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Sample records for schools encouraged children

  1. The role of encouragement in primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Nataša Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Encouragement can be applied in several important segments: creation of a positive social and emotional atmosphere, creation of a positive learning environment, use of preventive techniques in some discipline-related situations, type of intervention when dealing with behavioral problems of students and in the strategy of strengthening students self-confidence. The paper deals with the frequency and manners in which encouragement is used. One of the primary segments in which encouragement is exercised is teacher-student relation, where both verbal and non-verbal encouragement approval, praise, reward and example have large rational and emotional significance. The research comprises the results of systematic observation of individual encouragement tools with their characteristics and functions in primary school teaching practice. The research has been conducted in three primary schools in Belgrade. The quantitative indicators show the reduced frequency of encouragement with the growing age of students. The collected results reveal that in relation to the tested variables the teacher’s personality plays an important role. This suggests the need for teachers to be instructed on the possibilities and conditions for the use of encouragement with primary school children.

  2. Encouraging children to eat vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Buh, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    It is important for children to maintain a healthy and balanced diet throughout their childhood and youth. Children tend to skip vegetables in their meals as they are not much liked; the tastes of vegetables are also highly specific and each individual has to get used to them by repeated tasting. The aim of this undergraduate thesis was to analyse how often children eat vegetables, which types of vegetables they like and which they do not, to determine if the executed method of pedagogica...

  3. Prescolar teacher's encouragement of the children's storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Kokovnik, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    In my graduate thesis titled »Prescolar teacher's encouragement of the children's storytelling« I want to highlight the importance of the professional workers in kindergartens when it comes to the development of the children's way of thinking and their speech. With the adequate planning and practicing of the activities we have a great influence over children's language capacities; among them the children's capacities of the storytelling. In the theoretical part of the thesis I will focus o...

  4. Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools

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    Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed method…

  5. Parental Encouragement in Relation to Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students

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    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Barathi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Parental Encouragement refers to the general process undertaken by the parents to initiative and directs the behaviour of the children towards high academic achievement. The present study aims to probe the relationship between Parental Encouragement and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students. Survey method was employed and the…

  6. Talking with Young Children: How Teachers Encourage Learning

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    Test, Joan E.; Cunningham, Denise D.; Lee, Amanda C.

    2010-01-01

    In general, talking with young children encourages development in many areas: (1) spoken language; (2) early literacy; (3) cognitive development; (4) social skills; and (5) emotional maturity. Speaking with children in increasingly complex and responsive ways does this even better. This article explores research findings about the effects of…

  7. Earthworms, Stamps and Butterfly Wings: Encouraging Children's Interests and Collections.

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    McGreevy, Ann

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the importance of encouraging children's interests and the pursuit of collections and hobbies as strategies for developing talent and abilities. Excerpts are cited from eminent people's lives as examples of early interests/collections and eventual success. Letters from children on their collections are included. (Contains…

  8. School Travel Planning: Mobilizing School and Community Resources to Encourage Active School Transportation

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    Buliung, Ron; Faulkner, Guy; Beesley, Theresa; Kennedy, Jacky

    2011-01-01

    Background: Active school transport (AST), school travel using an active mode like walking, may be important to children's overall physical activity. A "school travel plan" (STP) documents a school's transport characteristics and provides an action plan to address school and neighborhood barriers to AST. Methods: We conducted a pilot STP…

  9. Why do mothers encourage their children to control their weight? A cross-sectional study of possible contributing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Anja C; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Wirt, Tamara; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-01-01

    Background Mothers encouraging their children to control their weight is problematic as it is associated with children’s body dissatisfaction and weight concerns as well as further weight gain. The aim of this study was to identify factors in children and mothers associated with mothers encouraging their children to control their weight and possible gender differences therein. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire data was available from 1658 mothers of primary school children (mean age 7.1 ±...

  10. Parental encouragement of initiative-taking and adjustment in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families.

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    Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan

    2012-12-01

    Due to the requirements of the competitive, market-oriented urban society, parents in urban and urbanized families are more likely than parents in rural families to encourage initiative-taking in child rearing in China. The socialization experiences of children from different types of families may be related to their adjustment. This study examined parental socialization attitudes, social and school adjustment, and their relations in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families. Participants were elementary school students (N = 1,033; M age = 11 years) and their parents in China. Data were obtained from parental reports, peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents in urban and urbanized families had higher scores than parents in rural families on encouragement of initiative-taking. Urban children, particularly girls, were more sociable, obtained higher social status, and had fewer school problems than their rural counterparts. Children from urbanized families were different from rural children and similar to urban children in social and school adjustment. Moreover, multigroup invariance tests showed that parental encouragement of initiative-taking was associated more strongly with children's sociable-assertive behavior and social standing in the urban and urbanized groups than in the rural group. The results indicate that particular socialization attitudes may vary in their adaptive value in child development as a function of specific social and cultural requirements in changing societies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Encouraging the development of children's oral communicative competences through play

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    Castrillón Olga Lucía

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available When children start to learn a foreign language they already have some communicative competence in their mother tongue. Thus a classroom research project was carried out in order to study the development of children¿s competence in communicating in other languages. The main theme explored was if it was possible to help kids acquire and develop their competence in the new code through the use of play activities. The concepts related to competences, play and some children's characteristics when learning a second language will be presented in this article. Also, the results of the implementation of play activities in the classroom as well as some pedagogical implications will be analyzed as a means to promote improvement in the foreign language teaching-learning process. Key words: English-Primary School, Children Second Language Acquisition, Learning Ability in Children-Research, Educational Games-Teaching-Research Inglés-Escuela Primaria, Adquisición de Segundo Lenguaje en Niños, Aptitud de Aprendizaje en niños-Investigación, Cuando los niños empiezan el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera ya poseen alguna competencia comunicativa en su lengua materna. De lo que se trata, por tanto en este proyecto de investigación en el aula es de promover esta competencia para comunicarse en otras lenguas. El propósito fundamental de esta investigación fue explorar si era posible ayudar a los estudiantes a adquirir y desarrollar su competencia en este nuevo código, mediante la implementación de actividades lúdicas. En este artículo se presentaran los conceptos de competencias, lúdica y algunas de las características de los niños en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua. También se presentaran los resultados que surgieron a partir de la implementación de las actividades lúdicas y se mencionaran algunas implicaciones pedagógicas que promueven el mejoramiento del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera.

  12. An assessment of schoolyard renovation strategies to encourage children's physical activity

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    Greenwood Emily

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children in poor and minority neighborhoods often lack adequate environmental support for healthy physical development and community interventions designed to improve physical activity resources serve as an important approach to addressing obesity. In Denver, the Learning Landscapes (LL program has constructed over 98 culturally-tailored schoolyard play spaces at elementary schools with the goal to encourage utilization of play spaces and physical activity. In spite of enthusiasm about such projects to improve urban environments, little work has evaluated their impact or success in achieving their stated objectives. This study evaluates the impacts of LL construction and recency of renovation on schoolyard utilization and the physical activity rates of children, both during and outside of school, using an observational study design. Methods This study employs a quantitative method for evaluating levels of physical activity of individuals and associated environmental characteristics in play and leisure environments. Schools were selected on the basis of their participation in the LL program, the recency of schoolyard renovation, the size of the school, and the social and demographic characteristics of the school population. Activity in the schoolyards was measured using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity (SOPLAY, a validated quantitative method for evaluating levels of physical activity of individuals in play and leisure environments. Trained observers collected measurements before school, during school recess, after school, and on weekends. Overall utilization (the total number of children observed on the grounds and the rate of activity (the percentage of children observed who were physically active were analyzed. Observations were compared using t-tests and the data were stratified by gender for further analysis. In order to assess the impacts of LL renovation, recently-constructed LL schoolyards were

  13. The influence of parental encouragement and caring about healthy eating on children's diet quality and body weights.

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    Faught, Erin; Vander Ploeg, Kerry; Chu, Yen Li; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    In order to mitigate childhood obesity, evidence on what influences children's health behaviours is needed to inform new health promotion strategies. The present study investigated the association between parental practices and their child's diet and body weight status. Grade 5 students and their parents completed health surveys. Parents were asked how much they 'encourage their child to eat healthy foods' and how much they 'personally care about healthy eating'. Children's diet quality and vegetable and fruit intake were assessed using an FFQ. Children's heights and weights were measured to determine body weight status. Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine the influence of parental responses on the outcomes of interest. Elementary schools across the province of Alberta, Canada. Grade 5 students (aged 10 and 11 years; n 8388) and their parent(s). Most parents reported caring about healthy eating and encouraging their child to eat healthy foods at least quite a lot. Children whose parents who cared or encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' were more likely have better diet quality and were less likely to be overweight. Children whose parents both cared and encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' scored an average of 2·06 points higher on the diet quality index (β=2·06; 95 % CI 1·45, 2·66). Health promotion strategies that aim for a high level of parental interest and encouragement of their children to eat healthy foods may improve diet quality and prevent overweight among children.

  14. The Relations of Parental Affect and Encouragement to Children's Moral Emotions and Behaviour.

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    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Eisenburg, Nancy; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Cumberland, Amanda; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the role of observed parental affect and encouragement in children's empathy-related responding and moral behavior, specifically cheating on a puzzle activity. Finds that (1) parents' affect and encouragement positively related to children's sympathy (not empathy) and (2) boys' cheating on the puzzle correlated to parents' affect and…

  15. How medical schools can encourage students' interest in family medicine.

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    Rohan-Minjares, Felisha; Alfero, Charles; Kaufman, Arthur

    2015-05-01

    The discipline of family medicine is essential to improving quality and reducing the cost of care in an effective health care system. Yet the slow growth of this field has not kept pace with national demand. In their study, Rodríguez and colleagues report on the influence of the social environment and academic discourses on medical students' identification with family medicine in four countries-the United Kingdom, Canada, France, and Spain. They conclude that these factors-the social environment and discursive activity within the medical school-influence students' specialty choices. While the discourses in Canada, France, and Spain were mostly negative, in the United Kingdom, family medicine was considered a prestigious academic discipline, well paying, and with a wide range of practice opportunities. Medical students in the United Kingdom also were exposed early and often to positive family medicine role models.In the United States, academic discourses about family medicine are more akin to those in Canada, France, and Spain. The hidden curriculum includes negative messages about family medicine, and "badmouthing" primary care occurs at many medical schools. National education initiatives highlight the importance of social determinants in medical education and the integration of public health and medicine in practice. Other initiatives expose students to family medicine role models and practice during their undergraduate training and promote primary care practice through new graduate medical education funding models. Together, these initiatives can reduce the negative effects of the social environment and create a more positive discourse about family medicine.

  16. Teaching about Designer Babies and Genetically Modified Foods: Encouraging the Teaching of Biotechnology in Secondary Schools

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    Leslie, Glenda; Schibecci, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Biotechnology is a cutting edge science/technology which impacts the community in many ways. For this and other reasons, it is important we encourage teachers to include biotechnology in the science curriculum. First, however, we need to know what hinders and encourages teachers. We surveyed the views of 88 high school science teachers. The …

  17. Encouraging Spatial Talk: Using Children's Museums to Bolster Spatial Reasoning

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    Polinsky, Naomi; Perez, Jasmin; Grehl, Mora; McCrink, Koleen

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal spatial language intervention studies have shown that greater exposure to spatial language improves children's performance on spatial tasks. Can short naturalistic, spatial language interactions also evoke improved spatial performance? In this study, parents were asked to interact with their child at a block wall exhibit in a…

  18. Emotions at school: An obstacle or an encouragement to learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić-Radev Milica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions and cognition have long been treated as separate processes in psychology. Emotions were considered a distractor of rational processes, and it was endeavoured, especially at school, to reduce the influence of emotions to the lowest level possible. However, the contemporary research in the field of neurobiology and psychology states the complete opposite - that emotions and cognition are inextricably bound. Every kind of learning has an emotional grounding, while the emotional processes are necessary in order to utilise any kind of knowledge in everyday life. The first part of the current paper provides an overview of the studies dealing with the influence of emotions on the learning process, perception, attention, memory, critical thinking and motivation. In the second part of the paper, we speak about emotions in the educational context, and in the third about the implications of the studies dealing with emotions for education. The new insights into the relation between the emotional and cognitive processes inevitably have a bearing on the process of teaching and learning, as well as on teacher education. It is necessary to raise teachers’ awareness of the importance of emotions in education and the consequent professional commitments and tasks as early as in the stage of pre-service education. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 179002: Indikatori i modeli usklađivanja porodičnih i poslovnih uloga

  19. Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed.

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    Steinberg, L; Lamborn, S D; Dornbusch, S M; Darling, N

    1992-10-01

    This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.

  20. Nature and Young Children: Encouraging Creative Play and Learning in Natural Environments. Second Edition

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    Wilson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Now in its second edition, "Nature and Young Children" promotes the holistic development of children by connecting them with nature. It offers advice and guidance on how to set up indoor and outdoor nature play spaces as well as encouraging environmentally responsible attitudes, values and behaviour in your early childhood setting. Covering topics…

  1. New educational tools to encourage high-school students' activity in stem

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    Mayorova, Vera; Grishko, Dmitriy; Leonov, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Many students have to choose their future profession during their last years in the high school and therefore to choose a university where they will get proper education. That choice may define their professional life for many years ahead or probably for the rest of their lives. Bauman Moscow State Technical University conducts various events to introduce future professions to high-school students. Such activity helps them to pick specialization in line with their interests and motivates them to study key scientific subjects. The paper focuses on newly developed educational tools to encourage high school students' interest in STEM disciplines. These tools include laboratory courses developed in the fields of physics, information technologies and mathematics. More than 2000 high school students already participated in these experimental courses. These activities are aimed at increasing the quality of STEM disciplines learning which will result in higher quality of training of future engineers.

  2. Preschool Children's Self-Reports of Fruit and Vegetable Knowledge, Preference, and Messages Encouraging Consumption

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    Hansen, Andrew R.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Hackney, Amy A.; Luque, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes, obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Only one third of children aged 4-8?years consume the recommended 5 servings a day. Studies involving school-aged children (6-11?years) demonstrate that positive outcome expectancies can mediate FVC. There…

  3. The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

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    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

  4. What Hispanic parents do to encourage and discourage 3-5 year old children to be active: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

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    O'Connor, Teresia M; Cerin, Ester; Hughes, Sheryl O; Robles, Jessica; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Tom; Lee, Rebecca E; Nicklas, Theresa; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2013-08-06

    Hispanic preschoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on preschooler physical activity (PA) (Niños Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hispanic 3-5 year old children to inform the development of a new PA parenting practice instrument and future interventions to increase PA among Hispanic youth. Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured multi-step group procedure, was used to elicit and prioritize responses from 10 groups of Hispanic parents regarding what parents do to encourage (5 groups) or discourage (5 groups) preschool aged children to be active. Five groups consisted of parents with low education (less than high school) and 5 with high education (high school or greater) distributed between the two NGT questions. Ten NGT groups (n = 74, range 4-11/group) generated 20-46 and 42-69 responses/group for practices that encourage or discourage PA respectively. Eight to 18 responses/group were elected as the most likely to encourage or discourage PA. Parental engagement in child activities, modeling PA, and feeding the child well were identified as parenting practices that encourage child PA. Allowing TV and videogame use, psychological control, physical or emotional abuse, and lack of parental engagement emerged as parenting practices that discourage children from being active. There were few differences in the pattern of responses by education level. Parents identified ways they encourage and discourage 3-5 year-olds from PA, suggesting both are important targets for interventions. These will inform the development of a new PA parenting practice scale to be further evaluated. Further research should explore the role parents play in discouraging child PA, especially in using psychological control or submitting children to abuse, which were new findings in this study.

  5. Encouraging Consumption of Water in School and Child Care Settings: Access, Challenges, and Strategies for Improvement

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    Hampton, Karla E.

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents are not consuming enough water, instead opting for sugar-sweetened beverages (sodas, sports and energy drinks, milks, coffees, and fruit-flavored drinks with added sugars), 100% fruit juice, and other beverages. Drinking sufficient amounts of water can lead to improved weight status, reduced dental caries, and improved cognition among children and adolescents. Because children spend most of their day at school and in child care, ensuring that safe, potable drinking water is available in these settings is a fundamental public health measure. We sought to identify challenges that limit access to drinking water; opportunities, including promising practices, to increase drinking water availability and consumption; and future research, policy efforts, and funding needed in this area. PMID:21680941

  6. Encouraging vegetable intake as a snack among children: the influence of portion and unit size.

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    van Kleef, Ellen; Bruggers, Ilse; de Vet, Emely

    2015-10-01

    People eat more unhealthy foods when served more (portion size effect) and when the food is served in larger units (unit size effect). The present study aimed to examine whether these effects can be used for the good: to increase vegetable consumption among children. A 2×2 between-subjects experiment was conducted at two schools. Pupils were presented in class with cucumber that varied both in unit size (one piece v. pre-sliced) and portion size (one-third v. two-thirds of a cucumber). Children ate ad libitum during the morning break and filled in a survey. Primary schools in the centre of the Netherlands. Primary-school pupils (n 255) aged 8-13 years. Children ate 54 % more cucumber when served a large compared with a smaller portion (difference of 49 g; P<0·001). Large units did not impact consumption (P=0·58), but were considered as less convenient to eat than small units (P=0·001). Findings suggest that children's vegetable intake can be improved by serving larger portions in smaller-sized pieces.

  7. Encouraging the learning of hydraulic engineering subjects in agricultural engineering schools

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    Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez Calvo, Raúl

    2014-09-01

    Several methodological approaches to improve the understanding and motivation of students in Hydraulic Engineering courses have been adopted in the Agricultural Engineering School at Technical University of Madrid. During three years student's progress and satisfaction have been assessed by continuous monitoring and the use of 'online' and web tools in two undergraduate courses. Results from their application to encourage learning and communication skills in Hydraulic Engineering subjects are analysed and compared to the initial situation. Student's academic performance has improved since their application, but surveys made among students showed that not all the methodological proposals were perceived as beneficial. Their participation in the 'online', classroom and reading activities was low although they were well assessed.

  8. Virginia Demonstration Project Encouraging Middle School Students in Pursuing STEM Careers

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    Bachman, Jane T.; Kota, Dena H.; Kota, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    Encouraging students at all grade levels to consider pursuing a career in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields i s a national focus. In 2005, the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD), a Department of Defense laboratory located in Da hlgren, Virginia, began work on the Virginia Demonstration Project (VDP) with the goal of increasing more student interest in STEM educatio n and pursuing STEM careers. This goal continues as the program enters its sixth year. This project has been successful through the partici pation of NSWCDD's scientists and engineers who are trained as mentor s to work in local middle school classrooms throughout the school year, As an extension of the in-class activities, several STEM summer aca demies have been conducted at NSWCDD, These academies are supported by the Navy through the VDP and the STEM Learning Module Project. These projects are part of more extensive outreach efforts offered by the National Defense Education Program (NDEP), sponsored by the Director, Defense Research and Engineering. The focus of this paper is on the types of activities conducted at the summer academy, an overview of the academy planning process, and recommendations to help support a nati onal plan of integrating modeling and simulation-based engineering and science into all grade levels. based upon the lessons learned

  9. Does Teaching Children about Human Rights, Encourage Them to Practice, Protect and Promote the Rights of Others?

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    Dunhill, Ally

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate how the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) Rights Respecting Schools Award makes positive contributions to children's lives and experiences at school. Within the overall context of education as a right, the Award supports children to learn about their rights and the rights…

  10. Gravity, God and Ghosts? Parents' Beliefs in Science, Religion, and the Paranormal and the Encouragement of Beliefs in Their Children

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    Braswell, Gregory S.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Using a questionnaire, the present study examined parents' beliefs regarding the development of children's beliefs about science, religion, and the paranormal. The study also investigated parental encouragement of children's beliefs, as well as parents' own beliefs within these domains. Results revealed that parents make distinctions between…

  11. Parental Involvement and Children's School Achievement: Evidence for Mediating Processes

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    Rogers, Maria A.; Theule, Jennifer; Ryan, Bruce A.; Adams, Gerald R.; Keating, Leo

    2009-01-01

    This study used path analytic techniques and an ecological framework to examine the association between children's perceptions of their parents' educational involvement, children's personal characteristics, and their school achievement. Fathers' academic pressure was predictive of lower achievement, whereas mothers' encouragement and support…

  12. Children's rights and school psychology: children's right to participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, Gerison; Jimerson, Shane R; Shahroozi, Reza

    2014-02-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child detailed an international imperative to fulfilling, protecting, and respecting the rights of every child. In particular, the Convention set out a clear mandate for guaranteeing opportunities for children to be heard on all matters of concern to them. The attainment of these goals involves respecting and valuing children as active participants in the educational process. If fully implemented, the right of children to express views and have them taken seriously, throughout the school environment, would represent one of the most profound transformations in moving towards a culture of respect for children's rights, for their dignity and citizenship, and for their capacities to contribute significantly towards their own well-being. These values and principles are consistent with those of the school psychology profession, thus, school psychologists are encouraged to be at the Center of the process advocating and actualizing the Convention in schools throughout the world. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal Parenting and Social, School, and Psychological Adjustment of Migrant Children in Urban China

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    Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations of maternal warmth, behavioral control, and encouragement of sociability to social, school, and psychological adjustment in migrant children in China. The participants were 284 rural-to-urban migrant children (M age = 11 years, 149 boys) in migrant children's schools and their mothers. Data on parenting were…

  14. Sun Protection Among New Zealand Primary School Children.

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    Gage, Ryan; Leung, William; Stanley, James; Reeder, Anthony; Mackay, Christina; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Chambers, Tim; Signal, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Schools are an important setting for raising skin cancer prevention awareness and encouraging sun protection. We assessed the clothes worn and shade used by 1,278 children in eight schools in the Wellington region of New Zealand. These children were photographed for the Kids'Cam project between September 2014 and March 2015 during school lunch breaks. Children's mean clothing coverage (expressed as a percentage of body area covered) was calculated. Data on school sun-safety policies were obtained via telephone. Mean total body clothing coverage was 70.3% (95% confidence interval = 66.3%, 73.8%). Body regions with the lowest mean coverage were the head (15.4% coverage), neck (36.1% coverage), lower arms (46.1% coverage), hands (5.3% coverage), and calves (30.1% coverage). Children from schools with hats as part of the school uniform were significantly more likely to wear a hat (52.2%) than children from schools without a school hat (2.7%). Most children (78.4%) were not under the cover of shade. Our findings suggest that New Zealand children are not sufficiently protected from the sun at school. Schools should consider comprehensive approaches to improve sun protection, such as the provision of school hats, sun-protective uniforms, and the construction of effective shade.

  15. Does Social Labelling Encourage Child Schooling and Discourage Child Labour in Nepal?

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    Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…

  16. Enhancing Formative Assessment Practice and Encouraging Middle School Mathematics Engagement and Persistence

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    Beesley, Andrea D.; Clark, Tedra F.; Dempsey, Kathleen; Tweed, Anne

    2018-01-01

    In the transition to middle school, and during the middle school years, students' motivation for mathematics tends to decline from what it was during elementary school. Formative assessment strategies in mathematics can help support motivation by building confidence for challenging tasks. In this study, the authors developed and piloted a…

  17. Literature Discussion: Encouraging Reading Interest and Comprehension in Struggling Middle School Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Pamela; Honchell, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how literature discussion affects middle school struggling readers. The focus was on 16 middle school struggling readers in a rural Title I school in the southeastern United States. Findings indicated that (a) literature discussion increased student enjoyment of reading, and (b) students…

  18. Rationale and study protocol of the EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) program: cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school-based physical activity integration program for mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Nicholas; Lubans, David R; Holmes, Kathryn; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel strategies are required to increase school-based physical activity levels of children. Integrating physical activity in mathematics lessons may lead to improvements in students’ physical activity levels as well as enjoyment, engagement and learning. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a curriculum-based physical activity integration program known as EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) on children’s daily school time physical activ...

  19. Understanding the school 'climate': secondary school children and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Susan; Bernier, Sandrine; Blanchet, Aymeric; Derkenne, Chantal; Clement, Florence; Petitjean, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    held in the school under study. A critical description of the nature and content of communicated messages, activities and projects follows. Individual and collective initiatives which foster an interdisciplinary approach to climate change education are identified, as are the various obstacles to this approach, including organizational obstacles and the longstanding traditions of the French educational system which tend to hinder pedagogical innovation. Lastly, the reception of these projects and activities by school children in the second year of secondary school is analyzed. The results of this analysis are somewhat, but not always, encouraging. School children interviewed do not clearly understand the scientific phenomena surrounding climate change, and have difficulty considering this issue within its wider socio-political context. School children's interest in climate change and environmental science is largely dependent upon a perceived link with their own centers of interest or hobbies. School children express nonetheless the need for more and better adult mediation on the question of climate change, even though they see environmentally conscious behavior as contrary to the modern lifestyle of comfort that society offers them. Certain school projects and activities which had a particular impact on school children are discussed, in order to suggest criteria for evaluating the effectiveness (or non-effectiveness) of climate change projects in school. This study can be considered to be a tool for reflection and for the evaluation of the potential impact of climate change programs and messages produced for youngsters in school today

  20. Factors of children's school readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.

  1. Associations Between Parent-Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Encouragement and Child Outdoor Physical Activity Among Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksic, Nicole E; Salahuddin, Meliha; Butte, Nancy F; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2018-05-01

    A growing body of research has examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and parental encouragement for child physical activity (PA), yet these potential predictors have not been studied together to predict child outdoor PA. The purpose of this study is to examine these predictors and parent- and child-reported child outdoor PA. The Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration study collected data from fifth-grade students attending 31 elementary schools across Austin and Houston and their parents (N = 748 parent-child dyads). Mixed-effects linear and logistic regressions stratified by gender and adjusted for sociodemographic covariates assessed associations among parental-perceived neighborhood safety, parental encouragement for child's outdoor PA, and parent- and child-reported child's outdoor PA. Parental-perceived neighborhood safety was significantly associated with encouraging outdoor PA (P = .01) and child-reported child's outdoor PA in boys, but not in girls. Significant associations were found between parental encouragement and child-reported outdoor PA for girls (P < .05) and parent-reported outdoor PA (P < .01) for boys and girls. Parent encouragement of PA and neighborhood safety are potential predictors of child outdoor PA and could be targeted in youth PA interventions.

  2. The Effect of Parental Involvement and Encouragement on Preschool Children's Symbolic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Podlesek, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the ways in which parents engage in play with their children within the family context and to establish which parental play behaviour predicts the play behaviour of their children during interactive play with toys. The sample included 58 children from 2;6 to 6 years old and their parents. The parent-child…

  3. Parental Presence and Encouragement Do Not Influence Helping in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Young children begin helping others with simple instrumental problems from soon after their first birthdays. In previous observations of this phenomenon, both naturalistic and experimental, children's parents were in the room and could potentially have influenced their behavior. In the two current studies, we gave 24-month-old children the…

  4. An Exploration of Parental Encouragement as an Intervening Variable in Occupational Educational Learning of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R. Brooke

    1971-01-01

    Based upon data from a random sample of families a typology of Parental Encouragement (PE) techniques was tested and two predominant types were found. A three way" analysis using comparable data from both parents and the ninth grade son reveals considerably less than one to one" correspondence on reported PE attempts. (Author)

  5. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged

  6. Art Therapy Connection: Encouraging Troubled Youth to Stay in School and Succeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Judy; Waldman, Gwenn; Collins, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the theory and practice of Art Therapy Connection (ATC), an inner city, yearlong school art therapy program in Chicago, IL, for students identified as being at risk of failing grades 3-12. The ATC program helps to address the mental health needs of students living in impoverished communities and the constant threats they…

  7. Firing up White Clay: Immersion School Students Encouraged to Return, Give Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbhau, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Fort Belknap College President Carole Falcon-Chandler does not fluently speak the "A'ani" (White Clay) language, but her granddaughter does. The girl, one of the 12 students in the White Clay Language Immersion School located on the college campus in Harlem, Montana, is part of the next generation of fluent A'ani speakers. The language…

  8. Encouraging the Learning of Hydraulic Engineering Subjects in Agricultural Engineering Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinobas, Leonor Rodríguez; Sánchez Calvo, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Several methodological approaches to improve the understanding and motivation of students in Hydraulic Engineering courses have been adopted in the Agricultural Engineering School at Technical University of Madrid. During three years student's progress and satisfaction have been assessed by continuous monitoring and the use of…

  9. Does a Business School's Writing Center Encourage Students To Write Like Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jean-Paul

    An educator at Bryant College (Rhode Island), a business-oriented college, sought to better understand the effects of gender as they operate within and through the school's writing center. Bryant College's female students attend a college with a student body of about 40% females and 60% males. The hypothesis in a study was that female students…

  10. Hidden Losses: How Demographics Can Encourage Incorrect Assumptions about ESL High School Students' Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Kelleen; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2008-01-01

    Data from ESL students' records in Vancouver are examined in the light of the BC Ministry of Education's claim that ESL high school students are more successful than students whose first language is English. We argue that the academic achievement of well-to-do students whose parents are skilled workers or entrepreneurs may mask the completion…

  11. An Event to Encourage High School Students to Pursue College Degrees in Physics and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiet, Bruce; Thomas, Gordon

    2003-04-01

    We discuss a Math and Physics Day for high school students and teachers, with hands-on activities and seminars involving mathematics and physics. Participants also learn about careers for those who go on to major in physics and mathematics in college. The New York State Section of the APS has provided generous support for this workshop through its Outreach grant program. Approximately a dozen high schools and 100 students attend each year. The program, which runs from 9:15 AM until 2:15 PM, includes an introduction to undergraduate degree programs in Mathematics, Statistics, Optics, Actuarial Science and Applied Physics, a group physics experiment/contest, brief talks over lunch by speakers from industry who have degrees in Math or Physics, and an afternoon seminar. Teachers earn Professional Development credit.

  12. Encouraging children to eat more fruit and vegetables: Health vs. descriptive social norm-based messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Maxine; Robinson, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Traditional intervention approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption outline the health benefits of eating fruit and vegetables. More recently, social norm-based messages describing the healthy eating habits of others have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable intake in adults. Here we report two experimental studies which investigated whether exposure to descriptive social norm-based messages about the behaviour of other children and health-based messages increased fruit and vegetable intake in young children. In both studies children were exposed to messages whilst playing a board-game. After exposure to the messages, children were able to consume fruit and vegetables, as well as high calorie snack foods. Although findings were inconsistent across the two individual studies, in a pooled analysis we found evidence that both health messages and descriptive social norm-based messages increased children's fruit and vegetable intake, relative to control condition messages (p norm-based messages can be used to promote meaningful changes to children's dietary behaviour warrants further study. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Family, Peer and School Influence on Children's Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaževic, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Theory of origins of the paper starts from holistic and humanistic approach to upbringing and education, which has a goal of comprehensive development of student. An integral children's development can be encouraged by thoughtful planning of school activities in the school curriculum. Co-creators of the school curriculum (teachers, students and…

  14. Reading and Love: Encouraging Love of Reading at Home and School: Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Reading (6th, Mangilao, Guam, January 18, 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Eileen G., Ed.

    Representing the expertise of university education professors and public school teachers, the articles in these proceedings focus on encouraging reading and fostering lifelong reading habits. Titles of the papers and their authors are as follows: (1) "Television and Books: Friends or Foes" (Jeannetta H. Caplan); (2) "Encouraging the…

  15. How one-year-old children become capable of singing songs and speaking due to encouragement from others

    OpenAIRE

    諸冨, 満希子

    2018-01-01

    This is a report of continuous observations on how children become capable of singing songs due to encouragement from others (usually the mother). In infants, many aspects of “speaking” and “singing” are difficult to distinguish, so I also recorded all acts of “speaking,” limiting the definition of the act of “singing” to the narrow sense of “singing an established song.” The targeted infants were fraternal twin girls, and observations regarding their “speaking” and “singing” were made in the...

  16. Encouraging Teenagers to Improve Speaking Skills through Games in a Colombian Public School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Urrutia León

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Our project was implemented with tenth grade students of a public school located in the Usme Zone in Bogotá. We decided to develop this action research project because we were concerned about our students' difficulties when attempting to speak English. They felt inhibited with activities that involved oral interaction mainly because they were afraid of criticism and jokes about what they said. To develop our project we used video recordings, the teacher's journal and questionnaires answered by the students. The results showed that students felt better, free and confident when they participated in oral tasks, particularly during games. We saw collaboration, solidarity and interaction among them. In addition, they were relaxed and happy at the time they had to perform in small groups.

  17. Encouraging vegetable intake as a snack among children: the influence of portion and unit size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Bruggers, I.; Vet, de E.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: People eat more unhealthy foods when served more (portion size effect) and when the food is served in larger units (unit size effect). The present study aimed to examine whether these effects can be used for the good: to increase vegetable consumption among children. DESIGN: A 2×2

  18. Encouraging Reading through an Enactive Method: Strategies for Hearing Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, M. A.

