies have not adjusted for parental history of mental disorder, which is a likely confounder. Furthermore, the association between school grades...... individuals born in Denmark between 1987 and 1995. We investigated the association between school exam grades and development of BD or BD-I with a Cox model adjusting for family history of mental disorder and other potential confounders. RESULTS: During follow-up, 900 individuals were diagnosed with BD...

  2. Do school inspections improve primary school performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Dinand Webbink; Rob Luginbuhl; I. de Wolf

    2007-01-01

    Inspectors from the Dutch Inspectorate of Education inspect primary schools, write inspection reports on each inspected school, and make recommendations as to how each school can improve. We test whether these inspections result in better school performance. Using a fixed-effects model, we find evidence that school inspections do lead to measurably better school performance. Our assessment of school performance is based on the Cito test scores of pupils in their final year of primary school. ...

  3. Exploring community pharmacists' views on generic medicines: a nationwide study from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chee Ping; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Bahari, Mohd Baidi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the Malaysian community pharmacists' views on generic medicines. A sample of 1419 Malaysian community pharmacies with resident pharmacists. A cross-sectional nationwide survey using a self-completed mailing questionnaire. Pharmacists' views on generic medicines including issues surrounding efficacy, safety, quality and bioequivalence. Responses were received from 219 pharmacies (response rate 15.4%). Only 50.2% of the surveyed pharmacists agreed that all products that are approved as generic equivalents can be considered therapeutically equivalent with the innovator medicines. Around 76% of respondents indicated that generic substitution of narrow therapeutic index medicines is inappropriate. The majority of the pharmacists understood that a generic medicine must contain the same amount of active ingredient (84.5%) and must be in the same dosage form as the innovator brand (71.7%). About 21% of respondents though that generic medicines are of inferior quality compared to innovator medicines. Most of the pharmacists (61.6%) disagreed that generic medicines produce more side-effects than innovator brand. Pharmacists graduated from Malaysian universities, twinning program and overseas universities were not differed significantly in their views on generic medicines. Additionally, the respondents appeared to have difficulty in ascertaining the bioequivalent status of the marketed generic products in Malaysia. The Malaysian pharmacists' have lack of information and/or trust in the generic manufacturing and/or approval system in Malaysia. This issue should be addressed by pharmacy educators and relevant government agencies.

  4. Sleep apnea and risk of vertigo: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shao; Lee, Li-Ang; Tsai, Yao-Te; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Liu, Chia-Yen; Lin, Meng-Hung; Hsu, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Chin-Kuo; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the risk of vertigo in patients with sleep apnea. Retrospective cohort study. This study used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a population-based database. A total of 5,025 patients who were newly diagnosed with sleep apnea between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012, were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a nationally representative database of 1 million randomly selected patients. Moreover, 20,100 patients without sleep apnea were matched at a 1:4 ratio by age, sex, socioeconomic status, and urbanization level. Patients were followed up until death or the end of the study period (December 31, 2013). The primary outcome was the occurrence of vertigo. Patients with sleep apnea had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of vertigo than those without sleep apnea (P vertigo (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-1.97; P diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and obesity. Sleep apnea was demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for vertigo. This is the first nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between sleep apnea and vertigo. The findings strongly support that sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for vertigo. Based on the study results, physicians should be aware of potential vertigo occurrence following sleep apnea. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:763-768, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Stressful life-events in childhood and risk of multiple sclerosis: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo V; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Frisch, Morten

    2014-10-01

    Current knowledge concerning the association between exposure to stressful life-events (SFLEs) in childhood and later risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) is sparse. We studied the associations between SFLEs in childhood and subsequent risk of MS in a nationwide cohort of 2.9 million Danes born from 1968 to 2011. A SFLE in childhood was defined as exposure before age 18 years to parental divorce, parental death, or death of a sibling, using information from the Danish Civil Registration System. MS cases in the cohort were identified in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. Associations of SFLE with MS risk were evaluated by incidence rate ratios (RR) of MS obtained in log-linear Poisson regression models. Persons exposed to any SFLE in childhood were at 11% elevated risk of MS (RR = 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.20), compared to non-exposed persons. Stratification by subtype of SFLE showed that parental death and death of a sibling were not associated with MS risk. However, persons exposed to parental divorce were at 13% increased risk of developing MS compared to non-exposed (RR = 1.13; 1.04-1.23). Associations of SFLEs in childhood with risk of MS are weak. However, parental divorce is somehow associated with modestly increased risk of MS. © The Author(s), 2014.

  6. Modifying Health Behavior to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases: A Nationwide Survey among German Primary Care Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schneider

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Primary care is considered to be the ideal setting for CVD prevention. Therefore, more than 4,000 German primary care physicians (PCPs were asked about their attitudes towards and their activities regarding the prevention of CVD in the nationwide ÄSP-kardio Study. The focus of the study was on health behavior modification. Two thirds of the participating PCPs stated that they routinely provided brief inventions to assist patients in reducing both their tobacco (72% and alcohol (61% consumption, to encourage them to increase their levels of physical activity (72%, and to assist them in adjusting to a more healthy diet (66%, and in achieving a healthy body weight (69%. However, only between 23% (quitting smoking and 49% (diet modification of PCPs felt that they had been successful in helping patients modify their lifestyles. Insufficient reimbursement, cultural diversity and a lack of time were reported to be the most problematic barriers to successful intervention in the primary care setting. Despite these obstacles, the majority of German PCPs was engaged in prevention and health behavior intervention to reduce the incidence and progression of CVD.

  7. Subsequent fracture rates in a nationwide population-based cohort study with a 10-year perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L; Petersen, K D; Eriksen, S A

    2014-01-01

    with an index fracture (ICD-10 codes: S22.x, S32.x, S42.x, S52.x, S62.x, S72.x, S82.x, S92.x, T02.x, T08.x, T10.x and T12.x) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2001 and if older than 50 years at time of fracture. The patients were investigated for future subsequent fractures from January 1st, 2002......Summary: Fractures after the age of 50 are frequently observed in Denmark, and many of these may be osteoporotic. This study examined the incidence of all and subsequent fractures in a 10-year period from 2001 to 2011. The incidence of subsequent fractures was high, especially following hip...... fracture. Introduction: The purpose of this study is to examine patterns of subsequent fractures and mortality rates over a 10-year period in patients already suffering from fracture. Methods: The study was designed as a nationwide, registerbased follow-up study. Patients were included if diagnosed...

  8. Increased risk of Bell palsy in patients with migraine: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kuan-Po; Chen, Yung-Tai; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-01-13

    To evaluate the association between migraine and Bell palsy and to examine the effects of age, sex, migraine subtype, and comorbid risk factors for Bell palsy. This nationwide cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Subjects aged 18 years or older with neurologist-diagnosed migraine from 2005 to 2009 were included. A nonheadache age- and propensity score-matched control cohort was selected for comparison. All subjects were followed until the end of 2010, death, or the occurrence of a Bell palsy event. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals to compare the risk of Bell palsy between groups. Both cohorts (n = 136,704 each) were followed for a mean of 3.2 years. During the follow-up period, 671 patients (424,372 person-years) in the migraine cohort and 365 matched control subjects (438,677 person-years) were newly diagnosed with Bell palsy (incidence rates, 158.1 and 83.2/100,000 person-years, respectively). The adjusted hazard ratio for Bell palsy was 1.91 (95% confidence interval, 1.68-2.17; p Bell palsy remained significant in sensitivity analyses, and tests of interaction failed to reach significance in all subgroup analyses. Migraine is a previously unidentified risk factor for Bell palsy. The association between these 2 conditions suggests a linked disease mechanism, which is worthy of further exploration. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. User Interface Problems of a Nationwide Inpatient Information System: A Heuristic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashi, Alireza; Khajouei, Reza; Azizi, Amirabbas; Dadashi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    While studies have shown that usability evaluation could uncover many design problems of health information systems, the usability of health information systems in developing countries using their native language is poorly studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usability of a nationwide inpatient information system used in many academic hospitals in Iran. Three trained usability evaluators independently evaluated the system using Nielsen's 10 usability heuristics. The evaluators combined identified problems in a single list and independently rated the severity of the problems. We statistically compared the number and severity of problems identified by HIS experienced and non-experienced evaluators. A total of 158 usability problems were identified. After removing duplications 99 unique problems were left. The highest mismatch with usability principles was related to "Consistency and standards" heuristic (25%) and the lowest related to "Flexibility and efficiency of use" (4%). The average severity of problems ranged from 2.4 (Major problem) to 3.3 (Catastrophe problem). The experienced evaluator with HIS identified significantly more problems and gave higher severities to problems (pusers' and patients' time, increase errors and finally threaten patient's safety. Many of them can be fixed with simple redesign solutions such as using clear labels and better layouts. This study suggests conducting further studies to confirm the findings concerning effect of evaluator experience on the results of Heuristic Evaluation.