    The paper describes the enactive method, an alternative approach to introducing and teaching reading to young hearing impaired children. The method actively involves the child as a processor of the material rather than as a passive consumer. The approach is established for a short period of time each day until the student outgrows its original…

  19. Encouraging Use of Subordination in Children's Narratives: A Classroom-Based Priming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Anne; Serratrice, Ludovica; Ashworth, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effect of classroom-based input manipulation on children's use of subordination in a story re-telling task; it also explored the role of receptive vocabulary skills and expressive grammatical abilities in predicting the likelihood of priming. During a two-week priming phase, 47 monolingual English-speaking…

  20. Development of instructional manual encouraging student active learning for high school teaching on fluid mechanics through Torricelli's tank experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiwan, Suttinee; Puttharugsa, Chokchai; Khemmani, Supitch

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to help students to perform Physics laboratory by themselves and to provide guidelines for high school teacher to develop active learning on fluid mechanics by using Torricelli's tank experiment. The research was conducted as follows: 1) constructed an appropriate Torricelli's tank experiment for high school teaching and investigated the condition for maximum water falling distance. As a consequence, it was found that the distance of the falling water measured from the experiment was shorter than that obtained from the theory of ideal fluid because of the energy loss during a flow, 2) developed instructional manual for high school teaching that encourages active learning by using problem based learning (PBL) approach, which is consistent with the trend of teaching and learning in 21st century. The content validity of our instructional manual using Index of Item-objective Congruence (IOC) as evaluated by three experts was over 0.67. The manual developed was therefore qualified for classroom practice.

  1. School Perceptions of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children raised by grandparents are students in schools. Their substitute family structure and precursors to the emergence of this family structure have implications for the children's school performance. Research suggests teachers view these children as at risk for difficult school functioning. The aforementioned judgment is…

  2. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such a reading disability Stressors, such as bullying Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression If you suspect any of these in your child, talk to your child's teacher or health care provider. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Early school-age children should be able to use simple, ...

  3. School Psychologists' Role Concerning Children with Chronic Illnesses in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Camille; Machek, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the role of school psychologists in working with children with chronic illnesses in the schools. A total of 300 practicing school psychologists in public schools, drawn from the National Association of School Psychologists membership directory, completed a standard mail survey. The survey solicited information on (a) graduate…

  4. [The fight against school failure in children of migrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarot, Adeline; Chomentowski, Martine; Moro, Marie Rose

    2013-01-01

    The "Mastering the language" scheme focuses on the prevention of illiteracy in children of migrants in vocation-oriented high schools. According to interviews carried out with teachers, there seems to be a transformation in their conception of teaching within the scheme, which is in line with the change encouraged by the current reform of the whole public service sector. This reform offers hope with regard to the humanisation of institutions which are currently violent.

  5. Examining the feasibility of implementing behavioural economics strategies that encourage home dinner vegetable intake among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Swenson, Alison; Rendahl, Aaron; Vickers, Zata; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Reicks, Marla

    2017-06-01

    To examine the feasibility of implementing nine behavioural economics-informed strategies, or 'nudges', that aimed to encourage home dinner vegetable intake among low-income children. Caregivers were assigned six of nine strategies and implemented one new strategy per week (i.e. 6 weeks) during three dinner meals. Caregivers recorded child dinner vegetable intake on the nights of strategy implementation and rated the level of difficulty for assigned strategies. Baseline data on home vegetable availability and child vegetable liking were collected to assess overall strategy feasibility. Participants' homes in a large Midwestern metropolitan area, USA. Low-income caregiver/child (aged 9-12 years) dyads (n 39). Pairwise comparisons showed that child dinner vegetable intake for the strategy 'Serve at least two vegetables with dinner meals' was greater than intake for each of two other strategies: 'Pair vegetables with other foods the child likes' and 'Eat dinner together with an adult(s) modelling vegetable consumption'. Overall, caregivers' mean rating of difficulty for implementing strategies was 2·6 (1='not difficult', 10='very difficult'). Households had a mean of ten different types of vegetables available. Children reported a rating ≥5 for seventeen types of vegetable on a labelled hedonic scale (1='hate it', 5-6='it's okay', 10='like it a lot'). Behavioural economics-informed strategies are feasible to implement during dinner meals, with some strategies differing by how much they influence vegetable intake among low-income children in the home.

  6. Development of an intervention programme to encourage high school students to stay in school for lunch instead of eating at nearby fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-08-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present paper describes the development of a theory-based intervention programme aimed at encouraging high school students to stay in school for lunch. Intervention Mapping and the Theory of Planned Behaviour served as theoretical frameworks to guide the development of a 12-week intervention programme of activities addressing intention, descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude. It was offered to students and their parents with several practical applications, such as structural environmental changes, and educational activities, such as audio and electronic messages, posters, cooking sessions, pamphlets, improvisation play theatre, quiz, and conferences. The programme considers theoretical and empirical data, taking into account specific beliefs and contexts of the target population. This paper should help programme planners in the development of appropriate interventions addressing the problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unhealthy Behaviours of School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LAZA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood. In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact. The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.

  8. Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

  9. Primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Existing school health programmes in Uganda target children above five years for de-worming, oral hygiene and frequent vaccination of girls of reproductive age. Objective:To assess primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases they experience and medicines used in order to suggest reforms ...

  10. Lo que los Padres Necesitan Saber sobre...Reconocer y Animar los Intereses, las Capacidades, y los Talentos de los Ninos Dotados de la Escuela Primaria. Guia Practica B0213 (What Parents Need To Know about...Recognizing and Encouraging Interests, Strengths, and Talents of Gifted Elementary School Children. Practitioners' Guide B0213).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Marcia A. B.

    This brochure, written in Spanish, discusses strategies that Spanish-speaking parents can use to support the interests of their children and how to recognize and extend their children's talents. Parents are urged to: (1) be aware of what their child likes to do and be patient with the changing patterns as the child explores areas of interests and…

  11. An evaluation of a mass media campaign to encourage parents of adolescents to talk to their children about sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, Robert H; Wolfson, Mark; LaFrance, Betty; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Altman, David

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a mass media campaign in North Carolina that used television (TV) public service announcements (PSAs), radio PSAs, and billboards to encourage parents of adolescents to talk to their children about sex. The primary message of the campaign was "Talk to your kids about sex. Everyone else is." Thirty-two of the 100 counties in North Carolina were chosen to evaluate the mass media campaign. Paid TV PSAs were aired in 22 of these counties, radio PSAs were aired in 21 counties, and billboards were displayed in 6 counties over a period of 9 months. The counties in our sample varied from no exposure to exposure to all 3 types of media. To assess the impact of the campaign, a sample of 1,132 parents of adolescents living in the 32 counties was administered a postexposure survey via a telephone interview. Questions about exposure to the media campaign were embedded among questions concerning media exposure to other health-related messages. The parent survey assessed the frequency the parents reported exposure to each type of media message, correct knowledge of the message, and multiple item scales that assessed how often they had talked to their child about various issues related to sex during the previous 6 months, intentions to talk to their child about these issues during the next month, and attitudes about discussing sexual issues with their child. In bivariate analyses the levels of parental exposure to the 3 types of media messages were associated with both having talked to their children and intentions to talk to their children about sex (p TV PSA about sex, and frequency of hearing a radio PSA about sex and teenage pregnancy accounted for 12.8% (p TV PSA about sex, and frequency of hearing radio PSAs about sex accounted for 12.3% of the variation in parental intentions to talk to their child about sex during the next month. Exposure to each component of this mass media campaign was associated with parents recently having talked to their adolescent

  12. Barriers to children walking and biking to school--United States, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    Physical activity is an important part of a healthy lifestyle; however, many children in the United States do not meet recommended levels of physical activity. Although walking and biking to school can increase physical activity among children, motor-vehicle traffic and other factors can make these activities difficult. The majority of U.S. children do not walk or bike to school, approximately one third ride a school bus, and half are driven in a private vehicle. Less than one trip in seven is made by walking or biking. To examine why the majority of children do not walk or bike to school, CDC analyzed data from the national HealthStyles Survey. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate that long distances and dangerous motor-vehicle traffic pose the most common barriers to children walking and biking to school. Public health and community-based efforts that encourage walking and biking to school should address these barriers.

  13. Dropout of Children from schools in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Wagle, Dhirendra

    2012-01-01

    Nepal, a developing country of the south-asian region has bigger problem of children not completing the full cycle of basic education. In other words, large number of children dropout of schools, especially in the primary and secondary level of schooling. Especially, the situation is worse for those of the backward and socially disadvantaged populations and of the rural and the remote areas. Being in this frame, this study focused on the reasons of dropout of children from schools and the pos...

  14. 9620 DIETARY ADEQUACY OF RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    to reduced mental and physical development of children, hence delayed ... of health and neurocognitive performance of school-age children [2]. ..... Patrick H and TA Nicklas A review of family and social determinants of ... Physiology and.

  15. International School Children's Health Needs: School Nurses' Views in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Annika; Clausson, Eva; Janlov, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Rapid globalization and the integration of national economies have contributed to the sharp rise in enrollment in international schools. How does this global nomadism affect international school children and their individual health needs? This study attempts to find an answer by interviewing 10 school nurses, with varying degrees of experience in…

  16. Rationale and study protocol of the EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) program: cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school-based physical activity integration program for mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Nicholas; Lubans, David R; Holmes, Kathryn; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-08

    Novel strategies are required to increase school-based physical activity levels of children. Integrating physical activity in mathematics lessons may lead to improvements in students' physical activity levels as well as enjoyment, engagement and learning. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a curriculum-based physical activity integration program known as EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) on children's daily school time physical activity levels. Secondary aims include exploring the impact of EASY Minds on their engagement and 'on task' behaviour in mathematics. Grade 5/6 classes from eight public schools in New South Wales, Australia will be randomly allocated to intervention (n = 4) or control (n = 4) groups. Teachers from the intervention group will receive one day of professional development, a resource pack and asked to adapt their lessons to embed movement-based learning in their daily mathematics program in at least three lessons per week over a six week period. Intervention support will be provided via a weekly email and three lesson observations. The primary outcomes will be children's physical activity levels (accelerometry) across both the school day and during mathematics lessons (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time). Children's 'on-task' behaviour, enjoyment of mathematics and mathematics attainment will be assessed as secondary outcomes. A detailed process evaluation will be undertaken. EASY Minds is an innovative intervention that has the potential to improve key physical and academic outcomes for primary school aged children and help guide policy and practice regarding the teaching of mathematics. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12613000637741 13/05/2013.

  17. Academic performance of school children with behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Behavioural disorders can have a negative influence on the academic performance of school children. There are no similiar published is no known studies in Nigeria. Objective: To compare the academic performance of primary school children with behavioural disorders with that of their controls. Methods: A ...

  18. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children's skin health.

  19. Families with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  20. Does school breakfast benefit children's educational performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, L; Ani, C C; Grantham-mcgregor, S

    1997-09-01

    This article reviews several research studies on the impact of the lack of breakfast among students. Recent data reveal that about 20% of Nigerian children were wasted or had weight-for-height measurements under the 5th percentile of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard. In Ghana, 41% of children were underweight or had a weight-for-age under -2 standard deviations of the NCHS standards. In Tanzania, about 34% of children were underweight. Many more students in Africa are attending school, but many are leaving primary school early or failing secondary school examinations. It is argued that poor nutritional status affects children's ability to learn. Research reveals several hypotheses about how breakfast affects children's cognition, behavior, and school performance. Children may not attend school at all due to the inability to purchase food to eat at school, or insufficient food resources at home to provide sufficient energy to walk long distances to school. In four studies, two in the USA and the others in Peru and Jamaica, findings reveal that when undernourished children missed breakfast, they performed worse in tests of cognition. Adequately nourished children's performance was unaffected by missing breakfast. A study in four Jamaican schools found that children had more creative ideas when they received a breakfast for 2 weeks than when they did not receive breakfast. Two Swedish studies found that children with a high-calorie breakfast improved in cognition compared to those receiving a low-calorie breakfast. One study found that children in well-equipped classrooms paid more attention in class after having breakfast. Children in overcrowded classes and poorly equipped schools were less likely to pay attention after breakfast. Long-term effects are less well studied, but findings clearly support the benefits of breakfast.

  1. Children's Mental Health and School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSocio, Janiece; Hootman, Janis

    2004-01-01

    An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mental health on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mental health. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…

  2. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  3. School children's reasoning about school rules

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberg, Robert

    2008-01-01

    School rules are usually associated with classroom management and school discipline. However, rules also define ways of thinking about oneself and the world. Rules are guidelines for actions and for the evaluation of actions in terms of good and bad, or right and wrong, and therefore a part of moral or values education in school. This study is a part of a larger ethnographic study on values education in the everyday life of school. Here the focus is on school rules and students' reasoning abo...

  4. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  5. Extended Schools: The School's Role in Encouraging Behaviour for Learning Outside the Classroom that Supports Learning within. A Response to the "Every Child Matters" and Extended Schools Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Extended schools have an important role to play in a society that is undergoing significant change. This article moves beyond the normal "extended schools are a good thing" rhetoric. It points out the risks of "bolt on" policy initiatives, especially with regard to "pupils at risk" and argues against the superficial adoption of such policy. In a…

  6. Homework particularities for small school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiusanu, Corina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2013-01-01

    The present study was centered on the particularities of the duration of preparing homework, taking breaks during homework preparation, and the way the breaks should take place for small school children. The study has been done on a sample of 235 small school children from Oradea, 114 boys and 121 girls, between the ages 7 and 10 years old, using an anonymous questioner, with 41 items, which investigates the lifestyle of the small school children. The duration of homework preparation it is significantly more reduced for the school children in 1st grade in comparison with the ones in 3 grade (p lunch. Half of the children from grades I-IV prepare their homework with no break. A very small number of children spend their homework break time in a healthy manner, while the rest prefer to play computer games (46.95%) or to watch television (46.08%). More than half of the schoolchildren need 1-2 hours at home to prepare their homework. Most of the school children prepare their homework after lunch, in an optimal interval of time. Half of the questioned children prepare their homework with no break. Those who are taking breaks prefer activities which get the children even more tired, therefore being non-hygienic methods of spending homework breaks.

  7. Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Primary School Children in an Inner-City Local Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Clare; Spicer, Freya; Lever, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    There is growing awareness of mental health problems among children, and schools are increasingly being encouraged to take a wider role in preventing mental health difficulties. Local population studies are needed to inform delivery of universal through to targeted services. In the current study, parents and teachers of 2% of primary school…

  8. Sodium intake of elementary school children in Bandung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endah Damastuti; Muhayatun Santoso; Natalia Adventini; Katherina Oginawati

    2010-01-01

    Sodium is essential micro nutrient which is needed by human body such as in regulating body fluids balance, maintaining the normal pH of blood, transmitting nerve signal, and helping cells in metabolism of other essential nutrients. The changes of modern life style at the moment, had lead people tend to consume fast foods and processed foods which have high sodium content that apprehensively increasing prevalence of hypertension. In this research, the determination of sodium intake of elementary school children in Bandung and the contribution of street foods to sodium intake was conducted. Food sampling was done by duplicate diet method of 19 elementary school children and 24 kinds of street foods often consumed by children in Bandung. The samples were analysed using neutron activation analysis technique. The results showed that sodium intake of elementary school children was ranging from 228 to 7019 mg/day with approximately 47 % of children have sodium intake above the upper intake level, 2200 mg/day. While the estimation of sodium intake from street foods, assuming that 1 portion of street food consumed in 1 day, was ranging from 53 to 3750 mg/day with average sodium intake contribution was about 65 % of adequate intake value. It could be generally concluded that present dietary pattern of children tends to over consumed of sodium and this matter could apprehensively impact to the increasing of future prevalence of hypertension as well as hypertension probability at age < 20 years old. From this research, it was expected to encourage all societies in giving more attention at dietary pattern and nutrient intake of their children for better quality human resources in the future. (author)

  9. Sowing Seeds for Healthier Diets : Children's Perspectives on School Gardening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Dedding, Christine

    2017-01-01

    School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children's vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children's perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school

  10. The Socialization of Home-Schooled Children in Rural Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Mecham, Neil A.

    2004-01-01

    Concern over the social development of children who are home schooled has caused parents and educators to question the wisdom of this practice. A review of home-schooling research has not revealed whether a difference exists between the social skills of homeschooled children and children who attend public schools. This study explored the socialization of home-schooled children by comparing Social Skills Rating System scores of home-schooled children with the scores of their mothers and a comp...

  11. Refractive Errors in Primary School Children in Nigeria | Faderin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in primary school children in the Nigerian Army children school. Bonny Camp, Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 919 pupils from two primary schools (one private school and one public school) were screened. The schools and classes were selected using ...

  12. The father and the schooling of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Romanelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been investigating the relationship between families and school. Those studies, especially in the field of Sociology of education seek to describe and analyse family-school relationships to contribute to the improvement of knowledge about the schooling process of children, adolescents and young people. However, survey results about the schooling process and the relationship between family and school, published in books by academics or scientific journals in the fields of education, sociology, anthropology and psychology, show that studies considering the father figure tend to be scarce. This article focuses on the construction of fatherhood, in an attempt to discuss its representations, seeking to contribute and clarify the reasons for the relative scarcity of analyses about the father's role in studies about the family and the children's schooling process.

  13. Bullying experience in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Aulia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is still a significant problem today. Bullying occurs starting from the primary level up to college. The impact of the bullying on victims can be a lonely, difficult to adjust, insecurity, low self-esteem, depression and the worst is suicide. The earlier effort to detect bullying experienced by children will be able to prevent long-term effects caused. This study was conducted on 258 students of class 4-5 primary school in Yogyakarta. Data was collected through open-ended questionnaires associated with feelings and experiences of bullying in schools both as perpetrators and victims. The result showed that students feel negative emotions associated with bullying at school and most children experience bullying at school with a variety of forms, ranging from physical, verbal and relational from peers at school. These findings have implications related to the effort to do the school to help students cope with the impact of bullying experienced.

  14. Safety and Children: How Schools Can Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatkoff, Amy

    1994-01-01

    Explores the role that schools can play in providing direction, guidance, and support to children and adolescents in the face of growing violence in society and in schools. Discusses the development and implementation of preventive measures such as additions to the curriculum, mentoring programs, child abuse and neglect programs, parent education,…

  15. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status appears to have an effect on their children's behaviour. Place of residence (urban or semi-rural areas) and gender does not influence their knowledge about different diets. It was, finally, shown that as children grow older they tend to eat less healthy foods.

  16. Intervention Strategies for School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Entremont, Denise Morel

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a relatively new diagnostic label. As more physicians become familiar with the diagnosis of this syndrome, schools will begin to see children with the label FAS and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Children with FAS often do not pick up skills from their environment as easily as some of their peers. They often need to…

  17. Middle school children's game playing preferences: Case studies of children's experiences playing and critiquing science-related educational games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dolly Rebecca Doran

    The playing of computer games is one of the most popular non-school activities of children, particularly boys, and is often the entry point to greater facility with and use of other computer applications. Children are learning skills as they play, but what they learn often does not generalize beyond application to that and other similar games. Nevertheless, games have the potential to develop in students the knowledge and skills described by national and state educational standards. This study focuses upon middle-school aged children, and how they react to and respond to computer games designed for entertainment and educational purposes, within the context of science learning. Through qualitative, case study methodology, the game play, evaluation, and modification experiences of four diverse middle-school-aged students in summer camps are analyzed. The inquiry focused on determining the attributes of computer games that appeal to middle school students, the aspects of science that appeal to middle school children, and ultimately, how science games might be designed to appeal to middle school children. Qualitative data analysis led to the development of a method for describing players' activity modes during game play, rather than the conventional methods that describe game characteristics. These activity modes are used to describe the game design preferences of the participants. Recommendations are also made in the areas of functional, aesthetic, and character design and for the design of educational games. Middle school students may find the topical areas of forensics, medicine, and the environment to be of most interest; designing games in and across these topic areas has the potential for encouraging voluntary science-related play. Finally, when including children in game evaluation and game design activities, results suggest the value of providing multiple types of activities in order to encourage the full participation of all children.

  18. Social games with pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažin, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis Social games with pre-school children is to present social games as one of the work methods for relational learning. The theoretical part defines the social development of pre-school children and focuses on social skills that begin to emerge in the preschool period and of course social games. The purpose of social games is active learning, meaning they provide concrete situations, through which children actively learn as well as use social skills and express their views ...

  19. Health status of school children during questionnaire survey in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  20. Drawings vs. narratives: drawing as a tool to encourage verbalization in children whose fathers are drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Liraz, Revital

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the extent to which the use of drawing prior to narrative description increases the richness of the narrative given by children who are exposed to a succession of negative life events. The sample consisted of study and comparison groups (60 children: 27 boys, 33 girls), ranging in age from 9 to 14, whose fathers were addicted to drugs. The study group was asked to first 'draw your life in the shadow of your father's addiction to drugs', then verbally describes 'your life under the shadow of an addicted father'; the comparison group was asked only the latter. Following evaluation of drawings and narratives by two judges, analysis of variance between the groups' narratives revealed that when children were first asked to draw, their narratives were more detailed and more revealing of emotions compared to children who were asked only to verbally describe their lives, whereas expressions of resistance and splitting were more apparent in the comparison group.

  1. Children's perceptions of school-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, T P; Meadan, H

    2000-09-01

    An important first step in understanding school-based violence is understanding children's subjective perceptions of the phenomena. Understanding these perceptions is likely to be a major factor in determining the integrity of both prevalence and intervention studies. We investigated how elementary and secondary aged children perceived school-based violence. A sample of 979 children from a nested random sample of elementary (grades 3-6) and middle school (grades 7-8) classrooms in Jerusalem participated in this study. To understand children's perception of school violence, we used an instrument composed of 19 dichotomous items, each presenting a one-line description of a behaviour, which the respondent would define as either 'intentionally harmful' or not. Eighth graders were significantly less likely to label the behaviours described as violent compared to all other grades; and seventh graders were less likely as compared to third, fourth and fifth graders; also, some between-gender differences were found. The respondents often view the behaviours described as intentional and aggressive; this finding should serve as an impetus to widen the scope of school-based violence interventions to include these behaviours, especially for younger children.

  2. School Administrators' Perceptions of Factors that Influence Children's Active Travel to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna E.; Pluto, Delores M.; Ogoussan, Olga; Banda, Jorge A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing children's active travel to school may be 1 strategy for addressing the growing prevalence of obesity among school age children. Using the School Travel Survey, we examined South Carolina school district leaders' perceptions of factors that influence elementary and middle school students walking to school. Methods: Frequency…

  3. Serious shortcomings in the management of children with anaphylaxis in Scottish schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty E Rankin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom incidence of anaphylaxis has increased very sharply over the last decade, with the highest rates of hospital admissions occurring in school-aged children. This raises concerns about the extent to which schools are aware of approaches to the prevention and treatment of anaphylaxis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a national postal survey of 250 Scottish schools enquiring about approaches to managing children considered to be at risk of anaphylaxis. We obtained responses from 148 (60% schools, 90 (61% of which reported having at least one at risk child. Most (80% schools with children considered to be at risk reported having personalised care plans and invariably reported having at least one member of staff trained in the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. Access to adrenaline was available on-site in 97% of these schools. However, significantly fewer schools without children considered to be at risk reported having a trained member of staff (48%, p < 0.001, with access to adrenaline being very poor (12%, p < 0.001. Overall, 59% of respondents did not feel confident in their school's ability to respond in an emergency situation. CONCLUSIONS: Most schools with children considered to be at risk of anaphylaxis report using personal care plans and having a member of staff trained in the use of, and with access to, adrenaline. The picture is, however, less encouraging in schools without known at risk children, both in relation to staff training and access to adrenaline. The majority of schools with at risk children have poorly developed strategies for preventing food-triggered anaphylaxis reactions. There is a need for detailed national guidelines for all schools, which the Scottish Executive must now ensure are developed and implemented.

  4. An Educational Program for Underserved Middle School Students to Encourage Pursuit of Pharmacy and Other Health Science Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Carroll-Ann; Tran, Thao T; Tran, Linh

    2014-11-15

    To develop and implement an active, hands-on program for underrepresented minority (URM) seventh grade students and to determine if participation in the program increased interest in health care careers and understanding of pharmacy and physician assistant (PA) professions. A hands-on educational program was developed in conjunction with local middle school administrators and staff for URM 7th grade students. The program was designed to be hands-on and focus on pharmacy and PA laboratory skills. A discussion component was included, allowing participants to interact personally with pharmacy and PA students and faculty members. Students' responses to survey questions about interest in health care careers and knowledge about health professions were compared before and after 2 separate offerings of the program. After the program, significant increases were seen in participants' understanding of the pharmacy and PA professions. An increased percentage of participants reported interest in health care careers after the program than before the program. Introducing middle school-aged URM students to the pharmacy and PA professions through a hands-on educational program increased interest in, and knowledge of, these professions.

  5. Screening urinalysis for proteinuria in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partini P. Trihono

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Although asymptomatic proteinuria in children is uncommon, long-term follow-up of children who have persistent proteinuria reveals that they face risks to have significant glomerular changes followed by decreasing kidney function. Since 1970’s urine screening program for asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria in schoolchildren has been conducted regularly in some countries. So far such program has never been implemented in Jakarta. As a part of The Community Health Program of the Medical School, University of Indonesia, this epidemiologic study aimed especially to look at the urine abnormalities among schoolchildren. The target population was children in grades III, IV and V of 4 elementary schools in Eastern Jakarta. Four hundred and forty nine children (217 boys and 232 girls were enrolled in this study, held during school time in August 1999. Their mean age was 9.35 (SD 1.2 years. Data collected were history of illness, physical examination, and complete urinalysis using a dipstick method. Proteinuria was found in 30 (6.8% children, which in repeated urinalyses were determined as orthostatic in 2 (0.4%, transient in 20 (4.5%, and persistent proteinuria in 6 (1.4% children. Three out of 6 children with persistent proteinuria also had hematuria. One child with persistent proteinuria was considered as having urinary tract infection. We conclude that the incidence of asymptomatic proteinuria in schoolchildren is not high, but because of significant risks that they face, a long-term follow up of them is indicated.

  6. Children's tooth decay in a public health program to encourage low-income pregnant women to utilize dental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirtcliff R Mike

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A community-based public health program to provide a dental home for women covered by the Oregon Health Plan (Medicaid in Klamath County, Oregon USA was instituted with the long-term goal to promote preventive oral care for both mothers and their new infants provided by dental managed care companies. Methods As part of the evaluation of the program, children in Klamath and comparable non-program counties were examined in their 2nd year of life to begin to determine if benefits accrued to the offspring of the mothers in Klamath County. Results Eighty-five and 58.9% of the children were caries free in the Klamath and comparison county samples, respectively (RR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.13, 1.93. The mean (SD number of teeth with any decay was .75 (2.5 in the test population and 1.6 (2.5 in the comparison population (t = 2.08, p = .04. Conclusions The assessment showed that children of mothers in the Klamath County program were about one and a half times more likely to be caries free than children in the comparison counties. Additional controlled studies are being undertaken.

  7. Children's tooth decay in a public health program to encourage low-income pregnant women to utilize dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Sutherland, Marilynn; Shirtcliff, R Mike; Ludwig, Sharity; Smolen, Darlene

    2010-02-18

    A community-based public health program to provide a dental home for women covered by the Oregon Health Plan (Medicaid) in Klamath County, Oregon USA was instituted with the long-term goal to promote preventive oral care for both mothers and their new infants provided by dental managed care companies. As part of the evaluation of the program, children in Klamath and comparable non-program counties were examined in their 2nd year of life to begin to determine if benefits accrued to the offspring of the mothers in Klamath County. Eighty-five and 58.9% of the children were caries free in the Klamath and comparison county samples, respectively (RR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.13, 1.93). The mean (SD) number of teeth with any decay was .75 (2.5) in the test population and 1.6 (2.5) in the comparison population (t = 2.08, p = .04). The assessment showed that children of mothers in the Klamath County program were about one and a half times more likely to be caries free than children in the comparison counties. Additional controlled studies are being undertaken.

  8. Voiding school as a treatment of daytime incontinence or enuresis: Children's experiences of the intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikoski, A; Koppeli, R; Salanterä, S; Taskinen, S; Axelin, A

    2018-02-01

    Daytime incontinence and enuresis are common problems in otherwise healthy children, and negatively influence their social lives and self-esteem. Motivation for treatment is often a real clinical problem. Children's experiences of their incontinence treatments have not been previously described. The aim of this study was to describe children's experiences of the Voiding School intervention as a treatment for their incontinence. A qualitative, descriptive focus-group study with a purposive sample was conducted at a Finish university hospital in 2014. Children aged 6-12 years participated in the Voiding School at an outpatient clinic. The intervention included two 1-day group visits 2 months apart. The educational content was based on the International Children Continence Society's standards for urotherapy. The education was delivered with child-oriented teaching methods. At the end of the second visit, 19 children were interviewed in five groups. Data were analysed with inductive content analysis. The children described incontinence as an embarrassing problem, which they had to hide at any cost. They had experienced bullying and social isolation because of it. Normal outpatient visits emphasized adult-to-adult communication, which made the children feel like outsiders. The children perceived the Voiding School as a nice and child-oriented experience. Making new friends was especially important to younger boys who felt that the Voiding School day was too long and issue-oriented. In the Voiding School, videos and 'learning by doing' helped the children to understand the basis of given advice, and they were able to learn new habits, which gave them control over the incontinence; this helped them to become 'the boss of the bladder'. Sharing experiences and improvements in their incontinence with their peers supported the children's self-esteem and encouraged them to do new things, such as staying overnight with friends. These experiences helped them to acquire control

  9. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  10. Schools, Schooling, and Children's Support of Their Aging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R

    2009-10-01

    Intergenerational transfers play an important role in individuals' lives across the life course. In this paper I pull together theories on intergenerational transfers and social change to inform our understanding of how changes in the educational context influence children's support of their parents. By examining multiple aspects of a couple's educational context, including husbands' and wives' education and exposure to schools, this paper provides new information on the mechanisms through which changes in social context influence children's support of their parents. Using data from a rural Nepalese area I use multilevel logistic regression to estimate the relationship between schooling, exposure to schools, and the likelihood of couples giving to their parents. I find that both schooling and exposure to schools itself have separate, opposite effects on support of aging parents. Higher levels of schooling for husbands was associated with a higher likelihood of having given support to husbands' parents. On the other hand, increased exposure to schools for husbands and wives was associated with a lower likelihood of having given to wives' parents. Findings constitute evidence that multiple motivations for intergenerational support exist simultaneously and are related to social context through different mechanisms.

  11. Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…

  12. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children’s skin health.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  13. Prevalence of dental caries among school children of Bharatpur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Navin Anand; Dubey, Harsh Vardhan; Kaur, Navpreet; Gupta, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Healthy teeth and oral tissues and the need for oral health care are important for any section of society. Dental caries is an infectious microbial disease of multifactorial origin in which diet, host, and microbial flora interacts over a period of time in such a way so as to encourage demineralization of the tooth enamel with resultant caries formation. Dental caries, the product of man's progress towards civilization, has a very high morbidity potential and thus, is coming into focus of the mankind. To assess the prevalence of dental caries among 12-15 year old government and private school children of Bharatpur city. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on total 1400 school children, of which 700 school children were from government schools and 700 were from private schools. Simple random sampling methodology was used to select the sample. The subjects were examined for dental caries according to WHO 1997 assessment form. Significant Caries Index was also used to assess the prevalence of dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries was found higher among government school children, that is, 53%, when compared to private school children, that is, 47% and this difference was found to be statistically significant. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth were found to be higher in government school children (7.61 ± 2.86) as compared to private school children (4.76 ± 2.42). Dental caries was found to be the major public health problems among both the government and private school children of Bharatpur city, which need immediate attention. Regular dental checkups and practice of routine oral hygiene procedures will enable them to lead a healthier life.

  14. School accidents to children: time to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of injuries sustained by children in school accidents and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN: A five month prospective study of children attending an urban accident and emergency (A&E) department. SUBJECTS: 500 children who sustained injuries in school due to a variety of activities. RESULTS: 10 and 12 year old pupils suffered most injuries in school grounds/playgrounds, on concrete, or on grass/soil surfaces due to random activities resulting in striking or being struck by objects/persons, tripping or slipping, and sports (mainly football); 65.5% of these activities were not supervised and 67.4% occurred "out of lessons"; 22% sustained fractures or dislocations, 28.2% needed follow up treatment, and 1.4% were admitted. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries to children in school are a cause for concern. Effective preventive measures should concentrate on (a) specific target areas using schemes based on individual school, and (b) establishing a credible system of monitoring of their effectiveness. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9248914

  15. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Martin; Lane, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy) with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories), but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories), would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles). A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42) participated. Children's height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P restaurant chains may well utilize toys to motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options.

  16. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.

  17. A Bridge to the Stars: A Model High School-to-College Pipeline for Encouraging Positive STEM Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Daniel H.; Jennings, Derrick H.

    2018-01-01

    The need to grow and diversify the STEM workforce remains a critical national challenge. Research shows that STEM identity (how one views herself/himself with respect to STEM) is an important factor for success or failure. A Bridge to the Stars (ABttS) offers URM and low-income high-school students a high impact exposure to science through innovative experiential learning with a professional scientist in freshmen astronomy at UMKC, an urban research university. Showing students who traditionally do not self-identify with high-tech careers that they can succeed in a university science course is a promising way to help build positive STEM identities and aspirations during the critical bridge between high school and college. In five years, we have awarded 45 ABttS scholarships; 93% of these 15-17 year-old students have passed the course satisfactorily with an average grade of 80%. Remarkably, the ABttS scholar performance is on par with that of 600 UMKC students enrolled in the same courses over 8 semesters. Long-term tracking of former scholars shows positive attitudes regarding ABttS and persistence in STEM aspirations at promising rates based on small-number statistics. I will describe the implementation of this unique STEM immersion program offering extended and inclusive engagement in astronomy, arguably the most accessible window to science. I will share classroom and near-peer mentoring innovations, and a new third ABttS tier in which previous scholars can enroll in a freshmen science laboratory experience for UMKC credit. This novel course introduces novices to scientific research and Big Data science through authentic hands-on experiences centered on their own exploration of data from McIntosh's actual research. The long-term mission of ABttS is to see urban educational institutions across the U.S. adopt similar pipelines in all STEM disciplines built on the ABttS model. Adopting programs like ABttS for freshmen STEM majors, especially in urban colleges and

  18. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  19. child maltreatment among elementary school children in jimma town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tekeste

    Child Maltreatment Among Elementary School Children. Indryas L. 1. ORIGINAL ... of child maltreatment. KEY WORDS: School children, child maltreatment, child abuse. ..... and teachers in teaching, counseling and prevention of sexual ...