  11. West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in the Greek Population in 2013: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Pournaras, Spyros; Mavrouli, Maria; Marka, Andriani; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Baka, Agoritsa; Billinis, Charalambos; Katsioulis, Antonios; Psaroulaki, Anna; Papa, Anna; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Mamuris, Zissis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) disease were recorded for three consecutive years in Greece following the year 2010 outbreak. A cross-sectional serologic survey was conducted to estimate the WNV seroprevalence and assess the ratio of infection to neuroinvasive disease. A stratified left-over sampling methodology was used including age and residence strata. A total of 3,962 serum samples was collected and tested for WNV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). All positive samples were further tested by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) and WNV Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. WNV IgG antibodies were detected in 82 samples and 61 were also positive in PRNT representing a weighted seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% C.I.: 1.7–2.6) and 1.5% (95% C.I.: 1.2–2.0), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that seroprevalence was associated with age and residence. The overall ratio of neuroinvasive disease to infected persons was estimated at 1:376 (95% C.I.: 1:421–1:338), while the elderly people had the highest ratio. This nationwide study provided valuable data regarding the epidemiology of WNV in Greece based on the fact that elderly people have higher risk of being both infected and having severe disease. PMID:26605539

  12. Palliative sedation at home in the Netherlands: a nationwide survey among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkkemper, Tijn; Klinkenberg, Marianne; Deliens, Luc; Eliel, Miriam; Rietjens, Judith A C; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; Perez, Roberto S G M

    2011-08-01

    This paper is a report of a nationwide study conducted to assess experiences of nurses involved in palliative sedation at home after introduction of a physicians' guideline for palliative sedation. Most studies investigating the practice of palliative sedation focus on physicians' practices and attitudes. However, little is known about experiences and attitudes of nurses. A web-based structured questionnaire was offered to 387 nurses providing medical technical care in 2007, assessing their experiences concerning decision-making, treatment policy and communication, focussing on the last patient receiving palliative sedation. The questionnaire was filled out by 201 nurses (response rate 52%). The majority of respondents agreed with the indication for palliative sedation. However, 21% reported to have refused carrying out a palliative sedation in the preceding year. The general practitioner was not present at the start of palliative sedation in a third of the cases, but was available when needed. The sedation was considered insufficiently effective by 42% of the respondents. According to a third of the respondents, the level of sedation was not related to the required level of symptom relief nor were changes in dosage based on the severity of symptoms. Although the guideline for palliative sedation appears to be followed adequately in the majority of cases with respect to indication for palliative sedation and reportage. The survey findings revealed shortcomings in medication policy, communication, medical control over the start and continued monitoring of palliative sedation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Explaining public satisfaction with health-care systems: findings from a nationwide survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Neil; Duckett, Jane

    2016-06-01

    To identify factors associated with health-care system satisfaction in China. Recent research suggests that socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported health, income and insurance, ideological beliefs, health-care utilization, media use and perceptions of services may affect health-care system satisfaction, but the relative importance of these factors is poorly understood. New data from China offer the opportunity to test theories about the sources of health-care system satisfaction. Stratified nationwide survey sample analysed using multilevel logistic regression. 3680 Chinese adults residing in family dwellings between 1 November 2012 and 17 January 2013. Satisfaction with the way the health-care system in China is run. We find only weak associations between satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported health and income. We do, however, find that satisfaction is strongly associated with having insurance and belief in personal responsibility for meeting health-care costs. We also find it is negatively associated with utilization, social media use, perceptions of access as unequal and perceptions of service providers as unethical. To improve satisfaction, Chinese policymakers - and their counterparts in countries with similar health-care system characteristics - should improve insurance coverage and the quality of health services, and tackle unethical medical practices. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Traffic-related air pollution increased the risk of Parkinson's disease in Taiwan: A nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Liu, Li-Ling; Sun, Yu; Chen, Yu-An; Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Ritz, Beate

    2016-11-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with many health conditions, but little is known about its effects on neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the influence of ambient air pollution on PD in a nationwide population-based case-control study in Taiwan. We identified 11,117 incident PD patients between 2007 and 2009 from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database and selected 44,468 age- and gender-matched population controls from the longitudinal health insurance database. The average ambient pollutant exposure concentrations from 1998 through the onset of PD were estimated using quantile-based Bayesian Maximum Entropy models. Basing from logistic regression models, we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ambient pollutant exposures and PD risk. We observed positive associations between NO x , CO exposures, and PD. In multi-pollutant models, for NO x and CO above the 75th percentile exposure compared with the lowest percentile, the ORs of PD were 1.37 (95% CI=1.23-1.52) and 1.17 (95% CI=1.07-1.27), respectively. This study suggests that ambient air pollution exposure, especially from traffic-related pollutants such as NO x and CO, increases PD risk in the Taiwanese population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Symptomatic treatment in multiple sclerosis-interim analysis of a nationwide registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skierlo, S; Rommer, P S; Zettl, U K

    2017-04-01

    To analyze symptomatic treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, with accumulating disability symptoms like spasticity, voiding disorders, depression, and pain might occur. The nationwide German MS registry was initiated 2001 under guidance of the German MS society (Deutsche MS Gesellschaft). This study was performed as an interim analysis to lay foundation for future work on this topic. A subcohort of 5113 patients was assessed for this interim analysis. The mean age of the patients was 45.3 years; mean EDSS was 4.2. More than two-third of the enrolled patients were females (70.9%). Most frequent symptoms were fatigue (60%), followed by spasticity (52.5%) and voiding disorders (51.7%). The likelihood of treatment was highest for epileptic disorders (68.8%), spasticity (68.5%), pain (60.7%), and depression (58.9%). Multivariate regression analysis showed that retirement was the strongest factor predictive for antispastic treatment (β=.061, P=.005). Almost all patients in this analysis suffer from symptoms due to advanced MS. Treatment for the various symptoms differed tremendously. The likelihood of treatment correlated with the availability of effective therapeutic agents. Clinicians should put more awareness on MS symptoms. Symptomatic treatment may improve quality of life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Nationwide Assessment of the Burden of Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Becerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of urinary tract infection (UTI among renal transplant recipients. Methods. A secondary analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2009–2011 was conducted. Survey-weighted multivariable regression analyses were used to examine the impact of UTI on transplant complications, total charges, and length of stay. Results. A total of 1,044 renal transplant recipients, representing a population estimate of 49,862, were included in the study. UTI was most common in transplant recipients with hypertension (53% and prevalence was noted to be 28.2 and 65.9 cases per 1,000 for men and women, respectively. UTI increased the likelihood of transplant complications (182% for men, 169% for women. Total charges were 28% higher among men as compared to 22% among women with UTI. Such infection also increased the length of stay by 87% among men and 74% among women. Discussion. UTI in renal transplant recipients was associated with prolonged length of stay, total charges, and increased odds of transplant complications. Interventions to prevent UTI among such patients should be a priority area for future research and practice.

  17. Coronary Atherectomy in the United States (from a Nationwide Inpatient Sample).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shilpkumar; Panaich, Sidakpal S; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Savani, Chirag; Patel, Samir V; Thakkar, Badal; Sonani, Rajesh; Jhamnani, Sunny; Singh, Vikas; Lahewala, Sopan; Patel, Achint; Bhatt, Parth; Shah, Harshil; Jaiswal, Radhika; Gupta, Vishal; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Kondur, Ashok; Schreiber, Theodore; Badheka, Apurva O; Grines, Cindy

    2016-02-15

    Contemporary real-world data on clinical outcomes after utilization of coronary atherectomy are sparse. The study cohort was derived from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from year 2012. Percutaneous coronary interventions including atherectomy were identified using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnostic and procedural codes. Two-level hierarchical multivariate mixed models were created. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality and periprocedural complications; the secondary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Hospitalization costs were also assessed. A total of 107,131 procedures were identified in 2012. Multivariate analysis revealed that atherectomy utilization was independently predictive of greater primary composite outcome of in-hospital mortality and complications (odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.47, p atherectomy utilization was again associated with a higher rate of complications (12.88% vs 10.99%, p = 0.001), in-hospital mortality +a ny complication (13.69% vs 11.91%, p = 0.003) with a nonsignificant difference in terms of in-hospital mortality alone (3.45% vs 2.88%, p = 0.063) and higher hospitalization costs ($25,341 ± 353 vs $21,984 ± 87, p Atherectomy utilization during percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with a higher rate of postprocedural complications without any significant impact on in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parental occupation and preterm births: a nationwide epidemiological study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Kane, Kimberly; Jin, Qianren; Sundquist, Kristina

    2010-11-01

    The hypothesis was that some occupations could lead to preterm birth (PTB) because of potential exposures to various agents. The objective in this nationwide follow-up study was to analyse the association between PTB and parental occupational groups, controlling for potential confounders. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, in which all children born in Sweden from 1990 onward are registered with their parents, were linked to census data. Inclusion criteria for the study population were employment (both women and men) and age >20 years (women). There were 816,743 first singleton live births from 1990 to 2004, of whom 43,956 were PTBs. A total of 7659 of the 43,956 PTBs were very PTBs. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated separately for mothers and fathers to estimate the odds of PTB and very PTB in 51 occupational groups (reference groups: mothers or fathers who were 'Technical, science research-related workers and physicians') and by family income level. Women and men with low family incomes had increased ORs of PTB and very PTB. Significantly increased ORs of PTB (including very PTB) were found in four maternal and nine paternal occupational groups after accounting for family income, geographic region of residence, civil status, smoking habits, maternal age at infant's birth and period of birth. Further studies should examine specific agents in those parental occupations that were associated with increased odds of PTB and very PTB. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Quantification of diabetes comorbidity risks across life using nation-wide big claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Chmiel, Anna; Schiller-Frühwirth, Irmgard; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Despite substantial progress in the study of diabetes, important questions remain about its comorbidities and clinical heterogeneity. To explore these issues, we develop a framework allowing for the first time to quantify nation-wide risks and their age- and sex-dependence for each diabetic comorbidity, and whether the association may be consequential or causal, in a sample of almost two million patients. This study is equivalent to nearly 40,000 single clinical measurements. We confirm the highly controversial relation of increased risk for Parkinson's disease in diabetics, using a 10 times larger cohort than previous studies on this relation. Detection of type 1 diabetes leads detection of depressions, whereas there is a strong comorbidity relation between type 2 diabetes and schizophrenia, suggesting similar pathogenic or medication-related mechanisms. We find significant sex differences in the progression of, for instance, sleep disorders and congestive heart failure in diabetic patients. Hypertension is a highly sex-sensitive comorbidity with females being at lower risk during fertile age, but at higher risk otherwise. These results may be useful to improve screening practices in the general population. Clinical management of diabetes must address age- and sex-dependence of multiple comorbid conditions.