  20. Peculiarities of mathematics instruction for beginners for children with disabilities in regular primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the issue of education of visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities in regular primary schools in the context of mathematics instruction for beginners. The authors state the basic characteristics of mathematics instruction for beginners with respect to the contents studied in the first four grades of primary school, as well as the key problems and educational needs of visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities. The basic characteristics of inclusive education and the key role of teacher in this process are pointed out. Starting from the developmental peculiarities of children with disabilities, the authors emphasize the importance of applying an individualized approach in teaching mathematics. Possible didactic and methodical solutions are discussed, as well as different approaches in teaching this subject that can facilitate learning of mathematical contents to visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities. Bearing in mind the peculiarities of inclusive education, i.e. the need for the children with disabilities to participate in common activities with the other children in the class, the authors emphasize the importance of encouraging interaction and communication among children in the process of learning mathematical contents.

  1. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...... quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children...

  2. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reimann

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories, but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories, would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles. A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42 participated. Children's height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P < .001, suggesting that children can be incentivized to choose less food when such is paired with a toy. BMI neither moderated nor nullified the effect of toy on smaller-sized meal choice (P = .125, suggesting that children with overweight and obesity can also be incentivized to choose less. This article is the first to suggest that fast-food restaurant chains may well utilize toys to motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options.

  3. School Absenteeism Among Children Living With Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure causes substantial morbidity in children. We hypothesized that children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home would have increased school absenteeism with associated costs due to lost caregiver wages/time. METHODS: We analyzed data on health and absenteeism among schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years identified in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We used multivariate models to assess the relationships between adult-reported household smoking and child health and school absenteeism. Analyses were adjusted for children's and parents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The value of lost caregiver time was estimated by using self-reported employment and earnings data in the NHIS and publicly available time-use data. RESULTS: Children living with 1 or ≥2 adults who smoked in the home had 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54–1.55) and 1.54 (95% CI: 0.95–2.12) more days absent from school per year, respectively, than children living with 0 smokers in the home. Living with ≥2 adults who smoked in the home was associated with increased reports of having ≥3 ear infections in the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.36–5.16]) and having a chest cold in the 2 weeks before interview (aOR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.03–3.03]) but not with having vomiting/diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks (aOR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.45–1.89]). Caregivers' time tending children absent from school was valued at $227 million per year. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoke exposure has significant consequences for children and families above and beyond child morbidity, including academic disadvantage and financial burden. PMID:21890826

  4. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  5. Achievement and School Behavior among Children with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Wendy S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared the school behavior of 15 epileptic children with that of diabetic and healthy children. The epileptic children were more likely to attribute the success or failure of their school performance to unknown sources of control, and to hold less positive feelings about school and their own self-worth. (Author)

  6. School Playground Facilities as a Determinant of Children's Daily Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study of Danish Primary School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  7. Children's Need to Know: Curiosity in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Susan Engel argues that curiosity is both intrinsic to children's development and unfolds through social interactions. Thus, it should be cultivated in schools, even though it is often almost completely absent from classrooms. Calling on well-established research and more recent studies, Engel argues that interactions between…

  8. Children's Sleep and School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Wolfson, Amy R.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2009-01-01

    Much contemporary research has demonstrated the multiple ways that sleep is important for child and adolescent development. This article reviews that research with an emphasis on how sleep parameters are related to school adjustment and achievement. Five areas of sleep research are reviewed to discern implications for practice with children using…

  9. Amblyopia in Rural Nigerian School Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence of amblyopia among these rural school children was ... Amblyopia is defined as suboptimal vision in one eye despite best spectacle ..... Data obtained were entered into the computer and analyzed using the Statistical ..... the National Postgraduate Medical College in Ophthalmology;. 1999. 21.

  10. Moroccan Children and Arabic in Spanish Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bernabe Lopez; Molina, Laura Mijares

    This paper discusses classical Arabic as a minority language for Moroccan children in Spanish schools. It highlights programs of "education des langues et cultures d'origine" (ELCO), which specifically target these students. ELCO is the only public program in Spain recognizing Arabic as an immigrant minority language. Intercultural…

  11. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  12. Families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  13. Perceptions of Elementary School Children's Parents Regarding Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…

  14. SUCCES AT SCHOOL IN VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanika DIKIC

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

  15. MIGRANT CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS, A 1961 SURVEY OF SCHOOLS SERVING CHILDREN OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NANCE, AFTON D.

    ENROLLMENT, ATTENDANCE, CLASS SIZE, NUMBER OF TEACHERS EMPLOYED, ADEQUACY OF FACILITIES, AND PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN OF MIGRANT WORKERS WERE THE CONCERNS OF A 1961 SURVEY OF SCHOOLS SERVING CHILDREN OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE SENT TO THE SUPERINTENDENTS OF 105 CALIFORNIA DISTRICTS ENROLLING THE MOST MIGRANT…

  16. Teaching children about mental health and illness: a school nurse health education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desocio, Janiece; Stember, Lisa; Schrinsky, Joanne

    2006-04-01

    A mental health education program designed by school nurses for children ages 10- 12 was developed in 2000-2001 and expanded with broader distribution in 2004-2005. Six classroom sessions, each 45 minutes in length, provided information and activities to increase children's awareness of mental health and illness. Education program content included facts about the brain's connection to mental health, information about healthy ways to manage stress, resources and activities to promote mental health, common mental health problems experienced by children, and how to seek help for mental health problems. Classes included a combination of didactic presentation and open discussion, encouraging students to ask questions and allowing the school nurse to correct misinformation. Analysis of pre- and posttests from 370 elementary and middle school students revealed statistically significant improvements in their knowledge of mental health and mental illness.

  17. Day care for pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoritch, B; Roberts, I; Oakley, A

    2000-01-01

    The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education

  18. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  19. Mental health and physical activity levels of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Cerqueira da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The regular practice of physical activity is fundamental to the health of children, it has been cited as factor of protection for mental disorders in school age. Objective: To verify the relation between mental health and physical activity levels in schoolchildren of the city Jacobina, Bahia. Method: Sample composed of 55 students between the ages 08 to 10 and their parents, who participated as secondary informants in this study. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL was used for evaluation of mental health problems of the schoolchildren, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C, for evaluation of the physical activity levels of the subject, and a social-demographic questionnaire. Results: Most children were classified as sedentary (80% and only 7.3% of the sample showed positive for trace of mental disorder. No significant association was found between mental disorders and physical activity levels among the group, or between these variables and socio-demographic characteristics of children. It was observed that the girls were more sedentary than boys, with significant difference (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and the non-association with physical activity levels, special attention is necessary with this audience, aiming to strengthen physical activity as a protective factor for children’s mental health, with investments in actions aimed at the encouragement of regular practice of physical activity, combining family and school. Studies with a larger number of samples need to be conducted and its findings must be thoroughly analyzed.

  20. Promotion of water consumption in elementary school children in San Diego, USA and Tlaltizapan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P; Holub, Christina K; Arredondo, Elva M; Sánchez-Romero, Luz María; Moreno-Saracho, Jessica E; Barquera, Simón; Rivera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of water may help promote health and prevent obesity in children by decreasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. This study used evidence-based strategies to increase water consumption in Mexican-American and Mexican children. In 2012, two schools in San Diego, USA and two other in Tlaltizapan, Mexico were recruited to Agua para Niños (Water for Kids), a program designed to promote water consumption among elementary grade students. Guided by operant psychology, the intervention focused on school and classroom activities to encourage water consumption. One control and one intervention school in each country were included. Agua para Niños resulted in increases in observed water consumption and bottle possession among US and Mexican students. Teacher receptivity to the program was very positive in both countries. Agua para Niños yielded sufficiently positive behavioral changes to be used in a future fully randomized design, and to contribute to school nutrition policy changes.

  1. Whole body measurements in Bavarian school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmier, H.; Berg, D.

    1992-12-01

    On behalf of the Bavarian State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs measurements were conducted using the whole body counters at the Institute for Radiation Hygiene (of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection), and the Institute for Radiation Biology (of the GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health). Between September 1988 and July 1990 about 1600 school children from all over Bavaria were investigated for incorporated radiocesium. The aim of these measurements was to evaluate the whole body activity due to regionally differing soil contaminations in Bavaria following the accident in the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl and to assess the effective dose from an intake of radionuclides for the pupils by comparing the results of their WBC measurements with those of reference groups of children which underwent WBC examinations at regular intervals at both institutes since the middle of the year 1986. The results of the WBC measurements of those pupils who had not eaten mushrooms in the days before the measurement are in good agreement with the results of comparative measurements in children living in the regions of Munich and Frankfurt-am-Main. Based on these results an effective dose of 0,2 mSv for the Munich region children and of 0,1 mSv for Nothern Bavarian children can be derived. For children living in the highest contaminated region of Bavaria, i.e. the counties adjacent to the Alps, no comparable reference group results are available, but the amount of incorporated radiocesium is only twice that for pupils in the Munich region. The mean value for the specific activity of radiocesium in South Bavarian school children who consumed mushrooms was found to be twice the value of pupils who did not. This is also true for that group of children whose parents had bought allegedly low contaminated foodstuffs. Other effecs of nutrition habits on the specific whole body activity could not be found. (orig.) [de

  2. Nocturnal enuresis among primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohamed Aljefri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and personal and family risk factors for nocturnal enuresis (NE among primary school children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered, three-part structured questionnaire involving 832 school children aged 6 - 15 years between 2007 and 2008. We assessed participants′ socio-demographic factors, family characteristics and factors related to the presence of NE. The mean age of the children was 11.5 (±2.7 years. The overall prevalence of NE was 28.6%, with a predominance of girls, and the prevalence decreased with increasing age (P 0.002 and a higher number of siblings (P = 0.01. Our findings reveal a high prevalence of NE among children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, with a higher prevalence in girls than in boys compared with the other studies. Sleep pattern, stressful life events, family history of NE, large family size and more children in the household may act as a risk factor for NE.

  3. The impact of non-financial and financial encouragements on participation in non school-based human papillomavirus vaccination: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevere, Eva; Hens, Niel; De Smet, Frank; Beutels, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent vaccination coverage under a system of non school-based vaccination is likely to be suboptimal, but might be increased by targeted encouragement campaigns. We analysed the effect on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination initiation by girls aged 12-18 of two campaigns set up in Flanders (Belgium) in 2007 and 2009: a personal information campaign and a combined personal information and financial incentive campaign. We analysed (objective) data on HPV vaccination behaviour from the National Alliance of Christian Mutualities (NACM), Flanders' largest sickness fund. We used z-scores to compare the monthly proportion of girls initiating HPV vaccination over time between carefully selected intervention and control groups. Separate analyses were done for older and younger girls. Total sample sizes of the intervention (control) groups were 221 (243) for the personal information campaign and 629 (5,322) for the combined personal information and financial incentive campaign. The personal information campaign significantly increased vaccination initiation, with older girls reacting faster. One year after the campaign the percentages of vaccination initiation for the oldest girls were 64.6 and 42.8 % in the intervention and control group, respectively (z = 3.35, p = 0.0008); for the youngest girls the percentages were 78.4 and 68.1 % (z = 1.71, p = 0.09). The combined personal information and financial incentive campaign increased vaccination initiation among certain age groups. One year after the campaign the difference in percentage points for HPV vaccination initiation between intervention and control groups varied between 18.5 % (z = 3.65, p = 0.0002) and 5.1 % (z = 1.12, p = 0.26). Under a non school-based vaccination system, personal information and removing out-of-pocket costs had a significant positive effect on HPV vaccination initiation, although the effect substantially varied in magnitude. Overall, the obtained vaccination rates remained far below those

  4. Migrant Preschool Children's School Readiness and Early Elementary School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassolie, Tanya; López, Claudia; De Feyter, Jessica; Hartman, Suzanne C.; Winsler, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the early educational performance of children in migrant farmworker families. The authors examined the school readiness and early school success of 289 four-year-old preschool children of migrant families attending Redlands Christian Migrant Association centers. Children's school readiness was assessed and public school…

  5. SCHOOL INTEGRATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to education is a fundamental right that should not be and can not be denied to any child regardless of his condition of normality or deviation from it. The historic route of educational policies regarding the children with disabilities experienced a positive evolution, from denying the possibility of attending a mainstream school, to current policies of integration and inclusion based on the idea of equal opportunities The rejection of what is considered atypical, unknown, strange, unusual, is the result of perpetuating stereotypes, prejudices regarding the disability, constituting signs of less advanced societies. Is the duty of society to accept children / people with disabilities as part of the reality that surrounds us, and try by all means not to turn a disable child into one normal child, but to normalize the conditions of his life, to give him the possibility to live the same social and school experiences that live any other typically child.

  6. Methylphenidate use and school performance among primary school children : a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Cicek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens H. J.; de Vries, Tjalling W.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various

  7. Maternal Parenting Styles, School Involvement, and Children's School Achievement and Conduct in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Yeo, Kim Lian

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the roles of children's perceptions of maternal parenting styles (warmth, psychological control, and behavioral control) and maternal involvement in school-focused parenting practices (home-based involvement, home-school conferencing, and school-based involvement) predicting children's school achievement and conduct in…

  8. From Past to Present: How Memories of School Shape Parental Views of Children's Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, there is growing interest in children's transition to school and their readiness for formal education. Parents' memories of school offer important insights into children's preparation for school and how families view schools; however, few studies consider the influence of educational histories. To address this gap, a sample of 24…

  9. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  10. Potential Transferability of Economic Evaluations of Programs Encouraging Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents across Different Countries—A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Korber

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is an increasing problem. Owing to limited financial resources, one method of getting information on the cost-effectiveness of different types of prevention programs is to examine existing programs and their results. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the transferability of cost-effectiveness results of physical activity programs for children and adolescents to other contexts. Based on a systematic review of the literature, the transferability of the studies found was assessed using a sub-checklist of the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED. Thirteen studies of different physical activity interventions were found and analyzed. The results for transferability ranged from “low” to “very high”. A number of different factors influence a program’s cost-effectiveness (i.e., discount rate, time horizon, etc.. Therefore, transparency with regard to these factors is one fundamental element in the transferability of the results. A major point of criticism is that transferability is often limited because of lack of transparency. This paper is the first to provide both an overview and an assessment of transferability of economic evaluations of existing programs encouraging physical activity in children and adolescents. This allows decision makers to gain an impression on whether the findings are transferable to their decision contexts, which may lead to time and cost savings.

  11. Helping Mixed Heritage Children Develop "Character and Resilience" in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Recent UK government policy suggests that all schools have a key role to play in building "character and resilience" in children. This article draws on data from a wider research project, exploring the school experiences of mixed White/Black Caribbean and mixed White/Black African children in two London secondary schools. Because data…

  12. Prevalence of iodine deficiency among school children and access ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of iodine deficiency among school children and access to iodized salt in Zambia. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... It was carried out in 2011 and entailed determining the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among 1, 283 school children from 30 selected schools and the amount ...

  13. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. Objective: To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income ...

  14. Vulnerable children speak out: voices from one rural school in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recommends some strategies by which the Swaziland Ministry of Education and Training, the community, and the school can make collaborative and coordinated efforts aimed at enhancing vulnerable children's quality of schooling experiences. Keywords: Children; Schooling; Rural; Vulnerability; Education; ...

  15. Empathy, Altruism, and Moral Development in Home Schooled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Skylar T.; Medlin, Richard G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare empathy, altruism, moral reasoning, and prosocial behavior in home schooled children and children attending public schools, and to assess attitudes toward religion and values in their parents. Homeschooling parents were more concerned with teaching their children their values and religious beliefs,…

  16. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  17. Children as Researchers in Primary Schools: Choice, Voice and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknall, Sue

    2012-01-01

    "Children as Researchers in Primary Schools" is an innovative and unique resource for practitioners supporting children to become "real world" researchers in the primary classroom. It will supply you with the skills and ideas you need to implement a "children as researchers" framework in your school that can be adapted for different ages and…

  18. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  19. Localization of Physical Activity in Primary School Children Using Accelerometry and Global Positioning System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Bürgi

    Full Text Available Ecological approaches have highlighted the importance of the built environment as a factor affecting physical activity. However, knowledge on children's activity patterns is still incomplete. Particularly, data on the spatial context of physical activity is limited, which limits the potential to design location-based interventions effectively. Using global positioning system (GPS and accelerometry, this study aimed to identify locations where children engage in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.Participants included 119 children (11-14 years, 57% girls from public schools in Winterthur, Switzerland. During a regular school week between February and April 2013, children wore an accelerometer and GPS sensor for seven consecutive days. Time-matched accelerometer and GPS data was mapped with a geographic information system and each data point was assigned to one of seven defined activity settings. Both the absolute amount of MVPA and proportion of time in MVPA were calculated for every setting. Multilevel analyses accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted to investigate any gender differences.Children achieved most MVPA on streets (34.5% and on school grounds (33.4%. The proportion children spent in MVPA was highest in recreational facilities (19.4%, at other schools (19.2% and on streets (18.6%. Boys accumulated significantly more MVPA overall and on other school grounds (p < 0.05 and showed a significantly higher proportion of time in MVPA at own school and outside of Winterthur (p < 0.05.The results indicate the importance of streets and school grounds as activity-promoting environments. The high use of streets may be an indicator for active transportation, which appears to contribute to an active lifestyle in both genders. In contrast, the school setting is more likely to encourage physical activity in boys. Recreational facilities seem to be conducive for MVPA among both genders, although infrequently visited

  20. The Role of School Principals in Shaping Children's Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Yair; Oreg, Shaul

    2016-12-01

    Instilling values in children is among the cornerstones of every society. There is wide agreement that beyond academic teaching, schools play an important role in shaping schoolchildren's character, imparting in them values such as curiosity, achievement, benevolence, and citizenship. Despite the importance of this topic, we know very little about whether and how schools affect children's values. In this large-scale longitudinal study, we examined school principals' roles in the development of children's values. We hypothesized that relationships exist between principals' values and changes in children's values through the mediating effect of the school climate. To test our predictions, we collected data from 252 school principals, 3,658 teachers, and 49,401 schoolchildren. A multilevel structural-equation-modeling analysis yielded overall support for our hypotheses. These findings contribute to understanding the development of children's values and the far-reaching impact of leaders' values. They also demonstrate effects of schools on children beyond those on academic achievement.

  1. Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty

    This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

  2. School performance and school behavior of children affected by AIDS in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2009-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans’ school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational expectation, and student leadership) and school behaviors (e.g., aggression, shy/anxious and assertive social skills). Results indicate that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had disadvantages in school performances in comparison to their peers from the same community who did not experience AIDS-related death and illness in their family (comparison children). AIDS orphans had the lowest academic marks based on the reports of both children and teachers. Educational expectation was significantly lower among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children than comparison children from teacher's perspective. AIDS orphans were significantly more likely to demonstrate aggressive, impulsive and anxious behaviors than non-orphans. Moreover, orphans have more learning difficulties. Vulnerable children were also at a disadvantage on most measures. The data suggest that a greater attention is needed to the school performance and behavior of children affected by AIDS. The findings also indicate that AIDS relief and assistance program for children should go beyond the school attendance and make efforts to improve their school performance and education aspiration. PMID:20107622

  3. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents' Strategies for Involvement in Children's Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents' indifference or lack of involvement in children's schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of semi-structured…

  4. School Personnel Responses to Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenemore, Thomas; Lynch, John; Mann, Kimberly; Steinhaus, Patricia; Thompson, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Authors explored the experiences of school personnel in their responses to children's exposure to violence. Thirty-one school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school social workers, and psychologists, were interviewed to obtain data on their experiences related to violence exposure in their schools and the surrounding…

  5. An investigation of school violence through Turkish children's drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or witnessed. Children mostly drew pictures of violent events among children (33 pictures). Also, there were pictures of violent incidents perpetrated by teachers and directors against children. It was observed that violence influenced children. Violence was mostly depicted in school gardens (38 pictures), but there were violent incidents everywhere, such as in classrooms, corridors, and school stores as well. Moreover, it was found that brute force was the most referred way of violence in the children's depictions (38 pictures). In conclusion, children clearly indicated that there was violence in schools and they were affected by it.

  6. Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children (First Grade) in ... The control group consisting of 100 age-matched non-enuretic children ... was insignificantly associated with a positive family history, family size or birth rank.

  7. LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL, SCHOOL AND HOME EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Kiełtyk-Zaborowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue, disclosed in the article, is still relevant, because it supports a child’s creative activity through his/her contact with the literature. Moreover, a book genres influence the linguistic awareness, aesthetic sensitivity, develops the imagination and the ability to speak properly. Developing reading habits and close contact with art positively affects the child. So the aim of the article is to show the importance of supporting the child in creative tasks using the fiction texts. Much attention is given to the fact that literature for children in pre-school, school and home education influences the expansion of a child’s vocabulary and imagination. Constant complementation of teachers’ and parents’ activities in shaping reading interests of children influences their versatile development. Books evoke emotions, they teach how to behave in a proper way and they enrich the awareness of the surrounding world. Both teachers and parents should choose the right texts for a young reader taking into consideration his/her perceptive skills. Ever present humour in belles-lettres for children (vocabulary, situational humour or the protagonists in the books definitely provides children with joy and positive emotions. The contact with belles-lettres texts allows to develop interests of children connected with stage, theatre or music which is frequently a meaningful element of plays based on books for young children. It is also reported that both poetry and prose texts should be included into young readers’ collection. But the text should be adapted to the child’s perceptual abilities, in terms of form, content, and language. Family reading is important for developing the child’s reading interests, becoming one of the participants influencing the cultural environment of the family. The author concludes that supporting children in creative tasks using fiction texts and their forms such as theater, press, radio, television develops

  8. Perceived Water Competencies in Danish School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junggren, Stephan Emil; Koch, Sofie; Jeppesen, Lise Sohl

    a lot in swimming lessons” (right on the scale). Illustration 1 (not shown - see pdf of poster): Example of the Learning indicator in the modified Learning Rating Scale. Statements are translated into English. How do you get into the water? “I jump in straight away”, “I get in quietly”, “I do not want......Perceived water competencies in Danish school children Authors: Junggren, S. (1), Koch S. (1), Jeppesen, LS. (1), Larsen, LR. (1), Marling, T. (2), Skovgaard, T. (3) Affiliates: 1: Research and Innovation Centre for Human Movement and Learning, University College Lillebælt and University...... of Southern Denmark, 2. Danish Swimming Federation, 3. Danish School Sport. Purpose In the Danish research project Learning to Swim, launched by the Danish foundation TrygFonden and the Danish Swimming Federation, the main purpose of the research project was to develop, implement and evaluate new innovative...

  9. Diagnosing ADHD in Danish primary school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmejer, Thyge; Hjörne, Eva; Säljö, Roger

    2018-01-01

    This study of institutional categorization reports an investigation of the practices, procedures and assumptions of psychiatric staff members when diagnosing ADHD. The main data upon which the study is based consist of transcribed audio recordings of meetings in the psychiatric clinic. Here...... children referred from primary schools on the suspicion of ADHD are attended to. The tools and procedures for gathering information are shown to produce decontextualized and individualizing representations of children’s conduct. The evaluation against a number of norms is found to be central. Finally...

  10. Bullying experience in primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Aulia

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is still a significant problem today. Bullying occurs starting from the primary level up to college. The impact of the bullying on victims can be a lonely, difficult to adjust, insecurity, low self-esteem, depression and the worst is suicide. The earlier effort to detect bullying experienced by children will be able to prevent long-term effects caused. This study was conducted on 258 students of class 4-5 primary school in Yogyakarta. Data was collected through open-ended questionnai...

  11. "We Are Never Invited": School Children Using Collage to Envision Care and Support in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanare, Fumane P.; de Lange, Naydene

    2017-01-01

    The voices of school children who are orphaned and vulnerable are more often than not missing from conversations about their care and support at school. In a rural ecology this is even more so the case. This article draws on a study with school children in rural KwaZulu-Natal and explores their constructions of care and support in the age of HIV…

  12. Study protocol: can a school gardening intervention improve children's diets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Meaghan S; El Evans, Charlotte; Conner, Mark; Ransley, Joan K; Cade, Janet E

    2012-04-26

    The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children's fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children's fruit and vegetable intake. Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as "Partner Schools" and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as "Associate Schools". Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention "Associate Schools" or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children's knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school's gardening activities. The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children's fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children's diets and school based interventions. ISRCTN11396528.

  13. Trend in active transportation to school among Swiss school children and its associated factors: three cross-sectional surveys 1994, 2000 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bringolf-Isler Bettina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giving the rising trend in childhood obesity in many countries including Switzerland, strategies to increase physical activity such as promoting active school travel are important. Yet, little is known about time trends of active commuting in Swiss schoolchildren and factors associated with changes in walking and biking to school. Methods Between 1994 and 2005, information about mobility behaviour of children aged 6-14 years was collected within three Swiss population based national travel behaviour surveys. Mode of transport to school was reported for 4244 children. Weighted multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess active school travel time trends and their influencing factors. Results More than 70% of Swiss children walked or biked to school. Nevertheless, the proportion of children biking to school decreased (p = 0.05, linear trend, predominately in urban areas, and motorized transportation increased since 1994 (p = 0.02. Distance to school did not change significantly over time but availability of bikes decreased (p Conclusions Programs to encourage safe biking and to limit car use as mode of transport to school are warranted to stop this trend.

  14. School absence and its effect on school performance for children born with orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jane; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Turner, Robin; Bower, Carol; Dodson, Alan; Hancock, Kirsten; Nassar, Natasha

    2017-07-17

    School absence is associated with lower performance on standardized tests. Children born with orofacial clefts (OFC) are likely to have more absence than children without OFC; however, school absence for children with OFC has not been quantified. We aimed to describe school absence and its relationship with school performance for children with and without OFC. Population-based record-linked cohort study of children (402 with OFC, 1789 without OFC) enrolled in schools in Western Australia, 2008 to 2012. We compared median school absence rates using Wilcoxon rank tests, and investigated the impact of school absence on standardized scores from reading, numeracy, and writing tests, using multivariable models fitted by generalized estimating equations. In Semester 1, at each primary school year level, children without OFC and children with cleft lip only or cleft palate only had similar median absence rates (approximately 1 week). Children with cleft lip and palate had significantly higher absence rates in Years 4 to 6 (between 1 and 2 weeks). During secondary school, median absence rates were higher (2 weeks) for all children, but not statistically different between children with and without OFC. Higher absence was significantly associated with lower standardized reading, numeracy, and writing scores. However, having a cleft of any type had little influence on the association between absence and test scores. School absence affected school performance for all children. Absence did not differentially disadvantage children born with OFC, suggesting current practices to identify and support children with OFC are minimizing effects of their absence on school performance. Birth Defects Research 109:1048-1056, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Voices of Children, Parents and Teachers: How Children Cope with Stress during School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how children's perceptions of stress factors and coping strategies are constructed over time. Children were interviewed before and after they made the transition from preschool to primary school. This study also explores teachers' and parental strategies in helping children to cope with stress at school. The sample included 53…

  16. Localization of Physical Activity in Primary School Children Using Accelerometry and Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgi, Rahel; Tomatis, Laura; Murer, Kurt; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological approaches have highlighted the importance of the built environment as a factor affecting physical activity. However, knowledge on children's activity patterns is still incomplete. Particularly, data on the spatial context of physical activity is limited, which limits the potential to design location-based interventions effectively. Using global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometry, this study aimed to identify locations where children engage in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants included 119 children (11-14 years, 57% girls) from public schools in Winterthur, Switzerland. During a regular school week between February and April 2013, children wore an accelerometer and GPS sensor for seven consecutive days. Time-matched accelerometer and GPS data was mapped with a geographic information system and each data point was assigned to one of seven defined activity settings. Both the absolute amount of MVPA and proportion of time in MVPA were calculated for every setting. Multilevel analyses accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted to investigate any gender differences. Children achieved most MVPA on streets (34.5%) and on school grounds (33.4%). The proportion children spent in MVPA was highest in recreational facilities (19.4%), at other schools (19.2%) and on streets (18.6%). Boys accumulated significantly more MVPA overall and on other school grounds (p activity-promoting environments. The high use of streets may be an indicator for active transportation, which appears to contribute to an active lifestyle in both genders. In contrast, the school setting is more likely to encourage physical activity in boys. Recreational facilities seem to be conducive for MVPA among both genders, although infrequently visited during the week of measurement.

  17. Senior Secondary School Children's Understanding of Plant Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosothwane, Modise

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess children's understanding of plant nutrition. The research was done on a sample of secondary school pupils in the age range of 16 to 19 years in two senior secondary schools in Botswana. The sample contained 137 senior secondary pupils all in their final year of study. These children were above average…

  18. Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    in the social everyday life children moves across. To understand the way in which children participate within the school start, we need to know about children’s participation possibilities within the social everyday life of the school and further more to be informed of the social life and the children’s former...

  19. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and provide incomes to families. Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in Capricorn Municipality, ...

  20. Household-level Social Capital in Cameroon and Children's Schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines household-level social capital as a determinant of children's schooling using a cross-sectional data of the 2001 Cameroon Household Survey. Reduced form demand equations of schooling for the entire sample, male and female children are estimated separately. Results indicate that parent's ...

  1. Risk Factors of Anaemia Among Rural School Children in Kenitra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. Methods: 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was ...

  2. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  3. Creativity, Emotional Intelligence, and School Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; Legrand, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that both creativity and emotional intelligence (EI) were related to children school performance. In this study, we investigated the incremental validity of EI over creativity in an elementary school setting. Seventy-three children aged from 9 to 12 years old were recruited to participate in the study. Verbal and…

  4. Recurrent Respiratory Infections and Psychological Problems in Junior School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) are among most common diseases in school-aged children. Little is known about possible associations between RRI and children psychological well-being. Aim: To study possible associations between RRI in junior school pupils and their emotional/behavioural characteristics. Methods: The RRI group…

  5. A New Challenge for School Counselors: Children Who Are Homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawser, Sherri; Markos, Patricia A.; Yamaguchi, Barbara J.; Higgins, Kyle

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the legislative provisions and mandates governing the education of children and youth who are homeless and the barriers to education presented by school requirements. Highlights the effects of homelessness on children and youth and the role the school counselor should play in the provision of services for them. (Contains 55 references.)…

  6. Musculoskeletal pain and backpack usage among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: School children travel to and from school on daily basis. Active transportation such as walking, running and cycling contribute significantly to the increase in physical activity, health, and wellbeing in children. However, there has been a growing concern on the effect of carrying heavy backpack on the health of ...

  7. The Effect of Preschool on Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska; Bajc, Katja

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence and parents' education. The sample included 219 children from 68 to 83 months old attending the first year of primary school, differentiated by whether or not they had attended…

  8. A School Reentry Program for Chronically Ill Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worchel-Prevatt, Frances F.; Heffer, Robert W.; Prevatt, Bruce C.; Miner, Jennifer; Young-Saleme, Tammi; Horgan, Daniel; Lopez, Molly A.; Frankel, Lawrence; Rae, William A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a school reintegration program aimed at overcoming the numerous psychological, physical, environmental, and family-based deterrents to school reentry for chronically ill children. The program uses a systems approach to children's mental health with an emphasis on multiple aspects of the child's environment (i.e., family, medical…

  9. Refractive errors in school children in Onitsha, Nigeria | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refractive errors in school children in Onitsha, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Objectives: To determine the incidence and pattern of ametropia among school children. Materials and ... The cooperation of parents and teachers is vital in identifying and treating this modifiable cause of poor academic performance and learning difficulties.

  10. Frequency of bedwetting among primary school children in Benha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The overall objective was health promotion of school children, and the specific objectives were: to determine the frequency and risk factors of nocturnal enuresis (NE) among school children in Qaluobia governorate Egypt, and to examine its associations with behavioral and emotional problems. Subjects and ...

  11. Design and evaluation of a campaign to promote the consumption of vegetables and fruits in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Marcos; Ríos-Pérez, Fernanda; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Guzmán-Saldaña, Rebeca; Fernández-Cortés, Trinidad Lorena; Camacho-Bernal, Gloria; Robles-Acevedo, Manuel

    2016-09-20

    In Mexican school-age children the consumption of vegetables and fruits (V&F) is less than 25% of the amount recommended by the World Health Organization. Evaluate the effectiveness of a promotion campaign about the consumption of V&F in urban school children from Hidalgo, Mexico. A non controlled community trial in 226 school-age children from private and public schools was conducted, we designed and distributed printed material for promoting the consumption of V&F among the school population, access to V&F was provided through planning and sales at school stores, and consumption was supervised by the teachers. At the end of the intervention vegetable consumption increased by 50 g and plain water in 100 mL (T-test, p < 0.05); the proportion of school-age children who identified the health benefits of the consumption of V&F increased significantly (68% initial, 87% final) and greater support from parents (61% initial, 92 final%) was achieved. A promotion campaign and improved access to vegetables, fruits and water in the school environment which is supported by parents and teachers can encourage healthier eating at school.