  20. [Physician Shortage: How to Prevent Generation Y From Staying Away - Results of a Nationwide Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, R; Engelhardt, M; Förch, M; Merk, H; Walcher, F; Fröhlich, S

    2016-04-01

    Medical students' attitudes and expectations about their future working life are changing. To hire the best talents from Generation Y, hospitals must pay attention to these factors to make working in patient care more attractive. However, little detailed knowledge about the professional and career expectations of today's medical students is available to date. In a nationwide online survey, a total of 9079 medical students from all German medical faculties returned the questionnaire. Twenty-one questions related to future career choices and work satisfaction, followed by 21 questions dealing with reasons for not working in patient care. Factor analysis yielded five factors: work-life balance, career, professional needs, working atmosphere, and prestige. A correlation analysis between these factors and respondents' socio-demographic data revealed significant correlations with sex, specialty choice, and marital/parental status. A correlation analysis with "reasons for not working in patient care" revealed that work-life balance, career, professional needs, and working atmosphere had high priority for both sexes. It is crucial to collect data on the work satisfaction of Generation Y, whose members are motivated and willing to perform in today's highly demanding work environment. However, sex-dependent/independent expectations must be met to make the medical profession more attractive, to overcome the Germany-wide shortage of physicians, and to attract young doctors to the hospitals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. A Nationwide Study of the Impact of Dysphagia on Hospital Outcomes Among Patients With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranji, Suchitra; Paranji, Neethi; Wright, Scott; Chandra, Shalini

    2017-02-01

    To assess the impact of dysphagia on clinical and operational outcomes in hospitalized patients with dementia. Retrospective cohort study. 2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. All patients discharged with a diagnosis of dementia (N = 234,006) from US hospitals in 2012. Univariate and multivariate regression models, adjusting for stroke and patient characteristics, to assess the impact of dysphagia on the prevalence of comorbidities, including pneumonia, sepsis, and malnutrition; complications, including mechanical ventilation and death; and operational outcomes, including length of stay (LOS) and total charges for patients with dementia. Patients having dementia with dysphagia (DWD) had significantly higher odds of having percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement during the admission (odds ratio [OR]: 13.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.53-14.95, P dysphagia. Dysphagia is a significant predictor of worse clinical and operational outcomes including a 38% longer LOS and a 30% increase in charge per case among hospitalized patients with dementia. Although these findings may not be surprising, this new evidence might bring heightened awareness for the need to more thoughtfully support patients with dementia and dysphagia who are hospitalized.

  2. Nationwide survey of dental radiographic examination and estimation of collective effective dose in Japan, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Kazuo; Satomi, Chieko; Kawashima, Shoji; Hashimoto, Koji; Nishizawa, Kanae; Maruyama, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    A nationwide survey of dental X-ray examination in Japan was performed in 1999, and the effective exposure dose due to the dental X-ray examination was estimated. In Japan, most dental X-ray equipment are used at a tube voltage of 60 kV and a tube current of 10 mA. Dental film in speed group D is most frequently used for dental X ray examination. Fifty percent or more of dental clinics processed the films automatically. Seventy-five percent of dental clinics performed dental X-ray examinations in a separate X-ray room. The number of dental X-ray examinations in 1999 in Japan was estimated to be 82,301,000 for intra-oral radiography and 12,336,000 for panoramic radiography. The collective effective exposure dose in 1999 was estimated at 905.5 man·Sv, for intra-oral radiography and 128.9 man·Sv for panoramic radiography. (author)

  3. Mental disorders and suicide in Japan: a nation-wide psychological autopsy case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Seiko; Kawakami, Norito; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Inagaki, Akiko; Eguchi, Nozomi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Katsumata, Yotaro; Akazawa, Masato; Kameyama, Akiko; Tachimori, Hisateru; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the present nationwide psychological autopsy case-control study is to identify the association between mental disorders and suicide in Japan, adjusting for physical conditions. A semi-structured interview was conducted of the closest family members of 49 suicide completers and 145 gender-, age-, and municipality-matched living controls. The interview included sections of socio-demographic characteristics, physical conditions, and a psychiatric interview producing DSM-IV diagnoses of mental disorders prior to suicide (or at survey). We compared prevalences of mental disorders between the two groups, using conditional logistic regression. A significantly higher proportion with any mental disorder was found in the suicide group (65.3%) compared to the control group (4.8%) (p=0.003, odds ratio [OR]=7.5). The population attributable risk proportion associated with mental disorder was 0.24. Mood disorder, particularly major depressive disorder, was the most strongly associated with suicide (pmental disorders, particularly mood disorder, were significantly associated with a greater risk of suicide in Japan, independent of physical conditions. Mental disorders are a major target of suicide prevention programs in Japan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from male urethritis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Uehara, Shinya; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hayami, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Ito, Shin; Narita, Harunori; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Sumii, Toru; Ito, Kenji; Hosobe, Takahide; Kawai, Shuichi; Kawano, Hiromi; Takayama, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Endo, Katsuhisa; Yamauchi, Takamine; Maeda, Shinichi; Yoh, Mutsumasa; Horie, Masanobu; Ito, Masayasu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideari; Akiyama, Kikuo; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kaji, Shinichi; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Sato, Takashi; Konishi, Takatoshi; Nishi, Shohei; Ishihara, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Masaru

    2013-08-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most important pathogens causing sexually transmitted infection, and strains that are resistant to several antimicrobials are increasing. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance. The urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 51 medical facilities from April 2009 to October 2010. Of the 156 specimens, 83 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of β-lactamase-producing strains and chromosomally mediated resistant strains were 7.2 % and 16.5 %, respectively. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ceftriaxone for 7 strains (8.4 %) was 0.125 μg/ml. One strain was resistant to cefixime (MIC 0.5 μg/ml). The MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tosufloxacin, showed a bimodal distribution. The MIC of sitafloxacin was lower than those of the three fluoroquinolones listed here, and it was found that the antimicrobial activity of sitafloxacin was stronger than that of the fluoroquinolones. The MIC of azithromycin in 2 strains was 2 μg/ml, but no high-level resistance to macrolides was detected.

  5. Quantification of diabetes comorbidity risks across life using nation-wide big claims data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klimek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial progress in the study of diabetes, important questions remain about its comorbidities and clinical heterogeneity. To explore these issues, we develop a framework allowing for the first time to quantify nation-wide risks and their age- and sex-dependence for each diabetic comorbidity, and whether the association may be consequential or causal, in a sample of almost two million patients. This study is equivalent to nearly 40,000 single clinical measurements. We confirm the highly controversial relation of increased risk for Parkinson's disease in diabetics, using a 10 times larger cohort than previous studies on this relation. Detection of type 1 diabetes leads detection of depressions, whereas there is a strong comorbidity relation between type 2 diabetes and schizophrenia, suggesting similar pathogenic or medication-related mechanisms. We find significant sex differences in the progression of, for instance, sleep disorders and congestive heart failure in diabetic patients. Hypertension is a highly sex-sensitive comorbidity with females being at lower risk during fertile age, but at higher risk otherwise. These results may be useful to improve screening practices in the general population. Clinical management of diabetes must address age- and sex-dependence of multiple comorbid conditions.

  6. The costs and effects of a nationwide insecticide-treated net programme: the case of Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Juan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are a proven intervention to reduce the burden of malaria, yet there remains a debate as to the best method of ensuring they are universally utilized. This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis of an intervention in Malawi that started in 1998, in Blantyre district, before expanding nationwide. Over the 5-year period, 1.5 million ITNs were sold. Methods The costs were calculated retrospectively through analysis of expenditure data. Costs and effects were measured as cost per treated-net year (cost/TNY and cost per net distributed. Results The mean cost/TNY was calculated at $4.41, and the mean cost/ITN distributed at $2.63. It also shows evidence of economies of scale, with the cost/TNY falling from $7.69 in year one (72,196 ITN to $3.44 in year five (720,577 ITN. Cost/ITN distributed dropped from $5.04 to $1.92. Conclusion Combining targeting and social marketing has the potential of being both cost-effective and capable of achieving high levels of coverage, and it is possible that increasing returns to scale can be achieved.

  7. Pattern of Ambulatory Care Visits to Obstetrician-Gynecologists in Taiwan: A Nationwide Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Min Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs are the main actors in the provision of health care to women, their practice patterns have rarely been analyzed. The current study investigated the nationwide ambulatory visits to OB-GYNs in Taiwan using the National Health Insurance Research Database. From the 1/500 sampling datasets indicating 619,760 ambulatory visits in 2012, it was found that 5.8% (n = 35,697 of the visits were made to OB-GYNs. Two-fifths of the services provided were performed by male OB-GYNs aged 50–59 years. Women of childbearing age accounted for more than half of the visits to OB-GYNs (57.2%, and elderly patients above 60 years accounted for only 7.7%. The most frequent diagnoses were menstrual disorders and other forms of abnormal bleeding from the female genital tract (13.1%. Anti-infective agents were prescribed in 15.1% of the visits to OB-GYNs. The study revealed the proportion of aging practicing OB-GYNs, and our detailed results could contribute to evidence-based discussions on health policymaking.

  8. Information-searching behaviors of main and allied health professionals: a nationwide survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Ken N; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lo, Heng-Lien; Shih, Ya-Hui; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2013-10-01

    There are a variety of resources to obtain health information, but few studies have examined if main and allied health professionals prefer different methods. The current study was to investigate their information-searching behaviours. A constructed questionnaire survey was conducted from January through April 2011 in nationwide regional hospitals of Taiwan. Questionnaires were mailed to main professionals (physicians and nurses) and allied professionals (pharmacists, physical therapists, technicians and others), with 6160 valid returns collected. Among all professional groups, the most commonly used resource for seeking health information was a Web portal, followed by colleague consultations and continuing education. Physicians more often accessed Internet-based professional resources (online databases, electronic journals and electronic books) than the other groups (P < 0.05). In contrast, physical therapists more often accessed printed resources (printed journals and textbooks) than the other specialists (P < 0.05). And nurses, physical therapists and technicians more often asked colleagues and used continuing education than the other groups (P < 0.01). The most commonly used online database was Micromedex for pharmacists and MEDLINE for physicians, technicians and physical therapists. Nurses more often accessed Chinese-language databases rather than English-language databases (P < 0.001). This national survey depicts the information-searching pattern of various health professionals. There were significant differences between and within main and allied health professionals in their information searching. The data provide clinical implications for strategies to promote the accessing of evidence-based information. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Attachment to God, Images of God, and Psychological Distress in a Nationwide Sample of Presbyterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G; Marcum, Jack P

    2010-01-01

    Drawing broadly on insights from attachment theory, the present study outlines a series of theoretical arguments linking styles of attachment to God, perceptions of the nature of God (i.e., God imagery), and stressful life events with psychological distress. Main effects and potential stress-moderator effects are then evaluated using data from a nationwide sample of elders and rank-and-file members of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Key findings indicate that secure attachment to God is inversely associated with distress, whereas both anxious attachment to God and stressful life events are positively related to distress. Once variations in patterns of attachment to God are controlled, there are no net effects of God imagery on levels of distress. There is only modest support for the hypothesis that God images moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychological distress, but no stress-moderator effects were found for attachment to God. Study limitations are identified, and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for religion-health research, as well as recent extensions of attachment theory.