  12. School Outcomes of Children With Special Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Riley, Anne W.; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. RESULTS: Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. CONCLUSIONS: Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes. PMID:21788226

  13. School outcomes of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes.

  14. Lunchbox contents of Australian school children: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanigorski, A M; Bell, A C; Kremer, P J; Swinburn, B A

    2005-11-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of obesity in children and the potential of schools as a setting for intervention, we aimed to identify the main foods and beverages consumed at primary school and to determine differences in consumption patterns between children who used the school canteen and those who did not. Cross-sectional survey of school foods in 1681 5-12 y old children, 2003-2004. Barwon South-Western region of Victoria, Australia. The school food provided an average (+/-s.e.m.) of 3087+/-26 kJ. Bread was the most frequently consumed food and contributed 20% of total energy at school, biscuits 13%, fruit 10%, muesli/fruit bars 8%, packaged snacks 7%, and fruit juice/cordial 6%. About 10% of children used the school canteen and these children obtained more total energy and more energy from cakes, fast foods and soft drink than noncanteen users (Pjunk food'). Fruit intake in primary schools seems reasonably high but could be targeted for further increase as part of promoting a healthy diet. Of concern, however, are the excessive amounts of energy-dense foods in school lunchboxes. These should be considered a priority for health promotion efforts along with reducing the consumption of sweetened drinks. These measures are urgently needed to improve the school-based diets of Australian children and attempt to curb the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity.

  15. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in school children aged 8-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Ana C; Seabra, André F; Mendonça, Denisa M; Brustad, Robert; Maia, José A; Fonseca, António M; Malina, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) among children in different populations may contribute to fostering active lifestyles. This study considered gender differences in relationships between biologic (body mass index, BMI), demographic (socioeconomic sport status, SES) and psychosocial correlates of PA and level of PA in Portuguese primary school children. 683 children, aged 8-10 years, from 20 different elementary schools in northern Portugal were surveyed. Weight status was classified using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria for the BMI. Family SES was estimated from school records. PA level and psychosocial correlates (attraction to PA, perceived physical competence and parental socialization) were obtained with interview and standardized questionnaires, respectively. Sex-specific hierarchical multiple regression analyses (SPSS 18.0) were conducted and included two blocks of predictor variables (biologic and demographic, and psychosocial). Level of PA was significantly higher in boys than girls. Enjoyment of participation in vigorous PA was positively associated with level of PA. Perceived acceptance by peers in games and sports and parental encouragement were positively and significantly related to PA in girls. Perceived physical competence was positively and significantly related to PA in boys. Weight status and SES were not associated with PA. Boys and girls differed in perceived attractiveness of PA and perceived physical competence, both of which influenced level of PA. Differences in perceptions may be important aspects of motivation for PA in school children.

  16. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG RURAL PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Arlappa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.

  17. Children's participation in school: a cross-sectional study of the relationship between school environments, participation and health and well-being outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Akinola, Yetunde O; Nic-Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2014-09-17

    Schools are a key setting for health promotion and improvement activities and the psycho-social environment of the school is an important dimension for promoting the health and well-being of children. The development of Health Promoting Schools (HPS) draws on the settings-based approach to health promotion and includes child participation as one of its basic values. This paper investigates the relationships between child participation, the school environment and child outcomes. Study participants were recruited from nine primary schools, three of which were designated as Health Promoting Schools (HPS). Each HPS was matched with two non-HPS (NHPS) with similar characteristics. Two hundred and thirty-one pupils in the 4th-6th class groups completed self-report questionnaires to document their perspectives on the school socio-ecological environment, how they take part in school life, school processes and their health and well-being. School participation was measured with four scales: participation in school decisions and rules, school activities, school events and positive perception of school participation. The differences in the reported mean score for three of the four scales were marginal and not statistically significant. However, the mean score for reported positive perception of school participation was significantly lower (χ2 = 5.13, df =1, p school decisions and rules (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.33), participating in school activities (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.10-1.31), participating in school events (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.29) and reported positive perception of school participation (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.15-1.39) were all positively associated with health and well-being outcomes for all pupils. Logistic regression analyses indicated positive associations between school participation and school socio-ecological environment. These findings suggest that school participation is important for children in schools and is relevant for improved school environment

  18. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  19. Improper nutrition and diseases in pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Taseva, Lence; Sumanov, Gorgi; Dzidrova, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    For healthy generation it is healthy and orderly development from early childhood. It needs proper nutrition, proper care and personal hygiene. Early childhood is the most vulnerable period in the development stage of man. Improper diet and disease in children from pre-school age are a problem for both children and parents. It is therefore important to undertake measures for proper nutrition and prevention of diseases. Described as improper diet affects children from pre-school...

  20. Caries Risk Assessment in School Children Using Reduced Cariogram Model

    OpenAIRE

    Taqi, Muhammad; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Ab-Murat, Norintan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the percentage of children with low, moderate and high caries risk; and to determine the predictors of caries risk amongst 11-12 year old Pakistani school children. Methods: Subjects’ caries risk was assessed using the Cariogram programme. The survey was done among school children in Bhakkar district of Punjab, Pakistan. Caries and plaque level were assessed using the DMFT and Sillnes and Loe indices respectively, while diet content and frequency were assessed using a t...

  1. Healthy casetas: A potential strategy to improve the food environment in low-income schools to reduce obesity in children in Guatemala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries have undergone transitions driven by globalization and development, accelerating increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Schools have been identified as effective settings for interventions that target children's dietary behaviors. In Guatemala, public schools commonly have food kiosks (Casetas) that sell products to children. From July through October 2013, observations during recess, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and caseta vendors (n = 4), and focus groups with children (n = 48) were conducted. This article explores products available to children at casetas. Factors that affect what casetas offer include regulations and enforcement, vendor investment and earnings, vendor resources, product demand, pricing, and children's preferences. These factors influence the products that are available and children's tendency to purchase them. Potential strategies for improvement include healthy food preparation, price manipulation and promotions, raffles and games to encourage healthier choices, and policy to push toward development of healthier products.

  2. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  3. Family Background, School Characteristics, and Children's Cognitive Achievement in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Randrianarisoa, Jean Claude; Sahn, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses linked household, school, and test score data from Madagascar to investigate the relation of household characteristics and school factors to the cognitive skills of children ages 8-10 and 14-16. In contrast to most achievement test studies in developing countries, the study uses representative rather than school-based samples of…

  4. Construction environment education development activity for children pre-school

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  5. Evidence-Based Family-School Interventions with Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stacey L.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task…

  6. Working School Children in a Nigerian Community: Revisiting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The prevalence, risk factors and effects of work on school performance and health consequences of child labour among school children in a rapidly urbanising community in south west Nigeria was assessed. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 386 Junior Secondary School students was conducted.

  7. Prevalence of geohelminth in soil and primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of geohelminthes infections among primary school children aged 8 to 13 years was conducted in four selected primary schools in Panda Development Area, Karu LGA, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of four hundred and eighty (480) soil samples collected from the four schools, 314 (82.63) were found to be positive ...

  8. Diagnostics of children's school readiness in scientific studies abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko V.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of children's school readiness as it is represented in contemporary studies of foreign scholars. It displays a variety of approaches to estimation of school readiness as well as the ways of measuring the levels of child development as relating to school readiness, namely those of them which are in common practice in education.

  9. Charter School Replication. Policy Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Lauren Morando

    2009-01-01

    "Replication" is the practice of a single charter school board or management organization opening several more schools that are each based on the same school model. The most rapid strategy to increase the number of new high-quality charter schools available to children is to encourage the replication of existing quality schools. This policy guide…

  10. Day/Night Cycle: Mental Models of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiras, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the mental models of primary school children related to the day/night cycle. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade children. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data indicated that the majority of the children were classified as having geocentric models. The results also…

  11. Factors associated with enuresis among primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of treatment in 89(41.6%), 42 (19.6%) and 6 (2.8%) children respectively. Conclusion: Arousal difficulty, positive family history of enuresis and family stress were common risk factors for enuresis. Also, enuretic children had higher rates of poor school performance compared with non-enuretic children. The inappropriate ...

  12. Teaching Young Children How to Sing: One School's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…

  13. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  14. 'My journey to school': photovoice accounts of rural children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A photographic technique, where children were entrusted with disposable cameras to act as recorders of salient places and spaces of their school journey was employed. Based on children's photographs, individual and focus group interviews were conducted to engage children in dialogue and discussion about the ...

  15. Peer Dynamics among Marquesan School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This research describes an observation study of 100 children, ages 9-13 years, on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. The children were in a French government boarding school in the main valley of the island. Complex, sophisticated group processes among the Marquesan children were observed. The role structures of the group…

  16. Bringing Nature to Schools to Promote Children's Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe; Bland, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) is essential for human health and wellbeing across all age, socioeconomic, and ethnic groups. Engagement with the natural world is a new defining criterion for enhancing the benefits of PA, particularly for children and young people. Interacting with nature benefits children's social and emotional wellbeing, develops resilience, and reduces the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus across all population groups. Governments around the world are now recognizing the importance of children spending more active time outdoors. However, children's outdoor activities, free play, and nature-related exploration are often structured and supervised by adults due to safety concerns and risks. In this context, schools become more accessible and safe options for children to engage in PA outdoors with the presence of nature features. Research on school designs involving young children has revealed that children prefer nature-related features in school environments. Affordances in nature may increase children's interest in physically active behaviors. Given that present school campuses are designed for operational efficiency and economic reasons, there is a need to re-design schools responding to the positive role of nature on human health. If schools were re-designed to incorporate diverse natural features, children's PA and consequent health and wellbeing would likely improve markedly.

  17. Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric; Chanal, Julien; Ratelle, Catherine F; Marsh, Herbert W; Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel

    2010-12-01

    There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school subject differentiation). These two differential approaches have led to important discoveries and provided a better understanding of student motivational dynamics. However, little research has combined these two approaches. This study examines young elementary students' motivations across school subjects (writing, reading, and maths) from the stance of self-determination theory. First, we tested whether children self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation towards specific school subjects. Second, we verified whether children self-report differentiated types of motivation across school subjects. Participants were 425 French-Canadian children (225 girls, 200 boys) from three elementary schools. Children were in Grades 1 (N=121), 2 (N=126), and 3 (N=178). Results show that, for a given school subject, young elementary students self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation. Results also indicate that children self-report different levels of motivation types across school subjects. Our findings also show that most differentiation effects increase across grades. Some gender effects were also observed. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing among types of school motivation towards specific school subjects in the early elementary years.

  18. Pathways from parental stimulation of children's curiosity to high school science course accomplishments and science career interest and skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskeles Gottfried, Adele; Johnson Preston, Kathleen Suzanne; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Delany, Danielle E.; Ibrahim, Sirena M.

    2016-08-01

    Curiosity is fundamental to scientific inquiry and pursuance. Parents are important in encouraging children's involvement in science. This longitudinal study examined pathways from parental stimulation of children's curiosity per se to their science acquisition (SA). A latent variable of SA was indicated by the inter-related variables of high school science course accomplishments, career interest, and skill. A conceptual model investigated parental stimulation of children's curiosity as related to SA via science intrinsic motivation and science achievement. The Fullerton Longitudinal Study provided data spanning school entry through high school (N = 118). Parental stimulation of curiosity at age 8 years comprised exposing children to new experiences, promoting curiosity, encouraging asking questions, and taking children to a museum. Intrinsic motivation was measured at ages 9, 10, and 13 years, and achievement at ages 9, 10, and 11 years. Structural equation modelling was used for analyses. Controlling for socio-economic status, parental stimulation of curiosity bore positive and significant relations to science intrinsic motivation and achievement, which in turn related to SA. Gender neither related to stimulation of curiosity nor contributed to the model. Findings highlight the importance of parental stimulation of children's curiosity in facilitating trajectories into science, and relevance to science education is discussed.

  19. Parental Divorce and Children's Schooling in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children's schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to investigate the effect of parental divorce on children's schooling and the possible mechanisms driving this relationship. Unlike prior studies, this study uses child-level fixed-effects models to control for selection into divorce. Results show that parental divorce is associated with lower grade attainment and a larger schooling gap, defined as the number of years a child is behind in school (among children currently attending school). Although no association exists between parental divorce and current school attendance, girls affected by divorce are significantly less likely to be attending school. Differences in economic resources, maternal coresidence, or maternal psychological well-being do not explain the relationship between parental divorce and children's schooling.

  20. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

    2014-02-01

    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

  1. Exploring the school attendance of children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Piccin Zanni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The childhood epilepsy is a chronic disease that can have an impact in various spheres of life of the child, including academic performance and school attendance. This study aimed to describe and compare the school attendance of children with epilepsy who attend mainstream and special schools. Participants were 56 children aged between 7 and 14 years who attended regular or special schools located in two Brazilian cities of medium size. To collect the information we used two instruments: Data sheet of identification and characterization of the child and Data sheet to record the attendance school. The results showed that children in special schools had higher rates of absenteeism compared to students in regular schools. Additionally, we observed that these children use more drugs and have implications on health more severe than children in regular schools. Thus, it is the childhood epilepsy as a disease complex that brings substantial effects on various areas of children’s lives by reinforcing the need for studies that might expand the knowledge to and the experiences associated with the education of these children.

  2. An after-school exercise program improves fitness, and body composition in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Aaron L; Logue, Julie; Deininger, Heidi; Clark, R Randall; Curtis, Vanessa; Montague, Paul; Baldwin, Sharon

    2011-07-01

    Reduced cardiovascular fitness (CVF) is a risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. It has previously shown that a school-based fitness curriculum can improve CVF, and other health indicators in middle school aged children. Whether an afterschool program improves CVF and other health markers in elementary-school children is unresolved. The objective of this study was therefore to determine whether an on-site afterschool-based fitness program improves body composition, cardiovascular fitness level, in elementary school children. 80 elementary school children were evaluated in a "fitness-oriented" afterschool program managed by the local YMCA. Children underwent evaluation of cardiovascular fitness by maximal VO 2 treadmill testing and body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), at baseline (prior to the school-year) and again at end of the school year. Findings revealed that, at baseline, children had a mean age of 8.8 years, BMI of 18.7± 3, with a maximal VO 2 of 40.03 ± 7.6 ml/kg/min, and percent body fat of 28.7 ± 7%. After a 9-month intervention, children maximal VO 2 increased to 44.8 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min (p=0.04) and percent body fat decreased to 25.8 ± 6.2% (p=0.033). The study concluded that on-site afterschool programming focusing on fitness improved body composition and cardiovascular fitness, in elementary school children. Combined with prior studies, these data demonstrate that afterschool-based fitness curricula can benefit both obese and non-obese children. It was therefore recommended that, partnerships with schools to promote fitness even outside of school time should be a part of a school approach to improving children's health.

  3. School Reintegration for Children and Adolescents with Cancer: The Role of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mekel S.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…

  4. Parental School Involvement in Relation to Children's Grades and Adaptation to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Edwin T.; Goldberg, Wendy A.

    2008-01-01

    From an ecological perspective, it is important to examine linkages among key settings in the child's life. The current study focuses on parents' involvement in children's education both at school and at home. Ninety-one families with school-aged children (91 fathers and 91 mothers) participated in a survey study assessing the levels of parental…

  5. Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Mary E.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Lamanna, Beth F.; Davison, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from…

  6. Sowing Seeds for Healthier Diets: Children's Perspectives on School Gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Dedding, Christine

    2017-06-25

    School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children's vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children's perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school gardening in order to better understand and increase its potential for health promotion. Using participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we provided 45 primary schoolchildren (9-10 years) from Amsterdam, who participated in a comprehensive year-round school gardening programme, the opportunity to share their experiences and ideas on school gardening. Children particularly expressed enjoyment of the outdoor gardening portion of the programme as it enabled them to be physically active and independently nurture their gardens. Harvesting was the children's favourite activity, followed by planting and sowing. In contrast, insufficient gardening time and long explanations or instructions were especially disliked. Experiencing fun and enjoyment appeared to play a vital role in children's motivation to actively participate. Children's suggestions for programme improvements included more autonomy and opportunities for experimentation, and competition elements to increase fun and variety. Our results indicate that gaining insight into children's perspectives allows matching school gardening programmes more to children's wishes and expectations, thereby potentially enhancing their intrinsic motivation for gardening and vegetable consumption.

  7. FOOD HABIT AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  8. Availability of school health services for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, A M; Malakoff, M E

    1997-10-01

    A survey to assess availability of school health services was distributed to 221 directors of Schools of the 21st Century, an educational model that provides integrated services to children and families. Of this distribution, 126 (57%) surveys were returned; 88% of respondents reported they provided some type of school health services for their students; 75% of schools had access to school nursing services, yet only 33% had a school nurse on-site; 50% had less than daily access to a school nurse. Despite a high reported prevalence of physical and mental health problems, other services such as acute care, nutrition counseling, dental screenings, or mental health services were provided less frequently. Barriers perceived as problematic for schools providing health services included inadequate funding, limited parental awareness, and opposition by school or community members. Respondents believed transportation, limited financial resources, and inadequate health insurance were barriers to care for children and families. Among this sample of schools, school health services varied in availability and comprehensiveness. Educators, health providers, and parents must work together to provide improved school health services for children.

  9. Getting to 2014 (and beyond): The Choices and Challenges Ahead. A Collection of Essays to Encourage Constructive Dialogue among Policymakers, Educators, and Practitioners Engaged in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Boer, Benjamin; Carey, Kevin; Cohen, Michael; Hassel, Bryan C.; Hassel, Emily Ayscue; Hyslop, Anne; Levin, Douglas A.; Fletcher, Geoffrey; Odden, Allan; Tucker, Bill; Vargas, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Education Sector commissioned an earlier version of this collection of essays in conjunction with a March 2012 event "Getting to 2014: The Choices and Challenges Ahead." This updated version includes new essays and a revised introduction. The aim of these essays is to present ideas, elicit feedback, and encourage productive dialogue…

  10. Parents' perceptions of their children's weight, eating habits, and physical activities at home and at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaballas, Elvira; Clark-Ott, Dorothy; Clasen, Carla; Stolfi, Adrienne; Urban, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Parental perceptions of their young children's weight and habits may play an important role in determining whether children develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. This study was conducted to determine perceptions of parents of third-grade children in an urban school setting regarding their children's weight, eating habits, and physical activities. Parents anonymously completed surveys about their child's weight, eating habits, and daily activities. The survey also asked about how schools could encourage healthy eating and increased physical activity. Overall, 26% of the parents perceived their child to be overweight and expressed concern, but 40% of these parents believed that overweight is a condition that will be outgrown. Parents who reported eating more than eight meals per week with their child were less likely to report their child as overweight and more likely to believe that their child's physical activity level was appropriate. Most parents of third-grade students demonstrated concern regarding their child's weight and perceive obesity as a problem. Parents support school interventions such as nutrition education and fitness classes. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Online schools and children with special health and educational needs: comparison with performance in traditional schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Ferdig, Rick; Black, Erik

    2012-04-30

    In the United States, primary and secondary online schools are institutions that deliver online curricula for children enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12). These institutions commonly provide opportunities for online instruction in conjunction with local schools for students who may need remediation, have advanced needs, encounter unqualified local instructors, or experience scheduling conflicts. Internet-based online schooling may potentially help children from populations known to have educational and health disadvantages, such as those from certain racial or ethnic backgrounds, those of low socioeconomic status, and children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To describe the basic and applied demographics of US online-school users and to compare student achievement in traditional versus online schooling environments. We performed a brief parental survey in three states examining basic demographics and educational history of the child and parents, the child's health status as measured by the CSHCN Screener, and their experiences and educational achievement with online schools and class(es). Results were compared with state public-school demographics and statistical analyses controlled for state-specific independence. We analyzed responses from 1971 parents with a response rate of 14.7% (1971/13,384). Parents of online-school participants were more likely to report having a bachelor's degree or higher than were parents of students statewide in traditional schools, and more of their children were white and female. Most notably, the prevalence of CSHCN was high (476/1971, 24.6%) in online schooling. Children who were male, black, or had special health care needs reported significantly lower grades in both traditional and online schools. However, when we controlled for age, gender, race, and parental education, parents of CSHCN or black children reported significantly lower grades in online than in traditional schooling (adjusted odds ratio [a

  12. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    . Methods This study is based on prospective data from 10 public schools, six intervention and four control schools matched according to the uptake area of the schools and socio-economic position of the parents. Intervention schools provided four additional PE lessons per week, where as control schools...... continued as usual (two PE lessons per week). A total of 1507 children (intervention n=773, control n=734) attending pre-school to the 4th grade in 2008 were invited to participate in the CHAMPS study-DK and 1218 (81%) children and their parents accepted. Height, weight, waist circumference, DXA scans......, Cardio respiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure, pubertal stage and fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline (2008) and follow-up (2010). Information on parental education level, household income and birth weight were collected from questionnaires during the first school year. Results...

  13. Physical Activity Behavior Patterns during School Leisure Time in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity (PA in children is paramount to attenuate the incidence of chronic disease and to improve social and cognitive health. Limited research exists examining the observed PA patterns during school leisure times in children from the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine the observed PA patterns of children during three school leisure times: before school, during lunch, and after school. The SOPLAY instrument was used to observe PA during the three leisure times across six weeks at four elementary schools in the U.S. Observer PA counts were stratified by sex, PA intensity (sedentary, walking, and very active, and leisure time. Multi-level models were employed to examine the effect of leisure time and PA intensity on observer PA counts, adjusting for day and school-level clustering. Lunch displayed the greatest number of counts for sedentary, walking, and very active PA intensities (p 0.05. After school displayed the fewest counts for walking and very active PA in both sexes (p < 0.05. An emphasis should be placed on increasing walking and very active PA intensities before school and during lunch in girls and after school in both sexes. Keywords: after school, before school, lunch, SOPLAY, systematic observation

  14. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  15. School Satisfaction of Elementary School Children : The Role of Performance, Peer Relations, Ethnicity and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2002-01-01

    The present study examines school satisfaction among 1,090 Dutch and ethnic minority children aged between ten and twelve in relation to their school context. Data were gathered in 51 classes from 26 schools. Individual and classroom variables were examined simultaneously, using multilevel analysis.

  16. School-Based Primary School Sexuality Education for Migrant Children in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Su, Yufen

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, Beijing Normal University launched a programme of school-based sexuality education for migrant children in Xingzhi Primary School in Beijing. Over the past seven years, the project team has developed a school-based sexuality education curriculum using the "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" published by…

  17. What do US and Canadian parents do to encourage or discourage physical activity among their 5-12 Year old children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Andrew W; O'Connor, Teresia M; Beauchamp, Mark R; Hughes, Sheryl O; Baranowski, Tom; Mâsse, Louise C

    2017-12-01

    Parents have the potential to substantively influence their child's physical activity. This study identified the parenting practices of US and Canadian parents to encourage or discourage their 5-12 year-old child's physical activity and to examine differences in parenting practices by country, parental sex, age of child, and income. The sample consisted of 134 US and Canadian parents (54.5% US; 60.4% female) recruited from a web-based panel by a polling firm. The parents answered open-ended questions about what they and other parents do to encourage or discourage their child to be active. Responses were coded using a scheme previously developed to code items used in the published literature. Coded responses were summarized by domain and dimension with differences in responses by country, parental sex, age of child, or household income assessed with a log-linear analysis. The 134 parents provided 649 and 397 responses to ways that parents encourage or discourage their child's physical activity, respectively. Over 70% of responses for practices that encourage physical activity were related to structure of the environment, parental encouragement, and co-participation. The most common response was co-participation in activity with the child. Of the practices that discourage physical activity, 67% were related to structure of the environment, lack of parental control, and modeling poor behaviors. The most common response was allowing screen time. There were no differences in response by country, parental sex, child age, or household income. Parents most often encouraged physical activity through structure and emotional support and discouraged physical activity through lack of structure and control. Understanding how parents influence their child's physical activity may help improve intervention strategies. The current results will inform the development of a physical activity parenting practices instrument.

  18. Encouraging research and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    In support of the Burmese Government's effort to encourage scientific research and teaching, the Agency provided, under the United Nations Development Programme, the services of an expert in nuclear chemistry. He stayed for three months at the Rangoon Arts and Science University. As a result a radiochemistry laboratory has been set up, where radioisotopes are used in chemical research and where radiochemistry is taught to fourth-year bachelor of science students

  19. A Bayesian encourages dropout

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Dropout is one of the key techniques to prevent the learning from overfitting. It is explained that dropout works as a kind of modified L2 regularization. Here, we shed light on the dropout from Bayesian standpoint. Bayesian interpretation enables us to optimize the dropout rate, which is beneficial for learning of weight parameters and prediction after learning. The experiment result also encourages the optimization of the dropout.

  20. No More Bullying: An Analysis of Primary School Children's Drawings of School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Phillip T.; Skrzypiec, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bullying in schools is an international problem impacting negatively on children's well-being. Children's drawings can provide an insight into their emotional states. There is little published literature that uses children's drawings to gain better understandings of the nature and impact of bullying. We report two studies using indicators of…

  1. Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Predictors of Middle School Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristi M.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Brown, Stephen L.; Partridge, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Children's participation in after-school physical activity can attenuate the overweight and obesity rates among rural, low socioeconomic status (SES) children. Children's individual determination, as well as social and environmental factors, can influence their behaviors. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine if a difference…

  2. Parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation: Associations with abused children's school functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused children. Methods The sample included 92 physically abused children ages 4-7 and one of their parents (95.7% mothers). Parents completed a measure of their own emotional expressiveness, and parents and teachers provided reports of children's self-regulatory skills. Children's school functioning was measured by observations of playground aggression and teacher reports of aggression and classroom behavior. Results Parents’ expression of positive and negative emotions was associated with various aspects of children's self-regulation and functioning in the school setting. Links between self-regulation and children's school adjustment were robust; poor self-regulation was associated with higher aggression and lower cooperation and self-directed behavior in the classroom. There was minimal support for a mediating role of children's self-regulation in links between parent expressiveness and children's behavior. Practice implications Findings point to the relevance of parent emotional expressivity and children's self-regulatory processes in understanding physically abused children's functioning at the transition to school. Although further research is needed, findings indicate that increasing parental expression of positive emotion should be a focus in treatment along with reduction in negativity of abusive parents. Further, addressing children's self-regulation could be important in efforts to reduce aggression and enhance children's classroom competence. PMID:22565040

  3. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hamřík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine the time spent watching television and using computer, data of a randomly selected set of 11 to 15 year old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4425 was used. Research data collection was conducted within an international research project Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. For statistical processing of results and identification of differences between various age groups of girls and boys, logistic regression analysis in SPSS Statistics 20 programme was used. RESULTS: More than 55% of girls and 60% of boys spend over 2 hours a day in a working week in front of the TV, DVD, video; most of the time was recorded for 13 year old respondents. While playing games on the PC or Playstation occupies more than 2 hours per day for more than a half of boys, for girls more typical is "chatting", "surfing the Internet" or "e-mailing". With age, the proportion of children who spend 2 or more hours a day using computer increases. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of an increasing level of sedentary behaviour in children in their leisure should be addressed together with interventions aimed at increasing the levels of physical activity in children in the national, regional and local policies to encourage physical activity and health in the Czech Republic.

  4. A repeated measures experiment of school playing environment to increase physical activity and enhance self-esteem in UK school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carly; Gladwell, Valerie; Barton, Jo

    2014-01-01

    School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA) requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8-9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22) = 6.27; P0.05; np2 = 0.060) or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140). During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23) = 1.32; P0.05; n2 = 0.071). For lunch (F(1,22) = 24,11; Psex during lunch (F(1,22) = 11.56; Pschools should encourage greater use of their natural areas to increase PA.

  5. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and health status have powerful influences on a child's ... well-being and cognitive development of school children. Students who ... Department of Pediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria. Abstract.

  6. Making a Difference for Overweight Children: The School Nurse Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Nancy W.

    2005-01-01

    This manual discusses the school nurse's role in prevention and management of overweight children from an individual student perspective and, perhaps more important, from a system perspective. Manual includes the BMI (Body Mass Index) Wheel.

  7. Children stories about primary schools: sceneries and (autobiographic research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Passeggi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with 4-10 year-old children stories and analyses how they portrait their experiences at school. It is the outcome of an inter-institutional research project performed at schools in Natal, São Paulo, Recife, Niterói and Boa Vista. To collect data, we opted for conversations of children in groups of five, who would share a conversation with a little alien whose planet lacked schools. The analyses revealed consensus and tensions between scholar cultu - re and childhood cultures, which affect the way children play and learn, make friends or not, remain children or not. When narrating, the child redefines his/her experience and contributes to seize the primary school as a place where he/she becomes (or not a citizen.

  8. Nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... b Research Fellow, CSL, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa ... Keywords: primary school children; nutrition knowledge; nutritional status. Nutrition ... research on basic nutrition education focusing on adolescents has.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant gender difference in prevalence between boys. (67.8%) ... species were identified in DRSTP school children, of which 9 species were pathogenic and the remaining 3 were ... with lower scores on tests of mental performance and.

  10. Humor and Competence in School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    1986-01-01

    Measures humor appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production in children between the ages of 10 and 14. Relates humor to several areas of competence manifested at school. (HOD)

  11. Frequency of bedwetting among primary school children in Benha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashraf H. Mohammed

    2014-02-24

    Feb 24, 2014 ... Objectives: The overall objective was health promotion of school children, and the specific .... A Chinese study reported that the prevalence .... The attitudes of ... Pelvic floor exercises should be done and the child had to be.

  12. Bullying victimization among 13 til 15 year old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2008-01-01

    AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...

  13. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  14. A study of cardiovascular risk factors and its knowledge among school children of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mary George

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among school children. Importantly, school children lack adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. School based interventions are required for cardiovascular risk reduction in childhood.

  15. Cellular telephone use among primary school children in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, Eva; Schuez, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Background: There is some concern about potential health risks of cellular telephone use to children. We assessed data on how many children own a cellular telephone and on how often they use it in a population-based sample. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among children in their fourth elementary school year, with a median-age of 10 years. The study was carried out in Mainz (Germany), a city with about 200,000 inhabitants. The study base comprised all 37 primary schools in Mainz and near surroundings. Altogether, 1933 children from 34 primary schools took part in the survey (participation rate of 87.8%). Results: Roughly a third of all children (n = 671, 34.7%) reported to own a cellular telephone. Overall, 119 (6.2%) children used a cellular telephone for making calls at least once a day, 123 (6.4%) used it several times a week and 876 (45.3%) children used it only once in a while. The remaining 805 (41.6%) children had never used a cellular telephone. The probability of owning a cellular telephone among children was associated with older age, being male, having no siblings, giving full particulars to height and weight, more time spent watching TV and playing computer games, being picked up by their parents from school by car (instead of walking or cycling) and going to bed late. The proportion of cellular telephone owners was somewhat higher in classes with more children from socially disadvantaged families. Conclusions: Our study shows that both ownership of a cellular telephone as well as the regular use of it are already quite frequent among children in the fourth grade of primary school. With regard to potential long-term effects, we recommend follow-up studies with children

  16. Stronger vection in junior high school children than in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Nobu; Imura, Tomoko; Tamura, Rio; Seno, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that even elementary school-aged children (7 and 11 years old) experience visually induced perception of illusory self-motion (vection) (Lepecq et al., 1995, Perception, 24, 435-449) and that children of a similar age (mean age = 9.2 years) experience more rapid and stronger vection than do adults (Shirai et al., 2012, Perception, 41, 1399-1402). These findings imply that although elementary school-aged children experience vection, this ability is subject to further development. To examine the subsequent development of vection, we compared junior high school students' (N = 11, mean age = 14.4 years) and adults' (N = 10, mean age = 22.2 years) experiences of vection. Junior high school students reported significantly stronger vection than did adults, suggesting that the perceptual experience of junior high school students differs from that of adults with regard to vection and that this ability undergoes gradual changes over a relatively long period of development.

  17. Health and school outcomes during children's transition into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A

    2013-02-01

    Normative biopsychosocial stressors that occur during entry into adolescence can affect school performance.As a set of resources for adapting to life's challenges, good health may buffer a child from these potentially harmful stressors. This study examined the associations between health (measured as well-being, functioning, symptoms, and chronic conditions) and school outcomes among children aged 9-13 years in 4th-8th grades. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,479 children from 34 schools followed from 2006 to 2008. Survey data were obtained from children and their parents, and school records were abstracted. Measures of child self-reported health were dichotomized to indicate presence of a health asset. Outcomes included attendance, grade point average, state achievement test scores, and child-reported school engagement and teacher connectedness. Both the transition into middle school and puberty had independent negative influences on school outcomes. Chronic health conditions that affected children's functional status were associated with poorer academic achievement. The number of health assets that a child possessed was positively associated with school outcomes. Low levels of negative stress experiences and high physical comfort had positive effects on teacher connectedness, school engagement, and academic achievement, whereas bullying and bully victimization negatively affected these outcomes. Children with high life satisfaction were more connected with teachers, more engaged in schoolwork, and earned higher grades than those who were less satisfied. As children enter adolescence, good health may buffer them from the potentially negative effects of school and pubertal transitions on academic success. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Color Vision Defects in School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Shrestha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Color Vision defect can be observed in various diseases of optic nerve and retina and also a significant number of people suffer from the inherited condition of red and green color defect. Methods: A cross-sectional descritptive study was designed with purposive sampling of students from various schools of Kathmandu Valley. All children were subjected to color vision evaluation using Ishihara Isochromatic color plates along with other examination to rule out any other causes of color deficiency. Results: A total of 2001 students were examined, 1050 male students and 951 females with mean age of 10.35 (±2.75 and 10.54 (±2.72 respectively. Among the total students examined, 2.1% had some form of color vision defects. Of the male population , 3.9% had color vision defects while none of the female was found with the deficiency. Conclusions: The prelevance of color vision defect in Nepal is significant and comparable with the prelevance quoted in the studies from different countries. Keywords:color vision; congenital red green color effect; Nepal; prevalence.

  19. School Bus Transportation of Children With Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2018-05-01

    School systems are responsible for ensuring that children with special needs are safely transported on all forms of federally approved transportation provided by the school system. A plan to provide the most current and proper support to children with special transportation needs should be developed by the Individualized Education Program team, including the parent, school transportation director, and school nurse, in conjunction with physician orders and recommendations. With this statement, we provide current guidance for the protection of child passengers with specific health care needs. Guidance that applies to general school transportation should be followed, inclusive of staff training, provision of nurses or aides if needed, and establishment of a written emergency evacuation plan as well as a comprehensive infection control program. Researchers provide the basis for recommendations concerning occupant securement for children in wheelchairs and children with other special needs who are transported on a school bus. Pediatricians can help their patients by being aware of guidance for restraint systems for children with special needs and by remaining informed of new resources. Pediatricians can also play an important role at the state and local level in the development of school bus specifications. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Parent-school relationships and children's academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R

    2010-08-01

    Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Phonemic Awareness Skills of Cochlear Implant Children and Children with Normal Hearing in Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dashtelei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Phonemic awareness skills have a significant impact on children speech and language. The purpose of this study was investigating the phonemic awareness skills of children with cochlear implant and normal hearing peers in primary school. Methods: phonemic awareness subscales of phonological awareness test were administered to 30 children with cochlear implantation at the first to sixth grades of primary school and 30 children with normal hearing who were matched in age with cochlear implant group. All of children were between 6 to 11 years old. Children with cochlear implant had at least 1 to 2 years of implant experience and they were over 5 years when they receive implantation. Children with cochlear implant were selected from Special education centers in Tehran and children with normal hearing were recruited from primary schools in Tehran. The phonemic awareness skills were assessed in both groups. Results: The results showed that the Mean scores of phonemic awareness skills in cochlear implant children were significantly lower than children with normal hearing (P<.0001. Discussion: children with cochlear implant, despite Cochlear implantation prosthesis, had lower performance in phonemic awareness when compared with normal hearing children. Therefore, due to importance of phonemic awareness skills in learning of literacy skills, and defects of these skills in children with cochlear implant, these skills should be assessed carefully in children with cochlear implant and rehabilitative interventions should be considered.

  2. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  3. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  4. New York City's Children First: Lessons in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Under Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's education system embarked on a massive change effort, known as Children First, that produced significant results: new and better school options for families, more college-ready graduates, and renewed public confidence in New York City's schools. New York City's reform effort has also produced…

  5. 'We are never invited': School children using collage to envision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws on a study with school children in rural KwaZulu-Natal and explores their constructions of care and support in the age of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). A qualitative approach using collage, a visual arts-based method was used with 20 school ...

  6. Foodborne illness among school children in Ga east, Accra | Malm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A food borne illness was reported in Ga- East district of Greater Accra Region among school children in May, 2007 after eating food provided at school. The objective of the investigation was to determine the source, mode of contamination and the causative agent. Methods: A case-control study was conducted, ...

  7. Children and Learning Climate at Home and at School: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the factors which affect the learning climate of children both at home and school. A total sample of 373 students, comprising 118 males and 185 females from various basic and secondary schools in the regions of Ghana were randomly selected for the study. The instrument was a 25 ...

  8. Oral health status of school children in Mbarara, Uganda | Batwala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The oral hygiene of school children was poor with high plaque prevalence demonstrating a lack of established oral hygiene practices. A comprehensive community-focused oral health care intervention that includes oral health education in homes and the strengthening of school health programme is needed to ...

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural area close to the southeast of Lake Langano, Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Methods: In April 2003, fresh stool samples were collected from 259 students enrolled in two primary schools located in southeast of Lake Langano.

  10. Children's Rights, School Exclusion and Alternative Educational Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines findings from a recent study in Wales of school exclusion and alternative educational provision. Many, but not all, children in alternative provision have been excluded from school. The most recent statistics reveal that nearly 90% of pupils in alternative provision have special educational needs, nearly 70% are entitled to…

  11. Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

  12. Caregivers' perspective of school reintegration in children survivors of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, R.; Santos, B.D.; Van Loey, N.E.E.; Geenen, R.; Rossi, L.A.; Nascimento, L.C.

    Introduction: Pediatric burns are an important reason of treatment and hospitalization. Children victims of burns may interrupt or even abandon school activities. The process of school reintegration of this population has become a point of attention. Aim: To analyze the caregivers’ perspective of

  13. Sleep Disorders in Children: Collaboration for School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, D. Erik

    2011-01-01

    The effects of sleep disturbance on children are wide ranging and include alterations in behavior, mood, cognition, and academic performance. Screening and intervention for pediatric sleep disorders within the schools are not widely implemented, and the concept of integrating school personnel into the multidisciplinary sleep team has yet to be…

  14. Breakfast habits among school children in selected communities in the eastern region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intiful, F D; Lartey, A

    2014-06-01

    Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day, yet many people skip breakfast. Studies indicate that school age children who regularly skip breakfast are not likely to concentrate in class, thus affecting school performance. This study determined the breakfast habits and nutrient contributions of the breakfast meal to the days' nutrient intake. A cross sectional study was conducted among school children (n=359) between the ages of 6-19 years in Manya Krobo in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were used to collect information on background characteristics and breakfast consumption habits. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to obtain information on the children's food intake. T-test was used to compare differences between means of variables of breakfast consumers and skippers. About 85.5% of the children had breakfast on the day of interview. More boys (87.8%) consumed breakfast compared to the girls (83.1%). For those who skipped breakfast, lack of food at home or lack of no money (36.5%) was the main reason. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher energy and nutrient intakes than those who skipped breakfast (energy 2259 verses 1360 kcal, p-0.039; vitamin A 1534 verses 662 ug/RE, p=0.001; iron 22.9 verses 13.9 mg, p=0.017, zinc 9.9 verses 5.6 mg, p=0.034). The breakfast meal contributed between 32-41% of the day's energy intake, and between 30-47% of micronutrient intake. Encouraging breakfast consumption among school children is a way to ensure that they meet their daily nutrient and energy intakes.

  15. Why are primary school children overweight and obese? A cross sectional study undertaken in Kinondoni district, Dar-es-salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaikambo, Sijenunu A; Leyna, Germana H; Killewo, Japhet; Simba, Azma; Puoane, Thandi

    2015-12-21

    The world is experiencing an alarming increase in prevalence of childhood obesity. Despite this trend little is known about determinants of childhood obesity in Tanzania. A cross sectional study determined the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity in 1722 children aged 7-14 years (10.9 ± 1.74) attending primary schools in Dar es Salaam. Six public and four private schools were systemically selected from a total of 227 primary schools. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were collected using a standard protocol and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Interviews collected demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Multiple logistic regression test was used to assess the influence of independent variables on overweight and obesity while controlling for confounding factors. The level of significance was set at α = 5 %. Of 1, 722 children 10.2 % were overweight and 4.5 % were obese. Overweight and obesity was higher in boys (14.9 %) than girls (14.5 %), higher in children attending private schools (27.7 %) than public schools (5.9 %). Children who walked to and from school were less likely to be overweight or obese than those who used vehicles (AOR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.6; p overweight or obese than those who used public transport (AOR = 2.9; 95%CI: 0.2-0.7; p overweight and obesity (AOR = 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.3; p = 0.03). Lunch provided by schools was associated with increased risk of overweight or obese (AOR = 6.4, 95 % CI = 4.2-9.6, p overweight and obesity. Parents and teachers should encourage children to be physically active by limiting screen time and promoting active transport to and from school to promote health and reduce obesity. Ministry of education needs to formulate/enforce policies that encourage physical activities for school children and regulate quality of foods provided to children at schools.

  16. Active Play: Exploring the Influences on Children's School Playground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda; Telford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Because children spend so much of their time in schools, their playgrounds offer a good setting for promoting active play in young lives. Teachers, instead of considering active play a taxing demand on their busy day, have begun to develop an informal curriculum for it. The authors review the research on children's active play and explores its…

  17. Emergent Technological Literacy: What Do Children Bring to School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, W. B.

    2013-01-01

    There has been very little research into children's technological practice in early childhood settings. This article describes four typical examples of the technological activity that occurs on a daily basis in New Zealand early childhood settings. It is suggested that children come to compulsory schooling with well-developed technological…

  18. Children's Time Use: Labor Divisions and Schooling in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Worker and Iron Status Evaluation are used to examine gendered patterns in children's time in market and nonmarket work, schooling, and leisure in Indonesia (N = 2,929). Boys spend more time in market work; girls spend more time in nonmarket work. Work responsibilities increase with age as well as gender differentials in children's…

  19. Functional outcome at school age of children born with gastroschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lap, Chiara C M M; Bolhuis, Sandra W; Van Braeckel, Koenraad J. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Manten, Gwendolyn T. R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hulscher, Jan

    Objective: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. Study design: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands,

  20. Kinematic Measures of Imitation Fidelity in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Justin H. G.; Casey, Jackie M.; Braadbaart, Lieke; Culmer, Peter R.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We sought to develop a method for measuring imitation accuracy objectively in primary school children. Children imitated a model drawing shapes on the same computer-tablet interface they saw used in video clips, allowing kinematics of model and observers' actions to be directly compared. Imitation accuracy was reported as a correlation reflecting…

  1. Nutritional status of primary school children in Enugu, Nigeria using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition in children can co-exist as under- and over-nutrition in the same population with varying attendant medical risks. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional status of primary school children in Enugu North LGA, using anthropometry. Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study ...

  2. Changes in the Nutritional Status of School Children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing worldwide with significant health and social consequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the current nutritional status and its changes between 1983 and 2006 among school children and adolescents in a South ...

  3. What Kind of School Board Member Would Help Homeless Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1989-01-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in every part of the United States. Federal legislation requires state plans for educating homeless children, but will provide less than $23 per child. Summarizes some of the state plans and suggests steps school boards can take to provide homeless children with public education. (MLF)

  4. Say the Word Islam: School Counselors and Muslim Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah

    2010-01-01

    Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…

  5. Exploratory Talk, Argumentation and Reasoning in Mexican Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Zapata, Margarita Peon

    2004-01-01

    The study analyses the effects of training primary school children in the use of a linguistic tool called "Exploratory Talk" (ET) on their capacity for argumentation. ET allows for reasoned confrontation and negotiation of points of view, making the reasoning visible in the talk. Eighty-eight Mexican children from the 5th and 6th grades…

  6. Health-related knowledge and behaviour of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a serious need for children to be informed about the negative influence of unhealthy living which has become part and parcel of the post-industrial contemporary society. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related knowledge and behaviour of senior primary school children in the Honeydew area, and ...

  7. Teaching Humility in First-Grade Christian School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Julie E.; Wielard, Cassie J.; Vos, Carolyn L.; Tudder, Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    Four classes of first-grade children at a Christian school took pre- and post-tests measuring humility. Two intervention classes had devotional lessons on humility and two comparison classes did not. For one week, devotional lessons featured humility-related children's literature, cognitively appropriate discussions, writing about humility, and…

  8. Children of Incarcerated Parents: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsch, Priscilla; Rochlen, Aaron B.

    2009-01-01

    The recent increase in prison populations has given rise to an unprecedented number of children in the school system with incarcerated parents. To cope with stressors before, during, or after parents' incarceration, children can exhibit a range of problematic and maladaptive behaviors. This article explores the negative behaviors these children…

  9. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  10. Education, Schooling, and Children's Rights: The Complexity of Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    By blurring the distinction between formal school and education writ large, homeschooling both highlights and complicates the tensions among the interests of parents, children, and the state. In this essay, Robert Kunzman argues for a modest version of children's educational rights, at least in a legal sense that the state has the duty and…

  11. Sex Prevalence of Schistosomiasis among School Children in Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken among school children in 5 communities in the lower Volta Basin in South eastern Ghana to assess sex prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the children. Results obtained showed that the disease prevalence was higher among the female pupils (64%) than their male counterparts ...

  12. Ramifications of Absent Parenting on School-going Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to explore the psycho-educational implications of parental migration on school going children in Masvingo, urban. The study further explored how these children adjust to parental migration. This study used a mixed methods approach to collect data, particularly employing the descriptive case study. A total ...

  13. Academic Performance of School Children With Epilepsy | Ibekwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease encountered among school children in Nigeria. Studies in developed countries show conflicting reports on it\\'s effect on academic performance. There is also a dearth of information on the academic performance of Nigerian children with epilepsy.

  14. High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

  15. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  16. Developing Children's Language Learner Strategies at Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the strategy repertoires and strategy development of six English children who learned foreign languages at primary school. My study differs from mainstream research, in that it focuses on young children and on the development of their strategies, draws on sociocultural theory and uses ethnographic methods. My findings show…

  17. Encouraging environmentally strategic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Having moved beyond its initial absorption with controlling new technology, environmental policy today must focus more strongly on promoting the development and adoption of new technologies. World Resource Institute's (WRI) ongoing study of 'environmentally strategic technology' is addressed to this fundamental policy issue. The study proposes criteria for identifying such technology, offers a specific list, suggests the kinds of public policy changes necessary to encourage their development and finally presents a comparison of critical technology lists (from the White House, the European Community, Japan and the US Department of Defense). (TEC)

  18. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg......, Denmark. The children in the study group followed an elimination diet for two weeks before they were challenged with a mixture of food preservatives, colourings and flavours. The challenge was open and the additives were prepared as a fizzy lemonade. If the open challenge was positive, a double-blind...... the double-blind challenge which was positive in 6 cases. Five of these 6 children had positive reactions to synthetic colourings and 1 to citric acid. No serious reactions were seen. Based upon calculations of the results from this study and an earlier multi-center study in children referred to hospital...

  19. Investigating shadows: a pedagogical intervention project with primary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noversa, Silvana; Abreu, Cátia; Varela, Paulo; Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2014-07-01

    This communication results from a pedagogical intervention project, carried out at a primary school in the district of Braga - Portugal. The intervention took place in a class of the 3rd year, composed of 16 students, and it incorporated the practice of inquiry-based science teaching addressing the theme "Light Experiments", which is part of the "Environmental Studies" curricular area. Various class activities were planned and implemented concerning some of the factors that influence the shadow of an object, in order to find answers to the following three questions: a) will 3rd year students, aged 7/8 years, be able to construct and execute an investigation strategy that involves manipulating and controlling variables? b) what are the main difficulties experienced by students in the designing and execution of such a strategy? c) how will students, in interaction with the teacher and with their peers, gradually design and execute their investigation strategy in order to respond to the problem formulated? The project adopted an action research methodology. A careful record was kept of the events most relevant to the questions under study in each class. This data was used to prepare the class diaries - descriptive and reflective narratives prepared based on recorded audio and field notes made during participant observation in the context of the classroom. A content analysis of the diaries has identified a few elements that provide answers to the research questions raised. In order to plan and implement a research project with children in the 7/8 years old range require a high level of scaffolding to allow students to gradually build a coherent strategy to tackle the research problem. Teacher's role is crucial. The teacher, by questioning and inducing reasoning and discussion, promotes encourages and regulates the cognitive activity of students. Some level of autonomy should be given to the students in large group collaborative work.

  20. Behaviour problems of children from care homes and special schools

    OpenAIRE

    Kaffemanas, Romanas

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents and analyzes data on the behaviour peculiarities, similarities and differences of students from 24 special schools and Care Homes in Lithuania. Most children with or without mental disability in institutional care have mild emotional and behaviour difficulties. However, slight emotional deviations, anti-social behaviour and school adjustment problems are more characteristic of the special school students. The inmates of Care Homes without mental disability are characterized...

  1. Salt intake and eating habits of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei

    2016-11-01

    Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.

  2. BODY MASS STATUS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmala khan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: School going children is important part of our society. Their growth, development and body weight is of utmost significance and presents general health status of a community and nation as a whole. For the assessment of nutritional status WHO Asian cuts-off BMI for age recommended BMI less than 18.5 kg/m considered underweight, 18.5-24.9 normal weight, more than 25 overweight. The objective of this study is to access body mass status among primary school going children of Hyderabad. Methods: The study design was cross sectional study in which different school of Hyderabad were selected to collect data (semi government and private sector.This study has assessed the body mass index between 7-14 years old age group of both genders of primary school going children of Hyderabad. BMI has calculated with the help of weight and height of the body. Result: In this study out of 100 children 10%were 7-8 year old 20% were 9-10 year old, 20% were 11-12year old and 30% were 13-14 year old. The analysis shows 80% were underweight (below 18.5, 18% were normal weight (18.5-24.9 and only 2% overweight (above 25 according to the Asian cut-off value of BMI for Asian children. When it was analyzed by gender 62% of the boys and 18% of the girls were underweight, 6% of boys and 12% out of girls were normal weight, 2% of the boys were overweight no girl found overweight in the study. In the above study 80% found underweight, 18% normal weight, 2% overweight. Conclusion: Under nutrition among the school going children is currently a health problem faced by Hyderabad school going children. There is need to be taken address these problems in order to prevent nation from nutritional deficiency among school going children and buildup a strong and healthy nation in future.

  3. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobran M. Alqahtani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5% were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353 reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma. In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management.

  4. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptability of children to the school environment and their potential to succeed there is closely linked to the development of their cognitive and social skills. These are primarily linked to personal factors -physical maturity as well as mental or emotional maturity and the environment in which those children grow up. This fact is evident in children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. In general the school readiness of children from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds is affected by the specific environment, the primary family and a number of other factors. A significant support of psychosocial development and successful adaptability at the start of the compulsory education is the preschool education, especially for children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. The presented study focused on the effect of pre-school education on school readiness in first grade children. 24 children from socially disadvantaged environment were tested twice - for first time shortly after the beginning of their first grade and for the second time before the end of the first grade. The children were then divided into two groups - those who attended pre-school education and those who started school without any pre-school education programme. The attendance thus made the independent variable in the research design. There were three research questions - what is the impact of pre-school education on: Q1: general cognitive functioning (tested using the Intelligence Image Scale, Q2: on the ability to acquire the reading skills (tested using the Reversal test by Edfeldt and Q3 on the social maturity of the children (tested using the Vineland scale of adaptive behaviour The results of the study suggest that pre-school education has significant effect on social skills and this effect increases during the first year. The reading skills were better in children who attended the pre-school education however this impact decreases

  5. School performance in cholesteatoma-operated children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki; Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe

    2016-01-01

    Cholesteatoma in childhood had no long-term effect on school performance for the majority who completed lower secondary school. Aim To investigate whether individuals operated on for cholesteatoma in childhood have impaired school performance in adolescence. Methods All children born in Denmark...... between 1986-1991 with cholesteatoma surgery performed before the age of 15 years were included (cholestetaoma group). A control group consisting of a 5% random sample of all children born in Denmark during the same period was used for comparison. Final marks (average, mathematics, Danish, and English...

  6. Encouraging early preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children enrolled in Medicaid: using the extended parallel process model to conduct formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth; Kuthy, Raymond; Ortiz, Cristina; Hanson, Jessica D; Damiano, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children can result in better oral health outcomes, especially for children from lower income families. Many children, however, still do not see a dentist for preventive visits. This qualitative study examined the potential for the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to be used to uncover potential antecedents to parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care. Seventeen focus groups including 41 parents were conducted. The focus group protocol centered on constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived response efficacy) of the EPPM. Transcripts were analyzed by three coders who employed closed coding strategies. Parents' perceptions of severity of dental issues were high, particularly regarding negative health and appearance outcomes. Parents perceived susceptibility of their children to dental problems as low, primarily because most children in this study received preventive care, which parents viewed as highly efficacious. Parents' self-efficacy to obtain preventive care for their children was high. However, they were concerned about barriers including lack of dentists, especially dentists who are good with young children. Findings were consistent with EPPM, which suggests this model is a potential tool for understanding parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care for their young children. Future research should utilize quantitative methods to test this model. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school. The exemption set forth in 49 U.S.C. 13506(a)(1) shall not be construed as being inapplicable to...

  8. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackelprang Alyssa J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PARENTS` ATTUTUTES FROM NEIGHBOUR COUNTRIES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THEIR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2014-06-01

    of decrease in physical activity of the pre-school children in both Montenegro and Serb Republic. Discussion and comments were integrally presented and discussed for all groups of answers to polled questions. Discussion: Dynamic development and more and more important role of physical education in modern society development as well as in the life a modern man has encouraged much more active attitude of science towards the field of the human activity (Bjelica, D. & Krivokapić, D., 2010.. Anyway, for the obvious trend of decrease in physical activity of the pre-school children, there is a need for its intensifying, in order to provide as optimal as possible influence on their mental and physical development. ``Physical development of an individual is best realized through activities that are intensified, conceived and versatile``(Bjelica, D. & Krivokapić, D., 2011. In that attempt, analysis of the position and role of the teacher as well as creating of stimulating ambient that enables, stimulates and encourages their professional development and permanent education is especially important. Taking into account the given results of this research, there is an opinion that additional education of parents of the pre-school children on importance of optimal physical activity for growth and development of the children in that period of their childhood, could partially decrease negative consequences resulting from unsatisfying level of their physical activity. References: Bjelica D, Krivokapic D (2010. Teorijske osnove fizicke kulture, Fakultet za sport i fizicko vaspitanje i Crnogorska sportska akademija, 37-38. Bjelica D, Krivokapic D (2011. Teorija igre, Univerzitet Crne Gore, 115-116.

  10. Father's Labour Migration and Children's School Discontinuation in Rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabiku, Scott T; Agadjanian, Victor

    2017-08-01

    We examine how the discontinuation of schooling among left-behind children is related to multiple dimensions of male labor migration: the accumulation of migration experience, the timing of these migration experiences in the child's life course, and the economic success of the migration. Our setting is rural southern Mozambique, an impoverished area with massive male labor out-migration. Results show that fathers' economically successful labor migration is more beneficial for children's schooling than unsuccessful migration or non-migration. There are large differences, however, by gender: compared to sons of non-migrants, sons of migrant fathers (regardless of migration success) have lower rates of school discontinuation, while daughters of migrant fathers have rates of school discontinuation no different than daughters of non-migrants. Furthermore, accumulated labor migration across the child's life course is beneficial for boys' schooling, but not girls'. Remittances sent in the past year reduce the rate of discontinuation for sons, but not daughters.

  11. Chinese Children's Perceived School Satisfaction: The Role of Contextual and Intrapersonal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of school contextual factors and intrapersonal factors to school satisfaction among a sample of Hong Kong Chinese primary school children. A total of 760 children completed the School Satisfaction Subscale of the Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale for Children along with self-report measures of…

  12. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  13. Perceived competence and school adjustment of hearing impaired children in mainstream primary school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamizadeh, N; Ghasemi, M; Saeedi, A; Kazemnejad, A

    2008-11-01

    Although educational main streaming of children with special needs formally began in Iran since 1992 there is little information whether hearing impaired children feel competent in regular schools. To determine the perceived competence and school adjustment of hearing impaired children in mainstream primary school settings, the self-perception profile was administered to 60 mainstreamed hard of hearing children and 60 classmates with normal hearing matched for gender by a single interviewer. The instrument comprised 28 items, 23 of which were similar to those of 'adapted test Image for children with cochlear implants' asking children about their feelings about their own cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and communication competence and school adjustment. The Cronbach alpha coefficient for the instrument was 0.93. Hard of hearing children rated their competence significantly poorer than their hearing classmates for all domains. Mean differences for the five domains ranged from 0.48 (for physical competence) to 0.90 (for school adjustment) on a scale of 1-4. There were no significant differences between girls' and boys' competence, in either the hearing or the hearing impaired groups. Classifying overall scores for perceived competence into four groups ('poor competence', 'low competence', 'moderate competence' and 'high competence'), 23.4% of hearing impaired children but none of the hearing classmates rated themselves as having low or poor competence. On the other hand 85% of hearing children and only 18.3% of hearing impaired children rated themselves as highly competent. We suggest that periodical assessments of mainstreamed children might help to identify those children who are having difficulty adapting to their environment.

  14. School-age children's fears, anxiety, and human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M K; Ryan-Wenger, N A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the fears of school-age children and determine the relationship between fear and anxiety. A descriptive, correlational, secondary analysis study was conducted using a convenience sample of 90 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Each child was instructed to complete the Revised Children's Anxiety Scale and then answer questions from a structured interview. On completion, each child was instructed to draw a human figure drawing. Frequency charts and correlational statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that the most significant fears of the boys were in the categories of animals, safety, school, and supernatural phenomena, whereas girls were more fearful of natural phenomena. High correlations existed between anxiety scores and the number of fears and emotional indicators on human figure drawings. Because human figure drawings are reliable tools for assessing anxiety and fears in children, practitioners should incorporate these drawings as part of their routine assessments of fearful children.

  15. Encouraging girl child education in my village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Entongwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My critical reflection will be drawn from an experience I had just a year after my graduation from the university where I was appointed as one of the X-students to lead a student cultural week in my village with the theme “raising awareness on education”. At the university, I was a member of my association in which students from my tribe generally come together to promote unity and encourage others in education. My role was to present a discourse on girl child education all the entire villagers who were gathered at the village square that evening. A high dropout rate at school and illiteracy are major problems in my region, in which there is still a great deal of gender disparity when it comes to educating children, especially the girl child. This programme is in line with the government’s policy of promoting education in my country, whose priority is for education to reach the grass-roots communities.

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Status of Physical Fitness Index (PFI % and Anthropometric Parameters in Residential School Children Compared to Nonresidential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti P Khodnapur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival, to achieve any goal and to lead a healthy life. Effect of exercise to have a good physical fitness is well known since ancient Vedas. Physical fitness can be recorded by cardiopulmonary efficiency test like Physical Fitness Index (PFI % which is a powerful indicator of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Regular exercise increases PFI by increasing oxygen consumption. Residential school children are exposed to regular exercise and nutritious food under the guidance. Aims and Objectives: Our study is aimed to compare the physical fitness index status and anthropometric parameters in Residential Sainik (n=100 school children compared to Non-Residential (n=100 school children (aged between 12-16 years of Bijapur. Material and Methods: PFI was measured by Harvard Step Test [1]. TheAnthropometrical parameters like Height (cms, Weight (Kg, Body Surface Area (BSA in sq.mts, Body Mass Index (BMI in Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference (cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were recorded. Results: Mean score of PFI(%, Height(cms, Weight(Kg, BSA(sq.mts, BMI(Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference(cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were significantly higher (p=0.000 in Residential school children compared to Non Residential school children. In conclusion regular exercise and nutritious diet under the guidance increases the physical fitness and growth in growing children.

  17. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  18. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bullying at school: Agreement between caregivers' and children's perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Lucas G; Scherñuk Schroh, Jordán C; Panizoni, Estefanía P; Jouglard, Ezequiel F; Serralunga, M Gabriela; Esandi, M Eugenia

    2017-02-01

    Bullying at school is usually kept secret from adults, making them unaware of the situation. To describe caregivers' and children's perception and assess their agreement in terms of bullying situations. Cross-sectional study in children aged 8-12 years old attending public schools and their caregivers. The questionnaire on preconceptions of intimidation and bullying among peers (PRECONCIMEI) (child/caregiver version) was used. Studied outcome measures: Scale of bullying, causes of bullying, child involvement in bullying, communication in bullying situations. Univariate and bivariate analyses were done and agreement was estimated using the Kappa index. A total of 529 child/caregiver dyads participated. Among caregivers, 35% stated that bullying occurred in their children's schools. Among children, 133 (25%) admitted to being involved: 70 (13%) were victims of bullying, 40 (8%) were bullies, and 23 (4%) were bullied and perpetrated bullying. Among the 63 caregivers of children who admitted to be bullies, 78% did not consider their children capable of perpetrating bullying. Among children who were bullied or who both suffered bullying and bullied others, 69.9% (65/93) indicated that "if they were the victims of bullying, they would tell their family." However, 89.2% (83/93) of caregivers considered that their children would tell them if they were ever involved in these situations. Agreement was observed in terms of a positive communication (Kappa = -0.04) between 62.6% (57/91) of the child/caregiver dyads school bullying. Disagreement was observed between children and their caregivers in relation to the frequency and communication of bullying situations. Few caregivers whose children admitted to being involved in these situations believed it was a possibility. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  20. Effects of School Gardening Lessons on Elementary School Children's Physical Activity and Sedentary Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Punia, Erika; Holloway, Alicia; Knauft, David; Schmidt, Michael D

    2017-12-01

    Recess and physical education time continue to diminish, creating a need for additional physical activity opportunities within the school environment. The use of school gardens as a teaching tool in elementary science and math classes has the potential to increase the proportion of time spent active throughout the school day. Teachers from 4 elementary schools agreed to teach 1 math or science lesson per week in the school garden. Student physical activity time was measured with ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers on 3 garden days and 3 no-garden days at each school. Direct observation was used to quantify the specific garden-related tasks during class. The proportion of time spent active and sedentary was compared on garden and no-garden days. Seventy-four children wore accelerometers, and 75 were observed (86% participation). Children spent a significantly larger proportion of time active on garden days than no-garden days at 3 of the 4 schools. The proportion of time spent sedentary and active differed significantly across the 4 schools. Teaching lessons in the school garden may increase children's physical activity and decrease sedentary time throughout the school day and may be a strategy to promote both health and learning.

  1. School children's own views, roles and contribution to choices regarding diet and activity in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Dicastillo, O; Grande, G; Callery, P

    2013-01-01

      Behaviours regarding food and activity are learned during childhood and continue throughout life. Children can be very important agents in making decisions concerning their own well-being and care and their perspective is essential to understanding how they and/or others make choices for them to achieve a healthy lifestyle. However, their perspectives remain under-researched. This study provides an insight into school children's own perspectives, behaviours and contribution to food and activity choices.   The paper reports on the findings from an ethnographic study with 38 Spanish children aged 5-7 years. Information was obtained through participant observations, diaries kept by children and group interviews. Data were analysed using techniques of analytical induction and constant comparison.   The children who took part in this study described choices about activities with enthusiasm. Children saw activity as a way of learning new things, mastering skills and socializing. They were willing to try and experience new activities and games. However, the activities performed depended on parents' agendas and security issues. In contrast, children reported less interest in and active involvement in food choices. They contributed to family food choices indirectly through the expression of their preferences, not wanting to eat what they disliked or tasting new foods.   Children had strong preferences and motivations, particularly about activities which could be harnessed in interventions to prevent obesity and promote healthy diet and activity. Parental involvement and commitment is also important both to encourage exercise according to children's interests and active informed food choices, including introduction to unfamiliar foods. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Methylphenidate use and school performance among primary school children: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Çiçek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens Hj; de Vries, Tjalling W; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hak, Eelko

    2017-03-29

    There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various parameters of methylphenidate use. We linked children from a pharmacy prescription database with standardized achievement test results at the end of primary school. We explored differences in test scores between current methylphenidate users versus never users and methylphenidate users who stopped treatment at least 6 months before the test, early versus late starters, different dosage of methylphenidate, and concurrent antipsychotic or asthma treatment. Out of the 7736 children, 377 (4.9%) children were treated with methylphenidate at the time of the test. After adjusting for confounders the methylphenidate users (532.58 ± .48) performed significantly lower on the test than never users (534.72 ± .11). Compared with late starters of methylphenidate treatment (536.94 ± 1.51) we found significantly lower test scores for the early starters (532.33 ± .50). Our study indicates that children using methylphenidate still perform less at school compared to their peers. Our study also suggests that earlier start of methylphenidate treatment is associated with a lower school performance compared to children starting later with the treatment. This result could either indicate a limited effect of long term treatment or a more strongly affected group of early starters.

  3. Organization of school health education in obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Woźniak-Holecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal body weight poses a risk of the development of various health disorders, having a negative impact on the quality and length of life. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children is estimated to be 10–20%. In Poland this figure reaches 18%. A war on the epidemic obesity waged from the youngest age of the child is a strategy that brings long-term health benefits for the entire population. Apart from the family, the school is the second important educational environment responsible for conducting health education activities among children and teenagers. School health education programs should be implementing by teachers in collaboration with other school staff, parents and the broadly understood local community. Comprehensive health education aiming at combating obesity should cover the entire population of school children and teenagers, with special attention given to high risk groups. The school, undertaking health education activities aimed at preventing abnormal body weight, should implement nationwide programs for the prevention of obesity, and should also pursue its own health education program based on its curriculum. In most cases, development of obesity at children results from improper eating habits and insufficient physical activity, and therefore school health education programs aimed at the prevention of overweight and obesity should focus on these two most important modifiable risk factors of abnormal body weight.

  4. Intestinal parasitosis in school children of Lalitpur district of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandukar, Sarmila; Ansari, Shamshul; Adhikari, Nabaraj; Shrestha, Anisha; Gautam, Jyotshana; Sharma, Binita; Rajbhandari, Deepak; Gautam, Shikshya; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Sherchand, Jeevan B

    2013-11-09

    Enteric parasites are the most common cause of parasitic diseases and cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries like Nepal. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among school going children of Lalitpur district of Nepal. A total of 1392 stool samples were collected from school children of two government, two private and two community schools of the same district. The stool samples were examined for evidence of parasitic infections by direct microscopy and confirmed by concentration methods (formal ether sedimentation technique or floatation technique by using Sheather's sugar solution). Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining was performed for the detection of coccidian parasites. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 16.7%. The highest prevalence rate was seen with Giardia lamblia (7.4%) followed by Entamoeba histolytica (3.4%) and Cyclospora cayetanensis (1.6%). Children aged 11-15 years and the ones belonging to family of agriculture workers were most commonly affected. Hand washing practice and type of drinking water also showed significant difference. The burden of parasitic infections among the school children, coupled with the poor sanitary conditions in the schools, should be regarded as an issue of public health priority and demands for effective school health programs involving periodic health education and screening.