  10. [Contextual factors regarding the effectiveness of tuberculosis control in Madagascar: a nationwide validity study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirina, E J; Ravaoarisoa, L; Raherinandrasana, A; Vololonarivelo, B; Rakotonjanahary, M; Rakotomanga, J D M; Macq, J

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the nationwide applicability of results from a study in the tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic and treatment centers (DTCs) in a sample of six districts in Madagascar, which identified adaptations of national guidelines and local initiatives that might explain the effectiveness of individual DTCs in improving adherence to TB treatment and thus reducing treatment default. To assess, at a national level, the importance of these adaptations/initiatives for TB treatment adherence. This analytical cross-sectional study assessed the responses to a questionnaire based on the previously identified adaptations/initiatives, which was sent to the heads of all 205 DTCs in Madagascar. Decentralization of TB care decreased the rate of patient default. The private DTCs report better results than public DTCs. Adaptations/initiatives in relation to local contexts often lead to good results. The relation between some adaptations/initiatives and continued adherence sometimes varies with the local context of the DTC; the same initiatives can result in better adherence or in higher of treatment default rates, depending on the setting. These initiatives should be applied after adaptation to the context.

  11. Knowledge and pharmacological management of Alzheimer's disease by managing community pharmacists: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerafa, Natalie; Scerri, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Background Managing community pharmacists can play a leading role in supporting community dwelling individuals with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. Objective The main purpose of this study was to assess knowledge of managing community pharmacists towards Alzheimer's disease and its pharmacological management. Setting Community pharmacies in the Maltese islands. Method A nationwide survey was conducted with full-time managing community pharmacists in possession of a tertiary education degree in pharmacy studies. The level of knowledge was investigated using the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale and the Alzheimer's Disease Pharmacotherapy Measure. Participants were also asked to rate a number of statements related to disease management. Results Maltese managing community pharmacists (57 % response rate) had inadequate knowledge on risk factors, caregiving issues and pharmacological management of Alzheimer's disease. Age and number of years working in a community pharmacy setting were found to be negatively correlated with increased knowledge. Conclusion The findings highlight the need of providing training and continued educational support to managing community pharmacists in order to provide quality advice to individuals with dementia and their caregivers in the community.

  12. Clinic characteristics of psoriasis in China: a nationwide survey in over 12000 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Wang, Gang; Jin, Hongzhong; Xu, Jinhua; Zhu, Xuejun; Zheng, Min; Gu, Heng

    2017-07-11

    Psoriasis is a worldwide chronic inflammatory disease, involving both skin and joints. In order to characterize psoriasis in Han Chinese population, we conducted this nationwide prospective and hospital based survey, in which 56 hospitals with departments of dermatology participated, located in 33 cities across China. A total of 12,031 outpatients with psoriasis were registered during 2009 to 2010, which the data was collected by standard questionnaires. The main data acquisition included demographics, family history, disease status and other comorbidities. Physical and dermatological examination, including body surface area (BSA) and psoriasis area severity index (PASI) were applied to evaluate the disease severity. Descriptive statistics, 2 tailed t-test and chi-square test were used appropriately for the statistical analysis. From the study, we found that the male and female ratio of the patients was 1.49:1. Mean age of onset was 30.2 ± 14.5 years for males and 27.1 ± 15.6 years for females (P psoriasis and the majority was psoriasis vulgaris (96.5%). Among 12,031 patients, 23.1% had a family history of psoriasis,16.1% had comorbidities, and 29.9% had nail changes. The most important aggravation factor was season change (60.2%), followed by psychological stress (34.5%), and there significant differences between genders on trigger factors. In conclusion, this study characterizing psoriasis in Han Chinese population, could be used as basic data for future study.

  13. Assessment of post-Fukushima renewable energy policy in Japan's nation-wide power grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript analyzes an optimal power generation mix in Japan's nation-wide power grid by considering the post-Fukushima energy policy which puts a high priority on expanding renewable energy. The study is performed, employing an optimal power generation mix model which is characterized by detailed geographical resolution derived from 135 nodes and 166 high-voltage power transmission lines with 10-min temporal resolution. Simulated results reveal that renewable energy promotion policy underlies the necessity for capacity expansion of inter- or intra-regional power transmission lines in Japan in order to realize economical power system operation. In addition, the results show that the integration of massive variable renewable (VR) such as PV and wind decreases the capacity factor of power plant including ramp generator and possibly affects that profitability, which implies the challenge to ensure power system adequacy enough to control VR variability. - Highlights: • Authors analyze installable potential of renewable by Japan's power grid model. • Power grid of the model includes 135 nodes and 166 power transmission lines. • Renewable promotion underlies the necessity for capacity expansion of power lines. • Unremunerated power plants affect power grid adequacy under extensive renewable.

  14. Birth Trends among Female Physicians in Taiwan: A Nationwide Survey from 1996 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Jen; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Liu, Jui-Yao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although more and more women are becoming physicians, their decisions regarding pregnancy may be affected by the lengthy period of medical education and postgraduate training. The aim of this study was to explore the birth trends among female physicians in Taiwan; Methods: Retrospective analyses of maternal ages at delivery from 1996 to 2013, both for physicians and the general population, were conducted using a nationwide dataset called National Health Insurance Research Database; Results: During the study period, 8540 female physicians were identified. The physicians delivered a total of 4940 births in that time, with a rise from 210 in 1996 to 440 in 2013. In addition, the mean maternal age of the physicians at delivery increased from 32.19 years (standard deviations (SD) 2.80) in 1996 to 33.61 (SD 3.21) in 2013, values significantly higher than those for non-physicians of 27.81 (SD 4.74) in 1996 (p < 0.001) and 31.36 (SD 4.78) in 2013 (p < 0.001); Conclusion: Female physicians usually gave birth at an older age than non-physicians, but the discrepancy between the two groups gradually declined over the 18-year course of the study. The establishment of a maternity-friendly environment for female physicians should be considered by those who determine healthcare system policies. PMID:28698490

  15. Risk and protective factors associated with adolescent girls' substance use: Data from a nationwide Facebook sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven P; Hopkins, Jessica; Thom, Bridgette

    2016-01-01

    Despite overall reductions in teenage substance use, adolescent girls' rates of substance use remain unacceptably high. This article examines whether girls' substance use is associated with general risk and protective factors (goal setting, problem solving, refusal skills, peer use, and self-efficacy) and gender-specific risk and protective factors (communication style, coping skills, self-esteem, body image, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression). Cross-sectional data were collected in 2013 via online surveys from a nationwide sample of adolescent girls (N = 788), aged 13 and 14 years, who were recruited through Facebook. In multivariate analyses, controlling for correlates of adolescent substance use, 11 of the 13 general and gender-specific risk and protective factors were consistently associated with past-month alcohol, cigarette, and other drug use in the expected direction; past-month marijuana use was associated with 8 of the 13 factors. Refusal skills, peer use, coping, and depressive mood were most consistently and strongly associated with substance use. Substance abuse prevention programs targeting adolescent girls should focus on such general risk and protective factors as problem solving, refusal skills, peer influences, and self-efficacy, as well as such gender-specific risk and protective factors as communication style, coping, self-esteem, body image, perceived stress, and mood management.

  16. Nationwide variation in the effects of temperature on infectious gastroenteritis incidence in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-08-01

    Although several studies have investigated the effects of temperature on the incidence of infectious gastrointestinal disease in a single city or region, few have investigated variations in this association using nationwide data. We obtained weekly data, gathered between 2000 and 2012, pertaining to infectious gastroenteritis cases and weather variability in all 47 Japanese prefectures. A two-stage analysis was used to assess the nonlinear and delayed relationship between temperature and morbidity. In the first stage, a Poisson regression allowing for overdispersion in a distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the prefecture-specific effects of temperature on morbidity. In the second stage, a multivariate meta-analysis was applied to pool estimates at the national level. The pooled overall relative risk (RR) was highest in the 59.9th percentile of temperature (RR, 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.15). Meta-analysis results also indicated that the estimated pooled RR at lower temperatures (25th percentile) began immediately but did not persist, whereas an identical estimate at a higher temperature (75th percentile) was delayed but persisted for several weeks. Our results suggest that public health strategies aimed at controlling temperature-related infectious gastroenteritis may be more effective when tailored according to region-specific weather conditions.

  17. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study: an international cooperative scientific study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Simon, S L; Trott, K R; Fujimori, K; Nakashima, N; Arisawa, K; Schoemaker, M J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer.

  18. The Dutch Pancreas Biobank Within the Parelsnoer Institute: A Nationwide Biobank of Pancreatic and Periampullary Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijker, Marin; Gerritsen, Arja; van Hilst, Jony; Bijlsma, Maarten F; Bonsing, Bert A; Brosens, Lodewijk A; Bruno, Marco J; van Dam, Ronald M; Dijk, Frederike; van Eijck, Casper H; Farina Sarasqueta, Arantza; Fockens, Paul; Gerhards, Michael F; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Huysentruyt, Clément J; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost M; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W; Liem, Mike S; de Meijer, Vincent E; van Rijssen, L Bengt; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Suker, Mustafa; Verhagen, Judith H; Verheij, Joanne; Verspaget, Hein W; Wennink, Roos A; Wilmink, Johanna W; Molenaar, I Quintus; Boermeester, Marja A; Busch, Olivier R; Besselink, Marc G

    2018-04-01

    Large biobanks with uniform collection of biomaterials and associated clinical data are essential for translational research. The Netherlands has traditionally been well organized in multicenter clinical research on pancreatic diseases, including the nationwide multidisciplinary Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Group and Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group. To enable high-quality translational research on pancreatic and periampullary diseases, these groups established the Dutch Pancreas Biobank. The Dutch Pancreas Biobank is part of the Parelsnoer Institute and involves all 8 Dutch university medical centers and 5 nonacademic hospitals. Adult patients undergoing pancreatic surgery (all indications) are eligible for inclusion. Preoperative blood samples, tumor tissue from resected specimens, pancreatic cyst fluid, and follow-up blood samples are collected. Clinical parameters are collected in conjunction with the mandatory Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Audit. Between January 2015 and May 2017, 488 patients were included in the first 5 participating centers: 4 university medical centers and 1 nonacademic hospital. Over 2500 samples were collected: 1308 preoperative blood samples, 864 tissue samples, and 366 follow-up blood samples. Prospective collection of biomaterials and associated clinical data has started in the Dutch Pancreas Biobank. Subsequent translational research will aim to improve treatment decisions based on disease characteristics.