  5. The trajectories of school: perceptions of children / students and teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ponce Bellido Giraldi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It can be said that there are two central themes that underlie the concept of childhood. The first is the socialization, linked mainly to social institutions such as the school and the family, where adults teach ways of being and acting in society for the maintenance and cohesion of the same. And the second is the individualization, in which the child is a subject of rights and a social protagonist. Pervaded by the socialization and individualization, understanding the perceptions that children / students can make on their own educational process has become an axis of fundamental importance for the understanding of school trajectories. So, the aim of this paper is to learn the perception of two children / students on school experiences and performances presented by them during part of the elementary school and to relate these perceptions of teachers who gave classes for them. This study has provided data a master's and doctoral research that followed in 2009, 2011 and 2012 - the 2nd, 4th and 5th year, a girl and a boy, with seven to ten years old, who were appointed in the 2nd year by the teacher responsible for their class as students who had middling performances. It appears as a qualitative longitudinal study that used as data collection instrument analysis of school documents, lesson observations and interviews with teachers and students (in this case playful strategies were employed. In addition, students also answered a questionnaire and produced an autobiographical text to report the experiences they had with the school. It was concluded that the two students expressed their perceptions about school performance and life experiences in the school context from the 2nd year of schooling, which not always corroborated indications given by teachers. The two students / children have shown concern with the possibility of access to certain schools at the expense of others, following the schooling process.

  6. Impact of Mediated Intimate Interaction on Education: A Huggable Communication Medium that Encourages Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Junya; Sumioka, Hidenobu; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the introduction of human-like communication media as a proxy for teachers to support the listening of children in school education. Three case studies are presented on storytime fieldwork for children using our huggable communication medium called Hugvie, through which children are encouraged to concentrate on listening by intimate interaction between children and storytellers. We investigate the effect of Hugvie on children's listening and how they and their teachers react to it through observations and interviews. Our results suggest that Hugvie increased the number of children who concentrated on listening to a story and was welcomed by almost all the children and educators. We also discuss improvement and research issues to introduce huggable communication media into classrooms, potential applications, and their contributions to other education situations through improved listening. PMID:27148119

  7. Foods in schools: Children with diabetes can make wise meal choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students, parents, and school staff often believe there are no healthful foods available in schools for children with diabetes. This paper explains modern school food environments and how children with diabetes can eat school foods. National School Lunch Program meals usually consist of an entree, t...

  8. Peer Victimization Trajectories from Kindergarten through High School: Differential Pathways for Children's School Engagement and Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2017-01-01

    This investigation's aims were to map prevalence, normative trends, and patterns of continuity or change in school-based peer victimization throughout formal schooling (i.e., Grades K-12), and determine whether specific victimization patterns (i.e., differential trajectories) were associated with children's academic performance. A sample of 383…

  9. Registered Indian Children's School Success and Intergenerational Effects of Residential Schooling in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Senécal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this study investigates factors associated with school success (as perceived by parents among off-reserve Registered Indian children aged 6 to 14 in Canada. Holding other factors constant, Registered Indian children were more likely to be doing well at school if they were living in households with high income, were living in adequately maintained dwellings, or spoke an Aboriginal language at home. Boys and older children, on the other hand, were less likely to be doing well at school, as were children who were living in larger households, experienced food insecurity, or had parents who attended residential school. Mediation analyses revealed that the negative intergenerational effect of parental residential schooling on children’s school success was partially attributable to household characteristics or economic status. Indeed, former residential school attendees were found to be more likely to live in households with a lower income, live in larger households, and report that their family had experienced food insecurity. These characteristics were, in turn, found to be negatively associated with children’s school success.

  10. Predictors of Language Gains among School-Age Children with Language Impairment in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Jiang, Hui; Logan, Jessica A.; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to identify child-level characteristics that predict gains in language skills for children with language impairment who were receiving therapy within the public schools. The therapy provided represented business-as-usual speech/language treatment provided by speech-language pathologists in the public schools. Method: The…

  11. Overweight and School Performance Among Primary School Children : The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C. E.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriette A.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of

  12. Overweight and School Performance Among Primary School Children: The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, J.; Fries, M.C.E.; Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Smit, H.A.; Koppelman, G.H.; Wijga, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of

  13. Positive psychological strengths and school engagement in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Wilkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A sizeable body of research has investigated the impact of specific character strengths or traits on significant outcomes. Some recent research is beginning to consider the effects of groups of strengths, combined as a higher order variable and termed covitality. This study investigated the combined influence of four positive character traits, gratitude, optimism, zest and persistence, upon school engagement, within a sample of 112 Australian primary school students. The combined effect of these four traits, in defining covitality as a higher or second-order factor within a path analysis, was found to predict relatively higher levels of school engagement and pro-social behaviour.

  14. Nurses' use of pliable and directed strategies when encountering children in child and school healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Maria; Enskär, Karin; Golsäter, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Nurses in Swedish child and school healthcare need to balance their assignment of promoting children's health and development based on the national health-monitoring programme with their responsibility to consider each child's needs. In this balancing act, they encounter children through directed and pliable strategies to fulfil their professional obligations. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which nurses use different strategies when encountering children during their recurrent health visits throughout childhood. A quantitative descriptive content analysis was used to code 30 video recordings displaying nurses' encounters with children (3-16 years of age). A constructed observation protocol was used to identify the codes. The results show that nurses use pliable strategies (58%) and directed strategies (42%) in encounters with children. The action they use the most within the pliable strategy is encouraging (51%), while in the directed strategy, the action they use most is instructing (56%). That they primarily use these opposing actions can be understood as trying to synthesize their twofold assignment. However, they seem to act pliably to be able to fulfil their public function as dictated by the national health-monitoring programme, rather than to meet each child's needs.

  15. Reasons encouraging adolescents to take up smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To understand adolescents' smoking behavior by analyzing retrospective self-ratings of the reasons encouraging them to take up smoking. Method: Participating in the study were 883 students (373 boys) of elementary and secondary schools in Kosice, Slovak Republic (74.9% of adolescents in the

  16. Using Emoticons to Encourage Students to Recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Matthew D.; Trudel, Remi

    2017-01-01

    Uncovering inexpensive, simple techniques to encourage students to act in a pro-environmental manner is of critical importance. Through a four-week field study at a large, environmentally focused elementary school, it was found that placing negatively valenced emoticons (i.e., red frowny faces) on trash cans increased the proportion of recycled…

  17. How Home Gets to School: Parental Control Strategies Predict Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Aimee Kleisner; MacPhee, David

    2011-01-01

    At-risk families' control style (autonomy support and coercive control) was examined in relation to children's school readiness; children's social skills and mastery motivation were hypothesized mediating variables. In two different, low-income samples from diverse ethnic backgrounds, one preschool sample recruited from Head Start (N = 199) and a…

  18. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  19. Screening 5 and 6 year-old children starting primary school for development and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Deniz; Bayar-Muluk, Nuray; Bayoğlu, Birgül; İdil, Aysun; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    Beginning school is an important milestone for children. Children's readiness for school involves cognitive, physical, and emotional development. Certain school programs allow children to start first grade after 66 months of age, together with 72 month-old children. In order to estimate school readiness, we screened children before starting first grade and compared their school performance according to their age and socio-demographic characteristics. Marmara School Readiness, Denver II developmental screening, and language assessment tests were applied. Language delays were more frequent and school readiness test scores were lower in the younger group compared to older children. However, school achievement did not differ between the two age groups. Preschool education, parental income and education affected performance in most tests. Preschool screening seems effective in detecting children with lower than average developmental skills, and the school system may provide a practical opportunity for providing support to those children.

  20. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaunieks Gatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  1. [Children with learning disabilities and handicaps in inclusive schools or in special schools? The view of parents and professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, H; Hirner, V

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the view of parents and professionals on sending children with special educational needs to inclusive schools. 54 preschool children in the year before school entry and 155 school children attending a Social Pediatric Center. They displayed motor-, mental-, speech- or sensory handicaps, learning or behavioral disabilities. Questionnaires for parents of preschool- and of school children and questionnaires for the professional caring for the child were evaluated and compared. Parental expectations, experiences concerning school and the severity of disability were determined. 135 pupils attended special schools and 20 integrative schools. The parents were generally very content with both types of schools despite the fact that 33% of parents had not have a free choice of the school. They had a positive attitude to inclusive education. Preference for inclusive schooling decreased with increasing severity of the child's disability. The severity of disability was rated similar by parents and by professionals. Parents of preschool children tended more often and parents of school children less often than professionals towards sending the individual child to an inclusive school. Some parents of children with special educational needs would like to send their child to a special school, others prefer inclusive schools. It is paramount to improve the professional advice and guidance to parents since parental options to choose the school for their child are increasing in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Persuasion in school-aged children: How does it change if the persuadee is the mother or the peer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigro, Antonia; Baiocco, Roberto; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to verify how school-aged children's persuasive tactics changed if the persuadee was the mother or the peer. One hundred and forty-nine children at two grade levels (4th and 5th) were enrolled in the study. Persuasive strategies were investigated using pictures representing two common situations in which each child had to convince his/her playmate and his/her mother to obtain a toy. As predicted, with mothers children engaged more frequently in strategies aimed at encouraging cognitive reappraisal of the situation and offering guarantees. Conversely, with the peers, children adopted a greater variety of persuasive strategies, engaging in lower-order tactics. Implications and limitations of the study were discussed.

  3. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity buffers school readiness impact in ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Chassidy; Vu, Lan T H; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2010-01-01

    Contextual factors, as measured by neighbourhood characteristics, shape the experiences children have and affect their "school readiness", i.e., whether they are well or poorly prepared for the transition from home to kindergarten. This study assessed the independent effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on school readiness; specifically, it examined whether and to what degree neighbourhood factors modified children's language ability and thus their school readiness in a population of children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The study included all children attending kindergarten in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in Saskatoon. School readiness and child characteristics were measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). The EDI measures child development at school commencement in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, cognitive and language development, and communication skills and general knowledge. Data from the 2001 Census were used to characterize Saskatoon's neighbourhoods. Multilevel modeling examined the independent and buffering or exacerbating effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on the relation between English as a Second Language (ESL) status in children and EDI domain scores. ESL children had significantly lower scores on all EDI domains compared with non-ESL children. Certain factors (e.g., younger age, male, Aboriginal status, having special needs) were significantly related to lower readiness in terms of the emotional maturity, and communication skills and general knowledge domains. Importantly, children who lived in neighbourhoods that were highly transient (with a higher proportion of residents who had moved in the previous year) had lower EDI scores on both domains, and those in neighbourhoods with lower rates of employment had lower EDI scores on communication skills and general knowledge. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity mitigated the negative impact of ESL status on school readiness for both

  4. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; van den Hof, Susan; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Hesse, Adukwei; Bonsu, Christian; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Afutu, Felix Kwami; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2010-01-26

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p < 0.001). BCG scar was visible in 89.3% of the children. The percentage of children with a BCG scar differed by district and by age. The percentage of children with a BCG scar decreased with increasing age in all districts, reflecting increasing BCG vaccination coverage in Ghana in the last ten years. The risk of tuberculosis infection was low in the northern savannah zones compared to the southern coastal zones. Using a cut-off of 15 mm, the prevalence of infection ranged from 0.0% to 5.4% and the Annual Risks of Tuberculosis Infection 0.0% to 0.6%. There was an increase in the proportion of infected children after the age of 7 years. Children attending low and middle-class schools had a higher risk of infection than children attending upper-class schools. Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  5. Empirical estimation of school siting parameter towards improving children's safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, I. S.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Rasam, A. R. A.; Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Omar, D.

    2014-02-01

    Distance from school to home is a key determination in ensuring the safety of hildren. School siting parameters are made to make sure that a particular school is located in a safe environment. School siting parameters are made by Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia (DTCP) and latest review was on June 2012. These school siting parameters are crucially important as they can affect the safety, school reputation, and not to mention the perception of the pupil and parents of the school. There have been many studies to review school siting parameters since these change in conjunction with this ever-changing world. In this study, the focus is the impact of school siting parameter on people with low income that live in the urban area, specifically in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In achieving that, this study will use two methods which are on site and off site. The on site method is to give questionnaires to people and off site is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), to analyse the results obtained from the questionnaire. The output is a maps of suitable safe distance from school to house. The results of this study will be useful to people with low income as their children tend to walk to school rather than use transportation.

  6. Neighborhood Built and Social Environments and Change in Weight Status over the Summer in Low-Income Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Rebecca; Wang, Yuxia; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    2018-05-31

    Neighborhoods can provide opportunities for children to maintain a healthy weight or encourage unhealthy weight gain. Which neighborhood characteristics matter most remains poorly understood. We investigated links between neighborhood characteristics and weight change over the summer in children from 12 elementary schools with a high proportion of children from low-income families, in a mid-sized city in the US South. Mixed models and objective measures of height and weight were used. Study participants were 2770 children (average age 8.3, range 5.6⁻12.6 years). Older and female children and those who were already overweight were more likely to gain weight over the summer compared to younger, male, and normal weight children. Overweight children who lived near 2 or more small grocery stores gained less weight than overweight children who lived near 0 (weight change, p = 0.0468; body mass index (BMI) change, p = 0.0209) or 1 store (weight change, p = 0.0136; BMI change, p = 0.0033). Normal weight children living in neighborhoods with more large multifamily buildings gained more weight over the summer, although this association only approached significance. Additional efforts to understand which neighborhood factors have greater significance for overweight compared to normal weight children are warranted.

  7. The pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS): sleep habits and school outcomes in middle-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher; Nickel, Chelsea; Burduvali, Eleni; Roth, Thomas; Jefferson, Catherine; Pietro, Badia

    2003-06-15

    To develop a measure of daytime sleepiness suitable for middle-school children and examine the relationship between daytime sleepiness and school-related outcomes. Self-report questionnaire. Four hundred fifty, 11- to 15-year-old students, from grades 6, 7, and 8 of a public middle school in Dayton, Ohio. A pediatric daytime sleepiness questionnaire was developed using factor analysis of questions regarding sleep-related behaviors. Results of the sleepiness questionnaire were then compared across other variables, including daily sleep patterns, school achievement, mood, and extracurricular activities. Factor analysis on the 13 questions related to daytime sleepiness yielded 1 primary factor ("pediatric daytime sleepiness"; 32% of variance). Only items with factor loadings above .4 were included in the final sleepiness scale. Internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha) for the final 8-item scale was .80. Separate one-way analyses of variance and trend analyses were performed comparing pediatric daytime sleepiness scores at the 5 different levels of total sleep time and academic achievement. Participants who reported low school achievement, high rates of absenteeism, low school enjoyment, low total sleep time, and frequent illness reported significantly higher levels of daytime sleepiness compared to children with better school-related outcomes. The self-report scale developed in the present work is suitable for middle-school-age children and may be useful in future research given its ease of administration and robust psychometric properties. Daytime sleepiness is related to reduced educational achievement and other negative school-related outcomes.

  8. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration is often described as a situation whereby two or more children work together towards a common goal. When viewed from a socio-cultural learning perspective, a broader understanding of collaboration is suggested. This article investigates the forms and pathways of children...

  9. Bullied Children: Parent and School Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Zdunowski-Sjoblom, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Family interviews were conducted with 28 7-12-year-old children who had experienced various forms of bullying and relational aggression by their peers, as well as with their parent and with an older sibling. Interviews explored possible supportive strategies of older siblings, parents, and teachers. All bullied children reported negative feelings…

  10. Environmental Concern in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study examined the relationship between children's environmental concern and grade, sex, environmental attitudes and behaviors, perceived competencies, and manifest anxiety. A total of 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were interviewed and completed scales that measured childhood concerns, attitudes toward the environment, self perception,…

  11. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...

  12. Children, childhood and schooling: adjustment in the transition from kindergarten to primary school nine years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciel Barcelos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The following article aims to understand the concepts of children, childhood and education of practitioners of everyday (Teachers graduated in physical education, conductor teacher graduated in Pedagogy and coordinator graduated in Physical Education EMEF "Espírito Santo". Therefore, ethnographic study case became attributed and used as narrative sources produced through record fields, interview and discussion groups. The results show the creation of strategies to incorporate in the children the school cultures. That path is produced by the author's experiences in producing moments that articulate the cultural practices of children with the intentions of the Nine Years of Elementary School Education.

  13. Effect of Furniture Weight on Carrying, Lifting, and Turning of Chairs and Desks among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsu, Kyotaro; Xiong, Jinghong; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2015-01-01

    Rearranging furniture in elementary school classrooms encourages classroom activities. In elementary schools in Indonesia and some other developing countries, usually only one style of furniture is used for all children, and the furniture is heavy and oversized for younger children. This affects their ability to carry it. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of elementary school furniture weight and children’s age on performance of three carrying tasks (carrying a chair, lifting and turning a chair on a desk, and carrying both a chair and a desk together), from the ergonomics point of view. A total of 42 schoolchildren (ages 6–9; 17 Indonesian, 25 Japanese) participated in this study. Two types of Japanese chairs (Chair A and B, weight: 3.2 kg and 3.9 kg), one type of Indonesian chair (Chair C, weight: 5.0 kg), and two types of desks (height: 58 cm and 68 cm) were used. Indonesian chairs took significantly longer time to carry than the two Japanese chairs, and there was a significant negative relationship between age and task time for Chairs B and C, but not Chair A. Success rates for lifting and turning the chair declined as age decreased and chair weight increased, but were not significantly influenced by desk height. Success rates for carrying a chair and desk together significantly decreased with heavier furniture. Children aged six showed an extremely low success rate in almost all conditions. In conclusion, children’s ability to carry furniture is affected by their age and furniture characteristics, especially weight. In order to encourage classroom activities in elementary school, school furniture should be of appropriate weight. Supervision for younger children is required during classroom furniture arrangement. PMID:26053154

  14. Predicting Handwriting Legibility in Taiwanese Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-I; Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chen, Hao-Ling; Wang, Tien-Ni

    This study investigates handwriting characteristics and potential predictors of handwriting legibility among typically developing elementary school children in Taiwan. Predictors of handwriting legibility included visual-motor integration (VMI), visual perception (VP), eye-hand coordination (EHC), and biomechanical characteristics of handwriting. A total of 118 children were recruited from an elementary school in Taipei, Taiwan. A computerized program then assessed their handwriting legibility. The biomechanics of handwriting were assessed using a digitizing writing tablet. The children's VMI, VP, and EHC were assessed using the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Results indicated that predictive factors of handwriting legibility varied in different age groups. VMI predicted handwriting legibility for first-grade students, and EHC and stroke force predicted handwriting legibility for second-grade students. Kinematic factors such as stroke velocity were the only predictor for children in fifth and sixth grades. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  15. Psychomotor assessment of 2nd grade children of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Carvalho Silvério

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychomotor is a multidisciplinary science that incorporates motor, affective and cognitive aspects. This study aimed to measure the psychomotor skills to see if the results are within the expected for the age group studied and investigate whether there are differences between the performance of boys and girls. 91 children participated in this research. 59.3% were boys (M = 7.16 years, SD = 0.37 of the 2nd year of elementary school in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais-Brasil. The results of psychomotor tests of Oliveira (2014 indicated that the profile of children was within the expected range, according to the stages of development of psychomotor skills. The only statistically significant difference between the sexes appeared in the psychomotor skills "body schema", with higher average of children. It is suggested that more studies will be developed with children of different types of institutions to confront these findings.

  16. "Challenging Disabling Attitudes, Building an Inclusive Society": Considering the Role of Education in Encouraging Non-Disabled Children to Develop Positive Attitudes towards Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Angharad E.

    2009-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Disability Equality Duty 2006 has provided a new window of opportunity to promote the idea that education has a role to play in changing non-disabled children/young people's attitudes towards disabled people. This article explores the issues raised by the application of the Disability Equality Duty to…

  17. Literacy Trails: A Whole-of-Community Program to Encourage Literacy and Numeracy Awareness for Children in Preschool and Early Primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerenshaw, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation outcomes of an innovative, community based educational initiative to enhance and promote the awareness of literacy and numeracy in young children in two regional communities in Moorabool Shire, Victoria. With the support of committed educational and community partners (through the Moorabool Best Start…

  18. Rural and urban Ugandan primary school children's alternative ideas about animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaala, Justine

    This study examined rural and urban Ugandan primary children's alternative ideas about animals through the use of qualitative research methods. Thirty-six children were selected from lower, middle, and upper primary grades in two primary schools (rural and urban). Data were collected using interview-about-instance technique. Children were shown 18 color photographs of instances and non-instances of familiar animals and asked to say if the photographed objects were animals or not. They were then asked to give reasons to justify their answers. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The results indicate that children tended to apply the label "animal" to large mammals, usually found at home, on the farm, in the zoo, and in the wild. Humans were not categorized as animals, particularly by children in the lower grades. Although the children in upper grades correctly identified humans as animals, they used reasons that were irrelevant to animal attributes and improperly derived from the biological concept of evolution. Many attributes children used to categorize instances of animals were scientifically unacceptable and included superficial features, such as body outline, anatomical features (body parts), external features (visual cues), presence or absence and number of appendages. Movement and eating (nutrition) were the most popular attributes children used to identify instances of animals. The main differences in children's ideas emanated from the reasons used to identify animals. Older rural children drew upon their cultural and traditional practices more often than urban children. Anthropomorphic thinking was predominant among younger children in both settings, but diminished with progression in children's grade levels. Some of the implications of this study are: (1) teachers, teacher educators and curriculum developers should consider learners' ideas in planning and developing teaching materials and interventions. (2) Teachers should relate humans to other

  19. Children Writing Ethnography: Children's Perspectives and Nomadic Thinking in Researching School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohti, Riikka

    2016-01-01

    This article makes a connection between narrative ethnography, childhood studies and new materialist theories in studying children's perspective on school. It presents "children writing ethnography" as an approach based on complexity and involving participatory research. The question of "what is happening in the classroom" is…

  20. Advances in Children's Rights and Children's Well-Being Measurement: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita; Jiang, Xu; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Huebner, E. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have brought important changes to the profession of school psychology, influenced by larger social, scientific, and political trends. These trends include the emergence of children's rights agenda and advances in children's well-being measurement. During these years, a growing public attention and commitment to the notion of…

  1. [State school children's opinions regarding violence in the media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita S, Laura E

    2009-01-01

    To describe the opinion of schoolage children, from a public school, regarding the violence they perceive in the media. Descriptive-exploratory research with a sample, selected according to the child's age in a public school. Quantitative data were collected. There were found common issues related to the child's opinion about the violence present in the media such as frequent exposure to the media violence and lack of parental supervision. Social context and constant exposure to the media violence affect the children's opinion about the violence phenomenon and their predisposition to it.

  2. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  3. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsu Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Methods Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Results Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2% were tested of which 21,861 (92.6% were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p Conclusion Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  4. Muscular and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Homeschool versus Public School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Laura S; Mitchell, Katy; Brewer, Wayne; Ortiz, Alexis

    2017-08-01

    The growth and unregulated structure of homeschooling creates an unknown population in regard to muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this research was to compare muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness between elementary school aged homeschool and public school children. Homeschool children ages 8-11 years old (n = 75) completed the curl-up, 90° push-up, and Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (PACER) portions of the FitnessGram to assess abdominal and upper body strength and endurance as well as cardiorespiratory fitness. Comparisons to public school children (n = 75) were made using t tests and chi-square tests. Homeschool children showed significantly lower abdominal (t(148) = -11.441, p fitness by total PACER laps (t(108) = 0.879, p = .381) or estimated VO 2max (t(70) = 1.187, p = .239; χ 2 (1) = 1.444, p = .486). Homeschool children showed significantly lower levels of both abdominal and upper body muscular fitness compared with their age and gender matched public school peers but no difference in cardiorespiratory fitness.

  5. Boat-Based Education for Boston Area Public Schools: Encouraging Marine Science and Technology Literacy and Awareness of the Coastal "Backyard"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E. M.; Reynolds, R. M.; Wright, A. K.; Deschenes, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    Half the global population lives within 60 km of the ocean, profoundly influencing environmental quality and services to local communities. Adoption of marine science curricula creates opportunities for educators and scientists to engage and entrain K-12 students as ocean stewards. In particular, boat-based science activities facilitate hands-on inquiry. These activities reinforce key science concepts while creating a tangible connection to our shared coastal "backyard." A collaboration between Zephyr Education Foundation, the New England Aquarium, the University of Massachusetts Boston and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has taken >500 Boston, MA area students from 26 public schools on boat-based education trips in Boston Harbor. Marine science and technology professionals and educators facilitate participatory activities using modern marine technology aboard a research vessel. Trips are funded at no cost to participants by a grant from the Richard Lounsbery Foundation; cost-free outings are essential for participation from underserved public school districts. Participants perceived three important outcomes of their outings: the trips 1) enhanced in-class curricular learning and improved marine science literacy 2) increased personal connections to local marine environments, and 3) increased interest in careers in marine science, including engineering and technical positions. Despite living in close proximity to water, this was the first boat outing for many students; boat-based education trips enhanced student awareness of local environments in a way that curricular study had not. Boston trip results are being evaluated, but 3000 evaluations from similar trips in Woods Hole, MA indicate that 98% of participants gained a better understanding and appreciation of the work conducted by marine scientists, engineers, and other professionals, and 82% said their experience made them more interested in becoming involved in science at school and/or as a job. In summary

  6. Children, computer exposure and musculoskeletal outcomes: the development of pathway models for school and home computer-related musculoskeletal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Courtenay; Straker, Leon; Pollock, Clare; Smith, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Children's computer use is rapidly growing, together with reports of related musculoskeletal outcomes. Models and theories of adult-related risk factors demonstrate multivariate risk factors associated with computer use. Children's use of computers is different from adult's computer use at work. This study developed and tested a child-specific model demonstrating multivariate relationships between musculoskeletal outcomes, computer exposure and child factors. Using pathway modelling, factors such as gender, age, television exposure, computer anxiety, sustained attention (flow), socio-economic status and somatic complaints (headache and stomach pain) were found to have effects on children's reports of musculoskeletal symptoms. The potential for children's computer exposure to follow a dose-response relationship was also evident. Developing a child-related model can assist in understanding risk factors for children's computer use and support the development of recommendations to encourage children to use this valuable resource in educational, recreational and communication environments in a safe and productive manner. Computer use is an important part of children's school and home life. Application of this developed model, that encapsulates related risk factors, enables practitioners, researchers, teachers and parents to develop strategies that assist young people to use information technology for school, home and leisure in a safe and productive manner.

  7. Formation of concept of decimal system in Mexican school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quintanar Rojas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with initial formation of concept of decimal system in second year of education at primary school in Mexico (City of Puebla. Our research is based on Activity Theory conception of teaching-learning process and of gradual introduction of scientific concepts in school age. The method has been designed and worked out with the help of actions in which logic, symbolic, spatial and mathematical aspects were implemented. All actions were introduced within divided activity of children in group guided by adult. A pretest-posttest design was used with an experimental group of Mexican school children. The results showed that children have developed the significant skills necessary for understanding the concept of decimal number system. They were also able to apply this concept for new kind if activity al the end of school year. Such new activity was solving of mathematic problems, which was not included in official school program. We consider that proposed method can be an approximation for solution of common difficulties which arise at primary school concerning teaching of mathematics.

  8. Ophthalmic Morbidity in School Children in Hilly Areas of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School children constitute about one fourth of population of India. Early detection and treatment of various eye diseases helps in avoiding many complications. The magnitude of blindness is 3-4 times greater in developing countries. Very few studies have been conducted in Uttarakhand revealing the ophthalmic morbidity in school children or general population. Hilly areas especially the remote ones face various problems like, poor transportation facilities, distant health facilities, use of traditional methods for treatment, faith healing, customs and belief system, lack of information.  Moreover   water supply, poor personal hygiene and other factors also add up to these problems. Aim: To study the ophthalmic morbidities in school children in 3 schools of Thatyur block. Methodology: It was a cross sectional study. Result: A total of 705 students were enrolled. Permission from school authorities was seeked before the start of study. Schools were visited twice in a week current and preliminary information was taken from the students & teacher regarding education, occupation, income etc. General examination and ophthalmic examination was done with day & torch light along with refraction, with the help of standard Snellen’s chart. Each eye was examined separately. A vision of 6/6 was considered as normal. Near vision was tested with new vision Snellen’s chart at 12-14 inches away from eye.

  9. Ophthalmic Morbidity in School Children in Hilly Areas of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School children constitute about one fourth of population of India. Early detection and treatment of various eye diseases helps in avoiding many complications. The magnitude of blindness is 3-4 times greater in developing countries. Very few studies have been conducted in Uttarakhand revealing the ophthalmic morbidity in school children or general population. Hilly areas especially the remote ones face various problems like, poor transportation facilities, distant health facilities, use of traditional methods for treatment, faith healing, customs and belief system, lack of information.  Moreover   water supply, poor personal hygiene and other factors also add up to these problems. Aim: To study the ophthalmic morbidities in school children in 3 schools of Thatyur block. Methodology: It was a cross sectional study. Result: A total of 705 students were enrolled. Permission from school authorities was seeked before the start of study. Schools were visited twice in a week current and preliminary information was taken from the students & teacher regarding education, occupation, income etc. General examination and ophthalmic examination was done with day & torch light along with refraction, with the help of standard Snellen’s chart. Each eye was examined separately. A vision of 6/6 was considered as normal. Near vision was tested with new vision Snellen’s chart at 12-14 inches away from eye.

  10. Stimulation of development of notion about syntax in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of the research the goal of which was to study the notion about syntax as one of the meta-linguistic abilities that contributes to adoption of reading. Research comprised two hundred children of pre-school age, divided into two groups, balanced according to gender, intelligence and socioeconomic status. The research was conducted by an experimental method test-retest. In the initial measuring, experimental and control group were given the list comprising three kinds of experimental tasks for determining the level of development of notion about syntax, constructed by the author of the research. Experimental program consisted of tasks for stimulation of development of notion about syntax, which children practiced in the course of ten days (up to 30 minutes a day, with the help of previously trained pre-school teachers. After the ten-day training, final measuring in both groups was performed in both groups of respondents, by parallel form of tasks. The goal of the research was to determine whether it is possible to encourage the development of notion about syntax in children of pre-school age by systematic practice. The results of final measuring indicate that both in experimental and control group there have been significant improvements with respect to development of notion about syntax, and that the number of answers in which judgement was based on the semantic criterion (experience and meaning was significantly reduced. In making judgements based on consequences (content of the sentence points to something which is a good or not a good thing to do, moral or immoral there were no significant differences in the final compared to the initial measuring in both groups. Significant differences in retest were found in making judgements based on meaning. The mere experience with test material at pre-school age brings about the improvement of the notion about language, and practice contributes considerably to shifting the

  11. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  12. Parents' perceptions of their children's schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Items 1 - 10 ... South African Journal of Education, Volume 35, Number 2, May 2015. 1 .... theories dealing with the role of two-way home- school .... view of parent perceptions on the designated topics for 2012 and ..... Unpublished DEd thesis.

  13. Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural community in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... However, no previous vision screening study among primary schools children ...

  14. Perspectives of South African school children on HIV/AIDS, and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS education programmes and messages to fit the needs of the young people in their care. Keywords: attitudes, children and youth, developmental phases, health knowledge, misconceptions, myths, school children, school health education

  15. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  16. Association between Subjective School Adaptation and Life Skills in Elementary School Children with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoji, Yurina; Miyai, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association between subjective school adaptation and life skills in elementary school children with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional sample of children with chronic diseases (n=76), who were being treated as pediatric outpatients and who were in the 4th to 6th grade of public elementary schools, was selected. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised an Adaptation Scale for School Environments on Six Spheres (ASSESS) and life skills scales for self-management and stress coping strategies. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the inter-relationship between subjective school adaptation and life skills. Compared with the gender- and schoolyear-matched healthy controls (n=380), a large number of children with chronic diseases had low scores on the measure of interpersonal relationship in school. From the structural equation modeling, the subscales "friend's support" and "victimized relationship" in interpersonal relationship were two of the factors closely related to subjective adaptation of learning as well as school satisfaction in the children with chronic diseases. Furthermore, the "decision-making" and "goal-setting" components of self-management skills demonstrated positive contributions to the adaptation of learning and interpersonal relationship either directly affected by the skills themselves or through the affirmative effects of stress coping strategies. These results suggest that life skills education, focusing on self-management and stress coping strategies along with support to improve interpersonal relationships, is effective in promoting subjective school adaptation and leads to increased school satisfaction in children with chronic diseases.

  17. Time Concepts for Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    1990-01-01

    Points out that children have difficulty learning time concepts. Presents instructional activities for concepts associated with clocks, calendars, and chronology. Outlines Jerome Bruner's three different stages of representation for each concept: enactive, iconic, and symbolic. (DB)

  18. Prevalence of Malocclusion among School children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tope

    Crowding in the upper (11.1%) and lower anterior segment (12%) were ... normal occlusion in less than a third of. Nigerian children ... missing permanent teeth, impacted / ... DISTRIBUTION OF ANTERO POSTERIOR MOLAR RELATIONSHIP.

  19. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  20. Prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children and it's association with children's sociodemographic and lifestyle in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.

  1. Supporting Language in Schools: Evaluating an Intervention for Children with Delayed Language in the Early School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wendy; Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence exists that many children who experience early socio-economic disadvantage have delayed language development. These delays have been shown to exist when children start school and appear to persist through their education. Interventions that can help these children are desirable to ease the difficulties they have in school and to…

  2. Visiting Again? Subjective Well-Being of Children in Elementary School and Repeated Visits to School Health Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with vague complaints are without chronic illness, and who repeatedly visit the school nurse may be at risk for limited academic success. This study compares student reports of subjective well-being between children who do and do not repeatedly visit the school nurse with vague complaints. Methods: Children in grades 4 through…

  3. Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Sorensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

  4. Motivational interviewing for screening and feedback and encouraging lifestyle changes to reduce relative weight in 4-8 year old children: design of the MInT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because parental recognition of overweight in young children is poor, we need to determine how best to inform parents that their child is overweight in a way that enhances their acceptance and supports motivation for positive change. This study will assess 1 whether weight feedback delivered using motivational interviewing increases parental acceptance of their child's weight status and enhances motivation for behaviour change, and 2 whether a family-based individualised lifestyle intervention, delivered primarily by a MInT mentor with limited support from "expert" consultants in psychology, nutrition and physical activity, can improve weight outcomes after 12 and 24 months in young overweight children, compared with usual care. Methods/Design 1500 children aged 4-8 years will be screened for overweight (height, weight, waist, blood pressure, body composition. Parents will complete questionnaires on feeding practices, physical activity, diet, parenting, motivation for healthy lifestyles, and demographics. Parents of children classified as overweight (BMI ≥ CDC 85th will receive feedback about the results using Motivational interviewing or Usual care. Parental responses to feedback will be assessed two weeks later and participants will be invited into the intervention. Additional baseline measurements (accelerometry, diet, quality of life, child behaviour will be collected and families will be randomised to Tailored package or Usual care. Parents in the Usual care condition will meet once with an advisor who will offer general advice regarding healthy eating and activity. Parents in the Tailored package condition will attend a single session with an "expert team" (MInT mentor, dietitian, physical activity advisor, clinical psychologist to identify current challenges for the family, develop tailored goals for change, and plan behavioural strategies that best suit each family. The mentor will continue to provide support to the

  5. Motivational interviewing for screening and feedback and encouraging lifestyle changes to reduce relative weight in 4-8 year old children: design of the MInT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Brown, Deirdre; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jill; Cox, Adell; Rose, Elaine A; Taylor, Barry J; Meredith-Jones, Kim; Treacy, Lee; Ross, Jim; William, Sheila M

    2010-05-24

    Because parental recognition of overweight in young children is poor, we need to determine how best to inform parents that their child is overweight in a way that enhances their acceptance and supports motivation for positive change. This study will assess 1) whether weight feedback delivered using motivational interviewing increases parental acceptance of their child's weight status and enhances motivation for behaviour change, and 2) whether a family-based individualised lifestyle intervention, delivered primarily by a MInT mentor with limited support from "expert" consultants in psychology, nutrition and physical activity, can improve weight outcomes after 12 and 24 months in young overweight children, compared with usual care. 1500 children aged 4-8 years will be screened for overweight (height, weight, waist, blood pressure, body composition). Parents will complete questionnaires on feeding practices, physical activity, diet, parenting, motivation for healthy lifestyles, and demographics. Parents of children classified as overweight (BMI > or = CDC 85th) will receive feedback about the results using Motivational interviewing or Usual care. Parental responses to feedback will be assessed two weeks later and participants will be invited into the intervention. Additional baseline measurements (accelerometry, diet, quality of life, child behaviour) will be collected and families will be randomised to Tailored package or Usual care. Parents in the Usual care condition will meet once with an advisor who will offer general advice regarding healthy eating and activity. Parents in the Tailored package condition will attend a single session with an "expert team" (MInT mentor, dietitian, physical activity advisor, clinical psychologist) to identify current challenges for the family, develop tailored goals for change, and plan behavioural strategies that best suit each family. The mentor will continue to provide support to the family via telephone and in

  6. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children?s Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children’s health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June–July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5–18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score(BMIz ) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model include...

  7. 'Sometimes I want to play by myself': Understanding what friendship means to children with autism in mainstream primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Lynsey; Hill, Vivian; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Research has shown that friendship impacts the overall experience of mainstream school for autistic children. Using a unique combination of quantitative, qualitative and social network methods, we investigated the extent and nature of autistic children's friendships from their perspective and from those of their mothers, teachers and classroom peers. Consistent with previous research, children with autism (n = 12), aged between 9 and 11 years, rated their friendships to be of poorer quality than their non-autistic classroom peers (n = 11). There was, however, much variability in autistic children's ratings, which, unexpectedly, was related to neither children's cognitive ability nor their theory of mind ability. Encouragingly, the children generally reported satisfaction with their friendships, and although no child was socially isolated, the degree of inclusion in friendship networks varied widely. Furthermore, autistic children's social motivation emerged as a key factor in parents' and teachers' reports in determining both the nature and extent of their friendships. Adults played an active role in supporting children's friendships, but this sometimes conflicted with what the children wanted. These findings highlight the need to ascertain the perspectives of young people with autism on their friendships and to consider the social and ethical implications of when and how to intervene.

  8. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  9. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  10. PLAYING ORIGAMI ENHANCE THE CREATIVITY OF SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical period for creativity development happened at school aged. Playing Origami is a stimulation that can be done to develop child’s creativity optimally. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of playing origami toward creativity development at school age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. Method: This study was used a pre experimental and purposive sampling design. The populations were children who age in the sixth until seventh age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. There were 41 respondents for this research who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the playing origami while the dependent variable was creativity development of school age. Data were collected by using questionnaire and Figural Creativity test to know the creativity level before and after intervention, and then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level of a£0.05. Result: The result showed that there was an effect of play origami toward the creativity development of school age with significant level (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that playing origami can develop the creativity of school aged children. Every child should be facilitated by provide a chance, supportt and activity that can improve their creativity development that can be useful for them and other people. Further study was recommended to analyze the effect of playing origami on decreasing stress hospitalization.

  11. Hypothesis: Impregnated school uniforms reduce the incidence of dengue infections in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Lover, A; Kittayapong, P; Burnham, G

    2011-06-01

    Dengue infection causes a significant economic, social and medical burden in affected populations in over 100 countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. Current dengue control efforts have generally focused on vector control but have not shown major impact. School-aged children are especially vulnerable to infection, due to sustained human-vector-human transmission in the close proximity environments of schools. Infection in children has a higher rate of complications, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndromes, than infections in adults. There is an urgent need for integrated and complementary population-based strategies to protect vulnerable children. We hypothesize that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue in school-aged children. The hypothesis would need to be tested in a community based randomized trial. If proven to be true, insecticide-treated school uniforms would be a cost-effective and scalable community based strategy to reduce the burden of dengue in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Youth-Led, Social Marketing Intervention Run by Adolescents to Encourage Healthy Lifestyles among Younger School Peers (EYTO-Kids Project): A Protocol for Pilot Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Tarro, Lucia; Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Papell-Garcia, Ignasi; Arola, Llu?s; Giralt, Montse; Llaurad?, Elisabet; Sol?, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The EYTO-kids (European Youth Tackling Obesity in Adolescents and Children) study aims to increase fruit and/or vegetable consumption and physical activity, decrease sedentary lifestyles, and reduce the intake of sugary drinks and fast food using an innovative methodology based on social marketing and youth involvement. Methods: This study is a pilot school-based cluster randomized controlled 10-month intervention spanning two academic years (2015?2016 and 2016?2017), with eight...

  13. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  14. Social Acceptability of Retarded Children in Nongraded Schools Differing in Architecture. Volume 2, Number 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Jay; Budoff, Milton

    The social position of integrated and segregated educable mentally handicapped (EMR) children in a traditional school building was compared to that of EMR children in a no-interior wall school. The results indicated that while EMR children in the unwalled school were known more often by their nonEMR peers, they were not chosen as friends more…

  15. Building a method for researching attribution of meaning by children aged 5 to 6 in school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tertoolen, A.; van Oers, B.; Geldens, J.; Popeijus, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The

  16. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  17. Helping Foster Children in School: A Guide for Foster Parents, Social Workers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, John

    2015-01-01

    "Helping Foster Children in School" explores the challenges that foster children face in schools and offers positive and practical guidance tailored to help the parents, teachers and social workers supporting them. Children in care often perform poorly at school both in terms of their behavior and their academic performance, with many…

  18. 34 CFR 300.129 - State responsibility regarding children in private schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... schools. 300.129 Section 300.129 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Children in Private Schools § 300.129 State responsibility regarding children in private schools. The State must have in effect...

  19. Influence of children's oral health-related quality of life on school performance and school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the relation of child oral health-related quality of life with school performance and school absenteeism. We followed a cross-sectional design with a multistage random sample of 312 12-year-old schoolchildren living in Brazil. The participants completed the child perceptions questionnaire (CPQ(11-14) ) that provides information about psychological factors, while their parents or guardians answered questions on their socioeconomic status measured by parents' education level and household income. A dental examination of each child provided information on the prevalence of caries and dental trauma. Data on school performance, which included the results of baseline Brazilian language (Portuguese) tests, and school absenteeism (school days missed) were obtained from the school register. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate the association among psychological and socioeconomic status and children's school performance. In the multiple model, after adjusting for individual covariates, being a girl was associated with higher school performance (P Children's school performance and absence were influenced by psychological and socioeconomic conditions. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); D.P. Smidts (Diana); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether very preterm (≤30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50

  1. Wax Impaction in Nigerian School Children. | Eziyi | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Impacted wax has been classified as an ear disease. It can cause pain, itching, tinnitus hearing loss or otitis externa. The prevalence of cerumen impaction varies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of impacted ear wax in primary school children and to determine, if there is any association ...

  2. Prevalence of strabismus among pre-school children community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Though strabismus is a common presenting ocular problem at outpatient clinics of ophthalmology its magnitude in Ethiopia is not known. Objective: To determine the magnitude and type of manifest strabismus and strabismic amblyopia among pre-school children. Methods: A cros-sectional study was ...

  3. Lesbian Mothers' Bids for Normalcy in Their Children's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Laura A.; Klecka, Cari L.

    2009-01-01

    Albeit growing in number, lesbian mothers and their children remain a statistical minority in schools. Lesbian mothers in this study described their families as "normal" or "just like any other family." From the perspective of queer theory, normal is a socially constructed and insidious concept. This study analyzes both the strategies participants…

  4. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  5. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  6. Children and Natural Disasters: A Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide children are impacted by natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, landslides and sandstorms, winter and severe storms, heat waves, volcanoes and tsunamis. School psychologists should understand natural disaster effects, such as economic loss, relocation and health concerns and mental health…

  7. Parenting Style and Only Children's School Achievement in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; And Others

    This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…

  8. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  9. Prevalence of asthma among school children in Gaborone, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma prevalence is high (>10%) in developed countries and although data is still missing for most of Africa, rates are increasing in developing regions as they become more westernized. We investigated the prevalence of asthma in school children in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: This was a cross sectional ...

  10. Pedestrian traffic injuries among school children in Kawempe, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 35 schools, 92% were day; the others mixed day and boarding. 53 children (27girls) were involved in a traffic incident. 25% of the injuries reported were serious and warranted care in a health facility. No deaths occurred. Forty % of incidents involved commercial motorcycles, 41% bicycles, 9% cars, 8% taxis, and 2% ...

  11. Epidemiologic survey of eye in Cangzhou school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Dong Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the common ocular diseases in school children age of 6 to 14 years old in Cangzhou, Hebei, China and find the relative risk factors. METHODS:From March 2011 to October 2012, 20 schools including 1 and 6 grade school children were randomly selected as survey venues by Cangzhou Eye Hosipital. Then, 3 150 people as the selected residents were enrolled, which was figured out through the random cluster sampling procedure. Every participant completed questionnaire, and a series of examination. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:Totally 3 150 residents finally took part in this study.(1There were 2672 eyes suffered lower vision CONCLUSION:The rate of low vision in school children is higher, among these the rate of myopia is the highest. All these result suggested: Family and community should pay sufficient attention to conduct children's eye health and prepare a balanced behaviour, to prevent the occurrence of ophthalmopathy.

  12. Innovative Financing for Out-of-School Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNESCO Bangkok, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Despite government commitments to Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to improve access to education, more than 18 million primary-aged children remain out of school in the Asia-Pacific (UNESCO, 2014). Given the impact of education on individuals, societies, and economies, there is great urgency for governments to…

  13. Prevalence of enuresis among primary school children in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 922 school children, consisting of 463 (50.2%) males and 459 (49.8%) females were studied. The response rate was 82.2%. The overall prevalence of enuresis was 23.2%. Enuresis was notably more common in boys (male: female ratio ...

  14. Does Poor Handwriting Conceal Literacy Potential in Primary School Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarney, Debra; Peters, Lynne; Jackson, Sarah; Thomas, Marie; Kirby, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a complex skill that, despite increasing use of computers, still plays a vital role in education. It is assumed that children will master letter formation at a relatively early stage in their school life, with handwriting fluency developing steadily until automaticity is attained. The capacity theory of writing suggests that as…

  15. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Primary School Children in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem in developing countries where majority of the affected persons are children. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of socio-demography in some rural primary schools in Ovia Northeast ...

  16. The pattern of deviant behaviour among urban primary school children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: School children sometimes exhibit a range of deviant behaviour which could serve as a source of stress to the families and society. Objective: To determine the ... Result: The prevalence of deviant behaviour was 16.3% on the Teachers' scale and and 13.9% on the Parents' scale. The difference was ...

  17. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  18. Worm Infestation And Anaemia Among Pre-school Children Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worm infection and anaemia are common childhood conditions in Nigeria. We assessed the status of helminthiasis and associated anaemia among pre school children of peasant farmers aged 1-5 years living in a rubber plantation near Calabar, Nigeria. Design: Cross sectional. Method: Three hundred and ...

  19. Breakfast Habits among School Children in Selected Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A cross sectional study was conducted among school children (n=359) between the ages of 6-19 years in Manya Krobo in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were used to collect information on background characteristics and breakfast consumption habits. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to ...

  20. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  1. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among school children in Kinshasa, an African urban setting. Methods: The 18-items of the Disruptive Behaviour Disorder rating scale (DBD), which is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for ...

  2. Exploring Categorical Body Mass Index Trajectories in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…

  3. Emergent Bilingualism and Working Memory Development in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura Birke; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The present research explores working memory (WM) development in monolingual as well as emergent bilingual children immersed in an L2 at school. Evidence from recent years suggests that bilingualism may boost domain-general executive control, but impair nonexecutive linguistic processing. Both are relevant for verbal WM, but different paradigms…

  4. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addo, K.K.; van den Hof, S.; Mensah, G.I.; Hesse, A.; Bonsu, C.; Koram, K.A.; Afutu, F.K.; Bonsu, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged

  5. Mental health of indigenous school children in Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Urzúa, Alfonso; De Munter, Koen

    2014-01-17

    Anxiety and depressive disorders occur in all stages of life and are the most common childhood disorders. However, only recently has attention been paid to mental health problems in indigenous children and studies of anxiety and depressive disorders in these children are still scarce. This study compares the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara and non-Aymara children. Among the Aymara children, the study examines the relations between these symptoms and the degree of involvement with Aymara culture. We recruited 748 children aged 9 to 15 years from nine schools serving low socioeconomic classes in the city of Arica, in northern Chile. The children were equally divided between boys and girls and 37% of the children were Aymara. To evaluate anxiety and depressive symptoms we used the Stress in Children (SiC) instrument and the Children Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S), and used an instrument we developed to assess level of involvement in the Aymara culture. There was no significant difference between Aymara and non-Aymara children on any of the instrument scales. Dividing the Aymara children into high-involvement (n = 89) and low-involvement (n = 186) groups, the low-involvement group had significantly higher scores on the Hopelessness subscale of the CDI-S (p = 0.02) and scores of marginally higher significance in overall Anxiety on the SiC (p = 0.06). Although Aymara children have migrated from the high Andean plateau to the city, this migration has not resulted in a greater presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Greater involvement with the Aymara culture may be a protective factor against anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara children. This point to an additional benefit of maintaining cultural traditions within this population.

  6. Otitis media in indonesian urban and rural school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, Ratna; Hartanto, Widya W; Djelantik, Bulantrisna; Ghanie, Abla; Utama, Denny S; Setiawan, Eka P; Lukman, Erica; Hardiningsih, Chintriany; Asmuni, Suprihati; Budiarti, Rery; Rahardjo, Sutji Pratiwi; Djamin, Riskiana; Mulyani, Tri; Mutyara, Kuswandewi; Carosone-Link, Phyllis; Kartasasmita, Cissy B; Simões, Eric A F

    2014-10-01

    Although the epidemiology of otitis media is well-known in industrialized countries, the extent of otitis media in developing Asian countries, especially in south East Asia is not well studied. To define the burden of otitis media and its sequelae in children 6-15 years of age, we enrolled elementary and junior high school children in 6 areas in rural and urban Indonesia. Randomly selected schools and classrooms were selected. All children were administered a questionnaire and had ear examinations, pneumatic otoscopy and screening audiometry. Children with any abnormality on examination or with a relevant history underwent diagnostic audiometry and tympanometry, if indicated. Of the 7005 children studied, 116 had chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), 30 had acute otitis media and 26 had otitis media with effusion. 2.7% of rural children had CSOM compared with 0.7% of urban children (P < 0.0001). The rates per 1000 of CSOM in rural Bali and Bandung were significantly higher (75 and 25, respectively) than in the rest of Indonesia (P < 0.05). In rural Bali, the rate per 1000 children of inactive CSOM was 63 in 6- to 9-year-old children, compared with 37 in children aged 13-15 years. Concomitantly, the rates of tympanosclerosis were 7 and 26/1000, respectively, in these age groups. In Indonesia, the prevalence of CSOM is relatively high with most disease occurring in rural areas. The high rates in rural Bali with early progression to tympanosclerosis suggest a significant burden of potentially vaccine preventable illness.

  7. A repeated measures experiment of school playing environment to increase physical activity and enhance self-esteem in UK school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Wood

    Full Text Available School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8-9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22 = 6.27; P0.05; np2 = 0.060 or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140. During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23 = 1.32; P0.05; n2 = 0.071. For lunch (F(1,22 = 24,11; P<0.001; np2 = 0.523 and all of playtime combined (F(1,22 = 33.67; P<0.001; np2 = 0.616 there was a significant effect of environment. There was also a significant main effect of sex during lunch (F(1,22 = 11.56; P<0.01; np2 = 0.344 and all of playtime combined (F(1,22 = 12.37; P<0.01; np2 = 0.371. MVPA was higher on the field and boys were more active than girls. Play on the field leads to increases in MVPA, particularly in girls. The promising trend for the effect of the natural environment on MVPA indicates that interventions aimed at increasing MVPA should use the natural environment and that schools should encourage greater use of their natural areas to increase PA.

  8. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  9. Qualitative study of eating habits in Bruneian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talip, Tajidah; Serudin, Rajiah; Noor, Salmah; Tuah, Nik

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue globally and poor eating habits are an important contributing factor. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, practices and attitudes towards healthy eating in Bruneian primary school children. A qualitative study was conducted among 40 subjects involving 18 children (aged 9-10 years old), 12 parents and 10 teachers, who were recruited from two primary schools using convenience sampling. Five focus group discussion sessions were conducted, and recorded discussions were translated. The transcripts were entered into NVivo10 and thematic analysis was conducted. All participants had differing perceptions of the term 'healthy eating'. Children reported 'healthy eating' by identifying foods or food groups they perceived as healthy and unhealthy. Only a few mentioned fruits and vegetables as essential to a healthy diet. Parents mainly perceived 'healthy eating' as consuming 'any quality food' that contains 'vitamins and minerals'. Teachers described a healthy diet as including balanced and varied dietary practices, having breakfast and eating regularly at the right, set times. They also associated eating healthily with traditional, home-grown and home-cooked food. All participants had positive attitudes towards healthy eating, however most children demonstrated unhealthy eating habits and frequently consumed unhealthy foods. The Bruneian primary school children reported favourable knowledge despite having poor healthy eating habits. The factors influencing participants eating behavior included food preferences, familial factors (parental style and parenting knowledge), food accessibility and availability, time constraints, as well as convenience. These factors hindered them from adopting healthy eating practices.

  10. Impact of allergic rhinitis in school going children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Elias; Panjabi, Chandramani; Shah, Ashok

    2012-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic pediatric disorder. The International Study for Asthma and Allergies in Childhood phase III found that the global average of current rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in the 13-14 year age-group was 14.6% and the average prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in the 6-7 year age-group was 8.5%. In addition to classical symptoms, AR is associated with a multidimensional impact on the health related quality of life in children. AR affects the quality of sleep in children and frequently leads to day-time fatigue as well as sleepiness. It is also thought to be a risk factor for sleep disordered breathing. AR results in increased school absenteeism and distraction during class hours. These children are often embarrassed in school and have decreased social interaction which significantly hampers the process of learning and school performance. All these aspects upset the family too. Multiple co-morbidities like sinusitis, asthma, conjunctivitis, eczema, eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media are generally associated with AR. These mostly remain undiagnosed and untreated adding to the morbidity. To compound the problems, medications have bothersome side effects which cause the children to resist therapy. Children customarily do not complain while parents and health care professionals, more often than not, fail to accord the attention that this not so trivial disease deserves. AR, especially in developing countries, continues to remain a neglected disorder.

  11. School Physical Activity Programming and Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effect of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) on gross motor skills in children. Participants were 959 children (1st-6th grade; Mean age = 9.1 ± 1.5 years; 406 girls, 553 boys) recruited from 5 low-income schools receiving a year-long CSPAP intervention. Data were collected at the beginning of the school year and at a 36-week follow-up. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development (3rd ed.) (TGMD-3) instrument. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine the effect of CSPAP on TGMD-3 scores, testing age and sex as effect modifiers and adjusting for clustering of observations within the data structure. There were statistically significant coefficients for time (β = 8.1, 95% CI [3.9, 12.3], p skills and ball skills sub-test scores. Children showed improved gross motor skill scores at the end of the 36-week CSPAP that were modified by age, as younger children displayed greater improvements in TGMD-3 scores compared to older children.

  12. Pressing Tasks in the Care of Children of Preschool and School Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseytlin, I

    1960-01-01

    ...). It concerns pressing tasks of public health with regard to the care of children of pre-school and school age in order to strengthen the bond between school and life which also promotes the further...

  13. Knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Abiy Maru; Belete, Gizchewu Tilahun; Adimassu, Nebiyat Feleke

    2018-01-01

    Refractive error is an important cause of correctable visual impairment in the worldwide with a global distribution of 1.75% to 20.7% among schoolchildren. Teacher's knowledge about refractive error play an important role in encouraging students to seek treatment that helps in reducing the burden of visual impairment. To determine knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on 565 primary school teachers in Gondar city using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. For processing and analysis, SPSS version 20 was used and variables which had a P value of attitude towards refractive error. History of spectacle use [AOR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.32, 3.43)], history of eye examination [AOR = 1.67 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.34)], training on eye health [AOR = 1.94 (95% CI; 1.09, 3.43)] and 11-20 years of experience [AOR = 2.53 (95% CI: 1.18, 5.43)] were positively associated with knowledge. Whereas being male [AOR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.37, 3.01)], older age [AOR = 3.05 (95% CI: 1.07, 8.72)], 31-40 years of experience [AOR = 0.23 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.72)], private school type [AOR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.93)] and 5th -8th teaching category [AOR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.24)] were associated with attitude. Knowledge and attitude of study subjects were low which needs training of teachers about the refractive error.

  14. Knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Refractive error is an important cause of correctable visual impairment in the worldwide with a global distribution of 1.75% to 20.7% among schoolchildren. Teacher’s knowledge about refractive error play an important role in encouraging students to seek treatment that helps in reducing the burden of visual impairment. Objective To determine knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city. Methods Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on 565 primary school teachers in Gondar city using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. For processing and analysis, SPSS version 20 was used and variables which had a P value of attitude towards refractive error. History of spectacle use [AOR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.32, 3.43)], history of eye examination [AOR = 1.67 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.34)], training on eye health [AOR = 1.94 (95% CI; 1.09, 3.43)] and 11–20 years of experience [AOR = 2.53 (95% CI: 1.18, 5.43)] were positively associated with knowledge. Whereas being male [AOR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.37, 3.01)], older age [AOR = 3.05 (95% CI: 1.07, 8.72)], 31–40 years of experience [AOR = 0.23 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.72)], private school type [AOR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.93)] and 5th -8th teaching category [AOR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.24)] were associated with attitude. Conclusion Knowledge and attitude of study subjects were low which needs training of teachers about the refractive error. PMID:29447172

  15. Multilevel Analyses of School and Children's Characteristics Associated with Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Zhu, Weimo; Eisenmann, Joey; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children spend most of their awake time at school, and it is important to identify individual and school-level correlates of their physical activity (PA) levels. This study aimed to identify the between-school variability in Portuguese children PA and to investigate student and school PA correlates using multilevel modeling. Methods:…

  16. Modeling the Factors Associated with Children's Mental Health Difficulties in Primary School: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil; Wigelsworth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores some of the factors associated with children's mental health difficulties in primary school. Multilevel modeling with data from 628 children from 36 schools was used to determine how much variation in mental health difficulties exists between and within schools, and to identify characteristics at the school and…

  17. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...... of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...... school meals based on a NND for three months and for another three months they ate packed lunch brought from home (control). At baseline, between the two dietary periods, and after the last dietary period children went through a number of investigations. In paper I we showed that ad libitum school meals...

  18. Effectiveness of a school-based multicomponent intervention on children nutritional status among primary school children in bangkok, thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, N.; Panza, A.; Kumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adult and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thai is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a life skills multicomponent school-based intervention on children's nutritional status. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The intervention included education, dietary, physical activity, food-environment, school built-environment, and life skills components. Outcomes were measured at baseline and post-treatment measured after 6 months. Results: The intervention group had significant improvements in healthier practice (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048) on dietary habits and physical activity, lowered cholesterol levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019), and higher HDL levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetable increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fasts food decreased in children after the intervention. Conclusion: Childhood overweight and obesity is a serious public health problem based on its increasing rates and the associated health risks. This study indicated that multidisciplinary approach on school-based interventions is likely most effective to prevent children becoming overweight in long term. More research should be conducted on school-based intervention with longer intervention periods with higher sustainability. (author)

  19. Music therapy with children and adolescents in mainstream schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine; Wigram, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies existing research and clinical activity utilising music therapy with mainstream children, and a potential need for music therapy with this client group.  A systematic review was undertaken of music therapy literature relating to work with children in mainstream schools...... to be addressed by the UK government. However further research, service-planning and reorganisation is required.  There is evidence that music therapy is being used with children in mainstream schools both at home and abroad, and both research and clinical reports suggest that music therapy is an effective...... intervention. The review demonstrates that further research is required if music therapy is to be considered an effective intervention to address the needs of mainstream schoolchildren....

  20. Immigrant children and school interculturality in northern Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Segura Herrera

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Mexican context, interculturality represents a discourse of recognition and respect for cultural diversity, in particular of indigenous peoples. The purpose of this article is to explore how interculturality among immigrant children of indigenous and mixed-race origins is constructed. The starting premise is that interculturality is also an interactive process of communication between individuals of different cultures. The methodology is based on the results of an anthropological study carried out at the Center for Comprehensive Attention to Migrant Children, in Ascension, Chihuahua. Based on observations and interviews, it was found that immigrant children construct interculturality in the classrooms, in the recreation areas, and during the journey to school. Therefore, the conclusion is that they do so in these school spaces, through relationships and meanings, sometimes in dispute, which they establish among themselves and with the teaching staff.

  1. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388

  2. Ocular disorders in children in Zaria children's school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest causes of eye disorders were refractive ... of childhood eye disorders were uncorrected refractive errors and allergic conjunctivitis. ... Ophthalmology and American Association of Paediatric ... infants at risk. ... The students were assessed within the school premises by ..... Nig Med Practitioner 1993;25:41-53.

  3. Evaluation of hearing ability in Danish children at the time of school start and at the end of school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities...... in North Jutland County, Denmark were evaluated for hearing ability by a review of 1,605 school health records. We found a higher prevalence of impaired hearing ability in children who started school 1987 and 1997 compared to those who started school 1977. Reduced hearing was typically at high frequencies....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....

  4. Teaching Elementary School Children about Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching elementary school students about Korea by introducing them to the country's folktales, clothing, art, music, and food. Includes a folktale adapted as a play and suggestions for teaching about traditional costumes, folk dances, music, and masks, as well as Korean mealtime and table manners. (GEA)

  5. Role development of nurses for technology-dependent children attending mainstream schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Fumie; Suzuki, Machiko

    2015-04-01

    To describe the role development of nurses caring for medical technology-dependent children attending Japanese mainstream schools. Semi-structured interviews with 21 nurses caring for technology-dependent children were conducted and analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. Nurses developed roles centered on maintaining technology-dependent children's physical health to support children's learning with each other, through building relationships, learning how to interact with children, understanding the children and the school community, and realizing the meaning of supporting technology-dependent children. These findings support nurses to build relationships of mutual trust with teachers and children, and learn on the job in mainstream schools. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Comparison of the School Performance of Sexually Abused, Neglected and Non-Maltreated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyome, Nancy Dodge

    1993-01-01

    Compared the school performance of sexually abused children and neglected children with the performance of two matched groups of nonmaltreated children, those from lower middle class families and from families receiving public assistance. Analyses of children's behavior ratings and school achievement indicated marked cognitive and behavioral…

  7. Effects of Divorce on Children, Traits of Resiliency and School Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Betty J.

    Gaining an awareness of the needs of children of divorce and how children achieve resilience should help students become well-adjusted and productive. This paper explores ways in which school systems and school counselors can meet the needs of these children. It portrays the effects of divorce on children by drawing on the literature, observations…

  8. Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychology in Children Who Have Been Excluded from School: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whear, Rebecca; Marlow, Ruth; Boddy, Kate; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Parker, Claire; Ford, Tamsin; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken

    2014-01-01

    When children with special educational needs are excluded from school, it should raise the concern that these children are not receiving adequate help and support. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorder or impairing psychopathology among children who are excluded from school compared to children who are not…

  9. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  10. REVALENCE OF BACKACHE AMONG SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN OF HYDERABAD SINDH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Khanzada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of backache is increasing in children with heavy weighed school bags and abnormal sitting posture both, at home and school. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of this much avoided issue of back pain among school going children of Hyderabad, Sindh. Methodology: 240 pupils (range, 7-14 years old were recruited in their respective schools of Hyderabad city. Inclusions were all the present students on that particular day of data collecting and excluding those who were absent that day. A preformed questionnaire form was filled with all due consent, following which, examination was done to check the parameters of height, weight, BMI, weight of school bag, and posture analysis. Result: The prevalence of back pain was 46.7% among the total 240 subjects studied. Out of which 14.4% boys and 32.3% girls were affected. The majority of affected children were age group of 10-12 years old. In our study 61% children had school bags weighing around 5 kg, which is point to be considered by high officials of Primary Education System in Pakistan. Conclusion: The symptoms of backache were significantly visible in those students carrying heavy bags in proportion to their own weight and BMI. This was also closely related to the time duration, subjects were spending in front of computer/television. After analysis and all, it turned out that a significant number of students were affected by abnormal postures leading to backache-, which may be held equally responsible for further Alleviation of such symptoms later in life.

  11. School environment, sedentary behavior and physical activity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de

    2016-09-01

    To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. 370 preschoolers, aged 4 to 6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6%-90.9%), followed by light (4.6%-7.6%), moderate (1.3%-3.0%) and vigorous (0.5%-2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.05 to 0.83) and the playground (OR=0.08; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77), the playground (OR=2.82; 95%CI 1.14 to 6.96) and the recess (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Microalbuminuria among secondary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... DM and in one subject with sickle cell anemia. Conclusion: The prevalence of microalbuminuria in Nigerian adolescents is high. We recommend routine screening for microalbuminuria in adolescents for early detection and prevention of renal damage. Key words: microalbuminuria, obesity, hypertension, children, Nigeria ...

  13. The Disadvantage of Homelessness in Children's Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Debra M.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the extent to which homeless children in the United States receive the "free and appropriate education" to which they are entitled. Data were collected through several surveys conducted in two San Francisco Bay Area counties: (1) surveys of parents in homeless shelters with 313…

  14. Children's Magazine Use in a Selected School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antlitz, Patricia

    A study examined teachers' opinions as to what makes children's magazines good as well as which magazines they are currently using in their classrooms and in what ways magazines are being used. Subjects, 10 (of 19) experienced third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade teachers at P.S. 106 in the Bronx, New York City, responded to a questionnaire concerning…

  15. Keys to Reading among Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nichole; Day, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    A recent decline in reading has become a major issue, as Americans are not reading out of necessity or as a leisure activity. In addition, a connection has been found between children's leisure reading habits and their level of academic achievement, causing even more concern. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Determinants of undernutrition among primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 788 children aged 6-12 years selected by stratified, multistage ... Date of Acceptance: 03-Jul-2012 ..... 3 (0.8). 14 (3.6). Quintile class. Class 1(lowest). 109 (27.7). 45 (12.4). 69.69.

  17. Children's perspective on the effectiveness of the Playing for Life philosophy in an after-school sport program

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Fiona C.M.; Farrow, A.; Farrow, D.; Berry, J.; Polman, Remco C.J.

    2016-01-01

    The Playing for Life (P4L) philosophy was developed based on the concept of game play. It emphasizes learning through games within the sporting context to promote sports participation. The main aim of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the effectiveness of the P4L philosophy in contributing to enjoyment and in encouraging continued participation in sports. A total of 97 children (aged 5–12 years), who participated in the Active After-school Communities program that adopted the P4L philos...