  19. Why common carrier and network neutrality principles apply to the Nationwide Health Information Network (NWHIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Mark; Lenert, Leslie; Wilson, Kristin D; Bradner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Office of the National Coordinator will be defining the architecture of the Nationwide Health Information Network (NWHIN) together with the proposed HealtheWay public/private partnership as a development and funding strategy. There are a number of open questions--for example, what is the best way to realize the benefits of health information exchange? How valuable are regional health information organizations in comparison with a more direct approach? What is the role of the carriers in delivering this service? The NWHIN is to exist for the public good, and thus shares many traits of the common law notion of 'common carriage' or 'public calling,' the modern term for which is network neutrality. Recent policy debates in Congress and resulting potential regulation have implications for key stakeholders within healthcare that use or provide services, and for those who exchange information. To date, there has been little policy debate or discussion about the implications of a neutral NWHIN. This paper frames the discussion for future policy debate in healthcare by providing a brief education and summary of the modern version of common carriage, of the key stakeholder positions in healthcare, and of the potential implications of the network neutrality debate within healthcare.

  20. Image quality of mammography in Croatian nationwide screening program: Comparison between various types of facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brnić, Zoran; Blašković, Darko; Klasić, Branimir; Ramač, Jelena Popić; Flegarić-Bradić, Mirjana; Štimac, Damir; Lubina, Ivan Zvonimir; Brnić, Vedran; Faj, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study was aimed to provide objective evidence about the mammographic image quality in Croatia, to compare it between different types of MG facilities and to identify the most common deficiencies and possible reasons as well as the steps needed to improve image quality. Materials and methods: A total of 420 mammographic examinations collected from 84 mammographic units participating in the Croatian nationwide breast cancer screening program were reviewed in terms of four image quality categories: identification of patient and examination, breast positioning and compression, exposure and contrast, and artifacts. Those were rated using image evaluating system based on American College of Radiology and European Commission proposals. The results were compared among different types of mammographic units, and common image quality deficiencies were identified. Results: Total image quality scores of 12.8, 16.1, 13.0 and 13.7 were found for general hospitals, university hospitals, private clinics and public healthcare centres, respectively. Average score for all mammographic units was 13.5 (out of 25 points). University hospitals were significantly better than all other mammography units in overall image quality, which was mostly contributed by better breast positioning practices. Private clinics showed the worst results in identification, exposure, contrast and artifacts. Conclusions: Serious deficiencies in identification and breast positioning, which might compromise breast cancer screening outcome, were detected in our material. They occur mainly due to subjective reasons and could be corrected through additional staff training and improvement of working discipline.

  1. The july effect: an analysis of never events in the nationwide inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Timothy; Attenello, Frank J; Wu, Brian; Ng, Alvin; Cen, Steven Y; Mack, William J

    2015-07-01

    Prior studies examining the impact of the "July effect" on in-hospital mortality rates have generated variable results. In 2008, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services published a series of high-cost, high-volume, nonreimbursable hospital-acquired complications (HACs). These events were believed to be preventable and indicate deficiencies in healthcare delivery. The present study aims to investigate the impact of July admissions on patient safety in a national sample using the HACs as a metric. Discharge data were collected from all admissions recorded in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2008 to 2011. HAC incidence was evaluated as a function of admission month, adjusting for demographic and hospital factors in multivariable analysis. The outcome measures were HAC occurrence, prolonged length of stay (LOS), and higher inpatient costs. A total of 143,019,381 inpatient admissions were recorded, with an overall HAC occurrence of 4.7%. July admissions accounted for 7.6% of the total number of inpatient admissions. July admissions experienced a 6% increase in likelihood of HAC occurrence (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.07, P organization structure distinct from traditional quality measures, requiring novel transition protocols dedicated to improving HACs. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  2. Psycho-oncological care in certified cancer centres--a nationwide analysis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Susanne; Dieng, Sebastian; Wesselmann, Simone

    2013-06-01

    Over the last few years, a nationwide voluntary certification system for cancer centres has been established in Germany. To qualify for certification, cancer centres must provide psycho-oncological care to every patient who needs it. The aim of this study was to find out how many patients have been treated by a psycho-oncologist in the certified centres. All cancer centres in Germany that were re-certified in 2010 provided data documenting how many patients with primary cancer received at least 30 min of psycho-oncological consultation in 2009. Data from n = 456 certified cancer centres were available. In the centres, a total of 36,165 patients were seen by a psycho-oncologist for at least 30 min, representing 37.3% of all patients in the centres. The highest percentage of patients who received psycho-oncological care was found in breast cancer centres (66.7%), and the lowest in prostate cancer centres (6.8%). Half of the patients (50.0%) in gynaecological cancer centres, 37.7% in colon cancer centres and 25.4% in lung cancer centres received psycho-oncological care. Compared with non-certified centres, the proportion of patients receiving psycho-oncological care in certified cancer centres has increased. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Localized Scleroderma, Systemic Sclerosis and Cardiovascular Risk: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselvig, Jeanette Halskou; Kofoed, Kristian; Wu, Jashin J; Dreyer, Lene; Gislason, Gunnar; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2018-03-13

    Recent findings indicate that patients with systemic sclerosis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To determine whether patients with systemic sclerosis or localized scleroderma are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged ≥ 18 and ≤ 100 years was conducted, followed from 1997 to 2011 by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for a composite cardiovascular disease endpoint. A total of 697 patients with localized scleroderma and 1,962 patients with systemic sclerosis were identified and compared with 5,428,380 people in the reference population. In systemic sclerosis, the adjusted HR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.99-2.48). No association was seen between patients with localized scleroderma and cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, systemic sclerosis is a significant cardiovascular disease risk factor, while patients with localized scleroderma are not at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  4. [Inpatient Salivary Gland Surgery in Germany: A DRG-Based Nationwide Analysis, 2007-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J E; Schlattmann, P; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2016-09-01

    This is the first population-based analysis of inpatient salivary gland surgery across Germany. Nationwide Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) statistics for 2007 to 2011 were analyzed regarding indications for salivary gland surgery based on ICD-10 codes. Age specific surgery rates were calculated for both sexes. Inpatient salivary gland surgical rates in 2007-2011 amounted for incisions (OPS [Classification of Operations and Procedures] code 5-260) 1.43 per 100 000 population, for excisions (5-261) 2.06 per 100 000, for salivary gland resections (5-262) 2.06 per 100 000, and for external incisions (5-270) 0.43 per 100 000. Regarding the mentioned four OPS codes, the surgical rates for benign tumors accounted to 10.08 per 100 000, for sialadenitis (without sialoliths) to 4.00 per 100 000, for malignant tumors to 3.90 per 100 000, and for sialolithiasis to 2.09 per 100 000. The increase of surgical rates from 2007 to 2011 was significant for malignant and benign tumors as well as for salivary stones. The surgical rates were highest for patients>60 years. Especially surgery for malignant tumors was more frequent than expected. In spite of the introduction of minimal invasive technique the rates for salivary gland resections in case of sialadenitis or sialolithiasis still seem to be high. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Radon prevention in new construction in Finland: A nationwide sample survey in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Holmgren, O.; Reisbacka, H.

    2012-01-01

    The building code for radon prevention and the associated practical guidelines were revised in Finland in 2003-2004. Thereafter, preventive measures have become more common and effective and indoor radon concentrations have been markedly reduced. In this study, the indoor radon concentration was measured in 1500 new low-rise residential houses. The houses were randomly selected and represented 7 % of the houses that received building permission in 2006. The average radon concentration of all the houses measured, which were completed in 2006-2008, was 95 Bq m -3 , the median being 58 Bq m -3 . The average was 33 % lower than in houses completed in 2000-2005. The decrease was 47 % in provinces with the highest indoor radon concentration and 26 % elsewhere in the country. In houses with a slab-on-ground foundation that had both passive radon piping and sealing measures carried out using a strip of bitumen felt in the joint between the foundation wall and floor slab, the radon concentration was on average reduced by 57 % compared with houses with no preventive measures. Preventive measures were taken nationwide in 54 % of detached houses and in provinces with the highest radon concentration in 92 % of houses. (authors)

  6. Increased Risk of Tics in Children Infected with Enterovirus: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yen, Hung-Rong; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-05-01

    Both tics and enterovirus (EV) infections are common in children. The association between EV infections and tics has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of diagnosed tics after EV infections in children. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the risk of tics after EV infections by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged tics, death, loss to follow-up, withdrawal from the insurance system, or December 31, 2008. A total of 282,321 EV-infected and 282,317 non-EV-infected children were included in this study. The mean age was 2.39 years in both cohorts. The overall incidences of tics were 9.12 and 6.21 per 10,000 person-years in the EV-infected and non-EV-infected cohorts, respectively. Children with EV infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of tics compared with those without EV infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.5). Multivariable analyses showed that boys, children living in urbanized areas, children whose parents had white-collar jobs, and children with allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma exhibited a significantly increased risk of tics. This study revealed an increased risk of tics after EV infection in children.

  7. Incidence Trends and Geographical Variability of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Slovenia: A Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlep, Darja; Blagus, Rok; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the incidence rate of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) and its trends for the period of 2002-2010 and to assess the geographical distribution of PIBD in Slovenia. Medical records of patients (0-18 years) with newly diagnosed IBD during the study period were retrospectively reviewed. The mean incidence rate for IBD in 2002-2010 was 7.6 per 100,000 children and adolescents per year, 4.5 for Crohn's disease (CD), 2.9 for ulcerative colitis (UC), and 0.2 for IBD-unclassified, respectively. The incidence rate increased from 5.8 per 100,000 per year in 2002-2004 to 8.6 in 2005-2007 and remained stable afterwards. Statistically significant difference in the incidence rate between the Northeastern and Southwestern parts of the country was observed (p = 0.025). This nationwide study demonstrates that Slovenia is among the European countries with the highest PIBD incidence. During the study period a substantial rise of PIBD incidence was observed during the first half of the study and it seems to have stabilized in the second half. The significant difference in PIBD incidence between Northeastern and Southwestern parts of the country merits further exploration of the possible environmental factors.

  8. Clonality and Micro-Diversity of a Nationwide Spreading Genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takayuki; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Tamaru, Aki; Seto, Junji; Ahiko, Tadayuki; Yamamoto, Kaori; Hase, Atushi; Maeda, Shinji; Yamamoto, Taro

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission routes can be estimated from genotypic analysis of clinical isolates from patients. In Japan, still a middle-incidence country of TB, a unique genotype strain designated as ‘M-strain’ has been isolated nationwide recently. To ascertain the history of the wide spread of the strain, 10 clinical isolates from different areas were subjected to genome-wide analysis based on deep sequencers. Results show that all isolates possessed common mutations to those of referential strains. The greatest number of accumulated single nucleotide variants (SNVs) from the oldest coalescence was 13 nucleotides, indicating high clonality of these isolates. When an SNV common to the isolates was used as a surrogate marker of the clone, authentic clonal isolates with variation in a reliable subset of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) genotyping method can be selected successfully from clinical isolates populations of M. tuberculosis. When the authentic clones can also be assigned to sub-clonal groups by SNVs derived from the genomic comparison, they are classifiable into three sub-clonal groups with a bias of geographical origins. Feedback from genomic analysis of clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis to genotypic markers will be an efficient strategy for the big data in various settings for public health actions against TB. PMID:25734518

  9. Clinical outcomes of ABO- and HLA-incompatible kidney transplantation: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun Jeong; Yu, Ji Hyun; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha

    2017-12-01

    This was a nationwide cohort study to investigate the impact of anti-A/B and donor-specific anti-HLA (HLA-DSA) antibodies on the clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We classified a total of 1964 KTRs into four groups: transplants from ABO-incompatible donors (ABOi, n = 248); transplants in recipients with HLA-DSA (HLAi, n = 144); transplants from combined ABOi and HLAi donors (ABOi + HLAi, n = 31); and a control group for whom neither ABOi nor HLAi was applicable (CONT, n = 1541). We compared the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), allograft and patient survival rates. The incidence of BPAR was higher in the HLAi and ABOi + HLAi groups relative to the CONT group; in contrast, it was not higher in the ABOi group. Death-censored graft survival rates did not differ across the four groups. However, relative to the CONT group, patient survival rate was reduced in the ABOi and ABOi + HLAi groups, and with infection being the most common cause of death. Further, multivariable analysis revealed that desensitization therapy because of ABOi or HLAi was independent risk factors for patient mortality. HLAi was a more important risk factor for BPAR compared with ABOi. However, pretransplant desensitization therapy for either ABOi or HLAi significantly increased the risk of infection-related mortality. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  10. Present status of unsealed radioisotope therapy in Japan based on the nation-wide questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, clinical application of unsealed radioisotopes is strictly regulated. Especially in the field of therapy, we are allowed to use only Na 131 I at present. Under such circumstances, the present status of therapeutic nuclear medicine in Japan was surveyed by means of a nation-wide questionnaire, conducted in 193 hospitals. Then, 113 hospitals replied to such questionnaire (recovery rate: 58.5%), and it was found that in 77 hospitals, radioisotope therapy is being performed for Graves' disease and/or thyroid cancer. The questionnaire covered the following points: for Graves' disease-the basic strategy of 131 I therapy, its indications, absorbed doses planned to be given, whether the therapy had been conducted on outpatient basis or in-patient basis, method of thyroid weight estimation, interval of administration in case of multiple doses, number of patients treated per year (1996) etc., and for thyroid cancer-strategy for thyroid remnant, the doses to be given, the maximum doses permitted by the authorities in each hospital both per day and per year, handling of highly contaminated urine in each hospital, interval of administration in case of multiple doses, number of patients treated per year (1996) etc. Also questioned were dissatisfaction with the present regulation by the authorities and/or requests for the better daily work, if any. Based on the above questionnaire, the present status of unsealed radioisotope therapy in Japan was investigated. (author)

  11. Childhood cancer and residential exposure to highways: a nationwide cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spycher, Ben D.; Feller, Martin; Röösli, Martin; Ammann, Roland A.; Diezi, Manuel; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2015-01-01

    Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged <16 years from Swiss national censuses in 1990 and 2000. Cancer incidence was investigated in time to event analyses (1990–2008) using Cox proportional hazards models and incidence density analyses (1985–2008) using Poisson regression. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors, ionising background radiation and electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and atrial fibrillation: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chou Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Precise mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF are uncertain, but their association with esophageal disorders has been recently proposed. The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, the most common gastroesophageal disorder, and AF remains undetermined. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between GERD and later development of AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with GERD were identified from the 1,000,000-person cohort dataset sampled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. The study cohort comprised 29,688 newly diagnosed adult GERD patients; 29,597 randomly selected age-, gender-, comobidity-matched subjects comprised the comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed as a means of comparing the AF-free survival rate for the two cohorts. During a maximum three years of follow-up, a total of 351 patients experienced AF, including 184 (0.62% patients in the GERD cohort and 167 (0.56% in the control group. The log-rank test showed that patients with GERD had significantly higher incidence of AF than those without GERD (p = 0.024. After Cox proportional hazard regression model analysis, GERD was independently associated with the increased risk of AF (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.61, p = 0.013. CONCLUSION: GERD was independently associated with an increased risk of future AF in a nationwide population-based cohort.

  13. Best Fed Beginnings: A Nationwide Quality Improvement Initiative to Increase Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman-Winter, Lori; Ustianov, Jennifer; Anastasio, Julius; Butts-Dion, Sue; Heinrich, Patricia; Merewood, Anne; Bugg, Kimarie; Donohue-Rolfe, Sarah; Homer, Charles J

    2017-07-01

    In response to a low number of Baby-Friendly-designated hospitals in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded the National Institute for Children's Health Quality to conduct a national quality improvement initiative between 2011 and 2015. The initiative was entitled Best Fed Beginnings and enrolled 90 hospitals in a nationwide initiative to increase breastfeeding and achieve Baby-Friendly designation. The intervention period lasted from July 2012 to August 2014. During that period, data on process indicators aligned with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and outcome measures (overall and exclusively related to breastfeeding) were collected. In addition, data on the Baby-Friendly designation were collected after the end of the intervention through April 2016. Hospitals assembled multidisciplinary teams that included parent partners and community representatives. Three in-person learning sessions were interspersed with remote learning and tests of change, and a Web-based platform housed resources and data for widespread sharing. By April 2016, a total of 72 (80%) of the 90 hospitals received the Baby-Friendly designation, nearly doubling the number of designated hospitals in the United States. Participation in the Best Fed Beginnings initiative had significantly high correlation with designation compared with hospital applicants not in the program (Pearson's r [235]: 0.80; P initiative of maternity care hospitals accomplished rapid transformative changes to achieve Baby-Friendly designation. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in exclusive breastfeeding. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Patterns of maternal tobacco use among Cambodian women: findings from a nationwide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramil N; Kheam, They; Lopez, Jaime; Job, Jayakaran S; Yel, Daravuth

    2013-09-01

    Although current trends indicate that the rate of cigarette smoking tends to be low among women in the Western Pacific Region (Malaysia) identify that a large proportion of women of reproductive age and older chew tobacco--often as part of a betel quid mixture that includes other potentially harmful ingredients (eg, areca nut). Our findings from currently pregnant women identified during a nationwide survey of adult tobacco use in Cambodia indicate that 13.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8% to 17%) were current users of smoked or smokeless (in the form of a betel quid) tobacco. Most pregnant women who used tobacco indicated that their habit was either initiated (29.1%; 95% CI = 16.3-46.3) or increased (33.7%; 95% CI = 18.3-53.5) during pregnancy. Pregnancy-related symptoms such as morning sickness were reported as the reason for more than half (54.9%; 95% CI = 34.8-73.4) of the currently pregnant users to have started a tobacco habit during their lifetime. Among those pregnant women who did not use tobacco, we found strong associations (odds ratios from 2 to 14) with beliefs about the harmful effects of tobacco on adult health, faith-based beliefs in addictive substances, and beliefs that influential members of the community, health professionals, and children should not use tobacco. Our findings indicate that tobacco cessation and prevention programs in Cambodia should specifically target pregnant and reproductive-age women.

  15. General Overview of Psychotherapeutic Practice in Poland. Results from a Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Grzesiuk, Lidia; Styła, Rafał; Krawczyk, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    A total of 1196 persons conducting psychotherapy in Poland fully completed a nationwide online survey (or, alternatively, a paper and pencil enquiry) concerning their education, training, experience, and clinical work (professional environment, patients treated). The results are described in detail and compared with findings of similar studies from other countries. Among the primary findings were: (1) psychotherapy in Poland is conducted mostly by women (80 %); (2) almost all participants have an MA degree (91 %), including 75.2 % having graduated in psychology; (3) the therapists are well trained (mean number of training hours is above 942) and established (average experience is about 9.8 years), however, more than half of the therapists have no type of certificate; (4) 54 % of respondents identify with the integrative or eclectic orientation and, simultaneously, for 48.6 % of the therapists the most important approach is either psychodynamic or psychoanalytic; (5) the most common form of therapy is individual psychotherapy in private practice; (6) the majority of the therapists treat adult patients with anxiety or personality disorders. In sum, the results show that psychotherapeutic practice is well established in Poland and many indices are similar to those found in Western countries.

  16. Inverse Association of Parkinson Disease With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Nationwide Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Te-Yu; Shen, Chih-Hao; Chou, Yu-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    The effects of the inflammatory mediators involved in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) on subsequent Parkinson disease have been reported, but no relevant studies have focused on the association between the 2 diseases. This nationwide population-based study evaluated the risk of Parkinson disease in patients with SLE.We identified 12,817 patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance database diagnosed with SLE between 2000 and 2010 and compared the incidence rate of Parkinson disease among these patients with that among 51,268 randomly selected age and sex-matched non-SLE patients. A Cox multivariable proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate the risk factors of Parkinson disease in the SLE cohort.We observed an inverse association between a diagnosis of SLE and the risk of subsequent Parkinson disease, with the crude hazard ratio (HR) being 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.45-0.79) and adjusted HR being 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.51-0.90). The cumulative incidence of Parkinson disease was 0.83% lower in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort. The adjusted HR of Parkinson disease decreased as the follow-up duration increased and was decreased among older lupus patients with comorbidity.We determined that patients with SLE had a decreased risk of subsequent Parkinson disease. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  17. Splenectomy and increased subsequent cancer risk: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Jeng, Long-Bin; Li, Tsai-Chung; Wu, Shih-Chi; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-08-01

    Splenectomy has been suggested to have an impact on immunological function, and subsequent development of cancer has been recognized as a possible adverse effect of splenectomy. This study evaluated the possible association between splenectomy and malignancy in Taiwan. A cohort study consisted of including 2,603 patients with nontraumatic and 2,295 patients with traumatic splenectomy, and then randomly frequency matched with 4 participants without splenectomy. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to estimate the influence of splenectomy on cancer risk. Both nontraumatic and traumatic splenectomy had a significantly higher risk for overall cancer development (adjusted hazard ratios are 2.64 and 1.29 for nontraumatic and traumatic reasons, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, patients with splenectomy were associated with significantly higher risks for developing certain gastrointestinal tract cancers, other head and neck cancers, and hematological malignancies, and the phenomenon is more prominent in nontraumatic splenectomy group. This nationwide population-based study found that people with splenectomy have higher risks of developing overall cancer, as well as certain site-specific cancers, especially for patients with nontraumatic reasons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  19. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  20. Patient-controlled hospital admission for patients with severe mental disorders: a nationwide prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, C T; Benros, M E; Maltesen, T; Hastrup, L H; Andersen, P K; Giacco, D; Nordentoft, M

    2018-04-01

    To assess whether implementing patient-controlled admission (PCA) can reduce coercion and improve other clinical outcomes for psychiatric in-patients. During 2013-2016, 422 patients in the PCA group were propensity score matched 1:5 with a control group (n = 2110) that received treatment as usual (TAU). Patients were followed up for at least one year using the intention to treat principle utilising nationwide registers. In a paired design, the outcomes of PCA patients during the year after signing a contract were compared with the year before. No reduction in coercion (risk difference = 0.001; 95% CI: -0.038; 0.040) or self-harming behaviour (risk difference = 0.005; 95% CI: -0.008; 0.018) was observed in the PCA group compared with the TAU group. The PCA group had more in-patient bed days (mean difference = 28.4; 95% CI: 21.3; 35.5) and more medication use (P < 0.0001) than the TAU group. Before and after analyses showed reduction in coercion (P = 0.0001) and in-patient bed days (P = 0.0003). Implementing PCA did not reduce coercion, service use or self-harm behaviour when compared with TAU. Beneficial effects of PCA were observed only in the before and after PCA comparisons. Further research should investigate whether PCA affects other outcomes to better establish its clinical value. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Integrated Nationwide Electronic Health Records system: Semi-distributed architecture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragidis, Leonidas L; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D; Aggelidis, Vassilios P

    2016-11-14

    The integration of heterogeneous electronic health records systems by building an interoperable nationwide electronic health record system provides undisputable benefits in health care, like superior health information quality, medical errors prevention and cost saving. This paper proposes a semi-distributed system architecture approach for an integrated national electronic health record system incorporating the advantages of the two dominant approaches, the centralized architecture and the distributed architecture. The high level design of the main elements for the proposed architecture is provided along with diagrams of execution and operation and data synchronization architecture for the proposed solution. The proposed approach effectively handles issues related to redundancy, consistency, security, privacy, availability, load balancing, maintainability, complexity and interoperability of citizen's health data. The proposed semi-distributed architecture offers a robust interoperability framework without healthcare providers to change their local EHR systems. It is a pragmatic approach taking into account the characteristics of the Greek national healthcare system along with the national public administration data communication network infrastructure, for achieving EHR integration with acceptable implementation cost.

  2. Changing Epidemiology of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in the Last Decade: A Nationwide Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerth, Brandon A; Rockey, Don C

    2018-05-01

    Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) is common and carries substantial mortality requiring frequent hospitalizations. To investigate trends in etiology and outcome of UGIH in hospitalized patients in the USA. Retrospective, observational cohort study of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2012 was carried out. UGIH was identified in hospitalizations with a principle ICD-9-CM diagnosis of UGIH or secondary diagnosis of UGIH with a principal diagnosis of hematemesis, blood in stool, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Age 18 years or older was required for inclusion, and elective admissions and transferred patients were excluded. The hospitalization rate of UGIH in the USA decreased by 21% from 2002 to 2012, from 81 to 67 cases per 100,000 population (p bleeding caused by esophageal varices remained constant and low (approximately 2%) throughout the study period; the mortality for esophageal varices also remained constant at 6-7%. The epidemiology of UGIH hemorrhage appears to be shifting, with a decline in PUD and gastritis; an increase in hospitalization rate for neoplasm, Dieulafoy lesions, angiodysplasia, and esophagitis; and a reduction in overall mortality. The decreasing hospitalization rate and mortality rate of UGIH suggest population trends in use of treatments for PUD, improved hemostatic techniques, and overall care.

  3. Socioeconomic and occupational risk factors for venous thromboembolism in Sweden: a nationwide epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, Bengt; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-05-01

    Our aims were to investigate possible associations between hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and socioeconomic and occupational factors. A nationwide database was constructed by linking Swedish census data to the Hospital Discharge Register (1990-2007). Hospital diagnoses of VTE were based on the International Classification of Diseases. Standardised incidence ratios were calculated for different socioeconomic and occupational groups. A total of 43063 individuals aged >20 years were hospitalised for VTE. Individuals with >12 years of education were at lower risk for VTE. Blue-collar workers, farmers, and non-employed individuals had higher risks for VTE, and white collar workers and professionals lower risks. In males and/or females, risks for VTE were increased for assistant nurses; farmers; miners and quarry workers; mechanics, iron and metalware workers; wood workers; food manufacture workers; packers; loaders and warehouse workers; public safety and protection workers; cooks and stewards; home helpers; building caretakers; and cleaners. Decreased risks were observed for technical, chemical, physical, and biological workers; physicians; dentists; nurses; other health and medical workers; teachers, religious, juridical, and other social science-related workers; artistic workers; clerical workers; sale agents; and fishermen, whalers and sealers. High educational level and several occupations requiring high levels of education were protective against VTE, while the risks for VTE were increased for farmers, blue-collar workers and non-employed individuals. The mechanisms are unknown but it might involve persistent psychosocial stress related to low socioeconomic and occupational status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. American preferences for “smart” guns versus traditional weapons: Results from a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacey Nicole Wallace

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines Americans' preferences regarding smart guns. The study builds on prior research by including previously unexamined factors, specifically victimization and comfort sharing gun ownership status with a doctor. Further, this study examines differences in preference patterns among gun owners and non-owners. Data were obtained from a nationwide online survey with 524 respondents in February 2016. The study finds that, among non-owners, older respondents and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns to traditional firearms. Among gun owners, those with moderate political views, those with a history of victimization, and those residing in the Northeast are all more likely to prefer smart guns. Males and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns. Education, income, race, marital status, presence of children in the home, and comfort discussing gun ownership with a doctor had no significant association with smart gun preference. Practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Phylogeographical pattern of Francisella tularensis in a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia in Norway, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afset, J E; Larssen, K W; Bergh, K; Larkeryd, A; Sjodin, A; Johansson, A; Forsman, M

    2015-05-14

    In 2011, a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia occurred in Norway with 180 recorded cases. It was associated with the largest peak in lemming density seen in 40 years. Francisella tularensis was isolated from 18 patients. To study the geographical distribution of F.tularensis genotypes in Norway and correlate genotype with epidemiology and clinical presentation,we performed whole genome sequencing of patient isolates. All 18 genomes from the outbreak carried genetic signatures of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and were assigned to genetic clades using canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms. Ten isolates were assigned to major genetic clade B.6 (subclade B.7),seven to clade B.12, and one to clade B.4. The B.6 subclade B.7 was most common in southern and central Norway, while clade B.12 was evenly distributed between the southern, central and northern parts of the country. There was no association between genotype and clinical presentation of tularaemia, time of year or specimen type. We found extensive sequence similarity with F. tularensis subsp. holarctica genomes from high-endemic tularaemia areas in Sweden.Finding nearly identical genomes across large geographical distances in Norway and Sweden imply a life cycle of the bacterium without replication between the outbreaks and raise new questions about long-range migration mechanisms.

  6. Subsequent vitiligo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A nationwide population-based cohort study from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung Min; Choi, Kwang Hyun; Jung, Han Mi; Kim, Sook Young; Kim, Miri; Kim, Gyung Moon; Yu, Dong Soo; Lee, Young Bok

    2017-03-01

    Subsequent vitiligo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been described sporadically in case series. To investigate the incidence and risk factors of subsequent vitiligo after HSCT. A nationwide, population-based cohort study was performed using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Database from 2009 to 2013. All HSCT recipients who had undergone HSCT between 2010 and 2011 and not treatment for vitiligo in 2009 (to exclude preexisting active vitiligo) were included in the HSCT recipient group, and an age- and sex-matched control group without HSCT was also established. A total of 2747 HSCT recipients and 8241 controls were enrolled. Newly acquired vitiligo occurred in 1.06% of HSCT recipients between 2010 and 2013, and there was a significant increase (OR 3.130, 95% CI 1.859-5.271) in cases of vitiligo in HSCT recipients compared with controls (0.34%). Allogeneic HSCT (OR 5.593, 95% CI 1.628-19.213) and bone marrow-sourced stem cells (as compared with peripheral blood-sourced stem cells; OR 2.492, 95% CI 1.114-5.576) were independently associated with the development of vitiligo after HSCT. Medical record review was not available. Vitiligo developed at a significantly increased rate after HSCT compared with controls. Allogeneic HSCT and bone marrow-sourced stem cells were independent risk factors. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. From Toques to Tokes: Two challenges facing nationwide legalization of cannabis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In 2015, a new Liberal Government came to power in Canada, elected on a platform that included legalization and regulation of cannabis for recreational purposes. Their legislation, based on recommendations from a Federal Task Force on Marijuana Legalization and Regulation, is due in early April 2017. This commentary utilizes Canadian Federal policy papers, previous literature, and internal and international agreements to examine two key areas critical to the development of a nationwide regulated market for cannabis in Canada; the need to overcome restrictions to legalizing cannabis in United Nations' drug control treaties, and the unique challenges that non-medical cannabis creates for navigating interprovincial trade policies in Canada. Irrespective of UN conventions that appear to prohibit legalization of cannabis the Government is preparing to bring forward legislation as this article goes to print. At the same time significant squabbles impede the selling of even beer and wine inter-provincially in Canada. This paper identifies the challenges facing Canadian legalization efforts, but also shows how the legalization legislation may provide opportunities to engender significant change beyond the simple legalization of a specific drug. This commentary does not argue for any specific course of action for Canada, but rather explores the nuance of legalization absent from the declaration in the Liberal party platform. The paper argues that Canada's efforts may hasten the dismantling of the UN drug control structure, and provide renewed opportunities for intern-provincial trade in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Validity and Reliability of the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI in a Nationwide Sample of Greek Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntina Kourmousi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Problem Solving Inventory (PSI is designed to measure adults’ perceptions of problem-solving ability. The presented study aimed to translate it and assess its reliability and validity in a nationwide sample of 3668 Greek educators. In order to evaluate internal consistency reliability, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used. The scale’s construct validity was examined by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and by investigating its correlation with the Internality, Powerful others and Chance Multidimensional Locus of Control Scale (IPC LOC Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and demographic information. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory with Cronbach’s alphas ranging from 0.79 to 0.91 for all PSI scales. CFA confirmed that the bi-level model fitted the data well. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA, the comparative fit index (CFI and the goodness of fit index (GFI values were 0.030, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively, further confirming the bi-level model and the three-factors construct of the PSI. Intercorrelations and correlation coefficients between the PSI, the IPC LOC Scale and the RSES were significant. Age, sex, and working experience differences were found. In conclusion, the Greek version of the PSI was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties and therefore, it can be used to evaluate Greek teachers’ perceptions of their problem-solving skills.

  9. Mortality of Stroke and Its Subtypes in China: Results from a Nationwide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenghong; Jiang, Bin; Ru, Xiaojuan; Sun, Haixin; Sun, Dongling; Liu, Xiangtong; Li, Yichong; Li, Di; Guo, Xiuhua; Wang, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    In China, stroke is the leading cause of death and contributes to a heavy disease burden. However, a nationwide population-based survey of the mortality of stroke and its subtypes is lacking for this country. Data derived from the National Epidemiological Survey of Stroke in China, which was a multistage, stratified clustering sampling-designed, cross-sectional survey, were analyzed. Mortality rate analyses were performed for 476,156 participants ≥20 years old from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2013. Of the 476,156 participants in the investigated population, 364 died of ischemic stroke, 373 of hemorrhagic stroke, and 21 of stroke of undetermined pathological type. The age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 person-years among those aged ≥20 years were 114.8 for total stroke, 56.5 for ischemic stroke, and 55.8 for hemorrhagic stroke. The age-standardized mortality rates of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke were all higher in rural areas than those in urban areas. The stroke mortality rate was higher in the northern regions than in the south. An estimated 1.12 million people aged ≥20 years in China died of stroke during the period from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2013. The burden of stroke in China is still heavy. Greater attention should be paid to improve strategies for preventing stroke. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Allogenic blood transfusion following total hip arthroplasty: results from the nationwide inpatient sample, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Anas; Small, Travis; Chandran Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K

    2014-09-17

    The large-scale utilization of allogenic blood transfusion and its associated outcomes have been described in critically ill patients and those undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery but not in patients undergoing elective total hip arthroplasty. The objective of this study was to determine the trends in utilization and outcomes of allogenic blood transfusion in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty in the United States from 2000 to 2009. An observational cohort of 2,087,423 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty from 2000 to 2009 was identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes 99.03 and 99.04 were used to identify patients who received allogenic blood products during their hospital stay. Risk factors for allogenic transfusions were identified with use of multivariable logistic regression models. We used propensity score matching to estimate the adjusted association between transfusion and surgical outcomes. The rate of allogenic blood transfusion increased from 11.8% in 2000 to 19.0% in 2009. Patient-related risk factors for receiving an allogenic blood transfusion include an older age, female sex, black race, and Medicaid insurance. Hospital-related risk factors include rural location, smaller size, and non-academic status. After adjusting for confounders, allogenic blood transfusion was associated with a longer hospital stay (0.58 ± 0.02 day; p conservation methods. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  11. Pre-operative fasting: a nationwide survey of German anaesthesia departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, J-P; Bosse, G; Seifert, S; Prochnow, L; Martin, J; Schleppers, A; Geldner, G; Soreide, E; Spies, C

    2010-03-01

    Shorter pre-operative fasting improves clinical outcome without an increased risk. Since October 2004, German Anaesthesiology Societies have officially recommended a fast of 2 h for clear fluids and 6 h for solid food before elective surgery. We conducted a nationwide survey to evaluate the current clinical practice in Germany. Between July 2006 and January 2007, standardized questionnaires were mailed to 3751 Anaesthesiology Society members in leading positions requesting anonymous response. The overall response rate was 66% (n=2418). Of those, 2148 (92%) claimed familiarity with the new guidelines. About a third (n=806, 34%) reported full adherence to the new recommendations, whereas 1043 (45%) reported an eased fasting practice. Traditional Nil per os after midnight was still recommended by 157 (7%). Commonest reasons reported for adopting the new guidelines were: 'improved pre-operative comfort' (84%), and 'increased patient satisfaction' (83%); reasons against were: 'low flexibility in operation room management' (19%), and 'increased risk of aspiration' (13%). Despite the apparent understanding of the benefits from reduced pre-operative fasting, full implementation of the guidelines remains poor in German anaesthesiology departments.

  12. School Social Capital and School Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kwok-Kuen

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…

  13. Nursery school

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Nursery school was founded in 1961 in Meyrin, before it found a new home on the CERN site in 1965. It expanded from a “garderie” in the morning-only with 30 children, to the Crèche/Kindergarten/School with 147 children and 42 staff we have today. Every year the Nursery school makes an art exhibition in the main building. In 2000 the theme was “Monet’s garden” and it was complete, not even the little bridge was missing! This year, the theme of the exhibition was transport. We could see a garbage truck, a train, and much more.

  14. Profile of American Youth: 1980 Nationwide Administration of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Seminar Press, 1973. Jencks, C. Inequality: A reassessment of the effect of family and school in America . New York: Basic Books, 1972. eJensen, A.R... Sociolinguistic and measurement considerations for construction of Armed Services selection batteries (AFHRL-TR-77-65). Brooks Air Force Base, TX...effect of family and schooling in America . New York: Basic Books, 1972. Jenkins, J.J., & Paterson, D.G. Studies in indai idw l ’lifferences: The search

  15. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  16. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and relational practices – as well as the abjections by which subjects and social groups are formed – have inspired several of the articles, and the authors seek to reveal complex patterns of relating amongst children in school classes that are saturated by marginalisation and bullying practices. Foucault......School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...... in these countries highlights both the similarities and differences amongst national school systems. Most importantly, the authors share an analytical ambition to understand bullying as a complex phenomenon that is enacted or constituted through the interactive/intra-active entanglements that exist between a variety...

  17. School Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Lamas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The school performance study of students is, due to its relevance and complexity, one of the issues of major controversy in the educational research, and it has been given special attention in the last decades. This study is intended to show a conceptual approach to the school performance construct, contextualizing the reality in the regular basic education classrooms. The construct of learning approaches is presented as one of the factors that influences the school performance of students. Besides, an outlook of the empirical research works related to variables that are presented as relevant when explaining the reason for a specific performance in students is shown. Finally, some models and techniques allowing an appropriate study of school performance are presented.

  18. School and seasonality in youth suicide: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko; Yoshikawa, Kanako

    2016-11-01

    Seasonality in youth suicide has been speculated to be associated with the school calendar, as it tends to increase at the beginning of the academic year or after a long break, but robust empirical evidence remains scarce. We examined the nationwide death records in the Vital Statistics of Japan to investigate the seasonal patterns of suicide among youth. Our data set included 108 968 suicides by individuals who died at 6-26 years of age between 1974 and 2014 in Japan. The daily frequencies of death were plotted against the Japanese school calendar, which has little regional and temporal variations. We also estimated a Poisson regression model to uncover the cyclical patterns of suicide deaths. We found that the frequencies of suicide by middle school students (ages 12-15 years) and high school students (ages 15-18 years) sharply increased around the dates when a school session began in April and September. These tended to be low during school breaks. The results of regression analysis suggested middle school students were more than twice as likely to die by suicide when the summer break ended and the second semester began, compared with the baseline week in July. Similarly, the frequency of suicide for high school students also increased by ∼40% at the end of the summer break. Importantly, no such pattern was found for those aged 18-26 years. Our findings strongly indicate that the cyclical pattern of youth suicide is closely related to the school calendar. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. School bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is defined as a systematic abuse of power; the development of the research program on school bullying is outlined over four phases. The distinctive nature of cyberbullying, and also of identity-based bullying, is outlined. Measurement methods are discussed, and the kinds of prevalence rates obtained. A range of risk factors for involvement as a bully, or victim, are summarized. A range of school-based interventions are described, together with discussion of a meta-analysis of their o...

  20. Art School

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Art School is a body of research that focuses on the pedagogical environment and the conditions of creative thinking & material making. The outputs are films that embed reflexivity in their concept, process and form, further contextualised through International talks, events and curated screenings about Art School and the nature of artist’s process and pedagogy. The underlying research questions also address the significance of artist’s processes within the contemporary political and cultur...