  18. Determinants of School Enrolment of Children in Slums of Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Nayak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education plays a vital role to developing a nation. In India, urban slums constituting about 22.6% of the urban population are the poor and socially disadvantaged. This slum community is least concerned for school enrolment of their children inspite of the fact that primary education is compulsory and is free in public schools. In urban areas schools available are mostly of private sector that are not free and beyond affordability to slums; government and corporation schools are few, but beyond reach. Motive of the parents is to involve children in income generating activities and the girls are more deprived of school enrolment in poorer society. Objectives: 1 assess the enrolment status of slum children and 2 determine the factors influencing school enrolment.Methodology: The data was collected during 2011-12 from 15 randomly selected slums out of 227 in which a total of 893 families were contacted and mothers with children aged 5-15 years interrogated. In addition to child history on age, sex and school enrolment, the family background characteristics were e.g. religion, caste, and family size as well as age, education and occupation of both mother & father were recorded.Results: Out of 1145 children, male and female equal represented; mostly (90.9% were Hindus and half were SC/ST class. About 30% father and 57.2% mothers were illiterate; about half fathers were unskilled-worker and 96.0% mother’s house wife. Overall 31.3% children were not enrolled and were decreasing from 49.2% to 24.3% to 21.4% in the age groups 5-6, 7-9 and 10-15 years respectively. Enrolment was poor in Muslims (50.0% compared to Hindus (29.4%; enrolment was similar irrespective of child sex among Hindus, but in Muslims 62.5% male and 35.4% female children were only enrolled. Similar was the situation as one move from SC/ST (67.6% to OBC (73.4% and general caste (77.9%. Education of father and mother had significant role to enrolment but not the age and

  19. Mercury Hair Concentration among Primary School Children in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Abdul Samad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main concern regarding mercury exposure is the adverse health effect on the developing nervous system. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine hair mercury levels and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, complaints about mercury poisoning symptoms and the fish consumption pattern among children in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 215 school children aged 11 years old. Hair was collected from the children and the total mercury was analyzed using oxygen combustion–gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Anthropometric data, a fish consumption questionnaire and mercury poisoning symptoms were collected during a personal interview. The mean hair mercury level among primary school children was 0.63 ± 0.59 µg/g with the geometric mean of 0.47 µg/g. A total of 14% of respondents had hair mercury levels above 1 µg/g. A multiple binary logistic regression analysis outlined that fish consumption of at least one meal per week increased the likelihood of having a high mercury level (odds ratio (OR 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.3–10.4. This study confirms the existence of a mercury burden among Malaysian children and the level is high compared to other regional studies. This study provides important baseline data regarding the mercury level among children in Malaysia.

  20. Factors Related to Overweight in Kindergarten School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helwiah Umniyati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a significant public health problem of the twenty first century. An increasing number of preschool children are becoming overweight. Although many risk factors have been identified for school-age children, less is known about this young age group. This study was aimed to determine factors associated with overweight among preschool children. Study design was a cross sectional survey. Sample in this study was 90 children aged 3–6 years old in Bina Putik Kindergarten School in Cempaka Putih District (total sampling. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample were 24.4% and 13.3% respectively. There were significant relationships between overweight and some variables using chi-square test such as: age of the children, having overweight parents, nutritional knowledge of the mother, duration of breast feeding, frequency of fast food consumption (p5 years old. It could be concluded that mother’s knowledge on nutrition played an important role in preventing overweight children. Suggested recommendation in order to prevent overweight since childhood was by increasing mother’s knowledge through optimizing relevant programs in the Puskesmas.

  1. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and positively associated with the impairment of

  2. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  3. Hearing assessment in pre-school children with speech delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psillas, George; Psifidis, Anestis; Antoniadou-Hitoglou, Magda; Kouloulas, Athanasios

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect any underlying hearing loss among the healthy pre-school children with speech delay. 76 children, aged from 1 to 5 years, underwent a thorough audiological examination consisting of tympanometry, free field testing, otoacoustic emission recordings and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). If hearing was normal, then they were evaluated by a child neurologist-psychiatrist. According to our findings, the children were classified into 3 groups; those with normal hearing levels (group I, 52 children, 68.4%), sensorineural hearing loss (group II, 22 children, 28.9%) and conductive hearing loss (group III, 2 children, 2.6%). In group I, speech delay was attributed to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), which represents high-functioning autistic children (37 cases). Other causes were specific language impairment (SLI)-expressive (3 cases), bilingualism (2 cases), and unknown etiology (10 cases). More than half (59%) of the children diagnosed with PDD evidenced significant language impairment limited to more than two words. Children with SLI-expressive and bilingualism used a maximum of two words. In group II, 13 children suffered from profound hearing loss in both ears, 3 from severe, 3 had profound hearing loss in one ear and severe in the other, 2 from moderate, and 1 had moderate in one ear and severe in the other. No child had mild sensorineural hearing loss. The children with profound hearing loss in at least one ear had total language impairment using no word at all (10 cases), or a maximum of two words (6 cases). When hearing loss was moderate to severe, then the speech vocabulary was confined to several words (more than two words-6 cases). Only two children suffering from conductive hearing loss both presented with complete lack of speech. A great number of healthy pre-school children with speech delay were found to have normal hearing. In this case, the otolaryngologist should be aware of the possible underlying clinical

  4. Impact of Education on School-aged Children's Knowledge of and Participation in "The Choking Game".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kendall; Raingruber, Bonnie; Butler, Eric; Wilson, Machelle

    2016-06-01

    To better understand school-aged children's awareness of and attitudes about the Choking Game (TCG). To determine if education can increase awareness of the risk of injury when playing TCG and to determine if education can decrease interest in TCG participation. Anonymous pre- and post-education surveys. Two middle/high schools; one in Utah and one in California. 291 participants (163 in Utah, 128 in California) aged 9-18, 68% under age 15, 32% 15 and older; 65% white, 35% non-white; 52% female, 48% male. 76% of participants knew about TCG, of those 62% heard about it at school. 32% knew someone who had played, and twelve (4%) had played, usually with others. Most frequently cited as reasons for participation were curiosity, peer pressure, and competition. School was the most common location for playing. In California education significantly increased risk awareness, and significant positive attitude changes were observed regarding interest in playing TCG. Utah participants also exhibited attitude changes in the desired direction (less interest in playing TCG, would warn friends, and realized it was not safe to stop breathing), although results were not statistically significant, possibly due to previous education and four recent and highly publicized TCG deaths in the community. Results indicate that interactive, standardized, and skills-based education can increase student awareness of TCG risks and decrease interest in participation. Students reported that the schools were often where they first heard about TCG and where TCG was commonly played. Educators and associated health care professionals should therefore be encouraged to provide preventative education as part of school curricula.

  5. Eating Behavior and Attitude toward School Lunches in Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    嶋田, さおり; 若林, 良和; 西村, 栄恵; 逸見, 幾代

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of the eating habits of children in elementary schools that work actively in food education and take advantage of local products, and analyzed the trends in eating behavior and the attitude toward school lunches in each grade. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1. 88.1% of children eat breakfast every day: second graders represent the highest percentage at 97.1% and sixth graders the lowest at 83.7%. The most common reason for not eating breakfast was "...

  6. Evaluation of hearing ability in Danish children at the time of school start and at the end of school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....

  7. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  8. Views of School Counselors and Social Service Workers on the Role of School in the Protection of Children in Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davut ELMACI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the views of the school counselors and social service workers about the role of the school in the protection of children in care. The participants of the research, designed as qualitative research, composed of the school counselors working at primary schools where children in care attend in the TR83 region (Amasya, Çorum, Samsun, and Tokat and the social service workers in the same region. In this scope, interviews were conducted with 11 school counselors and 12 social service workers. Research findings show that the role of school is beneficial for socializing children in care. The main problems encountered in fulfilling the current role of the school in the protection of children in care are; behavioral problems of children in care, inadequate communication between the school and the social service institution, the past problems that the children in care experienced, the school staff’s lack of knowledge about children in care and labeling. According to the research results, it is beneficial to raise awareness of school administrators and teachers about child protection and to establish an effective cooperation between school and social service institution.

  9. WITHDRAWN: Day care for pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoritch, Bozhena; Roberts, Ian; Oakley, Ann

    2016-10-11

    The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education

  10. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The preparedness of schools to respond to emergencies in children: a national survey of school nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympia, Robert P; Wan, Eric; Avner, Jeffrey R

    2005-12-01

    Because children spend a significant proportion of their day in school, pediatric emergencies such as the exacerbation of medical conditions, behavioral crises, and accidental/intentional injuries are likely to occur. Recently, both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association have published guidelines stressing the need for school leaders to establish emergency-response plans to deal with life-threatening medical emergencies in children. The goals include developing an efficient and effective campus-wide communication system for each school with local emergency medical services (EMS); establishing and practicing a medical emergency-response plan (MERP) involving school nurses, physicians, athletic trainers, and the EMS system; identifying students at risk for life-threatening emergencies and ensuring the presence of individual emergency care plans; training staff and students in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); equipping the school for potential life-threatening emergencies; and implementing lay rescuer automated external defibrillator (AED) programs. The objective of this study was to use published guidelines by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association to examine the preparedness of schools to respond to pediatric emergencies, including those involving children with special care needs, and potential mass disasters. A 2-part questionnaire was mailed to 1000 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Nurses. The first part included 20 questions focusing on: (1) the clinical background of the school nurse (highest level of education, years practicing as a school health provider, CPR training); (2) demographic features of the school (student attendance, grades represented, inner-city or rural/suburban setting, private or public funding, presence of children with special needs); (3) self-reported frequency of medical and psychiatric emergencies (most common reported school

  12. School nursing for children with special needs: does number of schools make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Barbara J; Toker, Karen H; Radjenovic, Doreen; Comeaux, Judy M; Macha, Kiran

    2009-08-01

    Few recent studies have focused on the role of school nurses who predominantly care for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). The primary aim of this study was to explore differences related to (a) child health conditions covered, (b) direct care procedures, (c) care management functions, and (c) consultation sources used among nurses who spent the majority of their time caring for CSHCN compared to a mixed student population and among nurses who covered a single school versus multiple schools. A community-based interdisciplinary team developed a 28-item survey which was completed by 50 nurses (48.5% response) employed by health departments and school districts. Descriptive and comparative statistics and thematic coding were used to analyze data. Nurses who covered a single school (n = 23) or who were primarily assigned to CSHCN (n = 13) had a lower number of students, and more frequently (a) encountered complex child conditions, (b) performed direct care procedures, (c) participated in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) development, (d) collaborated with the Title V-CSHCN agency, and e) communicated with physicians, compared to nurses who covered multiple schools or a general child population. Benefits centered on the children, scope of work, school environment, and family relationships. Challenges included high caseloads, school district priorities, and families who did not follow up. The number of schools that the nurses covered, percent of time caring for CSHCN, and employer type (school district or health department) affected the scope of school nurse practice. Recommendations are for lower student-to-nurse ratios, improved nursing supervision, and educational support.

  13. Sleep Duration and School Readiness of Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Albert Martin; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Sophia Ling; Ip, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    To examine the average sleep duration in Chinese preschoolers and to investigate the association between sleep duration and school readiness. This is a cross-sectional study that included 553 Chinese children (mean age = 5.46 years) from 20 preschools in 2 districts of Hong Kong. Average daily sleep duration in the last week was reported by parents and school readiness as measured by the teacher-rated Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI). Most Chinese preschoolers had 9-10 hours of sleep per day. Only 11% of preschoolers had the recommended 11-12 hours of sleep per day. This group was associated with more "very ready" CEDI domains. Sleep deprivation (≤7 hours per day) was associated with a lower CEDI total score, lower scores in the emotional maturity and language/cognitive domain, and prosocial behaviors subdomain but a greater score in the hyperactivity/inattention subdomain. Children with a lower family socioeconomic index, lower maternal education level, infrequent parent-child interactions, and who used electronic devices for more than 3 hours per day had shortened sleep durations. Optimal sleep duration was associated with better school readiness in preschool children, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with lower school readiness, more hyperactivity and inattention, and less prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How do children at special schools and their parents perceive their HRQoL compared to children at open schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramma Lebogang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been some debate in the past as to who should determine values for different health states for economic evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL in children attending open schools (OS and children with disabilities attending a special school (SS and their parents in Cape Town South Africa. Methods The EQ-5D-Y and a proxy version were administered to the children and their parents were requested to fill in the EQ-5D-Y proxy version without consultation with their children on the same day. Results A response rate of over 20% resulted in 567 sets of child/adult responses from OS children and 61 responses from SS children. Children with special needs reported more problems in the "Mobility" and "Looking after myself" domains but their scores with regard to "Doing usual activities", "Pain or discomfort" and "Worried, sad or unhappy" were similar to their typically developing counterparts. The mean Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score of SS children was (88.4, SD18.3, range 40-100 which was not different to the mean score of the OS respondents (87.9, SD16.5, range 5-100. The association between adult and child scores was fair to moderate in the domains. The correlations in VAS scores between Open Schools children and female care-givers' scores significant but low (r = .33, p Discussion It would appear that children with disabilities do not perceive their HRQoL to be worse than their able bodied counterparts, although they do recognise their limitations in the domains of "Mobility" and "Doing usual activities". Conclusions This finding lends weight to the argument that valuation of health states by children affected by these health states should not be included for the purpose of economic analysis as the child's resilience might result in better values for health states and possibly a correspondingly smaller resource allocation. Conversely, if HRQoL is to be used as a clinical

  15. Can Future Uncertainty Keep Children Out of School?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    that uncertainty about future returns results in a need for risk diversification, that children function as old-age security providers when there are no available pension systems, that the human capital investment decision of one child is likely to be influenced by that of his/her siblings, and that rural parents...... face a choice of investing in either specific or general human capital of their children. In this paper, I investigate the effects of future income uncertainty on the joint human capital investment decision of children in a household. I develop and calibrate a simple illustrative human capital...... portfolio model and show that existing levels of uncertainty can indeed result in less than full school enrolment within a household, even in a world of perfect credit markets. The paper thus offers an alternative explanation for why it might be optimal for rural parents not to send all of their children...

  16. Perceptions of children: low academic performance, school and family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Maffei Moreira-Malagolli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seizing children's perceptions is a challenge for family members, teachers and researchers. Aware of this, this article was the result of three researches developed in the years 2006 and 2010 and aims to appropriate discourses of children / students of the 4th grade / 5th year of Elementary School to understand how they conceived and experienced situations of low performance School. From the Bioecological Perspective of Human Development, semi-structured interviews with children were organized. The results showed that the children who participated in the three studies understood the family as a point of support, support and affection. They recognized the figure of the teacher, highlighting the affective relationship they had with her. In addition, they also revealed feeling guilty about their learning difficulties, expressing anguish and sadness. Attention must be paid to the child's educational trajectory in order to prevent the child from reaching the 5th grade with lags or even to acquire the idea that the course of schooling is painful.

  17. Anemia, Iron Deficiency and Iodine Deficiency among Nepalese School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Lamsal, Madhab; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Brodie, David; Baral, Nirmal

    2016-07-01

    To assess iodine and iron nutritional status among Nepalese school children. A cross-sectional, community based study was conducted in the two districts, Ilam (hilly region) and Udayapur (plain region) of eastern Nepal. A total of 759 school children aged 6-13 y from different schools within the study areas were randomly enrolled. A total of 759 urine samples and 316 blood samples were collected. Blood hemoglobin level, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and urinary iodine concentration was measured. Percentage of transferrin saturation was calculated using serum iron and total iron binding capacity values. The mean level of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and median urinary iodine excretion were 12.29 ± 1.85 g/dl, 70.45 ± 34.46 μg/dl, 386.48 ± 62.48 μg/dl, 19.94 ± 12.07 % and 274.67 μg/L respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency and iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion iron deficient children. Iron deficiency and anemia are common in Nepalese children, whereas, iodine nutrition is more than adequate. Low urinary iodine excretion was common in iron deficiency and anemia.

  18. Prevalence and Patterns of Learning Disabilities in School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Goel, Sonu; Das, Shyam Sinder; Sarkar, Siddharth; Sharma, Vijaylaxmi; Panigrahi, Mahima

    2016-04-01

    To assess the prevalence and patterns of learning disabilities (LD) in school going children in a northern city of India. The present cross-sectional study comprised of three-staged screening procedure for assessing learning disabilities of 3rd and 4th grade students studying in government schools. The first stage comprised of the teacher identifying at-risk student. In the second stage, teachers assessed at-risk students using Specific Learning Disability-Screening Questionnaire (SLD-SQ). The third stage comprised of assessment of the screen positive students using Brigance Diagnostic Inventory (BDI) part of NIMHANS Index of Specific Learning Disabilities for identifying the cases of LD. A total of 1211 (33.6%) children out of the total screened (n = 3600) were identified as at-risk by the teachers at the first stage. Of them, 360 were found to screen positive on the second stage using SLD-SQ. The most common deficits were missing out words or sentences while reading, misplacing letters or words while reading or writing, and making frequent mistake in spelling while writing or reading. Of these, 108 children were confirmed to have learning disability on the third stage using BDI, which represented 3.08% of the total population. Learning disability is an important concern in young school aged children. Early identification of such students can help in early institution of intervention and suitable modifications in teaching techniques.

  19. Youth Walking and Biking Rates Vary by Environments around 5 Louisiana Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Richards, Katherine; Rice, Janet; Andersen, Lori; Parker-Karst, Kathryn; Cole, Shalanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity in children is high, and many do not meet physical activity recommendations. The Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program encourages school-aged children to walk and bike to school. We assessed the condition of the walking/biking environment around schools in Louisiana prior to the state's first SRTS program.…

  20. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  1. Emotion Understanding, Social Competence and School Achievement in Children from Primary School in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Glória Franco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother’s educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the emotion understanding and school performance depends on a mediator variable that in the context of the study was designated social competence. Age appear as an explanatory factor of the differences found, the mother’s educational level only predicts significantly social emotional competence, fluid intelligence is a predictor of emotion understanding, school achievement and social emotional competence. Regarding the influence of sex, emotional understanding does not emerge as a significant predictor of social emotional competence in girls or boys. Multiple relationships between the various factors associated with school achievement and social emotional competence are discussed as well as their implications in promoting child development and school success.

  2. Mental Adaptation Problems of Children in a Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Dogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out on explanatory purposes to determine psychological compliance state of the children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school province and how common some psychological infancy problems are. METHODS: The samples of the research consist of mothers and teachers of 255 children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school in Sivas province. “Personal Information Form” and “Psychological Compliance Measurement” were used in the collection of data. RESULTS: According to the evaluation of teachers it was found out that while %27.5 of the children has psychological compliance problems. According to the evaluation of mothers, it was obtained that only 24.7% of the children has psychological compliance problems. The average compliance points were found higher in boys than girls, in younger age group than older age group, in group having physical disorders than not having any physical disorders. In the research a meaningful difference was not found when the average psychological compliance points and other variables were compared. When infancy psychological compliance problems evaluated, in 2.3% of the children stammer, in 3.1% habit-spasm disorder, in 7% finger sucking, in 1.9% encopresis, in 9% enuresis, and in 19.6 educational failures were determined. When the state of being problematical in behaviors and neurotic compared with the gender, it was traced that behavioral problems were higher in boys (59.5% than girls (40.5% and the neurotic problems were higher in girls (56. 3% than boys (56.3%. CONCLUSION: Consequently, it was recognized that improvement of the services for the psychological care of the children in the society and primary schools is crucially needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 47-52

  3. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Communicating polar sciences to school children through a scientific expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacarra, Maite; Lamarque, Gaelle; Koenig, Zoé; Bourgain, Pascaline; Mathilde Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    APECS-France, the French national committee of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), was created in 2013 to improve the dissemination of polar sciences towards the general public and school children in particular, through activities developed in French for French schools. During the autumn of 2014, a young polar oceanographer from the University Pierre and Marie Curie, Zoé Koenig, participated in an expedition on board a sailing vessel in the Southern Ocean. APECS-France set up a new education and outreach project called "Zoé en Expé". Using different media, about 800 children, aged 6 to 12, and from 40 schools, were actively involved in the project. Interactions between Zoé and the students occurred before, during, and after the expedition, through a newsletter, a blog updated in real-time during the expedition, webinars (interactive video-conferences), and visits in classrooms when possible. Teachers were given a list of websites dedicated to polar and oceanographic science outreach and activities adapted to the age and level of the students were offered. Different activities were developed around the expedition, depending on teachers' objectives and children affinities. In particular, students were able to relate to the expedition by imagining a day in the life of Chippy, the mascot of the expedition. They were then asked to draw and/or write Chippy's adventures. APECS-France is now planning to edit a children's book using students' drawings as well as photographs taken during the expedition. Older students were also able to follow in real-time sensors released in the Southern Ocean by Zoé, measuring salinity and temperature. Throughout this 3-month project, children were able to study a wide range of topics (oceanography, biology, history, geography…). The expedition and the educational project allowed raising the awareness of children about the fragile and badly known Antarctic environment.

  5. Mental Adaptation Problems of Children in a Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Dogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out on explanatory purposes to determine psychological compliance state of the children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school province and how common some psychological infancy problems are. METHODS: The samples of the research consist of mothers and teachers of 255 children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school in Sivas province. “Personal Information Form” and “Psychological Compliance Measurement” were used in the collection of data. RESULTS: According to the evaluation of teachers it was found out that while %27.5 of the children has psychological compliance problems. According to the evaluation of mothers, it was obtained that only 24.7% of the children has psychological compliance problems. The average compliance points were found higher in boys than girls, in younger age group than older age group, in group having physical disorders than not having any physical disorders. In the research a meaningful difference was not found when the average psychological compliance points and other variables were compared. When infancy psychological compliance problems evaluated, in 2.3% of the children stammer, in 3.1% habit-spasm disorder, in 7% finger sucking, in 1.9% encopresis, in 9% enuresis, and in 19.6 educational failures were determined. When the state of being problematical in behaviors and neurotic compared with the gender, it was traced that behavioral problems were higher in boys (59.5% than girls (40.5% and the neurotic problems were higher in girls (56. 3% than boys (56.3%. CONCLUSION: Consequently, it was recognized that improvement of the services for the psychological care of the children in the society and primary schools is crucially needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 47-52

  6. The importance of working memory for school achievement in primary school children with intellectual or learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Given the well-known relation between intelligence and school achievement we expect children with normal intelligence to perform well at school and those with intelligence deficits to meet learning problems. But, contrary to these expectations, some children do not perform according to these predictions: children with normal intelligence but sub-average school achievement and children with lower intelligence but average success at school. Yet, it is an open question how the unexpected failure or success can be explained. This study examined the role of working memory sensu Baddeley (1986) for school achievement, especially for unexpected failure or success. An extensive working memory battery with a total of 14 tasks for the phonological loop, the visual-spatial sketchpad and central executive skills was presented in individual sessions to four groups of children differing in IQ (normal vs. low) and school success (good vs. poor). Results reveal that children with sub-average school achievement showed deficits in working memory functioning, irrespective of intelligence. By contrast, children with regular school achievement did not show deficits in working memory, again irrespective of intelligence. Therefore working memory should be considered an important predictor of academic success that can lead both to unexpected overachievement and failure at school. Individual working memory competencies should be taken into account with regard to diagnosis and intervention for children with learning problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reading Development in Typically Developing Children and Children With Prenatal or Perinatal Brain Lesions: Differential School Year and Summer Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Levine, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    Summer slide, uneven growth of academic skills over the calendar year, captures the fact that the learning gains children make over the school year do not continue at the same pace over the summer, when children are typically not in school. We compared growth of reading skills during the school year and over the summer months in children with pre-or perinatal brain lesion (PL) and typically-developing (TD) children from varying socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds as a new way to probe the role of structured environmental support in functional plasticity for reading skills in children with PL. Results showed that children with PL performed lower than TD children on both reading decoding and reading comprehension. Group differences were primarily driven by children with larger lesions and children with right hemisphere lesions (RH). For reading comprehension, children with RH showed greater growth during the school year but more slide during the summer months than both TD children and children with left hemisphere lesions, implicating a particularly strong role of structured input in supporting reading comprehension in this group. TD children from lower SES backgrounds fell behind their TD peers from higher SES backgrounds on decoding and reading comprehension, but did not show differential patterns of school year and summer growth. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering the role of a host of factors interacting at multiple levels of analyses, including biological and environmental, in influencing developmental trajectories of typically and atypically-developing children.

  8. Nocturnal asthma in school children of south punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, G.; Khan, P.A.; Iqbal, I.

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, the epidemiology of the childhood asthma is of considerable interest. There is an understandable concern that changes in the geographical area, lifestyle, and environment. This study was conducted to find the prevalence of nocturnal asthma, in school children of south Punjab, Pakistan. It was a cross sectional, questionnaire based, descriptive survey of the children aged 3-18 years, in randomly selected primary and secondary schools, from October 2002 to March 2003. The data was analysed with Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Of 6120 questionnaire sent to the parents/guardians, we received 3180 back (52%). Of the 3180 respondents, 1767 (56%) were for boys and 1413 (44%) were for girls. The median age was 8.25 years. Around 71% of children were between 4 to 11 years of age. The parents reported nocturnal asthma in 177 (6%) of their children with an equal prevalence in boys and girls, i.e., (3% each, rounded off to nearest whole number). Of these 177 children with nocturnal asthma, 99 (56%) were boys and 78 (44%) were girls. Of the 1767 boys and 1413 girls, the nocturnal asthma reported by parents was 6% each (99 and 78 respectively). The nocturnal asthma was not reported in 14-18 years age group of females. The asthma is taken as a stigma in our society and as such is not reported or disclosed rather denied. An extensive educational media campaign is required for awareness of the masses. (author)

  9. Peer Victimization and Academic Performance in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B; Patton, George C

    Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. Eight- to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (β = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -28.2 to -6.2) and grammar/punctuation (β = -20.8; 95% CI, -40.1 to -1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: β = -29.0; 95% CI, -53.8 to -4.1; female children: β = -30.1; 95% CI, -56.6 to -3.5), and writing (female children: β = -21.5; 95% CI, -40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: β = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: β = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: β = -25.5; 95% CI, -42.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: β = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: β = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Life Satisfaction and School Performance of Children Exposed to Classic and Cyber Peer Bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Bilić, Vesna; Buljan Flander, Gordana; Rafajac, Branko

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the exposure of school children to various forms of peer bullying (classic/cyber) and their life satisfaction in the domain of school, family, friends and school performance. The sample included 562 children from rural and urban areas of Croatia who were attending the seventh and the eighth grade of primary school. Results show that children were more often exposed to classic forms of peer bullying, especially verbal, and then physical bullying. On...

  11. Diet and lifesyle of a cohort of primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Caputo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the obesity is the disease of the new millennium, because it affects about 300 million people in the world, and especially it has a high prevalence in children. obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type ii, hypertension, problems of adaptation and relationship with other, lower self-esteem and depression. Aims: the objective of our study is to identify children at risk of overweight / obesity in order to primary prevention. We have organized meetings with children, families and school’s members where we discussed the results of our investigation about the importance of healthy diet and lifestyle. Patients-Methods: the study was carried out on 545 children (282F, 263M, age 6.-10 years, of two primary schools in Catanzaro, from 2008 to 2010. the valuation parameters were: gender, age, weight, height, blood pressure and waist circumference. to children were also administered a questionnaire about dietary habits and lifestyle. Statistical analysis: Fisher’s test. Results: We had that 62 % of children was normal weight, 27 % overweight, 11 % obese. A particularly relevant datum is that the percentage of overweight-obese boys of 8 and 9 years old was higher (56% than that of normal weight. We found cases of hypertension only in obese children. 98% of obese, 80% of overweight and 24% of normal weight children had a high waist circumference. We did not find differences in food quality among normal weight and overweight/obese children. instead, we found significant differences in behavior between children: 90% of obese, 64% of overweight and 53% of normal weight children passed more than 2 hours in the afternoon watching television, playing computer and video games. 70% of normal weight, 82% of overweight and 95% of obese children practiced physical activity. Discussion/conclusion: our study shows a alarming fact about the increase of the obesity in children. in particular the most important

  12. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Ko?, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected acc...

  13. Local school children curious about CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Imagine the scene: about 20-30 schoolchildren aged 8-11 and about 1.25 m tall; a couple of adults, let’s say on average 1.75 m tall, and then one high-energy physics experiment 15 m tall. This is what you could have seen on 2, 6 and 9 February in the CMS cavern, as two local schools participated in the “Be a scientist!” programme.   "I think they've got it..." Two classes from the primary school in the village of Cessy, where CMS is located, took part in the visits on 2 and 9 February, and all 36 pupils from CM2 (Year 6) at the Ecole des Bois in nearby Ornex took part in the visit on 6 February. “They asked so many questions,” says Sandrine Saison Marsollier, CERN’s educational officer for the local community, who accompanied some of the classes to CMS. “Most of them had practical questions about what they saw, for example how big and how heavy the experiment is, and which bit goes where. But some ...

  14. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  15. The Effect of Eco-Schools on Children's Environmental Values and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…

  16. Perception of primary school teachers to school children's mental health problems in Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerebih, Habtamu; Abrha, Hailay; Frank, Reiner; Abera, Mubarek

    2016-11-12

    Teachers perception of child mental health problems and their attitude to school-based mental health services helps in designing early intervention strategies aimed at promoting the service. However, little is known in this regard among primary school teachers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study assessed perceptions and attitude of primary school teachers to child mental health problem and school-based mental health programs in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia in 2013. A cross-sectional study design was implemented among 568 primary school teachers in Jimma town, from 1 to 30 October 2013. Perceptions and attitude of teachers to children with mental health problems and school mental health related information were assessed using a structured self- administered questionnaire. About 40% of teachers recognized the list of psychopathology items presented to them as child mental health problems while 54.4% of them rated child mental health problem as severe. Externalizing behaviors were perceived as the most severe problems. Teaching experience and teaching in public schools were significantly associated with the perception of severe type of child mental health problems. About 95% of teachers acknowledged that school-based mental health programs are important but limited availability was reported. Despite the high problem severity ratings, teachers' perception of the psychopathology as a mental health problem in children was low. There was also a favorable attitude on the importance and the need of school-based child mental health programs. Thus, creating mental health awareness for teachers and establishing school mental health services to intervene in child mental health problem is crucial.

  17. A cross-sectional study of the individual, social, and built environmental correlates of pedometer-based physical activity among elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Georgina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children who participate in regular physical activity obtain health benefits. Preliminary pedometer-based cut-points representing sufficient levels of physical activity among youth have been established; however limited evidence regarding correlates of achieving these cut-points exists. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of pedometer-based cut-points among elementary school-aged children. Method A cross-section of children in grades 5-7 (10-12 years of age were randomly selected from the most (n = 13 and least (n = 12 'walkable' public elementary schools (Perth, Western Australia, stratified by socioeconomic status. Children (n = 1480; response rate = 56.6% and parents (n = 1332; response rate = 88.8% completed a survey, and steps were collected from children using pedometers. Pedometer data were categorized to reflect the sex-specific pedometer-based cut-points of ≥15000 steps/day for boys and ≥12000 steps/day for girls. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, sedentary and active leisure-time behavior, independent mobility, active transportation and built environmental variables - collected from the child and parent surveys - and meeting pedometer-based cut-points were estimated (odds ratios: OR using generalized estimating equations. Results Overall 927 children participated in all components of the study and provided complete data. On average, children took 11407 ± 3136 steps/day (boys: 12270 ± 3350 vs. girls: 10681 ± 2745 steps/day; p After adjusting for all other variables and school clustering, meeting the pedometer-based cut-points was negatively associated (p Conclusions Comprehensive multi-level interventions that reduce screen-time, encourage active travel to/from school and foster a physically active classroom culture might encourage more physical activity among children.

  18. [How much can school staff help children with diabetes type 1 in school?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirović, Husref; Toromanović, Alma

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate, according to parents and their children with diabetes, how far school personnel have an understanding of diabetes and is trained to provide appropriate treatment of diabetes emergencies. The study included 37 children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 (17 girls and 20 boys) from 31 schools in the Canton of Tuzla, aged 7-18 years. A descriptive research method was used in the study and for data gathering a closed type survey was used. Only 13 or 35.3 % of the 37 surveyed parents were satisfied with the care of their child with diabetes at school, while 24 or 64.7 % parents expressed dissatisfaction with it. According to the parents' statements, class teachers are 100 % informed about the existence of students with diabetes type 1 at their schools, while PE teachers (97.9 %) and the headmasters of the schools (81.1 %) are less well-informed. Regarding the question about whether the school personnel is trained for diabetes-related tasks, the parents answered YES in 25.7 % cases; 54.3 % of them answered NO, and 20 % of them answered DON'T KNOW. However, only 35.2 % of parents found that some of the employees at the school are trained to recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia while the number of positive answers concerning treatment of hypoglycemia (18.9 %) or glucagon administration (13.5 %) was much lower. The answer to the question: "Is blood glucose testing allowed in the classroom?" in 91.5 % cases was YES, 5.7 % NO and in 2.8 % of cases was DON'T KNOW. The results of our survey show that children with diabetes do not have appropriate diabetes care in school.

  19. Recommendations for Working with African American Parents of Primary School Children in Low-Resourced Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sejal; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Goodman, Rachael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a strength-based discussion of the relationship between parenting values of low-income African Americans and the academic performance of their school-aged children. Using resilience theory as a framework (Seccombe, 2002), the authors suggest that African American parents in low-resourced communities have…

  20. Clustering of Unhealthy Food around German Schools and Its Influence on Dietary Behavior in School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy...