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Sample records for schoolchildren hbsc-wbg2004 electronic

  1. Asthenopia in schoolchildren

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    Vilela MAP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Manuel AP Vilela,1,2 Victor D Castagno,2,3 Rodrigo D Meucci,3,4 Anaclaudia G Fassa3,4 1Postdoctoral Program in Epidemiology, 2Department of Specialized Medicine – Ophthalmology, 3Doctoral Program in Epidemiology, 4Department of Social Medicine, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Objective: To assess asthenopia prevalence and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 6–16. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all children attending the first to eighth grades at two public schools in the urban region of a medium-sized town in Southern Brazil between April and December 2012. A questionnaire on socioeconomic and cultural matters was answered by parents, while the children answered a questionnaire on asthenopia-related symptoms. The children underwent a complete visual function examination, including measurement of visual acuity, refraction test, cover test, stereopsis, heterophoria assessment, near point of convergence, and accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio. Results: Asthenopia prevalence was 24.7% in a total sample of 964 children. Visual acuity of 20/25 or better in both eyes was found in 92.8% of the children. The stereopsis test was normal in 99.4% of them, and some kind of strabismus was found in 3.5%. About 37.8% had astigmatism, 71.6% had mild hyperopia, 13.6% had moderate hyperopia, and 6.1% were myopic. Near point of convergence was abnormal in 14.0% of the children, and the accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio was found to be altered in 17.1% of them. Conclusion: Children and adolescents have expressive prevalence of asthenopia. The prevalence of visual function alterations does not differ from the general population, and, therefore, they are not prerequisites. It is very important that its mechanisms and risk factors be better defined. Health professionals need to be on the lookout for complaints of visual fatigue because of its potential to influence learning and school

  2. CARIES PREVENTION AMONG JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN

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    S.К. Matelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biennial program of controlled tooth brushing performed econdary school among junior schoolchildren from Minsk secondary school № 166 proved to be highly effective. Decrease in caries increment has been shown on the average up to 50%. No credible differences between remineralising defluorinated toothpastes or pastes enriched with aminofluoride (F = 500 ppm and sodium fluoride  (F = 1000 ppm efficacy were found in this study. Credibility of the results was determined by comparison with similar study conducted on a bigger population of children. Though anti-caries effect of the same tooth-pastes in a bigger-scale study was lower — within 30%. Such difference can be explained by a different level of motivation and discipline of participants.Key words: schoolchildren, dental caries prevention, toothpastes. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 48–51

  3. Epidemiology of Nonfatal Injuries among Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Al-Awamreh, Khetam; Gharaibeh, Huda; Al-Kloub, Manal; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Alhalaiqa, Fadwa; Hamadneh, Shereen

    2016-01-01

    Nonfatal injuries are considered as one of the major public health hazards affecting schoolchildren, and the majority of these injuries occur at school or in the home. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 3 months, March-May 2015. The participants were 4,355 Jordanian schoolchildren in Grades 7-12. The Pearson ?[superscript 2]…

  4. [Ways of improving medical services for schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, N M; Novikova, V N; Gaĭdaĭ, V Ia; Bulaga, L P; Komlik, P V

    1990-01-01

    The protection and promotion of schoolchildren's health might be ensured by means of differential approach to the use of different forms of organization of medical provision and its further improvement with due regard for regional conditions. The development of All-union programme "Schoolchildren" is needed which would provide for a scientific base for improving organizational and health-promoting activities at general education schools and boarding schools.

  5. INFORMATION CULTURE AND INFORMATION SAFETY OF SCHOOLCHILDREN

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    E. G. Belyakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the problem of interaction between schoolchildren and possible informational risks transmitted on the Internet. Considering the lack of external filters on the way of harmful information streams, it is actually necessary to develop information culture of schoolchildren, their abilities to sensibly and critically interpret the information on the Internet, and choice of adequate behaviour models surfing the Web. The aim of the present research is to analyze the state of informational safety of schoolchildren while using the Internet; gaining an understanding of the role of external restrictions and opportunities of intrapersonal filtration of the harmful Internet content depending on children age. Methodology and research methods. The methodology of the research is based on modern methods aimed to consider the problem of personal socialization in modern information society. Thus, the Internet Initiatives Development Fund (IIDF questionnaire let the authors define the level of awareness of recipients on the problem under consideration. Results and scientific novelty. The theoretical analysis helped the authors predict the correlation of basic methods in order to guarantee personal safety of schoolchildren taking into account the process of maturity as well as the decrease of external filters that may stop harmful content. Empirical part of the research has enabled to reveal decrease in external control of staying of a child in network in the process of growing up against the background of restrictive attitudes prevalence among teachers and parents. Therefore, the research supposed to improve information culture of schoolchildren from the earliest ages encouraging them to sensibly and correctly interpret the information on the Internet. Practical significance. The practical recommendations to parents and teachers in order to improve informational personal safety of schoolchildren are proposed. The relevancy

  6. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

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    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  7. The Discovery of the Social Life of Swedish Schoolchildren

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    Larsson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the "discovery of the social life of schoolchildren" by showing how an interest for children's peer relations emerged in a Swedish educational and medial context. Drawing on historical and sociological childhood studies, the article analyses the concept of schoolchildren's social life in the 1950s, 1960s and…

  8. Teaching of students technology early professional orientation of schoolchildren

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    Gilmanshina, S. I.; Sagitova, R. N.; Gilmanshin, I. R.; Kamaleeva, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    The necessity of early professional orientation of schoolchildren on the engineering profession and a new type of teacher was proved. Theoretically substantiated and experimentally tested pedagogical conditions of training of students - future teachers of technology early professional orientation of schoolchildren in the system of university preparation of teacher of a new type. This development of courses of special disciplines, aimed at developing of future teachers of readiness for early career guidance activities; development of interactive group projects for schoolchildren of different age groups (including primary school), expanding their understanding of the world of professions; practical testing of career guidance projects dealing with children’s audience.

  9. Iodine nutritional status in Asturian schoolchildren.

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    Riestra Fernández, María; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Díaz Cadórniga, Francisco; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos; Delgado Álvarez, Elías

    2017-11-01

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Families completed a survey on use of iodized salt, consumption of dairy products and fish, and sociodemographic data. The study sample consisted of 705 schoolchildren (51.1% females) with a mean age of 9.9 years (SD 2.6). In a total of 620 valid measurements, mean urinary iodine level was 204.1 μg/L (SD 120.6), while the median value was 180.7 μg/L (P 25 -P 75 : 124-252.3 μg/L, interquartile range 128.3 μg/L). Urinary iodine levels were y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, Croatia.

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    Dukić, Walter; Delija, Barbara; Lulić Dukić, Olga

    2011-12-15

    To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years from Zagreb. Dental examinations based on the World Health Organization criteria were performed on 1168 children in the period 2009-2010. The teeth were clinically examined with standard dental instruments using visual-tactile method under standard dental light. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permanent and lower-case letters to primary teeth) and decayed, missed, and filled surfaces (DMFS), as well as the significant caries index (SiC). The median DMFT and DMFS of all children were 3 and 4, respectively. The median DMFT and DMFS of 12-year-old children were 4 and 5, respectively. The highest median DMFT score of 7 was found among 14-year-old children. There was a significant difference between age groups (7-10 years and 11-14 years) in DMFT and DMFS. Among 8-year-old children, the median dmft index was the highest (5.5) and SiC index was 7.4. As far as the location of caries on the surface of the first permanent molar is concerned, caries occurred mostly in the central occlusal surface (27.6%). Our results showed a high caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, indicating a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care.

  11. Variability in management of symptomless microhaematuria in schoolchildren

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    Benbassat, J.; Gergawi, M.; Offringa, M.; Bearman, J. E.; Drukker, A.

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of incidentally detected symptomless microhaematuria in schoolchildren is controversial. Some authors advocate varying numbers of immediate tests, while others recommend investigations only in cases who develop systemic symptoms or signs, or a decline in renal function. The objective

  12. Hygienic aspects of physical education and health of schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    J.D. Svystun; V.M. Trach; Kh.E. Shavel; J.M. Kukujuk

    2017-01-01

    Aim: to analyze the state of physical education in secondary schools of Ukraine and to observe hygienic requirements during physical education lessons. Material: the study was attended by schoolchildren (n=40, age - 12-13 years) and schoolchildren of specialized sports classes (n=40, age - 14-16 years). Studied: the level of physical health; functional state of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems; the state of energy supply of children’s organism; the influence of mobile games on the f...

  13. [Aerobic capacity, weight status and self-concept in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez Soto, Juan José; Tárraga López, Pedro; Tárraga Marcos, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between self-concept, aerobic capacity and weight status in schoolchildren. Relational descriptive design in which was assessed the weight status and aerobic capacity of 256 schoolchildren among 8-11 years. Aerobic capacity (low vs high) and the body mass index (normal-weight vs overweight-obesity) were categorized using standard criteria. The self-concept was assessed through the Piers Harris self-concept scale for children. Schoolchildren with normal-weight and high fitness level showed better levels of conductual self-concept (P=.030), physical (Pself-concept (P=.002). The schoolchildren with normal-weight show higher levels of conductual self-concpt (P=.016), intellectual (P=.050), physical (Pself-concept (P=.001). The schoolchildren with a higher fitness level showed better conductual self-concept (P=.024), physical (P=.004), lack of anxiety (P=.011), social (P=.024), and global (P=.003). The results of the study strengthen the importance to transmit to the educative community the knowledge of the relationship between the variables analyzed aiming to improve the schoolchildren self-concept. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of hamstring stretching programs in schoolchildren. A systematic review

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    Carlos-Alberto BECERRA FERNANDEZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present review was to examine the scientific literature on the effects of physical education-based stretching programs on hamstring extensibility in schoolchildren aged 6-11 years. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from ten electronic databases dated up through May 2015. Of the 25 potentially relevant articles identified and retrieved for more detailed evaluation, only eight studies were included in the present review because they met the inclusion criteria. The overall results showed that incorporating hamstring stretching as a part of physical education classes produces a significant improvement in the scores of the tests: straight leg raise and classic sit-and-reach, for the experimental groups, but not for control groups. Stretching programs can be included in Physical Education classes, specifically during the warm-up and the cool down periods in order to improve hamstring extensibility. Although it seems that the stretching exercises in the warm-up period could be less effective in gaining flexibility in school children. Studies that use a stretching volume between 4 and 7 minutes per session and 2-4 training classes per week, obtain statistically significant improvements on the levels of hamstring flexibility in the experimental groups. However, after a five-week detraining period, children revert back to their initial flexibility levels. Therefore, it seems appropriate that physical education teachers should implement stretching programs to improve the students´ flexibility during the Physical Education classes.

  15. Development of dental anxiety in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fernanda C.; Lima, Rodrigo A.; de Barros, Mauro V.G.

    2017-01-01

    's health-related behaviours. Additionally, the children's dental caries experience was clinically evaluated to obtain information about DMFT/dmft (decayed, filled and missing teeth) indices. Using the Dental Anxiety Question, children whose parents responded “yes” to the prompt “Is he/she very afraid...... used medication chronically had a 2.1 times greater likelihood of having high dental anxiety. Furthermore, children whose parents reported high dental anxiety had a 2.6 times greater likelihood of having high dental anxiety themselves. A one-unit increase in a child's dmft score increased the risk...... of high dental anxiety by 1.1 times at follow-up. Conclusion: After two years, the incidence of high dental anxiety was 15.0%. Poor oral health, unstable general health and parents with high dental anxiety were factors that were associated with this type of anxiety in schoolchildren. It is important...

  16. An oral health programme for schoolchildren in Kuwait 1986-97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigild, M.; Skougaard, M.; Hadi, R.

    1999-01-01

    caries prevalence, caries prevention, community dental services, dental caries, DMFS, health education, Kuwait, primary dental care, schoolchildren......caries prevalence, caries prevention, community dental services, dental caries, DMFS, health education, Kuwait, primary dental care, schoolchildren...

  17. CIRCADIAN SLEEP DISORDERS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN OF COUNTRYSIDE SIBERIA

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    K. A. Gazenkampf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep is an important part of a healthy lifestyle, affecting all aspects of human life. Formation of the sleep–wake regime is associated with other physiological processes in the human body. Sleep disorders can lead to the development of various physical and psychological disorders. In schoolchildren and students sleep disorders can lead to memory loss, increase in anxiety and fatigue. Taken together, these factors can lead to lower performance. A variety of internal and external factors can lead to disruption of sleep: stress, much physical and emotional strain, artificial light in the streets, excessive activity of a person during the night (night work, homework etc.. Schoolchildren, living in rural areas, also suffer from sleep disorders. Most of the schoolchildren of countryside are not satisfied with the quality of nocturnal sleep, sleep at least 8 hours a day and notice daytime sleepiness.Objective: to estimate derangements of circadian rhythms of a sleep at schoolchildren of the senior classes, living in countryside.Materials and methods. 67 questionnaires of schoolchildren of the 10th grades of schools of the Abansky District of the Krasnoyarsk Region were analyzed. To estimate the daytime sleepiness, duration and quality of sleep there were used the Child Sleep Questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.Results. A derangements of nocturnal sleep were registered in 52 % of schoolchildren of the 10th grades.Conclusion. Identified sleep disorders in schoolchildren can cause serious damage to their health and cause the development of a serious disorders in the future. 

  18. Health among Schoolchildren from the School Nurse's Perspective

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    Ellertsson, Ann-Sofi; Garmy, Pernilla; Clausson, Eva K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate Swedish school nurses' perceptions of schoolchildren's health. The study is based on two national surveys in which school nurses responded to questions about schoolchildren's health in 2015 (n = 181) and 2005 (n = 129). A statistical comparison showed that physical and mental health of schoolchildren in…

  19. [Role of cerebral hemodynamics in the mechanism of development of acquired myopia in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iastrebtseva, T A; Demidova, T E; Polikarpova, V E

    2008-01-01

    Rheoencephalography was used to study cerebral venous circulation in 199 schoolchildren aged 12-15 years who had emmetropia, pseudomyopia, and myopia. Tonometry was carried out in 39 persons. Cerebral venous hemodynamic dysfunction was more frequently encountered in schoolchildren with myopia than in those with emmetropia. Intraocular pressure was significantly higher only in schoolchildren with high myopia than in the controls.

  20. [Refractive errors among schoolchildren in the central region of Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonon Saa, K B; Atobian, K; Banla, M; Rédah, T; Maneh, N; Walser, A

    2013-11-01

    Untreated refractive errors represent the main visual impairment in the world but also the easiest to avoid. The goal of this survey is to use clinical and epidemiological data to efficiently plan distribution of corrective glasses in a project supported by the Swiss Red Cross in the central region of Togo. To achieve this goal, 66 primary schools were identified randomly in the catchment area of the project. The teachers at these schools were previously trained to test visual acuity (VA). The schoolchildren referred by these teachers were examined by eye care professionals. The schoolchildren with ametropia (VA≤7/10 in at least one eye) underwent cycloplegic autorefraction. Of a total of 19,252 registered schoolchildren, 13,039 underwent VA testing by the teachers (participation rate=68%). Among them, 366 cases of ametropia were identified (prevalence about 3%). The average age of the schoolchildren examined was 10.7±2.3years, with a sex ratio of 1.06. Autorefraction, which was performed for 37% of the schoolchildren with ametropia allowed them to be classified into three groups: hyperopia (4%), myopia (5%) and astigmatism of all types (91%). Regardless of the type of ametropia, the degree of severity was mild in 88%. The results of this survey have highlighted the importance of the teachers' contribution to eye care education in the struggle against refractive errors within the school environment, as well as helping to efficiently plan actions against ametropia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Caries experience in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,595 schoolchild......OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1......,595 schoolchildren aged 10-17 years, randomly allocated by clusters into a stratified sample population. The dental caries were scored according to the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical criteria and expressed based on tooth and surface levels [Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth/Surfaces indices (DMFT....../DMFS)]. A questionnaire was administered to the children to determine the education level of their parents and their living standard. RESULTS: The caries prevalence was 75 percent, and 64 percent had untreated caries. The mean DMFT value for the entire sample was 2.8, and its highest component was decayed teeth (mean DT...

  2. Comparative analysis of vitamin status of schoolchildren in recreational period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Podrigalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of the vitamin status of schoolchildren during the summer recreation of 90th years of the last century and now. The study involved 167 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. With the help of questionnaires developed by the authors assessed the severity of symptoms of vitamin deficiency, the prevalence of vitamin supplementation, frequency and volume of consumption of fruits and vegetables. It is confirmed that the saturation is the state of the vitamin in children is the best compared with data from 20 years ago, the state of multi-vitamin deficiency is replaced mono-vitamin deficit. The results, data evaluation and the availability of additional fortification of the diet of fruit and vegetables support the need for measures aimed at improving vitamin status. Using the questionnaire method is most appropriate for monitoring the vitamin status of schoolchildren.

  3. Social support for schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

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    Ivanauskiene V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a wider concept than poverty and includes not only material conditions but also inability to participate in economic, social, political and cultural life. The essence of social exclusion is social relationships (more exactly breaking off relationships, which may mean not only pushing away some members of the society, but also breaking off relationships with the society from the side of a person himself/herself. The reasons of origin of social exclusion may be legal, political, economical, social and cultural. Nowadays social exclusion is predetermined by social-economic factors. According to Poviliūnas (2001, the problems of children’s social exclusion may be solved ensuring proper education, care of public health, safety and minimal life standard. Growing aggression and violence of schoolchildren and their social exclusion are nowadays an important issue of political debate and media reports. Often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during the period of adolescence. The risk also depends on the social status of their family in the society and the relationship of the family members. The aim of the article is to identify characteristic features of schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion and analyze social support provided for them. A quantitative research was carried out to achieve the aim. The method of data collection is a questionnaire. 105 teachers working in 3 secondary schools in Lithuania participated in the research. The research results revealed that most often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during adolescence period. They are characterized as incommunicative, unsociable, passive, and shy, do not trust others, are vulnerable, have learning problems and avoid collaborative activities. These schoolchildren usually come from families of social risk or single parent families. The support provided at school by teachers to schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

  4. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study

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    Nelia Steyn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6–15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process.

  5. Methodology for vocational psychodiagnostics of senior schoolchildren using information technologies

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    Bogdanovskaya, I. M.; Kosheleva, A. N.; Kiselev, P. B.; Davydova, Yu. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article identifies the role and main problems of vocational psychodiagnostics in modern socio-cultural conditions. It analyzes the potentials of information technologies in vocational psychodiagnostics of senior schoolchildren. The article describes the theoretical and methodological grounds, content and diagnostic potentials of the computerized method in vocational psychodiagnostics. The computerized method includes three blocks of sub-tests to identify intellectual potential, personal qualities, professional interests and values, career orientations, as well as subtests to analyze the specific life experience of senior schoolchildren. The results of diagnostics allow developing an integrated psychodiagnostic conclusion with recommendations. The article contains options of software architecture for the given method.

  6. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

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    Turner Stephen W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Results The geometric mean (GM salivary cotinine concentrations for 947 non-smoking schoolchildren stratified by household residents' smoking behaviour were: for children living with non-smoking parents 0.32 ng/ml (95% CI 0.28-0.37 (n = 446; for children living with a smoker father 0.65 ng/ml (95% CI 0.57-0.72 (n = 432; for children living with two smoking parents 1.12 ng/ml (95% CI 0.29-4.40 (n = 3; for children who live with an extended family member who smokes 0.62 ng/ml (95% CI 0.42-0.89 (n = 33 and for children living with two smokers (father and extended family member 0.71 ng/ml (95% CI 0.40-0.97 (n = 44. Parental-reported SHS exposures showed poor agreement with children's self-reported SHS exposures. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that cotinine levels were positively associated with living with one or more smokers, urban residence, occupation of father (Armed forces, parental-reported exposure to SHS and education of the father (Diploma/Technical certificate. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise exposures to SHS using salivary cotinine concentrations among schoolchildren in Malaysia and also the first study documenting SHS exposure using salivary cotinine as a biomarker in a South-East Asian population of schoolchildren. Compared to other populations of similarly aged schoolchildren, Malaysian children have higher salivary cotinine concentrations. The partial nature of smoke

  7. Prevalence of asthma in regional Victorian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, C F; Bishop, J; Dalton, M; Caust, J; Nolan, T M; Olinsky, A; Phelan, P D

    1992-06-15

    To determine whether the high prevalence of reported asthma in Melbourne schoolchildren is seen in rural Victoria. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was distributed to children to be completed by parents and returned to the school. Results were compared with a previous Melbourne study. Two hundred and twenty-seven government and non-government primary schools in five rural regions of Victoria: coast, wheatbelt, riverland, highland and Latrobe valley. All children enrolled in grade 2 were invited to join the study. Parents completed questionnaires for 4661 children after 4886 questionnaires were distributed (response rate, 95%). History of wheeze in the past 12 months. The overall prevalence of wheeze in the last 12 months was 23.6%. There was a significant difference overall in this rate across the five rural areas and Melbourne, with the Latrobe Valley (26.2%) and highland areas (25.0%) having the highest rate, and the wheatbelt the lowest (19.6%). The spectrum of severity of asthma was similarly distributed across rural regions, although severe episodes were significantly more frequently reported by parents from rural areas than by parents in Melbourne. The reported use of bronchodilators and diagnosis of asthma showed a similar pattern of variation to that of the 12-month prevalence of wheeze. The prevalence of asthma in 7-year-old children is similar for rural Victoria as a whole compared with Melbourne, but there is variability in asthma prevalence in individual rural areas which is difficult to account for in terms of known environmental precipitants.

  8. Victimization by Bullying and Physical Symptoms among South Korean Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between victimization by bullying and physical symptoms among South Korean school children. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of 2006 schoolchildren across South Korea aged 9-17 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between victimization by…

  9. Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

  10. Evaluation of a sealant intervention program among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren

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    Hui-Ju Hsieh

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The application of pit-and-fissure sealants was 94.54% effective in preventing caries on newly erupted permanent molars among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren. Complete sealant failure demonstrated a high risk for caries, and such teeth should immediately be resealed.

  11. Caries Prevalence in U.S. Schoolchildren 1986-87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Dental Research (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The graphs in this pamphlet illustrate the decline of the incidence of tooth decay in the nation's schoolchildren. The report, based on a study of more than 40,000 children, found that students have 36 percent less tooth decay than they did in the beginning of 1980. Appended to the graphs is a National Institutes of Health press release which…

  12. Writing Tasks and Immediate Auditory Memory in Peruvian Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-León, José Luís; Caycho, Tomás

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between a group of writing tasks and the immediate auditory memory, as well as to establish differences according to sex and level of study. Two hundred and three schoolchildren of fifth and sixth grade of elementary education from Lima (Peru) participated; they were selected by a…

  13. Impact of dietary iron intake on anaemia in Tanzanian schoolchildren

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    economic implication.5 In developing countries dietary iron intake ... haem iron absorption ranges from 2% to 20%. Dependence on .... scale (calibrated in kg) and a fixed-base portable .... Of the 80 schoolchildren whose Hb concentration was .... Tolerance for entry ... several traditional methods of food processing.15 These.

  14. Diabetes Awareness and Body Size Perceptions of Cree Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D.; Marshall, Dru; Raine, Kim; Ridley, Denise C.

    2009-01-01

    Native American Indians and First Nations are predisposed to obesity and diabetes. A study was done to understand Cree schoolchildren's diabetes awareness and body size perceptions in two communities that had diabetes awareness-raising activities in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Children (N = 203) in grades 4-6 were classified into weight…

  15. Schoolchildren affected by HIV in rural South Africa: Schools as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores how schoolchildren made vulnerable due to HIV and AIDS might cope and even thrive in a rural school environment in South Africa. I argue that ... Keywords: appreciative inquiry, assets, coping, PhotoVoice, psychosocial aspects, research methods, rural settings, visual participatory methods

  16. Racialised entanglements of teacher professionalisation and problematised immigrant schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    2016-01-01

    of good citizens and a good society, ultimately fed into the crafting of a post-1970 Danish welfare nation-state. Deploying a governmentality perspective, the analysis is based on diachronic reading of three professional journals specialised in the topic of the education of immigrant schoolchildren (1980...

  17. Individualization of forming health culture in schoolchildren of Polish schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Yermakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to highlight the issues of gender education and individual characteristics of schoolchildren in the formation of their health culture due to school conditions. Material: content analysis of domestic and foreign authors. Results . Determined that the peculiarities of forming health culture of schoolchildren make for the specifics of school age (primary school age - 6/7 - 10/11 years; teen school age - 12/13 - 15/16 years. It is found that the level of formation of health culture in childhood will depend on the next person’s lifestyle, the level of his personal potential. Gender approach in pedagogy can overcome entrenched negative gender stereotypes, to develop a set of approaches aimed at helping children to easily go through the process of socialization and gender identity. Conclusions: information about formation schoolchildren health culture should be provided necessarily considering age and individual characteristics of schoolchildren, because otherwise it can be confusing for them and as a consequence is not only beneficial, but also harm.

  18. Features of gender identity among schoolchildren of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Y. Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . Gender identity manifestations in schoolchildren were investigated. Material . The study involved schoolchildren of 3 -11th forms of the secondary schools (206 – boys, 213 - girls. For the research of age peculiarities in psychological gender, a questioner worked out by Sundry Bam which consists of 60 statements was used. Results . A number of aspects of self description which have different psychological characteristics in boys and girls were analysed. A peculiarity of gender identity in schoolchildren, which was identified by the overall number of respondents in whom the androgens personality type was identified, was singled out. Out of 206 boys – 90% have an androgens index, as for the girls – 69.5% refer to androgens personality type. The presence of feminine character qualities in boys and masculine – in girls was found out, which proves maximal development of feminine and masculine in one person. This will help social adaptation of schoolchildren. Conclusions . Physical education has enormous potential emotional and physical impact on the formation of gender identity of students and their notions of femininity and masculinity. This can directly affect the formation of life value orientations students in general, including the formation of values in the sphere of physical culture.

  19. [Rational balanced nutrition of schoolchildren of various age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, N V; Samolyuk, N G; Fedotov, A S; Krotenko, N M

    2013-01-01

    The problem of nutrition of schoolchildren as the main index of health status is considered. Recommendations for implementation of correction system of school feeding in conditions of Siberia will be presented. The purpose of work: on the basis of the results of monitoring living activity and assessment of the health of schoolchildren of different age groups in Siberia to develop guidelines on the rational balanced nutrition. Studies bear witness to inadequate diet and regimen of feeding of schoolchildren. In Siberia a progressive deterioration in the health of students during the years of learning is observed, part of diseases is associated with an unbalanced diet. We offer the project, in course of realization of which study in schools are carried out, scientifically grounded recommendations on appropriate diet and regimen of feeding for schoolchildren of different age groups in the Siberia in the cold and warm period of the year are developed. Implementation of recommendations will result in the general improvement of children health and reduction in medical aid appealability due to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. The Power of Appreciation: Promoting Schoolchildren's Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenius, Catrine; Bergmark, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Swedish children's positive experiences of health and well-being, and their thoughts on how health literacy can be promoted. Design/methodology/approach: Totally, 121 schoolchildren between the ages of 10 and 14 from three schools in two municipalities in the northern part of Sweden shared their…

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren: 30-year evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de M. Ferrari

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: During a 30-year analysis with reviews every ten years from 1978/1980, there was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in schoolchildren of both genders, which cannot be explained by the nutritional status. The decline in cardiorespiratory fitness was greater in individuals with normal weight than in overweight individuals.

  2. Studies since 2005 on South African primary schoolchildren suggest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet searches were conducted for cross-sectional and randomised controlled trials that reported on the iron status of South African primary schoolchildren, published after the NFCS-FB of 2005. Search engines that were used included Science Direct, Sabinet, PubMed, EBSCOhost (Academic Search Premier, Health ...

  3. Traffic-related air pollution and spectacles use in schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadvand, Payam; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Basagaña, Xavier; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Rivas, Ioar; Brunekreef, Bert; Querol, Xavier; Morgan, Ian G; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and use of spectacles (as a surrogate measure for myopia) in schoolchildren. METHODS: We analyzed the impact of exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 light absorbance at home (predicted by land-use regression models) and

  4. Risk indicators and risk predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pereira da Silva Tagliaferro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25 was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17 or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37 presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68 and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87. Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren.

  5. Association between overweight and obesity in schoolchildren with rs9939609 polymorphism (FTO and family history for obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cézane Priscila Reuter

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: There is an association between the AA genotype of rs9939609 polymorphism and BMI among schoolchildren. The association between overweight/obesity in schoolchildren with a family history of obesity was found mainly among students with the AA genotype.

  6. Internet Addiction and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Yaacov, Yafa; Manning, Michal; Danon, Pinhas; Weizman, Abraham

    2015-12-01

    Use of the internet and videogames by children and adolescents has risen dramatically over the last decade. Increasing evidence of internet and videogame addiction among children is causing concern due to its harmful physical, emotional and social consequences. There is also emerging evidence for an association between computer and videogame addiction and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate the relationship between ADHD and internet addiction. We compared 50 male schoolchildren, mean age 13 years, diagnosed with ADHD to 50 male schoolchildren without ADHD on measures of internet addiction, internet use and sleep patterns. Children with ADHD had higher scores on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), used the internet for longer hours, and went to sleep later than those without ADHD. These findings indicate an association of ADHD, sleep disorders and internet/videogame addiction.

  7. Formation of healthy lifestyle among schoolchildren with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Palladina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of overweight and obesity in school children is considered. It is shown that the problem of child obesity underlie the development of many serious medical illness. It is introduced the analysis of publications on the problem of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren. It is defined methods for detection and possible non-pharmacological correction of the condition. The necessity of creating and putting into practice of long-term training programs to promote healthy lifestyle among schoolchildren are overweight or obese, to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and other metabolic complications. Conceptually, it is determined the main directions of teaching and physical education students who are overweight and obese. It is shown that it is advisable to inform children and parents about the need to combine a balanced diet with exercise stress.

  8. [Oral hygiene customs in 6-12 year old schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, César Tadeo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Veras-Hernández, Miriam; De la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To characterize utilization of oral hygiene devices and customs in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a cross-sectional study in 1,404 schoolchildren (6- 12 year olds) from 14 public schools in Pachuca, Hidalgo, México, using a questionnaire for sociodemographic variables and 1) Tooth brushing frequency (customs were 85.5% tooth brushing, 90.9% toothpaste, 19.4% flossing, and 28.2% mouthwash. Only 11.8% of participants reported utilization in all 4 categories. We observed differences (p < 0.05) across sexes only in the use of toothpaste, as women used it more often. Differences across age were observed (p < 0.05) for tooth brushing (younger children brushed more often) and flossing (older children flossed more often). CONCLUSIONS. Tooth brushing was the oral hygiene practice more often performed in this sample, with other frequencies being relatively low. There were differences by age and sex across some variables.

  9. FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL CULTURE AND EDUCATION OF Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustamova Fakhrida Nazim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the formation of ecological culture and education of schoolchildren. The main goal of environmental education in schools - to bring conservationists, environmental knowledge to teach children to be compassionate, to love and protect nature, carefully dispose of its wealth. It is desirable that when teaching ecology students and pupils used a variety of games. This will have a positive impact on their environmental education.

  10. Sociodemographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in Mexican schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Chávez, Claudia Gabriela; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; Monterrubio-Flores, Eric; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-03-01

    Childhood obesity has increased rapidly in Mexico, along with changes in the food environment. However, little is known about the dietary patterns (DP) of Mexican children. We aimed to characterize the DP of schoolchildren and to analyse their associations with sociodemographic factors. Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary and sociodemographic information was obtained, including a single 24 h recall, socio-economic status (SES), geographic region, area of residence and ethnicity. DP were defined with cluster analysis (using k-means). Multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for the survey design, were used to assess associations between DP and sociodemographic variables. 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2012). Schoolchildren (n 2751) aged 5-11 years who participated in ENSANUT-2012. Four DP were identified: 'Traditional', 'Industrialized', 'Varied' and 'Modern'. Reported energy intake (mean (sd)) was lowest in the 'Traditional' and highest in the 'Industrialized' DP (7037 (3707) kJ/d (1682 (886) kcal/d) v. 8427 (3753) kJ/d (2014 (897) kcal/d), respectively, P<0·05). Significant differences in fat and fibre intakes were seen across DP. Non-indigenous v. indigenous children were 22·0 times (95 % CI 5·1, 93·6) more likely to have a 'Modern' rather than 'Traditional' DP. Relative likelihood of having an 'Industrialized' rather than 'Traditional' DP was 6·2 (95 % CI 3·9, 9·9) among schoolchildren from high SES v. low SES. Among Mexican schoolchildren, DP were associated with sociodemographic variables. Non-indigenous children were significantly more likely to consume a 'Modern' than a 'Traditional' DP. Children with higher SES were more likely to have an 'Industrialized' pattern. It is necessary to consider dietary characteristics in the different sociodemographic strata when dietary interventions are designed.

  11. Headache in Schoolchildren : Epidemiology, Pain Comorbidity and Psychosocial Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Laurell, Katarina

    2005-01-01

    Headache is the most frequently reported pain in children and is associated with missed schooldays, anxiety, depressive symptoms and various physical symptoms. A secular trend of increasing headache prevalence has been suggested. Few studies have focused on tension-type headache among children from the general population. The aims of this thesis were to describe the prevalence, incidence and prognosis of tension-type headache, migraine and overall headache in schoolchildren, to identify medi...

  12. Sexual behaviour, debut and identity among Swedish Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Kastbom, Åsa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexual behaviour among schoolchildren and adolescents is a sparsely researched area and there are delicate methodological obstacles and ethical concerns when conducting such research. Still it is a subject that engages both parents and professionals. A sexualized behaviour or an early sexual debut (younger than 14 years) can be a sign of sexual abuse. It is therefore of importance to describe what is common and what is uncommon sexual behaviour among children and what the conseque...

  13. Fetal growth and cardiovascular risk factors in Jamaican schoolchildren.

    OpenAIRE

    Forrester, T. E.; Wilks, R. J.; Bennett, F. I.; Simeon, D.; Osmond, C.; Allen, M.; Chung, A. P.; Scott, P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine relation between schoolchildren's blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin level, and cholesterol concentration and their anthropometry, socioeconomic status, and birth measurements. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort study. SETTING--27 schools closest to University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. SUBJECTS--2337 children aged 6-16 years who were born at university hospital were recruited, and their birth records were recovered: 1610 had suitable records, 659 had ...

  14. Sports activities enhance the prevalence of rhinitis symptoms in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Takashi; Takeuchi, Jiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Sakuma, Mio; Mukaida, Kumiko; Yasumi, Takahiro; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Heike, Toshio

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the association between sports activities and allergic symptoms, especially rhinitis, among schoolchildren. This longitudinal survey of schoolchildren collected data from questionnaires regarding allergic symptoms based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) program and sports participation that were distributed to the parents of children at all 12 public primary schools in Ohmi-Hachiman City, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Data were collected annually from 2011 until 2014, when the children reached 10 years of age. Blood samples were obtained in 2014, and the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E specific to four inhalant allergens were measured. Data from 558 children were analyzed. At 10 years of age, prevalence of asthma and eczema did not differ significantly, while rhinitis was significantly higher (p = 0.009) among children who participated in sports. Prevalence of rhinitis increased as the frequency or duration of sports participation increased (p sports (p = 0.03). Among those who participated in continuous sports activities, the prevalence of rhinitis was significantly higher with prolonged eczema (p = 0.006). Sports activities did not increase sensitization to inhalant allergens. Sports activities enhance the prevalence of rhinitis in schoolchildren. Prolonged eczema, together with sports participation, further promotes the symptoms. The mechanisms of these novel findings warrant further investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dental erosion and its association with diet in Libyan schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huew, R; Waterhouse, P J; Moynihan, P J; Kometa, S; Maguire, A

    2011-10-01

    To investigate any association between dental erosion and its potential dietary risk factors in a group of schoolchildren in Benghazi, Libya. A cross-sectional observational study. A random sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren in 36 randomly selected schools completed a questionnaire to provide dietary data and underwent dental examination. Dental erosion was assessed using UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000) criteria. Associations between erosion and dietary variables under study were investigated through processes of bivariate and multivariate analyses. Of 791 schoolchildren dentally examined, 40.8% had dental erosion; erosion into enamel affecting 32.5%, into dentine affecting 8% and into pulp affecting 0.3% of subjects. Bivariate analysis showed frequency of fruit-based sugary drink intake was statistically significantly and positively associated with erosion (p=0.006, Odds Ratio; 1.498, 95% CI; 1.124, 1.996) as was the length of time taken to consume acidic drinks (p≠0.005, Odds Ratio; 1.593, 95%CI; 1.161, 2.186). Additionally, multivariate analysis showed frequency of consumption of fruit other than bananas, sugared tea with milk and flavoured milk to also be positively associated with erosion (p=dental erosion.

  16. Hygienic aspects of physical education and health of schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Svystun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze the state of physical education in secondary schools of Ukraine and to observe hygienic requirements during physical education lessons. Material: the study was attended by schoolchildren (n=40, age - 12-13 years and schoolchildren of specialized sports classes (n=40, age - 14-16 years. Studied: the level of physical health; functional state of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems; the state of energy supply of children’s organism; the influence of mobile games on the functional capabilities of the body of children. To study the effects of physical exercises on the development of the muscular system of children, excretion of creatinine with urine was studied. Results: high levels of physical and functional status of young players are noticed. These data are significantly higher than similar data from their peers from non-sports classes. In the course of systematic training and competitions, excretion of creatinine decreases at the end of the season to 0.8 g/l. These changes point to a decrease in energy resources and are consistent with a decrease in the rapid qualities of young players (as a measure of overall physical fitness. In this group of pupils, there were 2-4% lessons in the classes: mostly because of colds. In schoolchildren of ordinary schools, indicators of physical development and functional status were significantly worse. The indicators of the lung capacity were 3500-3800 ml. The distance of 30 m children ran for 5,5±0,4 seconds. The index of the brush dynamometer was 35±1,8 kg. The results of the recovery of the heart rate after the metered loading were from 2 to 3 minutes. There is a shortage of body weight in 12% of schoolchildren. There is an overweight in 1,8% of schoolchildren. Conclusions: in the structure of children’s morbidity a high level of respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal tract, and eyes is allocated. Therefore, when taking physical training, such data should be taken into account. It

  17. [Epidemiological Study of Poor Visual Acuity among Schoolchildren in Bonin Islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Misae; Shimizu, Kimiya; Kawamorita, Takushi; Shoji, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the change in uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) among schoolchildren in Bonin Islands. UCVA of schoolchildren aged 6 to 14 years, was collected from reports of School Health Examination Surveys conducted from 1981 to 2012. The proportion of schoolchildren with poor UCVA in the Bonin Islands was compared with those in metropolitan Tokyo. The results in Bonin Islands were also divided into two groups, before- and after-1996 when terrestrial television broadcasting service has been started, and the data of those two groups were compared. The proportion of schoolchildren with poor UCVA in Bonin Islands was lower than that in Tokyo. Among the residents of Bonin Islands, the proportion of schoolchildren with UCVA of < 1.0 was higher in the after-1996 group than in the before- 1996 group, with a clear increase in schoolchildren with poor UCVA after 1996 (p < 0.01, Fisher's exact test), examined among the 4th grade of elementary school or above. After 1996, 26.6% of first graders at a public junior high school had poor UCVA of < 0.7, whereas before 1996 no such case could be detected. The present study revealed that the proportions of schoolchildren with poor UCVA in Bonin Islands was lower than that in Tokyo; but in the residents of Bonin Islands after 1996, the proportion of the schoolchildren with poor UCVA increased.

  18. Cognitive performance and iron status are negatively associated with hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khov, Kuong; Fiorentino, Marion; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection has been associated with lower cognitive performance of schoolchildren. To identify pathways through which STH infection might affect school performance, baseline data from a large rice-fortification trial in Cambodian schoolchildren were used to investig...

  19. The formation of logic thinking of junior schoolchildren during some extracurricular activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimov Vladimir Fedorovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the topical issue of formation of junior schoolchildren's mathematical abilities, discloses the modern scientific concept of General and specific mathematical abilities. The structure of mathematical abilities, analyzed the specificity of extra-curricular activities, which under favorable conditions accompanies the intellectual development of junior schoolchildren.

  20. A Structural and Functional Model for Forming Management Skills in Junior Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knissarina, Malika M.; Valikhanov, Sharidyar A.; Medeubayeva, Kenzhekhan T.; Zhazykova, Makpal K.; Rakhmetova, Bazar A.; Seytenova, Salima S.; Abil, Akmaral S.; Mukhangaliyeva, Shnargul Ai.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze theoretically and simulate the formation of management skills in junior schoolchildren. The authors classified junior schoolchildren's management skills, defined psychological and pedagogical principles of their formation. Empirically obtained results of questionnaires for teachers and parents (n=550)…

  1. Changing use and knowledge of fluoride toothpaste by schoolchildren, parents and schoolteachers in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Min; Zhu, Ling; Zhang, BoXue

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the oral hygiene practices, current use of and knowledge about fluoride toothpaste among schoolchildren, parents, and schoolteachers; to describe the attitudes of parents and schoolteachers in relation to improving schoolchildren's oral health. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study....... PARTICIPANTS: 1,557 schoolchildren, 1,132 parents, and 352 schoolteachers were recruited by multistage stratified sampling procedure in a district of Beijing, China. METHODS: Self-completed questionnaire. RESULTS: The percentage of schoolchildren, parents, and schoolteachers who actually used fluoride...... toothpaste was 88%, 86%, and 87%, respectively, and 74-78% of the respondent groups brushed their teeth twice a day or more. 64% of schoolchildren, 73% of parents, and 74% of schoolteachers confirmed the caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste. Toothpaste recommended by oral health professional...

  2. No evidence of radiation risk for thyroid gland among schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Aiko; Takamura, Noboru; Meirmanov, Serik; Alipov, Gabit; Mine, Mariko; Ensebaev, Ruslan; Sagandikova, Sagadat; Ohashi, Toshinori; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2003-02-01

    To assess thyroid status among the schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), Kazakhstan, and to evaluate the current status of iodine deficiency in this area, we performed medical screening of schoolchildren in two villages, Kaynar and Karaul villages, East Kazakhstan Region, Republic of Kazakhstan, located within 100 km of SNTS. A total of 196 schoolchildren were chosen at random. Control groups comprised 250 schoolchildren from Nagasaki, an iodine-rich area, and 100 schoolchildren from Gomel, an iodine-deficient area contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Ultrasound screening of thyroid revealed three cases of benign thyroid disease (two cases of goiter and one single cyst), but no cases suspicious of malignancy. The urinary iodine (UI) concentrations of subjects in Kaynar and Karaul ranged from 21.8 to 735.8 microg/L, 4.3% of whom showed low UI concentrations (tests carried out in SNTS.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren: 30-year evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes Ferrari, Gerson Luis de; Bracco, Mario Maia; Matsudo, Victor K Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    To compare the changes in cardiorespiratory fitness in evaluations performed every ten years since 1978/1980, according to the nutritional status and gender of students in the city of Ilhabela, Brazil. The study is part of the Mixed Longitudinal Project on Growth, Development and Physical Fitness of Ilhabela. The study included 1,291 students of both genders, aged 10 to 11 years old. The study periods were: 1978/1980, 1988/1990, 1998/2000, and 2008/2010. The variables analyzed were: body weight, height, and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max - L.min-1 and mL.kg-1.min-1) performed using a submaximal progressive protocol on a cycle ergometer. Individuals were classified as normal weight and overweight according to curves proposed by the World Health Organization of body mass index for age and gender. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with three factors followed by the Bonferroni method were used to compare the periods. The number of normal weight individuals (61%) was higher than that of overweight. There was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in both genders. Among the schoolchildren with normal weight, there was a decrease of 22% in males and 26% in females. In overweight schoolchildren, males showed a decrease of 12.7% and females, of 18%. During a 30-year analysis with reviews every ten years from 1978/1980, there was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in schoolchildren of both genders, which cannot be explained by the nutritional status. The decline in cardiorespiratory fitness was greater in individuals with normal weight than in overweight individuals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Procedures for central auditory processing screening in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nádia Giulian de; Ubiali, Thalita; Amaral, Maria Isabel Ramos do; Santos, Maria Francisca Colella

    2018-03-22

    Central auditory processing screening in schoolchildren has led to debates in literature, both regarding the protocol to be used and the importance of actions aimed at prevention and promotion of auditory health. Defining effective screening procedures for central auditory processing is a challenge in Audiology. This study aimed to analyze the scientific research on central auditory processing screening and discuss the effectiveness of the procedures utilized. A search was performed in the SciELO and PUBMed databases by two researchers. The descriptors used in Portuguese and English were: auditory processing, screening, hearing, auditory perception, children, auditory tests and their respective terms in Portuguese. original articles involving schoolchildren, auditory screening of central auditory skills and articles in Portuguese or English. studies with adult and/or neonatal populations, peripheral auditory screening only, and duplicate articles. After applying the described criteria, 11 articles were included. At the international level, central auditory processing screening methods used were: screening test for auditory processing disorder and its revised version, screening test for auditory processing, scale of auditory behaviors, children's auditory performance scale and Feather Squadron. In the Brazilian scenario, the procedures used were the simplified auditory processing assessment and Zaidan's battery of tests. At the international level, the screening test for auditory processing and Feather Squadron batteries stand out as the most comprehensive evaluation of hearing skills. At the national level, there is a paucity of studies that use methods evaluating more than four skills, and are normalized by age group. The use of simplified auditory processing assessment and questionnaires can be complementary in the search for an easy access and low-cost alternative in the auditory screening of Brazilian schoolchildren. Interactive tools should be proposed, that

  5. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  6. Does self-efficacy mediate the association between socioeconomic background and emotional symptoms among schoolchildren?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Nielsen, Line

    2016-01-01

    in the association between occupational social class (OSC) and emotional symptoms. METHODS: Data stem from the cross-sectional Health Behavior in School-aged Children-Methodology Development Survey 2012 (HBSC-MDS) conducted among 11-15-year old schoolchildren in two Danish municipalities. Participation rate was 76.......8 % of 5165 enrolled schoolchildren, n = 3969. RESULTS: Low OSC is associated with higher odds of daily emotional symptoms and low selfefficacy. Schoolchildren with low self-efficacy have higher odds for daily emotional symptoms. We find a strong and statistically significant direct effect between low OSC...

  7. Fitness, Fatness and Active School Commuting among Liverpool Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Noonan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated differences in health outcomes between active and passive school commuters, and examined associations between parent perceptions of the neighborhood environment and active school commuting (ASC. One hundred-ninety-four children (107 girls, aged 9–10 years from ten primary schools in Liverpool, England, participated in this cross-sectional study. Measures of stature, body mass, waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF were taken. School commute mode (active/passive was self-reported and parents completed the neighborhood environment walkability scale for youth. Fifty-three percent of children commuted to school actively. Schoolchildren who lived in more deprived neighborhoods perceived by parents as being highly connected, unaesthetic and having mixed land-use were more likely to commute to school actively (p < 0.05. These children were at greatest risk of being obese and aerobically unfit(p < 0.01. Our results suggest that deprivation may explain the counterintuitive relationship between obesity, CRF and ASC in Liverpool schoolchildren. These findings encourage researchers and policy makers to be equally mindful of the social determinants of health when advocating behavioral and environmental health interventions. Further research exploring contextual factors to ASC, and examining the concurrent effect of ASC and diet on weight status by deprivation is needed.

  8. Screening for secondhand smoke in schoolchildren in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Toshihiro; Kurosawa, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    There is no systematic screening for secondhand smoke exposure in children. In 2002, we began a secondhand smoke screening (SSS) program for grade 4 elementary schoolchildren with the cooperation of public administration. The SSS program consisted of urinary cotinine measurement in children and a questionnaire survey of their parents. More than 1200 schoolchildren were enrolled in this program annually. The level of urinary cotinine in 30% of the children was >5 ng/mL, whereas in half of them it was undetectable. The major risk factor affecting cotinine level was mother's smoking. Average cotinine was significantly high in children who had a history of "short stature", "decayed tooth and/or periodontal disease," and "frequent stridor". In addition, the highest level of cotinine was detected in children whose father and/or mother smoked in the living room and the lowest level of cotinine was detected in children whose father and/or mother smoked on the veranda or outside the door. These levels, however, were two-fivefold higher than in children whose parents did not smoke. On follow-up questionnaire survey 4 years after initial SSS, significant elevated motivation for smoking cessation was noted. The SSS program is a very simple mass screen that can be done using only a urine test and is very effective for motivating parents to stop smoking with regard to cost benefit. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Malocclusion: esthetic impact and quality of life among Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the esthetic impact of malocclusion on the daily life of Brazilian schoolchildren and to test the association between esthetic impact due to malocclusion and biopsychosocial variables. The sample comprised 333 randomly selected subjects aged 10 to 14 years. The oral impact on daily performance (OIDP) instrument was used to assess the esthetic impact, and the dental aesthetic index (DAI) was used for clinical assessment. The subjects were further evaluated as to their self-esteem (global self-evaluation) and self-perception of oral esthetics (oral aesthetic subjective impact scale). Other variables were assessed through questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was used in the data analysis. Twenty-seven percent of the children reported an esthetic impact on their daily lives due to malocclusion. The following variables were independent risk factors for an esthetic impact: female sex, maxillary anterior crowding of 2 mm or more, normative need for treatment considered elective and highly desirable, negative self-perception of oral esthetics, low self-esteem, and intermediate economic level. The esthetic impact of malocclusion significantly affects the quality of life of schoolchildren in Belo Horizonte.

  10. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, Letizia; Masucci, Caterina; Ferro, Fabrizia; Apicella, Davide; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-02-01

    The present survey was performed to determine orthodontic treatment need in a large sample (n = 703) of 12-year-old schoolchildren from the southern part of Italy. The sample comprised 331 males (47 per cent) and 372 females (53 per cent), all orthodontically untreated. Two examiners, who had been previously trained in the use of occlusal indices, screened all the schoolchildren. The prevalence rates for the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) as well as for occlusal features (Angle Class, overjet, overbite, crowding, posterior crossbite) were calculated for the total sample. The IOTN grades were statistically compared in the two genders using the chi-square test. The findings indicated that this southern Italian school population showed a rather low prevalence rate for objective need for treatment (grades 4 and 5; 27.3 per cent of the total sample). This prevalence rate is generally lower than those reported in northern and central European countries (Sweden, Germany, and UK) but slightly greater than those in France. No significant differences in the DHC grades of the IOTN were found between genders. Among the occlusal features diagnosed in the subjects examined, a high prevalence rate was found for crowding (45.9 per cent). Moreover, posterior crossbites and Class III malocclusions, which would presumably have benefited from early orthodontic intervention, were still present in 14.2 and 4.3 per cent of the students, respectively.

  11. Gender aspects in cardiopulmonary resuscitation by schoolchildren: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Simon-Richard; Schroeder, Daniel C; Ecker, Hannes; Wingen, Sabine; Hinkelbein, Jochen; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Köhler, Daniela; Böttiger, Bernd W

    2018-04-01

    Bystander CPR-rates are embarrassingly low in some European countries. To increase bystander CPR-rates, many different approaches are used; one of them is training of schoolchildren in CPR. Multiple authors investigated practical and theoretical CPR performance and demonstrated gender differences related to schoolchildren CPR. The objective was to elaborate gender aspects in practical and theoretical CPR-performance from the current literature to better address female and male students. A systematic search in PubMed-database with different search terms was performed for controlled and uncontrolled prospective investigations. Altogether, n = 2360 articles were identified and checked for aptitude. From n = 97 appropriated articles, n = 24 met the inclusion criteria and were finally included for full review and incorporated in the manuscript. Female students demonstrated higher motivation to attend CPR-training (p multiplier effect (p multiplier and need to be individually addressed in intensified practical training. Male students achieve a more sufficient chest compression depth and -fraction and could benefit from individual motivation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Studying Individual Distinctions in Psychological Manifestations of Diligence of Senior Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Kameneva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of the research of the psychological structure of diligence of the senior schoolchildren carried out in the vein of A.I. Krupnov's system-functional approach.

  13. Reasons of Aggressive Behaviour Against School Fellows, Its Frequency, Forms: Reaction of Schoolchildren, Teachers and Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article, which is based on conducted research data, analyzes an attitude of schoolchildren, teachers and parents towards the reasons of schoolchildren’s aggressive behaviour, its frequency and forms. Different factors and motives that stimulate the aggressiveness of schoolchildren, who go to the city, village and different professional (arts and technology schools are examined. Schoolchildren’s approach towards violence against school fellows and themselves is being discussed, as well as reaction of teachers and parents to this phenomenon. The article reveals opinion of schoolchildren, teachers, and parents about the means used to prevent violence towards schoolchildren and existing ways that can be used to make preventive means to be more effective.

  14. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Schoolchildren's Educational Aspirations in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Dong-Beom; Chung, Il-Hwan

    2000-01-01

    Examined the relationships between maternal employment and schoolchildren's educational aspirations in Korea. Found that children whose mothers were working full-time had lower educational aspirations, although maternal involvement and parents' educational expectations mitigated these effects. (JPB)

  15. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: Unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyes, K.M.; Susser, E.S.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Hamilton, A.; Bitfoi, A.; Goelitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess, V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in

  16. Modern approaches of control of spatial organization of schoolchildren body in the process of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar O.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology of control of spatial organization of body of schoolboys is developed. Technology includes the diagnostic, informative and practical stages. Research is oriented to the schoolchildren 7-16 years. The diagnostic stage is supposed by a complex inspection and express control of spatial organization of bodies. The informative stage includes computer treatment of research results. The practical stage consists of development of recommendations on the correction of indexes of spatial organization of body of schoolchildren. Logical component allows to expose the level of knowledge of parents and teachers of physical culture about control of spatial organization of body of schoolchildren. The developed technology allows to carry out timely diagnostics of violations of spatial organization of body of schoolchildren and estimate adequacy of pedagogical influences.

  17. Dental caries and its association with sociodemographics, erosion, and diet in schoolchildren from southeast Brazil.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Auad, Sheyla Marcia

    2009-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of caries in a sample of Brazilian schoolchildren, test associotions between caries, sociodemographics, and erosion, and investigate potential dietary factors common to both conditions.

  18. LEVEL OF HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN 8-9 YEARS OLD SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM SPAIN AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of physical activity of people is a very important issue internationally. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the level of habitual physical activity in 8-9 years old schoolchildren from Spain and India. With this purpose, it was administered the questionnaire PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise in a sample of 85 schoolchildren (44 from Spain and 41 from India. The results showed that the sample studied does not do enough physical activity, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, as they do at least 60 minutes of physical activity; only an average of 3.13 days/week (SD=1.91. 8-year-old schoolchildren do more physical activity than 9-year-old schoolchildren in both countries; boys do more physical activity than girls in both countries; schoolchildren from India do more physical activity than schoolchildren from Spain. Therefore, it is concluded that the level of physical activity is insufficient, decreases slightly with the age and is higher in India.

  19. [Assessment of the nutritional status, physical activity, and eating habits of schoolchildren in Cercado de Lima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparco, Juan Pablo; Bautista-Olórtegui, William; Astete-Robilliard, Laura; Pillaca, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    To assess the nutritional status, physical activity, and eating habits of schoolchildren in Cercado de Lima (Lima district). Cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample included schoolchildren from first to fourth grade in four public elementary schools located in Cercado de Lima. The study variables were nutritional status, hemoglobin dose, physical activity, and eating habits. The percentages of the qualitative variables and central tendency measures for quantitative ones were calculated. The t-test and chi-squared test were applied to analyze differences between both genders. Of 824 schoolchildren included in the study, 24% were obese, 22% were overweight, 5% had short stature, and 11.9% had anemia; in all instances, there were no substantial gender differences. More than 40% of schoolchildren would eat crackers and drink packaged juice and/or soda two or more times a week. In addition, 28% of schoolchildren were inactive; there were significant differences in both genders (P<0.05). Obesity is an ongoing problem with higher rates than overweight and, together, the aforementioned problems affect almost 50% of schoolchildren surveyed. Similarly, the study revealed patterns associated with a sedentary lifestyle and frequent consumption of foods with high levels of sugar, salt, and/or fats.

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection and serum leptin, obestatin, and ghrelin levels in Mexican schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-González, Carolina; Mendoza, Eugenia; Mera, Robertino M; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael; Chico-Aldama, Patricia; Gomez-Diaz, Rita; Duque, Ximena

    2017-10-01

    BackgroundThere is little information about the possible role of Helicobacter pylori infection on appetite-regulating peptides in children. This study evaluated the association between H. pylori infection and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin in schoolchildren.MethodsOne hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren, students at boarding schools in Mexico City, participated. H. pylori infection status was determined every 6 months for 1 year by a breath test using 13 C-urea; schoolchildren with consistently positive or negative results were selected to participate. Age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Serum concentrations of total ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin via specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were determined.ResultsSchoolchildren with H. pylori infection had lower concentration of leptin, -0.54 pg/ml (95% CI: -0.98 to -0.09), compared to the schoolchildren without infection, after adjustment by age, gender, and BMI. And the children with the infection had a median of obestatin lower in 0.99 ng/ml (95% CI: -1.93 to -0.06) compared with the uninfected children after adjustment by BMI.ConclusionAssociation was found between H. pylori infection and decreased serum concentrations of leptin and obestatin. These results suggest that in schoolchildren, H. pylori infection affects the levels of hormones implicated in regulating appetite and energy homeostasis.

  1. Artictis and creative development of junior schoolchildren during the labor education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Леся Василівна Старовойт

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a topical problem of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren during labor process. There were considered the diverse aspects of problem of personal creative activity. The special attention was paid to importance of combining labor, creation and artistic activity in educational process. On the base of experimental research there was considered the modern state of artistic and creative development of pupils in elementary school. By analysis of the theory and practice of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren during labor education there was determined inexpediency of excessive reproductive approach to the labor activity of children that impedes emotional, spiritual and esthetic development transforming the work of children into the boring and ineffective one. There was determined the criteria of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren during the labor education. During the study there were defined principles that reveal content, essence and nature of creation. There were defined peculiarities of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren at the lessons of labor education and distinguished the main sings that characterize mechanism of creative activity of junior schoolchildren. There was grounded pedagogical expediency of artistic and creative approach to the work with junior schoolchildren

  2. Dental caries and oral health behavior in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Moradabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Kabasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. It is important to organize community-oriented oral health promotion programs, so that information on oral health status and oral health behavior can be obtained. Aim: To investigate the caries experienced and oral health behavior in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Moradabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Five hundred and twelve schoolchildren (256 private and 256 government 12 year old schoolchildren were selected through multistage random sampling procedure. Dental caries was recorded using Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT/Decayed, Missing, Filled Surface (DMFS index. Data on oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavioral practices were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Results: The mean DMFT/DMFS among private schoolchildren (1.90 ± 1.46/3.24 ± 3.18 was significantly higher than the government schoolchildren (1.54 ± 1.34/2.22 ± 2.42. The survey found that 26.95% of the private and 19.53% of the government schoolchildren brushed their teeth regularly (twice a day with toothbrush and toothpaste. The study participants also reported having hidden sugar at least once a day: Sweets (34.77% of the private schoolchildren and 25% of the government schoolchildren and tea/coffee with sugar (61.33% of the private schoolchildren and 54.29% of the government schoolchildren. Dental visits of both private and government schoolchildren were poor. Conclusion: The difference in oral health behavior among the private and government schoolchildren may have influenced the DMFT/DMFS values and provided knowledge about the disease experience. In addition to preventing oral disease and promoting oral health, the local health authorities should give priority to school-based community-oriented oral healthcare services.

  3. [Schoolchildren's visual acuity in the dynamics of learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukikh, M M; Voinov, V B; Kul'ba, S N; Shurygina, I P

    2014-12-01

    The results of the screening study of the acuity of schoolchildren between 7 and 17 years old living in Rostov Region of the Russian Federation are discussed in the article. The method of computer optometry was used to measure acuity. 93772 pupils, 48621 girls and 45151 boys, from 150 schools participated in this examination. It was found that there is sustained growth of those with low acuity (0,2 and less) among children of both sexes from junior group (7 years) to the senior (17). The signs of the decline in visual acuity among girls (14%) are manifested earlier than in boys (8%). The decline in visual acuity among 7-8-year-old children is about 3%. While comparing children from rural areas with those from big cities a true dependence of the parameter (acuity) on the factors (city and sex) was found.

  4. School satisfaction and social relations: Swedish schoolchildren's improvement suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Louise; Haraldsson, Katarina; Hagquist, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to explore schoolchildren's views on how to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Improvement suggestions were collected from school children aged 10-12 years with the help of a feedback model developed for the purpose. Qualitative content analysis was used. Two categories emerged from the analysis: 'psychosocial climate', which included the subcategories 'adults' roles and responsibilities' and 'classmates' norms and values'; 'influence', which included the subcategories 'changes in the physical environment' and 'flexible learning'. The categories are seen as important to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Examining children's opinions is requested and promoted by the UN convention on the Rights of the Child. The findings contribute to the field by showing how school satisfaction and social relations might be improved, if the child perspective is considered in the planning of health promotion activities in school.

  5. Socioeconomic inequality and child maltreatment in Iranian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Z; Nedjat, S; Aflatouni, A; Mahram, M; Majdzadeh, R

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and child maltreatment have not been studied using the concentration index as an indicator of inequality. The study aimed to assess the association of child maltreatment with socioeconomic status among schoolchildren in Qazvin province, Islamic Republic of Iran. In this cross-sectional study a questionnaire based on the ISPCAN Child Maltreatment Screening Tool-Children's Version and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire was filled by 1028 children aged 9-14 years, selected through multistage stratified random sampling. The concentration indices for economic inequality were -0.086 for any type of child maltreatment and -0.155, -0.098 and -0.139 for the physical, psychological and neglect subtypes of maltreatment respectively. The number of children and the economic status of the family also showed a significant association with child maltreatment in all 3 subtypes. Appropriate planning for effective interventions for at-risk children of lower socioeconomic status should be considered by the relevant decision-makers.

  6. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  7. Writing Tasks and Immediate Auditory Memory in Peruvian Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ventura-León

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is determine the relationship between a group of writing tasks and the immediate auditory memory, as well as to establish differences according to sex and level of study. Two hundred and three schoolchildren of fifth and sixth of elementary education from Lima (Peru participated, they were selected by a non-probabilistic sample. The Immediate Auditory Memory Test and the Battery for Evaluation of Writing Processes (known in Spanish as PROESC were used. Central tendency measures were used for descriptive analysis. We employed the Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman Rho test and probability of superiority as effect size measurement for the inferential analysis. The results indicated a moderate direct and significant correlation between writing tasks and immediate auditory memory in general way and low correlations between dimensions. Finally, it showed that the differences in immediate auditory memory and writing tasks according to sex and level of study does not have practical significance.

  8. Motivation of schoolchildren and students for health related tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Mulyk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of schoolchildren’s and students’ motivation for different kinds of health related tourism. Material: In the research 50 pupils of 5-9 forms and 50 first and forth year students participated. They were offered to attentively read 15 motives and assess their significance by 10-points scale. Results: questioning permitted to study schoolchildren’s and students’ motivation for tourism. It was found that with age priority of motivation for health related tourism changes. For example, motives of health as well as social ones are to larger extent intrinsic to students. At the same time emotional motives (enjoyment with trainings are important for schoolchildren. Conclusions: the highest motivation was found in wish to develop physical qualities (1217 points, pleasant spending of time (1135 points and enjoying with trainings (1240 points.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in a population of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Rodrigues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. This study was designed to evaluate BP and metabolic parameters of schoolchildren from Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and correlate them with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted on 380 students aged 10-14 years (177 boys, 203 girls enrolled in public schools. Baseline measurements included body mass index, BP and heart rate. The students were submitted to exercise spirometry on a treadmill. VO2max was obtained from exercise testing to voluntary exhaustion. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose were measured. Nine point nine percent of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were hypertensive or had pre-hypertensive levels. There was no significant correlation between VO2max and TC, LDL-C, or TG in prepubertal children, but a slight negative correlation was detected in post-pubertal boys for HDL-C and TG. In addition, children with hypertension (3.4% or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6% also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C. The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. These are important for the formulation of public health policies and strategies.

  10. Otitis Media and Its Sequelae in Kenyan Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Eric A F; Kiio, Francis; Carosone-Link, Phyllis J; Ndegwa, Serah N; Ayugi, John; Macharia, Isaac M

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain representative Kenyan data on the point prevalence of acute otitis media (AOM) and its sequelae (otitis media with effusion [OME] and chronic suppurative otitis media [CSOM]), a major cause of preventable hearing loss in children in developing countries. In Africa, there are limited studies on the prevalence of AOM and its sequelae in children. Study subjects were children aged 2 to 15 years and were enrolled from randomly selected preprimary and primary schools. After parental or guardian consent, subjects had a questionnaire administered, otoscopy and tympanometry were done, and audiometry was performed on those with ear problems detected on these examinations. A total of 9825 (75%) children was from rural schools. The prevalence of CSOM was 15 of 1000, OME was 15 of 1000, and AOM was 7 of 1000 children. Rural Rift Valley schoolchildren had the highest prevalence of CSOM (24 of 1000) compared with other regions (12 of 1000; P < .0001). Ear discharge occurred before 3.5 years in 50% of 901 children with ear discharge. A history of ear discharge was associated with abnormal tympanograms (odds ratio [OR], 11.9-19.2) and mild-to-severe hearing loss (OR, 21.6-38.6), even in children without ear disease (OR, 10.7-24.4). The burden of AOM sequelae in Kenyan preschool and schoolchildren is significant, and it occurs mostly in the first 4 years of life. By preventing early recurrent AOM, pneumococcal vaccination might partly avert nonreversible sequelae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Risk factors for gingivitis in a group of Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapinotto, Fabiana Amaral; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Corrêa, Fernanda Oliveira Bello; Masotti, Alexandre Severo

    2013-01-01

    Studies on gingivitis in children and adolescents are scarce and the results are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and extension of gingivitis and associated factors in Brazilian schoolchildren. Cross-sectional data from 1,211 schoolchildren 8 to 12 years old from Southern Brazil in 20 public and private schools were analyzed. Socioeconomic, demographic, and oral hygiene habits were assessed by questionnaires answered by parents and children. Buccal examination assessed presence of plaque, crowding, and gingivitis. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression [prevalence ratio (PR); 95% confidence interval (CI)]. Prevalence of visible plaque was 89.7% (95% CI 88.0-91.3) and gingival bleeding on probing was 78.4% (95% CI 76.1-81.0). The mean and median numbers of sites with gingival bleeding were 3.10 and 2 (SD ± 3.22), respectively. In multivariate adjusted analysis, the presence of a greater number of sites with plaque was significantly associated with gingivitis (PR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07-1.47) and its extension (PR 1.96; 95% CI 1.53-2.51). Lighter-skinned black children had a lower probability of having severe gingivitis (PR 0.69; 95% CI 0.48-0.98) compared with white children. This association was observed after adjusting for other variables. Gingivitis was associated with higher number of sites with plaque and with skin color, reflecting the influence of biological and demographic factors on this oral condition. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. Vision Problems and Reduced Reading Outcomes in Queensland Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Shelley; Sampson, Geoff P; Hendicott, Peter L; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-03-01

    To assess the relationship between vision and reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren to determine whether vision problems are associated with lower reading outcomes in these populations. Vision testing and reading assessments were performed on 508 Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia divided into two age groups: Grades 1 and 2 (6-7 years of age) and Grades 6 and 7 (12-13 years of age). Vision parameters measured included cycloplegic refraction, near point of convergence, heterophoria, fusional vergence range, rapid automatized naming, and visual motor integration. The following vision conditions were then classified based on the vision findings: uncorrected hyperopia, convergence insufficiency, reduced rapid automatized naming, and delayed visual motor integration. Reading accuracy and reading comprehension were measured with the Neale reading test. The effect of uncorrected hyperopia, convergence insufficiency, reduced rapid automatized naming, and delayed visual motor integration on reading accuracy and reading comprehension were investigated with ANCOVAs. The ANCOVAs explained a significant proportion of variance in both reading accuracy and reading comprehension scores in both age groups, with 40% of the variation in reading accuracy and 33% of the variation in reading comprehension explained in the younger age group, and 27% and 10% of the variation in reading accuracy and reading comprehension, respectively, in the older age group. The vision parameters of visual motor integration and rapid automatized naming were significant predictors in all ANCOVAs (P reading results were explained by reduced visual motor integration and rapid automatized naming results. Both reduced rapid automatized naming and visual motor integration were associated with poorer reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. This is an important finding given the recent emphasis placed on Indigenous children

  13. MEANS OF ORIENTEERING IN EDUCATION OF JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Mayorkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the adapted methods of basic training in orienteering (BTIO on the correction of physical fitness and mental development of junior schoolchildren with intellectual disability (ID.Methods. The following methods were used: theoretical analysis of literature, generalization, «forming» experiment, mathematical statistics, testing of physical qualities, psychological testing and pedagogical observation.Results and scientific novelty. The conditions of basic training in orienteering for junior schoolchildren with intellectual disability are determined wherein the correction of physical fitness and mental functions through the means of orienteering will be the most effective. Methods of basic training were substantiated and adapted for the capabilities of junior schoolchildren with ID. The author has defined the effect of orienteering exercises on the development of speed-andstrength qualities, overall endurance, movement speed, coordination; fine motor skills; stability, volume and switching of attention, volume of picturesque and verbal memory, representational thought and verbal-logical thinking; volitional qualities.The study has revealed wholesome influence of orienteering on correction of physical fitness and mental functions of schoolchildren of 9–10 years with intellectual disability.Practical significance. The results could be used for education of junior schoolchildren with ID during extra classes in special (correctional schools of Type-7 and during remedial classes (remedial and developing teaching in schools of general education. The results could also be applied for training of teachers of additional education. The adapted methods of BTIO for junior schoolchildren with ID could be used for normally developing children of younger age. Practical recommendations on the organization and conditions of orienteering exercises for junior schoolchildren with ID, games and intellectual

  14. High Iodine and Salt Intakes and Obesity do not Modify the Thyroid Function in Mexican Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations.

  15. Urinary Glucose Screening for Early Detection of Asymptomatic Type 2 Diabetes in Jeonbuk Province Korean Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Dae Yeol

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of glucosuria and the characteristics of diabetes in schoolchildren as detected by a school urine glucose screening program implemented from 2010 to 2013 in the Jeonbuk province area of Korea. A total of 110 children without known diabetes were analyzed. They were checked with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with other laboratory tests and their clinical data were collected. A total of 707,238 schoolchildren from a school population of 1,064,999 were screened for glucosuria. In total, over a 4-year period, 545 schoolchildren (0.077%) were positive for glucosuria on the second urine test. The prevalence of glucosuria was more common among middle and high schoolchildren than among elementary schoolchildren. Among 110 students who completed the OGTT to confirm diabetes, 40 were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM); 39 children, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 1 child, slowly progressive insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM). The mean annual incidence of diabetes was 5.6 per 100,000 schoolchildren and adolescents. The subjects with diabetes diagnosed through the urine screening test showed minimal or no symptoms of diabetes. The students with diabetes were more likely to be woman and obese, and they have a higher body mass index, higher cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, C-peptide, and fasting glucosuria values than the students with normal glucose tolerance. We identified 40 new cases of diabetes in the Korean schoolchildren with asymptomatic glucosuria on urine glucose screening. This finding shows that school urine glucose screening is a feasible and simple method for early detection of asymptomatic T2DM. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  16. Prevalence of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cassiano Arashiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and types of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.Method: Six hundred and sixty schoolchildren at three schools in the municipality of Campinas were examined. The age bracket ranged from 6.5 up to18.1 years (mean ± s.d. = 12.2 ± 2.3 years The intraoral clinical exams were performed by four duly trained and calibrated dentists, consisted of visual inspection using only disposable wooden spatulas and millimetric probes, performed in rooms provided by the schools, with good conditions of visibility and natural lighting. The criteria adopted for classifying normal and malocclusion were those stipulated by Andrews1, Angle2 and Maia3. Results: The data obtained indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the genders. Malocclusion was found in 87.4% of the schoolchildren examined, in agreement with the majority of Brazilian and International studies. Class I malocclusion was the most prevalent (39.7% among the schoolchildren examined, followed by Class II, with 36% of the cases, and there was higher prevalence of Class II division 1 (22.7% in comparison with Class II division 2 (13.3%. Class III malocclusion was present in 11.7% of the sample.Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion, irrespective of gender, in the studied population of schoolchildren. The most prevalent malocclusion was Class I, followed by Class I division 1.

  17. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoans among Schoolchildren in Suburban Areas near Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Song, Hyemi; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Cho, Seon; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-06-01

    Although intestinal protozoans are common etiologies of diarrhea, few studies have been conducted in Myanmar. This study planned to investigate the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana among schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. We performed a cross-sectional survey among schoolchildren and their guardians from 7 primary schools in South Dagon and Hlaing Thar Yar districts, Yangon, Myanmar. Stool samples were observed with a microscope after concentration technique and iodine staining. Total 821 stool samples, including 556 from schoolchildren and 265 from guardians, were examined. The median age was 6 years old for schoolchildren and 36 years old for guardians. A 53.1% of the school children and 14.6 % of the guardians were males. The overall prevalence of each intestinal protozoan species was as follows: 3.4% (28/821) for G. lamblia; 3.5% (29/821) for E. coli; 1.2% (10/821) for E. histoytica, and 3.0% for E. nana. This study showed that intestinal protozoans are common in primary schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. Health interventions, such as hand washing education, improvement of sanitation, and establishment of water purification systems are urgently needed in this area.

  18. Ergonomic footwear for Sri Lankan primary schoolchildren: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettigama, I S; Punchihewa, H K G; Heenkenda, N K

    2016-10-17

    Foot ailments are common among schoolchildren, some of which may be attributed to wearing ill-fitting footwear. As schoolchildren often participate in athletic activity, they are doubly vulnerable to foot ailments, and are particularly vulnerable to conditions such as hallux valgus, Achilles tendonitis, athlete's foot, corns and calluses. Thus, there is an acute need for the design and manufacture of ergonomic footwear for this target group. While research on appropriate footwear for children has been carried out in relation to child populations in other societies, research on the circumstances of Sri Lankan schoolchildren is lacking. Neither the requisite design know-how nor the information for design is available to footwear manufacturers. This review of the literature is aimed at confirming the need for ergonomic footwear from the point of view of the effects of wearing ill-fitting shoes and at identifying the requirements in terms of design information, especially for schoolchildren of the age group five to ten years, to empower footwear manufacturers. PubMed, Google scholar and Science Direct were used for the literature search. 208 publications were read in full, 94 of which are referenced in this review. The review shows morphological measurements, behavior and activity patterns of schoolchildren and environmental conditions they are exposed to should be determined to formulate design information.

  19. Schoolteachers' awareness about scholastic performance and nutritional status of Egyptian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Osman M; Ismail, Ibrahim; Gohar, Azza S; Foster, Zoë

    2005-06-01

    Malnutrition disorders affect more than 30% of schoolchildren in Egypt. This problem appears to be largely attributable to poor dietary quality and micronutrient deficiencies, such as iron and vitamin A. Inadequate nutrition intake has important implications because malnutrition has been shown to negatively affect the cognitive development of primary schoolchildren. This study assesses the awareness of schoolteachers about the impact of malnutrition on the scholastic performance of primary schoolchildren living in Egypt. Two focus group discussions were conducted with Egyptian schoolteachers from the Quena and Kharbia Governorates. The study indicates that schoolteachers consider low body weight and thinness as the primary signs of malnutrition. They do not prioritize malnutrition as a factor for poor scholastic performance. They also suggest that unhealthful eating habits, especially a lack of breakfast, negatively affect children's interaction with schoolteachers and their ability to excel in their studies. Schoolteachers endorse a more reliable and nutritionally valuable school-feeding program as a way to increase the scholastic performance of their students. The teachers advocate developing integrated programs between the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health and Population, teachers, children, and parents that provide nutrition education. A lack of awareness among teachers about the relationship of nutrition and cognitive function can lead to the misdiagnosis or delayed management of malnourished and scholastically challenged schoolchildren. This paper suggests that proper school-feeding programs and nutrition education programs, which integrate government ministries, teachers, children and parents, should be developed to improve the physical and cognitive health status of Egyptian schoolchildren.

  20. Schoolchildren as BLS instructors for relatives and friends: Impact on attitude towards bystander CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroobants, Jan; Monsieurs, Koenraad; Devriendt, Bart; Dreezen, Christa; Vets, Philippe; Mols, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the impact of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) instruction by children on the attitude of people to perform bystander CPR. In 2012, children from primary and secondary school (age span 11–13 years) received a free individual CPR training package containing an inexpensive manikin and a training video. After a CPR training session by their class teacher, they were invited to teach their relatives and friends. After the training, the trainees of the children were invited to participate in a web survey, containing a test and questions about prior CPR training and about their attitude towards bystander CPR (BCPR) before and after the training. We measured the impact on the attitude to perform BCPR and the theoretical knowledge transfer by the children. A total of 4012 training packages were distributed to 72 schools of which 55 class teachers subscribed their students (n = 822) for the training programme for relatives and friends. After a validation procedure, 874 trainees of 290 children were included in the study. In comparison to trainees of secondary schoolchildren, trainees of primary schoolchildren scored better for the test as well as for a positive change of attitude towards future BCPR (P attitude towards BCPR positively. Instructing schoolchildren to teach their relatives and friends in Basic Life Support (BLS) led to a more positive attitude towards BCPR. The results were more positive with trainees from primary schoolchildren than with trainees from secondary schoolchildren.

  1. Problem solution as a guided activity with Mexican schoolchildren

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    Solovieva, Yulia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to describe the organization of a guided activity for problem solution in primary school. The method, which was applied to mathematical problems, allowed us to propose a specific orientation for the proper solution of arithmetic problems by pupils. The study was based on the activity-theory approach applied to the process of teaching and learning. It was carried out with pupils in the second grade of a private school in the city of Puebla (Mexico. The method was used in the classroom during 30 school sessions of 1 hour per day. The methodology of formative experiment was used in the study. Qualitative analysis of the pedagogical process of teaching and learning was conducted. The results show that, after participation in the formative process, the schoolchildren became able to identify essential elements, data, and all relationships among them in order to solve mathematical problems. At the end of the program the verbal external level was raised for the process of orientation and the solution of problems together with the ability to use logarithms independently. We conclude that orientation, as a guided form of activity in primary school, is essential for the development of the ability to analyze problems.

  2. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Cognitive Performance in Schoolchildren

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    Ezzat Khodashenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Zinc is a vital micronutrient in humans and its deficiency in children can thwart their growth and development, compromise their immunity and cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of studies about the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive functions. This study is an attempt to quantify the impact of zinc supplementation on cognitive performance of schoolchildren. Materials and Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial was carried out in public elementary school in Mashhad- Iran to investigate the effect of Zinc on cognition of 45 healthy children. The cognitive test used in the trial was Raven IQ (Intelligence Quotient test. A total of 45 first grade children aged 6 to 8 years were enrolled and divided into two experiment and control groups. The cases group, received 20 mg of zinc sulfate syrup vs.  the control group  received a placebo each day for 6 months. Raven IQ test was administered under basal conditions before and after the supplementation of zinc or placebo. Results The memory and intellectual development in the experimental group was significantly more than in the control group (P < 0.05. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate the positive relationship between zinc administration and some aspects of intellectual development and personality features, emphasizing the significance of this element in the normal psychological status of children.

  3. Flexibility is associated with motor competence in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L; Póvoas, S; Mota, J; Okely, A D; Coelho-E-Silva, M J; Cliff, D P; Lopes, V P; Santos, R

    2017-12-01

    Available data on the associations between motor competence (MC) and flexibility are limited and result inconclusive. This study aims to examine the relationship between flexibility and MC in children. The sample comprised 596 Portuguese children (47.1% girls) aged 9.7 ± 0.6 years. Motor competence was evaluated with the body coordination test, Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run), muscular strength (curl-up and push-up tests), and flexibility (back-saver sit and reach and trunk-lift tests) were evaluated using the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Z-scores by age and gender for the physical fitness tests were constructed. Analysis of variance and regression analysis were performed. Participants in the healthy zone groups of both flexibility tests exhibited significantly better scores of MC than the participants under the healthy zone (P flexibility, as well as the other health-related physical fitness components in schoolchildren to reach adequate levels of MC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal schoolchildren in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amílcar B; Capingana, Daniel P; Magalhães, Pedro; Gonçalves, Mauer A; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Rodrigues, Sërgio L; Baldo, Marcelo P; Mateus, Miguel S; Mill, Josë Geraldo

    The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide, especially in countries with accelerated economic growth. We determined the prevalence of and associations between overweight/obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal (seven- to 11-year-old) schoolchildren (both genders, n = 198) in Luanda, Angola. Biochemical (fasting blood) and clinical examinations were obtained in a single visit. Data are reported as prevalence (95% confidence intervals) and association (r, Pearson). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 17.7% (12.4- 23.0%), high blood pressure (BP > 90% percentile) was 14.6% (9.7-19.5%), elevated glucose level was 16.7% (11.5-21.9%) and total cholesterol level > 170 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/l) was 69.2% (62.8-75.6%). Significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic BP (r = 0.46 and 0.40, respectively; p Angola and fat accumulation was directly associated with blood pressure increase but not with other cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. Instructional Style, Cognitive Processing, and Achievement Behavior Patterns of Schoolchildren

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    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the performance characteristics and differences between English and Oriya medium school children on various cognitive processing, reading, academic achievement, and teacher perception measures. The sample consists of 243 schoolchildren, 120 from Grade IV and 123 from Grade VII from three different schools of Cuttack city in Orissa, India. The children were individually administered the Figure-Copying, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Matching Familiar Figure Task, Serial Recall, Digit-Span, Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children, Block Design, Cloze Reading Comprehension, and Oral Reading tasks. Classroom Achievement scores on different subjects and the teachers’ ratings about their students were also taken. Results revealed that children reading in English medium schools outperformed their Oriya medium counterparts in some cognitive measures such as Figure Copying, MFFT, RPM, and Digit-Span tasks irrespective of levels. However, the children studying in Oriya medium schools scored higher in Reading Comprehension task and commit less error compared with their English medium counterparts. However, in case of academic achievement measures at primary level, the Oriya medium children performed better in social science, whereas the English medium students excelled in first language and mathematics. The teachers of Oriya medium schools also rated their children better in general conduct, motivation, and effort in schoolwork, whereas, at the secondary level, there was no difference between these two groups in academic achievement or teacher perception measures.

  6. Is obesity associated to dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Raquel; Goettems, Marília Leão; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Corrêa, Marcos Britto

    2017-11-06

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between dental caries and weight status, and between dental caries and physical activity in Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8 to 12 years. A multi-stage sample of children enrolled in 20 private and public schools in 2010 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. Socioeconomic data were collected from parents, and data regarding children characteristics were collected from children using a questionnaire and anthropometric measures. The Body Mass Index was obtained, and children were classified as overweight/obese considering age and sex. Dental examinations were performed to assess the presence of gingival inflammation, dental caries prevalence (DMFT≥1) and dental caries experience (mean DMFT). Multivariate Poisson Regression was used to assess factors associated with dental caries prevalence and experience. A total of 1,210 children were included in the study. Dental caries prevalence was 32.4% (95% CI 29.7-35.2), while the mean DMFT was 0.64 (± SD 1.00). Children who practiced less than 300 minutes per week of physical activity and overweigh/obese children had lower prevalence of dental caries, while children with obesity or overweight presented lower dental caries experience. Obesity/overweight and physical activity level presented an inverse relationship with dental caries. Longitudinal studies investigating the complexity of this relationship are required.

  7. Prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity in Danish schoolchildren: no change over 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zilmer, Monica; Steen, Nick Phaff; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    Aim:  To describe the point prevalence of current physician-diagnosed asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in 2001 among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years, compared with the prevalence from a similar study from 1990 to 1991. Methods:  Cross-sectional study using parental ques......-diagnosed asthma and BHR among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years was unchanged over 10 years between 1990-1991 and 2001.......Aim:  To describe the point prevalence of current physician-diagnosed asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in 2001 among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years, compared with the prevalence from a similar study from 1990 to 1991. Methods:  Cross-sectional study using parental...

  8. DIAGNOSTICS OF DISORDERS AND DISEASES OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM IN SCHOOLCHILDREN: APPROACHES, TERMINOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION

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    N.B. Mirskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an information system for physicians working in general education institutes, which is named «Detection, correction and prophylaxis of musculoskeletal system disorders in students of general education institutes». This system was created for the purpose of improving diagnostics of initial stages of musculoskeletal system in schoolchildren, detecting of risk factors, and for the provision of timely prophylaxis during school education. The system was based on classification of functional disorders and initial stages of diseases of musculoskeletal system in schoolchildren, developed by authors of present article, and methods of medical examination and organization of this work.Key words: schoolchildren, musculoskeletal system, diagnostics, classification, prophylaxis.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:10-13

  9. The Making of Educationally Manageable Immigrant Schoolchildren in Denmark, 1970–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    Ever since children of non-Western labour immigrants appeared in Danish public schools in the early 1970s, immigrant schoolchildren have attracted considerable attention from politicians, administrators, teachers, experts, and researchers. This attention has often been voiced as a concern...... for immigrant children’s individual welfare, but also for the collective welfare of Danish society. With the objective of unravelling this educational attention, the thesis asks how were immigrant schoolchildren made educationally manageable in Danish public schools between 1970 and 2013, and how have...... knowledge production, teacher professionalisation and didactical development responding to the presence of immigrant schoolchildren, the thesis identifies the emerging problem-solving complexes as profound practices of educationalising the social question of integration. Qua an analytics of governing...

  10. Impact of molar-incisor hypomineralization on oral health-related quality of life in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Neta, Neusa Barros; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; Cruz, Priscila Figueiredo; Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins; Martins, Carolina Castro; Lima, Marina de Deus Moura de

    2016-10-24

    This study evaluated the impact of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) according to the perceptions of schoolchildren and their parents/caregivers. This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 594 schoolchildren between 11 and 14 years of age and their parents/caregivers who answered the questionnaires CPQ11-14ISF:16 and P-CPQ, respectively. The main independent variable of this study was MIH of the schoolchildren. Experience of dental caries, malocclusion, and socioeconomic status were treated as confounding variables. Statistical analysis used descriptive analysis and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of MIH was 18.9%. The overall P-CPQ score ranged from 0 to 35 (average = 7.26 ± 6.84), and the overall CPQ11-14ISF:16 score ranged from 0 to 47 (average = 11.92 ± 7.98). Severe MIH was associated with a greater negative impact of the "functional limitation" domain (RR = 1.41; 95%CI = 1.01-1.97), according to parents'/caregivers' perceptions. Severe MIH was associated with a greater negative impact of the "oral symptom" domain (RR = 1.30; 95%CI = 1.06-1.60) and functional limitation domain (RR = 1.42; 95%CI = 1.08-1.86), according to the schoolchildren's perceptions. Schoolchildren with severe MIH had a greater negative impact on the oral symptom and functional limitation domains than those without MIH. According to parents'/caregivers' perceptions, schoolchildren with severe MIH had a greater negative impact on the functional limitation domain than those without MIH.

  11. Natural History of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Mexican Schoolchildren: Incidence and Spontaneous Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Ximena; Vilchis, Jenny; Mera, Robertino; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Goodman, Karen J.; Mendoza, Maria-Eugenia; Navarro, Fabiola; Roque, Victoria; Moran, Segundo; Torres, Javier; Correa, Pelayo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence and spontaneous clearance rate of Helicobacter pylori infection and the effect of some variables on these outcomes in schoolchildren. Methods From May 2005 to December 2010, 718 schoolchildren enrolled in 3 public boarding schools in Mexico City participated in the follow-up. At the beginning of the study and every 6 months thereafter, breath samples were taken to detect H pylori infection; blood samples and anthropometric measurements were taken to evaluate nutritional status. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected. Results The prevalence of H pylori infection was 38%. The incidence rate was 6.36%/year. Schoolchildren with anemia or iron deficiency at the beginning of the study (who received iron supplements) showed a higher infection acquisition rate than those with normal iron nutritional status, hazard ratio (HR) 12.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.01%–39.12%), P <0.001 and HR 2.05 (95% CI 1.09%–3.87%), P = 0.027, respectively. The spontaneous clearance rate of the infection was 4.74%/year. The spontaneous clearance rate was higher in children who had iron deficiency (who received iron supplements), HR 5.02 (95% CI 1.33%–18.99%), P = 0.017, compared with those with normal nutritional iron status. It was lower in schoolchildren with ≥2 siblings compared with schoolchildren with 1 or no siblings, HR 0.23 (95% CI 0.08%–0.63%), P = 0.004. Conclusions H pylori infection status is dynamic in schoolchildren. Variables related to health status and infection transmission, such as iron status and number of siblings, are important for the incidence and spontaneous clearance of H pylori infection. PMID:22227999

  12. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change

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    Tord Kjellstrom

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. Objective: To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Methods: Schoolchildren (N=285 aged 12–16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. Results: There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%, had fatigue (76%, and headaches (38% in Yaoundé. Prevalences (% were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39, feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21, and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18. Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Conclusions: Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning.

  13. LIFESTYLE PECULIARITIES OF MODERN MYOPIC SCHOOLCHILDREN: A MEDICO-SOCIAL STUDY

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    M.E. Gurileva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopia — is the most common vision defect, that is being formed due to impaired school routine, work and recreation conditions, motion activity and against the background of increased physical and psychological stress. Study objective: study lifestyle peculiarities of myopic schoolchildren. Methods: 349 pupils from 5–9 forms of a school with profound studying of various subjects were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. After a preventive examination the schoolchildren were divided into two groups according to ophthalmologists report, comparable by age and gender (162 myopic vs 182 without myopia. Results: all participants were poorly informed about myopia and possible preventive care, and during breaks behaved themselves in an unreasonable way judging from the positions of vision care. At home myopic children tended to spend more time doing their homework and on extracurricular studies, as well as on reading; these children in general spent more time watching TV or working on a computer; failed to rest properly, couldn’t switch from one type of activity to another, were working under conditions of unreasonable vision workload. In contrast to participants from control group, myopic schoolchildren spent less time resting: they were sleeping less and spent less time outdoors. Conclusion: revealed lifestyle peculiarities of modern myopic schoolchildren must become a target for preventive care. Their irrational lifestyle can be corrected by correction of daily routine, better organization of extracurricular exercises, visual exercises, better education of schoolchildren about disease risk factors.Key words: schoolchildren, myopia, risk factors.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 5–9

  14. Effect of different iodine intake on schoolchildren's thyroid diseases and intelligence in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高天舒; 滕卫平; 单忠艳; 金迎; 关海霞; 滕晓春; 杨帆; 王微波; 史小光; 佟雅洁; 李丹; 陈威

    2004-01-01

    Background Reports are increasingly appearing on the side effects caused by excessive iodine intake. Our objective was to find out whether iodine excess would impair the thyroid function and intelligence of schoolchildren in rural areas of China. Methods A comparative epidemiological study was made on thyroid function and intelligence of the schoolchildren in the areas of low, moderate or excessive intake of iodine. In the area of low intake of iodine (Panshan, Liaoning province, median urinary iodine (MUI) was 99 μg/L), of moderate intake of iodine (Zhangwu, Liaoning Province, MUI was 338 μg/L) and of excessive intake of iodine (Huanghua, Hebei Province, MUI was 631 μg/L). The numbers of schoolchildren from each area selected to take part in a Chinese version of Raven's Test were 190, 236 and 313, respectively, and then 116, 110 and 112 of them were tested for thyroid function, thyroid autoantibody (TAA) and urinary iodine (UI).Results There were no significant differences in the incidences of overt hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism in Panshan, Zhangwu and Huanghua. But significant differences were found in the incidences of subclinical hypothyroidism (P= 0.001) in these three areas. The incidences of subclinical hypothyroidism in Huanghua and Zhangwu were 4.76 and 3.37 times higher than that in Panshan. TAA were negative in all the schoolchildren with subclinical hypothyroidism except for one. No significant difference was found among the rates of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) in these three areas. Mean serum thyroglobulin (TG) value of Huanghua was markedly higher than those of the other two (P= 0.02). Mean serum TG value of Zhangwu was higher than that of Panshan but the difference was not significant. Mean IQ value of the schoolchildren in Huanghua was markedly higher than that for Zhangwu (P=0.001). Mean IQ value of the schoolchildren in Panshan was lower than that of Huanghua and

  15. [Somatic complaints, emotional awareness and maladjustment in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, A; Maganto, C; González, R

    2015-05-01

    Somatic complaints are common in childhood. Research has shown their relationship with emotional awareness and maladjustment. The study had three objectives: 1) to analyze the prevalence of somatic complaints; 2) To explore the relationships between the variables evaluated: somatic complaints, differentiating emotions, verbal sharing of emotions, not hiding emotions, body awareness, attending to others' emotions, analysis of emotions, and personal, social, family, and school maladjustments; and 3) To identify predictors of somatic complaints. The study included a total of 1,134 randomly selected schoolchildren of both sexes between 10-12 years old (M=10.99; SD=0.88). The Somatic Complaint List, Emotional Awareness Questionnaire, and Self-reported Multifactor Test of Childhood Adaptation were used to gather information. The results showed that the prevalence of somatic complaints was 90.2%, with fatigue, headache and stomachache being the most frequently. Dizziness and headache were more common in girls, and the frequency of complaints decreases with age. Somatic complaints are negatively related to emotional awareness, and positively related to maladjustment. The variables that contribute the most to the prediction of somatic complaints are personal maladjustment (25.1%) and differentiating emotions (2.5%). The study shows that personal maladjustment is the best predictor of somatic complaints; the more emotional awareness and better adapted the child, the fewer somatic complaints they lodge. Childhood is a stage with significant physical discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental trajectories in primary schoolchildren using n-back task

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    Mónica eLópez-Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuropsychological instruments to assess cognitive trajectories during childhood in epidemiological studies are needed. This would improve neurodevelopment characterization in order to identify its potential determinants. We aimed to study whether repeated measures of n-back, a working memory task, detect developmental trajectories in schoolchildren during a one-year follow-up.Methods: We administered the n-back task to 2,897 healthy children aged 7-11 years old from 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain. The task consisted of 2 levels of complexity or loads (2- and 3-back and 2 different stimuli (numbers and words. Participants performed the task four times from January 2012 to March 2013. To study the trajectories during the follow-up, we performed linear mixed-effects models including school, individual and age as random effects.Results: We observed improvements related to age in n-back outcomes d’, HRT and accuracy, as well as reduced cognitive growth at older ages in d’ and HRT. Greater improvements in performance were observed at younger ages, in 2-back, in verbal rather than numerical stimuli and in girls compared to boys. Boys responded faster at baseline, while girls showed increased growth in 2-back numbers. Children with ADHD (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms (15% of boys and 6% of girls had a lower working memory at baseline, but they showed similar cognitive growth trajectories in numbers variants of the task, as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. However, the age-related improvement in response speed was not observed in children with ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Changes in n-back outcomes reflected developmental trajectories in one-year follow-up. The present results suggest that the repeated administration of this task can be used to study the factors that may alter the cognitive development during childhood.

  17. Association between Enuresis and Body Mass Index in Schoolchildren

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    Tahereh Boryri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAutomatic release of urine at any time of a day during sleep beyond the age of five years defined enuresis as a health disorders in children. The etiology of enuresis is still not clearly understood. Body Mass Index (BMI is an indicator to evaluate the growth trend of individuals in a population for any specific age group. Evaluation of obesity in children is important and provides an opportunity to identify the problem and prevent disease progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of enuresis and the association with BMI.Materials and MethodsThe study was a cross-sectional survey based on specific age group population to determine the prevalence of enuresis conducted on the schoolchildren in Zahedan, Iran during December 2015 and February 2016. A random, multistage sample of 2,000 students was taken from fifty schools in five districts of Zahedan city and filled out some easy questions such as age and gender along with measuring weight and height. Body Mass Index categorized after calculation accordance with the formulae of BMI= Height (kg / Weight (m 2. The classification of BMI was accordance with  percentiles  of  underweight in less than the 5th percentile, healthy level from the 5th to less than 85th percentile, overweight from the 85th to less than the 97th percentile and obese equal to or greater than the 97th percentile.ResultsThe prevalence of enuresis was 17.18% for boys and 11.82% for girls, and the overall prevalence was 140 in 1000. Enuresis and non- enuresis population were different in mean of BMI (15.51±3.92 versus 17.69±5.11, so that this differential were statistically significant (P

  18. Process optimization mental capacity and memory in schoolchildren

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    Kaminska T.M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — increase the processes of mental capacity, antioxidant and detoxication effects in the schoolchildren of different regions of residence the use of succinic acid. Patients and methods. Studies conducted in 3 groups of 30 children 7–10 years who took the drug succinic acid for 1 month 1 — villages Irpen region; 2 — industrial city; 3 — c. Kyiv. Results. Prior preparation course that includes succinic acid, the number of missed days at school on acute and recurrent respiratory infections during the month rehabilitation was: in group 1 — 7.4±1.5 days; in group 2 — 8.8±1.9 days; in group 3 — 5.6±0.7 days. After taking the drug significantly decreased frequency of morbidity and amounted to: in group 1 (1.4±0.2 days; in group 2 — 1.8±0.2 days; 3 group — 1.2±0.1 days. The drug was well tolerated by children, side effects were not observed. There was a rapid improvement in visual memory and RAM memory content in all groups of children. Under the influence of the drug significantly reduced glutathione system performance decreases level of superoxide dismutase, increases antioxidant activity, detected reduction of level glutathione-S-transferase in serum indicates increasing detoxification function of the liver. Conclusions. Severe detoxification effect of succinic acid and its ability to activate the functional processes and mental efficiency allows to recommen the reception of preparation by annually improvement of progress at school, memory and disability rates.

  19. Differences and similarities between bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Björn; James, Anna; Ebersjö, Christina; Hedlin, Gunilla; Broström, Eva B

    2017-09-01

    The long-term respiratory characteristics of ex-preterm children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are not established. The objective of this study was to describe hallmarks of BPD at school age in comparison to children with atopic asthma. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive comparative study in a hospital-based setting. Thirty schoolchildren diagnosed with BPD (10.4 years/born at 26.6 weeks' gestation) and 30 age- and sex-matched children with asthma and sensitized to airborne allergens (IgE >0.35 kU A /L) were analyzed. Measurements included fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, ppb), dynamic and static lung function, and bronchial provocation with methacholine (PD:20) and mannitol (PD:15), as well as an evaluation of respiratory symptoms using the asthma control test (C-ACT). Lung function measures (FEV1% 77 vs 84, FEV1/FVC% 85 vs 91, FEF50% 61 vs 80) and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO%, 81 vs 88) were all reduced in children with BPD compared to asthma (P values asthma. However, less responsiveness towards mannitol (19% vs 61%, P = 0.007) and fewer self-reported symptoms (C-ACT, median 26 vs 24, P = 0.003) were found in the BPD group. Respiratory hallmarks of BPD at school-age were reduced lung function, limited responsiveness towards indirectly acting mannitol but hyper-responsiveness towards direct acting methacholine and impairment in diffusion capacity. Children with BPD displayed less evidence of airway inflammation compared with atopic asthma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reduced efficacy of albendazole against Ascaris lumbricoides in Rwandan schoolchildren

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    Jürgen Krücken

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs relies on preventive chemotherapy of schoolchildren applying the benzimidazoles (BZ albendazole or mebendazole. Anthelmintic resistance (AR is a common problem in nematodes of veterinary importance but for human STHs, information on drug efficacy is limited and routine monitoring is rarely implemented. Herein, the efficacy of single dose albendazole (400 mg was evaluated in 12 schools in the Huye district of Rwanda where Ascaris is the predominant STH. Ascaris eggs were detected by wet mount microscopy and the Mini-FLOTAC method to assess cure rate (CR and faecal egg count reduction (FECR. Blood and faecal samples were analysed for co-infections with Plasmodium sp. and Giardia duodenalis, respectively. Ascaris positive samples collected before and after treatment were analysed for putatively BZ-resistance associated β-tubulin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms. The overall CR was 69.9% by Mini-FLOTAC and 88.6% by wet mount microscopy. The FECR was 75.4% and the 95% calculated confidence intervals were 50.4–87.8% using sample variance, 55.4–88.8% by bootstrapping, and 75.0–75.7% applying a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian approach. FECR varied widely between 0 and 96.8% for individual schools. No putative BZ-resistance associated polymorphisms were found in the four Ascaris β-tubulin isotype genes examined. Since FECRs <95% indicate reduced efficacy, these findings raise the suspicion of BZ resistance. In the absence of respective molecular evidence, heritable AR in the local Ascaris populations cannot be formally proven. However, since FECRs <95% indicate reduced efficacy, BZ resistance may be suspected which would be alarming and calls for further analyses and routine monitoring in preventive chemotherapy programs. Keywords: Soil-transmitted helminth, Benzimidazole, Albendazole, Resistance, Ascaris, Deworming, Tubulin

  1. Nanismo nutricional em escolares no Brasil Stunted schoolchildren in Brazil

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    Glória Elizabeth Carneiro Laurentino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisão da literatura sobre o nanismo nutricional no Brasil. Os principais tópicos abordados foram: definição do problema, a utilização da medida da altura em escolares como método de excelência para avaliar o estado de saúde e nutrição das populações, as principais causas e conseqüências apontadas na literatura e sua magnitude no país. De acordo com a literatura a prevalência do nanismo nutricional varia entre as diversas regiões brasileiras, com nítida desvantagem para as regiões Norte e Nordeste. Sua origem tem sido atribuída especialmente a condições ambientais desfavoráveis. Há indicações de que o atraso da capacidade intelectual e menor capacidade física para o trabalho estão associados ao problema.Literature review on stunting in Brazil. The following topics have been analyzed: problem's definition, the use of schoolchildren's height as the best method to evaluate population health and nutritional status, the main causes and consequences demonstrated in the literature and, at last, the scope of this problem in Brazil. According to lierature the prevalence of stunting varies in different regions of Brazil. The poorest results are found in the North and Northeast. The main determinants of linear growth retardation are poor environmental conditions and among the consequences, results indicate lower physical and mental capacity.

  2. Dental erosion among 12 year-old Libyan schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huew, R; Waterhouse, P J; Moynihan, P J; Maguire, A

    2012-12-01

    As there are limited data on dental erosion in Libya, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental erosion in a sample of 12 year-old children in Benghazi, Libya. Cross-sectional observational study. Elementary schools in Benghazi, Libya. A random sample of 791 12 year-old children (397 boys and 394 girls) attending 36 schools. Clinical dental examination for erosion using UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000) criteria and self-completion questionnaire. The area and depth of dental erosion affecting the labial and palatal surfaces of the upper permanent incisors and occlusal surfaces of the first permanent molars. Dental erosion was observed in 40.8% of subjects; into enamel affecting 32.5%, into dentine affecting 8.0% and into pulp affecting 0.3% of subjects. Based on area affected, 323 subjects (40.8%) exhibited dental erosion (code > 0), with 32.6% of these subjects having erosion affecting more than two thirds of one or more surfaces examined. Mean total scores for dental erosion for all surfaces per mouth by area and by depth were both 2.69 (sd 3.81). Of the 9492 tooth surfaces examined, 2128 surfaces (22.4%) had dental erosion. Girls had more experience of erosion than boys at all levels of severity (p = 0.001). In a cohort of 12 year-old Libyan schoolchildren, more than one third of children examined showed dental erosion, requiring clinical preventive counselling. Significantly more erosion occurred in girls than boys.

  3. The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

  4. The Control of Food among Schoolchildren Who Have Been Racially and Economically Marginalized across the Cityscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This analysis involves an investigation of the corporate control of food in relation to low income and culturally dominated schoolchildren in cities. This includes an exploration of the problem as expressed globally and historically in relation to transnational policy networks. Since corporate growth always necessitates controlling the direction…

  5. Using a "lifestyle" perspective to understand toothbrushing behaviour in Scottish schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Currie, C; McQueen, D

    1990-01-01

    Using data from a wider survey of health related behaviour in 4,935 Lothian schoolchildren, 11, 13, and 15 yr old, this paper analysed toothbrushing frequency and its relation to "lifestyle" factors. Analysis of the results showed that girls brush more frequently than boys and that children with ...

  6. Instrument adaptation and validation to evaluate psychosocial skills and healthy habits in schoolchildren

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    Lucila Niño-Bautista

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To adapt and validate an evaluation tool on psychosocial skills for life and healthy habits in Schoolchildren from a locality in Bogota, Colombia. Materials and methods: This quantitative transversal with empirical analytical non-experimental approach study evaluated responses of schoolchildren in third and fourth grade of primary school with the instrument adapted and reconstructed to establish technical quality of items, reliability and validity of it. The instrument (18 psychosocial skills and 19 healthy habits, plus 4 identification items was self-diligence with Yes, No dichotomous answer option. It had evidence of apparent validity with schoolchildren from other peer institutions and was tested at 32 Public schools and analyzed using the Rasch model. Results: 1,066 schoolchildren participated in total. The items of the two constructs showed a good fit to the Rasch model as well as unidimensionality, reliability and separation measures above the recommended values. There was no differential functioning of the item by sex. Conclusion: The instrument of 37 items presented good properties of validity, reliability and adjustment to Rasch; although it does not have enough items of high difficulty level, which can be corrected in future applications.

  7. Nutritional status of urban schoolchildren of high and low socioeconomic status in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Iris F.; Solomons, Noel W.; Doak, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioeconomic status

  8. [Exposure pathways to pesticides in schoolchildren in the Province of Talca, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Muñoz, María Pía

    2014-01-01

    To describe pesticide concentrations in distinct environmental matrices at two time points (low and high seasons in local agricultural production) and to estimate the association between the presence of pesticide residues in matrices and the use of pesticides in the home with the sociodemographic variables of schoolchildren in the Province of Talca, Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 190 schoolchildren. Families were surveyed about their children's vegetable consumption in school and at home, the use of pesticides in the home, and other sociodemographic variables. Additionally, we measured pesticide residues in vegetables and water consumed by the schoolchildren and in the soil of 14 schools. At both time points, the vegetable matrix had the highest pesticide concentration, both in urban and rural schoolchildren. The most common pesticide residues in vegetables were chlorpyrifos, diphenylamine, pyrimethanil, and thiabendazole. In the home, pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides were mainly used in summer. Dangerous pesticide residues such as azinphos methyl and dimethoate were found in vegetables consumed by the children in schools and households, and organochlorines were found in the soil in some schools. Pesticide exposure should be limited and the health effects related to pesticide exposure should be assessed in the school population. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. [Learning to use semiautomatic external defibrillators through audiovisual materials for schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Soto, Cristina; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Gregorio-García, Carolina; Prieto-Saborit, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To assess the ability of schoolchildren to use a automated external defibrillator (AED) to provide an effective shock and their retention of the skill 1 month after a training exercise supported by audiovisual materials. Quasi-experimental controlled study in 205 initially untrained schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years old. SAEDs were used to apply shocks to manikins. The students took a baseline test (T0) of skill, and were then randomized to an experimental or control group in the first phase (T1). The experimental group watched a training video, and both groups were then retested. The children were tested in simulations again 1 month later (T2). A total of 196 students completed all 3 phases. Ninety-six (95.0%) of the secondary school students and 54 (56.8%) of the primary schoolchildren were able to explain what a SAED is. Twenty of the secondary school students (19.8%) and 8 of the primary schoolchildren (8.4%) said they knew how to use one. At T0, 78 participants (39.8%) were able to simulate an effective shock. At T1, 36 controls (34.9%) and 56 experimental-group children (60.2%) achieved an effective shock (Paudiovisual instruction improves students' skill in managing a SAED and helps them retain what they learned for later use.

  10. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, A.R.; Pilime, N.; Armar-Klemesu, M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Methods and Findings We

  11. Food Allergy in Ghanaian Schoolchildren: Data on Sensitization and Reported Food Allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obeng, Benedicta B.; Amoah, Abena S.; Larbi, Irene A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; van Ree, Ronald; Boakye, Daniel A.; Hartgers, Franca C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological data on food allergy are scarce in African countries. We studied the prevalence of food sensitization in Ghanaian schoolchildren. Methods: Children (5-16 years; n = 1,714) from 9 Ghanaian schools were given parental consent to participate in the study. Adverse reactions

  12. Oral health behaviour of urban and semi-urban schoolchildren in the Lao PDR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Nanna; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    To describe the oral health related knowledge, behaviour, and attitude towards health of 12-year old Lao schoolchildren; analyse how health risk factors relate to socio-demographic background; and determine the relative effect of living conditions on health and risk behaviour....

  13. Breakfast Eating Pattern and Ready-to-Eat Cereals Consumption among Schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur

    OpenAIRE

    KOO, Hui-Chin; ABDUL JALIL, Siti Nurain; Ruzita, ABD TALIB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies from the West have demonstrated that ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) are a common form of breakfast and more likely to be consumed by children. This study aimed to investigate the breakfast eating pattern and RTECs consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur.

  14. Thyroid volume and urinary iodine in European schoolchildren: standardization of values for assessment of iodine deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delange, F.; Benker, G.; Caron, P.; Eber, O.; Ott, W.; Peter, F.; Podoba, J.; Simescu, M.; Szybinsky, Z.; Vertongen, F.; Vitti, P.; Wiersinga, W.; Zamrazil, V.

    1997-01-01

    Up to 1992, most European countries used to be moderately to severely iodine deficient. The present study aimed at evaluating possible changes in the status of iodine nutrition in 12 European countries during the past few years. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography in 7599 schoolchildren

  15. The correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren.

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    Maliy D.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Today computer games occupy a significant place in children’s lives and fundamentally affect the process of the formation and development of their personalities. A number of present-day researchers assert that computer games have a developmental effect on players. Others share the point of view that computer games have negative effects on the cognitive and emotional spheres of a child and claim that children with low self-esteem who neglect their schoolwork and have difficulties in communication are particularly passionate about computer games. This article reviews theoretical and experimental pedagogical and psychological studies of the nature of the correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren. Our analysis of foreign and Russian psychology studies regarding the problem of playing activities mediated by information and computer technologies allowed us to single out the main criteria for children’s passion for computer games and school performance. This article presents the results of a pilot study of the nature of the correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren. The research involved 32 pupils (12 girls and 20 boys aged 10-11 years in the 4th grade. The general hypothesis was that there are divergent correlations between the passion of younger schoolchildren for computer games and their school performance. A questionnaire survey administered to the pupils allowed us to obtain information about the amount of time they devoted to computer games, their preferences for computer-game genres, and the extent of their passion for games. To determine the level of school performance we analyzed class registers. To establish the correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren, as well as to determine the effect of a passion for computer games on the personal qualities of the children

  16. Specific Aspects of Forecasting and Perception of the Norm by Juniour Schoolchildren with Developmental Disorders

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    Anna I. Akhmetzyanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: juniour schoolchildren with special needs should take into account the existing system of norms and rules in the school space. They should understand both their own inner world and that of surrounding people, but in conditions of deficiency dysontogenesis, the inability to forecast the outcome of any situation and the use of irrational behavioural strategies reduce the opportunities for successful social adaptation. The purpose of this study is to identify the specifics of forecasting and understanding normative situations by juniour schoolchildren with musculoskeletal system disorder, as well as with vision, hearing and speech impairment. Materials and Methods: to study the forecasting specifics of juniour schoolchildren, we used the guessing game methodology by L. I. Peresleni. We studied the specific character of normative behaviour using a set of methodologies: Perception of the normative situation by A. K. Pashchenko, Anticipation of the outcome with violation of the norm by V. P. Ulyanova, and Identification of the cultural congruity of juniour schoolchildren by L. F. Bayanova. Results: the study made it possible to identify the forecasting characteristics of juniour schoolchildren with normative development and with vision, hearing, speech impairments and musculoskeletal disorder. Students with developmental disabilities experienced forecasting difficulties, associated with decreasing sustainability of voluntary attention and its distribution in the course of the activity. The perception of norms by schoolchildren with developmental disorders often depended on random, brightly coloured emotional events or objects. The norms were differentiated more successfully in a situation of communication, than in educational activity. Discussion and Conclusions: the obtained data are consistent with the results of the studies by national and foreign scientists, who note that children with health limitations lack understanding of the

  17. Dietary habits of Serbian preschool and schoolchildren with regard to food of animal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, V.; Šarčević, D.; Glišić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to explore attitudes and habits of Serbian preschool and school children in consumption of meat products, milk and milk products, eggs and egg products and honey and bee products. The survey was conducted on a sample of 227 children, divided into three different age groups: preschool (ages 4-6), primary school I-IV grade (ages 7-11) and primary school V-VIII grade (ages 12-15). The results showed that all examined groups of children consumed meat products, milk and milk products, eggs and egg products, and honey and bee products. In all groups of children, the most frequently consumed food (among our food category choices) was dried ham (consumed by 19.64% of preschool children; 23.75% of schoolchildren from I-IV grade; 19.74% of schoolchildren from V-VIII grade). Fewer preschool children consumed sterilized milk compared to children of school age. The results showed that in all three groups of children, the most commonly consumed milk products were yoghurt (from 12.20 to 15.29% of children consumed these) and sour cream (from 11.57 to 12.74% of children consumed this), while kefir was the least-consumed product. In addition, there was no difference in consumption of boiled or fried eggs in the examined groups of children, while the consumption of egg products (mayonnaise) was higher in the group of preschool children than in the group of schoolchildren from V-VIII grade. Preschool children consumed honey 14.99% more often than schoolchildren from I-IV grade, and 14.49% more often than did schoolchildren from grade V-VIII.

  18. Impact of molar-incisor hypomineralization on oral health-related quality of life in schoolchildren

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    Neusa Barros DANTAS-NETA

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the impact of molar–incisor hypomineralization (MIH on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL according to the perceptions of schoolchildren and their parents/caregivers. This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 594 schoolchildren between 11 and 14 years of age and their parents/caregivers who answered the questionnaires CPQ11–14ISF:16 and P-CPQ, respectively. The main independent variable of this study was MIH of the schoolchildren. Experience of dental caries, malocclusion, and socioeconomic status were treated as confounding variables. Statistical analysis used descriptive analysis and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of MIH was 18.9%. The overall P-CPQ score ranged from 0 to 35 (average = 7.26 ± 6.84, and the overall CPQ11-14ISF:16 score ranged from 0 to 47 (average = 11.92 ± 7.98. Severe MIH was associated with a greater negative impact of the “functional limitation” domain (RR = 1.41; 95%CI = 1.01–1.97, according to parents’/caregivers’ perceptions. Severe MIH was associated with a greater negative impact of the “oral symptom” domain (RR = 1.30; 95%CI = 1.06–1.60 and functional limitation domain (RR = 1.42; 95%CI = 1.08–1.86, according to the schoolchildren’s perceptions. Schoolchildren with severe MIH had a greater negative impact on the oral symptom and functional limitation domains than those without MIH. According to parents’/caregivers’ perceptions, schoolchildren with severe MIH had a greater negative impact on the functional limitation domain than those without MIH.

  19. Scabies among primary schoolchildren in Egypt: sociomedical environmental study in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegab DS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Doaa Salah Hegab,1 Abdullah Mahfouz Kato,1 Ibrahim Ali Kabbash,2 Ghada Maged Dabish3 1Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Public Health and Community, Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Background/objectives: Scabies is a major global public health issue that might affect people from all socioeconomic levels. The primary contributing factors in contracting scabies seem to be poverty and overcrowded living conditions. Scabies often spreads among schoolchildren quite rapidly, owing to their close contact and overcrowding within the schools. However, limited information is available about its risk factors and the socioeconomic correlates among schoolchildren in Egypt. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area, Egypt. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on primary schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area. A predesigned questionnaire was used for data collection from the randomly selected 2,104 children, and clinical dermatological examination was done for them. Results: Out of 2,104 children studied, there were 92 cases of scabies with a prevalence of 4.4%. The prevalence of scabies infestation in male students was 3.9%, while it was 4.8% in females, with no statistical significance. The results showed significant variations in the risk of scabies infestation by factors such as residence, paternal education and occupation, maternal education, sleeping with others, having animals at home, dealing with animals outside the house, type of building for living, family history of itchy rash, and sharing clothes with others. Conclusion: In our community, scabies is still an important health problem affecting schoolchildren, especially in rural areas. It is characterized by a complex web of causation, particularly poor

  20. Effects of manganese exposure on visuoperception and visual memory in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bonilla, D; Escamilla-Núñez, C; Mergler, D; Rodríguez-Dozal, S; Cortez-Lugo, M; Montes, S; Tristán-López, L A; Catalán-Vázquez, M; Schilmann, A; Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio

    2016-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal involved in multiple physiological functions. Environmental exposure to airborne Mn is associated with neurocognitive deficits in humans. Children, whose nervous system is in development, are particularly susceptible to Mn neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to assess the association between Mn environmental exposure, and effects on visuoperception and visual memory in schoolchildren. We assessed schoolchildren between 7 and 11 years old, with similar socioeconomic status, from the mining district of Molango (n=148) and Agua Blanca (n=119, non-mining area) in Hidalgo state, Mexico. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test was used to assess visuoperception and short-term visual memory. Hair manganese (MnH) concentrations were determined. Linear regression models were constructed to estimate the associations between MnH and ROCF scores, adjusted for potential confounders. The geometric mean MnH was nine times higher in schoolchildren from the Mn mining area (5.25μg/g) than in schoolchildren from the non-mining area (0.55μg/g). For the ROCF Copy trial, MnH was significantly associated with an increase in distortion errors (tangency, closure), angle errors, overtracing (partial overtracing). In the Immediate Recall trial, MnH was significantly associated with increased overtracing (partial overtracing) and omissions, and negatively associated with the number of perceptual drawn units, total score and percentage immediate recall. MnH is associated with alterations in visuoperception and short-term visual memory in schoolchildren exposed to airborne Mn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral Health Status Related to Social Behaviors among 6 - 11 Year Old Schoolchildren in Kosovo

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    Lulëjeta Ferizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current oral health status among schoolchildren in Kosovo aged 6-11 years. Material and methods: A study included 5679 schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years, from different towns of Kosovo. Dental health status was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT index, for deciduous and permanent dentition. The observed children have answered a number of questions about their oral hygiene, eating habits, and dental visits. The analysis included frequencies and means. The differences between means were tested using the student t-test (p<0.05. The factors associated with dental caries were tested using the Spearman’s rank. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of schoolchildren aged 6-11 years was 4.36 ± 3.763 and 1.20 ± 1.488, respectively. Sealant placements were found among 90 schoolchildren, amounting to 1.58%. From 8 years of age, 50% of children brush their teeth twice a day. Confectionery consumption among the observed children has increased. Forty percent of them eat sweets at least once a day, and majority of them visit their dentists only when necessary. A significant correlation between consumption of confectionery, oral hygiene, dental visits and the prevalence of caries was confirmed. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that there is a high prevalence of caries among 6-11 year old schoolchildren, thus pointing to a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care as well as utilizing preventive measures and regular dental visits.

  2. Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173. WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001 and vitamin A deficiency (p Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them.

  3. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

  4. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hlimi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck. Study design: Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q. Methods: Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n = 262 responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a Do you eat game? (b How often do you eat game? (c How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany, 2005 (Peawanuck, 2006 (Attawapiskat, 2007 (Moose Factory and 2009 (Kashechewan. Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results: Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion: The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently.

  5. Efficacy and safety of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in schoolchildren: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangila, Junior R; Mitashi, Patrick; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel A; Lutumba, Pascal T; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2015-11-14

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a proven malaria control strategy in infants and pregnancy. School-aged children represent 26 % of the African population, and an increasing percentage of them are scholarized. Malaria is causing 50 % of deaths in this age group and malaria control efforts may shift the malaria burden to older age groups. Schools have been suggested as a platform for health interventions delivery (deworming, iron-folic acid, nutrients supplementation, (boost-)immunization) and as a possible delivery system for IPT in schoolchildren (IPTsc). However, the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of IPTsc is limited and the optimal therapeutic regimen remains controversial. A systematic search for studies reporting efficacy and safety of IPT in schoolchildren was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Clinicaltrials and WHO/ICTRP database, and abstracts from congresses with the following key words: intermittent, preventive treatment AND malaria OR Plasmodium falciparum AND schoolchildren NOT infant NOT pregnancy. Five studies were identified. Most IPTsc regimes demonstrated substantial protection against malaria parasitaemia, with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) given monthly having the highest protective effect (PE) (94 %; 95 % CI 93-96). Contrarily, SP did not provide any PE against parasitaemia. However, no IPT regimen provided a PE above 50 % in regard to anaemia, and highest protection was provided by SP+ amodiaquine (AQ) given four-monthly (50 %; 95 % CI 41-53). The best protection against clinical malaria was observed in children monthly treated with DP (97 %; 95 % CI 87-98). However, there was no protection when the drug was given three-monthly. No severe adverse events were associated with the drugs used for IPTsc. IPTsc may reduce the malaria-related burden in schoolchildren. However, more studies assessing efficacy of IPT in particular against malaria-related anaemia and clinical malaria in schoolchildren must be conducted.

  6. A large outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with a small round structured virus among schoolchildren and teachers in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, S.; Morishita, T.; Yamashita, T.; Sakae, K.; Nishio, O.; Miyake, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Isomura, S.

    1991-01-01

    In March 1989 a large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred simultaneously among schoolchildren and teachers at nine elementary schools in Toyota City, Japan. Illness was observed in 3236 (41.5%) of 7801 schoolchildren and 117 (39.4%) of 297 teachers. The main clinical symptoms were diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea and abdominal pain. Gastroenteritis was significantly associated with the consumption of school lunch served by one particular lunch preparation centre. One food handler at the cen...

  7. Intestinal parasitic infections: Current prevalence and risk factors among schoolchildren in capital area of the Republic of Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Mei; Chiang, Chia-Lien; Lee, Fei-Peng; Hsu, Yun-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Briand, Kennar; Tu, Chia-Ying; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among schoolchildren in Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) largely remains unknown, thus investigation on IPIs status to establish the baseline data is urgently needed. This cross-sectional study intended to investigate the current IPIs status and associated risk factors among schoolchildren at capital of RMI. Single stool sample from 400 schoolchildren (207 boys and 193 girls) aged 9.73±2.50 yrs old was examined by employing merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration method. Demographic characteristics, uncomfortable symptoms and risk factors were obtained by questionnaires investigation. The overall prevalence of IPIs in schoolchildren was 22.8% (91/400), of them 24.2% harbored at least 2 different parasites. Notably, the majority was infected by waterborne protozoan parasites (82.4%, 75/91). Nine different intestinal parasites have been identified, of which six were pathogenic including Hook worm, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis. Schoolchildren who ever complained dizziness or headache showed a significant higher prevalence of pathogenic IPIs than those who did not (p<0.05). Schoolchildren who lived in urban area than rural area had higher chance to acquire pathogenic IPIs (p=0.03). However, none of risk factors were identified to be associated with pathogenic IPIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [The specificity of children and adolescent eating habits (data for schoolchildren in Moscow and Murmansk)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A A; Poriadina, G I; Kotova, M B; Ivanova, E I

    2014-01-01

    Objective of the study is to evaluate the specificity of schoolchildren's eating behavior in the cities of Moscow and Murmansk. Dietary habits of 785 children 10-17 years old residing in two cities--Moscow (222 boys and 221 girls, 14.1 ± 1.9 years old) and Murmansk (183 and 159 correspondingly, 14.1 ± 1.8 years old)--were analyzed. The questionnaire included data on the meals ratio per day, frequency of vegetables and fruit intake, fast-food intake, hot meals, soft drinks, meat, fish and milk intake, usage of school cafeteria, regularity of breakfasts. Parents responded to questions concerning the materialsupport of family and education. It was found that more than half of schoolchildren (64.4%) had meals irregularly (3 times per day or less), only 50.9% received hot meals several times a day. Every third child (31.6%) has insufficient intake of vegetables and fruit, 11.8%--insufficient intake of meat dishes. Only 51.4% of schoolchildren consumed dairy products daily (one or several times a day). At the same time 19.5% of children used fast-food products several times a week or more often, 42.2%--carbonated drinks, and 22.7%--smoked food. Only 45.7% of schoolchildren regularly ate at school caf- eteria; 21.9% did it irregularly and 32.5%--did not attend school canteen at all. There were no significant differences between Moscow and Murmansk children as well as gender differences in the usage of school cafeteria. At the same time only 23.4% of children [26.3% in Moscow and 19.3% in Murmansk (significantly less, p = 0.032)] liked cafeteria food, 38.7% did not like and 37.9% had no certain answer. Less obese children (54.0%) have breakfast everyday than children with normal weight (75.4%, p = 0.019). Children of mothers with high and incomplete high education (89.4%) have more regular meat intake (3-4 times per week or more often) than the children of mothers with secondary, incomplete secondary and secondary special education (81.9%, p = 0.034). Schoolchildren

  9. Mechanical factors and vitamin D deficiency in schoolchildren with low back pain: biochemical and cross-sectional survey analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghadir AH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad H Alghadir,1 Sami A Gabr,1,2 Einas S Al-Eisa1 1Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the role of vitamin D, muscle fatigue ­biomarkers, and mechanical factors in the progression of low back pain (LBP in schoolchildren.Background: Children and adolescents frequently suffer from LBP with no clear clinical causes, and >71% of schoolchildren aged 12–17 years will show at least one episode of LBP.Materials and methods: A total of 250 schoolchildren aged 12–16 years were randomly enrolled in this study. For all schoolchildren height, weight, percentage of daily sun exposure and and areas of skin exposed to sun, method of carrying the bag, and bag weight and type were recorded over a typical school week. Pain scores, physical activity (PA, LBP, serum vitamin 25(OHD level, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase (CK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities and calcium (Ca concentrations were estimated using prevalidated Pain Rating Scale, modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire, short-form PA questionnaire, and colorimetric and immunoassay techniques.Results: During the period of October 2013–May 2014, LBP was estimated in 52.2% of the schoolchildren. It was classified into moderate (34% and severe (18%. Girls showed a higher LBP (36% compared with boys (24%. In schoolchildren with moderate and severe LBP significantly higher (P=0.01 body mass index, waist, hip, and waist-to-hip ratio measurements were observed compared with normal schoolchildren. LBP significantly correlated with less sun exposure, lower PA, sedentary activity (TV/computer use, and overloaded school bags. In addition, schoolchildren with severe LBP showed lower levels of vitamin 25(OHD and Ca and higher levels of CK, LDH, and

  10. Efficacy of noofen use in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Nyankovskyy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined 40 children aged 10–18 years, who were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. According to a survey by O.M. Vein, all patients had manifestations of autonomic dysfunction. The children were divided into 2 groups. The control group consisted of 20 patients, who received standard antisecretory therapy. The main group consisted of 20 children, who received standard antisecretory therapy and phenibut (Noofen®, OlainFarm, Latvia at a dose of 250 mg 2 times a day for 21 days. After 1 month of starting the treatment, an evaluation of its efficacy was conducted. Clinical evaluation of the dynamics of autonomic nervous system status in schoolchildren with GERD suggests that inclusion of Noofen into the complex of therapy for this disease provides good stabilizing effect, which manifests by a restoration of autonomic nervous system balance in schoolchildren.

  11. Prenatal exposure to systemic antibacterials and overweight and obesity in Danish schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, A; Antonsen, S; Kahlert, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to antibacterials may permanently dysregulate fetal metabolic patterns via epigenetic pathways or by altering maternal microbiota. We examined the association of prenatal exposure to systemic antibacterials with overweight and obesity in schoolchildren...... admissions during pregnancy. We defined overweight and obesity among the children using standard age- and sex-specific cutoffs. We computed sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) of overweight and obesity associated with exposure to prenatal antibacterials, adjusting for maternal age at delivery....... SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a prevalence study among Danish schoolchildren aged 7-16 years using data from routine school anthropometric evaluations conducted during 2002-2013. Prenatal exposure to antibacterials was ascertained by using maternal prescription dispensations and infection-related hospital...

  12. [Effect of balanced diet on the nutrition status of schoolchildren in the mountain area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Yin; Wu, Jie-Shu; Zhu, Ran-Feng; Zhao, Xian-feng; Wang, Zhi-xu; Yin, Shi-an

    2006-09-01

    To study the effect of balanced diet on the nutrition status of primary schoolchildren in the mountain area in November 2004. All the subjects aged 7-9 years old were divided into intervention group and control group. The balanced diet was provided for the intervention group and the control group was maintained on their usual diet for 30 days in December. The anthropometric and nutritional status of the subjects were checked before and after the study. The growth and nutritional status of the intervention group improved significantly. However the unbalanced diet in the control group affects the normal growth of the children because the usual diet can not meet the nutrient requirement. The nutrition intervention can improve the growth and nutritional status of the primary schoolchildren in the mountain area.

  13. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? – A study on language-motor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children. PMID:29538404

  14. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? - A study on language-motor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Daniela Katharina; Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children.

  15. ENERGY CONSUMPTION, THE DISTRIBUTION OF MACRONUTRIENTS AND BMI IN MOTHERS AND THEIR MEXICAN SCHOOLCHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Ríos, L Lizette; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Nuño-Cosío, M Eugenia; Campos-Barrera, Liliana R

    2015-12-01

    to identify the association between the percentage of adequacy of energy and protein and the distribution of macronutrients and sugar in the diets of mothers and schoolchildren with their respective BMI. in a cross-sectional study, 174 5-12-year-old schoolchildren and their mothers were randomly selected. BMI was measured, and 24-hour dietary surveys were administered on weekdays and weekends. The associations between the dietetic indicators in the mothers and their children and the BMI of the mothers and their children were assessed. The chi-square test, linear regression and odds ratio were used for analysis. excessive energy consumption in the mothers increased the risk of excessive energy consumption in their daughters by 11-fold (p=0.04). Maternal lipid intake was associated with the consumption of lipids in their sons and daughters (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Association Between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms and Attentional Network and Working Memory in Primary Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprodon-Rosanas, E; Ribas-Fitó, N; Batlle, S; Persavento, C; Alvarez-Pedrerol, M; Sunyer, J; Forns, J

    2017-04-01

    Few consistent data are available in relation to the cognitive and neuropsychological processes involved in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine the association of working memory and attentional networks with SCT symptoms in primary schoolchildren. The participants were schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years ( n = 183) from primary schools in Catalonia (Spain). All the participants completed a working memory task (n-back) and an attentional network task (ANT). Their parents completed an SCT-Child Behavior Checklist self-report and a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic variables. Teachers of the participants provided information on ADHD symptoms and learning determinants. SCT symptoms were correlated with lower scores in both the n-back and ANT. In multivariate regression analysis, SCT symptoms were associated with slower hit reaction times from the ANT. Our results suggest that SCT symptoms are associated with a neuropsychological profile that is different from the classical ADHD profile and characterized by slower reaction times.

  17. The Making of Educationally Manageable Immigrant Schoolchildren in Denmark, 1970-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    2016-01-01

    immigrant children’s individual welfare, but also for the collective welfare of Danish society.With the objective of unravelling this educational attention, the thesis asks how were immigrantschoolchildren made educationally manageable in Danish public schools between 1970 and 2013,and how have......, educational practices vis-à-vis immigrant schoolchildren are constructedas a critical prism for studying the fabrication of a Danish welfare nation state.The thesis shows how educationalised welfare work addressing non-Western immigrant childrenand their families functioned not only as a deeply rooted...... education and integration. The thesis shows how a post-1970 Danish welfare nation state can be understood as the effect of an inherently modernistic project of brutal care, subtly racialised professionalisation, and a civilising pedagogy placing immigrant schoolchildren on the threshold of a thesis...

  18. Television Viewing and Snacking Behaviors of Fourth- and Eighth-Grade Schoolchildren in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Walters, Scott T.; Harris, T. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. Methods ...

  19. DIAGNOSTICS OF DISORDERS AND DISEASES OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM IN SCHOOLCHILDREN: APPROACHES, TERMINOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    N.B. Mirskaya; A.N. Kolomenskaya

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an information system for physicians working in general education institutes, which is named «Detection, correction and prophylaxis of musculoskeletal system disorders in students of general education institutes». This system was created for the purpose of improving diagnostics of initial stages of musculoskeletal system in schoolchildren, detecting of risk factors, and for the provision of timely prophylaxis during school education. The system was based on classificati...

  20. Hygiene, atopy and wheeze-eczema-rhinitis symptoms in schoolchildren from urban and rural Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Philip J; Vaca, Maritza; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha E; Santos, Darci N; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    Rural residence is protective against atopy and wheeze-rhinitis-eczema symptoms in developed countries, an effect attributed to farming and poor hygiene exposures. There are few data from developing countries addressing this question. We compared atopy and wheeze-rhinitis-eczema symptoms between urban and rural Ecuador, and explored the effects of farming and poor hygiene exposures. We performed cross sectional studies of schoolchildren living in rural and urban Ecuador. Data on symptoms and farming/hygiene exposures were collected by parental questionnaire, atopy by allergen skin prick test reactivity and geohelminth infections by stool examinations. Among 2526 urban and 4295 rural schoolchildren, prevalence was: atopy (10.0% vs 12.5%, p=0.06), wheeze (9.4% vs 10.1%, p=0.05), rhinitis (8.1% vs 6.4%, p=0.02) and eczema (5.9% vs 4.7%, p=0.06). A small proportion of symptoms were attributable to atopy (range 3.9-10.7%) with greater attributable fractions for respiratory symptoms observed in urban schoolchildren. Respiratory symptoms were associated with poor hygiene/farming exposures: wheeze with lack of access to potable water; and rhinitis with household pets, no bathroom facilities and contact with large farm animals. Birth order was inversely associated with respiratory symptoms. Area of residence and atopy had few effects on these associations. Urban schoolchildren living in Ecuador have a similar prevalence of atopy, eczema and wheeze but a higher prevalence of rhinitis compared with rural children. Some farming and poor hygiene exposures were associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze or rhinitis while birth order was inversely associated with these symptoms.

  1. Hygiene, atopy and wheeze–eczema–rhinitis symptoms in schoolchildren from urban and rural Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Philip J; Vaca, Maritza; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha E; Santos, Darci N; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-01-01

    Background Rural residence is protective against atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms in developed countries, an effect attributed to farming and poor hygiene exposures. There are few data from developing countries addressing this question. We compared atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms between urban and rural Ecuador, and explored the effects of farming and poor hygiene exposures. Methods We performed cross sectional studies of schoolchildren living in rural and urban Ecuador. Data on symptoms and farming/hygiene exposures were collected by parental questionnaire, atopy by allergen skin prick test reactivity and geohelminth infections by stool examinations. Results Among 2526 urban and 4295 rural schoolchildren, prevalence was: atopy (10.0% vs 12.5%, p=0.06), wheeze (9.4% vs 10.1%, p=0.05), rhinitis (8.1% vs 6.4%, p=0.02) and eczema (5.9% vs 4.7%, p=0.06). A small proportion of symptoms were attributable to atopy (range 3.9–10.7%) with greater attributable fractions for respiratory symptoms observed in urban schoolchildren. Respiratory symptoms were associated with poor hygiene/farming exposures: wheeze with lack of access to potable water; and rhinitis with household pets, no bathroom facilities and contact with large farm animals. Birth order was inversely associated with respiratory symptoms. Area of residence and atopy had few effects on these associations. Conclusions Urban schoolchildren living in Ecuador have a similar prevalence of atopy, eczema and wheeze but a higher prevalence of rhinitis compared with rural children. Some farming and poor hygiene exposures were associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze or rhinitis while birth order was inversely associated with these symptoms. PMID:24105783

  2. Parental Attitudes and Factors Associated With Varicella Vaccination in Preschool and Schoolchildren in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Wilson W.S.; Chan, Johnny; Lo, Kenneth K.H.; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K.S.; Chan, Denise; Nelson, E. Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates parental attitudes and factors associated with varicella vaccination among preschool and schoolchildren prior to introduction of the vaccine into Hong Kong's universal Childhood Immunization Program. Fourteen kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Hong Kong were randomly selected in 2013. Parents of the students were invited to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Acquired information included demographic characteristics and socioeconomic statuses of f...

  3. [Characteristics of physical growth of schoolchildren in Mongolia and their forming factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelova, I G; Amgalan, G

    The article considers the findings of hygienic assessments of educational conditions in urban and rural schools in Mongolia and socio-economic conditions of living of schoolchildren and analysis of anthropometric measurements of schoolchildren aged of 7-16 years in relation to the assessment of harmonicity of their physical development. Hygienic conditions in Mongolian schools are characterized by improper organization of the educational - accomplishment process, high occupancy rate in classes causing insufficient space for a pupil and disconformity of school furniture parameters of school desks and chairs to growth and age requirements of pupils. Comparative assessment of socio-economic factors revealed (выделено автором) that the majority (84.1%) of rural pupils reside in uncomfortable houses and gerdwellings, 58.5 % - in large families with many children, 46.3 % - in families with poor living conditions. There were obtained data about differences in physical development of urban and rural schoolchildren pronounced with age by the gain in the number of children with disharmonious development and children with lower physical indices of the development, delayed by 1-2 years appearance of the crossing of growth and growth shift typical for rural children in comparison with their urban counterparts. According to results of multivariate regression analysis most significant factors for the formation of physical development of school children in descending order are academic workload, the place of residence, the number of children in the family, uncomfortable living conditions, household income and parent’s education. In the presence of these factors, the risk of the formation of disharmonious physical growth of school children increases by 1.8-2.8 times. The probability of the risk offormation of disharmonious physical development of schoolchildren living in rural areas was found to be by 2.5 times more than for their urban counterparts. The results

  4. Validation of the ISAAC Standardized Questionnaire Used by Schoolchildren from Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gorozave-Car, Karla; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Sanín-Aguirre, Luz Helena; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Blanco-Muñoz, J.; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Background. In Mexico, several studies have been conducted under the ISAAC methodology; nevertheless, no validation studies of the ISAAC questionnaire based on objective clinical testing in our country have been published. Aims of the Study. To validate the ISAAC questionnaire, used in a study of prevalence of allergic diseases, based on medical, respiratory, and allergic evaluations of schoolchildren being 11 to 16 years old in Mexicali, Mexico. Material and Methods. We conducted a cross-sec...

  5. Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion

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    Kelsey Beckford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR. This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD age 9.3 (1.8 years (n = 359 boys. The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48 and 111 (57 μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR UIC was 124 (83,172 μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey.

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Alamneh; Nibret, Endalkachew

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving 385 schoolchildren was conducted between November 2011 to February 2012. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify socio-demographic and associated risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Four species of intestinal helminthes were identified with an overall prevalence of 44.2% (170 of 385 schoolchildren). The predominant parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) 153 (39.7%) and Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura) 30 (7.8%). One hundred thirty five (35.1%) had single infections and 35 (9.2%) were infected with more than one helminthic parasites in which 32 (8.4%) were double infections and 3 (0.8%) were triple infections. Significant associations were observed between intestinal helminth infection and those of age, grade level, and school variables. Prevalence of hookworm infection was significant in children who did not wear shoes regularly (P<0.05). Intervention programs and education on personal and environmental hygiene should be implemented for the prevention and control of helminthic infections in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of and contributing factors to overweight and obesity among the schoolchildren of Podgorica, Montenegro

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    Jakšić Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Childhood obesity is an emerging public health problem. The national prevalence of child overweight/obesity in Montenegro has increased by one third in the last decade. As the overwhelming majority of Montenegrin population is urban, investigation of obesity and correlates among urban children is of special public health interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and contributing factors to obesity among schoolchildren of Podgorica. Method. The sample included 1,134 schoolchildren (49.8% boys aged 7–12 years, from 10 elementary schools in Podgorica. We measured children’s body mass, body height, and waist circumference to calculate body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The research instrument was a closed type of the original questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria recommended by the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force. Results. Among the investigated children there were 21.2% and 6% overweight and obese children, respectively. Obesity was more frequent among boys (7.6% compared to girls (4.4%. In a multiple regression, childhood obesity was positively related to the following: male gender, younger age, lower number of siblings, parental obesity, and low physical activity. Conclusion. One out of five urban Montenegrin schoolchildren is overweight/obese, with obesity being twice as frequent among boys compared to girls. A program against obesity among urban Montenegrin children should focus on the revealed contributing factors.

  8. Profile analysis of rural and urban schoolchildren: life style and postural habits

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    Antonia Dalla Pria Bankoff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the profile of 7-to-14-year-old male and female schoolchildren with regard to their life style and postural habits. It was carried out through a specific protocol for this project, including open and close questions. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: a parents need to be clarified about their children’s necessity of leisure time; b the schoolchildren studied spend too little time on sports practice and physical activies; c their postural habits revealed a predominance of fetal sleeping position on foam rubber mattresses, the use of backpacks to carry their school materials and the sitting position at the desk with flexed legs and the feet touching the floor; d rural schoolchildren have less leisure time available to practice sports and other specific physical activities because after school time they work with their parents in the fields; e a high rate of spine radiographies was detected.

  9. Nutritional status, oral hygiene and Angular cheilitis in schoolchildren in Cianjur district, West Java

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    Fatimah Boenjamin Partakusuma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angular cheilitis is a lesion at the corner of the mouth. Clinically, it is visible as an erythema and ulceration that occasionally extend beyond the vermillion border onto the skin. Anemia in children is an issue of global nutritional problems that need attention. The objectives of the study  was to determine the association between nutritional status, oral hygiene  and angular cheilitis in elementary schoolchildren in District of Cianjur. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 349 schoolchildren in five Subdistrict of Cianjur. Angular cheilitis status was determined based on the criteria set by Ohman (1986. Anhropometric status was determined by CDC BMI-for-age percentile growth chart. Anemia status was determine by the level of hemoglobin concentration using the HemoCue device. Oral hygiene was measured by OHI-S index. Results: The prevalence of angular cheilitis, anemia, wasting and poor oral hygiene were: 62.5%, 12,6%, 20.6%, and 67.3%, respectively. There are no relationships between  anthropometric status, oral hygiene and angular cheilitis. (p> 0.05. However there is a relationship significant relationship beween anemia and angular cheilitis (p <0.05. Logistic regression test showed that anemia is a risk factor on the occurrence of angular cheilitis. Conclusion: Anemia is a factor on the occurrence of angular cheilitis in schoolchildren in Cianjur.

  10. Overweight trends among Polish schoolchildren before and after the transition from communism to capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomula, Aleksandra; Nowak-Szczepanska, Natalia; Danel, Dariusz P; Koziel, Slawomir

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to reveal the secular trends in body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish schoolchildren between the years 1966-2012, during which intense socio-political changes took place. Four surveys were conducted in several districts of Poland looking at 69,746 schoolchildren aged 7-18. Significant increase in mean BMI as well as in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed. During this time the highest increase in both mean BMI and excess weight was observed between 1988 and 2012, i.e. after the political transformation, resulting in the improvement of living conditions. However, with respect to girls in late adolescence, between these years, the mean BMI as well as the prevalence of overweight were leveling off, while the percentage of boys with excess body fat in the same developmental category significantly increased in 2012. In the years 1966-1978 and 1978-1988 the pattern of changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity reflected the social and economic circumstances, i.e. temporary economic improvements, or deepening political crises and food shortage. In conclusion, the weight status of schoolchildren strongly reflects socio-political changes that took place in Poland, as well as in most of the Central European countries in the last half century. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of Chinese Martial Arts and Philosophy to Reduce Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis Lai Chu; Lee, Toney Ka Hung

    2018-04-10

    This study examined the effectiveness of Chinese martial arts in reducing reactive and proactive aggressive behavior among schoolchildren with a cluster-randomized trial. A screening questionnaire was completed by 3511 schoolchildren of Grades 2 to 5 from 13 sites in Hong Kong. We shortlisted 298 children who scored z ≥ 1 on the total score of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in their respective sites to participate in the experiment. They were divided into 31 clusters that were blinded and randomly assigned to one of the 4 conditions: skills only, philosophy only, skills and philosophy, and physical fitness (placebo). Subjects were assessed at baseline, posttraining, and 6 months after training using aggression scales. Results from the linear mixed model indicated that the time × training interaction effects were significant for aggressive behavior (reactive and proactive), delinquent behavior, anxiety/depression, and attention problems. Although all measures declined in all conditions over time, only the skills-and-philosophy condition showed a significant reduction at posttraining and/or 6-month follow-up compared with the placebo. The results provided a theoretical proof for the relationship between aggression and sport involvement combined with children's moral reasoning. This study gives practical implications to intervention that solely playing sports or teaching moral lessons is not effective enough for high-risk schoolchildren with aggressive behavior. However, combined traditional Chinese martial arts skills and moral philosophy training could be considered in the school curriculum to reduce school violence and facilitate creation of harmonious schools.

  12. Factors associated with overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Juliana Melo Teruel Biagi CAMARGO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess overweight/obesity of elementary schoolchildren in Campinas , São Paulo , Brazil, and its association with parental nutritional status, children's food consumption, food preferences, and level of physical activity, and familial socioeconomic status. Methods This case-control study included 509 schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years. Body mass index Z-score was used to determine nutritional status, defining cases (>+1 Z-score and controls (³-2 ?+1 Z-score. To address association with overweight/obesity, a conceptual model was established and used for multiple analysis, performed by logistic regression. Results The children had an overweight/obesity frequency of 39.5%. Multiple analysis adjusted for socioeconomic level showed that overweight/obese children were more likely to eat at the mall (1.55; 95%CI=1.00-2.40, have overweight and obese parents (OR=1.71; 95%CI=1.08-2.71 and OR=3.55; 95%CI=2.18-5.80 respectively, report use of passive school transport (OR=1.57; 95%CI=1.04-2.36, and consume chicken nuggets on 3 or more days per week (OR=3.03; 95%CI=1.32-6.95. Conclusion These results support the urgent need of strategies to reduce overweight/obesity and promote its prevention in schoolchildren. Moreover, intervention studies involving parents and addressing environmental factors are important for the development of effective programs.

  13. Nutritional status, tooth wear and quality of life in Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Francisco Juliherme Pires de; Sales-Peres, André de Carvalho; Moura-Grec, Patricia Garcia de; Mapengo, Marta Artemisa Abel; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the correlation among nutritional status, tooth wear and quality of life in Brazilian schoolchildren. The study followed a cross-sectional design. Nutritional status was measured via anthropometry using BMI and tooth wear was measured using the Dental Wear Index; both these assessments were carried out by a trained recorder according to standard criteria. A modified version of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances was used to assess quality of life. City of Bauru, in Brazil. A cluster sample of 396 schoolchildren (194 boys and 202 girls) aged 7-10 years. The anthropometric assessment showed similar situations for both sexes regarding underweight (31·40 % in boys and 30·20 % in girls) and overweight/obesity (33·96 % in boys and 33·17 % in girls). The underweight children showed a greater severity of tooth wear in the primary teeth (OR=0·72; CI 0·36, 1·42), although in the permanent dentition the obese children had a greater severity of tooth wear (OR=1·42; 95 % CI 0·31, 6·55). The tooth wear was correlated with age for both dentitions. Tooth wear in the primary and permanent dentition may be related to nutritional status. Tooth wear and obesity did not have a significant impact on the schoolchildren's perception of quality of life.

  14. Current status of Enterobius vermicularis infection in primary schoolchildren in Miaoli County and Taichung County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Chieh; Lee, Yuan-Fang; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Nie-Sue; Chen, Po-Yen; Huang, Fang-Liang; Liou, Nuo-Wei

    2009-10-01

    No epidemiological survey of the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection in Miaoli County and Taichung County has been conducted. This epidemiological survey was performed to describe the profile of E. vermicularis infection in schoolchildren in Miaoli County and Taichung County. The first part of this study was conducted between November 2005 and February 2006 in Miaoli County. 44,071 primary schoolchildren from 18 districts were examined by 2 consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swabs to estimate the infection rate. The second part was performed between October 2006 and January 2007 in Taichung County. 24,382 primary schoolchildren from 14 districts were examined. In Miaoli County, the infection rate was 2.39% (1054/44,071). The infection rate was highest in the Taian (6.69%; 20/299), Shytarn (4.49%; 11/245), and Dahu townships (3.6%; 40/1111). In Taichung County, the infection rate was 2.95% (720/24,382). The infection rate was highest in the Da-an (5.46%; 26/476) and Heping townships (4.48%; 9/201). The infection rate for a family with > or =3 children was significantly higher than that for a family with pinworm infection among the groups surveyed.

  15. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Agueda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  16. Epidemiology of gingivitis in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funieru, C; Klinger, A; Băicuș, C; Funieru, E; Dumitriu, H T; Dumitriu, A

    2017-04-01

    Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral disease in children, being strongly associated to social gradients. Many studies have reported different results concerning the extent and intra-oral distribution of gingivitis in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic parameters and socio-related risk factors of gingivitis in the 10-17-year-old Bucharest schoolchildren population and to analyze its intra-oral distribution. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1595 schoolchildren, social condition being assigned using a simple questionnaire. Classes of students were used as clusters in a single-stage cluster sampling method. An intra-oral exam was performed for all the children included in this study. Silness and Löe scores, prevalence and the extent of gingivitis were calculated. The gingival scores showed a mild inflammation and the prevalence of gingivitis was 91%. Boys had a higher gingival (0.19 vs. 0.18; p gingival conditions (p Gingivitis was more severe on the upper teeth, with the maximum score being reached at the right upper lateral incisor (0.63 on distal surface). Gingival condition in Bucharest schoolchildren population was associated to social gradients. School dental services are also another factor that seems to be related with gingivitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

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    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  18. [Parental beliefs and child-rearing attitudes and mental health problems among schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Ymara Lúcia Camargo; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Goodman, Robert; Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos

    2005-10-01

    To verify the prevalence and identify the risk factors related to mental health problems among schoolchildren and its possible association with the beliefs and educational attitudes of parents/caretakers. Cross-sectional study with a stratified probabilistic sample (n=454) of first to third-graders from public and private schools in Southeastern Brazil. Standardized instruments were administered to parents/caretakers by trained interviewers, including screening questionnaires for mental health problems among children and parents/caretakers; a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes; and a questionnaire for socio-economic status. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. We found 35.2% prevalence of clinical/borderline cases among students. Parents/caretakers that believed in corporal punishment as a child-rearing method used physical aggression towards their children more frequently (64.8%). Logistic regression models showed that the act of hitting the child with a belt was associated to conduct problems and to overall mental health problems among schoolchildren in the presence of other risk factors: child gender (male), parents/caretakers with mental health problems, and adverse socioeconomic conditions. The high prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and its association with child-rearing methods and mental health problems among parents/caretakers indicate the need for psycho-educational interventions aimed to reduce physical abuse and mental health problems in childhood.

  19. Aerobic capacity and its relationship with parameters of health-related fitness in schoolchildren

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    Andrés Rosa Guillamón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic capacity and other parameters determining fitness in primary school. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study, 298 schoolchildren (139 males and 159 females aged 8-12. Body composition (weight and height and physical fitness (capacity, motor aerobic and musculoskeletal was assessed by ALPHA-Fitness battery. Aerobic capacity and body mass index (under/normal-weight and overweight/obesity were categorized using standard criteria. The variable motor / muscle overall capacity was calculated, and the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max was indirectly estimated.  Results: The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA found that men have better values in the test 4x10m (p <0.001, longitudinal jump (p <0.001, Course-Navette (p <0.001 and in VO2max (p <0.001. The ANOVA test showed that schoolchildren with better aerobic capacity have lower weight and body mass index (p <0.001 for both, better performance in the test longitudinal jump (p <0.001 and better overall motor / muscle capacity, and increased VO2max (p <0.001 for both. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that schoolchildren with healthy cardiorespiratory fitness had better physical fitness and are more likely to have healthy anthropometric parameters.

  20. Validation of the Online version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire for schoolchildren

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    Raquel ENGEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the validity of the web-based version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online for schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of elementary school. Methods Participants were 312 schoolchildren aged 7 to 12 years of a public school from the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Validity was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, as well as by agreement rates (match, omission, and intrusion rates of food items reported by children on the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online, using direct observation of foods/beverages eaten during school meals (mid-morning snack or afternoon snack on the previous day as the reference. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of participants’ characteristics on omission and intrusion rates. Results The results showed adequate sensitivity (67.7% and specificity (95.2%. There were low omission and intrusion rates of 22.8% and 29.5%, respectively when all food items were analyzed. Pizza/hamburger showed the highest omission rate, whereas milk and milk products showed the highest intrusion rate. The participants who attended school in the afternoon shift presented a higher probability of intrusion compared to their peers who attended school in the morning. Conclusion The Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online possessed satisfactory validity for the assessment of food intake at the group level in schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of public school.

  1. Prevalence of asthma symptoms and associated factors in schoolchildren from Brazilian Amazon islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marly S; Monteiro, Julius Caesar S; Camelo-Nunes, Inês C; Solé, Dirceu

    2012-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms among schoolchildren living on two different Brazilian Amazon islands and to identify the risk factors related to this condition. A cross-sectional study of 400 schoolchildren (5-8 years old) using written questionnaires produced by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, a skin prick test (allergic sensitization), and a stool examination (for helminthic infection). Nonparametric tests were carried out, and the risk factors were identified by logistic regression. The prevalence of active asthma symptoms was markedly higher in children living on Outeiro Island (OI) than those living on Combú Island (CBI) (30.5% and 16.5%, respectively). The logistic regression identified several risk factors of asthma symptoms on CBI: parental history of asthma, night coughing in the past year, and "currently have a cat". On OI, the major risk factors were parental history of asthma, personal history of eczema, having two or more older siblings, and night coughing in the past year. The risk factors in common on both the islands were night coughing in the past year and parental history of asthma. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was higher in those with a lifestyle closer to that observed in urban areas (i.e., better sanitation and hygiene), reinforcing the protective effect of a rural environment. Different risk factors were associated with asthma symptoms in schoolchildren living on OI and on CBI. This fact may reflect the environmental individuality and particularities of each island.

  2. Prevalence of dental erosion in 12-year-old schoolchildren of Lucknow city

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    Pooja Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental erosion is tooth surface loss caused by chemical processes without bacterial involvement, which can affect children because of various dietary and other lifestyle factors. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental erosion in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A total of 212 schoolchildren were selected through multistage cluster random sampling method. A pretested self-administered pro forma was used to record demographic data, medical history, and dietary habits. The clinical examination was done to evaluate dental erosion of children using dental erosion index by O'Sullivan. Descriptive analytical tests were used including distribution of erosion, its extent and severity. The findings were compared across the study participants using Chi-square test. Results: The overall prevalence of dental erosion was 34.12% with no significant sex difference. Dental erosion was significantly related to the frequency of consumption of fruit juices (67.07% followed by carbonated drinks (64.47%. In most of the cases, more than half of their surfaces were diagnosed as affected by erosion (26.25% central incisors, 4.83% lateral incisors. Conclusions: Dental erosion among the study group was found to be 34.12%, providing evidence that dental erosion is becoming a significant problem in Lucknow schoolchildren.

  3. Predictors of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among a Sample of Egyptian Schoolchildren

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    Mones M. Abu Shady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status among a sample of Egyptian schoolchildren and to evaluate predictors of deficiency and insufficiency. Subjects and Methods. A cross-sectional study comprising 200 prepubescent schoolchildren aged from 9 to 11 years was performed. A questionnaire including frequency of midday sun exposure, milk intake, physical activity, and level of maternal education was taken. Body mass index (BMI was calculated; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD], serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone were measured. Results. Vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OHD < 20 ng/mL] was detected in 11.5% of subjects while its insufficiency (serum 25(OHD is between 20 and 29.9 ng/mL was detected in 15%. Results revealed that obesity, low physical activity, low sun exposure, and low maternal education level are significant predictors of insufficiency, though female gender, low maternal education level, and low milk intake are significant predictors of deficiency. Lower serum phosphorus and higher serum parathyroid hormone were significantly associated with both deficiency and insufficiency (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common among schoolchildren in Egypt. Food fortification, vitamin D supplementation, and increasing maternal awareness about the importance of physical activity and exposure of their children to ultraviolet light may help to overcome this problem.

  4. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Rheinländer, Thilde; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2013-04-24

    In Vietnam, initiatives have been started aimed at increasing the practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS) among primary schoolchildren. However, compliance remains low. This study aims to investigate responses to a teacher-centred participatory HWWS intervention in a multi-ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July-November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September-December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction to the intervention of teachers, children and parents. This included semi-structured interviews with children (15), and their parents (15), focus group discussions (FGDs) with schoolchildren (32) and school staff (20) and observations during 15 HWWS involving children. Observations and interview data from children demonstrated that children were visibly excited and pleased with HWWS sessions where teachers applied active teaching methods including rewards, games and HWWS demonstrations. All children, schoolteachers and parents also viewed the HWWS intervention as positive and feasible, irrespective of ethnicity, gender of schoolchildren and background of schoolteachers. However, some important barriers were indicated for sustaining and transferring the HWWS practice to the home setting including limited emphasis on hygiene in the standard curriculum of schools, low priority and lack of time given to practical teaching methods and lack of guidance and reminding HWWS on a regular basis at home, in particular by highland parents, who spend most of their time working away from home in the fields

  5. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

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    Le Thi Thanh Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Vietnam, initiatives have been started aimed at increasing the practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS among primary schoolchildren. However, compliance remains low. Objective: This study aims to investigate responses to a teacher-centred participatory HWWS intervention in a multi-ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. Design: This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July–November 2008 and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September–December 2010. Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction to the intervention of teachers, children and parents. This included semi-structured interviews with children (15, and their parents (15, focus group discussions (FGDs with schoolchildren (32 and school staff (20 and observations during 15 HWWS involving children. Results: Observations and interview data from children demonstrated that children were visibly excited and pleased with HWWS sessions where teachers applied active teaching methods including rewards, games and HWWS demonstrations. All children, schoolteachers and parents also viewed the HWWS intervention as positive and feasible, irrespective of ethnicity, gender of schoolchildren and background of schoolteachers. However, some important barriers were indicated for sustaining and transferring the HWWS practice to the home setting including limited emphasis on hygiene in the standard curriculum of schools, low priority and lack of time given to practical teaching methods and lack of guidance and reminding HWWS on a regular basis at home, in particular by highland parents, who spend most

  6. Distribution of macro- and micronutrient intakes in relation to the meal pattern of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in the city of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossenaar, M.; Montenegro-Bethancourt, G.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Doak, C.M.; Solomons, N.W,

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to assess the distribution of energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes by meal (breakfast, lunch, dinner and combined snacks) in a cross-sectional sample of schoolchildren. Design: Cross-sectional dietary survey in schoolchildren. Setting: Twelve private and public

  7. The effectiveness of the treatment of severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren

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    M.N. Garas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic multifactorial diseases of the lungs. At least 10–12 % of patients with bronchial asthma are suffering from a severe form of the disease. One aspect of inadequate severe asthma control is its phenotypic heterogeneity, interest of experts increases to the problem of exercise-induced asthma. The purpose of the study was to increase efficiency of treatment for severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren based on the analysis of the attack dynamics and to achieve disease control according to main inflammatometric and spirometric indices. Materials and methods. We examined 46 children with severe persistent bronchial asthma, in particular, 15 schoolchildren suffering from severe exercise-induced asthma, the second clinical group (comparison one consisted of 31 children suffering from severe type of the disease, with no signs of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Basic therapy effectiveness was determined prospectively by assessing the disease control using AST-test with an interval of 3 months. The severity of bronchial obstruction syndrome in patients on admission to hospital during exacerbation was assessed by score scale. Airway hyperresponsiveness was evaluated according to the results of bronchoprovocation with histamine. Results. Children of I clinical group had more significant manifestations of bronchial obstruction during the week of inpatient treatment than the comparison group of patients, including significantly more severe manifestations of bronchial obstruction were verified on 1st and 7th day of hospitalization. Due to the analysis of basic therapy effectiveness, only a quarter of I clinical group patients and a larger part of schoolchildren in comparison group achieved the partial control after a 3-month course of anti-inflammatory treatment. Eosinophilic inflammation was observed in most children with severe exercise-induced asthma (60.1 % and in 47.2 % of

  8. Self-reported physical activity and food intake patterns in schoolchildren aged 7-10 from public and private schools.

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    Filipe Ferreira da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Physical activity and diet are related to several health outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity (PA and diet patterns among Brazilian schoolchildren attending private or public schools. A cross-sectional, school-based study of elementary schoolchildren aged 7-10 years old (n = 2,936 was carried out in Florianopolis (southern Brazil. Self-reported food consumption and PA patterns were assessed by means of a questionnaire. A higher percentage of girls than boys met the rec­ommendations for consumption of fruits and vegetables and limited their consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Boys reported higher PA levels than girls (P < 0.001. Children attending private schools were more likely to be in the highest tertile of PA (odds ratio = 1.53, 1.14-2.05 and 80% less likely to be active in commuting to school compared to public school students. Private schoolchildren were more likely to meet recommendations for fruits and vegetables, limit sweet consumption, report adequate meal frequency and no consumption of fast food or soft drinks. In summary, girls and private schoolchildren reported better eating patterns, while boys and private schoolchildren reported higher PA levels. Such results highlight the public school setting as a target for health promotion initiatives, along with other strategies, in developing countries.

  9. Impact of combined intermittent preventive treatment of malaria and helminths on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in Northern Ghanaian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku, Ernest Cudjoe; Olsen, Annette; Browne, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    albendazole plus praziquantel compared to albendazole plus praziquantel on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in schoolchildren. DESIGN: This three-arm, open-label intervention study was carried out in Ghana among class three schoolchildren. Artemether-lumefantrine and albendazole were co...... to measure haemoglobin (Hb), while the code transmission test (CTT), adapted from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), was used to measure sustained attention and recall before-and-after interventions in June 2011 and June 2012. RESULTS: We observed significant malaria parasite prevalence...... and deworming reduced prevalence of anaemia and improved sustained attention and recall in schoolchildren. Best results for sustained attention and recall were seen in Study Arm 2....

  10. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schommer, Vânia Ames; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary; Silva, Anelise Damiani; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5 th and 8 th grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5 th to the 8 th grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition

  11. Normative Reference Values for Handgrip Strength in Colombian Schoolchildren: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Morales, Olimpo; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Palacios-López, Adalberto; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel H; Vivas, Andrés; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Lobelo, Felipe; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, Morales, O, Peña-Ibagon, JC, Palacios-López, A, Prieto-Benavides, DH, Vivas, A, Correa-Bautista, JE, Lobelo, F, Alonso-Martínez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Normative reference values for handgrip strength in Colombian schoolchildren: the FUPRECOL study. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 217-226, 2017-The primary aim of this study was to generate normative handgrip (HG) strength data for 10 to 17.9 year olds. The secondary aim was to determine the relative proportion of Colombian children and adolescents that fall into established Health Benefit Zones (HBZ). This cross-sectional study enrolled 7,268 schoolchildren (boys n = 3,129 and girls n = 4,139, age 12.7 [2.4] years). Handgrip was measured using a hand dynamometer with an adjustable grip. Five HBZs (Needs Improvement, Fair, Good, Very Good, and Excellent) have been established that correspond to combined HG. Centile smoothed curves, percentile, and tables for the third, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile were calculated using Cole's LMS method. Handgrip peaked in the sample at 22.2 (8.9) kg in boys and 18.5 (5.5) kg in girls. The increase in HG was greater for boys than for girls, but the peak HG was lower in girls than in boys. The HBZ data indicated that a higher overall percentage of boys than girls at each age group fell into the "Needs Improvement" zone, with differences particularly pronounced during adolescence. Our results provide, for the first time, sex- and age-specific HG reference standards for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years.

  12. Urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Yemen: prevalence, risk factors, and the effect of a chemotherapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waleedi, Ali A; El-Nimr, Nessrin A; Hasab, Ali A; Bassiouny, Hassan K; Al-Shibani, Latifa A

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in Yemen. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis varies considerably across different parts of Yemen and was estimated to be 10% among schoolchildren in Sana'a. Praziquantel (PZQ) is highly effective against all five major human species of schistosomes. The aim of the present work was to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, describe the risk factors associated with its endemicity, and implement and assess a chemotherapeutic intervention using PZQ in a village in Yemen. The sample included 696 schoolchildren from a village in Abyan Governorate. During the baseline school survey, personal, sociodemographic, and environmental data, and data on practices in relation to water contact were collected from each study participant using a predesigned structured questionnaire. Urine samples from each participant were examined for macrohematuria and the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. The chemotherapeutic intervention was assessed 3 and 6 months after the treatment and certain indicators were calculated. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.1%. The main significant risk factors were male sex; proximity of houses to water ponds; and using pond water for swimming, agricultural activities, and for bathing in houses. PZQ treatment reduced the prevalence of infection and decreased the prevalence of high-intensity infection. Survival analysis showed that the probability of residual infection also dropped after the treatment intervention. Male sex and using pond water for various activities were the main significant risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis. PZQ is still a cornerstone drug in reducing or eliminating morbidity associated with schistosomiasis infection. Health education programs tailored for the community are required for the control and prevention of urinary schistosomiasis. To address schoolchildren, school curricula should include lessons about urinary

  13. A Model of the Effect of Lens Development on Refraction in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji C

    2017-12-01

    The study provides a new theory on the mechanism underlying myopia development, and it could be useful in clinical practice to control myopia development in schoolchildren. To model the effect of the crystalline lens on refractive development in schoolchildren. The Zemax 13 was used to calculate Zernike aberrations and refractions across 50° horizontal visual fields. Optical effects of the anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and radii of curvature of the lens surfaces on refractions were modeled. Refractive changes induced by lens development in emmetropic and myopic eyes, based on a previous longitudinal study from literature, were calculated. A lens thickness reduction with an anterior chamber depth deepening caused a hyperopic shift over the visual fields and even more at the periphery. Opposite effects were found when the lens was thinned without any change of the anterior chamber depth. While a flattening of the anterior lens surface produced hyperopic refractions overall, a posterior lens flattening caused a myopic shift at the periphery, but a hyperopic shift of the central refraction. In the myopic eye, lens development induced refractive change toward more hyperopic over the visual fields and more at the periphery. Lens thinning and lens axial movement participate in peripheral refractive development in schoolchildren, and lens development with a deeper anterior chamber depth and a flatter lens surface in the myopic eye could generate extra hyperopia over visual fields. The myopic lens development could be due to a backward movement of the lens, driven by a backward growth of the ciliary process, which might be a causative factor of myopia development.

  14. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schommer, Vânia Ames [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Anelise Damiani [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Lucia Campos, E-mail: luciapell.pesquisa@cardiologia.org.br [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5{sup th} and 8{sup th} grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5{sup th} to the 8{sup th} grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition.

  15. Thinness in young schoolchildren in Serbia: another case of the double burden of malnutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjic, Visnja; Jorga, Jagoda; Radisavljevic, Snezana; Milanovic, Ivana; Bozic, Predrag; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2018-04-01

    Thinness is rarely highlighted or regularly monitored among children in developed countries although it may be rather frequent and pose a significant risk to children's health. We aimed to describe the prevalence of mild, moderate and severe thinness among young Serbian schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study of schoolchildren aged 6-9 years. Children were assessed for weight, height and BMI as part of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative in Serbia. Thinness grades were defined as gender- and age-specific cut-offs for BMI according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Serbia, September to November 2015. Students (n 4861) in grades 2 and 3 (6-9 years, 2397 girls). Overall prevalence of thinness in Serbian schoolchildren was 9·6 %. Mild thinness was clearly the largest category with a prevalence of 7·6 %, moderate thinness was present in 1·7 % of children and severe thinness was found in 0·3 % of children. OR indicated a significant risk of being thin for girls (1·44 times higher compared with boys) and children attending schools with no health-focused educational programme (1·57 times more likely to be thin than peers enrolled in schools with such programmes). In addition, OR for thinness tended to be 1·23 times higher in children living in an economically disadvantaged region of Serbia (P=0·06). A rather high prevalence of thinness highlights this malnutrition disorder as an emerging health issue that should trigger public health policies to tackle thinness, especially in girls of young age and children living in economically disadvantaged areas.

  16. Evaluation of diagnostic tests for Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Brazilian schoolchildren

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    Paula Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the launch of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, more than 70% of the endemic countries have implemented mass drug administration (MDA to interrupt disease transmission. The monitoring of filarial infection in sentinel populations, particularly schoolchildren, is recommended to assess the impact of MDA. A key issue is choosing the appropriate tools for these initial assessments (to define the best intervention and for monitoring transmission. Methods This study compared the pre-MDA performance of five diagnostic methods, namely, thick film test, Knott's technique, filtration, Og4C3-ELISA, and the AD12-ICT card test, in schoolchildren from Brazil. Venous and capillary blood samples were collected between 11 pm and 1 am. The microfilarial loads were analyzed with a negative binomial regression, and the prevalence and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated for all methods. The accuracies of the AD12-ICT card and Og4C3-ELISA tests were assessed against the combination of parasitological test results. Results A total of 805 schoolchildren were examined. The overall and stratified prevalence by age group and gender detected by Og4C3-ELISA and AD12-ICT were markedly higher than the prevalence estimated by the parasitological methods. The sensitivity of the AD12-ICT card and Og4C3-ELISA tests was approximately 100%, and the positive likelihood ratios were above 6. The specificity of the Og4C3-ELISA was higher than that of the AD12-ICT at different prevalence levels. Conclusions The ICT card test should be the recommended tool for monitoring school-age populations living in areas with ongoing or completed MDA.

  17. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

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    Renata Nunes CABRAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. Material and Methods: 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram® was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Results: Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; p<0.00001, showing that the most significant factors influencing caries risk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. Conclusion: The use of the form based on the Cariogram® software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk.

  18. Rapid appraisal of human intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren in Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Imanalieva, Cholpon; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Stefiuk, Kayte; Jeandron, Aurelie; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-12-01

    A population-representative lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) survey was conducted in 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren across Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The diagnostic approach consisted of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from a single stool sample and an adhesive tape test. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for infections. A total of 1262 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were recruited; 41% of them harboured at least one of the eight identified helminth species. The two most prevalent helminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (23.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.3%). Lower prevalences were found for Hymenolepis nana (4.4%), Fasciola hepatica (1.9%) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (1.8%). Washing raw vegetables was a protective factor with regard to A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR)=0.69, p=0.022); tap water was borderline protective (OR=0.56, p=0.057). Children of the richest families were at a lower risk of E. vermicularis infection than the poorest ones (OR=0.41, p=0.011). Sharing the bed with more than one person was a risk factor for E. vermicularis infection (OR=2.0, p=0.002). The results call for targeted interventions against intestinal helminths in Osh oblast. In a first stage, annual deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups with albendazole or mebendazole should be implemented, and reliable diagnosis and additional anthelminthic drugs should be made available. Subsequently, transmission control including locally-adapted health education, improved water supply and adequate sanitation should become the central features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary intake and blood lipid profile in overweight and obese schoolchildren

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    Rinaldi Ana Elisa Madalena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high blood lipid levels and obesity are one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. Some environmental factors are supposed to be involved in this relationship, such as dietary factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and blood lipids levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with 147 overweight and obese schoolchildren in Botucatu city, Brazil. The anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference and skinfolds, pubertal staging evaluation and biochemical tests were taken in all children. Three 24h-recall were applied in order to estimate the dietary intake and its relationship with blood lipid levels. The Student t test and multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was assessed at the level of 0.05. The data were processed in SAS software (version 9.1.3; SAS Institute. Results At this study, 63% of children were obese (body mass index higher than 95th percentile and 80% showed high body fat percentage. The percentage of children with abnormal total cholesterol and triglycerides was 12% and 10%, respectively, and 28% presented at least one abnormal lipid levels. The average values of anthropometric measurements were higher in children with elevated lipid levels. Total cholesterol levels were positively related to full-fat dairy products and triglycerides levels to saturated fat percentage. Conclusions Saturated fat was positively associated with elevated lipid levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since childhood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  20. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among schoolchildren in Cyprus: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratis, Sokratous; Christos, Ζilides; Despo, Panagi; Maria, Karanikola

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in the young constitute a public health issue. The current study aims to estimate: (a) the frequency of depressive symptoms in a sample of final grade elementary-school children in Cyprus, (b) the association among frequency of depressive symptoms, gender and nationality and, (c) the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the children's depression inventory (CDI). A descriptive cross-sectional study with internal comparison was performed. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was assessed with the CDI, which includes 5 subscales: depressive mood, interpersonal difficulties, ineffectiveness, anhedonia and negative self-esteem. Clinical depressive symptoms were reported as CDI score ≥19. CDI was anonymously and voluntarily completed by 439 schoolchildren [mean age 12.3 (±0.51) years old] from fifteen public elementary schools (217 boys and 222 girls), yielding a response rate of 58.2%. The metric properties of the CDI were assessed in terms of internal consistency reliability and construct validity via exploratory factor analysis (rotated and unrotated principal component analysis). Descriptive and inferential statistics were explored. 10.25% of Cypriot schoolchildren reported clinical depressive symptoms (CDI score ≥19). Statistically significant differences were reported between boys and girls in all five subscales of the CDI. Girls reported higher scores in "Depressive mood", "Negative self-esteem" and "Anhedonia" subscales, while boys scored higher in "Interpersonal difficulties" and "Ineffectiveness" subscales. There were no statistically significant differences among ethnicity groups regarding the entire CDI or the subscales of it. Concerning the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI, internal consistency reliability was adequate (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84). Factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in five factors explaining 42% of the variance. The Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI is a reliable

  1. [Indicators of general, cerebral, and regional hemodynamics in myopic schoolchildren aged 13-15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iastrebtseva, T A; Chuprov, A D; Plotnikova, Iu A

    2002-01-01

    110 schoolchildren aged 13-15 years were examined. 24 of them had pseudomyopia and 6 patients myopia of various forms. A control group consisted of 38 children. Central hemodynamics was estimated by average dynamic pressure, cerebral hemodynamics--by rheoencephalography, regional hemodynamics--by dopplerography of the internal carotid and suprapubic arteries. It was found that with myopia progression, the average dynamic pressure positively comes down with reduction of reographic waves amplitude in rheogram. The blood flow rate in internal carotid and suprapubic arteries has no substantial impact on myopia course. Predisposition to arterial hypotension is a risk factor for myopia development and progression.

  2. Short report: documentation of iodine deficiency in Haitian schoolchildren: implication for lymphatic filariasis elimination in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, M J; Streit, T G; Houston, R; May, W A; Addiss, D G; Lammie, P J

    2001-01-01

    In this study we documented unexpected moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency in Haitian schoolchildren although they live in a coastal community where presumably they have access to iodine-containing seafood. This fact combined with the lack of an iodized salt supply and endemic lymphatic filariasis makes community distribution of diethylcarbamazine-fortified, iodized salt an attractive strategy for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and iodine deficiency disorders in this area of Haiti. Combining lymphatic filariasis elimination with other public health interventions is one strategy to increase its public health benefit and maximize the impact of limited public health resources.

  3. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Thi Thanh, Xuan; Rheinländer, Thilde; Luu Ngoc, Hoat

    2013-01-01

    -ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. Design: This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July-November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September......-December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction...

  4. Body adiposity is associated with risk of high blood pressure in Portuguese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Gama, Augusta; Carvalhal, Isabel Mourão; Nogueira, Helena; Rosado-Marques, Vitor; Padez, Cristina

    2018-04-20

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and its association with anthropometric indicators of adiposity in Portuguese schoolchildren. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of 6-9-year-old children was analyzed. Weight and height (used to calculate body mass index [BMI]), blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness (used to estimate body fat percentage [BFP]) were measured using standard techniques. BP was classified as high-normal BP or hypertension for values between the 90th and 95th percentiles or above the 95th percentile, respectively. A body adiposity index was calculated with principal component analysis using BMI, WC and BFP. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the strength of the association between anthropometric indicators and HBP. The prevalence of high-normal BP and hypertension was 4.5% and 3.7%, respectively. BP was positively correlated with all anthropometric indicators (p<0.01 for all). HBP was significantly more prevalent in females than in males and was positively associated with higher values of the assessed anthropometric indicators of adiposity, especially among females. Increased body fat predicted HBP. The use of anthropometric indicators may thus be useful in screening for HBP among Portuguese schoolchildren. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of illicit substances among schoolchildren in colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Ratnayake, Himali Erandathie; Palmer, Paula; Matthews, David R; Katulanda, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the usage patterns and correlates of illicit drug use among schoolchildren in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out among grade 10 and 12 students using a self-administered questionnaire. From the 6000 students selected, 5353(89.22%) responded. Betel chewing with tobacco was seen in 28.48% males and 10.44% females. Substances such as Barbul, Madana Modaka, and cough syrups that are not established as illicit drugs were used as psychoactive substances. Ingredients of some of these compounds are not fully understood or regulated. Prevalence of cannabis use was 3.85% in males and 0.24% in females. Studying nonscience subjects for Advanced Level, doing sports, low academic performance, and peer smoking significantly increased the odds of using one or more substances (P substances were used by schoolchildren. More strategies to prevent further aggravation of these behaviors are needed. Constituents of some compounds are not understood and need further evaluation. Recognized high-risk groups can be targets for preventive and cessation programs.

  6. Intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition amongst first-cycle primary schoolchildren in Adama, Ethiopia

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    Getachew Belay

    2011-05-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition amongst first-cycle primary schoolchildren in Adama town,Ethiopia. Method: A total of 358 children from four primary schools in Adama town were included for stool examination, weight for age, height for age, weight for height and socio-economic status of the family. Results: The result of stool examinations showed that 127 (35.5% of the study subjects were infected by one or more parasite. The most frequent parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (12.6% and Hymenolopis nana (8.9%. The rate of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly associated with sex, age or socio-economic factors and nutrition (P > 0.05. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 21.2%. Those children whose families had a monthly income of less than 200 ETB (Ethiopian birr were highly affected by malnutrition (P < 0.05,but family education was not identified as a factor for malnutrition amongst schoolchildren. Conclusion: The prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar and H. nana could be of public health importance and calls for appropriate control strategies, and the high prevalence of malnutrition amongst children from poor families requires intervention.

  7. The prevalence of recurrent abdominal pain in 11- to 16-year-old Malaysian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, C; Yap, S; Goh, K L

    2000-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) among Malaysian school children aged from 11 to 16 years. A preliminary cross-sectional survey in which three urban schools and three rural schools were selected randomly. Two classes were selected randomly from each year. A questionnaire was given to each child asking him or her about whether they had experienced abdominal pain occurring at least three times over a period of at least 3 months, interfering with normal daily activity. 1 Interfering with normal daily activity was defined as missing school and/or having to stop doing a routine daily activity on account of the pain. Girls whose pains were related to periods were excluded. After the forms had been completed, each child was again interviewed to ensure that Apley's criteria1 was fulfilled in cases of RAP. The overall prevalence of RAP among 1549 schoolchildren (764 boys; 785 girls) was 10.2% (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.8-11.8). There appeared to be a higher prevalence in rural schoolchildren (P = 0.008; odds ratio (OR) 1.58), in those with a lower family income (P family size. : In spite of differences in time and culture, the overall prevalence of 10.2% found in this study is similar to that determined by Apley.1 There are significant differences in the prevalence of RAP between children from rural and urban schools, among children with different family incomes and among children whose parents have different educational backgrounds.

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran

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    Pegah BAHMANI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method.Results: Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3% and Entamoeba coli (4.5%. Overall, 143 (35.9% had single infections and 26 (6.4% were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9% had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5% had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education programs on students and their families should be implemented for the prevention and control of protozoa infections in the study area. 

  9. Changes in adiposity levels in schoolchildren according to nutritional status: analysis over a 30-year period

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    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze changes in adiposity levels over a 30-year period in schoolchildren according to nutritional status. This study is part of Projeto Misto Longitudinal de Crescimento, Desenvolvimento e Aptidão Física de Ilhabela. 1.144 schoolchildren of both sexes, aged between 10 and 11 years, met the following inclusion criteria: (a have at least one complete evaluation in one of the analyzed periods; (b be in the prepubertal stage of sexual maturation;and (c be apparently healthy. Analyzed periods were 1978/1980 (Baseline,1988/1990 (10 years, 1998/2000 (20 years, 2008/2010 (30 years. Analyzed variables were: body mass (kg, height (cm and adiposity levels (mm. Children were classified into three categories: eutrophic, overweight and obese, according to nutritional status, using World Health Organization (WHO body mass index (BMI curves for age and sex. For a comparison between periods, Two-Factor Analysis of Variance and Bonferroni’s test were used. In both sexes, the most significant increase in adiposity levels occurred among the eutrophic group, followed by the overweight group and obese group. Results showed an increase in adiposity levels over a 30-year period, even with nutritional status control. It shows that individuals with a similar BMI may vary in proportion and distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  10. Changes in adiposity levels in schoolchildren according to nutritional status: analysis over a 30-year period

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    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n4p405 The aim of this study was to analyze changes in adiposity levels over a 30-year period in schoolchildren according to nutritional status. This study is part of Projeto Misto Longitudinal de Crescimento, Desenvolvimento e Aptidão Física de Ilhabela. 1.144 schoolchildren of both sexes, aged between 10 and 11 years, met the following inclusion criteria: (a have at least one complete evaluation in one of the analyzed periods; (b be in the prepubertal stage of sexual maturation;and (c be apparently healthy. Analyzed periods were 1978/1980 (Baseline,1988/1990 (10 years, 1998/2000 (20 years, 2008/2010 (30 years. Analyzed variables were: body mass (kg, height (cm and adiposity levels (mm. Children were classified into three categories: eutrophic, overweight and obese, according to nutritional status, using World Health Organization (WHO body mass index (BMI curves for age and sex. For a comparison between periods, Two-Factor Analysis of Variance and Bonferroni’s test were used. In both sexes, the most significant increase in adiposity levels occurred among the eutrophic group, followed by the overweight group and obese group. Results showed an increase in adiposity levels over a 30-year period, even with nutritional status control. It shows that individuals with a similar BMI may vary in proportion and distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  11. Comorbidity of Learning Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Omani Schoolchildren

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    Watfa S. Al-Mamari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The estimated worldwide prevalence of learning disorders (LDs is approximately 2‒10% among school-aged children. LDs have variable clinical features and are often associated with other disorders. This study aimed to examine the comorbidity of LDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among a sample of schoolchildren in Oman. Methods: This study was conducted between January 2014 and January 2015 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. The Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI and the 28- item version of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale was completed by classroom teachers to determine the existence of LD and ADHD symptoms in 321 children in grades 1‒4 who had been referred to a learning support unit for LDs from elementary schools in Muscat. Results: The mean age of the students was 8.5 years. Among the cohort, 30% were reported to have symptoms of ADHD, including conduct problems (24%, hyperactivity (24% and inattentivepassive behaviours (41%. Male students reportedly exhibited greater conduct problems and hyperactivity than females. However, there were no gender differences noted between LDDI scores. Conclusion: This study suggests that Omani schoolchildren with LDs are likely to exhibit signs of ADHD. The early identification of this disorder is essential considering the chronic nature of ADHD. For interventional purposes, multidisciplinary teams are recommended, including general and special educators, clinical psychologists, school counsellors, developmental or experienced general paediatricians and child psychiatrists.

  12. Anemia and nutritional status of schoolchildren living at Saudi high altitude area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zeid, Alaa H.; Abdel-Fattah, Moataz M.; Hifnawy, Tamer M.; Al-Hassan, Sir-Alkhatima A.; A-Shehri, Abdul Salam A.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and possible risk factors for anemia and abnormal anthropometric measurements among schoolchildren in Al-Hada Area, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We conducted the study between January and April, 2005 at Al-Hada area. A nested case-control study was conducted to estimate risk factors for anemia and abnormal anthropometric measurements. From 5 schools, 513 students were recruited. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 13.4+/-0.9 g/dL, while the prevalence of anemia was 11.6% and 15.5% based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values. At the same time, underweight affected 14.2% of the students, and stunting affected 12.2%. Moreover, 9.8% of the students were obese and 13.8% suffered from wasting. Most of the victims of anemia and erroneous anthropometric measurements were females, except for wasting which was more prevalent among males. Anemia is highly prevalent among these schoolchildren, which is seriously affecting the growth of 6-14 year-old children. Similarly, malnutrition seems to be a significant health problem among those children as estimated by anthropometric measurements, where all forms of abnormal body measurements affected at least 9.8% of the studied group. An in-depth investigation of the etiological factors of iron deficiency and malnutrition is urgently needed, and suitable nutrition-education and iron supplementation programs are recommended. (author)

  13. Comparative reference of accommodation tension in schoolchildren of junior classes depending on emotional state

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    L. E. Fedorischeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the change of adaptation mechanisms in children of junior classes during working on close distance depending on their psychoemotional state.Methods: 52 children of the second classes of grammar school were included into the study. There were allocated 30 emotional labile schoolchildren with choleric temperament. The children were examined by pediatrician, neurologist and in laboratory. Standard ophthalmic examination was performed. Accommodation was examined by subjective (reserve of relative accommodation and objective (familiar tone of accommodation methods.Results: All children had low reserve of relative accommodation (RRA and high familiar tone of accommodation (FTA in the end of educational week especially in emotional labile children. After course of treatment (hygiene of visual activity; restoration of accommodation and therapy of visual tiredness; gymnastics for cervical spine; preparations with microelements, vitamins C,E, B-carotene; fenibute RRA was increased and FTA was decreased even in emotional labile children.Conclusion: There is correlation between refractive-accommodative apparatus and psychoemotional state in schoolchildren ofjunior classes.

  14. Comparative reference of accommodation tension in schoolchildren of junior classes depending on emotional state

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    L. E. Fedorischeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the change of adaptation mechanisms in children of junior classes during working on close distance depending on their psychoemotional state.Methods: 52 children of the second classes of grammar school were included into the study. There were allocated 30 emotional labile schoolchildren with choleric temperament. The children were examined by pediatrician, neurologist and in laboratory. Standard ophthalmic examination was performed. Accommodation was examined by subjective (reserve of relative accommodation and objective (familiar tone of accommodation methods.Results: All children had low reserve of relative accommodation (RRA and high familiar tone of accommodation (FTA in the end of educational week especially in emotional labile children. After course of treatment (hygiene of visual activity; restoration of accommodation and therapy of visual tiredness; gymnastics for cervical spine; preparations with microelements, vitamins C,E, B-carotene; fenibute RRA was increased and FTA was decreased even in emotional labile children.Conclusion: There is correlation between refractive-accommodative apparatus and psychoemotional state in schoolchildren ofjunior classes.

  15. Postural effects of symmetrical and asymmetrical loads on the spines of schoolchildren

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    Negrini Stefano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The school backpack constitutes a daily load for schoolchildren: we set out to analyse the postural effects of this load, considering trunk rotation, shoulder asymmetry, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and sagittal and frontal decompensation from the plumbline. A group of 43 subjects (mean age = 12.5 ± 0.5 years were considered: average backpack loads and average time spent getting to/from home/school (7 min had been determined in a previous study conducted on this population. Children were evaluated by means of an optoelectronic device in different conditions corresponding to their usual everyday school backpack activities: without load; bearing 12 (week maximum and 8 (week average kg symmetrical loads; bearing an 8 kg asymmetrical load; after fatigue due to backpack carrying (a 7-minute treadmill walking session bearing an 8 kg symmetrical load. Both types of load induce changes in posture: the symmetrical one in the sagittal plane, without statistical significant differences between 8 and 12 kg, and the asymmetrical one in all anatomical planes. Usual fatigue accentuates sagittal effects, but recovery of all parameters (except lumbar lordosis follows removal of the load. The backpack load effect on schoolchildren posture should be more carefully evaluated in the future, even if we must bear in mind that laws protect workers to carry heavy loads but not children, and results in the literature support the hypothesis that back pain in youngsters is correlated with back pain in adulthood

  16. Ethnic Inequalities in Overweight and Obesity Prevalence among Copenhagen Schoolchildren from 2002 to 2007.

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    Pedersen, Dorthe Corfitzen; Aarestrup, Julie; Pearson, Seija; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization in levels of childhood overweight has masked increasing gaps among different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in several countries. To examine if levels and trends in childhood overweight and obesity differed by ethnicity and socioeconomic areas in Copenhagen schoolchildren. From measured heights and weights of 32,951 children 5-8 and 14-16 years of age, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) and obesity were estimated using International Obesity Task Force criteria. Differences in prevalence levels and trends across six school years by ethnicity and socioeconomic areas were examined using logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight significantly decreased from 2002 to 2007 among the youngest Western girls and boys, showed no significant changes among the oldest non-Western girls and increased among the oldest non-Western boys. In all years, the youngest non-Western children had significantly higher levels of overweight than Western children. Although the prevalence of overweight tended to be higher in low socioeconomic areas as compared with high socioeconomic areas, few differences were statistically significant. Consistent trends in overweight across the years by socioeconomic area were not observed. Ethnic and social inequalities exist in childhood overweight among Copenhagen schoolchildren; thus appropriate interventions targeting high-risk groups are needed. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. Why do three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren suffer very low fatal crashes?

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    Gaurav Pandey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possible causes of low fatalities in three-wheelers (autorickshaw carrying schoolchildren in India. The data was collected in the form of First Information Report (FIR from local police stations from 2007 to 2012 and video-graphic surveys were done on four arterial roads running through Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Surveys were also done on one subarterial road near school zone which was used by three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren. The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that drivers behave differently while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children. Many researchers have investigated the effect of passengers on the driver of the same vehicle, but there was no evidence of any study which investigated the effect of child passengers on nearby vehicles. It was found that heavy vehicles maintain more gaps while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children as compared to those not carrying children. It was also found that this effect is more prominent at speeds higher than 40 km/h. On the other hand lighter vehicles keep the highest lateral and longitudinal gaps to heavy vehicles and three-wheelers without children respectively.

  18. ROLE OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN SCHOOLCHILDREN

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    Svitlana Lukianchuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the role of multicultural education programs in moral development of schoolchildren in the USA. It is noted that one of the top priority tasks of school is the development of such traditional American values as freedom, democracy, racial and national tolerance and others. For this purpose some changes in educational programs are being made. It is highlighted that implementation of courses and programs of multicultural education has become an important part of the educational process. These programs are of interdisciplinary character and they are integrated into educational programs of moral and social disciplines. According to their aims and priorities all courses and programs of multicultural education are divided into three groups: content-oriented, person-oriented, and socially-oriented. The analysis of the results of their implementation makes it possible for the author to conclude that integration of the programs of multicultural education into the educational process makes great contribution to the moral development of American schoolchildren.

  19. Improved iodine status is associated with improved mental performance of schoolchildren in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Briel, T; West, C E; Bleichrodt, N; van de Vijver, F J; Ategbo, E A; Hautvast, J G

    2000-11-01

    An adequate iodine supply in utero and shortly after birth is known to be crucial to an individual's physical and mental development. The question of whether iodine supplementation later in life can exert a favorable influence on the mental performance of iodine-deficient populations was addressed in various studies, but with contradictory results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an improvement in iodine status on mental and psychomotor performance of schoolchildren (7-11 y) who were moderately to severely iodine deficient. The study, which was originally planned as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention, was carried out in an iodine-deficient population of schoolchildren (n = 196) in northern Benin. As the population began to have access to iodized salt during the 1-y intervention period, the study population was split post hoc-on the basis of urinary iodine concentrations-into a group with improved iodine status and a group with unchanged iodine status. Changes in mental and psychomotor performance over the intervention period were compared. Children with increased urinary iodine concentrations had a significantly greater increase in performance on the combination of mental tests than did the group with no change in urinary iodine concentrations. An improvement in iodine status, rather than iodine status itself, determined mental performance in this population, which was initially iodine deficient. These findings suggest a "catch-up" effect in terms of mental performance.

  20. Effect of micronutrient supplement on health and nutritional status of schoolchildren: mental function.

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    Vazir, Shahnaz; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Thangiah, Vijayapushpam; Kamasamudram, Vijayaraghavan; Bhattiprolu, Sivakumar

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of a micronutrient-fortified beverage on mental function in schoolchildren. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, matched-pair, cluster, randomized feeding trial assessed baseline before supplementation and after 14 mo in a cohort of 608 children aged 6 to 15 y who received a micronutrient-fortified beverage or placebo. Children in two classes (clusters) in each of nine grades were assessed for intelligence, attention and concentration, memory, and school achievement. Mean intelligence quotient scores of the micronutrient-fortified beverage group and the placebo group at baseline and final follow-up were not significantly different. Mean verbal and performance scores and increments were also not different. After supplementation, attention-concentration increment scores of the micronutrient group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the placebo group. Mean and incremental scores of the supplemented group on the memory scale were not significantly different from those of the placebo group. Supplementation with a beverage fortified with a range of micronutrients significantly improved attention-concentration over 14 mo, but not intelligence quotient, memory, or school achievement among middle-income schoolchildren.

  1. Association between inaccurate estimation of body size and obesity in schoolchildren

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    Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of inaccurate estimation of own body size among Brazilian schoolchildren of both sexes aged 7-10 years, and to test whether overweight/obesity; excess body fat and central obesity are associated with inaccuracy. Methods: Accuracy of body size estimation was assessed using the Figure Rating Scale for Brazilian Children. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze associations. Results: The overall prevalence of inaccurate body size estimation was 76%, with 34% of the children underestimating their body size and 42% overestimating their body size. Obesity measured by body mass index was associated with underestimation of body size in both sexes, while central obesity was only associated with overestimation of body size among girls. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest there is a high prevalence of inaccurate body size estimation and that inaccurate estimation is associated with obesity. Accurate estimation of own body size is important among obese schoolchildren because it may be the first step towards adopting healthy lifestyle behaviors.

  2. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren

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    Edson dos Santos Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. METHODS: The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG comprised 195 students and the control group (CG, 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, and lean mass (LM. RESULTS: A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (p < 0.001 was observed, as well as on the interaction time x group in all the variables analyzed in both genders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58% and waist circumference (-2.33 cm, as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. CONCLUSION: The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

  3. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Edson Dos Santos; Gonçalves, Ezequiel Moreira; Morcillo, André Moreno; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2015-01-01

    To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG) comprised 195 students and the control group (CG), 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), and lean mass (LM). A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (pgenders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58%) and waist circumference (-2.33 cm), as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg) were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of selected environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors on schoolchildren's somatic and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrova, Diana; Kapsdorfer, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica; Hirosova, Katarina; Samohyl, Martin; Sevcikova, Ludmila

    2017-03-01

    Children develop rapidly and many exogenous determinants of health significantly affect their somatic and mental development. There is a subjective perception of cognitive load associated with the educational process. The aim of the study is to assess individual environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors influencing physical health and to investigate the amount of mental load in children. We investigated 87 schoolchildren (47 girls and 40 boys) aged 10-12 years, who were attending primary school in Bratislava. To assess values of selected factors we used a questionnaire form and personality characteristics were estimated by standardized psycho-diagnostic and IQ tests [range of classic fear, social-situation anxiety and jitters [skala Klasickeho strachu a Socialno-situacnej (in Slovak)] (KSAT), Eyesenck Personality Questionnaire for children (EPQ), Raven's IQ test]. Self-reported perception of mental load was assessed by questionnaire of subjective feelings and states (SFS). Children's body parameters were assessed using anthropometric measurements [height, weight, chest, abdominal and hip girth, Rohrer's index (RI), body mass index (BMI)] and a body fat measurement method (skinfold thickness). The results confirmed a significant relationship between higher parameters of overweight and obesity and irregular breakfast eating (pmental effort and cognitive load associated with the educational process. We note a close relationship between the higher mental load and the score of neuroticism (pmental health of schoolchildren is significantly affected by exogenous factors. Therefore, in terms of protection and promotion of children's health, it is important to evaluate and monitor environmental risk factors and to form their healthy habits.

  5. Biosocial Determinants of Persistent Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren in Tanzania despite Repeated Treatment

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    Rose E. Donohue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease endemic to Tanzania and other countries of the global south, which is currently being addressed through preventive chemotherapy campaigns. However, there is growing recognition that chemotherapy strategies will need to be supplemented to sustainably control and eventually eliminate the disease. There remains a need to understand the factors contributing to continued transmission in order to ensure the effective configuration and implementation of supplemented programs. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire, to evaluate the biosocial determinants facilitating the persistence of schistosomiasis, among 1704 Tanzanian schoolchildren residing in two districts undergoing a preventive chemotherapeutic program: Rufiji and Mkuranga. A meta-analysis was carried out to select the diagnostic questions that provided a likelihood for predicting infection status. We found that self-reported schistosomiasis continues to persist among the schoolchildren, despite multiple rounds of drug administration.Using mixed effects logistic regression modeling, we found biosocial factors, including gender, socio-economic status, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH-related variables, were associated with this continued schistosomiasis presence. These findings highlight the significant role that social factors may play in the persistence of disease transmission despite multiple treatments, and support the need not only for including integrated technical measures, such as WASH, but also addressing issues of poverty and gender when designing effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control programs.

  6. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren

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    Imane El Menchawy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N=195, aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT milk and the fortified group received (FG daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 9 months (T9. Hemoglobin (Hb was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p=0.037. Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%; more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410.

  7. Eating Behavior and Childhood Overweight Among Population-Based Elementary Schoolchildren in Japan

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    Akatsuki Kokaze

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Data was collected from fourth graders (9 or 10 years of age from Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, and lifestyle, including eating behaviors (eating until full and chewing thoroughly, was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, and height and weight were measured directly. Overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 4027 subjects (2079 boys and 1948 girls were analyzed. Chewing thoroughly was associated with a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR for being overweight, whereas eating until full significantly increased the OR for being overweight (OR: 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.94 among boys. However, eating until full was not associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight among the group that reported chewing thoroughly, whereas it was associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight (2.02, 1.38–2.94 among boys who did not chew thoroughly. In conclusion, eating until full or not chewing thoroughly was associated with being overweight among elementary schoolchildren. Results of this study suggest that chewing thoroughly may be an avenue to explore childhood overweight prevention efforts.

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Pegah; Maleki, Afshin; Sadeghi, Shahram; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ghahremani, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method. Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3%) and Entamoeba coli (4.5%). Overall, 143 (35.9%) had single infections and 26 (6.4%) were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9%) had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5%) had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables ( P protozoa infections in the study area.

  9. Factors Associated with Dental Pain in Mexican Schoolchildren Aged 6 to 12 Years

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    Mauricio Escoffié-Ramirez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify dental pain prevalence and associated factors in Mexican schoolchildren. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1,404 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years from public schools in the city of Pachuca de Soto, Hidalgo, Mexico. Data were collected through a questionnaire that addressed sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, eating and dental hygiene habits, and behavior variables. The dependent variable was self-reported dental pain in the 12 months prior to the survey. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics and a binary logistical regression model. Results. Dental pain prevalence among the studied children was 49.9%. The variables associated in the final model (p<0.05 were younger mother’s age, higher socioeconomic level, absence of an automobile in the home, fried food, fruit intake, lower tooth brushing frequency, never having used mouthwash or not knowing about it, and parents/guardians with regular to high levels of knowledge about oral health and a regular or good/very good perception of their child’s oral health. Conclusions. One in two children in the study had experienced dental pain in the twelve months prior to the survey. The association of socioeconomic variables with dental pain suggested inequalities among the children in terms of oral health.

  10. The burden of polyparasitism among primary schoolchildren in rural and farming areas in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midzi, N; Sangweme, D; Zinyowera, S; Mapingure, M P; Brouwer, K C; Munatsi, A; Mutapi, F; Mudzori, J; Kumar, N; Woelk, G; Mduluza, T

    2008-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zimbabwe among 1303 primary schoolchildren from a rural (53.3%) and a commercial farming area (46.7%) to determine the prevalence of co-infection by helminths and Plasmodium falciparum. Urine was examined on three successive days using the filtration method. Two stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and a third specimen was processed using the sedimentation method. Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed from thick blood films. The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium in the rural and farming areas was 66.8% and 52.3%, respectively, and for S. mansoni the prevalence was 12.4% and 22.7%, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum, hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura occurred only in the farming area, with a prevalence of 27.9%, 23.7%, 2.1%, 2.3%, respectively. Co-infection and triple infection with schistosomes, P. falciparum and soil-transmitted helminths occurred in the commercial farming area only. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections were associated with P. falciparum malaria (P<0.001, OR=2.48, 95% CI 1.56-3.93 and P=0.005, OR=1.85, 95% CI 1.20-2.87, respectively). Overlap of helminths with malaria is a concern among primary schoolchildren and incorporating helminth control in programmes aiming to control malaria will improve funding and increase the efficiency of control for neglected tropical diseases in identified co-endemic settings.

  11. Prevalence of oro-dental anomalies among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalamah, M; Baroudi, K

    2016-04-19

    Practitioners and policy-makers need information about the relative frequency of dental anomalies among children in their region. This study investigated the prevalence of different oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen. A sample of 1000 private and public schoolchildren aged 4-12 years were examined by the same examiner using disposable tongue blades. The total prevalence of oral anomalies was 15.1%, most commonly in boys (male:female ratio 3.2:1) aged 7-12 years. The most prevalent dental anomaly related to hard tissues was tooth hypoplasia (2.8%), followed by hypocalcification (2.6%), then microdontia (0.5%), macrodontia (0.4%), hypodontia (0.4%), supernumerary teeth (0.3%), tooth transposition (0.3%), dental fusion (0.2%) and gemination (0.2%). The most prevalent soft tissues anomaly was fissured tongue (4.0%), followed by ankyloglossia (1.8%), geographic tongue (0.9%), macroglossia (0.4%) and hairy tongue (0.3%). Appropriate measures need to be taken early to mitigate the negative impact and later costs of treatment of anomalies.

  12. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in 7-9 years-old Portuguese schoolchildren

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    Pedrosa Carla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body fat is related to changes in lipid profile, blood pressure and metabolism of insulin and glucose, known as the metabolic syndrome (MS. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and its components among overweight and obese Portuguese schoolchildren, and to identify associated clinical and biochemical characteristics. Methods A total of 82 children (14 overweight and 68 obese; 40 boys and 42 girls aged 7-9 years, underwent anthropometric measurements. A blood sample was obtained to assess biochemical parameters. Insulin resistance (IR was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR. MS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified by Cook. Results The prevalence of MS was 15.8%. Abdominal obesity was present in all children. Frequency of elevated blood pressure, low HDL-cholesterol and elevated triglyceride concentrations were 62.6%, 13.4% and 11.0%, respectively. None of the children presented impaired fasting glucose, however hyperinsulinemia (7.3% and IR (8.5% were observed. The number of components of MS was higher in children with higher z-BMI (ρ = 0.411; p Conclusions This study shows a significant prevalence of MS among obese schoolchildren. Abdominal obesity and elevated blood pressure were the most frequent components of this syndrome. Dyslipidemia, IR and high levels of leptin were also associated with MS in this young group.

  13. SOCIO-CULTURAL AND MEDICAL INDICATORS OF THE SCHOOLCHILDREN'S QUALITY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodanka Bašić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimate of life quality is based upon medical, psychological and social indicators. It increasingly engages the attention of doctors of medicine, sociologists and psychologists.The aim of this research is to headlight some more relevant socio-cultural parametres in order to determine the quality of life of schoolchildren, that is, to determine whether the crisis in which our society has found itself has produced such socio-cultural conditions that could have induced changes in the children's quality of life and, if they have, to what extent the crisis has been reflected upon their health. The research has comprised 398 schoolchildren and their parents, three elementary schools from Nish and one in Sokobanja.The research of the socio-cultural and medical indicators of their quality of life has shown that the parent's education and ther material position have had an important influence upon the children's life quality.Since there has been no significant presence of any disease recorded in the observed children's sample, it can be concluded that the socio-cultural features have affected the children's life but they have not any significant impact upon their health.

  14. Asymptomatic ratio for seasonal H1N1 influenza infection among schoolchildren in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Tsai, Chen-An; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Jin-Hua; King, Chwan-Chuen; Chao, Day-Yu; Cheng, Kuang-Fu

    2014-02-12

    Studies indicate that asymptomatic infections do indeed occur frequently for both seasonal and pandemic influenza, accounting for about one-third of influenza infections. Studies carried out during the 2009 pH1N1 pandemic have found significant antibody response against seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 vaccine strains in schoolchildren receiving only pandemic H1N1 monovalent vaccine, yet reported either no symptoms or only mild symptoms. Serum samples of 255 schoolchildren, who had not received vaccination and had pre-season HI Ab serotiters definition of Fever + (cough or sore throat or nose) + ( headache or pain or fatigue). Asymptomatic ratio for children is found to be substantially higher than that of the general population in literature. In providing reasonable quantification of the asymptomatic infected children spreading pathogens to others in a seasonal epidemic or a pandemic, our estimates of symptomatic ratio of infected children has important clinical and public health implications.

  15. Evolution of the nutritional situation of indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Patricia; Muñoz, Sergio; Vargas, Claudio; Amigo, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Latin American countries show accelerated but ethnically or socially differentiated changes in their epidemiological profiles. The present study examined the evolution of the nutritional situation (1997-2005) in Chilean schoolchildren as related to ethnical origin (Mapuche). Using official databases, stunting (height/age or=95 percentile) were ascribed in first-grade schoolchildren. Ethnic groups were assigned by native parents' surnames (none, one and two). Based on 1 757 155 children (average age: 76.3 months), in 1997 stunting reached 8.4%, 4.8% and 3.1% in children with two, one and no Mapuche surnames, respectively. In 2005 it fell to 3.7%, 3.1% and 2.6% - a marked decrease in those with two Mapuche surnames (pMapuche population in this period. The marked decrease in stunting in children with a strong indigenous background seems related to a decrease in poverty over the period. Yet, the increase of obesity in all groups deserves further analysis.

  16. Relation between breakfast food choices and knowledge of dietary fat and fiber among Swedish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M Christina; Jonsson, Inger; Conner, Mark T; Lissner, Lauren

    2002-08-01

    To investigate dietary knowledge and beliefs of schoolchildren, in relationship to breakfast choices, with specific attention to fat and fiber content. Food choice and perceptions were studied by interviews using the "stacking box methodology". Youth (n = 181) aged 11-15 years were instructed to select food items among photographs of breakfast foods. In addition to choosing their own typical breakfasts, they were asked to exchange foods in hypothetical breakfasts to create meals with less fat and more fiber. The interview also dealt with recent changes in breakfast habits, and perceptions of healthy breakfasts, dietary fat, and foods rich in fiber. Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Knowledge concerning sources and health attributes of dietary fiber was associated with usual consumption of bread and breakfast cereals rich in fiber. In a similar way, a positive attitude toward limited fat intake predicted consumption of reduced-fat milk products. However, no association was observed between food choices and knowledge of a food-packaging symbol indicating low-fat and fiber-enriched foods. Lack of awareness of, and knowledge about, healthy eating may be important barriers to the development of health promoting food habits by schoolchildren.

  17. Mother employment status and nutritional patterns in Japanese junior high schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, A; Sekine, M; Chandola, T; Marmot, M; Kagamimori, S

    2009-07-01

    To investigate associations between mothers' employment (full, part time and no employment) and nutrition habits (regularity of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and portion size) in a sample of Japanese junior high schoolchildren, 12-13 years of age. A total of 10 453 children aged 12-13 years from the Toyama birth cohort study (fourth phase) participated, of whom 8906 children (89% response rate) responded to all questions related to the examined variables. Nutrition habits consisted of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and meal portion. Children's obesity/overweight was measured by body mass index (BMI). Fathers' employment had no effect on their children's nutrition patterns. Children of full-time employed mothers were the most likely to snack and to skip dinner. Children of part-time employed mothers ate larger meal portions, and those of non-employed mothers reported faster meal speeds. BMI was significantly (P<0.001) higher among children of full-time employed mothers (19.3), and lowest among non-employed mothers (19.00). Children of full-time employed mothers are more likely to be overweight, but not obese compared with other children. There was a strong relationship between mother's employment and nutrition patterns in this cohort of Japanese schoolchildren; special programs focused on children's nutrition patterns should take into account the mothers' employment status.

  18. Physical self-efficacy is associated to body mass index in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carissimi, Alicia; Adan, Ana; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Marco; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Levandovski, Rosa; Natale, Vincenzo; Martoni, Monica

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical self-efficacy and body mass index in a large sample of schoolchildren. The Perceived Physical Ability Scale for Children was administered to 1560 children (50.4% boys; 8-12 years) from three different countries. Weight and height were also recorded to obtain the body mass index. In agreement with the literature, the boys reported greater perceived physical self-efficacy than girls. Moreover, the number of boys who are obese is double that of girls, while the number of boys who are underweight is half that found in girls. In the linear regression model, the increase in body mass index was negatively related to the physical self-efficacy score, differently for boys and girls. Furthermore, age and nationality also were predictors of low physical self-efficacy only for girls. The results of this study reinforce the importance of psychological aspect of obesity, as the perceived physical self-efficacy and body mass index were negatively associated in a sample of schoolchildren for boys and girls. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Educational Conditions of Schoolchildren of 7-8 Grades Competence Formation in Innovative Schools

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    Ramazan Turkmen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies methodological system of extracurricular classes, aimed at the development of senior schoolchildren’s key competences, determines educational conditions of schoolchildren’s key competences development in the course of extracurricular activities, develops the principles and ways to control schoolchildren’s independent activity; programs of training workshops for teachers and senior schoolchildren, considers some aspects of senior schoolchildren’s key competences development in the course of extracurricular classes.Educational conditions, which are necessary for competence approach to senior schoolchildren’s extracurricular activities are the following: schoolchildren’s learning and educability levels, motives, interests, professional plans determination; review of requirements for knowledge and skills of schoolchildren, learning from minimal (basic to the advanced level of academic subject learning.We consider further didactic and methodological works of profound subject provision of the system of extracurricular classes in the framework of competence approach, including initial and major school levels as prospect trends of this problem study

  20. Suitability of instant noodles for iron fortification to combat iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Wolf, de C.A.; Heijden, van der L.J.M.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anemia is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in Vietnam. Food fortification is considered one of the most sustainable long-term strategies to control iron-deficiency anemia in Vietnam. The success of a food-fortification program depends on the choice of the food

  1. Relationship between C-reactive protein and physical fitness, physical activity, obesity and selected cardiovascular risk factors in schoolchildren

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    Hamid Reza Sadeghipour

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Body mass index was the most powerful predictor of serum concentrations of CRP in schoolchildren. It may be an important factor to control body weight to prevent an increase in serum CRP in children and to help the primordial prevention of chronic diseases.

  2. Association between food, physical activity, and social assistance environments and the body mass index of schoolchildren from different socioeconomic strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Camila Elizandra; Patrícia de Fragas, Hinnig; Corrêa, Elizabeth Nappi; das Neves, Janaina; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2018-05-29

    The aim of this article was to evaluate associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of and distance from subjects homes of elements of the food and physical activity environments and use of social assistance environment, in schoolchildren from 7 to 14 years living in Florianópolis (South Brazil), stratified by monthly family income. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample of 2152 schoolchildren. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to test for associations between BMI and the use of and distance from supermarkets, bakeries and farmers' markets; use of and distance from parks/playgrounds and football pitches; and use of health centers, Reference Centers for Social Assistance, instructional facilities, residents associations, religious groups and a Brazilian program for cash transfer. Overweight and obesity rates were 21.5 and 12.7%, respectively. Among schoolchildren from low-income families, living more than 11 min' walk from parks/playgrounds was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.33-0.73). In the high-income strata, a longer distance from home to football pitches was associated with lower BMI (β = -0.49; 95% CI = -0.69; -0.29). Neither food nor social assistance environments were associated with BMI of schoolchildren, even when analyzed by income strata.

  3. The Particularities of the Monologue Speech Type Manifestations in Stuttering Schoolchildren with Tatar-Russian Bilingualism Compared to the Normality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipovskaya, Marina P.; Sharifzyanova, Kadriya Sh.; Zamaletdinova, Zalfira I.

    2016-01-01

    Actuality of studying of an issue on specific manifestations of a monologue speech type in bilingual schoolchildren with stutter has been stipulated by the necessity of elaboration of a constituent concept on central mechanisms underlying this kind of communication disorder, on the nature of disturbances of speech formation mechanisms in the…

  4. Anaemia caused by asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection in semi-immune African schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Addae, M M; Akanmori, B D

    1999-01-01

    A cohort of 250 Ghanaian schoolchildren aged 5-15 years was followed clinically and parasitologically for 4 months in 1997/98 in order to study the effect of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections on haematological indices and bone-marrow responses. Of the 250 children 65 met the predefine...

  5. Administering "Operation Pied Piper"--How the London County Council Prepared for the Evacuation of Its Schoolchildren 1938-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Niko

    2010-01-01

    In September 1939, two days before declaring war on Germany, the British government evacuated over half a million children from London to supposedly safer areas in the country. Schoolchildren went there with their teachers and infants with their mothers. Immediately after the event (and ever since) the impact of the evacuation on the children--the…

  6. Typing Candida albicans oral isolates from healthy Brazilian schoolchildren using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis reveals two highly polymorphic taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fabiano Gomes Boriollo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of C. albicans oral isolates from 75 healthy schoolchildren from eight schools located in different geographic areas of Piracicaba city, São Paulo state, Brazil, was established using isoenzymes marker (Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis - MLEE and cluster analysis. Patterns of monoclonal and polyclonal oral colonization by C. albicans within and between groups of schoolchildren were identified. However, significant divergence between the observed and the expected genotypic frequencies (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test was not detected in the geographically adjacent groups, suggesting the hypothesis that populations of healthy schoolchildren do not correspond to the selection factor (differential survival of strains. Two highly polymorphic and distantly genetically related taxa (A and B were identified within the total population of yeasts, each contained subgroups (A1, A2, A3, A4, B1 and B2 and clusters of moderately related strains (from I to X, suggesting the existence of strains restricted or not to certain groups of geographically limited, healthy students. However, the coexistence of identical strains in healthy schoolchildren from the same school (geographically related reinforces the hypothesis of oral transmission, where the sources of propagation could be explored. Furthermore, this could also be used in current and retrospective analyses of C. albicans isolated from immunocompetent and immunocompromised people, in order to detect commensal or potentially pathogenic yeast groups, predominantly in candidiasis, and in the development of strategies to prevent transmission or human propagation.

  7. Typing Candida albicans oral isolates from healthy brazilian schoolchildren using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis reveals two highly polymorphic taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Barros, Letizia Monteiro; Bassi, Rodrigo Carlos; Garcia, José Antonio Dias; Costa, Ana Maria Duarte Dias; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Höfling, José Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The genetic diversity of C. albicans oral isolates from 75 healthy schoolchildren from eight schools located in different geographic areas of Piracicaba city, São Paulo state, Brazil, was established using isoenzymes marker (Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis – MLEE) and cluster analysis. Patterns of monoclonal and polyclonal oral colonization by C. albicans within and between groups of schoolchildren were identified. However, significant divergence between the observed and the expected genotypic frequencies (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test) was not detected in the geographically adjacent groups, suggesting the hypothesis that populations of healthy schoolchildren do not correspond to the selection factor (differential survival) of strains. Two highly polymorphic and distantly genetically related taxa (A and B) were identified within the total population of yeasts, each contained subgroups (A1, A2, A3, A4, B1 and B2) and clusters of moderately related strains (from I to X), suggesting the existence of strains restricted or not to certain groups of geographically limited, healthy students. However, the coexistence of identical strains in healthy schoolchildren from the same school (geographically related) reinforces the hypothesis of oral transmission, where the sources of propagation could be explored. Furthermore, this could also be used in current and retrospective analyses of C. albicans isolated from immunocompetent and immunocompromised people, in order to detect commensal or potentially pathogenic yeast groups, predominantly in candidiasis, and in the development of strategies to prevent transmission or human propagation. PMID:24031720

  8. Interpretation of ambiguities by schoolchildren with low birth weight from Embu das Artes, São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Rebeca Rodrigues; Araújo, Sarah Cueva Cândido Soares de; Isotani, Selma Mie; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Perissinoto, Jacy

    To assess the development of language regarding the ability to recognize and interpret lexical ambiguity in low-birth-weight schoolchildren enrolled at the school system in the municipality of Embu das Artes, Sao Paulo state, compared with that of schoolchildren with normal birth weight. A case-control, retrospective, cross-sectional study conducted with 378 schoolchildren, both genders, aged 5 to 9.9 years, from the municipal schools of Embu das Artes. Study Group (SG) comprising 210 schoolchildren with birth weight Control Group (CG) composed of 168 school children with birth weight ≥ 2500 g. Participants of both groups were compared with respect to the skills of recognition and verbal interpretation of sentences containing lexical ambiguity using the Test of Language Competence. Variables of interest: Age and gender of children; age and schooling of mothers. Statistical analysis: Descriptive analysis to characterize the sample and score per group; Student's t test for comparison between the total scores of each skill/subtest; Chi-square test to compare items within each subtest; multiple regression analysis for the intervening variables. Participants of the SG presented lower scores for ambiguous sentences compared with those of participants of the CG. Multiple regression analysis showed that child's current age was a predictor for all metalinguistic skills regarding interpretation of ambiguities in both groups. Participants of the SG presented lower specific and total scores than those of participants of the CG for ambiguity skills. The child's current age factor positively influenced the ambiguity skills in both groups.

  9. Dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luana Severo; Brusius, Carolina Doege; Damé-Teixeira, Nailê; Maltz, Marisa; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-12-01

    To assess the epidemiology and risk indicators for dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren in South Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil, using a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren (n = 1,528). Dental erosion was recorded according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. Parents answered questions on socio-economic status, brushing frequency and general health. Schoolchildren answered questions on dietary habits. Anthropometric data were collected. Statistical analysis included logistic and Poisson regression models. The prevalence of dental erosion was 15% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 13.6-16.5], being mainly mild erosion. Boys [odds ratio (OR) = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.17-2.10], private school attendees (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01-2.06) and schoolchildren reporting the daily consumption of soft drinks (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.17-21.71) were more likely to have at least one tooth with dental erosion. Gender [boys, rate ratio (RR) = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.28-2.17], type of school (private, RR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.53-2.35), the consumption of soft drinks (sometimes: RR = 5.27, 95% CI: 1.46-19.05; daily: RR = 6.82, 95% CI: 1.39-33.50) and the daily consumption of lemon (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11-2.00) were significantly associated with the number of affected surfaces. The present study found a moderate prevalence of dental erosion among young schoolchildren, with mild erosion being the most prevalent condition. Socio demographic variables and dietary habits were associated with dental erosion in this population. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  10. Variations in tooth size and arch dimensions in Malay schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Khalid W; Rajion, Zainul A; Hassan, Rozita; Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd

    2009-11-01

    To compare the mesio-distal tooth sizes and dental arch dimensions in Malay boys and girls with Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions. The dental casts of 150 subjects (78 boys, 72 girls), between 12 and 16 years of age, with Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions were used. Each group consisted of 50 subjects. An electronic digital caliper was used to measure the mesio-distal tooth sizes of the upper and lower permanent teeth (first molar to first molar), the intercanine and intermolar widths. The arch lengths and arch perimeters were measured with AutoCAD software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, U.S.A.). The mesio-distal dimensions of the upper lateral incisors and canines in the Class I malocclusion group were significantly smaller than the corresponding teeth in the Class III and Class II groups, respectively. The lower canines and first molars were significantly smaller in the Class I group than the corresponding teeth in the Class II group. The lower intercanine width was significantly smaller in the Class II group as compared with the Class I group, and the upper intermolar width was significantly larger in Class III group as compared with the Class II group. There were no significant differences in the arch perimeters or arch lengths. The boys had significantly wider teeth than the girls, except for the left lower second premolar. The boys also had larger upper and lower intermolar widths and lower intercanine width than the girls. Small, but statistically significant, differences in tooth sizes are not necessarily accompanied by significant arch width, arch length or arch perimeter differences. Generally, boys have wider teeth, larger lower intercanine width and upper and lower intermolar widths than girls.

  11. Body mass index and association with use of and distance from places for physical activity and active leisure among schoolchildren in Brazil. Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Camila Elizandra; Correa, Elizabeth Nappi; Neves, Janaina das; Gabriel, Cristine Garcia; Benedet, Jucemar; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-06-18

    We evaluated associations between use of public places for physical activity and active leisure (PAAL) and their distances from subjects' homes and indicators of overweight and obesity, among schoolchildren from different socioeconomic levels, in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil. Cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 2,152 schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years, enrolled at 30 public and private schools. The exposure variables were the use of public places for PAAL in the neighborhood and their distance from schoolchildren's homes. The outcomes were body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted according to income strata. Among the schoolchildren from low-income families, living closer to parks/playgrounds was associated with lower BMI (β = -2.15; 95% confidence interval, CI = -2.53; -1.77) and lower WC (β = -0.11 95% CI = -0.17; -0.05), while living at these distances from football pitches was associated with higher BMI (β = 1.73; 95% CI = 0.31; 3.15) and larger WC measurements (β = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.005; 0.14). Among the schoolchildren in low-income groups, living at an intermediate distance from beaches was associated with lower BMI (β = -1.10; 95% CI = -1.61; -0.59). Living closer to parks/playgrounds was associated with lower BMI and WC among schoolchildren from low-income families. Living closer to football pitches was associated with higher BMI and WC among these schoolchildren. Living at intermediate distances from beaches was associated with lower BMI among these schoolchildren.

  12. Effect of a Physical Education-Based Stretching Programme on Sit-and-Reach Score and Its Posterior Reduction in Elementary Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Marban, Rafael; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Emilio; Estrada, Francisco Vera; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 1-minute stretching programme and 5 weeks of detraining on sit-and-reach score among schoolchildren aged 5-6 years in a physical education setting. Forty-five schoolchildren 5-6 years old from two classes were clustered randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 23) or a control group…

  13. [Field epidemiological study on a varicella outbreak among schoolchildren in Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing-ming; Zeng, Hua-tang; Wang, Tie-qiang; Liu, Yi; Wang, Guang-li; Mei, Shu-jiang; Zhang, Shun-xiang

    2013-09-01

    Both epidemiologic characteristics and transmission mode of a varicella outbreak among schoolchildren in Shenzhen city were studied and related control measures were discussed. Case definition was established. Case-finding and face-to-face investigation were conducted, followed by analysis on distributions of time, place and persons of the outbreak. Association between possible modes of transmission and the outbreak was explored. Retrospective cohort study was carried out. The overall attack rate of this outbreak was 4.4% (122 of 2742). The attack rate among primary schoolchildren(8.3%, 118/1419)was higher than that in the middle-school children(0.3%, 4/1323). There were no statistically significant differences on the attack rates between male and female students. A total of 22 classes from the 9 grades were affected by this outbreak and the aggregation of varicella cases was found in classes. The highest attack rates was found in the students of fifth grade(23.7%), followed by from the third grade (13.4%). The main transmission mode appeared to be close personal contact. The outbreak, with four peaks of incidence, lasted 72 days. Data from the investigation suggested that the primary case was introduced into the school during military training involved by the students. Activities related to physical examination for all the schoolchildren seemed to have contributed to the spread of this disease among classes. Delayed isolation of cases appeared to be the major factor causing the spread of disease among classes. Intensive off-school activities or free community bus for children did not seem to be associated with the spreading of the disease. 52.5% (64/122) of the cases had received one-dose of varicella vaccine, with the median of onset after the vaccination as 7 years. The results demonstrated that one single-dose vaccine or long vaccination period were factors related to the insufficient immunity that causing the outbreak of disease. Varicella outbreak has been

  14. Iodine nutritional status and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency affects nearly 1.9 billion people worldwide, but it can be prevented by salt iodization. This cross-sectional survey assessed current iodine status, iodized salt coverage and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan. Methods Ten primary schools in four districts in South Tajikistan were randomly selected. In schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, a spot urine sample was collected for measurement of urinary iodine, dried blood spots were collected for measurement of thyroglobulin, and goitre was assessed by palpation. Iodine content of salt samples and local selling points was determined by coloration using rapid test kits and titration method. Results Of 623 schoolchildren enrolled, complete data was obtained from 589. The overall median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 51.2 μg/L indicating mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Among all children, 46.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 42.4%-50.6%) of children were found to be goitrous (grade 1 goitre: 30.6%, 95% CI = 26.9%-34.5%; grade 2 goitre: 16.0%, 95% CI = 13.1%-19.2%). The risk factor for goitre remaining significant in the multivariable logistic regression model was 'buying salt once a month’ (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.01-8.22) and 'buying salt once every six months’ (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.01-5.04) compared to 'buying salt every one or two weeks’. The overall median thyroglobulin concentration was elevated at 13.9 μg/L. Of the salt samples from households and selling points, one third were adequately iodised, one third insufficiently and one third were not iodised. Conclusion Iodine deficiency remains a serious health issue among children in southern Tajikistan. There is a persisting high prevalence of goitre, elevated thyroglobulin and low UIC despite interventions implemented by Tajikistan and international partners. Quality control of salt iodine content needs to be improved. Continued efforts to raise awareness of the

  15. Effects of 28 weeks of high-intensity interval training during physical education classes on cardiometabolic risk factors in Chilean schoolchildren: a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Floody, Pedro; Espinoza-Silva, Miguel; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Latorre-Román, Pedro

    2018-04-21

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 28 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) during physical education classes on the weight status, cardiorespiratory capacity, and blood pressure of overweight and obese schoolchildren. The participants included 197 schoolchildren (108 girls and 89 boys) aged between 6 and 11 years (8.39 ± 1.15 years) in four groups: experimental group 1 (EG1) = 59 overweight schoolchildren; experimental group 2 (EG2) = 92 obese schoolchildren; control group 1 (CG1) = 17 overweight children; and control group 2 (CG2) = 29 obese schoolchildren. The participants in the EGs carried out HIIT twice per week for 28 weeks. After the 28-week intervention, the participants showed significant reductions in body mass index (p HIIT program caused significant improvements in the cardiorespiratory capacity, anthropometric variables, and blood pressure levels of overweight and obese children. What is Known: • High-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs improve health, but investigations have used relatively short intervention periods. What is New: • The 28-week period (a large intervention period) of HIIT-based games during physical education classes caused significant improvements in cardiorespiratory capacity, anthropometric variables, and blood pressure levels of overweight and obese schoolchildren.

  16. Longitudinal influence of musculo-skeletal injuries and extra physical education on physical fitness in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rexen, C T; Ersbøll, A K; Wedderkopp, N

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate if (A) injuries and (B) increased physical education (PE) influenced the development of physical fitness in schoolchildren. Simultaneously, to investigate if a possible PE effect was modified by sport participation outside school hours....... This was a longitudinal controlled school-based study. Six schools with 270 min of PE (extra PE) and four schools with 90 min of PE were followed up for 2.5 years. In total, 1054 children were included for analysis (normal PE = 443, extra PE = 611). Development in fitness was analyzed using composite z-scores from six...... fitness tests measured four times. Information of injury and sport was derived from weekly automated mobile phone text messages surveying the presence of musculo-skeletal pain and organized sport participation. Injury and extra PE both influenced the development of physical fitness. Injury decreased...

  17. Web-based Dietary Assessment for 8-11 Year Old School-children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    status and BMI of the children. Possible causes may be the weight and health focus of the study, social desirability and the diet reporting itself. When using plasma carotenoid concentrations as a reference, the WebDASC’s ability to rank participants according to FJV intake was good and the Web...... ability and social desirability which in addition is influenced by the OPUS study. Furthermore, they are untrained in the task and they may not be involved in food shopping or preparation and therefore have little insight into the foods they eat. The overall aim of the present project was to deliver......Background and aim The potential health effects of a New Nordic Diet (NND) are to be tested in the Danish OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal study among 8-11- year-old school-children. Valid and reliable dietary...

  18. Methods of correction of carriage of junior schoolchildren by facilities of physical exercises

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    Gagara V.F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of influence of methods of physical rehabilitation on the organism of children are resulted. In research took part 16 children of lower school with the scoliotic changes of pectoral department of spine. The complex of methods of physical rehabilitation included special correction and general health-improving exercises, medical gymnastics, correction position. Employments on a medical gymnastics during 30-45 minutes 3-4 times per a week were conducted. The improvement of indexes of mobility of spine and state of carriage of schoolchildren is marked. The absolute indexes of the state of carriage and flexibility of spine considerably got around physiology sizes. A rehabilitation complex which includes the elements of correction gymnastics is recommended, medical physical culture, correction, massage of muscles of trunk, position. It is also necessary to adhere to the rational mode of day and feed, provide the normative parameters of working furniture and self-control of the state of carriage.

  19. Pharmacogenetic Aspects of Airways’ Obstruction Relief Therapy of Bronchial Asthma Attacks in Schoolchildren

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    L.V. Mikaluk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On the base of a complex examination of 215 schoolchildren who suffer bronchial asthma, there have been established that clinical manifestations of severity of bronchial obstructive syndrome during disease exacerbation do not depend on acetylating status. However, a homozygosity on both alleles of the glutathione transferase gene (GSTT1+M1+ has been connected to greater severity of asthma attacks, while a lack of the T-allele in children with slow acetylating phenotype has been associated with more frequent use of systemic corticosteroids and somewhat better results of airways obstruction relief therapy. Occurrence of GSTT1+M1+ genotype in patients with accelerated processes of acetylation significantly increased the risk of the inefficiency of bronchial obstruction relief therapy (odds ratio 12.4, relative risk — 6.4, the absolute risk — 50 %.

  20. Changing oral health status of 6- and 12-year-old schoolchildren in Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, C.M.; Petersen, P.E.; André, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the actual oral health status of Portuguese schoolchildren aged 6 and 12 years according to gender and urbanisation, to highlight the trend over time in dental caries prevalence of children, to assess the dental care habits and the provision of preventive services to children......, and to analyse the effect of dental care habits on caries experience. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Clinical examinations of oral health status were carried out in 1999 according to WHO criteria and included dental caries, enamel lesions, oral hygiene status (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Structured...... questionnaires for interviewing children on dental care habits and participation in preventive programmes at school were used. The study comprised 799 6 year olds and 800 12 year olds. RESULTS: In 1999, the prevalence proportion rates of dental caries were 46.9% in 6 year olds and 52.9% in 12 year olds. Dental...

  1. Dental caries prevalence and risk factors among 12-year old schoolchildren from Baghdad, Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Nibras A M; Astrøm, Anne N; Skaug, Nils

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the prevalence of dental caries in 12-year-old schoolchildren from Baghdad after the end of the United Nations' economic sanctions and to investigate related dental caries risk factors including gender, socio-demographic factors, oral hygiene and sugar intake. DESIGN: A cross......-sectional dental caries examination and questionnaire survey was conducted in 10 schools from west Baghdad. METHODS: Dental examinations based on WHO criteria and questionnaire surveys were performed on 392 children. Water samples were collected and fluoride concentration assessed. RESULTS: The mean DMFT and DF...... were 1.7 and 1.3. The rate of caries experience (DMFT > 0) was 62%. DMFT increased significantly with higher education of the mother, not being embarrassed to smile, missing school due to dental pain and between-meals mode of drinking. Increased sugar consumption was associated with being a boy, having...

  2. The benefits of chess for the intellectual and social-emotional enrichment in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciego, Ramón; García, Lorena; Betancort, Moisés

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the benefits of regularly playing chess for the intellectual and social-emotional enrichment of a group of 170 schoolchildren from 6-16 years old. It is based on a quasi-experimental design, where the independent variable was the extracurricular activity of chess (n = 170) versus extracurricular activities of soccer or basketball (n = 60). The dependent variable was intellectual and socio-affective competence, which was measured by an IQ test (WISC-R), a self-report test (TAMAI) and a hetero-report questionnaire (teacher-tutor's criterion) applied at the beginning and the end of the academic year. In contrast to the comparison group, it was found that chess improves cognitive abilities, coping and problem-solving capacity, and even socioaffective development of children and adolescents who practice it. The results are modulated, particularly in the area socioaffective, by the personal profile of students who choose practice this activity.

  3. Ethnic inequalities in overweight and obesity prevalence among copenhagen schoolchildren from 2002 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. C.; Aarestrup, Julie; Pearson, Seija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The stabilization in levels of childhood overweight has masked increasing gaps among different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in several countries. Objective: To examine if levels and trends in childhood overweight and obesity differed by ethnicity and socioeconomic areas in Copenhagen...... schoolchildren. Methods: From measured heights and weights of 32,951 children 5-8 and 14-16 years of age, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) and obesity were estimated using International Obesity Task Force criteria. Differences in prevalence levels and trends across six school years by ethnicity...... and socioeconomic areas were examined using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of overweight significantly decreased from 2002 to 2007 among the youngest Western girls and boys, showed no significant changes among the oldest non-Western girls and increased among the oldest non-Western boys. In all years...

  4. Importance of a balanced diet on the physical fitness level of schoolchildren aged 6-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Louisa; Wong, Thomas; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies have focused on a single nutrient's relationship with disease and thus are unable to strongly support the health claims of a balanced diet. This article explores the integrated effect of nine nutrients on an individual's physical fitness level. Two-day dietary records and physical fitness assessments were collected in three primary schools. Cluster analysis allowed compliance with nutrient recommendations to be compared among groups of primary school students with different characteristics. Two clusters were identified statistically. Cluster B, which comprised more schoolchildren at the 'Good' and 'Pass' levels and fewer at the 'Excellent' level, had significantly more participants who met the guidelines for total fat, saturated fat, sodium and cholesterol, compared with Cluster A. This finding reveals the benefits of a balanced diet, with physical fitness level as the outcome measure. The results also have implications for approaching health problems from the diet-fitness perspective rather than the obesity-disease perspective.

  5. Developing Psychological Culture of Schoolchildren as a Means of Supporting Implementation of Basic Education Standards

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    Dubrovina I.V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the social situation of development of children and adolescents in the modern society marked by rapid changes. The development of children and adolescents is described as ‘embedding into the culture’ through the education and is closely associated with the formation of their psychological culture. The paper analyses the conditions of personality development in modern children and adolescents, the factors which impede the communication and understanding of other people; it highlights the risks of escaping into the virtual reality or joining asocial groups. The paper also suggests important measures aimed at the formation of psychological culture in children in relation to age-specific tasks of development in primary school and adolescent ages. The development of psychological culture is regarded as the key means of supporting the implementation of modern educational standards as well as the foundation of psychological health in schoolchildren.

  6. Computer-based programs on acquisition of reading skills in schoolchildren (review of contemporary foreign investigations

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    Prikhoda N.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a description of 17 computer-based programs, which were used over the last 5 years (2008—2013 in 15 studies of computer-assisted reading instruction and intervention of schoolchildren. The article includes a description of specificity of various terms used in the above-mentioned studies and the contents of training sessions. The article also carries out a brief analysis of main characteristics of computer-based techniques — language of instruction, age and basic characteristics of students, duration and frequency of training sessions, dependent variables of education. Special attention is paid to efficiency of acquisition of different reading skills through computer-based programs in comparison to traditional school instruction.

  7. Differences in Physical Activity and Academic Performance between Urban and Rural Schoolchildren in Slovenia

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    Vedrana Sember

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the existing studies of relations between physical activity (PA, academic performance (AP and urbanization grade have used subjective self-reporting tools for assessing physical activity, which usually led to an underestimation of true PA. We have attempted to overcome this and have investigated the link between PA in rural and urban Slovenian schoolchildren by an objective assessment of PA, using a multi-sensor SenseWear PRO armband. The analysis showed that urban children in Slovenia are more physically active than rural children are and achieve better AP (mathematics grade. Additionally, children who are active between 60 and 120 minutes of MVPA/day have higher AP than their peers who are active less than 60 or more than 120 minutes, whereas the latter groups did not differ in academic performance.

  8. Changing oral health status and oral health behaviour of schoolchildren in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicka, Maria; Petersen, Poul Erik; Szatko, Franciszek

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence of dental caries over time in Polish schoolchildren, to analyse the oral health behaviour of children and mothers, and to compare the levels of dental knowledge and attitudes of mothers and schoolteachers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional oral health surveys of children...... schoolteachers (response rate 95%) were identified for the questionnaire surveys in 1999. OUTCOME MEASURE: Dental caries in children was recorded by WHO methods and criteria, self-administered questionnaires were used to gather information on dental knowledge, attitudes and practices of children and mothers...... while self-administered questionnaires for teachers covered dental knowledge, attitudes and involvement in health education. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The proportions of 6-year-old children being caries-free were 13% in 1995, 17% in 1997, 18% in 1999 and 12% in 2000. The mean DMFT of children aged 12...

  9. Growth in indigenous and nonindigenous Chilean schoolchildren from 3 poverty strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, P; Amigo, H; Muñoz, S R; Martorell, R

    2001-10-01

    This study sought to determine whether the short stature of Mapuche children, an indigenous group in Chile, reflects poverty or genetic heritage and whether the international reference population, derived from studies of US children of mostly European origin, is appropriate for assessing growth failure in indigenous peoples of the Americas. The study assessed 768 schoolchildren of Mapuche and non-Mapuche ancestry, aged 6 to 9 years, living under conditions of extreme, medium, and low poverty. Growth retardation was strongly related to poverty in both ethnic groups. Within poverty levels, there were no significant differences in stature between ethnic groups, and in low-poverty areas in Santiago, the capital city, mean stature was only slightly less than in the reference population. Poverty, not ancestry, explains the short stature of Mapuche children, and use of the international reference to assess growth in this population is appropriate.

  10. Oral health-related quality of life among parents and teachers of disabled schoolchildren in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyama, Maddi; Honkala, Sisko; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha A; Honkala, Eino

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the oral health-related quality of life between the parents and the teachers of disabled schoolchildren in Kuwait. The three category response version of the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) (12 questions, always, sometimes, never) was used in the questionnaires in Kuwait. Three hundred and eight (308) parents and 112 teachers were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the parents was 45 ± 9.9 years and of the teachers 38 ± 8.4 years. The mean GOHAI was 27.2 ± 3.5 among the parents and 27.8 ± 3.3 among the teachers (p = 0.091). GOHAI was higher in the older age groups (p = 0.002) and among the parents with a university education (p < 0.001). GOHAI was also higher with increasing toothbrushing frequency among the parents (p = 0.047) and the teachers (p = 0.003). Altogether, 203 (66%) of the parents and 85 (76%) of the teachers were always able to swallow comfortably; 123 (40%) of the parents and 41 (37%) of the teachers were able to eat without discomfort. Overall, 132 (43%) of the parents and 41 (37%) of the teachers were always pleased and happy with the looks of their teeth and gums, or dentures. The Cronbach's alpha (0.83) indicated a high degree of internal consistency between different GOHAI items. There seemed to be no difference in the impact of oral health on the quality of life between the parents and the teachers of disabled schoolchildren. Oral health had a relatively weak impact on the quality of life of these adults. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EDUCATION PROCESS OF ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE USA

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    Inna Stanislavovna Bessarabova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the topic is stipulated by the importance of the problem of education of the schoolchildren who have other (alternative physical or mental development and who belong to a separate cultural group with its own features, possibilities and needs in education.The purpose of the research is to reveal the essential parts of the inclusive educational environment in the approaches of American scholars. The problem is studied in the context of multicultural education.The results of the research showed that the formation of the inclusive educational environment should be based on the principles of multicultural education: anti-racist character of education, which rejects any forms of discrimination of schoolchildren; orientation to the achievement of social justness; liberal character (education helps a person to overcome self-oppression and lack of confidence in one’s efforts; transmission character (a person transmits knowledge and skills from school community to society; transactional character (inclusive educational environment provides the opportunity of mutual transaction of the representatives of two different cultures – alternative children and traditional children; transformational cha-racter (an alternative child is transformed from the passive object of the life care of the family into the ultimate self-sufficient subject who is able to take part in the life of the society.Practical implications of the results. The results of the research are applicable in the process of working out of the new technologies, methods and approaches in education to create inclusive educational environment in educational institution and in the process of the development of multicultural competence as an essential personal quality of a modern professional.

  12. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

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    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  13. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2014-10-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Television in the bedroom and increased body weight: potential explanations for their relationship among European schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A J; van Stralen, M M; Brug, J; Salmon, J; Bere, E; Chinapaw, M J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Jan, N; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A; Velde, S J

    2013-04-01

    A television in the bedroom is associated with measures of adiposity. We aimed to test if this association is mediated by any of (i) time spent watching television, (ii) sleep duration, (iii) physical activity level or (iv) consumption of soft drinks. Data were from 7234 boys and girls aged 10-12 years in European countries involved in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth project (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain). Waist circumference, height and weight were measured. The presence of a bedroom television, television viewing time, sleep duration, physical activity time and soft drink consumption were assessed by standardized questionnaires. Almost 40% of schoolchildren had a bedroom television, with the highest percentage among Hungarian children (65%) and lowest for Belgian, Slovenian and Spanish children (all ≈28%). A television in the bedroom was positively associated with time spent watching television, soft drink consumption and overweight and obesity (all P television in the bedroom and measures of body size was partly mediated by total television viewing time (proportion mediated for waist circumference 8.9%; for body mass index 8.3%) but not sleep duration, physical activity time or soft drink consumption. The strong association between a television in the bedroom and adiposity was at least partially mediated by television viewing time. The large proportion of European schoolchildren with a television in their bedroom is of concern. Parents should be aware of the potential consequences when placing a television in a child's bedroom and children should limit viewing time. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. Sun-related knowledge and attitudes of primary and secondary schoolchildren in western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuadens, Anne; Ackermann, Simone; Levi, Fabio; Bulliard, Jean-Luc

    2017-09-01

    Switzerland, particularly its western region, has the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. Although the risk of melanoma increases with sun overexposure during childhood, sun-related knowledge and attitudes of Swiss children are scarcely documented. We report the first investigation of the knowledge of the danger of ultraviolet radiation, attitudes towards a suntan and parental influence of schoolchildren in western Switzerland. All fifth, eighth and eleventh graders (average ages of 9, 12 and 15, respectively) in the 18 primary (fifth grade, n=431) and secondary (eighth and eleventh grades, n=837) public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds were surveyed during regular school classes. The response rate was 91% (1154/1268). Sun-related knowledge was high overall. Eight out of 10 children knew about the risk of skin cancer and recognized the most susceptible phototype. Knowledge increased significantly with age. Girls, older children, fair-skinned participants and those who preferred a tanned skin obtained the highest knowledge score. The main source of information on ultraviolet radiation and sun protection was their parents (76%), followed by the school (11%) and the media (9%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified higher sun-related knowledge, lower familial socioprofessional status and skin phototypes III-IV to be associated with a tan-seeking attitude. Parental sensitization (56%) and encouragement (61%) towards sun protection were more common among fair-skinned children and those of higher familial socioprofessional status. The high awareness of the risk of skin cancer among Swiss schoolchildren does not translate into appropriate attitudes. Community-wide intervention programmes involving parents, teachers, peers and primary care clinicians could be considered for Swiss prevention campaigns to improve children's sun behaviour and change their current pro-tan attitude.

  16. Dental caries and its association with diet and dental erosion in Libyan schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huew, Rasmia; Waterhouse, Paula; Moynihan, Paula; Kometa, Simon; Maguire, Anne

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The change towards a more Westernised diet in Libya may increase the risk of caries and erosion in children. AIMS. To investigate any association between dental caries, dental erosion, and potential dietary risk factors in Libyan schoolchildren. METHODS. A random sample of 791 schoolchildren aged 12 years underwent dental examination for caries and erosion and completed a questionnaire to provide dietary data. Dental caries was assessed using the WHO (Oral Health Surveys: Basic Methods, 1997) criteria. Erosion was assessed using UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS, Young People Aged 4-18 years. Volume 2: Report of the Oral Health Survey, 2000) criteria. Associations between caries and dietary variables were investigated through bivariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS. Of the 791 12-year olds, 57.8% (457) had caries experience and 40.8% (323) had experience of erosion. One hundred and ninety-two subjects (42%) of the subjects with caries experience also had erosion, whilst 131 subjects (39.2%) of the 334 without caries had clinical signs of erosion (P = 0.464; OR, 1.123; 95% CI, 0.842, 1.497). There was no statistically significantly relationship between dental caries and dental erosion. Frequency of consumption of fruit-based sugared drinks was statistically significantly positively associated with experience of caries (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS. Dental caries experience was associated with frequency of consumption of sugared dietary items but not with dental erosion. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Dental caries in schoolchildren: influence of inattention, hyperactivity and executive functions

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    Isabella MOTA-VELOSO

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Individuals with ADHD may present limitations with regard to executive functions and performing activities that involve planning and/or attention/concentration. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between dental caries and signs of ADHD in a representative sample of schoolchildren. A representative sample of 851 schoolchildren aged seven to 12 years was randomly selected from public and private schools. Data acquisition involved a clinical dental examination for cavitated permanent and deciduous teeth using the DMFT/dmft indices. Neuropsychological evaluations, including the assessment of intelligence (Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrix Test and executive functions (Corsi Tapping Blocks tests and Digit Span test were also performed. Parents/caregivers and teachers answered the SNAP-IV Questionnaire for the investigation of signs of inattention and hyperactivity in the family and school environment. Parents/caregivers also answered questionnaires addressing socioeconomic and socio-demographic characteristics. Descriptive analysis of the variables and Poisson regression with robust variance were performed. Parental reports of signs of inattention (PR: 1.28; p < 0.05 and hyperactivity (PR: 1.15; p < 0.05 were associated with a greater occurrence of caries. A better performance on the backward order of the Corsi Tapping Blocks tests (PR: 0.94; p < 0.05 and higher level of mother’s schooling were associated with a lower frequency of caries. A better performance on executive function tasks was a protective factor against dental caries, whereas children considered inattentive and/or hyperactive by their parents had a higher prevalence rate of dental caries.

  18. [School choice and vocational guidance for schoolchildren with chronic diseases and other health problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancić, Franciska; Majski-Cesarec, Slavenka; Musil, Vera

    2010-09-01

    By following a child's growth, development, and health, school medicine specialist can see opportunities for career choice. Special attention is needed for schoolchildren with chronic diseases and developmental difficulties, because of limited occupation choices. Studies report 10 % to 15 % prevalence of chronic diseases among schoolchildren. Parents and children should be informed about child's limitations before career choice. It would be helpful for the students to develop interests for occupations that are not contraindicated for their condition. Physical examination gives an insight into the psycho-physical abilities of an eighth-grade primary school student for further education. During examination, counselling and vocational guidance is provided for all students with chronic diseases and other health problems. All procedures are oriented to personal abilities and preferences. The aim of this study was to analyse the reasons for vocational guidance in the Varazdin County of Croatia. It included eighth-grade students from ten primary schools from 1998/99 to 2007/08. Of 4939 students, 458 (9.3 %) with chronic diseases and health difficulties were referred to vocational guidance. Of these, 41.3 % were referred due to mental and behavioural disorders. These students were assessed and received a recommendation for at least two occupations. Forty-eight students (10.5 %) did not follow the recommendation.In a coordinated effort, school physicians, vocational guidance experts, and school and local authorities should secure enrollment of students with chronic diseases and health difficulties in secondary schools and follow their development and education to provide them the best available career opportunities.

  19. The Study of Iodine Status among Schoolchildren from Kyiv and Ways to Correct the Revealed Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Stroi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Lack of iodine in the environment is one of the topical medico-social problems in many countries of the world. Iodine deficiency is an important risk factor for the developmental delay, memory loss, or the ability for analysis and abstract thinking. Traditionally in Ukraine the problem of iodine deficiency was relevant in Western regions, but recent studies indicate the existence of moderate iodine deficiency in all areas. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine status of primary schoolchildren from Kyiv. Materials and methods. The examination of 52 children aged 6–12 years was performed, which involved a survey of families on awareness of the consequences of iodine deficiency and frequency of consumption of foods containing iodine, objective and ultrasound thyroid investigation, determination of urine iodine content in single portions of urine. Results. Iodine deficiency was detected in 87 % of pupils, mostly mild. Diffuse goiter grade 1 was diagnosed in 23 % of patients. To correct iodine deficiency, we have used new generation product — jodis-concentrate as an aqueous solution. Conclusions. Research of iodine status in schoolchildren aged 6–12 years in Kyiv showed the presence of mild iodine deficiency in 87 % of them (in 68 and 19 %, respectively. In 12 (23 % children, we have diagnosed thyroid volume increase under normal echogenicity and homogeneous echostructure. Lack of iodine nutrition is caused by poor nutrition, lack of mass, group and individual iodine prophylaxis, low sanitary hygienic culture of the population. Pupils with iodine deficiency were administered an individual subsidy of iodine in the form of an aqueous solution of jodis-concentrate for 12 months, which has significantly improved the iodine status of children, normalized the level of urine iodine content. Early detection of iodine deficiency and its correction are the promising directions of modern pediatrics in terms of the prevention of thyroid

  20. Traumatic dental injuries of permanent incisors in 11- to 13-year-old South African schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sudeshni; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2009-04-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) are common in children. There are few data on prevalence of TDI in South African populations. We assessed the prevalence and causes of TDI to anterior teeth in 11- to 13-year-old South African schoolchildren through a cross-sectional study, using a random cluster sampling method. Oral examinations were performed by calibrated examiners following training for TDI to anterior permanent incisor teeth (eight teeth) using a modified version of Ellis's classification. Of the study population of 2610 children aged 11-13 years old from 26 primary schools, 1665 children participated. The response rate was 64%. More than two-thirds (64.4%) were 12 years old. One hundred and six children had a TDI (6.4%). After adjusting for the effect of age and socio-economic status, boys had an almost 2.5 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.69) times higher probability of having a traumatic dental injury than girls. The highest prevalence was in 12 year olds and in the high socio-economic status group. Most of the children had trauma to one tooth. Enamel fracture was the main type of TDI (69.1%). The majority of the TDIs were untreated (85.4%). Homes and schools were the most common places where TDIs occurred, while only 5.7% occurred on a street, road or pavement. Falls were the main cause of TDIs. Sport was the second most common cause and the third most common cause was collision with objects. The present study indicates that the prevalence of TDIs in schoolchildren is not as high as has been reported in other countries. The prevalence of TDIs in this population was relatively low.

  1. [Impact of an intervention on diet and physical activity on obesity prevalence in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner G, Rinat; Durán A, Samuel; Garrido L, María Jesús; Balmaceda H, Sebastián; Jadue H, Liliana; Atalah S, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In Chile childhood obesity is a growing public health problem. Intervention programs within schools have shown variable results, with better impacts when multiple aspects are involved and included the entire educational community. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect on the nutritional status of children in intervention schools within 2 years of duration (Healthy Living Program). The sample included 2,527 students first through fourth grade of 3 counties of Santiago. The students were intervened and followed for a period of two years in their food and nutrition habits, physical activity and self-care practices, by a team of nutritionists and physical education teachers. Weight and height were measured at start of program, end of the first and second years of intervention, under standardized conditions and calculated the Z score of BMI and nutritional status according to the WHO reference 2007. At the end of the second year 1,453 children were reassessed. There was a significant decrease in BMI Z score in obese children (-0.3 SD) and obesity decreased from 21.8% to 18.4% at the end of the intervention. 75% of schoolchildren obese and 60.5% overweight decreased their BMI Z score, reduction that was greater in men and students in the upper grades. 51.9% of normal weight children increased their BMI Z-score age, although most less than 0.5 SD. The intervention in education, nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren in three communes of Greater Santiago was effective in reducing the prevalence of obesity (-3.4 percentage points). The big challenge is to find mechanisms to give continuity to the program and evaluate long-term effects. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors that affect television viewing time in preschool and primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songül Yalçin, Siddika; Tugrul, Belma; Naçar, NazIre; Tuncer, Murat; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2002-12-01

    Excessive viewing of television (TV) has been linked to aggressive behavior, violence and childhood obesity. A cross-sectional study was conducted among preschool children and primary schoolchildren in Ankara during March and April 1999 to detect the factors that affect TV viewing time and to evaluate their parents' knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to TV. The parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire about TV habits of their family, the number and location of TVs in the household and the effect of TV on children. Of 400 questionnaires, 350 answered the questions appropriately for this study. Children were divided into two groups, preschool children and primary schoolchildren. Television viewing time was given daily, as a mean of weekday. The mean age for becoming a TV viewer was 2.7 +/- 1.6 years. Of all, 62% of children spent >/= 2h/day watching TV and 8.3% of children spent > 4 h. The TV viewing time of child was significantly and positively correlated with that of siblings, mother and father for both groups. Age and sleeping time of the child, age and the education level of mother, presence of TV in the child's room and the starting age watching TV did not affect the viewing time. One-half of parents reported that the TV programs watched included violence, and one-third thought TV depicts child abuse, especially emotional abuse. It was found that the TV watching habits of parents had an influence on those of their children. Therefore, pediatricians should take 'TV histories' of children and their parents and educate parents how to become good TV viewers.

  3. Features of the emotional status of schoolchildren with different profiles of lateral phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zaitseva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Success of school education depends on many factors, including the most important mental function of a child, namely the type of hemispheric asymmetry of the brain that determines the characteristics of perception, memory, thinking strategy and the emotional sphere. Accounting the patterns of mental functions of a child constitutes the basis for the individualization of learning processes with the focus on maintaining the health of children and adolescents. The type of the hemispheric asymmetry is determined by the lateral phenotype of the subject, which is the set of peripheral motorsensory asymmetries. Aim of the study: To evaluate emotional and personal characteristics of pupils with different lateral phenotypes. Material and methods: 227 schoolchildren (caucasians aged 7-15 years living in the city of Krasnoyarsk. The pupils were recognized clinically as healthy and they achieved the average physical and sexual development. Their lateral phenotype was assessed by the psychomotor tests for the guiding hand, the leading leg, eye and ear. The study aimed to explore the emotional personality traits, using child personality questionnaire G.U. Eysenck adapted to the childhood age and to estimate the level of intra - extraversion and neuroticisms in points. Results: Among schoolchildren of Krasnoyarsk city, there were numerous groups of children with right lateral and mixed phenotypes in combination with extroverted personality type and emotional stability. Among the children with left lateral and symmetric phenotypes almost half of the subjects recorded introverted personality type combined with high levels of neuroticism. Conclusions: the components of a child’s personality such as introverted personality type combined with high levels of neuroticism reduce the body’s adaptive capabilities of children and dictate the need for psycho-pedagogical correction. The results of the research can be used in psychology, age physiology and

  4. Toxoplasma gondii infection: seroprevalence and associated risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Lagos City, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pam Gyang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii infection has been described as the most widespread zoonotic infection of humans and other animals. Information concerning T. gondii infection among schoolchildren is unavailable in Lagos City, Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection among primary schoolchildren (PSC from a community located in the center of Lagos, southern Nigeria, from November 2013 to March 2014. A total of 382 PSC were screened for the presence of sera anti-T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test (TOXO Test-MT, Tokyo, Japan. A cutoff titer of ≥ 1:32 was considered positive, while titers ≥ 1:1,024 indicated high responders. Questionnaires were also used to obtain data on possible risk factors from parents/guardians. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 24% (91/382, and 83.5% (76/91 of seropositive PSC were classified as high responders. Among the risk factors tested, including contact with cats and soil, consumption of raw meat and vegetables, and drinking unboiled water, none showed statistical significance after multivariate adjustment. No associations were observed among age, gender, body mass index (BMI, and parents' occupation/educational level. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this study show evidence of active infection, and hence, there is need for urgent preventive measures in this city. Further investigation is required to clarify the transmission routes. Policy makers also need to initiate prevention and control programs to protect pregnant women and immunocompromised patients in particular because they are more severely affected by T. gondii infection.

  5. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24–384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Conclusions Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate

  6. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-11-01

    The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24-384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present drug of choice

  7. FTO POLYMORPHISM AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN OBESE SCHOOLCHILDREN AFTER AN INTERVENTION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Graziela Moraes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Recent studies have shown that the association of FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism with obesity depends on the level of the individual’s physical activity. However, there are some studies that evaluated physical fitness, health, and motor performance in relation to the rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism. Objective: To evaluate how the rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism affects the results of physical fitness tests related to health and athletic performance in schoolchildren after 4 months of intervention of physical exercise. Method: The rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism was genotyped in a total of 36 schoolchildren from southern Brazil, aged 8 to 16 years. Body mass index (BMI, health-related physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, abdominal strength/endurance, and flexibility and motor performance (upper and lower limb strength, agility, and speed were evaluated. The intervention included exercise strategies based on Physical Education, healthy eating, and oral and postural care. Results: In the experimental group, after the intervention, significant differences were noted in individuals with the TT genotype. These individuals showed improvements in abdominal strength (p=0.025, lower limb strength (p=0.037 and agility (p=0.021. For individuals with the AA/AT genotype, improvements in flexibility (p=0.026, abdominal strength (p=0.002, upper limb strength (p=0.008 and lower limb strength (p=0.001 were observed. However, these differences were not statistically significant when comparing the TT and AT/AA genotypes. Conclusions: The experimental group showed improvements in abdominal strength, lower limb strength, and speed. Yet, individuals with different genotypes (AA/AT and TT for polymorphism rs9939609 exhibited similar values for indicators of physical fitness, health, and motor performance. Level of Evidence II; Lesser quality RCT.

  8. [Effect of breastfeeding on obesity of schoolchildren: influence of maternal education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudla, Katia Jakovljevic; Gonzaléz-Chica, David Alejandro; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between duration of breastfeeding (BF) and obesity in schoolchildren of Florianópolis (SC), and the role of possible effect modifiers. Cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2,826 schoolchildren (7-14 years). Weight and height were measured according to standardized procedures. Data concerning BF and sociodemographic variables were obtained from a questionnaire sent to parents/guardians. Children's nutritional status was evaluated by BMI-for-age z-score for gender (WHO reference curves). Adjusted analyses were performed through logistic regression, considering a possible interaction among variables. Prevalence of obesity was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.6-9.7%) and 55.7% (95% CI: 53.8-57.6%) received breastmilk for ≥6 months. BF was not associated with obesity, even in the adjusted analysis. Stratified analysis according to maternal schooling showed that, in children aged 7-10 years and children whose mothers had 0-8 years of schooling, the chance of obesity was lower among those breastfeed for >1 month, especially among those who received breastmilk for 1-5 months (OR=0.22; 95% CI 0.08-0.62). Among children of women with higher educational level (>8 years), the chance of obesity was 44% lower in those who were breastfed for >12 months (p-value for interaction children (11-14 years). Among children of women with lower schooling, BF for any period longer than 1 month is protective against obesity; however, for a higher maternal schooling, BF for less than 12 months increases the odds of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids.Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present

  10. Persistent disparities in obesity risk among public schoolchildren from childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danhong; Thomsen, Michael R; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Bennett, Judy L

    2016-08-01

    Arkansas is among the poorest states and has high rates of childhood obesity. In 2003, it became the first state to systematically screen public schoolchildren for unhealthy weight status. This study aims to examine the socioeconomic disparities in Body Mass Index (BMI) growth and the risk of the onset of obesity from childhood through adolescence. This study analyzed (in 2015) the data for a large cohort of Arkansas public schoolchildren for whom BMIs were measured from school years 2003/2004 through 2009/2010. A linear growth curve model was used to assess how child-level sociodemographics and neighborhood characteristics were associated with growth in BMI z-scores. Cox regression was subsequently used to investigate how these factors were associated with the onset of obesity. Because children might be classified as obese in multiple years, sensitivity analysis was conducted using recurrent event Cox regression. Survival analysis indicated that the risk of onset of obesity rose sharply between ages of 5 and 10 and then again after age 15. The socioeconomic disparities in obesity risk persisted from kindergarten through adolescence. While better access to full service restaurants was associated with lower risk of the onset of obesity (Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.98, 95% CI=0.97-0.99), proximity to fast food restaurants was related to increased risk of the onset of obesity (HR=1.01, 95% CI=1.00-1.01). This analysis stresses the need for policies to narrow the socioeconomic gradient and identifies important time periods for preventative interventions in childhood obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic syndrome's risk factors and its association with nutritional status in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Costa Teixeira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic risk factors (RF to the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS have been evidenced at early ages, including children. The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of RF to the diagnosis of MetS and its association with nutritional status of schoolchildren from 6 to 10 years old. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 505 students of municipal schools in Macae, Brazil, conducted from 2013 to 2014. The RF evaluated were: blood pressure (mm Hg, triglycerides (mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L fasting glucose (mmol/L and waist circumference (cm. At least one RF was present in 61% (n = 308 of the sample. By nutritional status, there was higher prevalence of RF in overweight/obese schoolchildren compared to those with normal weight, except in the concentration of HDL-c. The prevalence of one, two and three RF (MetS were 34.7% (n = 175, 21.0% (n = 106 and 5.3% (n = 27, respectively. Two RF were more present in overweight (28.2% 95%CI 19.0; 39.0 and obese (41.5% 95%CI 31.4; 52.1 compared to normal weight children (13.5% 95%CI 9.9; 17.8. Three or more RF were more frequent among obese (25.5% 95%CI 17.0; 35.5 in relation to overweight (2.4% 95%CI 0.2; 8.2 and normal weight children (0.3% 95%CI 0; 1.7. The data indicate high prevalence of RF and its relationship with the magnitude of body weight excess. Therefore, the identification and early treatment of these RF might minimize the risk of MetS and related diseases.

  12. Can the development of new dental caries in Danish schoolchildren be predicted from surveillance data in the School Dental Service?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Berit Anna; Foldspang, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Background:  Dental screening programmes for Danish children generally target all children, irrespective of their individual caries risk. The standard screening interval is approximately 12 months. A valid systematic screening tool based on routine information sources is however indispensable......, if more selective screening strategies should be developed to target the children at highest risk. Objective:  To estimate the precision with which Danish schoolchildren at high risk for developing dental caries within 1 year can be identified based on information from routine registers. Methods:  Based...... on data from the Danish National Board of Health's Recording System for the Danish Child Dental Services and from the Central Office of Civil Registration, 3705 schoolchildren aged 7–12 years were followed through 1994–1996. Dental health information as of 1994 and changes 1994–1995 were applied...

  13. THE DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF SCHOOLCHILDREN IN IASI UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE NATIONAL PREVENTION PROGRAM

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    Livia BOBU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, dental caries continues to represent a major issue of public health. In Romania, the National Program for Oral and Dental Diseases Prevention was implemented between 1999-2010, addressed to children attending primary school and consisting of weekly mouth rinses with 0.2% NaF solution. In the present study, the dynamic evolution of oral health status of schoolchildren aged 6-12 years in Iasi, under the impact of this Program, was analyzed. The results showed a decreasing trend in the prevalence and incidence of dental caries, a constant decrease of caries experience indices DMFT and DMFS and, within them, the increasing trend of fillings indicator FS and the decrease of deep lesions weight. The conclusion is that tooth decay has declined in schoolchildren in Iasi during the development of the National Prevention Program.

  14. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF EMOTIONAL CONDITION OF HEALTHY SCHOOLCHILDREN AND CHILDREN WITH POLLINOSIS AT THE AGE OF 11–17 YEARS

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    O. I. Muradova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative characteristics of emotional condition of healthy schoolchildren and children with pollinosis at the age of 11–17 years old was performed with Spielberg-Hanin questionnaire on the basis of computer psychophysiological complex CPPC-99 «Psichomat».One hundred seventy-five healthy schoolchildren and 46 children with pollinosis at the age of 11–17 years old were included to the study. No significant difference in reactive anxiety between children with pollinosis and healthy children was found. It was shown, that pollinosis (in 35% significantly and concomitant diseases, such as bronchial asthma (in 57 significant influence on personality anxiety, in comparison with healthy children (significant personality anxiety was found in 3% of cases. It was revealed, that all children from control group with high anxiety rate (3% were 17-year-old adolescents.

  15. Age-dependent decline and association with stunting of Giardia duodenalis infection among schoolchildren in rural Huye district, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Jakob; Staudacher, Olga; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean Marie; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2015-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis infection is highly prevalent and a cause of underweight in pre-school children in rural Rwanda. The present study aimed at assessing the age-pattern of Giardia infection and its manifestation in older children, i.e., during school age. Stool samples were collected from 622 schoolchildren at two schools in the Huye district of southern Rwanda (rural, 301; urban, 321) and subjected to G. duodenalis specific PCR assays. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with G. duodenalis infection were assessed. Of the 622 children (mean age, 10.4 years), 35.7% were infected with G. duodenalis (rural, 43.9%; urban, 28.0%; PRwanda, G. duodenalis prevalence among children declined throughout school-age. The data suggest that while lacking overt clinical manifestation at high endemicity, G. duodenalis infection is a common cause of stunting in schoolchildren. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relation between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index-for-age among Schoolchildren of Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Mir Fa; Hakami, Bassam M; Hezam, Asma Aa; Hakami, Raed Y; Saadi, Fadwa A; Ageeli, Layla M; Alsagoor, Wafqah H; Faqeeh, Mohammad A; Dhae, Mohammed A

    2017-04-01

    To analyze and report the type of relation present between dental caries and body mass index (BMI)-for-age among schoolchildren in Jazan region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study with multi-staged random sampling technique was designed to recruit the sample of schoolchildren. Caries was examined using the World Health Organization recommended "decayed and filled teeth"/"decayed missing and filled teeth (dft/DMFT)" method. The BMI-for-age was calculated using the value obtained from body weight and height (kg/m 2 ) of each child. The obtained results were plotted on age- and gender-specific percentile curves by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and categorized accordingly. Chi-squared test was conducted to analyze the relation between BMI-for-age and dental caries. Logistic regression was performed to judge the predictor variables. The p-value Dental caries, fast food, and snacks between meals were significant independent predictor variables for BMI (p Dental caries was a strong predictor, and the analysis showed that children with untreated caries had 81% (odds ratio = 0.19; confidence interval = 0.65, 0.58) higher chance of suffering from low BMI. To conclude, this is the first study attempted to see the relationship between BMI-for-age and dental caries among schoolchildren in Jazan city of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Negative relation between dental caries and BMI should warrant health promoters about dental caries as a reason for low BMI in a subset of children. High and alarming percentage of untreated dental caries demonstrates the oral health needs among the schoolgoing children in Jazan region. Public health dentists should develop and implement prevention programs so that the oral health issues among schoolchildren are addressed.

  17. Influence of self-perceived oral health and socioeconomic predictors on the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2011-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic factors and self-rated oral health on children's dental health assistance was assessed. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. A dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index). Data about the use of dental service, socioeconomic status, and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of structured i...

  18. Metabolic risk in schoolchildren is associated with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, obesity, and parents' nutritional profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todendi, Pâmela Ferreira; Valim, Andréia Rosane de Moura; Reuter, Cézane Priscila; Mello, Elza Daniel de; Gaya, Anelise Reis; Burgos, Miria Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Verify the association between metabolic risk profile in students with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index, as well as the nutritional status of their parents. A cross-sectional study comprising 1.254 schoolchildren aged between seven and 17 years. The metabolic risk profile was calculated by summing the standardized values of high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and systolic blood pressure. The parents' nutritional status was evaluated by self-reported weight and height data, for body mass index calculating. The body mass index of schoolchildren was classified as underweight/normal weight and overweight/obesity. The cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by 9-minute running/walk test, being categorized as fit (good levels) and unfit (low levels). Data were analyzed using prevalence ratio values (PR). The data indicates a higher occurrence of developing metabolic risk in schoolchildren whose mother is obese (PR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.23), and even higher for those whose father and mother are obese (PR: 2, 79, 95% CI: 1.41; 5.51). Students who have low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and overweight/obesity have higher occurrence of presenting metabolic risk profile (PR: 5.25; 95% CI: 3.31; 8.16). the occurrence of developing metabolic risk in schoolchildren increase when they have low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and overweight/obesity, and the presence of parental obesity. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-evaluation Maintenance in Actual School Performance and School Morale among Elementary Schoolchildren(Educational Psychology)

    OpenAIRE

    磯崎, 三喜年; イソザキ, ミキトシ; Mikitoshi, ISOZAKI

    2001-01-01

    The relation between self-evaluation maintenance in school performance and school morale among elementary school children was examined. Questionnaires were administered to two hundred and fifteen (113 male, 102 female) elementary schoolchildren. They were asked to name their close classmates and school subjects which they considered both relevant and not relevant to their self-definition. They were also asked to complete the School Morale Test (SMT, Nihon Bunka Kagakusha). The SMT consists of...

  20. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema among 13–14-year-old schoolchildren in Tochigi, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kumiya Sugiyama; Takako Sugiyama; Masao Toda; Tatsuo Yukawa; Sohei Makino; Takeshi Fukuda

    2000-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in children living in different countries, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was developed. The ISAAC Phase One study evaluated approximately 720 000 children in 56 countries, including Japan. In late 1995 and early 1996, we administered the ISAAC questionnaire to 4466 schoolchildren aged 13–14 years of age in 24 schools in Utsunomiya City and Tochigi City (both in Tochigi Prefecture, Japa...

  1. [Insufficient intake of vitamin D in spanish schoolchildren: determinants of the problem and basis for its improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Anta, R M; González-Rodríguez, L G; Jiménez Ortega, A I; Estaire Gómez, P; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Perea Sánchez, J M; Aparicio Vizuete, A

    2012-01-01

    Different studies have observed deficiencies in vitamin D in a high percentage of schoolchildren, highlighting the importance of this problem in sunny populations, such as Spain, where this situation is frequently underestimated. To assess the adequacy of vitamin D intake and to find out the food sources of the vitamin in a representative sample of Spanish schoolchildren. A sample of 903 children (7 to 11 years) was studied. Ten Spanish cities were selected to be a representative sample of the Spanish schoolchildren population. Dietetic study was carried out using a three-day food record, including a Sunday. Vitamin D was compared to that recommended (RI) and energy intake was compared with energy expenditure estimated by measuring physical activity level. Weight and height were recorded and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Vitamin D intake (2.49 ± 0.64 [iμ/day) allowed cover only 49.7% of the RI of the children. It was below of 100% of RI in 99.9% of the children, and in 78.7% it was below of 67% of RI. The vitamin intake was lower in girls, those younger than 7 years and in children with obesity than in boys, those older than 7 years and in children with normal weight. The main sources of the vitamin were eggs (28.12%), cereals (24.23%), fish (20.06%) and milk (14.42%). Vitamin D intake is inadequate in Spanish schoolchildren between 7 and 11 years. Taking into account that the consumption of foods which are the main source of vitamin D (fish, eggs, cereals, dairy products) is often lower than the recommended, approximating the diet to the theoretical ideal could help to improve the contribution of the vitamin.

  2. The Educator´s Approach to Media Training and Computer Games within Leisure Time of School-children

    OpenAIRE

    MORAVCOVÁ, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes possible ways of approaching computer games playing as part of leisure time of school-children and deals with the significance of media training in leisure time. At first it specifies the concept of leisure time and its functions, then shows some positive and negative effects of the media. It further describes classical computer games, the problem of excess computer game playing and means of prevention. The paper deals with the educator's personality and the importance of ...

  3. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Maternal Characteristics in a Sample of Schoolchildren from a Rural Province of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Barišić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6% answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2% schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7% with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0% of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD.

  4. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Maternal Characteristics in a Sample of Schoolchildren from a Rural Province of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Giorgie; Barišić, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6%) answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2%) schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7%) with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0%) of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD. PMID:23591786

  5. Motor cognitive processing speed estimation among the primary schoolchildren by deriving prediction formula: A cross-sectional study

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    Vencita Priyanka Aranha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Motor cognitive processing speed (MCPS is often reported in terms of reaction time. In spite of being a significant indicator of function, behavior, and performance, MCPS is rarely used in clinics and schools to identify kids with slowed motor cognitive processing. The reason behind this is the lack of availability of convenient formula to estimate MCPS. Thereby, the aim of this study is to estimate the MCPS in the primary schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and four primary schoolchildren, aged 6–12 years, were recruited by the cluster sampling method for this cross-sectional study. MCPS was estimated by the ruler drop method (RDM. By this method, a metallic stainless steel ruler was suspended vertically such that 5 cm graduation of the lower was aligned between the web space of the child's hand, and the child was asked to catch the moving ruler as quickly as possible, once released from the examiner's hand. Distance the ruler traveled was recorded and converted into time, which is the MCPS. Multiple regression analysis of variables was performed to determine the influence of independent variables on MCPS. Results: Mean MCPS of the entire sample of 204 primary schoolchildren is 230.01 ms ± 26.5 standard deviation (95% confidence interval; 226.4–233.7 ms that ranged from 162.9 to 321.6 ms. By stepwise regression analysis, we derived the regression equation, MCPS (ms = 279.625–5.495 × age, with 41.3% (R = 0.413 predictability and 17.1% (R2 = 0.171 and adjusted R2 = 0.166 variability. Conclusion: MCPS prediction formula through RDM in the primary schoolchildren has been established.

  6. The association between consumption of breakfast cereals and BMI in schoolchildren aged 12-17 years: The VYRONAS study

    OpenAIRE

    Kosti, Rena I.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Zampelas, Antonis; Mihas, Costas; Alevizos, Alevizos; Leonard, Clare; Tountas, Yannis; Mariolis, Anargiros

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate whether consumption of breakfast cereals is associated with BMI in a sample of Greek adolescents. Design A cross-sectional health and nutrition survey. Setting and subjects During 2004-5, 2008 schoolchildren aged 12-17 years were selected from twelve schools located in Vyronas region (Athens metropolitan area). Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. A semi-quantitative FFQ was applied and multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Results O...

  7. Child oral health-related quality of life and socioeconomic factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Abella, Cássia; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2011-01-01

    To assess the relationship of child oral health-related quality of life and socioeconomic backgrounds to traumatic dental injuries in schoolchildren. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren, representative of Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. The participants completed the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14), their parents or guardians answered questions on socioeconomic status, and a dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental trauma. The assessment of association used Poisson regression models. The prevalence of TDI was 9.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatised, and the most commonly observed traumatic dental injury was enamel fracture. No association was observed among child oral health-related quality of life and socioeconomic factors with traumatic dental injuries after the adjustment. Socioeconomic indicators are not associated with dental trauma in schoolchildren and this oral health condition has no negative impacts on children's quality of life.

  8. Food insecurity and dental caries in schoolchildren: a cross-sectional survey in the western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Paulo; Benicio, Maria H D; Narvai, Paulo C; Cardoso, Marly A

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed the association between food insecurity and dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren. We performed a cross-sectional survey nested in a population-based cohort study of 203 schoolchildren. The participants lived in the urban area of a small town within the western Brazilian Amazon. Dental examinations were performed according to criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The number of decayed deciduous and permanent teeth as a count variable was the outcome measure. Socio-economic status, food security, behavioral variables, and child nutritional status, measured by Z-score for body mass index (BMI), were investigated, and robust Poisson regression models were used. The results showed a mean (SD) of 3.63 (3.26) teeth affected by untreated caries. Approximately 80% of schoolchildren had at least one untreated decayed tooth, and nearly 60% lived in food-insecure households. Sex, household wealth index, mother's education level, and food-insecurity scores were associated with dental caries in the crude analysis. Dental caries was 1.5 times more likely to be associated with high food-insecurity scores after adjusting for socio-economic status and sex. A significant dose-response relationship was observed. In conclusion, food insecurity is highly associated with dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old children and may be seen as a risk factor. These findings suggest that food-security policies could reduce dental caries. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. Respiratory disorders and the prevalence of sleep bruxism among schoolchildren aged 8 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Clarissa Lopes; Souza, Débora Souto; Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Ramos-Jorge, Joana

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between respiratory disorders and sleep bruxism, with an evaluation of demographic/socioeconomic factors and childhood stress as confounding variables. A cross-sectional study was performed in the city of Diamantina, Brazil, with 448 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 8 to 11 years. The schoolchildren underwent an oral examination for the evaluation of bruxism. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire for the assessment of sleep bruxism; socioeconomic-demographic factors; and respiratory disorders, such as rhinitis, sinusitis, and bronchitis. The schoolchildren filled out the Children's Stress Scale. Poisson regression models were constructed separately for each respiratory disorder to determine prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sleep bruxism was more prevalent among children with rhinitis (PR = 1.45; 95%CI 1.08-1.93; p = 0.012) and sinusitis (PR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.06-2.36; p = 0.023). No significant association was found between sleep bruxism and bronchitis. A greater frequency of sleep bruxism was found among children whose mothers had a higher level of schooling and those who reported stress in the resistance/exhaustion phase. Rhinitis and sinusitis were associated with sleep bruxism. Moreover, sleep bruxism was more prevalent among children whose mothers had a higher level of schooling and those with higher degrees of stress.

  10. Prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren in Alta Floresta- a municipality in the southeast of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias, Márcia Regina de Col; Rosa, Antonia Maria; Hacon, Sandra de Souza; de Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Ignotti, Eliane

    2010-03-01

    To analyze the prevalence and symptoms of asthma in students of the Brazilian Amazon municipality of Alta Floresta-MT. Cross-sectional study on the prevalence of asthma in 6 and 7 year-old children and 13 to 14 year-old adolescents, using the Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood - ISAAC method, phase I in 2007. Students who answered affirmatively question 2 - "presence of wheezing in the past 12 months" were considered asthmatic. Of the total 2,071 students, 1,072 (51.7%) were children and 999 (48.3%) were teenagers. The prevalence of asthma was 21.4% among schoolchildren, and 12.4% among adolescents (chi2 = 29.29; rho = 0.00). Children presented a higher prevalence than adolescents of the following asthma symptoms: wheezing sometime in life (49.9%), wheezing in the past 12 months (21.4%), 1 to 3 wheezing attacks in the past 12 months (16.4%), and dry cough at night (38.2%). Regarding physician-diagnosed asthma, no difference was observed between the two age groups, with a prevalence of around 6.0%. Male schoolchildren presented a higher prevalence of asthma, physician-diagnosed asthma and four or more wheezing episodes in the past 12 months (rho asthma in Latin America among schoolchildren in the 6 and 7 year-old age group.

  11. Effect of yoga on cognitive abilities in schoolchildren from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Mayasandra S; Nagendra, Hongasandra; Selvam, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga, compared to physical activity on the cognitive performance in 7-9 year-old schoolchildren from a socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Two hundred (200) schoolchildren from Bangalore, India, after baseline assessment of cognitive functioning were randomly allocated to either a yoga or a physical-activity group. Cognitive functions (attention and concentration, visuo-spatial abilities, verbal ability, and abstract thinking) were assessed using an Indian adaptation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at baseline, after 3 months of intervention, and later at a 3-month follow-up. Of the 200 subjects, 193 were assessed at 3 months after the study, and then 180 were assessed at the 3-month follow-up. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance between the two study groups (yoga versus physical activity) at postintervention, after controlling for grade levels. Improvement in the mean scores of cognitive tests following intervention varied from 0.5 (Arithmetic) to 1.4 (Coding) for the yoga group and 0.7 (Arithmetic) to 1.6 (Vocabulary) in the physical-activity group. Yoga was as effective as physical activity in improving cognitive performance in 7-9 year old schoolchildren. Further studies are needed to examine the dose-response relationship between yoga and cognitive performance.

  12. Nutritional status of schoolchildren aged 6 to 10 years in the city of Cruzeiro do Oeste - PR

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    Ana Paula de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren. Methods: Data of the crosssectional study were obtained during the development of the “Project Educational Activities Related to School Process” in the city of Cruzeiro do Oeste-PR, Brazil. The study included children of both sexes enrolled in all six schools of the municipal network, in academic year 2010. We conducted anthropometric measurements of 1,074 schoolchildren aged 6 to 10 years. The variables assessed were weight and height to calculate BMI (Body MassIndex for classification according to criteria proposed by Cole et al. Results: According to the nutritional status, were found 5.1% (55 of children with low weight and a significant portion of overweight and obesity, 16.6% (178 and 9.8% (105, respectively, totaling 26, 4%(283 of schoolchildren with excess weight. There was no association between nutritional status of scholars and gender. BMI and age showed a direct relationship. Conclusion: The assessment of nutritional status in the schools surveyed points to, the nutritional transition, as a significant portion of the children was considered overweight and obese. It is noteworthy that the distribution between the different nutritional statuses did not differ between thesexes, but correlated with age; with increasing age, overweight also increases.

  13. The influence of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and home environment factors on schoolchildren's self-perception of quality of life

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    Paula Janice S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. Methods A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index, dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding, dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI. The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances. Results Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p Conclusions It was concluded that the clinical, socioeconomic and home environment factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren

  14. Variation in blood pressure among adolescent schoolchildren in an urban slum of Kolkata, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Muktisadhan; Bandyopadhyay, Lina

    2017-11-01

    High blood pressure in childhood is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The roots of essential hypertension in adults may be initiated in childhood. This study was conducted to investigate blood pressure profiles of adolescent schoolchildren in the practice field area of the Urban Health Centre, Chetla, Kolkata. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension in adolescent schoolchildren, to compare the blood pressure between boys and girls, and to study the association between selected variables and blood pressure. The study was conducted among adolescent schoolchildren aged 10-19 years in two randomly selected secondary schools situated in the practice field area of the Urban Health Centre, Chetla, Kolkata. All students aged 10-19 years present on the day of the visit were included in the study; the sample was 129. A predesigned questionnaire was used to carry out the study. Measurements of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were made using standardised physical instruments following standard operative guidelines. The data were collected and analysed using appropriate statistical methods. The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 10.1% (11.1% in boys and 8.8% in girls). The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 20.2% (16.7% in boys and 24.6% in girls). Hypertension was found to be significantly associated with physical exercise (p<0.05) and salt intake (p<0.05); BMI was also significantly associated with both systolic blood pressure (p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05). There was a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with BMI (r=0.303, p<0.05; r=0.262, p<0.05), age (r=0.326, p<0.05; r=0.267, p<0.05) and height (r=0.322, p<0.05; r=0.174, p<0.05). There was a negative correlation between hypertension and physical exercise (r=-0.313, p<0.05) and a positive correlation between hypertension and

  15. Panorama do estado antropométrico dos escolares brasileiros Anthropometric status of Brazilian schoolchildren

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    Caio Eduardo G. Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar, na literatura, pesquisas que abordem o perfil antropométrico dos escolares brasileiros. FONTES DE DADOS: Buscaram-se artigos originais nas bases de dados SciELO, LILACS e MedLine, compreendidos no período entre 1985 e 2009, que avaliaram o estado antropométrico de escolares brasileiros (sete a dez anos. Foram utilizadas as palavras-chave: "escolar", "escolares", "avaliação nutricional", "antropometria", "criança", "estatura", "saúde escolar", em português e inglês. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram encontrados 28 trabalhos realizados em escolas públicas e privadas de âmbito municipal, estadual e regional, com amostra variando de 86 a 50.114 indivíduos, com estudos do tipo transversal, inquérito, casos-controle e prospectivo, utilizando seis tipos diferentes de protocolo para classificar o estado antropométrico dos escolares. Os resultados mostram que, nas regiões Norte, Nordeste e nas áreas carentes há maior prevalência de desnutrição, enquanto nas regiões Sudeste, Sul e zonas mais favorecidas há maior prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade, mas coexistem as duas condições nas mesmas localidades. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar do aumento ao acesso aos alimentos, das políticas públicas contra a fome e ações governamentais e não-governamentais, ainda há a coexistência da dupla carga de doenças, desnutrição e excesso de peso que aflige a população escolar brasileira. Ações simples como medidas de peso e altura são de suma importância para classificar o estado nutricional e definir rumos de políticas públicas.OBJECTIVE: To review studies that address the anthropometric profile of Brazilian schoolchildren. DATA SOURCES: Original articles published in SciELO, LILACS and MedLine databases from 1985 to 2009, which assessed the anthropometric status in Brazilian schoolchildren (seven to ten years old. Key-words used: "school", "schoolchild", "nutritional assessment", "anthropometry", "child", "stature", "school

  16. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results indicated iodine sufficiency in schoolchildren from the

  17. Fortified Iodine Milk Improves Iodine Status and Cognitive Abilities in Schoolchildren Aged 7-9 Years Living in a Rural Mountainous Area of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Azlaf, Mehdi; El Menchawy, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Mouzouni, Fatima-Zahra; Barkat, Amina; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID) affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine) or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.

  18. Fortified Iodine Milk Improves Iodine Status and Cognitive Abilities in Schoolchildren Aged 7–9 Years Living in a Rural Mountainous Area of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.

  19. Peculiarities of the Lifestyle and Psychological State of Primary Schoolchildren with Bronchial Asthma

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    Alexandra M. Timofeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop an integrated approach to the treatment of children with bronchial asthma is conditioned by a significant increase in morbidity, emergence of more severe forms of the disease and a lack of radical treatment methods. Along with the development and implementation of modern drug treatment methods, the most topical issues are a consideration of the socio-psychological characteristics of patients and psychological and pedagogical support of children during treatment. Study Objective: To study the lifestyle peculiarities of primary schoolchildren (7–10 years with bronchial asthma and their psychological state. Patients and Methods. The study included children with bronchial asthma (atopic form, partially controlled course as well as conditionally healthy peers (health groups I and II as a comparison group. The psychological status of the observed was assessed using Dembo-Rubinstein self-evaluation method, modified «Human Figure» method, and Varga-Stolin parental relationship test. Results. The study involved 75 children (mean age 8.2 ± 0.6 years, including girls 59%, illness duration 3.2 ± 0.5 years and their parents (mothers made 79% of them. The comparison group consisted of 54 conditionally healthy children (mean age 8.4 ± 0.3, girls 54% and their parents (mothers — 85%, fathers — 15%. It is shown that the lifestyle of primary schoolchildren changed due to illness distorts the process of personality development and leads to the emergence of difficulties in the emotional and personality sphere: a reduced background of mood (35; 46.6% versus 11; 20%, blockage of experiences and difficulties in their verbalization (56; 75% versus 25; 46%, defensive-aggressive type of behavior in a stress situation (68; 91% versus 25; 46%, pronounced intrapersonal conflict (47; 62% versus 32; 59%, and communication problems (unsociability, restriction in communication, social fears. Conclusion. Bronchial asthma changes the child

  20. Secular trends in fruit intake among Danish schoolchildren, 1988 to 2006: Changing habits or methodological artefacts?

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    Due Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent monitoring of fruit and vegetable intake at the population level is essential for the evaluation and planning of national dietary interventions. Yet, only a limited number of studies on time trends in fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents have been published internationally. In Denmark, national comprehensive campaigns to enhance fruit and vegetable consumption were initiated in 2001. This paper describes secular trends in fruit intake among Danish adolescents by six comparable school surveys from 1988 to 2006. The paper demonstrates and discusses the consequences of measurement changes introduced in long-term trend analyses. Methods We used Danish data from the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study collected in 1988, 1991, 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006. Analyses were conducted on comparable questionnaire-based data from students aged 11, 13 and 15 total (n = 23,871 from a random sample of schools. Data on fruit intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire. Due to changes in number of response categories beween surveys, different cut-points were analysed. Results The prevalence of students eating fruit at least once daily ranged from 78.3% among 13-year-old girls in 1988 to 17.3% among 15-year-old boys in 2002. Based on the six data collections, analyses of trends showed a significant decrease in prevalence of students eating fruit at least once daily from 1988 to 2002 (all p-values Conclusion Fruit consumption among Danish schoolchildren decreased from 1988 to 2002 with an increase since 2002. We suggest that the increase may be attributable to a nation-wide initiative conducted in Denmark since 2001 to increase the intake of fruit and vegetables in the population. Still, the results imply that a substantial proportion of Danish schoolchildren do not meet the nationally recommended daily intake of fruit. Our analyses indicate that the observed trends are not

  1. Dietary intakes and food sources of fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bermudez, Odilia I.

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E) from total fat, saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES) children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002) and SFA (p < 0.001). Large proportions of the children had low levels of intakes of some fatty acids (FA), particularly for n-3 FA, with >97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA). This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting

  2. Effect of iodine status and other nutritional factors on psychomotor and cognitive performance of Filipino schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Ma Sofia V; Bongga, Demetria C; Peñano-Ho, Leticia; Cruz, Federico B; Solis, José S; Barrios, Erniel B

    2007-03-01

    Until 1998, iodine deficiency was a public health problem in the Philippines. A law entitled "An Act Promoting Salt Iodization Nationwide" (ASIN) has been passed and implemented by the government to eliminate iodine deficiency. The contribution of salt iodization, as well as dietary, health, and environmental factors, to improving the intellectual performance of Filipino schoolchildren remains to be determined. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationship between iodine status and levels of psychomotor and cognitive performance in first-grade children aged 6 to 10 years, and to examine the extent to which dietary, biochemical, health, and environmental factors contribute to children's mental performance. Two hundred ninety children in six classroom sections from a public school in Manila were examined by measurement of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and thyroid palpation. The median UIE level for each section was determined. Sixty-five children classified as iodine deficient (UIE 100 microg/L without goiter, n = 31) were given psychomotor and cognitive function tests (Bender-Gestalt and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices). Scores from the two tests were used to determine each child's general ability percentile rank. Other variables examined were dietary intake (% RDA of nutrients ingested based on two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls); deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, and selenium; parasitic infection; coliform contamination of drinking water; household use of iodized salt; illness in the past 2 weeks; and wasting and stunting. Children whose general ability scores were at or above the 50th percentile had higher UIE levels, but the relationship was not significant. Children from sections with higher median UIE levels had higher percentile ranks for general ability (p = .002). Backward logistic regression showed that the variance in deficient and adequate mental performance was explained by dietary intakes that met > or = 80% of the RDA for energy

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren, Northern Thailand

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    Tawatchai Apidechkul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren who attended 10 border patrol police schools in 2012, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Methods: A total of 339 subjects were recruited into the study from 2 194 children. Questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability before use. About 5 g stool specimens were collected and investigated for intestinal parasite infections by using cellophane-covered thick smear technique. Logistic regression at α = 0.05 was used to test the associations between variables to find risk factors. Results: There were 339 subjects of whom 51.9% were males and 66.1% were Buddhist; racially 31.2% were Akha and 30.4% were Kmong; mean age was 10.3 years old (minimum = 6, maximum = 16. The prevalence of parasitic infection was 9.7%. After controlling for age, sex, religion, parents’ education levels and parents’ occupations, the only factor that showed a statistically significant association with intestinal parasitic infection was the source of drinking water. The group of drinking mountain piped water had a greater risk of 8.22 times (adjusted odds ratio = 8.22, 95%; confidence interval: 1.07–63.18 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group, while the group of drinking underground water had a greater risk of 9.83 times (adjusted odds ratio = 9.83, 95%; confidence interval: 0.93–104.12 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group. Conclusions: Drinking water contaminated by soil was shown to be an important risk factor for intestinal parasitic infection in hill tribe schoolchildren living in mountainous border areas in the northern part of Thailand. Safer alternative drinking water source should be provided along with health education for schools and villagers to be aware of the risk of intestinal parasites from drinking water sources such as mountain piped or underground wells. Such sources are likely to contain higher soil

  4. Tuberculin reactivity in a population of schoolchildren with high BCG vaccination coverage

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    Bierrenbach Ana L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of BCG vaccination or revaccination on tuberculin skin test reactivity, in order to guide the correct interpretation of this test in a setting of high neonatal BCG vaccination coverage and an increasing BCG revaccination coverage at school age. METHODS: We conducted tuberculin skin testing and BCG scar reading in 1148 children aged 7-14 years old in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. We measured the positive effect of the presence of one or two BCG scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results above different cut-off levels (induration sizes of > 5 mm, > 10 mm, and > 15 mm and also using several ranges of induration size (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and > 15 mm. We also measured the effects that age, gender, and the school where the child was enrolled had on these proportions. RESULTS: The proportion of tuberculin results > 10 mm was 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI = 8.0%-20.3% for children with no BCG scar, 21.3% (95% CI = 18.5%-24.1% for children with one BCG scar, and 45.0% (95% CI = 32.0%-58.0% for children with two BCG scars. There was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two BCG scars on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm. Similarly, there was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results in the ranges of 5-9 mm and of 10-14 mm. The BCG scar effect on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm did not vary with age. There was no evidence for BCG effect on the results > 15 mm. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazilian schoolchildren, BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity is indistinguishable, for results under 15 mm, from reactivity induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. BCG revaccination at school age increases the degree of BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity found among schoolchildren. This information should be taken into account in tuberculin skin test surveys intended to

  5. The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in schoolchildren in a highly consanguineous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al Qahtani, Razna; Teebi, Ahmad S; Bessisso, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to find the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) symptoms in a sample of primary schoolchildren in Qatar and investigate the behaviour of the children with and without ADH symptoms in a highly consanguineous community. A total of 2,500 primary school students, aged 6-12 years, were randomly selected from the government primary schools, and 1,869 students (947 boys and 922 girls) gave consent to participate in this study. An Arabic questionnaire was used to collect the sociodemographic variables and a standardized Arabic version of the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for ADH symptoms. Of the 947 boys, 158 (16.7%; 95% confidence interval, CI, 14.4-19.2) and of the 922 girls, 50 (5.4%; 95% CI 4.1-7.1) scored above the cut-off (>or=15) for ADH symptoms, thus giving an overall prevalence of 11.1% (95% CI 9.7-12.6). The children who had higher scores for ADH symptoms were in the age group of 6-9 years. Children who had higher scores for ADH symptoms had a poorer school performance than those with lower scores (p = 0.002). Two hundred (96.2%) children with ADH were disobedient, 126 (60.6%) noisy and hyperactive, 76 (36.5%) very cranky, 78 (37.5%) troublesome and 79 (37.9%) nervous. The logistic regression identified socio-economic condition, number of children, school performance and poor relationship between parents as the main contributors to ADH. Although the univariate analysis showed a significant relationship (p = 0.010) between ADH symptoms and consanguineous parents, logistic regression did not support this association (p = 0.075). This suggests that consanguinity has no impact on ADH children. The study revealed that ADH is a common problem among schoolchildren. The children with higher scores for ADH symptoms had a poorer school performance than those with lower scores. A significant difference exists between the behaviour of children with and without ADH. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. School sociodemographic characteristics and obesity in schoolchildren: does the obesity definition matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Heinen, Mirjam M; Mehegan, John; O'Brien, Sarah; Eldin, Nazih; Murrin, Celine M; Kelleher, Cecily C

    2018-03-09

    Existing evidence on the role of sociodemographic variables as risk factors for overweight and obesity in school-aged children is inconsistent. Furthermore, findings seem to be influenced by the obesity definition applied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if school sociodemographic indicators were associated with weight status in Irish primary schoolchildren and whether this association was sensitive to different obesity classification systems. A nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 7542 Irish children (53.9% girls), mean age 10.4 (±1.2SD) years, participating in the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative in the 2010, 2012/2013 or 2015/2016 waves were included. Height, weight and waist circumference were objectively measured. Five definitions of obesity were employed using different approaches for either body mass index (BMI) or abdominal obesity. Associations between overweight and obesity and sociodemographic variables were investigated using adjusted multilevel logistic regression analyses. Children attending disadvantaged schools were more likely to be overweight and obese than their peers attending non-disadvantaged schools, regardless of the obesity classification system used. Associations remained significant for the BMI-based obesity definitions when the sample was stratified by sex and age group, except for boys aged 8-10.5 years. Only boys aged ≥10.5 years in disadvantaged schools had higher odds of abdominal obesity (UK 1990 waist circumference growth charts: OR = 1.56, 95%CI = 1.09-2.24; waist-to-height ratio: OR = 1.78, 95%CI = 1.14-2.79) than those in non-disadvantaged schools. No associations were observed for school urbanisation level. School socioeconomic status was a strong determinant of overweight and obesity in Irish schoolchildren, and these associations were age- and sex-dependent. School location was not associated with overweight or obesity. There remains a need to intervene with school

  7. Home Healthcare Program for Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Schoolchildren along the Mekong River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-05-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are among the most important groups of infectious agents responsible for physical and intellectual growth retardation in children worldwide. Current status is need requiredfor the development of control programs. To determine the STH infections among the schoolchildren in the Mekong River basin near rural Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand and Champassak, Laos PDR, including their caregiver knowledge and attitude concerning prevention of STH infections. A cross sectional survey was designed as a home healthcare programfrom October 2009 to April 2012. 1,957 fecal samples were collected from children aged 5-12 years in five districts of Ubon Ratchathani province (1,012 fecal samples; Khong Chiam, Si Mueang Mai, Phibun Mangsahan, Sirindhorn, and Pho Sai), Thailand, and one district of Champassak Province (945 fecal samples; Pakse), Lao PDR. Fecal samples were prepared by the modified formalin ethylacetate concentration technique, and determined by light microscope. The knowledge and attitude of children's caregivers concerning prevention of soil-transmitted helminth infections were completed interviewed by semi-structured questionnaires. The overall intestinal helminth prevalence rate was 11.88%. Classified by species the STHs were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides (30.9%), Trichuris trichiura (21.7%), and hookworm (20.5%). The highest prevalence was recorded in children aged 9 years and above. The highest prevalence of STH infection was found in the Pakse district of Laos PDR (16.08%). The intensities of infection with A. lumbricoides, T trichiura, and Hookworm were 1.82 ± 0.36, 1.32 ± 0.30, and 1.29 ± 0.32, respectively. 1,077 of caregivers were completed interviewed and found that the caregivers had fair levels of knowledge and attitude regarding soil-transmitted helminthiasis. These results suggest that priority should be given to STH eradication, the development of control programs in the Mekong River Basin, and the provision of

  8. Health-related quality of life in food hypersensitive schoolchildren and their families: parents' perceptions

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    Marklund Birgitta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 20% of schoolchildren and adolescents in Sweden suffer from perceived food hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy or intolerance. Our knowledge of how child food hypersensitivity affects parents HRQL and what aspects of the hypersensitivity condition relate to HRQL deterioration in the family is limited. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the parent-reported HRQL in families with a schoolchild considered to be food hypersensitive. The allergy-associated parameters we operated with were number of offending food items, adverse food reactions, additional hypersensitivity, allergic diseases and additional family members with food hypersensitivity. These parameters, along with age and gender were assessed in relation to child, parent and family HRQL. Methods In May 2004, a postal questionnaire was distributed to parents of 220 schoolchildren with parent-reported food hypersensitivity (response rate 74%. Two questionnaires were used: CHQ-PF28 and a study-specific questionnaire including questions on allergy-associated parameters. In order to find factors that predict impact on HRQL, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were carried out. Results An important predictor of low HRQL was allergic disease (i.e. asthma, eczema, rhino conjunctivitis in addition to food hypersensitivity. The higher the number of allergic diseases, the lower the physical HRQL for the child, the lower the parental HRQL and the more disruption in family activities. Male gender predicted lower physical HRQL than female gender. If the child had sibling(s with food hypersensitivity this predicted lower psychosocial HRQL for the child and lower parental HRQL. Food-induced gastro-intestinal symptoms predicted lower parental HRQL while food-induced breathing difficulties predicted higher psychosocial HRQL for the child and enhanced HRQL with regards to the family's ability to get along. Conclusion The variance in the child's physical HRQL was to a

  9. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  10. Do substantial BMI reduction episodes among Swedish schoolchildren have any impact on their final height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Bente B; Yngve, Agneta; Werner, Bo

    2018-02-06

    This study investigated whether substantial body mass index (BMI) reductions in Swedish schoolchildren aged seven years to 19 years, caused by disease, healthy or unhealthy behaviour, had any impact on their final height. We used height and weight data on 6572 subjects from two nationally representative longitudinal samples of Swedish children born in 1973 and 1981. These provided information on their final height and any BMI reduction episodes. Of the 6572 subjects (50.9% boys), among individuals with information on final height, 1118 had a BMI reduction of 5% and BMI reduction of 10% or more. On a group level, there was no statistically significant difference in the final height of individuals with BMI reductions of 10% or more and those without. The findings were independent of age and the subject's BMI at the start of the reduction episode. However, there were a number of cases where a substantial BMI reduction probably had an impact on the subject's final height. Our study found no evidence that a substantial BMI reduction had any impact on final height on a group level, but further analyses of specific case studies are necessary to determine whether substantial BMI reduction might have an impact on final height. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Individual and contextual determinants of malocclusion in 12-year-old schoolchildren in a Brazilian city

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    Lidia Moraes Ribeiro JORDÃO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe malocclusion prevalence and its association with individual and contextual factors among Brazilian 12-year-old schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study included data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Brazil (n = 2,075, and data from the files of the local health authority. The data were collected through oral clinical examinations. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI was used to assess occlusion. The presence of malocclusion (DAI > 25 was used as the dependent variable. The individual independent variables consisted of adolescents’ sex and race and their mothers’ level of schooling. The clinical variables were caries experience and presence of adverse periodontal condition (calculus and/or gingival bleeding. The contextual variables included type of school and the location of schools in the city’s health districts. The Rao-Scott test and multilevel logistic regression were performed. The prevalence of malocclusion was 40.1%. In the final model, significantly higher rates of malocclusion were found among those who attended schools located in less affluent health districts and whose mothers had fewer years of education. Rates were also higher among those presenting calculus and/or gingival bleeding. Malocclusion demonstrated a high prevalence rate and the inequalities in its distribution were determined by individual and contextual factors.

  12. Determinant factors of toothache in 8- and 9-year-old schoolchildren, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

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    Eliane Paula Reis Barrêtto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, severity and impact of toothache among schoolchildren associated with socio-demographic variables (gender, degree of maternal schooling, economic group, and oral health status. Six hundred and one 8- and 9-year-old children were randomly selected from schools in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. After formal authorization was obtained from their parents, the children were interviewed and clinically examined by a single examiner. The Chi squared test was applied and the odds ratio obtained. The prevalence of toothache was 45.9% (276/601, of which 15.6% (94/601 had occurred during the previous month. Among the children who had experienced pain, 39.4% (109/276 classified its severity as intense or very intense. Nearly 35% (96/276 were awoken by the pain, and 63.8% (176/276 were unable to carry out daily tasks as a result. The prevalence of pain was greater among children from less privileged economic groups, in which the mothers' level of schooling was lower (0-7 years of formal study and who showed poorer conditions of oral health, determined by the presence of dental and periodontal pathology (p<0.05. Gender did not influence either the experience of toothache or its severity and impact. The prevalence of toothache found in the age group between 8 and 9 years is very high and associated to social determinants and poorer conditions of oral health.

  13. Evaluating executive function in schoolchildren with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-van-Meerbeke, A; Zamora, I P; Guzmán, G; Figueroa, B; López Cabra, C A; Talero-Gutiérrez, C

    2013-01-01

    To identify impairment of executive functions (EF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A case-control study was performed on a sample of schoolchildren with low socioeconomic levels in Bogota, Colombia. ADHD was diagnosed using the DSM IV checklist and the Behavior Assessment System for Children scale. Children with cognitive deficits were excluded. We evaluated scores from six measurements of executive function (EF). We conducted a bivariate statistical analysis to compare the variables, a multivariate study controlled by sex and age, and a logistic regression analysis. The study sample included 119 children with ADHD and 85 controls, all aged between 6 and 12 years. Controlling by sex, age, and type of school showed that EF measurements in children with ADHD were significantly more impaired than in controls, especially for measurements of verbal and graphic fluency, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, and cognitive flexibility. Comparison of ADHD subgroups showed that results in children with multiple deficits were similar to those in the global ADHD group. Graphic fluency impairment was the sole impairment in cases with only attention deficit or only hyperactivity-impulsivity manifestations. EF measures in children with ADHD revealed more problems, particularly those having to do within planning, inhibition, working memory and cognitive control. Age and sex may affect the degree of EF impairment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional profile of schoolchildren from different socio-economic levels in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberona, Yessica; Castillo, Oscar; Engler, Valerie; Villarroel, Luis; Rozowski, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    To assess the nutritional status, food intake and physical activity patterns in schoolchildren attending 5th and 6th grade in basic schools from different socio-economic levels in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Cross-sectional study in children 5th and 6th grade of eighteen basic schools in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years from basic schools were evaluated in terms of physical capacity. An anthropometric evaluation was also performed which included weight, height and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Food intake was evaluated by a 24 h recall, socio-economic level by the ESOMAR method and physical activity by a questionnaire. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years (n 1732). The average prevalence of overweight and obesity was 40 %, with the highest prevalence in males and those from lower socio-economic level. A majority (64 %) of the children had a low level of physical activity. A higher intake of fat and protein and a higher intake of carbohydrate were found in the higher and lower socio-economic levels, respectively. Both males and females showed adequacy greater than 75 % in macronutrient intake except for fibre, with both groups showing a deficit in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish and milk products according to Chilean recommendations. A high prevalence of malnutrition by excess was observed in both sexes and a better eating and physical activity pattern was seen in children from higher socio-economic level.

  15. Oral impacts on daily performances and recent use of dental services in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsantofils, Monica; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    To explore whether oral impacts on daily performances are related to recent use of dental services among children and whether oral impacts on specific daily performances are more strongly related to recent use of dental services. Data from a cross-sectional survey, including 805 11-12-year-old children attending four randomly selected schools in Lima (Peru), were used. The child version of the oral impacts on daily performances (Child-OIDP) was used to assess prevalence, intensity, and extent of oral impacts. Use of dental services was assessed by self-reports of last dental visit and reason for the visit. Associations of the prevalence, intensity, and extent of oral impacts with use of dental services were tested in logistic regression models. Children with oral impacts were 1.99 (95% CI: 1.17-3.37) times more likely to have used dental services recently than their counterparts. The intensity and extent of oral impacts were linearly associated with children's use of dental services. Difficulties in eating were the only type of oral impacts on daily performances associated with use of dental services, independent of children's demographic characteristics, and impacts on other performances. Oral impacts on daily performances were related to recent use of dental services among these schoolchildren. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [NUTRITIONAL CONDITION OF SCHOOLCHILDREN AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH LEVELS OF FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Floody, Pedro; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Cresp Barría, Mauro; Osorio Poblete, Aldo; Cofré Lizama, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    in Chile, the increase of childhood obesity has become a major public health problem. The aim of the study is to determine and compare the levels of overweight and obesity of schoolchildren and their association with fitness levels and predictors of cardiovascular risk. an association study and comparison of variables by gender and nutritional status was performed, 113 students (58 men and 55 women) between 13 and 16 years old were evaluated. Nutritional condition and physical performance through the set used by the agency of quality of education in Chile was measured. 57.5% of the sample was overweight. The contour waist and fat percentage is higher in women (p < 0.05). BMI was not significantly different. Men had better physical performance in jumping, abdominal strength, and Navette Test (p < 0.05). Regarding the assessment of weight status on physical performance there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the variables; abs, flexion and extension, Navette Test and jump higher results in subjects with normal weight. Obese school students had a higher percentage of fat mass and waist contour (p < 0.05). Regarding the association of variables according to BMI, body fat percentage and waist contour, these had negative associations with physical performance. 57.5% of the evaluated students were overweight or obese, associating these results negatively with physical performance, and increased levels of fat mass and waist contour, all these health indicators and predictors of cardiovascular risk. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Migration and nutritional status of Tarahumara schoolchildren from Chihuahua State (México).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Hernández, Zuliana Paola; De la Torre-Díaz, María de Lourdes; Cervantes-Borunda, Mónica; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Cabañas, María Dolores; López-Ejeda, Noemí; Marrodán, María Dolores

    2017-01-01

    The Tarahumara ethnic group is composed of indigenous people from the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. Conditions of isolation and poverty compel them to migrate to the city in search of better opportunities. This work aims to explore the influence of migration on the growth and nutritional status of Tarahumara schoolchildren. One hundred Tarahumara students were analyzed (50 rural with a mean age of 9.78 ± 1.25 years; 50 urban aged 10.0 ± 1.04 years), comparing anthropometric indicators and body composition (T-Student, U-Mann-Whitney Tests). Twenty percent of rural girls and 35% of rural boys showed stunted growth compared to only 9% of the urban girls (no stunted growth among urban boys). Migrants showed greater body size, skinfold thickness, and fat percentage. Weight excess, understood as an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, was detected in 17.8% of urban boys and 13.6% of urban girls compared to 10.0% of boys and 3.3% of girls of the rural series. Migration reduces stunting and increases adiposity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for allergic rhinitis in primary schoolchildren in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultész, Monika; Katona, Gábor; Hirschberg, Andor; Gálffy, Gabriella

    2010-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing, especially among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis in 6-12-year-old schoolchildren in Budapest. A total of 6335 children aged between 6 and 12 years attending 21 randomly selected primary schools in Budapest were surveyed in September 2007 by using a questionnaire consisting in part of questions compiled by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and in part of questions based on our own experience. 3933 of the questionnaires (1976 M/1957 F) were appropriately completed by the parents. The prevalence of current allergic rhinitis was 14.9% (n=530), that of physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis was 11.6% (n=413), and that of cumulative allergic rhinitis was 26.5% (n=943). Male gender (pBudapest was 14.9%, which is higher than reported from other European countries. Our findings differ from those on other cohorts in that exposure to ragweed and to indoor environmental factors in concrete housing estates in Budapest may be of particular importance as concerns allergic sensitization. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

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    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  20. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  1. Intensity of noise in the classroom and analysis of acoustic emissions in schoolchildren

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    Almeida Filho, Nelson de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise-induced hearing loss is a sensorineural hearing loss, usually bilateral, irreversible and progressive with time of exposure. As the noise made by children in school may be considered detrimental, the study looks of their occurrence in Taubaté's schools. Objective: To determine if students are exposed to noise intensity affecting the cochlea, define the profile of these schoolchildren, demonstrating the occurrence of changes in cochlear activity following exposure to noise in a day of class. Method: Study's way prospective transversal cross sectional cut with 28 elementary school students in the first half of 2009. Questionnaires for assessing preexisting cochlear damage . Evaluation of cochlear function by analysis of acoustic emissions evoked distortion product, made before the students come into class and immediately after the end of these. Measurement of noise inside the classrooms and recreation areas during the interval. Results: 57.1% accused some hearing loss in the examinations before class. By day's end, 04 girls and 03 boys had worsened in relation of the first examination. The noise reached levels higher than recommended at the three class rooms. The largest number of students with worsening, belong to the class room with higher noise level. The noise during the intervals is also excessive. Conclusions: The noise in this school is above the limit. 42.85% of students who had experienced worsening had school performance inadequate. 25% had worse after noise exposure in a school day.

  2. Exposure to physical and sexual violence and suicidal ideation among schoolchildren

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    Julia Luiza Schäfer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to physical and sexual violence, and suicidal ideation in Brazilian Schoolchildren, accounting for confounding variables of religious practice, and problems with alcohol and other drugs. Methods This study consists of a cross-sectional analytical approach of a larger school-based study conducted in 2012 in two medium-sized municipalities in south of Brazil. Participants were 3,547 students aging 12 to 17 years old who answered an assembled questionnaire. Descriptive and Logistic Regression analyses were conducted with suicide ideation outcome testing prediction models stratified by sex. Results Suicide ideation prevalence in the sample was of 21.7%, and regression analysis indicated that girls and boys exposed to physical or sexual violence had 3.42 and 3.14 times more probability of referring suicidal ideation in the past 30 days. Adjusted analyses showed little interference of religious practice, while problems with alcohol and other drugs seemed to also explain suicidal ideation in the sample. Conclusion We highlight the importance of future longitudinal studies to investigate the mechanisms through which exposure to physical or sexual abuse influence suicidal ideation among boys and girls, as well as mediation studies that could enlighten the role of drug and alcohol use in this relationship.

  3. Parental Attitudes and Factors Associated With Varicella Vaccination in Preschool and Schoolchildren in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wilson W.S.; Chan, Johnny; Lo, Kenneth K.H.; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K.S.; Chan, Denise; Nelson, E. Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates parental attitudes and factors associated with varicella vaccination among preschool and schoolchildren prior to introduction of the vaccine into Hong Kong's universal Childhood Immunization Program. Fourteen kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Hong Kong were randomly selected in 2013. Parents of the students were invited to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Acquired information included demographic characteristics and socioeconomic statuses of families, children's history of chickenpox infection and vaccination, and reasons for getting children vaccinated. Logistic regression was applied to examine the factors associated with vaccination. From the 3484 completed questionnaires, the calculated rates of varicella infection and vaccination were 20.7% and 69.0%, respectively. Barriers to vaccination included parental uncertainties about vaccine effectiveness, lack of recommendation from the government, and concerns on adverse effects. Overall, 71.8%, 69.0%, and 45.7% of the parents rated family doctors, specialists, and the government, respectively, as very important motivators of vaccination. Higher parental educational level and family income, better perceived knowledge of varicella and chance of infection, discussion with a family doctor, and positive health belief towards vaccination were associated with vaccination (all P vaccination in Hong Kong was higher than that of some other countries that also did not include the vaccine in their routine immunization programs. More positive parental attitudes, higher socioeconomic status, and discussion with a family doctor are associated with greater vaccination rates. The important roles that health professionals and the government play in promoting varicella vaccination were emphasized. PMID:26356725

  4. [The effect of air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren from Krakow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, G; Pietrzyk, J J

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between asthma, wheezing prevalence and the rate of air pollution in Kraków. In the survey of 6696 schoolchildren aged 12-14 year, ISAAC questionnaires were performed. According to the distribution of the mean annual concentration of dust particles (PM10) and sulfur dioxide, four classes of these compounds were established. In the similar way, the lead concentration in garden soil and lettuce was categorized into three classes, which were surrogates of the automobile exhaust. Children's passive smoking was established by questionnaire. The study revealed a significant association and a positive correlation between the prevalence of asthma diagnosis and the soil and lettuce lead concentrations. Wheezing history (past and current) was significantly correlated with soil lead classes and the classes of dust particles (PM10). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with the asthma diagnosis and past or current wheezing. A significant relationship was found between paternal smoking and wheezing during and/or post exercise.

  5. Prevalence of asthma and asthma-like symptoms in inner-city schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvula, Mosanda; Larzelere, Michele; Kraus, Marjorie; Moisiewicz, Kathleen; Morgan, Connie; Pierce, Stephanie; Post, Robert; Nash, Theresa; Moore, Cleveland

    2005-02-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms in New Orleans inner-city schoolchildren. A cross-sectional survey of 1535 elementary, middle, and high school children (aged 5-18) was conducted by using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written questionnaire. Lifetime prevalence of wheezing was 39.4%, and lifetime prevalence of asthma was 24.4%. Wheezing during the previous 12 months was reported by 25.7% of the sample. Twenty-one percent of respondents reported having one or more attacks of wheezing per year, with 5.6% reporting four or more attacks per year. Many participants reported sleep disturbance (15.4%), with 6.2% reporting sleep disturbance more than once a week. The 12-month rate of speech limitation due to asthma exacerbation was 6.6%. Exercise-induced asthma was reported by 16.9% of the students, and nocturnal cough (not associated with cold) was reported by 27.3%. Overall, boys reported higher rates of symptoms than girls, and younger children (aged 6-7) reported greater symptoms than older children (aged 13-14). These findings show that prevalence of asthma in this population is elevated, and the ISAAC written questionnaire successfully identified inner-city children at risk for asthma in New Orleans.

  6. Systemic arterial hypertension, blood pressure levels and associated factors in schoolchildren

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    Priscila Heleno

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Hypertension is a major public health problem in contemporary times and it has high prevalence throughout the world. Objective: To investigate the situation of Systemic Arterial Hypertension in schoolchildren aged 6 to 10 years in Divinópolis/MG-Brazil and associated factors. Method: This is a cross-sectional, epidemiological, descriptive and analytical study, whose population was children aged 6 to 10 years enrolled in public schools in Divinópolis-MG-Brazil. Data collection was conducted from October 2014 to May 2015. Multivariate linear regressions were used to test associations between blood pressure, socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietary and physical activity. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 15.2% in a sample of 284 children and mean values of systolic blood pressure of 101.7 (±13.2 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of 66.0 (±11.2 mmHg. The body fat percentage showed significant differences between the genders, with 24.2 and 26.2%, respectively for boys and girls. Significant associations were made between blood pressure levels, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage, consumption of yogurt, beef /chicken, beans, pizza, sandwich and some behaviors variables. Conclusion: The presented data show important aspects of school profile in the age range 6-10 years, especially related to the behavior of blood pressure.

  7. Guatemalan school food environment: impact on schoolchildren's risk of both undernutrition and overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Hurley, Kristen; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-09-01

    Guatemala suffers the double burden of malnutrition with high rates of stunting alongside increasing childhood overweight/obesity. This study examines the school food environment (SFE) at low-income Guatemalan elementary schools and discusses its potential impact on undernutrition and overweight/obesity. From July through October 2013, direct observations, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and food kiosk vendors (n = 4, 2 interviews each) and also focus groups (FGs) with children (n = 48, 8 FGs) were conducted. The SFE comprises food from school food kiosks (casetas); food from home or purchased in the street; and food provided by the school (refacción). School casetas, street vendors and children's parents largely provide sandwiches, calorie-rich snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Refacción typically serves energy dense atol, a traditional beverage. The current school food program (refacción), the overall SFE and the roles/opinions of vendors and principals reveal persistent anxiety concerning undernutrition and insufficient concern for overweight/obesity. Predominant concern for elementary schoolchildren remains focused on undernutrition. However, by the time children reach elementary school (ages 6-12+), food environments should encourage dietary behaviors to prevent childhood overweight/obesity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Evaluation of exhaled nitric oxide in schoolchildren at different exhalation flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroletti, Christophe; Zetterquist, Wilhelm; Nordvall, Lennart; Alving, Kjell

    2002-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air is believed to reflect allergic inflammation in the airways. Measured levels of exhaled NO vary with the exhaled flow rate, which therefore must be standardized. The aim of this study was to estimate the optimal exhalation flow rate when measuring NO in exhaled air. We studied 15 asthmatic children (8-18 y) with elevated NO levels and 15 age-matched controls and focused on how the quality of the NO curve profile, the discriminatory power, and the reproducibility were influenced by the exhalation flow rate. We used an on-line system for NO measurements at six different exhalation flow rates in the interval of 11-382 mL/s. The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) was highly flow-dependent as was expected. Intermediate flow rates yielded a flat and stable NO plateau and were considerably easier to interpret than those obtained at the highest and lowest flow rates. The ratio of FENO between asthmatics and controls was lower at higher flow rates and a considerable overlap in NO values was demonstrated at all flow rates except 50 mL/s. The reproducibility was much lower at more extreme flow rates and was best at 50 mL/s. We conclude that a target exhalation flow rate of approximately 50 mL/s is to be preferred using the single-breath method for on-line NO measurements in schoolchildren.

  9. Effects of combined physical education and nutritional programs on schoolchildren's healthy habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Iazzoni, Sara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Migliaccio, Silvia; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Background. A multidisciplinary approach seems to be effective in creating healthy habits in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three 5-month combined physical education (PE) and nutritional interventions on body composition, physical activity (PA) level, sedentary time and eating habits of schoolchildren. Methods. Anthropometric data, weekly PA level, sedentary time and eating habits of 230 healthy students were analysed using a repeated-measures ANOVA with Group (experimental group 1 vs experimental group 2 vs control group), Adiposity Status (under fat vs normal fat vs obese), and Time (pre vs post) as factors. Results. Body fat mass percentage increased after intervention (18.92 ± 8.61% vs 19.40 ± 8.51%) in all groups. The weekly PA level significantly increased after intervention in both experimental groups. Sedentary time significantly decreased after the intervention period (565.70 ± 252.93 vs 492.10 ± 230.97 min/week, p healthy habits through life.

  10. Perceptions and reasons for choice of fat- and fibre-containing foods by Swedish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christina; Jonsson, Inger; Conner, Mark; Lissner, Lauren

    2003-02-01

    This study investigated schoolchildren's breakfast choices focusing on their reported usual intake and perceptions of fat-reduced or fibre-enriched alternatives. A total of 184 eleven- to fifteen-year-old were asked to participate, and 181 completed the study. Using pictures of food items, the children were instructed to reproduce their usual breakfast, and then breakfasts that would be: healthy, tasty, consumed by their parents, or approved by their parents. Participants' usual breakfast included breads and breakfast cereals containing a higher fibre content than that of the breakfast reported as most palatable. Their usual breakfast also contained products with less fibre than was the case for their healthy or perceived parental norm breakfasts. This may be interpreted as evidence that high-fibre bread and breakfast cereals are perceived as healthy but that consumption of these products is limited by palatability. In contrast to the ambivalence towards cereal products, corresponding disagreements between breakfasts were not observed for milk, and only a small systematic disagreement was observed for spread. Thus, the majority consumed the kind of milk and spread perceived as being healthy, tasty and parentally sanctioned despite the fact that full-fat products were frequently consumed. In conclusion, the results suggest that taste may be a barrier to consumption of high-fibre products, while consumption of low-fat products appears to be impeded by health beliefs.

  11. "A tree must be bent while it is young": teaching urological surgical techniques to schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntrock, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Playing video games in childhood may help achieve advanced laparoscopic skills later in life. The virtual operating room will soon become a reality, as "doctor games 2.0" will doubtlessly begin to incorporate virtual laparoscopic techniques. To teach surgical skills to schoolchildren in order to attract them to urology as a professional choice later in life. As part of EAU Urology Week 2010, 108 school children aged 15-19 attended a seminar with lectures and simulators (laparoscopy, TUR, cystoscopy, and suture sets) at the 62nd Congress of the German Society of Urology in Düsseldorf. A Pub-Med and Google Scholar search was also performed in order to review the beneficial effects of early virtual surgical training. MeSh terms used were "video games," "children," and "surgical skills." Searches were performed without restriction for a certain period of time. In terms of publicity for urology, EAU Urology Week, and the German Society of Urology, the event was immensely successful. Regarding the literature search, four relevant publications were found involving children. An additional three articles evaluated the usefulness of video gaming in medical students and residents. Making use of virtual reality to attract and educate a new generation of urologists is an important step in designing the future of urology.

  12. INTEGRAL APPROACHES TO TEACHING SENIOUR SCHOOLCHILDREN AND THEIR IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT OF A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila N. Goncharova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the deterioration of health indicators among adolescents is an alarming tendency observed recently. The need for development of health-safeguarding behaviour in high school students of Saransk is obvious. The authors analysed the general health status of this group depending on implementation of various types of educational programmes in high schools. Materials and Methods: the data of arterial blood pressure, body mass index, food habits among high school students according to age, gender, nationality of schoolchildren and level of integration into educational programmes have been analysed. The research included 203 high school students from14 to 17 years old, 57 % boys and 43 % girls (grades 9 to 11 from two different schools of Saransk city with different educational programmes. Results: the research demonstrated a positive impact of sport programmes on health-preserving behaviour of high school students, resulted in stabilisation of arterial blood pressure, normal body mass and lower level of fast food consumption. Discussion and Conclusions: educational programmes focused on acceptance and implementation of healthy lifestyle could be considered as possible factors affecting health-preserving behaviour. The authors suggest paying more attention to these programmes’ inclusion into educational process.

  13. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  14. Association between the number of sexual partners and alcohol consumption among schoolchildren

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    Rachel Mola

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the association between the number of sexual partners and alcohol consumption in adolescents and young schoolchildren. Methods: The sample consisted of students from public schools aged 12-24 years who answered the Brazilian version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire. The analysis was performed by multinomial logistic regression model. Results: 1275 students were analyzed. For females, having two to five partners was associated with age ≥15 years (OR 14.58 and maternal education up to incomplete high school or lower educational level (OR 3.37. No consumption of alcohol decreased the chances of having more partners by 96%. For males, the associated variables were: age ≥15 years (OR 18.15; having no religion (OR 3.55; age at first dose ≤14 years (OR 3.48. Binge drinking increases the chances of having a higher number of sexual partners. Conclusion: Regardless of the number of partners, binge drinking and age of alcohol consumption onset are risk factors for vulnerable sexual behavior.

  15. Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren in central Spain: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Gabriel y Galán, José María Trejo; Villaverde, Vanesa Ausín; Velasco, Sara Sáez; Benito, Vanesa Delgado; Macarrón, Jesús Vicente; Guevara, José Cordero; Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julián

    2011-08-01

    Tic disorders constitute a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This study sought to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in a school-based sample. A randomized sample of 1158 schoolchildren, based on clusters (classrooms) in the province of Burgos (Spain), was identified on a stratified sampling frame combining types of educational center and setting (mainstream schools and special education), using a two-phase approach (screening and diagnosis ascertainment by a neurologist). Tics with/without impairment criterion were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. In mainstream schools, tics were observed in 125/741 students (16.86%; 95% confidence interval, 14.10-19.63), and were more frequent in boys (87/448, 19.42%; 95% confidence interval, 15.64-23.19) compared with girls (38/293, 12.96%; 95% confidence interval, 8.95-16.98; P = 0.03). In special education centers, tics disorders were observed in 11/54 of children (20.37%; 95% confidence interval, 8.70-32.03). Overall, tics with impairment criteria were less frequent than tics without impairment criteria (4.65% vs 11.85%, P tics (6.07%) and Tourette syndrome (5.26%). Tic disorders are common in childhood, and the use or nonuse of impairment criteria exerts a significant impact on tic prevalence estimates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren and association with placement in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlan, R; McDermott, M P; Deeley, C; Como, P G; Brower, C; Eapen, S; Andresen, E M; Miller, B

    2001-10-23

    Based on the knowledge that Tourette's syndrome (TS) is associated with several clinical features that can impair school function and growing evidence that the disorder is much more common than previously thought, the authors hypothesized that TS and related tic disorders would be associated with school problems in the childhood population at large. Direct, blinded (to educational placement) interviews of 1,596 schoolchildren in Monroe County, Rochester, NY, were conducted. Twenty-seven percent of 341 students classified as receiving special education (SpEd) had tics compared with 19.7% (p = 0.008) of 1,255 students in regular classroom programs (RegEd). The weighted prevalence estimates for tics were 23.4% in SpEd and 18.5% in RegEd. A higher percentage of students in SpEd (7.0%) met diagnostic criteria for TS than students in RegEd (3.8%; p = 0.01). Although possibly influenced by selection bias, our results indicate that tic disorders are common in children and are highly associated with school dysfunction. Tics may represent an identifiable sign of an underlying brain developmental disorder that contributes to academic difficulties.

  17. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  18. Numerical transcoding proficiency in 10-year-old schoolchildren is associated with grey-matter interindividual differences: A voxel-based morphometry study

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    Amélie eLubin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in grey matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N=22 whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less grey matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  19. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet...... (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study), against a 7-day food-record (7-dFR) method among Danish schoolchildren.Subjects/Methods:A total of 74 children aged 7-8 years and 70 children...

  20. Suitability of instant noodles for iron fortification to combat iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong Thi; Brouwer, Inge D; de Wolf, Corine A; van der Heijden, Lidwien; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Kok, Frans J

    2007-09-01

    Anemia is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in Vietnam. Food fortification is considered one of the most sustainable long-term strategies to control iron-deficiency anemia in Vietnam. The success of a food-fortification program depends on the choice of the food vehicle. The aim of the present study was to identify an appropriate vehicle for iron fortification to be used in a school-feeding program aimed at improving the iron and anemia status of schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Children 6 to 8 years of age in two primary schools in Tam Nong District, Phu Tho Province, and their parents were included in this study. The study consisted of three substudies: a food-consumption study with 24-hour recalls of two nonconsecutive days; a food-beliefs study, with focus group discussions, a pile-sorting test, and a food attributes and differences exercise; and a food-acceptance study using noodles and biscuits fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA). The average number of meals consumed daily was 3.2 +/- 0.4, and the average intakes of energy and iron were 1,218 +/- 406 kcal and 7.5 +/- 4.0 mg, respectively. Compared with biscuits and instant rice soup, instant noodles were consumed more frequently and in larger portion sizes and are more acceptable as children's food in the culture of the local people. The iron level of the fortified product did not affect the mean consumption of noodles, but a higher level of iron was associated with a lower mean consumption of biscuits (p noodles; however, during preparation at least 70% of the iron is leaked into the soup. Instant noodles are a suitable vehicle for iron fortification for use in school-based intervention to improve iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam.

  1. Relationship between C-reactive protein and physical fitness, physical activity, obesity and selected cardiovascular risk factors in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Rahnama, Ameneh; Salesi, Mohsen; Rahnama, Nader; Mojtahedi, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between C-reactive protein (CRP) with physical fitness, physical activity, obesity, and selected cardiovascular risk factors in school-children. Forty-four boy schoolchildren (mean ± SD: age 10.25 ± 0.75 years, height 144 ± 0.2 cm, body weight 46.1 5± 4.59 kg, body mass index 22.16 ± 2.16 kg/m(2)) voluntarily participated in this study. Physical fitness and physical activity were assessed using the 20-meter fitness test. Adiposity was estimated using body mass index. Blood samples were taken after an overnight fast and measured for CRP, LDL, HDL and cholesterol. Pearson's correlation was calculated to determine the relations between these factors. Mean (SD) CRP concentration was 1.07 (0.82) mg/l. A significant correlation was observed between CRP and VO2max (r=-0.45, P= 0.001), body mass index (r=0.55, P=0.000) and cholesterol (r=-0.35, P=0.04). No significant relation was found between CRP and physical activity, LDL and HDL (P> 0.05). Moreover, significant associations were observed between body mass index and VO2max (r=-0.33, P=0.02) and physical activity (r=-0.43, P=0.04). Body mass index was the most powerful predictor of serum concentrations of CRP in schoolchildren. It may be an important factor to control body weight to prevent an increase in serum CRP in children and to help the primordial prevention of chronic diseases.

  2. Dental caries prevalence and treatment needs among 12- and 15- Year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailee, Fotedar; Sogi, G M; Sharma, K R; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the commonest oral diseases in children. Despite this fact, not many studies have been done on this issue among school children in Shimla. To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among schoolchildren aged 12 years and 15 years in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. With this study we also aimed to establish reliable baseline data. Cross-sectional study. This study was conducted among 12 - and 15 - year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh-India. A sample of 1011 schoolchildren was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recording of dental caries, was done according to WHO diagnostic criteria (1997). The statistical tests used were the t- test, and the Chi-square test. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 years and 15 years respectively. At 12 years of age, the mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. Dental caries was higher in children from government schools as compared to those from private schools. The 'decayed' component was the biggest contributor to the DMFT index. The highest treatment need at both ages was one surface restoration. The caries experience of 12- and 15- year-old children was low compared to WHO - 'recommended' values. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to further improve the dental health of school children in Shimla city.

  3. Revised Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Index and associations with obesity and iron deficiency in schoolchildren: The Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Y; Moschonis, G; Papandreou, C; Politidou, E; Naoumi, A; Peppas, D; Mavrogianni, C; Lionis, C; Chrousos, G P

    2015-02-01

    The Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Index (HLD-index), previously developed to assess the degree of adherence to dietary and lifestyle guidelines for primary schoolchildren, was revised according to updated recommendations. Τhe association of the revised HLD-index (R-HLD-index) with obesity and iron deficiency (ID) was also examined. A representative sample of 2660 primary schoolchildren from Greece (9-13 years old) participating in the 'Healthy Growth Study' was examined. Twelve components related to dietary and lifestyle patterns were used to develop the R-HLD-index. Scores from 0 up to 4 were assigned to each one of these components, giving a total score ranging from 0 to 48. The associations between the R-HLD-index, obesity and ID were examined via logistic regression analysis. The total score of the R-HLD-index calculated for each one of the study participants was found to range between 2 and 32 units, with higher scores being indicative of a healthier lifestyle and better diet quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that an increase in the R-HLD-index score by one unit was associated with 6% lower odds for obesity. However, no significant association was observed between the R-HLD-index score and ID. The R-HLD-index may be a useful tool for public health policy makers and healthcare professionals when assessing diet quality and lifestyle patterns of primary schoolchildren. Identification of children with lower scores in the R-HLD-index and its individual components could guide tailored made interventions targeting specific children and behaviors. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. Households Headed By Women and Physical Growth of Schoolchildren in Tláhuac, D.F. (Mexico

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    Sergio López Alonso

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work is part of a research program examining the role of the family as mediator between basic human vital functions and social macro-processes. In order to evaluate conditions affecting physical development we examined the age-normed weight and stature of 410 primary school children who were enrolled in public primary schools of the Tláhuac delegation (one of the 16 political delegations in Mexico City. All schoolchildren had received a merit scholarship for their academic performance and were from poor families. Standardization of height and weight was done using the norms of the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. 110 of these schoolchildren (68 girls and 42 boys lived in households led by women. Among the 48 children with growth problems 15 (31% were from female-led households. This finding indicates that this group of students has grown up in environments that have negatively affected their growth. Among growth delayed children households headed by women were over-represented at a rate almost double that of the general population. This data from schoolchildren with scholarships from the Tláhuac program demonstrates clearly the feminization of poverty and the structural vulnerability these women who single-handedly maintain households in conditions of poverty. At least among our subjects, we can conclude that households headed by women suffer a greater degree of poverty, that this poverty is passed on between generations and that it has a negative impact on children's wellbeing (as documented through growth parameters.

  5. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status, Family Income, and Measures of Muscular and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Colombian Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Lobelo, Felipe; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Tovar, Gustavo; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Knies, Gundi; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-06-01

    To determine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and physical fitness in a sample of Colombian youth. Prueba SER is cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia. Mass, stature, muscular fitness (standing long-jump, handgrip), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run) were measured in 52?187 schoolchildren 14-16 years of age. Area-level SES was categorized from 1 (very low) to 4 (high) and parent-reported family income was categorized as low, middle, or high. Converting measures into z scores showed stature, muscular, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly (z?=?0.3-0.7) below European values. Children in the mid- and high SES groups jumped significantly further than groups with very low SES. Differences were independent of sex but became nonsignificant when adjusted for anthropometric differences. Participants in the mid-SES and high-SES groups had better handgrip scores when adjusted for body dimension. There were, however, no significant between-group differences in cardiorespiratory fitness, which was strongly clustered by school and significantly greater in students from private schools. Area-level SES is associated with measures of muscular fitness in Colombian schoolchildren. These associations were largely explained by the large differences in body dimensions observed between SES groups. When area-level SES is considered, there was no evidence that family income influenced fitness. The clustering of outcomes reaffirms the potential importance of schools and area-level factors in promoting fitness through opportunities for physical activity. Interventions implemented in schools, can improve academic attainment; a factor likely to be important in promoting the social mobility of children from poorer families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among schoolchildren in Greece: the role of sex, degree of urbanisation and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Hulshof, Toine; Bourhis, Anne-Sophie; Hull, George L J; Dowling, Kirsten G; Kiely, Mairead E; Cashman, Kevin D

    2017-10-01

    The current study was aiming to report the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status among schoolchildren in Greece and investigate the role of sex, urbanisation and seasonality on vitamin D status. A sample of 2386 schoolchildren (9-13 years old) from four distinct prefectures was examined. The prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <30 and <50 nmol/l (vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively) was 5·2 and 52·5 %, respectively. Girls had a higher prevalence of 25(OH)D<30 (7·2 v. 3·2 %) and 50 nmol/l (57·0 v. 48·0 %) than boys (P<0·001). The highest prevalence rates of 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l (9·1 and 73·1 %, respectively) were observed during spring (April to June), whereas the lowest (1·5 and 31·9 %, respectively) during autumn (October to December). The prevalence of 25(OH)D<50 nmol/l was higher in urban/semi-urban than rural regions, particularly during spring months (74·6 v. 47·2 %; P<0·001). Female sex, urban/semi-urban region of residence and spring months were found to increase the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, with the highest OR observed for spring months (7·47; 95 % CI 3·23, 17·3 and 5·14; 95 % CI 3·84, 6·89 for 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l respectively). In conclusion, despite the southerly latitude, the prevalence of low vitamin D status among primary schoolchildren in Greece is comparable to or exceeds the prevalence reported among children and adolescents on a European level. Sub-populations at highest risk are girls in urban/semi-urban areas during spring months, thus indicating the need for effective initiatives to support adequate vitamin D status in these population groups.

  7. Elevated Blood Pressure and Obesity in Childhood: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of 4,609 Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Filla Rosaneli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of obesity in children is increasing worldwide, primarily in urbanized, high-income countries, and hypertension development is a detrimental effect of this phenomenon. Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the prevalence of excess weight and its association with high blood pressure (BP in schoolchildren. Methods: Here 4,609 male and female children, aged 6 to 11 years, from 24 public and private schools in Maringa, Brazil, were evaluated. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI according to cutoff points adjusted for sex and age. Blood pressure (BP levels above 90th percentile for gender, age and height percentile were considered elevated. Results: The prevalence of excess weight among the schoolchildren was 24.5%; 16.9% were overweight, and 7.6% were obese. Sex and socioeconomic characteristics were not associated with elevated BP. In all age groups, systolic and diastolic BP correlated with BMI and waist and hip measurements, but not with waist-hip ratio. The prevalence of elevated BP was 11.2% in eutrophic children, 20.6% in overweight children [odds ratio (OR, 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.61-2.45], and 39.7% in obese children (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.23-6.89. Conclusion: Obese and overweight children had a higher prevalence of elevated BP than normal-weight children. Our data confirm that the growing worldwide epidemic of excess weight and elevated BP in schoolchildren may also be ongoing in Brazil.

  8. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) and noise at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. We evaluated children 7-11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012-2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured noise levels inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas noise was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Perspect

  9. Comparing insecticide-treated bed net use to Plasmodium falciparum infection among schoolchildren living near Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoyo, Collins; Mwandawiro, Charles; Kihara, Jimmy; Simiyu, Elses; Gitonga, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Njenga, Sammy M; Snow, Robert W

    2015-12-22

    Under trial conditions insecticide-treated nets have been shown to provide significant clinical and mortality protection under a range of malaria transmission intensity conditions. There are, however, few operational impact data, notably in very intense transmission conditions. This study, reports on malaria infection among Kenyan schoolchildren living in areas of intense malaria transmission and their reported use of insecticide-treated bed nets. 5188 children in 54 schools were randomly sampled from seven counties surrounding Lake Victoria between May and June 2014. A questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren in classes 2-6 on the use of a long-lasting, insecticide-treated net (LLIN) the night before the survey and provided a single blood sample for a rapid diagnostic test for malaria infection. Analysis of the impact of insecticide-treated net use on malaria prevalence was undertaken using a multivariable, mixed effects, logistic regression at 95% confidence interval (CI), taking into account hierarchical nature of the data and results adjusted for school clusters. The overall prevalence of malaria infection was 48.7%, two-thirds (67.9%) of the children reported using LLIN, 91.3% of the children reported that their households own at least one LLIN and the household LLIN coverage was 2.5 persons per one LLIN. The prevalence of infection showed variation across the counties, with prevalence being highest in Busia (66.9%) and Homabay (51.8%) counties, and lowest in Migori County (29.6%). Generally, malaria parasite prevalence differed between age groups and gender with the highest prevalence occurring in children below 7 years (50.6%) and males (52.2%). Adjusting for county and school, there was a significant reduction in odds of malaria infection among the schoolchildren who reported LLIN use the previous night by 14 % (aOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-0.98, P provide protection against infection among school-aged children.

  10. Prevalence of Immediate-Type Food Allergy in Korean Schoolchildren in 2015: A Nationwide, Population-based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Minji; Lee, Ji Young; Jeon, Hyun-young; Yang, Hea-kyoung; Lee, Kee-Jae; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Yang Hee; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine the prevalence of immediate-type food allergy (FA) among schoolchildren in Korea. Methods A nationwide, cross-sectional study was performed in September 2015. A stratified random sample of 50,000 participants was selected from children and adolescents aged 6-7 years (n=17,500), 9-10 years (n=17,500), 12-13 years (n=7,500), and 15-16 years (n=7,500). Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on the detailed history of immediate-type FA. Results A tota...

  11. Associations between Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation, their food intakes, and cooking skills

    OpenAIRE

    Nozue, Miho; Ishida, Hiromi; Hazano, Sayaka; Nakanishi, Akemi; Yamamoto, Taeko; Abe, Aya; Nishi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine the association of Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation with food intake and cooking skill. SUBJECTS/METHODS We included 1,207 fifth-grade children aged 10-11 years and one parent of each child. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on involvement in at-home meal preparation. Correspondence analysis was used to classify involvement in at-home meal preparation into three groups: food-related activities (...

  12. Food poverty and health among schoolchildren in Ireland: findings from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molcho, Michal; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Kelly, Colette; Friel, Sharon; Kelleher, Cecily

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the relationships between food poverty and food consumption, health and life satisfaction among schoolchildren. Analysis of the 2002 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, a cross-sectional survey that employs a self-completion questionnaire in a nationally representative random sample of school classrooms in the Republic of Ireland. A total of 8424 schoolchildren (aged 10-17 years) from 176 schools, with an 83% response rate from children. Food poverty was found to be similarly distributed among the three social classes (15.3% in the lower social classes, 15.9% in the middle social classes and 14.8% in the higher social classes). It was also found that schoolchildren reporting food poverty are less likely to eat fruits, vegetables and brown bread, odds ratio (OR) from 0.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.87) to 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-0.99); more likely to eat crisps, fried potatoes and hamburgers, OR from 1.20 (95% CI 1.00-1.40) to 1.62 (95% CI 1.39-1.85); and more likely to miss breakfast on weekdays, OR from 1.29 (95% CI 0.33-1.59) to 1.72 (95% CI 1.50-1.95). The risk of somatic and mental symptoms is also increased, OR from 1.48 (95% CI 1.18-1.78) to 2.57 (95% CI 2.33-2.81); as are negative health perceptions, OR from 0.63 (95% CI 0.43-0.83) to 0.52 (95% CI 0.28-0.76) and measures of life dissatisfaction, OR from 1.88 (95% CI 1.64-2.12) to 2.25 (95% CI 2.05-2.45). Similar results were found for life dissatisfaction in an international comparison of 32 countries. All analyses were adjusted for age and social class. Food poverty in schoolchildren is not restricted to those from lower social class families, is associated with a substantial risk to physical and mental health and well-being, and requires the increased attention of policy makers and practitioners.

  13. Relationship between Cardiometabolic Parameters and Elevated Resting and Effort Heart Rate in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Fernanda da; Burgos, Miria Suzana; Silva, Priscila Tatiana da; Burgos, Leandro Tibiriçá; Welser, Letícia; Sehn, Ana Paula; Horta, Jorge André; Mello, Elza Daniel de; Reuter, Cézane Priscila

    2017-09-01

    Little has been studied on heart rate and its relationship with metabolic disorders. To identify possible association between heart rate (HR) and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study evaluated 2.098 subjects, aged between 7 and 17 years. The variables evaluated were: HR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), double-product (DP), myocardial oxygen consumption (mVO2), lipids, glucose and uric acid levels, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The values of HR at rest and effort were divided into quartiles. The association between continuous values of HR and cardiometabolic indicators was tested by linear regression. LDL cholesterol presented a significantly higher mean (p = 0.003) in schoolchildren with resting HR greater or equal to 91 bpm, compared to students with less than 75 bpm. Compared with the quartiles of effort HR, SBP, DBP, glucose and uric acid presented high values when HR was greater or equal than 185 bpm. SBP, glucose and HDL cholesterol demonstrated a significant association with resting HR. Uric acid was observed as a predictor of increased effort HR. Schoolchildren with a higher resting HR have higher mean of LDL cholesterol. For effort HR, there was an increase in blood pressure, glucose and uric acid levels. Uric acid has been shown to be a predictor of elevated effort HR. Pouco se tem estudado sobre frequência cardíaca e suas relações com alterações metabólicas. Verificar se existe associação entre frequência cardíaca e disfunções metabólicas em crianças e adolescentes. Estudo transversal com 2.098 escolares, com idade entre 7 e 17 anos. As variáveis avaliadas foram: frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD) e de pulso (PP), duplo-produto (DP), consumo de oxigênio pelo miocárdio (mVO2), perfil lipídico e glicêmico, níveis de ácido úrico, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e circunferência da cintura

  14. The relationship between unhealthy snacking at school and academic outcomes: a population study in Chilean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Orellana, Yasna; Ivanovic, Daniza

    2015-08-01

    We examined the association between unhealthy snacking at school and academic outcomes in students from the Santiago Metropolitan Region (Chile). Cross-sectional population-based study. We measured the nutritional quality of snacks at school using an FFQ, and accounting for the amounts of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, and academic outcomes using national standardized test scores in Language and Mathematics. Multivariate regression analyses modelled the relationship between unhealthy snacking at school (exposure), potential confounders and performance in Mathematics and Language (outcomes). Random sample of 1073 students (13.1 (SD 2.3) years old) attending public, partially subsidized and private schools. Fifty-six per cent of students ate items at snack time that were high in fat, sugar, salt and energy, and thus were considered to have unhealthy snaking. Thirty-six per cent and 8% were considered to have poor-to-fair and healthy snacking, respectively. Unhealthy snacking significantly lowered the odds of good academic performance in both domains. Students having unhealthy snacks were 56% less likely to pass in Language (fully adjusted OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.23, 0.85) and 66% less likely to pass in Mathematics (fully adjusted OR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.19, 0.64) compared with students having healthy snack items. Schoolchildren eating unhealthy foods at snack time had worse academic performance in Language and Mathematics, as measured by a standardized test. Although association does not imply causation, these findings support the notion that academic and health-related behaviours are linked. More research is needed on the effect of school health programmes on educational outcomes.

  15. [Influence of school health promotion on the life habits of schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado Alsina, D; Muros Molina, J J; Zabala Díaz, M; Dalmau Torres, J M

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, attention has been directed at global theories that attempt to prevent childhood obesity by exposing them to healthy environments. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of health-promoting environments in primary schools in Logroño (La Rioja, Spain) on the habits of school children. The directors of the 31 primary schools in the city completed a questionnaire which examined the health promotion activities of their schools. In addition, anthropometric measurements, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and sedentary and physical activity habits were recorded from a representative sample of 329 schoolchildren in the sixth year of primary education (11-12 year-olds). The majority of schools had developed nutritional and/or physical activity programs (77.4% and 61.3%, respectively); however, teachers had generally not received specific training in that area. Guidelines regarding healthy habits were not formally included in the School Educational Project. Physical activity, which was greater amongst boys (P<.001), was mostly promoted after school hours. The major influences on school children's physical activity and dietary habits of the children were training of teachers, existence of guidelines, and access to sports grounds (P<.05). Although further research is required, this study shows that certain modifiable aspects in the organizational or school environment can influence the habits of school children at a fundamental stage of their development. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Television viewing and snacking behaviors of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, Amanda M; Walters, Scott T; Harris, T Robert; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2009-07-01

    Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition monitoring system, a validated survey with objective measures of height and weight. The sample of 11,594 children in the fourth and eighth grades was weighted to provide data representative of children in Texas public schools. Children were categorized on the basis of self-reported daily television viewing, snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze, by grade level, the differences in the prevalence of overweight by category. Television viewing, frequency of snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television were all positively related to one another. In general, both consuming more snacks and foods advertised on television were associated with reduced odds of overweight regardless of the amount of television watched. The results suggest that the relationships between weekday snacking behaviors and television viewing in a multiethnic population are complicated. When these behaviors are clustered, overweight status may be related more to the number of snacks consumed than to the amount of television watched. To determine the exact relationship, additional research, especially among Hispanic children, is warranted.

  17. Equations based on anthropometry to predict body fat measured by absorptiometry in schoolchildren and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Vega López, A Valeria; Ramos-Ibáñez, Norma; Cázares Lara, L Joana; Medina Gómez, R Joab; Pérez-Salgado, Diana

    To develop and validate equations to estimate the percentage of body fat of children and adolescents from Mexico using anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 601 children and adolescents from Mexico aged 5-19 years. The participants were randomly divided into the following two groups: the development sample (n=398) and the validation sample (n=203). The validity of previously published equations (e.g., Slaughter) was also assessed. The percentage of body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height, weight, waist and arm circumferences, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, and calf), and elbow and bitrochanteric breadth. Linear regression models were estimated with the percentage of body fat as the dependent variable and the anthropometric measurements as the independent variables. Equations were created based on combinations of six to nine anthropometric variables and had coefficients of determination (r 2 ) equal to or higher than 92.4% for boys and 85.8% for girls. In the validation sample, the developed equations had high r 2 values (≥85.6% in boys and ≥78.1% in girls) in all age groups, low standard errors (SE≤3.05% in boys and ≤3.52% in girls), and the intercepts were not different from the origin (p>0.050). Using the previously published equations, the coefficients of determination were lower, and/or the intercepts were different from the origin. The equations developed in this study can be used to assess the percentage of body fat of Mexican schoolchildren and adolescents, as they demonstrate greater validity and lower error compared with previously published equations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Deuterium oxide dilution and body composition in overweight and obese schoolchildren aged 6-9 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell Costa Bila

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To correlate different methods of body composition assessment in overweight or obese schoolchildren, using deuterium oxide (D2O dilution as a reference. METHODS: Percentage of total body water (%TBW, fat free mass (%FFM, and body fat (%BF were assessed by D2O and tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA in 54 obese and overweight students aged 6-9 years. Skinfold thickness (ST, body mass index (BMI, conicity index (CI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and waist-to-hip (WHR ratio were also used. RESULTS: Mean values for body composition were 38.4% ± 8.4% BF, 44.9% ± 6.1% TBW and 61.6% ± 8.4% FFM. There was no significant difference in body weight, body fat mass (FM, TBW, and FFM between genders. Regarding D2O, ST underestimated %BF, and overestimated %FFM in both genders (p < 0.05. BIA overestimated %TBW in the group as a whole and in males (p < 0.05. The only positive and strong correlations occurred in females regarding the WC (s= 0.679, CI (r = 0.634, and WHtR (r = 0.666. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of obese and overweight children, there were strong correlations between body composition measured by D2O and some indices and anthropometric indicators in females, but there was no positive and strong correlation of fat tissue with the indices/indicators at all ages and in both genders.

  19. Association of key foods and beverages with obesity in Australian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanigorski, Andrea M; Bell, A Colin; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2007-02-01

    To examine the pattern of intake of key foods and beverages of children aged 4-12 years and the association with weight status. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to determine the intake of fruit, vegetables, packaged snacks, fast foods and sweetened drinks 'yesterday' and 'usually' as reported by parents/guardians of a representative sample of 2184 children from the Barwon South-Western region of Victoria, Australia. Children who consumed >2-3, >3-4 and >4 servings of fruit juice/drinks 'yesterday' were, respectively, 1.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.2), 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.5) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.5-2.9) times more likely to be overweight/obese compared with those who had no servings of fruit juice/drink 'yesterday', adjusted for age, gender and socio-economic status (SES). Further, children who had > or = 3 servings of soft drink 'yesterday' were 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.9) times more likely to be overweight/obese compared with those who had no servings of soft drink 'yesterday', adjusted for age, gender and SES. In addition, children who 'usually' drank fruit juice/drinks twice or more per day were 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.4) times more likely to be overweight/obese compared with those who drank these beverages once or less per week, adjusted for age, gender and SES. Although fast foods and packaged snacks were regularly eaten, there were no associations between weight status and consumption of these foods. Intake of sweetened beverages was associated with overweight and obesity in this population of Australian schoolchildren and should be a target for intervention programmes aimed at preventing unhealthy weight gain in children.

  20. The ENDORSE study: Research into environmental determinants of obesity related behaviors in Rotterdam schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looij-Jansen Petra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are important target groups for prevention of overweight and obesity as overweight is often developed early in life and tracks into adulthood. Research into behaviors related to overweight (energy balance-related behaviors and the personal and environmental determinants of these behaviors is fundamental to inform prevention interventions. In the Netherlands and in other countries systematic research into environmental determinants of energy balance related behaviors in younger adolescents is largely lacking. This protocol paper describes the design, the components and the methods of the ENDORSE study (Environmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam SchoolchildrEn, that aims to identify important individual and environmental determinants of behaviors related to overweight and obesity and the interactions between these determinants among adolescents. Methods The ENDORSE study is a longitudinal study with a two-year follow-up of a cohort of adolescents aged 12–15 years. Data will be collected at baseline (2005/2006 and at two years follow-up (2007/2008. Outcome measures are body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors, and soft drink, snack and breakfast consumption. The ENDORSE study consists of two phases, first employing qualitative research methods to inform the development of a theoretical framework to examine important energy balance related behaviors and their determinants, and to inform questionnaire development. Subsequently, the hypothetical relationships between behavioral determinants, energy balance related behaviors and BMI will be tested in a quantitative study combining school-based surveys and measurements of anthropometrical characteristics at baseline and two-year follow-up. Discussion The ENDORSE project is a comprehensive longitudinal study that enables investigation of specific environmental and individual determinants of

  1. Sun protective behaviour and sunburn prevalence in primary and secondary schoolchildren in western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Simone; Vuadens, Anne; Levi, Fabio; Bulliard, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Although solar overexposure during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of melanoma, determinants of sunburn and sun protective behaviours of Swiss children have scarcely been explored. We investigated sunburn occurrence and sun protective behaviours of schoolchildren in western Switzerland, the region with the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. Self-reported questionnaires were administered during regular classes to pupils in 5th (primary school, n = 431), 8th and 11th grades (secondary school, n = 837) in the 18 public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess predictors of sunburns and of three sun protective behaviours (sunscreen, shade, wear of covering clothes). Response rate was 91%. Sunburn prevalence over the preceding year was high (60% at least one sunburn, 30% at least two, 43% at least one severe sunburn). Younger age, fair skin, regular sunscreen use, higher sun-related knowledge and preference for a tanned skin were predictors of sunburn. Sunscreen was the most used protective measure (69%), followed by seeking shade (33%) and wearing long-sleeved shirts (32%). Decline in all protective measures was observed in older pupils and those with pro-tan attitudes. The wear of covering clothes was significantly associated with sunscreen use and seeking shade. Parental encouragement favoured sunscreen use and wearing of protective clothes. Sunscreen use as a last protective barrier against ultraviolet radiation should be better emphasised in prevention campaigns targeting children and adolescents. Multi-faceted interventions, including role models, parents and peers should help to improve children's sun protective behaviours.

  2. Environmental supportiveness for physical activity in English schoolchildren: a study using Global Positioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Simon J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that the environment plays a role in influencing physical activity in children and adults. As children have less autonomy in their behavioural choices, neighbourhood environment supportiveness may be an important determinant of their ability to be active. Yet we know rather little about the types of environment that children use for bouts of physical activity. This study uses accelerometery and global positioning system technologies to identify the charactieristics of environments being used for bouts of continuous moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of English schoolchildren. Methods The study used a convenience sample of 100 children from SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people, a cohort of 2064 9–10 year-olds from Norfolk, England, recruited in 2007. Children wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer and a Garmin Forerunner 205 GPS unit over four consecutive days. Accelerometery data points were matched to GPS locations and bouts (5 minutes or more of MVPA were identified. Bout locations were overlaid with a detailed landcover dataset developed in a GIS to identify the types of environment supporting MVPA. Findings are presented using descriptive statistics. Results Boys were also more active than girls, spending an average of 20 (SD 23 versus 11 (SD 15 minutes per day in MVPA bouts. Children who spent more time outside the home were more active (p = 0.002, especially girls and children living in rural locations (both p Conclusion The study has developed a new methodology for the identification of environments in which bouts of continuous physical activity are undertaken. The results highlight the importance of the provision of urban gardens and greenspaces, and the maintenance of safe street environments as places for children to be active.

  3. Recognition of cigarette brand names and logos by primary schoolchildren in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emri, S; Bağci, T; Karakoca, Y; Bariş, E

    1998-01-01

    To assess the smoking behaviour of primary schoolchildren and their ability to recognise brand names and logos of widely advertised cigarettes, compared with other commercial products intended for children. Cross-sectional survey in classroom settings using a questionnaire designed to measure attitudes towards smoking and the recognition of brand names and logos for 16 food, beverage, cigarette, and toothpaste products. Ankara, Turkey. 1093 children (54.6% boys, 44.4% girls) aged 7-13 years (mean = 10, SD = 1), from grades 2-5. The student sample was taken from three primary schools--one school in each of three residential districts representing high, middle, and low income populations. Prevalence of ever-smoking, recognition of brand names and logos. Prevalence of ever-smoking was 11.7% overall (13.9% among boys and 9.1% among girls; p Brand recognition rates ranged from 58.1% for Chee-tos (a food product) to 95.2% for Samsun (a Turkish cigarette brand). Recognition rates for cigarette brand names and logos were 95.2% and 80.8%, respectively, for Samsun; 84.0% and 90.5%, respectively, for Camel; and 92.1% and 69.5%, respectively, for Marlboro. The Camel logo and the Samsun and Marlboro brand names were the most highly recognised of all product logos and brand names tested. The high recognition of cigarette brand names and logos is most likely the result of tobacco advertising and promotion. Our results indicate the need to implement comprehensive tobacco control measures in Turkey.

  4. Bidirectionality and gender differences in emotional disturbance associations with obesity among Taiwanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Huang; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Lo, Yuan-Ting; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with psychological problems, but little is known about its association with emotional disturbance (ED) in the educational setting, especially by gender. In the population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 of children aged 6-13 (n=2283), we have considered whether ED is associated with obesity by gender. Schoolchildren were assessed with the modified scale for assessing emotional disturbance questionnaires. For some subscales, boys and girls had ED associations with obesity which were bidirectional. With normal weight as referent and relevant adjustments, the significant ED subscales predictable by obesity were relationship problems (RP) in boys (odds ratio, OR=1.89 with 95% CI: 1.08-3.30) and inappropriate behavior (IB) in girls (OR=2.88: 95% CI: 1.47-5.61). Conversely, with 'no-specific-ED' as referent, obesity was predictable by fully-adjusted specific-EDs in the same subscales, namely RP in boys (OR=1.88 with 95% CI: 1.13-3.13) and IB in girls (OR=3.03: 95% CI: 1.57-5.85). Child obesity prevalence showed no trend with school grade from 1 to 6, but for aggregate ED and most of its subscales the prevalence increased with grade (P for trend together (for inability-to-learn and unhappiness or depression), there were upward trends with grade (Pboys and girls and during elementary education. This provides some policy direction while mechanisms and causality require elucidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does vitamin A supplementation protect schoolchildren from acquiring soil-transmitted helminthiasis? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sallam, Atiya A; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Moktar, Norhayati; Surin, Johari

    2014-08-15

    Despite the intensive global efforts to control intestinal parasitic infections, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is still very high in many developing countries particularly among children in rural areas. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on STH reinfection. The effect of the supplement was assessed at 3 and 6 months after receiving interventions; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/daily of albendazole tablets. Almost all children (98.6%) were infected with at least one STH species. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection was 67.8%, 95.5% and 13.4%, respectively. Reinfection rates of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm were high; at 6 months, assessment reached 80% of the prevalence reported before treatment. There were no significant differences in the reinfection rates and intensities of STH between vitamin A supplemented-children and those who received placebo at 3 and 6 months (p > 0.05). Vitamin A supplementation showed no protective effect against STH reinfection and this could be due to the high endemicity of STH in this community. Long-term interventions to reduce poverty will help significantly in reducing this continuing problem and there is no doubt that reducing intestinal parasitic infection would have a positive impact on the health, nutrition and education of these children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00936091.

  6. Neurobehavioral effects of exposure to traffic-related air pollution and transportation noise in primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Elise; Fischer, Paul; Janssen, Nicole; Houthuijs, Danny; van Kamp, Irene; Stansfeld, Stephen; Cassee, Flemming

    2012-05-01

    Children living close to roads are exposed to both traffic noise and traffic-related air pollution. There are indications that both exposures affect cognitive functioning. So far, the effects of both exposures have only been investigated separately. To investigate the relationship between air pollution and transportation noise on the cognitive performance of primary schoolchildren in both the home and school setting. Data acquired within RANCH from 553 children (aged 9-11 years) from 24 primary schools were analysed using multilevel modelling with adjustment for a range of socio-economic and life-style factors. Exposure to NO(2) (which is in urban areas an indicator for traffic-related air pollution) at school was statistically significantly associated with a decrease in the memory span length measured during DMST (χ(2)=6.8, df=1, p=0.01). This remained after additional adjustment for transportation noise. Statistically significant associations were observed between road and air traffic noise exposure at school and the number of errors made during the 'arrow' (χ(2)=7.5, df=1, p=0.006) and 'switch' (χ(2)=4.8, df=1, p=0.028) conditions of the SAT. This remained after adjustment for NO(2). No effects of air pollution exposure or transportation noise exposure at home were observed. Combined exposure of air pollution and road traffic noise had a significant effect on the reaction times measured during the SRTT and the 'block' and the 'arrow' conditions of the SAT. Our results provide some support that prolonged exposure to traffic-related air pollution as well as to noise adversely affects cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis and intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Lake Tana Basin, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentie, Tsegaw; Erqou, Sebhat; Gedefaw, Molla; Desta, Almaw

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic diseases are the second most frequent cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lake Tana Basin, northwest Ethiopia, from November 2007 to February 2008, to assess the magnitude and associated risk factors for parasitic diseases, including human fascioliasis. We examined 520 stool samples from randomly selected schoolchildren in six schools by microscopy. Rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques were used to detect and count Fasciola and Schistosoma eggs. The formol-ether concentration method was used for the identification of other helminth eggs, larvae and cysts of protozoan parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 71.3% (95% CI 67.3-75.1%). Hookworm was the predominant intestinal parasite (23.5%, 95% CI 19.8-27.1%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (18.5%, 95% CI 15.2-21.9%) and Schistosoma mansoni (16.7%, 95% CI 13.5-19.9%). One hundred and sixty-three (31.4%) children had multiple parasitic infections. The most relevant finding was a prevalence of Fasciola spp. of 3.3% in an area where only sporadic cases have been reported previously. The risk of Fasciola spp. infection was significantly associated with raw vegetable consumption, use of unsafe drinking water sources, irrigation practices and sheep and/or cattle ownership. Irrigation practices, male gender, raw vegetable consumption and use of unsafe drinking water sources were risk factors for S. mansoni infection. A high prevalence of parasitic infections among children in the region was found, including a relatively high prevalence of Fasciola spp. infection. Epidemiological studies on the magnitude of parasitic infections in different regions will enable high-risk communities to be identified and allow for planning of appropriate interventions.

  8. Physical fitness and anthropometric normative values among Colombian-Indian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeison Alexander Ramos-Sepúlveda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial evidence indicates that children’s physical fitness levels are markers of their lifestyles and their cardio-metabolic health profile and are predictors of the future risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiometabolic disease, skeletal health and mental health. However, fitness reference values for ethnic children and adolescents have not been published in a Latin-American population. Therefore, the aim of the study was to provide sex- and age-specific physical fitness and anthropometric reference standards among Colombian-Indian schoolchildren. Methods A sample of 576 participants (319 boys and 257 girls aged 10 to 17 years old was assessed using the FUPRECOL test battery. Four components of physical fitness were measured: 1 morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (%; 2 musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3 motor component: speed/agility test (4 × 10 m shuttle run; and 4 cardiorespiratory component: course-navette 20 m, shuttle run test and estimation of maximal oxygen consumption by VO2max indirect. Centile smoothed curves for the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 97th percentiles were calculated using Cole’s LMS method. Results Our results show that weight, height and BMI in each age group were higher in boys than in girls. In each groups, age showed a significant effect for BMI and WC. Boys showed better than girls in cardiorespiratory fitness, lower- and upper-limb strength and speed/agility and girls performed better in low back flexibility. Conclusion Our results provide for the first time sex- and age-specific physical fitness and anthropometric reference values for Colombian Nasa Indian children and adolescents aged 10–17.9 years.

  9. Mediation of parental educational level on fruit and vegetable intake among schoolchildren in ten European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Te Velde, Saskia; Petrova, Stefka; Duleva, Vesselka; Krawinkel, Michael; Behrendt, Isabel; Papadaki, Angeliki; Kristjansdottir, Asa; Thorsdottir, Inga; Yngve, Agneta; Lien, Nanna; Lynch, Christel; Ehrenblad, Bettina; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Ribic, Cirila Hlastan; Simčic, Irena; Roos, Eva

    2015-01-01

    To examine which factors act as mediators between parental educational level and children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in ten European countries. Cross-sectional data were collected in ten European countries participating in the PRO GREENS project (2009). Schoolchildren completed a validated FFQ about their daily F&V intake and filled in a questionnaire about availability of F&V at home, parental facilitation of F&V intake, knowledge of recommendations about F&V intake, self-efficacy to eat F&V and liking for F&V. Parental educational level was determined from a questionnaire given to parents. The associations were examined with multilevel mediation analyses. Schools in Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Greece, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. Eleven-year-old children (n 8159, response rate 72%) and their parents. In five of the ten countries, children with higher educated parents were more likely to report eating fruits daily. This association was mainly mediated by knowledge but self-efficacy, liking, availability and facilitation also acted as mediators in some countries. Parents' education was positively associated with their children's daily vegetable intake in seven countries, with knowledge and availability being the strongest mediators and self-efficacy and liking acting as mediators to some degree. Parental educational level correlated positively with children's daily F&V intake in most countries and the pattern of mediation varied among the participating countries. Future intervention studies that endeavour to decrease the educational-level differences in F&V intake should take into account country-specific features in the relevant determinants of F&V intake.

  10. [Varicella vaccine effectiveness in schoolchildren in outbreaks in a semi-urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera-Guirado, F J; Molina-Salas, Y; Pérez-Martín, J J; Ruzafa-Martínez, M

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of the varicella vaccine in school outbreaks during the academic year 2009-2010. Retrospective cohort study in public day-care centers and/or schools in an area in the region of Murcia. Spain. The participants were all children of 1 to 12 years who were in the same classroom where there was an outbreak of varicella. The main measurements were the sociodemographic, clinical and vaccination data, as well as variables related to varicella disease obtained through a questionnaire self-completed by parents, and from the computerized regional immunization registry (VACUSAN). A total of 51 varicella outbreaks were detected, with a median of 3 cases per outbreak at both educational levels. The overall vaccination coverage was 10.7% (95% CI 8.63 to 13.18), always being higher in Spanish schoolchildren versus foreign (OR: 21.21, 95% CI: 2.92 to 153.92, P<.001). Discrepancies were found between the vaccine questionnaire data and vaccination program (kappa=0.50, 95% CI: 0.43 to 0.58, P<.001). According to VACUSAN, the overall attack rate was 59.7 (95% CI: 55.82 to 63.43) in unvaccinated and 6.5 (95% CI: 2.54 to 15.45) in vaccinated children. An overall effectiveness of 89.1% (95% CI: 74.55 to 95.35) and 100% was obtained for 1 and 2 doses of vaccine, respectively. There is a high effectiveness of varicella vaccine, emphasizing that the administration of two doses of vaccine produces an adequate and optimal protection against varicella disease. A discrepancy was found between the information provided by parents and official records. Finally, there was a lower vaccination coverage in the immigrant community. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of rhinitis and associated factors in schoolchildren who live in the Amazon islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marly Sarmanho; de Córdoba Lanza, Fernanda; Monteiro, Julius Caesar Soares; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of rhinitis has been reported to be higher in urban areas. To determine the prevalence of rhinitis in schoolchildren who lived on two islands in the Brazilian Amazon, including a rural island and an urban island, and to identify the associated risk factors. Four hundred children (200 per island) were evaluated by using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood standard written questionnaire (rhinitis module). A convenience sample for both islands was selected based on the age group of the study (5-8 years). The children were assessed for potential risk factors (complementary written questionnaire) identified by logistic regression. The prevalence of active rhinitis was significantly higher in the children who lived on Outeiro Island compared with Combú Island (34.5% versus 18.0%, respectively). The associated risk factors for rhinitis symptoms on Combú Island included parental history of rhinitis (odds ratio [OR] 9.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.1-41.4]) and delivery by caesarean-section (OR 5.2 [95% CI, 1.2-21.9]), and for Outeiro Island included parental history of rhinitis (OR 4.5 [95% CI, 1.7-11.2]) and of asthma (OR 3.8 [95% CI, 1.5-9.8]), nocturnal cough in the previous year (OR 5.8 [95% CI, 2.1-16.0]), breast-feeding (≥6 months) (OR 9.6 [95% CI, 1.1-82.1]), moisture (OR 2.4 [95% CI, 0.9-6.4]), and consumption of fruit juice more than two times a week (OR 4.3 [95% CI, 1.2-15.0]). The different risk factors identified for rhinitis on each island indicated the role of the urban environment in the development of the disease.

  12. Sleep-disordered breathing, behavior, and academic performance in Taiwan schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Hua; Wong, Ruey-Hong; Yang, Hao-Jan; Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Wang, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The behaviors of children may be affected by sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). This study adopts a cross-sectional approach to investigate the relationship between the sleep apneas-hypopneas index during sleep and the behavioral and academic performance of schoolchildren in Taiwan. A total of 138 children (85 boys and 53 girls), ages 6-11, were recruited from two elementary schools to participate in this study. Overnight polysomnographic examinations in hospital were performed to assess sleep quality, including total sleep time, arousal index, apneas-hypopneas index, desaturation index, and lowest oxygen saturation, as well as the percentage of total sleep time spent in rapid eye movement, stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, and stage 4. The children's parents and teachers were required to complete a Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form to assess child behavior and academic achievement. Compared with children without SDB (apneas-hypopneas index ≤1), those with severe SDB (apneas-hypopneas index >15) exhibited more irregular behavioral performance in somatic complaints (odds ratio (OR) = 9.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-85.71) and attention (OR = 9.95; 95% CI = 1.02-97.00). However, different severities of SDB groups did not show significant associations in academic performance. Our study suggests that children with severe SDB may predispose to somatic complaints and attention problems so that sleep examination or medical intervention might be provided at an early age in these children.

  13. [Tuberculin reactivity among ninth-grade schoolchildren in the city of Havana, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto Gutiérrez, Susana M; González Ochoa, Edilberto; Armas Pérez, Luisa; Urbino López-Chávez, Amelia; Martínez, Ana Maribel; Llanes, María Josefa; Sevy Court, José; Carreras Corzo, Libertad

    2003-09-01

    To determine the proportion of 14-year-old schoolchildren in the city of Havana, Cuba, with a positive tuberculin skin test, as an indicator of the prevalence of tuberculosis infection among them. Using single-stage cluster sampling, 1 936 Mantoux (tuberculin) tests were carried out with ninth-grade students (cohort born in 1985) during the 1999- 2000 school year in 20 basic high schools randomly selected in Havana. The tests were performed according to the standard technique recommended by the World Health Organization, and they were read after 72 hours. The percentage of skin tests that were positive and the average diameter of the indurations were calculated for the cohort overall and for the two genders. The means and the percentages were compared using the chi-square test, with 95% confidence intervals. The computer software used was Epi Info version 6.0. Of the tests read, 96% of them were negative (0-4 mm), 2.5% were doubtful (5-9 mm), and 1.5% were positive (>/=10 mm). The percentage of reactivity was 0.1% when a cutoff value of 15 mm was used. The mean diameter of the indurations was 0.41 mm. No statistically significant difference was found between the genders. In this study the proportion of schoolchildren with tuberculin reactivity, using an induration-diameter cutoff point of 10 mm, was very low (1.5%), and it was much lower (0.1%) when a cutoff point of 15 mm was used. The skin reactions with an induration diameter of >/=10 mm could be the expression of a natural infection if one takes into account the low frequency of bacillary tuberculosis in Cuba and that there is an inverse relationship between the time elapsed from the BCG vaccination and the intensity of the response to tuberculin. Therefore, that would mean that in this case (l)the point (.)prevalence of tuberculosis infection in this group of schoolchildren wou d be 1.5% ResumenObjetivos. Determinar la proporción de personas que reaccionan a la tuberculina como indicador de la prevalencia de

  14. Prevalence of high blood pressure and association with obesity in Spanish schoolchildren aged 4-6 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Espinosa, Noelia; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Rivero-Merino, Irene; Lucas-De La Cruz, Lidia; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of high blood pressure in children is increasing worldwide, largely, but not entirely, driven by the concurrent childhood obesity epidemic. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in 4-to-6-year-old Spanish schoolchildren, and to evaluate the association between different blood pressure (BP) components with different adiposity indicators. Cross-sectional study including a sample of 1.604 schoolchildren aged 4-to-6-years belonging to 21 schools from the provinces of Ciudad Real and Cuenca, Spain. We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (%FM), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure. The estimates of prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 12.3% and 18.2%, respectively. In both sexes, adiposity indicators were positively and significantly associated with all BP components (phigh blood pressure in Spanish children. Moreover, high levels of adiposity are associated with high blood pressure in early childhood, which support that it could be related to cardiovascular risk later in life.

  15. Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys in Lake Ziway area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam, Dejene; Legesse, Mengistu; Degarege, Abraham; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2018-02-20

    To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35.7, 26.9, 24.1, 2.1, 2.1, 1.07 and 2.1%, respectively (by Kato-Katz) and 39.3, 36.1, 35.6, 2.9, 10.0, 4.3, and 2.9%, respectively (by formol-ether concentration). Prevalence of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys ranged from 10 to 20%. B. pfeifferi snails were exposed to S. mansoni miracidia from vervet origin, shed cercariae were then used to infect lab-bred albino mice. Adult worms were harvested from the mice 5 weeks post-exposure to cercariae to establish the schistosome life cycle and confirm the infection in the vervet monkeys. The natural infection of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys suggests that the non-human primate is likely to be implicated in the local transmission of schistosomiasis. Further epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to fully elucidate zoonotic role of non-human primate in the area.

  16. Sugar cane burning pollution and respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren in Monte Aprazível, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riguera, Denise; André, Paulo Afonso; Zanetta, Dirce Maria Trevisan

    2011-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to analyze associated factors as well as peak expiratory flow measurements in schoolchildren. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with schoolchildren aged 10-14 from the city of Monte Aprazível (Southeastern Brazil). Questionnaires containing the asthma and rhinitis components of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were administered. The questionnaires also approached sociodemographic characteristics, predisposing factors, and family and personal medical history. Repeated measures of peak expiratory flow in the children, and of black carbon and particulate matter (PM2,5) concentration levels were carried out. The prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms was 11% and 33.2%, respectively. Among asthmatic children, 10.6% presented four or more wheezing attacks in the past 12 months. Past family history of bronchitis and rhinitis was associated with presence of asthma (p=0.002 and p PM2,5 concentration. The prevalence of asthma symptoms is below and that of rhinitis is above the national average. Although within acceptable levels, pollution in the cane trash burn season may contribute to the exacerbation of asthma and rhinitis episodes.

  17. Influence of self-perceived oral health and socioeconomic predictors on the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2011-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic factors and self-rated oral health on children's dental health assistance was assessed. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. A dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index). Data about the use of dental service, socioeconomic status, and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of structured interviews. These associations were assessed using Poisson regression models (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval). The prevalence of regular use of dental service was 47.8%. Children from low socioeconomic backgrounds and those who rated their oral health as "poor" used the service less frequently. The distribution of the kind of oral healthcare assistance used (public/private) varied across socioeconomic groups. The better-off children were less likely to have used the public service. Clinical, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors were strong predictors for the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren.

  18. Use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Tozan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue-related illness is a leading cause of hospitalization and death, particularly among children. Practical, acceptable and affordable measures are urgently needed to protect this age group. Schools where children spend most of their day is proposed as an ideal setting to implement preventive strategies against day-biting Aedes mosquitoes. The use of insecticide-treated school uniforms is a promising strategy currently under investigation. METHODS: Using a decision-analytic model, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue, compared with a "do-nothing" alternative, in schoolchildren from the societal perspective. We explored how the potential economic value of the intervention varied under various scenarios of intervention effectiveness and cost, as well as dengue infection risk in school-aged children, using data specific to Thailand. RESULTS: At an average dengue incidence rate of 5.8% per year in school-aged children, the intervention was cost-effective (ICER≤$16,440 in a variety of scenarios when the intervention cost per child was $5.3 or less and the intervention effectiveness was 50% or higher. In fact, the intervention was cost saving (ICER$16,440. CONCLUSIONS: Our results present the potential economic value of the use of insecticide-treated uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren in a typical dengue endemic setting and highlight the urgent need for additional research on this intervention.

  19. The relationship between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of French schoolchildren aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Recently, school meal composition regulations have been implemented in France in order to improve the nutritional status of children. The present study investigated the link between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years. Second French cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Eating frequencies were assessed for twenty-four food groups with a 7 d food record. Eating locations were recorded for main meals. Food group intakes at weekday lunches were compared for the school canteen and for other locations. The children's overall dietary intake was compared based on school lunch attendance. Mainland France. Schoolchildren aged 3-17 years (n 1068). Lunchtime food intake differed between the school canteen and other locations. Some intakes at school canteens were more in accordance with the regulations (more fruit and vegetables, fish and dairy products, and less sandwiches, soft drinks, chocolate and confectionery), whereas others highlighted needs for improvement (more sweet biscuits and pastries, ice cream and dairy desserts, pizzas and salty pastries). Many of these differences were also observed in the children's overall diet: children regularly attending school lunches ate more mashed fruit, fish and sweet biscuits or pastries, and less sandwiches and soft drinks. The link between school lunch attendance and overall diet was less pronounced in secondary-school children. School canteen attendance is associated with both potentially beneficial and deleterious differences in the lunchtime and overall diets of French children. These findings are important to consider when setting national regulations for school meal composition.

  20. Use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozan, Yesim; Ratanawong, Pitcha; Louis, Valérie R; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Dengue-related illness is a leading cause of hospitalization and death, particularly among children. Practical, acceptable and affordable measures are urgently needed to protect this age group. Schools where children spend most of their day is proposed as an ideal setting to implement preventive strategies against day-biting Aedes mosquitoes. The use of insecticide-treated school uniforms is a promising strategy currently under investigation. Using a decision-analytic model, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the use of insecticide-treated school uniforms for prevention of dengue, compared with a "do-nothing" alternative, in schoolchildren from the societal perspective. We explored how the potential economic value of the intervention varied under various scenarios of intervention effectiveness and cost, as well as dengue infection risk in school-aged children, using data specific to Thailand. At an average dengue incidence rate of 5.8% per year in school-aged children, the intervention was cost-effective (ICER≤$16,440) in a variety of scenarios when the intervention cost per child was $5.3 or less and the intervention effectiveness was 50% or higher. In fact, the intervention was cost saving (ICER$16,440). Our results present the potential economic value of the use of insecticide-treated uniforms for prevention of dengue in schoolchildren in a typical dengue endemic setting and highlight the urgent need for additional research on this intervention.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasite Infection among Schoolchildren in the Peripheral Highland Regions of Huanuco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byungjin; Kim, Bongyoung

    2017-10-01

    Schoolchildren in developing countries are at greater risk of intestinal parasitic infections. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and assess the risk factors of intestinal parasite infection among schoolchildren in rural areas of Peru. A volunteer team from the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) conducted a campaign for parasite eradication called "Chao parasitos" at five schools in the peripheral highland regions of Huanuco in October 2013. The study collected questionnaires and stool samples from children of participating schools. Entamoeba coli , Iodamoeba buschii , and Chilomastix mesnil were classified as nonpathogenic parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection in the students was 100% (185/185). Among them, 25.9% (48/185) were infected only with nonpathogenic parasites whereas 74.1% (137/185) were infected with at least one pathogenic parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly detected (37.3%, 69/185), followed by Giardia lamblia (15.1%, 28/185) and I. buschii (11.9%, 22/185). Among lifestyle practices associated with parasitic infection, the rate of washing hands before meals was significantly lower in the students with pathogenic parasites compared to those with nonpathogenic parasites (77.4%, 106/137 vs. 93.8%, 45/48, p = 0.025). The prevalence of intestinal parasite was 100%. Both personal hygiene and water supply facilities are required to eradicate parasite infection in rural areas of Peru.

  2. Longitudinal evaluation of the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Janice S; Sarracini, Karin L M; Meneghim, Marcelo C; Pereira, Antônio C; Ortega, Edwin M M; Martins, Natália S; Mialhe, Fábio L

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among schoolchildren and the responsiveness of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 ) instrument. Brazilian schoolchildren, 8-10 yr of age, were randomly selected and assigned to two groups--dental caries treatment (DCT) and caries-free (CF)--according to their caries experience [decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth (dmft) and decayed, missing or filled secondary teeth (DMFT) values of ≥ 0]. The CPQ8-10 instrument was administered at baseline and at 4 wk of follow-up (i.e. 4 wk after completion of dental treatment). In the DCT group, increases in CPQ8-10 scores were observed between the baseline and follow-up results. However, longitudinal evaluation of the CF group demonstrated no statistically significant difference in CPQ8-10 scores. Responsiveness of the CPQ8-10 instrument (magnitude of change in CPQ8-10 scores) in the DCT group was greater (effect size >0.7) than in the CF group. The findings of this study show that dental caries treatment has an important impact on OHRQoL of children. The CPQ8-10 was considered an acceptable instrument for longitudinal measurement of changes in OHRQoL. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  3. [Risk indicators associated with the consumption of illicit drugs by schoolchildren in a community in the south of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Zanatta, Fabrício Batistin; Costenaro, Regina Santini; Rangel, Rosiane Filipin; Vidal, Janice; Kruel, Cristina Saling; de Mattos, Karen Mallo

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to identify the risk indicators associated with the consumption of illicit drugs by schoolchildren in public schools in a community in the south of Brazil. This is a non-experimental cross-sectional study conducted with 535 students of primary schoolchildren from six public schools. Data were collected using a questionnaire between October 2011 and March 2012. The results were presented by simple and relative distribution of frequency and odds ratio (OR) and the 95% reliability intervals were calculated to verify the association between the dependent and independent variables. Multivariate analysis was also performed using the question "have you ever used illicit drugs?" Univariate analysis revealed an association between family income, color, period in which the child studied, failure to pass annual tests, use of methods of prevention, smoking habit and knowing someone who uses drugs with the fact of having experimented with the use of illicit drugs. After multivariate analysis, the smoking habit was the only indicator significantly associated with the question of having made use of illicit drugs. The results indicate that the smoking habit is an important indicator of the predictive risk for the use of illicit drugs.

  4. Direct and indirect relationships of physical fitness, weight status, and learning duration to academic performance in Japanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Toru; Morita, Noriteru; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Okita, Koichi; Yamatsu, Koji; Sagawa, Masato

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, using structural equation modelling (SEM), the direct and indirect influence of daily behaviours (i.e. exercise/learning durations), weight status, and physical fitness on academic performance among seventh-grade schoolchildren, after controlling for socioeconomic status. We analysed cross-sectional data from 274 schoolchildren (159 males and 115 females; 12-13 years old). Academic performance was assessed using the total grade points in eight academic subjects. Physical fitness was evaluated using the total score of eight physical fitness tests and weight status using body mass index. The daily behaviours and socioeconomic status were assessed by the questionnaire. The SEM showed an adequate fit to the data (χ 2  = 0.684, p = .710, RMSEA = .000). Physical fitness and learning durations had direct effects on academic performance (β = .301, p academic performance via physical fitness. These findings suggest that, independent of socioeconomic status and learning durations, exercise habits and maintaining healthy weight status may indirectly contribute to academic success via better physical fitness in children.

  5. Twenty-four-hour urinary water-soluble vitamin levels correlate with their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shibata, Katsumi

    2011-02-01

    To examine the association between 24 h urinary water-soluble vitamin levels and their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren. All foods consumed for four consecutive days were recorded accurately by a weighed food record. A single 24 h urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins were measured. An elementary school in Inazawa City, Japan. A total of 114 healthy, free-living, Japanese elementary-school children aged 10-12 years. The urinary level of each water-soluble vitamin was correlated positively to its mean intake in the past 2-4 d (vitamin B1: r = 0·42, P vitamin B2: r = 0·43, P vitamin B6: r = 0·49, P vitamin C: r = 0·39, P vitamin B12 (r = 0·10, P = NS). Estimated mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins calculated using urinary levels and recovery rates were 97-102 % of their 3 d mean intake, except for vitamin B12 (79 %). The results show that urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins, except for vitamin B12, reflected their recent intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren and could be used as a potential biomarker to estimate mean vitamin intake.

  6. Employment among schoolchildren and its associations with adult substance use, psychological well-being, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosua, Ella E; Gray, Andrew R; McGee, Rob; Landhuis, C Erik; Keane, Raewyn; Hancox, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    To examine the association between paid part-time employment among schoolchildren, and adult substance use, psychological well-being, and academic achievement. Longitudinal data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study were used to evaluate the association between employment at each of 11, 13, and 15 years and adult smoking, regular alcohol binge drinking, regular cannabis use, sense of coherence, social participation, positive coping style, prosociality, no formal qualifications, and university degree. Associations were initially assessed using unadjusted regression analyses and then adjusted for the potential childhood confounders intelligence quotient, reading development, Student's Perception of Ability Scale, socioeconomic disadvantage, family climate, harsh parent-child interaction, parental opinion of their child's attitude to school, and child's personal attitude to school. Employment at 11 years of age was associated with a lower odds of adult smoking; the odds of subsequent regular alcohol binge drinking were greater for those who were employed at age 13; and higher adult rates of social participation and prosociality were identified for adolescents who were employed at 15 years of age. When the potential confounders were controlled, employment at age 13 was predictive of both adult smoking and regular binge drinking, and working at 15 years of age was protective against regular cannabis use and associated with greater social participation. There is no consistent evidence that exposing schoolchildren to part-time employment compromised subsequent health, well-being, and education in a developed country. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Micronutrient Fortified Beverage Given at Different Dosing Frequencies Had Limited Impact on Anemia and Micronutrient Status in Filipino Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Magsadia, Clarita R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Lloyd, Beate B.; Hilmers, David C.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a multi-micronutrient fortified juice drink given in different frequencies of consumption on hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of schoolchildren. Hb was measured in 2423 schoolchildren aged 6- to 9-years-old at baseline. All anemic children (n = 246) were randomly allocated into groups: Daily dose (HD: high dose), 5X/week (MD: Moderate Dose), 3X/week (LD: Low Dose) and unfortified (Control). Pre- and post-study measurements of micronutrients were collected from 228 children. At the endpoint, significant Hb increases were observed in all groups, but there was no significant difference between groups. There was a significant reduction in anemia prevalence in all groups from 100% to 36% (Control), 30% (LD), 23% (MD) and 26% (HD). No dose-response effect was observed in Hb in this population. Most likely, this resulted from better than expected micronutrient status and lower than expected severity of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in this cohort. It is unlikely that the addition of a fortified beverage to school feeding programs in this population would have a positive impact. Whether such an intervention would be cost-effective as a preventative approach needs to be assessed. This study demonstrates the importance of targeting such interventions to appropriate populations. PMID:28895887

  8. The Influence of Sweet Taste Perception on Dietary Intake in Relation to Dental Caries and BMI in Saudi Arabian Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Ashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sweet taste perception on dietary habits in Saudi schoolchildren. In addition, the relationship between dietary habits and both caries and BMI was studied. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study comprising 225 schoolchildren aged 13–15 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The consumption frequency of certain food items was analysed from a beverage and snack questionnaire and a three-day estimated dietary record was obtained. The sweet taste perception level was determined as sweet taste threshold (TT and sweet taste preference (TP. Children were grouped into low, medium, and high, according to their sweet taste perception level. ICDAS and DMFS indices were used for caries registration and anthropometric measurements using BMI were collected. Results. Sweet taste perception was found to be negatively correlated to the number of main meals and positively correlated to both snack and sweet intake occasions. Statistically significant differences were found between the TT and TP groups with regard to the number of main meals and sweet intake (p≤0.01. No significant correlation between the dietary variables and caries or BMI was found. Conclusions. The dietary habits and sweet intake were found to be influenced by the sweet taste perception level, while the relation between the dietary habits and the caries and BMI was found insignificant.

  9. Qualitative analysis of the contributions of nutritionists to the development of an online instrument for monitoring the food intake of schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Consumo Alimentar e Atividade Fisica de Escolares (CAAFE) questionnaire is an online research tool that has been developed to enable the self-report of physical activity and diet by Brazilian schoolchildren aged 7–10 years. Formative research was conducted with nutritionists during the developme...

  10. Food insecurity and socioeconomic, food and nutrition profile of schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailane de Souza Aquino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of food insecurity among schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí associated with the socioeconomic profile of families and their food intake and nutritional status. Methods: Study participants were families with children aged 7-10 years enrolled in municipal schools, totaling 342 families/schoolchildren. The study was conducted at school facilities through interviews with mothers - or guardians - using a questionnaire based on the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and socioeconomic variables and food frequency questionnaire. The nutritional status of children was assessed using the following indexes: weight/age, height/age and body mass index/age. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity was high and similar for rural and urban areas, 84.3% and 83.3%, respectively. In general, lower income and consumption of untreated water was associated with greater frequency of food insecurity (p≤0.01. In urban areas, higher percentage of food insecurity was associated to lower educational levels (p≤0.05. Dietary intake and nutritional status of schoolchildren were not associated with food insecurity condition of families. Conclusion: The percentage of families at food insecurity, as well as the food consumption and nutritional status of schoolchildren were similar between urban and rural areas, characterized as a homogeneous population in terms of socioeconomic conditions.

  11. Disparities in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened and Other Beverages by Race/Ethnicity and Obesity Status among United States Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Allison Hedley; Briefel, Ronette; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Crepinsek, Mary Kay

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identify disparities by race/ethnicity and obesity status in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other beverages among United States schoolchildren to help tailor interventions to reduce childhood obesity. Design: Secondary data analysis using beverage intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls and measured height and…

  12. Development of a Moodle Course for Schoolchildren's Table Tennis Learning Based on Competence Motivation Theory: Its Effectiveness in Comparison to Traditional Training Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Junhua; Liu, Qingtang; Yang, Zongkai

    2012-01-01

    Based on Competence Motivation Theory (CMT), a Moodle course for schoolchildren's table tennis learning was developed (The URL is http://www.bssepp.com, and this course allows guest access). The effects of the course on students' knowledge, perceived competence and interest were evaluated through quantitative methods. The sample of the study…

  13. Illegal Alien Schoolchildren: Issues in Estimating State-by-State Costs. Report to the Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives. GAO-04-733

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Nancy R.

    2004-01-01

    To address the potential for estimating the costs of educating illegal alien schoolchildren, this report: identifies major government sources of relevant data; describes a Census Bureau plan for developing new information; and outlines cost-estimation approaches. Data were collected through: a survey of 20 states; outreach through associations of…

  14. The Effect of Smartphone-Delivered Emergency Preparedness Education on Coping Knowledge among Fifth- and Sixth-Grade Elementary Schoolchildren in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Jeong; Cho, Haeryun

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of an intervention on coping knowledge among fifth- and sixth-grade elementary schoolchildren who received smartphone-delivered emergency preparedness education. This was a quasi-experimental study using a pre-/posttest design. Eighty-six children were recruited to participate. The children in the experimental group…

  15. Ready-to-eat cereals are key sources of selected micronutrients among schoolchildren from public and private elementary schools in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, G.; Vossenaar, M.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Doak, C.M.; Solomons, N.W,

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional dietary survey aimed to assess the consumption and relative nutrient contribution of ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) among schoolchildren from 2 social classes in an urban center in the Guatemalan province of Quetzaltenango. A total of 449 24-hour dietary records were collected

  16. The influence of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and home environment factors on schoolchildren's self-perception of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Janice S; Leite, Isabel Cg; Almeida, Anderso B; Ambrosano, Glaucia Mb; Pereira, Antônio C; Mialhe, Fábio L

    2012-01-13

    The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index), dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding), dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI). The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership) and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances. Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p children's self perception of their oral health status, monthly family income, gender, orthodontic treatment need, mother's education, number of siblings, and household overcrowding showed a strong negative effect on oral health-related quality of

  17. Exceptionally low prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in schoolchildren from Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Robert J; Kahawita, Shyalle; Kong, Aimee; Muecke, James; Sisaleumsak, Siphetthavong; Visonnavong, Vithoune

    2012-10-01

    Vientiane Province is an urbanizing region in Southeast Asia. We aimed to determine the prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in primary school-aged children in this region. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. A total of 2899 schoolchildren from Vientiane Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Ten districts from Vientiane were randomly selected and 2 primary schools were randomly selected from each district. All children aged 6 to 11 years at selected schools were eligible to participate. The examination included visual acuity (VA) testing, cycloplegic retinoscopy with subjective refinement if indicated, ocular motility testing, and anterior segment and fundus examinations in visually impaired children. Cycloplegic refraction and VA. There was an estimated total of 3330 children who were eligible to participate, and data were recorded from 2899 (87%) of these children. Complete refractive data were available on 2842 children (85% of eligible population). The mean spherical equivalent (SE) in the right eyes was +0.60 diopter (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.72), and the mean SE in the left eyes was +0.59 (95% CI, 0.50-0.68). The prevalence of hyperopia was 2.8% (95% CI, 1.9-3.7; 88 subjects), and the prevalence of myopia was 0.8% (95% CI, 0.3-1.4; 24 subjects). The majority of children (98%; 95% CI, 97.0-99.0) had normal unaided binocular VA (at least 20/32 in their better eye). The overall prevalence of any visual impairment (presenting VA <20/32 in the better eye) was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.0-2.9; 55 subjects). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (P = 0.001) was a significant predictor, and female gender (P = 0.08) and Yao ethnicity (P = 0.09) were borderline significant predictors of the presence of any visual impairment. Visual impairment is not a public health concern in this primary school-aged population; however, visually impaired children in the community were not studied. From this baseline, future surveys

  18. [Physical activity of schoolchildren in France. The paradox of a public health priority!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinhouya, B C

    2010-08-01

    For their health and an appropriate development, it is recommended that schoolchildren get on a daily basis a minimum of 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). With only about 11% of girls and 25% of boys completing these recommendations, French children are among the least active in the world. In addition, most of them spend almost 3h/day in front of a screen while it is generally suggested to limit children's screen time to less than 2h/day. An inspection of available opportunities in the French context reveals many occasions for sufficient physical activity at school, at home, in the neighbourhood, and during commuting to and from school. Available opportunities which encompass about 245 min/day, could contribute to at least 100 min/day of MVPA to all children, considering sport as a subsidiary and economically constraint opportunity. Moreover, in France there is an interesting legal background and political willpower to promote physical activity in the general population, and especially among children. Several factors may explain the high level of physical inactivity among French children, including the lack of investments for strategies aiming to uphold physical activity when compared to other major risks of diseases such as smoking or alcoholism. Furthermore, there may be a failure of the main actors (e.g., parents, teachers, health, sport and physical activity professionals) directly involved in the promotion of physical activity in children. Given its influence on many dimensions of a child's health, it is necessary that adults' attitudes towards physical activity and sedentary lifestyles change more quickly. It is important to increase awareness of the adult population, in that education/knowledge, role modelling, encouragement and counselling in physical activity undertaken by trained professionals are of paramount value for the integration of physical activity as part of the children's routine. These actions should be based on an

  19. The influence of normative and subjective oral health status on schoolchildren's happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchtenhagen, Simone; Bresolin, Carmela Rampazzo; Tomazoni, Fernanda; da Rosa, Guilherme Nascimento; Del Fabro, Joana Possamai; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2015-01-23

    Traditional methods to measure oral health based on clinical standards are limited because they do not consider psychosocial and functional aspects of oral health. It has been recommended that these measures need to be supplemented by data obtained from patients regarding their individual perceptions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Happiness is a multidimensional construct comprising both emotional and cognitive domains, and has been defined as "the degree to which an individual judges the overall quality of his or her life as a whole favorably". It has been associated with several health outcomes, including oral health. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and socioeconomic factors on the subjective happiness of Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil. The data were collected through dental examinations and structured interviews. The participants underwent an evaluation aimed at detecting dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, malocclusion, and gingival bleeding. They also completed the Brazilian versions of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire-short form (CPQ11-14-ISF: 16) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), which was our outcome variable. Socioeconomic conditions were evaluated through a questionnaire that was completed by the participants' parents. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the association between the explanatory variables and the outcome. Moreover, a correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the SHS scores and the overall and domain scores of the CPQ11-14-ISF: 16. A total of 1,134 children were evaluated. Unadjusted analyses showed that happiness was associated with socioeconomic indicators, the use of dental services, clinical status, and scores on the OHRQoL measure. After adjustment

  20. Evaluation of lower urinary tract dysfunction in Turkish primary schoolchildren: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Selçuk; Yurdakul, Ayşe Çolpan; Zencir, Mehmet; Çördük, Nergül

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to determine the prevalence of voiding dysfunction and its related risk factors in Turkish schoolchildren. A randomly selected, cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered and previously validated questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part included personal demographic and familial information, and the second part included the Dysfunctional Voiding and Incontinence Scoring System (DVISS). The questionnaires were given to 4668 children between 6 and 15 years of age, which were completed by the parents and children together. The children with a score of ≥9 were accepted as having lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). The data were collected from 4016 children (the response rate was 86.0%), including 48.6% boys and 51.4% girls. The mean age was 10.5±2.2 years. The overall frequency of LUTD was 9.3%. While the 6-year-old children had the highest frequency (23.1%) of LUTD, this rate was 7.9% at the age of 10, and the children aged 14 years had the lowest frequency (4.9%), (purinary tract symptoms were significantly more common in girls (7.6%) than in boys (3.2%) only for the older age group (between 12 and 15 years of age). Compared with normal children, those with LUTD (with a score of ≥9) had the following risk factors: less educated parents, a parent that had lower urinary tract symptoms when he or she was a child, more persons per room (≥2 persons), more siblings (≥4 siblings) at home, past medical history of urinary tract infections, and squatting position (in girls). Lower urinary tract problems are one of the most important and ongoing health problems in childhood. Determining the prevalence of lower urinary tract problems in children and their related risk factors is the first step to managing and reducing the number of children suffering from voiding problems. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbial diversity and prevalence of foodborne pathogens in cheap and junk foods consumed by primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Kim, S A; Kang, Y S; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2013-07-01

    Aerobic plate counts (APC), coliforms, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens were tested in 1008 cheap and junk foods, including candies, dried cakes, chewing gum, chocolate, dried and seasoned seafood, ice cream, and sugary foods. APCs were positive for 342 samples (33·9%), and the majority of the counts were 2-3 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) (average: 1·10 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Most samples (97·3%) contained no coliforms (average: 0·07 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Bacillus cereus was detected in 68 samples (average: 0·14 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in 6 and 1 samples, respectively, whereas other foodborne pathogens were not isolated. The highest bacterial counts were associated with dried and seasoned seafood products and dried cakes, suggesting that appropriate regulations of these food types should be considered. Cheap and junk foods were produced mainly in developing countries, but there were no significant differences in the bacterial counts among different countries of origin. The presence of foodborne pathogens may pose a risk for children. These results suggest that there is cause for deeper concern about the safety of these foods and that effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. Food safety is especially important for children, but only limited information is available about the microbiological quality of cheap and junk foods that are consumed frequently by primary schoolchildren (e.g. dried cakes, candies and chocolates). The present study investigated the microbial quality of cheap and junk foods, and our results indicate that these foods are a potential health risk for children, therefore, deeper concern about the safety of these foods and effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. The present study may contribute to the development of an appropriate child food

  2. Nitric oxide airway diffusing capacity and mucosal concentration in asthmatic schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroletti, Christophe; Högman, Marieann; Meriläinen, Pekka; Nordvall, Lennart S; Hedlin, Gunilla; Alving, Kjell

    2003-10-01

    Asthmatic patients show increased concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air (Feno). The diffusing capacity of NO in the airways (Dawno), the NO concentrations in the alveoli and the airway wall, and the maximal airway NO diffusion rate have previously been estimated noninvasively by measuring Feno at different exhalation flow rates in adults. We investigated these variables in 15 asthmatic schoolchildren (8-18 y) and 15 age-matched control subjects, with focus on their relation to exhaled NO at the recommended exhalation flow rate of 0.05 L/s (Feno0.05), age, and volume of the respiratory anatomic dead space. NO was measured on-line by chemiluminescence according to the European Respiratory Society's guidelines, and the NO plateau values at three different exhalation flow rates (11, 99, and 382 mL/s) were incorporated in a two-compartment model for NO diffusion. The NO concentration in the airway wall (p < 0.001), Dawno (p < 0.01), and the maximal airway NO diffusion rate (p < 0.001) were all higher in the asthmatic children than in control children. In contrast, there was no difference in the NO concentration in the alveoli (p = 0.13) between the groups. A positive correlation was seen between the volume of the respiratory anatomic dead space and Feno0.05 (r = 0.68, p < 0.01), the maximal airway NO diffusion rate (r = 0.71, p < 0.01), and Dawno (r = 0.56, p < 0.01) in control children, but not in asthmatic children. Feno0.05 correlated better with Dawno in asthmatic children (r = 0.65, p < 0.01) and with the NO concentration in the airway wall in control subjects (r < 0.77, p < 0.001) than vice versa. We conclude that Feno0.05 increases with increasing volume of the respiratory anatomic dead space in healthy children, suggesting that normal values for Feno0.05 should be related to age or body weight in this age group. Furthermore, the elevated Feno0.05 seen in asthmatic children is related to an increase in both Dawno and NO concentration in the airway

  3. Risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren: the Sydney adolescent vascular and eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amanda N; Morgan, Ian G; Mitchell, Paul; Rose, Kathryn A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. The Sydney Adolescent Vascular and Eye Study (SAVES) was a 5- to 6-year follow-up of the Sydney Myopia Study (SMS). At follow-up, 2103 children were reexamined: 892 (50.5%) from the younger cohort and 1211 (51.5%) from the older cohort. Of these, 863 in the younger cohort and 1196 in the older cohort had complete refraction data. Cycloplegic autorefraction (cyclopentolate 1%; Canon RK-F1; Canon, Tokyo, Japan) was measured at baseline and follow-up. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent refraction of ≤-0.50 diopters (D). Children were classified as having incident myopia if they were nonmyopic at baseline and myopic in either eye at follow-up. A comprehensive questionnaire determined the amount of time children spent outdoors and doing near work per week at baseline, as well as ethnicity, parental myopia, and socioeconomic status. Incident myopia. Children who became myopic spent less time outdoors compared with children who remained nonmyopic (younger cohort, 16.3 vs. 21.0 hours, respectively, Phours, respectively, P=0.001). Children who became myopic performed significantly more near work (19.4 vs. 17.6 hours; P=0.02) in the younger cohort, but not in the older cohort (P=0.06). Children with 1 or 2 parents who were myopic had greater odds of incident myopia (1 parent: odds ratio [OR], 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-5.2; both parents: OR, 3.3, 95% CI, 1.6-6.8) in the younger but not the older cohort. Children of East Asian ethnicity had a higher incidence of myopia compared with children of European Caucasian ethnicity (both Pwork, parental myopia, and ethnicity to the model significantly improved the predictive power (Pwork and parental myopia were additional significant risk factors for myopia only in the younger cohort. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article

  4. Visual impairment and spectacle use in schoolchildren in rural and urban regions in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yin; Liu, Li Juan; Xu, Liang; Lv, Yan Yun; Tang, Ping; Feng, Yi; Meng, Lei; Jonas, Jost B

    2014-01-01

    To determine prevalence and associations of visual impairment and frequency of spectacle use among grade 1 and grade 4 students in Beijing. This school-based, cross-sectional study included 382 grade 1 children (age 6.3 ± 0.5 years) and 299 grade 4 children (age 9.4 ± 0.7 years) who underwent a comprehensive eye examination including visual acuity, noncycloplegic refractometry, and ocular biometry. Presenting visual acuity (mean 0.04 ± 0.17 logMAR) was associated with younger age (p = 0.002), hyperopic refractive error (pvisual impairment (presenting visual acuity ≤20/40 in the better eye) was found in 44 children (prevalence 6.64 ± 1.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.74, 8.54]). Mean best-corrected visual acuity (right eyes -0.02 ± 0.04 logMAR) was associated with more hyperopic refractive error (p = 0.03) and rural region of habitation (pvisual impairment (best-corrected visual acuity ≤20/40 in the better eye) was 2/652 (0.30 ± 0.21% [95% CI 0.00, 0.72]). Undercorrection of refractive error was present in 53 children (7.99 ± 1.05%) and was associated with older age (p = 0.003; B 0.53; OR 1.71 [95% CI 1.20, 2.42]), myopic refractive error (p = 0.001; B -0.72; OR 0.49 [95% CI 0.35, 0.68]), and longer axial length (p = 0.002; B 0.74; OR 2.10 [95% CI 1.32, 3.32]). Spectacle use was reported for 54 children (8.14 ± 1.06%). Mean refractive error of the worse eyes of these children was -2.09 ± 2.88 D (range -7.38 to +7.25 D). Factors associated with presenting visual impairment were older age, myopic refractive error, and higher maternal education level. Despite a prevalence of myopia of 33% in young schoolchildren in Greater Beijing, prevalence of best-corrected visual impairment (0.30% ± 0.21%), presenting visual impairment (6.64% ± 1.0%), and undercorrection of refractive error (7.99% ± 1.05%) were relatively low.

  5. Vertical Jump and Leg Power Normative Data for Colombian Schoolchildren Aged 9-17.9 Years: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Lobelo, Felipe; Cadore, Eduardo L; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-04-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, Correa-Bautista, JE, Lobelo, F, Cadore, EL, Alonso-Martinez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Vertical jump and leg power normative data for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years: the FUPRECOL study. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 990-998, 2017-The aims of the present study were to generate normative vertical jump height and predicted peak power (Ppeak) data for 9- to 17.9-year-olds and to investigate between-sex and age group differences in these measures. This was a cross-sectional study of 7,614 healthy schoolchildren (boys n = 3,258 and girls n = 4,356, mean [SD] age 12.8 [2.3] years). Each participant performed 2 countermovement jumps; jump height was calculated using a Takei 5414 Jump-DF Digital Vertical (Takei Scientific Instruments Co., Ltd.). The highest jump was used for analysis and in the calculation of predicted Ppeak. Centile smoothed curves, percentiles, and tables for the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles were calculated using Cole's LMS (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) method. The 2-way analysis of variance tests showed that maximum jump height (in centimeters) and predicted Ppeak (in watts) were higher in boys than in girls (p jump height and Ppeak in all ages. In boys, the maximum jump height and predicted Ppeak 50th percentile ranged from 24.0 to 38.0 cm and from 845.5 to 3061.6 W, respectively. In girls, the 50th percentile for jump height ranged from 22.3 to 27.0 cm, and the predicted Ppeak was 710.1-2036.4 W. For girls, jump height increased yearly from 9 to 17.9 years old. Our results provide, for the first time, sex- and age-specific vertical jump height and predicted Ppeak reference standards for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years.

  6. Evaluation of oral health-related quality of life among Sudanese schoolchildren using Child-OIDP inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trovik Tordis A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on oral health-related quality of life, in addition to clinical measures, is essential for healthcare policy makers to promote oral health resources and address oral health needs. Objectives This paper aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of Child-OIDP, estimating the prevalence, severity and causes of oral impacts on daily performances in 12-year-old public and private school attendees in Khartoum State and to identify socio-demographic and clinical correlates of oral impacts as assessed by the Child-OIDP inventory. Methods The Child-OIDP questionnaire was translated into Arabic was administered to a representative sample of 1109 schoolchildren in Khartoum state. Clinical measures employed in this study included DMFT index, Gingival index, Plaque index and Dean's index. A food frequency questionnaire was used to study the sugar-sweetened snack consumption. Results The instrument showed acceptable psychometric properties and is considered as a valid, reliable (Cronbach's alpha 0.73 and practical inventory for use in this population. An impact was reported by 54.6% of the schoolchildren. The highest impact was reported on eating (35.5% followed by cleaning (28.3% and the lowest impacts were on speaking (8.6% and social contact (8.7%. Problems which contributed to all eight impacts were toothache, sensitive teeth, exfoliating teeth, swollen gums and bad breath. Toothache was the most frequently associated cause of almost all impacts in both private and public school attendees. After adjusting for confounders in the 3 multiple variable regression models (whole sample, public and private school attendees, active caries maintained a significant association with the whole sample (OR 2.0 95% CI 1.4-2.6 and public school attendees (OR 3.5 95% CI 2.1-5.6, and higher SES was associated with only public school attendees' Child-OIDP (OR 1.9 95% 1.1-3.1. Conclusion This study showed that the

  7. School hygiene and deworming are key protective factors for reduced transmission of soil-transmitted helminths among schoolchildren in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Sanchez, Ana Lourdes

    2014-08-04

    Among many neglected tropical diseases endemic in Honduras, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are of particular importance. However, knowledge gaps remain in terms of risk factors involved in infection transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with STH infections in schoolchildren living in rural Honduras. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Honduran rural schoolchildren in 2011. Demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological data were obtained through a standardized questionnaire and STH infections were determined by the Kato-Katz method. Logistic regression models accounting for school clustering were used to assess putative risk factors for infection. A total of 320 children completed the study. Prevalences for any STH and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were: 72.5%, 30.3%, 66.9% and 15.9%, respectively. A number of risk factors were identified at the individual, household, and school level. Boys were at increased odds of infection with hookworms (OR 2.33, 95% CI = 1.23-4.42). Higher socio-economic status in the family had a protective effect against infections by A. lumbricoides (OR 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65-0.99) and T. trichiura (OR 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63-0.94).Low school hygiene conditions significantly increased the odds for ascariasis (OR 14.85, 95% CI = 7.29-30.24), trichuriasis (OR 7.32, 95% CI = 3.71-14.45), mixed infections (OR 9.02, 95% CI = 4.66-17.46), and ascariasis intensity of infection (OR 3.32, 95% CI = 1.05 -10.52).Children attending schools not providing deworming treatment or that had provided it only once a year were at increased odds of ascariasis (OR 10.40, 95% CI = 4.39-24.65), hookworm (OR 2.92, 95% CI = 1.09-7.85) and mixed infections (OR 10.57, 95% CI = 4.53-24.66). Poverty-reduction strategies will ultimately lead to sustainable control of STH infections in Honduras, but as shorter-term measures, uninterrupted bi

  8. The Development of a Web-Based Program to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in Schoolchildren: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley Ann; Booth, Alison; Khokhar, Durreajam; West, Madeline; Margerison, Claire; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2017-05-31

    Salt intake of schoolchildren in the Australian state of Victoria is high. To protect future cardiovascular health, interventions that seek to reduce the amount of salt in children's diets are required. We sought to develop and pilot test a Web-based program (Digital Education to Limit Salt Intake in the Home [DELISH]) that aims to reduce dietary salt intake among schoolchildren and to improve child and parent knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. This paper presents the DELISH study protocol, along with pilot findings used to inform the development of the program. The DELISH program is a 5-week Web-based intervention that targets schoolchildren aged 7-10 years and their parents. This is a single-arm study with a pretest and posttest design. We will assess change in salt intake through analysis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Children and parents will complete online surveys assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. We will assess feasibility of the program via process measures, which include metrics to describe intervention uptake (eg, number of children who complete Web-based sessions and of parents who view online newsletters) and evaluation surveys and interviews conducted with children, parents, and schoolteachers. The first 2 Web sessions developed for children were pilot tested in 19 children aged 8-12 years. Findings from pilot testing indicated that most children (session 1: 18/19, 95%; and session 2: 19/19, 100%) enjoyed completing each session and liked the inclusion of comic strips and interactive games. Commonly reported areas of improvement related to sessions being text and content heavy. Based on these findings, we simplified sessions and developed 3 additional sessions for use in the DELISH program. The DELISH program was implemented during June-December 2016. We expect to have results from this study at the end of 2017. To our knowledge, this is the first Australian study to examine the

  9. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  10. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  11. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Low-mineral direct drinking water in school may retard height growth and increase dental caries in schoolchildren in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yujing; Wang, Jia; Tan, Yao; Wang, Lingqiao; Lin, Hui; Lan, Lan; Xiong, Yu; Huang, Wei; Shu, Weiqun

    2018-03-16

    Although direct drinking water (DDW) systems that utilize a reverse-osmosis technique are thought to be harmful to children's development by reducing their daily mineral intake, few population data are available regarding this topic. We conducted an eco-epidemiological study to investigate the influence of low-mineral DDW on the development of schoolchildren. We collected developmental parameters of 13,723 girls and 16,161 boys before and after the introduction of DDW systems in 25 schools and measured the mineral levels in the DDW of each school. The DDW in 22 schools had lower-than-recommended levels of magnesium and calcium (magnesium, 10 mg/L and calcium, 20 mg/L, WHO). We found that children exposed to low-mineral DDW exhibited reduced height and diminished height increases as well as higher prevalences and incidences of hypoevolutism and dental caries (p water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Gray, E M

    1985-10-05

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

  14. Impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice on hemoglobin, iron and vitamin A status of Cambodian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR) formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP), on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron......Rice) or unfortified rice (placebo) six days a week for six months. Four additional schools not participating in WFP-SMP were randomly selected as controls. A total of 2440 schoolchildren (6–16 years old) participated in the biochemical study. Hemoglobin, iron status, estimated using inflammation-adjusted ferritin...... and transferrin receptors concentrations, and VA status, assessed using inflammation-adjusted retinol-binding protein concentration, were measured at the baseline, as well as at three and six months. Baseline prevalence of anemia, depleted iron stores, tissue iron deficiency, marginal VA status and VA deficiency...

  15. Trends in prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis symptoms in primary schoolchildren six years apart in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultész, M; Balogh, I; Katona, G; Mezei, G; Hirschberg, A; Gálffy, G

    Few data are available concerning the time trends and risk factors associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in schoolchildren in Hungary. At an interval of six years, parents of 6-12-year-old children completed identical ISAAC-based and additional questionnaires related to possible risk factors. Response rate was 62.8% with 6335 questionnaires distributed in 2007, and 52.9% with 6441 questionnaires in 2013. The prevalence of current AR symptoms (subjects presenting clinical symptoms of AR in the past 12 months, but had yet to be diagnosed by physician) increased significantly from 14.9% to 23.5% (pBudapest. Our results revealed new aspects of bedding customs in atopic families. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of diet and physical activity of brazilian schoolchildren: usability testing of a web-based questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Filipe Ferreira; Schmoelz, Camilie Pacheco; Davies, Vanessa Fernandes; Di Pietro, Patrícia Faria; Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice Altenburg

    2013-08-19

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has been used with increasing frequency for the assessment of diet and physical activity in health surveys. A number of Web-based questionnaires have been developed for children and adolescents. However, their usability characteristics have scarcely been reported, despite their potential importance for improving the feasibility and validity of ICT-based methods. The objective of this study was to describe the usability evaluation of the Consumo Alimentar e Atividade Física de Escolares (CAAFE) questionnaire (Food Consumption and Physical Activity Questionnaire for schoolchildren), a new Web-based survey tool for the self-assessment of diet and physical activity by schoolchildren. A total of 114 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years took part in questionnaire usability testing carried out in computer classrooms at five elementary schools in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. Schoolchildren used a personal computer (PC) equipped with software for recording what is on the computer screen and the children's speech during usability testing. Quantitative and qualitative analyses took into account objective usability metrics such as error counts and time to complete a task. Data on the main difficulties in accomplishing the task and the level of satisfaction expressed by the children were assessed by the observers using a standardized form and interviews with the children. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to summarize both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of the data obtained. The mean time for completing the questionnaire was 13.7 minutes (SD 3.68). Compared to the children in 2nd or 3rd grades, those in 4th or 5th grades spent less time completing the questionnaire (median 12.4 vs 13.3 minutes, P=.022), asked for help less frequently (median 0 vs 1.0 count, P=.005), had a lower error count (median 2.0 vs 8.0 count, Pperformance score (median 73.0 vs 68.0, P=.005). Children with a PC at home

  17. Effect Evaluation of a Randomized Trial to Reduce Infectious Illness and Illness-Related Absenteeism Among Schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denbæk, Anne Maj; Andersen, Anette; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring

    2018-01-01

    -based multi-component intervention to improve hand washing among schoolchildren, the Hi Five study, succeeded in reducing infectious illness and illness-related absenteeism in schools. METHODS: The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 43 randomly selected Danish...... schools; two intervention arms involving 14 schools each, and 15 control schools. Infectious illness days, infectious illness episodes and illness-related absenteeism were estimated in multilevel regressions, based on available cases of text messages answered by parents and based on questionnaire data.......84-1.16)) or in reporting illness-related absenteeism(OR I-arm I : 1.09 (0.83-1.43) & ORI-arm II: 1.06 (0.81-1.40)). CONCLUSIONS: The multi component Hi Five intervention achieved no difference in the number of illness days, illness episodes or illness-related absenteeism among children in intervention schools compared...

  18. Influence of PM1 and PM2.5 on lung function parameters in healthy schoolchildren-a panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwozdziak, A; Sówka, I; Willak-Janc, E; Zwozdziak, J; Kwiecińska, K; Balińska-Miśkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate lung function responses to short-term indoor PM 1 and PM 2.5 concentrations, we conducted a panel study of healthy schoolchildren aged 13-14 years. The following lung function parameters FVC, FEV 1 , PEF, and mid expiratory flows MEF 25 , MEF 50 , and MEF 75 were measured in 141 schoolchildren of the secondary school in Wroclaw, Poland in years 2009-2010. On days when spirometry tests were conducted, simultaneously, PM 1 and PM 2.5 samples were collected inside the school premises. Information about differentiating factors for children including smoking parents, sex, living close to busy streets, dust, mold, and pollen allergies were collected by means of questionnaires. To account for repeated measurements, the method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used. The GEE models for the entire group of children revealed the adverse effects (p < 0.05) of PM 1 and PM 2.5 . Small differences in effects estimates per interquartile range (IQR) of PM 1 and PM 2.5 on MEF 25 (5.1 and 4.8 %), MEF 50 (3.7 and 3.9 %), MEF 75 (3.5 and 3.6 %) and FEV 1 (1.3 and 1.0 %) imply that PM 1 was likely the component of PM 2.5 that might have a principal health effect on these lung function parameters. However, the reduction of FVC and PEF per IQR for PM 2.5 (2.1 and 5.2 %, respectively) was higher than for PM 1 (1.0 and 4.4 %, respectively). Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the unadjusted analysis.

  19. Association of Anthropometric and Lifestyle Parameters with Fitness Levels in Greek Schoolchildren: Results from the EYZHN Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannis Arnaoutis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to evaluate physical fitness (PF and identify its anthropometric and lifestyle determinants in a sample of Greek schoolchildren.MethodsThe study sample consisted of 335,810 schoolchildren (♂: 51.3%, 6–18 years old. Students’ anthropometric parameters and PF levels—assessed via the Eurofit test battery—were measured by trained physical education teachers and evaluated according to the available norms, while their lifestyle habits were assessed through a questionnaire.ResultsIn all applied PF tests, students’ performance was negatively associated with the presence of obesity and central obesity, defined through international criteria for body mass index and waist to height ratio, respectively. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, the presence of overweight/obesity [odds ratio (OR: 4.43, 95% confidence interval (CI: 3.98–4.93], low adherence to the MD (KIDMED ≤ 3 (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09–1.48, and increased time spent in sedentary activities (>2 h per day (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03–1.29 were positively associated with poor PF, after adjusting for age and sex. In contrast, for every 1 day increase in the weekly frequency of engagement in athletic activity, the probability of poor PF decreased by 26% (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.72–0.77. In a similar model, the presence of central obesity emerged as an even stronger possible predictor of poor PF (OR: 5.20, 95% CI: 4.66–5.78, compared to the presence of general obesity.ConclusionHigher general or abdominal adiposity, as well as the adoption of a low-quality diet and a sedentary lifestyle, is strongly associated with low PF levels during childhood.

  20. Association between Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Schoolchildren and Both Prenatal and Postnatal Factors: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Bendo, Cristiane Baccin; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Vale, Miriam Pimenta

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies throughout the world have investigated potential factors involved in the occurrence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH), the findings are varied and inconclusive. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MIH and identify associated prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors among Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8 and 9 years. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a randomly selected population-based sample of 1181 schoolchildren. Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal aspects was obtained through questionnaires. The clinical examination included the investigation of MIH based on the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Dental caries in the permanent dentition and developmental defects of enamel (DDE) on the primary second molars were also recorded. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate tests and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results The prevalence of MIH was 20.4%. MIH was more frequent among children with dental caries in the permanent dentition (PR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.98–3.61), those with DDE on the primary second molars (PR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.87–3.45) and those who experienced asthma/bronchitis in the first four years of life (PR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.45–2.56). Conclusions The prevalence of MIH was high and was associated with dental caries, the presence of DDE on primary second molars and the experience of asthma/bronchitis in early life. These findings could be useful in the identification of children in need of shorter recall intervals to prevent the consequences of MIH, such as enamel breakdown dental caries. PMID:27280451

  1. Association between Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Schoolchildren and Both Prenatal and Postnatal Factors: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fonseca Pádua Gonçalves Tourino

    Full Text Available Although studies throughout the world have investigated potential factors involved in the occurrence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH, the findings are varied and inconclusive.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MIH and identify associated prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors among Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8 and 9 years.A cross-sectional study was conducted with a randomly selected population-based sample of 1181 schoolchildren. Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal aspects was obtained through questionnaires. The clinical examination included the investigation of MIH based on the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Dental caries in the permanent dentition and developmental defects of enamel (DDE on the primary second molars were also recorded. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate tests and Poisson regression with robust variance.The prevalence of MIH was 20.4%. MIH was more frequent among children with dental caries in the permanent dentition (PR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.98-3.61, those with DDE on the primary second molars (PR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.87-3.45 and those who experienced asthma/bronchitis in the first four years of life (PR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.45-2.56.The prevalence of MIH was high and was associated with dental caries, the presence of DDE on primary second molars and the experience of asthma/bronchitis in early life. These findings could be useful in the identification of children in need of shorter recall intervals to prevent the consequences of MIH, such as enamel breakdown dental caries.

  2. Hand Hygiene Intervention Strategies to Reduce Diarrhoea and Respiratory Infections among Schoolchildren in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwani Chingatichifwe Mbakaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective and appropriate hand-washing practice for schoolchildren is important in preventing infectious diseases such as diarrhoea, which is the second most common cause of death among school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the review was to identify hand hygiene intervention strategies to reduce infectious diseases such as diarrhoea and respiratory tract infections among schoolchildren aged 6–12 years in developing countries. Published research articles were searched from databases covering a period from as far back as the creation of the databases to November 2015. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCT/CRCT from developing countries met the inclusion criteria. The Jadad Scale for appraising RCT/CRCT studies revealed methodological challenges in most studies, such that 75% (6/8 were rated as low-quality articles. The review found that hand hygiene can reduce the incidence of diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. Three hand hygiene intervention strategies utilized were training, funding and policy, with training and funding implemented more commonly than policy. These strategies were not only used in isolation but also in combination, and they qualified as multi-level interventions. Factors that influenced hand washing were contextual, psychosocial and technological. Findings can inform school health workers in categorizing and prioritizing activities into viable strategies when implementing multi-level hand-washing interventions. This review also adds to the existing evidence that multi-level hand-washing interventions can reduce the incidence of diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and school absenteeism. Further evidence-based studies are needed with improved methodological rigour in developing countries, to inform policy in this area.

  3. Modeling relationships of achievement motivation and physical fitness with academic performance in Japanese schoolchildren: Moderation by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Toru; Morita, Noriteru; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Okita, Koichi; Sagawa, Masato; Yamatsu, Koji

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study was to determine, using structural equation modeling, the comprehensive relationships of achievement motivation (self-fulfillment achievement motivation [SFAM] and competitive achievement motivation [CAM]), daily behaviors (exercise habits, screen time, and learning duration), body mass index [BMI], and cardiorespiratory fitness [CRF]) with academic performance among schoolchildren. Three hundred twenty-five schoolchildren (172 males and 153 females; 12-13 years old) were recruited. Academic performance was assessed using the total grade points in 8 academic subjects (GP8); CRF using the 20-m shuttle run; and achievement motivation, daily behaviors, and socioeconomic status using questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was included as a control variable. In males, two cascade associations of achievement motivation to GP8 were detected: (1) SFAM → screen time/learning duration → GP8, and (2) CAM → exercise habit → CRF → GP8 (χ 2  = 8.72, p = .19, AGFI = .92). In females, two cascade associations were also detected: (1) SFAM → screen time/learning habit → GP8, and (2) exercise habit → BMI 2  → GP8 (χ 2  = 6.17, p = .41, AGFI = .93). Our results suggest that greater achievement motivation is associated with academic success via various physiological/behavioral factors, and that these associations differ by gender. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Contribution of beverages to energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Vossenaar, Marieke; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2010-04-01

    Beverages are selected based on availability, culture, taste preference, health, safety and social context. Beverages may be important to energy and to the macronutrient and micronutrient quality of overall intake. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of beverages to the dietary energy and estimated macro- and micronutrient intake to the diet of young schoolchildren. We analyzed data from third- and fourth-grade urban Guatemalan school-children aged predominantly 8-10 years old. One-day pictorial registries of all beverages, foods and snacks consumed over a 24-h period were collected from children from private (n = 219) and public (n = 230) schools. Food composition nutrient values were assigned to the items consumed. Eleven main categories of beverages were identified. The contribution of each of the 11 beverage categories to energy, macro- and micronutrients was evaluated. The estimated intake of beverages was 475,300 mL, as reported by the 449 children. As a group, the beverage consumed in the greatest quantity was coffee (126,500 mL), followed by plain water (62,000 mL). Beverages represented a mean energy contribution of 418 +/- 26 kcal (21.5% of total dietary energy). The beverages varied in energy density from 0 (water) to 1.5 kcal mL(-1) (thin gruels). Beverages contributed one-third of the dietary carbohydrate. Through the contribution of fortified drinks, beverages were important sources of vitamin A (55%), vitamin C (38%), zinc (21%) and calcium (19%). Milk was an important source for vitamin D (10%). These results show the importance of drinks to nutrition and the balance of concerns of overweight/obesity with micronutrient quality.

  5. Frequency of food group consumption and risk of allergic disease and sensitization in schoolchildren in urban and rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Zheng, W; Yung, E; Zhong, N; Wong, G W K; Li, J

    2015-12-01

    Diet is a potential determinant of allergic diseases. To examine in schoolchildren the association between food intake and allergic diseases and determine whether there is effect of environment - rural vs. urban. A questionnaire survey was performed in 11 473 children aged 7-12 years in 20 schools from urban Guangzhou and rural Shaoguan, China. A nested case-control group, 402 from Guangzhou and 349 from Shaoguan, was recruited. Food ingestion frequency data were collected. Serum-specific IgE to 34 food and airborne allergens was determined. Associations between food ingestion frequency and clinical outcomes were sought by logistic analyses. The prevalence of self-reported asthma (6.6% vs. 2.5%), rhinitis (23.2% vs. 5.3%) and eczema (34.1% vs. 25.9%) was significantly higher in Guangzhou subjects compared to Shaoguan, whereas prevalence of food hypersensitivity (9.7% vs. 9.2%) and food allergy (4.0% vs. 3.5%) was not significantly different. In this case-control study, seafood and fruits were two major food groups causing food hypersensitivity. Urban children consumed more milk, egg, chocolate, fruits, vegetable and cereals compared to rural children. Significantly higher percentage of Guangzhou children was sensitized to egg and milk, whereas more Shaoguan children were sensitized to seafood, nuts and seeds, fruit, vegetables, legumes and cereals. High consumption of milk (OR 2.604, 95 CI% 1.569-4.322, P food allergy was observed. Diets of schoolchildren are affected by disease-related modification and country's urbanization. High vegetable intake and low milk intake might protect against asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Risk-associated health disorders occuring in junior schoolchildren who attend schools with higher stress and intensity of educational process

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    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed comparative sanitary-hygienic assessment of regime, stress and intensity of educational process in different educational establishments, a comprehensive secondary school and an innovative educational establishment - lyceum. We detected that studying regime tended to be tight, classes were longer and more intense than in an ordinary school, and educational process involved considerable intellectual, sensory and emotional loads for children; such loads reached "1st category intense" level. Schoolchildren attending lyceums are also busy with additional educational programs and it significantly increases length of total educational load on them. By the end of a school year 20% of lyceum pupils suffer from sympathoadrenal system overstress and it doesn't only determine emotional tonus level in children but also leads to disorders in concentration and decision-making speed, lower reading speed and articulation, slower motor reactions. 15% of lyceum pupils have higher activity of autonomous nervous system and lower adaptation of cardiovascular system to psycho emotional and physical loads. Lyceum pupils also run 2.5 times higher risk of chronic nervous system diseases evolvement than school children attending ordinary schools. Autonomous nervous system disorders, posture disorders and nutrition disorders are predominant nosologic pathology forms in lyceum pupils as they occur in them 1.6-2.9 times more frequent than in schoolchildren of the same age who attend an ordinary comprehensive school. We detected direct correlation between higher intellectual and emotional components of educational process, and total educational intensity as well, and frequency of autonomous system disorders and musculoskeletal system diseases in pupils.

  7. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with insulin resistance independently of obesity in primary schoolchildren. The healthy growth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Androutsos, Odysseas; Hulshof, Toine; Dracopoulou, Maria; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis

    2018-04-02

    To explore the associations of vitamin D status and obesity with insulin resistance (IR) in children. A sample of 2282 schoolchildren (9-13 years old) in Greece was examined. Sociodemographic, anthropometric (weight, height), biochemical (fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin and 25(OH)D), pubertal status and physical activity data were collected, using standard methods. The "Vitamin D Standardization Program" protocol was applied to standardize serum 25(OH)D values. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was higher in obese children compared to their over- and normal-weight counterparts (60.5% vs 51.6% and 51%, P = .017). Furthermore, children with IR (both obese and non-obese) had higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency compared to non-obese, non-insulin resistant children (66% and 59.2% vs 49.8%, P < .05), possibly indicating that IR is associated with vitamin D insufficiency, independently of obesity. In line with the above, the results from logistic regression analyses controlled for several potential confounders, showed a 1.48 (95% C.I: 1.2-1.84) higher likelihood for vitamin D insufficiency for insulin resistant children compared to the non-insulin resistant ones, while no significant association was observed with obesity. The present study revealed a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among schoolchildren in Greece, particularly among obese and insulin resistant ones. In addition, it highlighted that the significant association of vitamin D insufficiency with IR is possibly independent of obesity. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm this possible independent association but also explore the potential beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on IR and possibly on weight management too. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION. Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood depression affects the morbidity, mortality and life functions of children. Individual, family and environmental factors have been documented as psychosocial risk factors for childhood depression, especially family violence, which results in inadequate support, low family cohesion and poor communication. This study investigates the association between psychosocial depression factors in low-income schoolchildren and reveals the potential trouble spots, highlighting several forms of violence that take place within the family context. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 464 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 10, selected by random sampling from a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Socio-economic, family and individual variables were investigated on the strength of the caregivers’ information and organized in blocks for analysis. A binary logistic regression model was applied, according to hierarchical blocks. Results The final hierarchical regression analysis showed that the following variables are potential psychosocial factors associated with depression in childhood: average/poor relationship with the father (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.32-7.94), high frequency of victimization by psychological violence (humiliation) (OR 6.13, 95% CI 2.06-18.31), parental divorce (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.14-7.32) and externalizing behavior problems (OR 3.53 IC 1.51-8.23). Conclusions The results point to multiple determinants of depressive behavior in children, as well as the potential contribution of psychological family violence. The study also reveals potential key targets for early intervention, especially for children from highly vulnerable families. PMID:22776354

  9. CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION. Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanci Joviana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood depression affects the morbidity, mortality and life functions of children. Individual, family and environmental factors have been documented as psychosocial risk factors for childhood depression, especially family violence, which results in inadequate support, low family cohesion and poor communication. This study investigates the association between psychosocial depression factors in low-income schoolchildren and reveals the potential trouble spots, highlighting several forms of violence that take place within the family context. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 464 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 10, selected by random sampling from a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Socio-economic, family and individual variables were investigated on the strength of the caregivers’ information and organized in blocks for analysis. A binary logistic regression model was applied, according to hierarchical blocks. Results The final hierarchical regression analysis showed that the following variables are potential psychosocial factors associated with depression in childhood: average/poor relationship with the father (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.32-7.94, high frequency of victimization by psychological violence (humiliation (OR 6.13, 95% CI 2.06-18.31, parental divorce (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.14-7.32 and externalizing behavior problems (OR 3.53 IC 1.51-8.23. Conclusions The results point to multiple determinants of depressive behavior in children, as well as the potential contribution of psychological family violence. The study also reveals potential key targets for early intervention, especially for children from highly vulnerable families.

  10. Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A; Sallam, Atiya A; Ariffin, W A; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Amran, Adel A; Surin, Johari

    2011-10-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren aged 7-12 years living in remote areas in Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia to investigate the potential determinants influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function was measured by intelligence quotient (IQ), while examination scores of selected school subjects were used in assessing educational achievement. Blood samples were collected to assess serum Fe status. All children were screened for soil-transmitted helminthes. Demographic and socio-economic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Almost two-thirds (67·6 %) of the subjects had poor IQ and most of them (72·6 %) had insufficient educational achievement. Output of the stepwise multiple regression model showed that poor IQ was significantly associated with low household income which contributed the most to the regression variance (r2 0·059; P = 0·020). Low maternal education was also identified as a significant predictor of low IQ scores (r2 0·042; P = 0·043). With educational achievement, Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) was the only variable to show significant association (r2 0·025; P = 0·015). In conclusion, the cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren are poor and influenced by household income, maternal education and IDA. Thus, effective and integrated measures to improve the nutritional and socio-economic status of rural children would have a pronounced positive effect on their education.

  11. Development and testing of Schisto and Ladders™, an innovative health educational game for control of schistosomiasis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Cynthia Uchechukwu; Oluwole, Akinola Stephen; Mogaji, Hammed Oladeji; Adeniran, Adebiyi Abdulhakeem; Alabi, Oladimeji Michael; Ekpo, Uwem Friday

    2017-06-28

    Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in many regions of the world, including Nigeria. Current control strategy involves mass drug administration with praziquantel to the endemic population. To complement and sustain on-going preventive chemotherapy, we developed a health educational game named Schisto and Ladders™ and tested its potential for the control of schistosomiasis among schoolchildren living in Imala-Odo, a highly endemic community near Abeokuta, Nigeria. One hundred school children were randomly selected and divided into intervention and control groups through balloting. Their knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) concerning schistosomiasis transmission, control and prevention were assessed using structured questionnaires. Schisto and Ladders™ game were given to the intervention group and the popular Snake and Ladders™ game to the control group. Both games were played for 2 months under the supervision of their class teachers. A post-KAP assessment was carried out in both groups, including focus group discussions (FGDs) to investigate knowledge and the impact of the games. Knowledge about urinary schistosomiasis and its transmission significantly improved (P = 0.000) in the intervention group (68.0%) compared to the control group (8.0%). FGDs showed that the frequency of visits to dam water also significantly reduced (P = 0.048) in the intervention group (18.0%) compared to the control group (40.0%). There was a significant increase in knowledge regarding risk behaviours, prevention and control of schistosomiasis among the intervention group, but no new knowledge gained in the control group. This study demonstrates the potential of the health education game Schisto and Ladders™ for teaching basic health education and promoting behavioural changes among schoolchildren in endemic communities.

  12. Oral health education for schoolchildren: a qualitative study of dental care professionals' view of knowledge and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, E; Ringberg, K; Gabre, P

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and interpret dental professionals' view of knowledge, learning, health promotion and their expectations of and attitudes to the response from schoolchildren. A qualitative study design was used with discourse method. Nine dental hygienists and dental nurses, who have practised oral health education among schoolchildren, described their work in tape-recorded, semi-structured interviews. The discourse method stresses the variation and distinctions in the statements, and to understand the content of the text, its contextual dependence must be taken into account. The preventive discourse could be found in all interviews, but it was concentrated on disease prevention and less on maintaining health. The biomedical view of knowledge dominated. Children's and parent's own responsibility for healthy habits was stressed, but no reflection of ethical considerations associated with influencing people's life-style was found. The text revealed discrepancy between the informants, and even within the same individual, showing ambivalence towards oral health education. Some individuals suggested lessons guided by communication with the children, while others wanted to maintain methods based on information about oral diseases to a greater extent. Different perspectives were found. The expression 'oral health promotion' was frequently used and supported by all the interviewed informants, but the statements did not reveal the informant's definition of the concept. Several educators focused on signs of diseases and less on the individual's view of their own health. In the future, oral health education programme needs to focus on quality of life, behavioural variables and indicators of empowerment rather than just disease outcomes.

  13. Asthma and other allergic diseases among Saudi schoolchildren in Najran: the need for a comprehensive intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Jobran M

    2016-01-01

    In the last three decades, an increasing incidence of allergic diseases has been associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with allergic diseases among Saudi schoolchildren in the southwestern Saudi region of Najran, and to determine the sensitization of patients to a set of allergens. Cross-sectional observational study. Primary, intermediate and secondary schools, Najran, Saudi Arabia. All participants completed the Arabic version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed, using a panel of standardized allergenic extracts. Prevalence and risk factors associated with pediatric allergic diseases. The study included 1700 Saudi schoolchildren. The overall prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis was 27.5%, 6.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.27), fast food consumption (aOR, 1.53), trucks passing near houses (aOR, 1.86), and having a dog or cat at home (aOR, 1.85) were significant risk factors. A total of 722 (42.5%) children had a positive SPT result to at least one allergen. The most prevalent allergens were grass pollens (60%), cat fur (41.6%), and house dust mites (25%). The findings of this study highlight the urgent need for developing an effective interven- tion program including several components working in harmony to control and reduce the burden of allergic diseases. These results may not be generalizable to the rest of Saudi Arabia.

  14. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  15. Development of a geoscience education book with schoolchildren from low STEM engagement areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alex; McAuliffe, Fergus

    2017-04-01

    from low STEM engagement and rural areas, and how the primary audience of the book (7-12 year olds) was directly involved in the content development, character design and "try at home" activities that feature in the book. This was done in two steps: first through a series of workshops led by elementary STEM teaching researchers and trainers, and facilitated by science communicators; and second through a field trip to a local mine where a tour and community debate by the schoolchildren on windfarm development took place. In total, 75,000 books were circulated with the national newspaper, which saw a 6% increase in circulation at the distribution point of sale due to the books. We will also present the evaluation findings, which included focus groups with parents, in-depth interviews with teachers, and national surveys with adults. For example, 93% of parents felt that the Science Apprentice books made their children more interested in science than they were before. The presence of Irish research examples was found to shift the assumption that major scientific discoveries only take place abroad. In this presentation we will also share some critical reflections on the successes and challenges of the programme.

  16. Utilization of food outlets and intake of minimally processed and ultra-processed foods among 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Elizabeth Nappi; Retondario, Anabelle; Alves, Mariane de Almeida; Bricarello, Liliana Paula; Rockenbach, Gabriele; Hinnig, Patrícia de Fragas; Neves, Janaina das; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-03-29

    Access to food retailers is an environmental determinant that influences what people consume. This study aimed to test the association between the use of food outlets and schoolchildren's intake of minimally processed and ultra-processed foods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in public and private schools in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, from September 2012 to June 2013. The sample consisted of randomly selected clusters of schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years, who were attending 30 schools. Parents or guardians provided socioeconomic and demographic data and answered questions about use of food outlets. Dietary intake was surveyed using a dietary recall questionnaire based on the previous day's intake. The foods or food groups were classified according to the level of processing. Negative binomial regression was used for data analysis. We included 2,195 schoolchildren in the study. We found that buying foods from snack bars or fast-food outlets was associated with the intake frequency of ultra-processed foods among 11-14 years old in an adjusted model (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 1.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01;1.23). Use of butchers was associated with the intake frequency of unprocessed/minimally processed foods among children 11-14 years old in the crude model (IRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01;1.22) and in the adjusted model (IRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.06;1.17). Use of butchers was associated with higher intake of unprocessed/minimally processed foods while use of snack bars or fast-food outlets may have a negative impact on schoolchildren's dietary habits.

  17. Effects of a multi-micronutrient-fortified beverage, with and without sugar, on growth and cognition in South African schoolchildren: a randomised, double-blind, controlled intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Taljaard, Christine; Covic, Namukolo M.; Van Graan, Averalda E.; Kruger, Herculina S.; Smuts, Cornelius M.; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Wright, Hattie H.; Jerling, Johann C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of combined micronutrient and sugar consumption on growth and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the effects of micronutrients and sugar, alone and in combination, in a beverage on growth and cognition in schoolchildren. In a 2 £ 2 factorial design, children (n 414, 6–11 years) were randomly allocated to consume beverages containing (1) micronutrients with sugar, (2) micronutrients with a non-nutritive sweetener, (3) no micronutrients w...

  18. Skipping breakfast, overconsumption of soft drinks and screen media: longitudinal analysis of the combined influence on weight development in primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Meike; Lauer, Romy; Kesztyüs, Tibor; Wartha, Olivia; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael; Kesztyüs, Dorothea

    2018-03-16

    Regular breakfast and well-balanced soft drink, and screen media consumption are associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren. The aim of this research is the combined examination of these three parameters as influencing factors for longitudinal weight development in schoolchildren in order to adapt targeted preventive measures. In the course of the Baden-Württemberg Study, Germany, data from direct measurements (baseline (2010) and follow-up (2011)) at schools was available for 1733 primary schoolchildren aged 7.08 ± 0.6 years (50.8% boys). Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken according to ISAK-standards (International Standard for Anthropometric Assessment) by trained staff. Health and lifestyle characteristics of the children and their parents were assessed in questionnaires. A linear mixed effects regression analysis was conducted to examine influences on changes in waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR), weight, and body mass index (BMI) measures. A generalised linear mixed effects regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between breakfast, soft drink and screen media consumption with the prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity at follow-up. According to the regression analyses, skipping breakfast led to increased changes in WHtR, weight and BMI measures. Skipping breakfast and the overconsumption of screen media at baseline led to higher odds of abdominal obesity and overweight at follow-up. No significant association between soft drink consumption and weight development was found. Targeted prevention for healthy weight status and development in primary schoolchildren should aim towards promoting balanced breakfast habits and a reduction in screen media consumption. Future research on soft drink consumption is needed. Health promoting interventions should synergistically involve children, parents, and schools. The Baden-Württemberg Study is registered at the German Clinical

  19. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaznik, Urška; Yngve, Agneta; Eržen, Ivan; Hlastan Ribič, Cirila

    2016-02-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health. Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied. Slovenia, primary schools. Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries. The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8.3 (95% CI 7.7, 10.6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99.9th percentile for daily intake and to 4.5 (95% CI 3.5, 4.7) % of the ARfD at the 99.9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake. The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  20. Factors associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables in schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years of Florianópolis, South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Galego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of the fruit and vegetable intake of schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and analyze the associated factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed food intake, socioeconomic, and biological data of 2,836 schoolchildren. The Chi-square test analyzed the dependent (fruit and vegetable intake and independent variables; the latter with p-value <0.20 were selected for logistic regression analysis. The level of significance was p<0.05. Results: Only 4.8% of the sample had adequate fruit and vegetable intake. The variables associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake were school ownership status (private versus public, mother's education level, and family income per member. After adjustment only family income per capita remained associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion: The fruit and vegetable intake of schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, is inadequate.

  1. Comparative study of physical growth and nutritional status of schoolchildren (1997 and 2009. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n3p216

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenite Machado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical growth and nutritional status are excellent health indicators since they permit the establishment of growth monitoring charts, especially for schoolchildren. The objective of this study was to compare the growth profile and nutritional status of schoolchildren between two samples (1997 and 2009. The data of physical growth and nutritional status obtained for the present sample of 645 schoolchildren (270 boys and 375 girls. The children were classified according to the body mass index (BMI-for-age reference values of the WHO child growth standards. Although no significant differences in height or body weight were observed between the children studied, these variables tended to increase from the first to the second sample and in the two genders. With respect to the adequacy of BMI in boys, there was an increase in the percentage of children with low BMI-for-age, doubling of the percentage of obese children, and a reduction in the percentage of children with overweight. An increase in the number of subjects with low body weight, overweight and obesity and a decrease in the number of subjects with adequate BMI-for-age were noted among girls. In conclusion, there were no significant changes in the physical growth indicators (weight, height and BMI over the period comprising the two samples (1997 and 2009. However, height, body weight and the number of subjects with risk of obesity and obesity tended to increase, especially among girls.

  2. Effect of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified fruit powder beverage on the nutrition status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance of schoolchildren in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Florentino S; Sarol, Jesus N; Bernardo, Allan B I; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Mehansho, Haile; Sanchez-Fermin, Liza E; Wambangco, Lorena S; Juhlin, Kenton D

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage on the micronutrient status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance of schoolchildren. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of schoolchildren assigned to receive either the fortified or nonfortified beverage with or without anthelmintic therapy. Data on hemoglobin level, urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level, physical fitness, and cognitive performance were collected at baseline and at 16 weeks post-intervention. The fortified beverage significantly improved iron status among the subjects that had hemoglobin levels performance (nonverbal mental ability score). The study showed that consumption of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage for 16 weeks had significant effects on iron status, iodine status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance among iron- and/or iodine-deficient Filipino schoolchildren. Anthelmintic therapy improved iron status of anemic children and iodine status of the iron-adequate children at baseline but it had no effect on physical fitness and cognitive performance. The results from the clinical study showed that a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage could play an important role in preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies.

  3. [Nutritional status of schoolchildren of the National Child and Youth Education Teaching Network of the Social Service of Commerce (Sesc), Brazil, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Luiz Antonio Dos; Silveira, Willian Dimas Bezerra da

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and describe the growth and nutritional anthropometric profile of children enrolled in the Sesc National Network of Elementary Education. It is a cross-sectional study conducted among 20,113 students (9,992 girls) from 83 schools aged from 3 to 17. Nutritional status was determined using the body mass index for age and stature for age according to the WHO criteria. Stunting was observed in only 1.6% (girls) and 1.3% (boys). Overweight + obesity was observed in 29.7% of the schoolchildren (27.6% of girls and 32.3% of boys). In the < 5y schoolchildren, BMI was equal to 12.3% (10.9% of girls and 13.2% of boys). In the 5-10y group, the prevalence was 35.3% in girls and 40.1% in boys (37.8% in all). In the 10y+ group, there were 32.5% (girls) and 43.0% (boys), 37.4% overall. The identified prevalences of BMI in all age groups were high and the problem worsens in older children and in boys. These findings corroborate the reported situation in national and international studies and reinforce the need for monitoring and intervening in the nutritional status of schoolchildren.

  4. Criterion validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Schoolchildren (PAQ-S) in assessing physical activity levels: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Y; Androutsos, O; Moschonis, G; Birbilis, M; Maragkopoulou, K; Giannopoulou, A; Argyri, E; Kourlaba, G

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the criterion validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Schoolchildren (PAQ-S). The current study is a subcohort of the Healthy Growth Study, a large-scale cross-sectional study. 202 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years from Greece completed the PAQ-S and wore an accelerometer for 4 consecutive days. Time spent moderate (MPA), moderate to vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity was calculated based on PAQ-S and accelerometer data. The average time spent on MPA and MVPA as derived from PAQ-S and from accelerometers were significantly moderately correlated (r=0.462, PPAQ-S and accelerometer-measured time spent performing VPA (rho=0.150, P=0.057). Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) indicated a moderate agreement between PAQ-S and accelerometer in estimating MPA (ICC=0.592, PPAQ-S, indicate a systematic overestimation of physical activity time with increasing physical activity for PAQ-S. The validity of PAQ-S for the estimation of MPA and MVPA was found to be slightly similar self-reported measures for schoolchildren. Therefore, this questionnaire could be used as a tool for physical activity assessment in large population studies.

  5. Utilization and environmental availability of food outlets and overweight/obesity among schoolchildren in a city in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Elizabeth Nappi; Rossi, Camila Elizandra; das Neves, Janaina; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2018-03-01

    Among the causes of obesity, environmental factors have also been studied, in addition to genetic, social, psychological, and hormonal factors. The distribution of food outlets, facilitating or hindering food acquisition, can promote body weight control by encouraging healthier food habits. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between environmental availability and utilization of food outlets and overweight/obesity in 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren in Florianópolis, in the South of Brazil. A logistic regression analysis identified a positive association between overweight/obesity in 2195 schoolchildren and the presence of restaurants in the vicinity of their homes (buffer = 400 meters). Being a member of a family that utilizes public markets/greengrocers was also positively associated with overweight/obesity in the sample investigated. Identifying the distribution of these establishments in the vicinity of the homes of schoolchildren in middle-income countries is an important element in understanding the role played by the food environment in weight gain in a variety of different settings.

  6. [Chagas disease Control Program in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: serological and entomological aspects of primary school-children surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Esther de; Silva, Rubens Antonio da; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério; Barata, José Maria Soares

    2011-01-01

    Two serological surveys were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of measures put into effect in the State of São Paulo (Brazil) to control Chagas disease vectors. The first one, during the period from 1968 to 1970; the complement fixation reaction was performed on serum samples from school-children resident in all municipalities of the State of São Paulo, with the exception of the Greater São Paulo. The second one, annually, from 1973 to 1983, involving school-children resident in municipalities with high trypanosomiasis prevalence values; the indirect immuno-fluorescence test was performed on filter paper total blood eluates. Data on the occurrence of triatomines and their infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in each municipality formed the basis of insight into the epidemiological situation associated with the school-children's dates of birth. Most positive serological results, as well as the highest proportion of autochthonous cases associated with Triatoma infestans were observed in the region of Sorocaba until the early 1970s, while the proportions of both autochthonous and imported cases were kept in equilibrium elsewhere. It has been inferred that as recently as 1974, vectorial transmission of Chagas disease could still be observed in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that, even rather lacking in coverage, no seropositive cases have been observed in people inhabiting the regions included in the Control Program for the State of São Paulo and now aged less than 15 years.

  7. Distribution of macro- and micronutrient intakes in relation to the meal pattern of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in the city of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossenaar, Marieke; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Kuijper, Lothar D J; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2009-09-01

    Our objective was to assess the distribution of energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes by meal (breakfast, lunch, dinner and combined snacks) in a cross-sectional sample of schoolchildren. Cross-sectional dietary survey in schoolchildren. Twelve private and public schools in the urban setting of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. A total of 449 schoolchildren (from higher and lower socio-economic strata) were enrolled in the study. Each child completed a single, pictorial 24 h prospective diary and a face-to-face interview to check completeness and estimate portion sizes. Estimated daily intakes were examined by mealtime as: (i) absolute intakes; (ii) relative nutrient distribution; and (iii) critical micronutrient density (i.e. nutrient density in relation to the WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes/median age-specific Guatemalan energy requirements). The daily distribution of energy intake was 24% at breakfast, 30% at lunch, 23% at dinner and 23% among snacks. Lunch was also the leading meal for macronutrients, providing 35% of proteins, 27% of fat and 30% of carbohydrate. The distribution of selected micronutrients did not follow the pattern of energy, insofar as lunch provided relatively more vitamin C and Zn, whereas breakfast led in terms of vitamins A and D, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, Ca and Fe. Meal-specific distribution of energy, macro- and micronutrients provides a unique and little used perspective for evaluation of children's habitual intake, and may provide guidance to strategies to improve dietary balance in an era of coexisting energy overnutrition and micronutrient inadequacy.

  8. Self-confidence and level of knowledge after cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in 14 to 18-year-old schoolchildren: A randomised-interventional controlled prospective study in secondary schools in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, Sabine; Schroeder, Daniel C; Ecker, Hannes; Steinhauser, Susanne; Altin, Sibel; Stock, Stephanie; Lechleuthner, Alex; Hohn, Andreas; Böttiger, Bernd W

    2018-01-02

    Education of schoolchildren in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a strategic goal for improvement of bystander CPR in society. The primary objective was to analyse the impact of CPR training on the resuscitation knowledge and self-confidence of secondary schoolchildren. In addition, independent predictors of improved CPR knowledge and self-confidence were investigated. Prospective, randomised-interventional controlled study. Four secondary schools in Germany. Four hundred and twenty-four schoolchildren aged from 14 to 18 years were included into the study. Fifty-one percent were female, and 33% had an immigrant background. The intervention group received a 90-min CPR training session, whereas controls had no intervention. Levels of knowledge and self-confidence in initiating CPR were analysed by a study questionnaire before (t0), 90 min after (t1) and 6 months after training (t2). Based on the evaluation of study questionnaires, the primary endpoint was to determine the development of resuscitation knowledge and self-confidence in initiating cardiopulmonary resuscitation at survey time-points t0, t1 and t2. Schoolchildren in the intervention group (n=207) showed a significantly higher level of knowledge (P CPR training improves the level of knowledge and self-confidence in 14 to 18-year-old schoolchildren. Older schoolchildren are more likely to have increased self-confidence with respect to initiating CPR. Schoolchildren with an immigrant background showed a significantly lower increase in their level of knowledge and self-confidence compared with native children. Adaptation and simplification of teaching materials and further research on educational methods for CPR are urgently needed to enable a sustainable approach to teaching CPR, which also produces a long-lasting effect in the entire population.

  9. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  10. Knowledge, attitude, and practices on intestinal schistosomiasis among primary schoolchildren in the Lake Victoria basin, Rorya District, north-western Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Z. Munisi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally school-age children, adolescents and young adults bear the highest burden of schistosomiasis. When developing a specific intervention to improve community’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs, existing KAPs must be taken into account. Therefore, this study was designed to determine schoolchildren’s KAPs on schistosomiasis in the study area. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages involving 513 schoolchildren. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and to assess KAP on schistosomiasis among primary schoolchildren in the study area. Results Of the 488 interviewed children, 391 (80.12% reported to have heard of schistosomiasis, with the majority 289 (73.91% citing school as the source of this knowledge. Swimming in the lake, worms, witchcraft, and mosquitoes were mentioned to be the cause for intestinal schistosomiasis. Fishing in the lake, drinking unboiled lake water, walking bare footed, and shaking hands were reported to be practices that may lead to contracting schistosomiasis. Only 156 (39.90% of the study respondents reported to know the signs of intestinal schistosomiasis. Avoiding swimming in the lake, drinking unboiled water and eating unwashed fruits were mentioned as preventive measures. Nearly 85% (412 reported understanding that there was a disease known as schistosomiasis; additionally, 419 (85.86% considered schistosomiasis as a dangerous disease and 418 (85.66% believed that schistosomiasis was treatable. Fishermen and schoolchildren were reported to be groups most at risk of schistosomiasis infection. Visiting the lake (for swimming and other gatherings was a common practice among study participants 471 (96.52%.Nearly 93% (451 of participants mentioned using lake water for domestic chores, and, although 407 (84.61% reported to own a toilet at home, only 229 (55.31% reported to always use a toilet for sanitation purposes

  11. Deuterium oxide dilution and body composition in overweight and obese schoolchildren aged 6–9 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell Costa Bila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To correlate different methods of body composition assessment in overweight or obese schoolchildren, using deuterium oxide (D2O dilution as a reference. Methods: Percentage of total body water (%TBW, fat free mass (%FFM, and body fat (%BF were assessed by D2O and tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA in 54 obese and overweight students aged 6–9 years. Skinfold thickness (ST, body mass index (BMI, conicity index (CI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and waist-to-hip (WHR ratio were also used. Results: Mean values for body composition were 38.4% ± 8.4% BF, 44.9% ± 6.1% TBW and 61.6% ± 8.4% FFM. There was no significant difference in body weight, body fat mass (FM, TBW, and FFM between genders. Regarding D2O, ST underestimated %BF, and overestimated %FFM in both genders (p < 0.05. BIA overestimated %TBW in the group as a whole and in males (p < 0.05. The only positive and strong correlations occurred in females regarding the WC (σ = 0.679, CI (r = 0.634, and WHtR (r = 0.666. Conclusions: In this sample of obese and overweight children, there were strong correlations between body composition measured by D2O and some indices and anthropometric indicators in females, but there was no positive and strong correlation of fat tissue with the indices/indicators at all ages and in both genders. Resumo: Objetivo: Correlacionar diferentes métodos para avaliação de composição corporal em escolares diagnosticados com sobrepeso e obesos, utilizando-se como referência a diluição de óxido de deutério (D2O. Métodos: O percentual de água corporal total (%ACT, massa livre de gordura (%MLG e gordura corporal (%GC foram obtidos pelo D2O e bioimpedância elétrica tetrapolar (BIA, em 54 estudantes com sobrepeso e obesos, com idade entre 6-9 anos. O método das dobras cutâneas (DC utilizando-se triciptal e panturrilha, índice de massa corporal (IMC, índice de conicidade (IC, circunfer

  12. Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Coronado Vázquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8 y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3, mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9 tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4 obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2 de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6 de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños (Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8 were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3 were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9 were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4 were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were

  13. The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, S J; Bier, I D; Young, K; Nichols, D; Jansenns, S

    2000-02-01

    Many medical, nutrition, and education professionals have long suspected that poor diet impairs the academic performance of Western schoolchildren; academic performance often improves after improved diet. However, others have suggested that such academic gains may be due to psychologic effects rather than nutrition. To resolve this issue, two independent research teams conducted randomized trials in which children were given placebos or low-dose vitamin-mineral tablets designed to raise nutrient intake to the equivalent of a well-balanced diet. Both teams reported significantly greater gains in nonverbal intelligence among the supplemented groups. The findings were important because of the apparent inadequacy of diet they revealed and the magnitude of the potential for increased intelligence. However, none of the ten subsequent replications, or the two original trials, were without limitations leaving this issue in controversy. To determine if schoolchildren who consume low-dose vitamin-mineral tablets will have a significantly larger increase in nonverbal intelligence than children who consume placebos in a study that overcomes the primary criticisms directed at the previous 12 controlled trials. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using stratified randomization within each teacher's class based on preintervention nonverbal intelligence. Two "working class," primarily Hispanic, elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona, participated in the study. Slightly more than half the teachers in each school distributed the tablets daily to 245 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years. Daily vitamin-mineral supplementation at 50% of the U.S. daily recommended allowance (RDA) for 3 months versus placebo. Post-test nonverbal IQ, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), while controlling for pretest nonverbal IQ as a covariate. FOUR MAIN RESULTS: First, a significant difference of 2.5 IQ points (95% CI: 1.85-3.15) was found between 125 children

  14. Prevalence of Immediate-Type Food Allergy in Korean Schoolchildren in 2015: A Nationwide, Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Lee, Ji Young; Jeon, Hyun Young; Yang, Hea Kyoung; Lee, Kee Jae; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Yang Hee; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of immediate-type food allergy (FA) among schoolchildren in Korea. A nationwide, cross-sectional study was performed in September 2015. A stratified random sample of 50,000 participants was selected from children and adolescents aged 6-7 years (n=17,500), 9-10 years (n=17,500), 12-13 years (n=7,500), and 15-16 years (n=7,500). Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on the detailed history of immediate-type FA. A total of 32,001 (64.0%) responded to the questionnaire survey, and 29,842 children (59.7%) were analyzed after adjusting for missing data. The number of the cases in each age group was 9,671 (6-7 years), 9,756 (9-10 years), 5,169 (12-13 years), and 5,246 (15-16 years). The prevalence of lifetime perceived FA was 15.82%. The prevalence of current immediate-type FA was 4.06% in total, with 3.15% in 6- to 7-year-olds, 4.51% in 9- to 10-year-olds, 4.01% in 12- to 13-year-olds, and 4.49% in 15- to 16-year-olds. Among individual food items, peanut (0.22%) was the most frequent causative food, followed by hen's egg (0.21%), cow's milk (0.18%), and buckwheat (0.13%). Among the food groups, fruits (1.41%), crustaceans (0.84%), tree nuts (0.32%), and fish (0.32%) were the most common offending foods. The prevalence of food-induced anaphylaxis was 0.97%. The most frequent causative food of anaphylaxis was peanut (0.08%), followed by cow's milk (0.07%), buckwheat (0.06%), and hen's egg (0.06%), while fruits (0.28%), crustaceans (0.18%), tree nuts (0.12%), and fish (0.09%) were the most commonly responsible food groups. The prevalence of current immediate-type FA and food-induced anaphylaxis in Korean schoolchildren in 2015 was 4.06% and 0.97%, respectively. Peanuts, cow's milk, hen's egg, fruits, crustaceans, and tree nuts are common allergens. Copyright © 2017 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  15. Knowledge attitudes and practices of grade three primary schoolchildren in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Kimberly C

    2011-06-01

    these diseases (p = 0.001 and p = 0.042, respectively. Report that participant had blood in urine on the day of examination was a significant predictor of schistosomiasis (p = 0.045. Conclusion There is a critical need for targeting health messages through schools in order to reach the most susceptible schoolchildren. This will empower the schoolchildren with the basic knowledge and skills ultimately protecting them from acquiring schistosomiasis, STHs and malaria.

  16. Role of the employment status and education of mothers in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Mexican rural schoolchildren

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    Hagan Paul

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are a public health problem in developing countries such as Mexico. As a result, two governmental programmes have been implemented: a "National Deworming Campaign" and b "Opportunities" aimed at maternal care. However, both programmes are developed separately and their impact is still unknown. We independently investigated whether a variety of socio-economic factors, including maternal education and employment levels, were associated with intestinal parasite infection in rural school children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 rural communities in two Mexican states. The study sites and populations were selected on the basis of the following traits: a presence of activities by the national administration of albendazole, b high rates of intestinal parasitism, c little access to medical examination, and d a population having less than 2,500 inhabitants. A total of 507 schoolchildren (mean age 8.2 years were recruited and 1,521 stool samples collected (3 per child. Socio-economic information was obtained by an oral questionnaire. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators and intestinal parasitism. Results More than half of the schoolchildren showed poliparasitism (52% and protozoan infections (65%. The prevalence of helminth infections was higher in children from Oaxaca (53% than in those from Sinaloa (33% (p Giardia duodenalis and Hymenolepis nana showed a high prevalence in both states. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar showed low prevalence. Children from lower-income families and with unemployed and less educated mothers showed higher risk of intestinal parasitism (odds ratio (OR 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.6–22.6; OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.5–8.2; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–7.4 respectively. Defecation in open areas was also a high risk factor for infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0–3

  17. Investigation of the C-3-epi-25(OH)D3 of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in urban schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Samantha E; Van Rompay, Maria I; Gordon, Catherine M; Goodman, Elizabeth; Eliasziw, Misha; Holick, Michael F; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2018-03-01

    The physiological relevance C-3 epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (3-epi-25(OH)D) is not well understood among youth. The objective of this study was to assess whether demographic/physiologic characteristics were associated with 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 concentrations in youth. Associations between 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 and demographics and between 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 , total 25-hydroxyvitamin (25(OH)D) (25(OH)D 2 + 25(OH)D 3 ), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides were examined in racially/ethnically diverse schoolchildren (n = 682; age, 8-15 years) at Boston-area urban schools. Approximately 50% of participants had detectable 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 (range 0.95-3.95 ng/mL). The percentage of 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 of total 25(OH)D ranged from 2.5% to 17.0% (median 5.5%). Males were 38% more likely than females to have detectable 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 concentrations. Both Asian and black race/ethnicity were associated with lower odds of having detectable 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 compared with non-Hispanic white children (Asian vs. white, odds ratio (OR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.53; black vs. white, OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.23-0.63, p 30 ng/mL) 25(OH)D concentration was associated with higher odds of having detectable 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 than having an inadequate (<20 ng/mL) concentration (OR 4.78, 95%CI 3.23-6.94 or OR 14.10, 95%CI 7.10-28.0, respectively). There was no association between 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 and blood lipids. However, when considering 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 as a percentage of total 25(OH)D, total cholesterol was lower in children with percent 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 above the median (mean difference -7.1 mg/dL, p = 0.01). In conclusion, among schoolchildren, sex, race/ethnicity, and total serum 25(OH)D concentration is differentially associated with 3-epi-25(OH)D. The physiological relevance of 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 may be related to the 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 as a percentage of total 25(OH)D and should be considered in future investigations.

  18. [Hygienic assessment of the overwroughtness of educational activity in schoolchildren of 5-10 classes of secondary schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R; Efimova, N V; Tkachuk, E A; Mylnikova, I V

    2016-01-01

    The state of health in children and adolescents during the time of education in secondary schools is getting worse: the prevalence rate of functional disorders and chronic diseases is increasing. There was executed the assessment of the overwroughtness of the training-education process in secondary school institutions. The prior characteristics of the educational activity are: intellectual, sensory, emotional loads; their monotony and mode of educational activity, school work intensity. The system of indices of the overwroughtness of the education labour was formed with account ofpsycho-physiological characteristics of children's organism. There was performed the research of the overwroughtness of educational activity in 820 schoolchildren. The overwroughtness of the educational process was evaluated on the basis of chronometry research, questionnaire survey of teachers and parents, and with taking into account the organization of educational process. In questionnaire survey there were involved 52 teachers and 389 parents. The assessment of overwroughtness factors of the educational activity was carried out in 5-10th classes for academic disciplines: Russian Language, Literature, Mathematics, History, Geography, Foreign Languages. It was found that the characteristics of "mental load" in schoolchildren are established to be the one of the main limiting factors that allow to refer training activities to "overwroughted of first degree" (3.1 class). Sensory loads on the studied academic subjects are rated as the second class of overwroughtness and are "permissible." The monotony of loads was revealed to correspond to 1st and 2nd class of overwroughtness and is therefore an optimal or acceptable. Training activities in the traditional educational institution corresponds to the 2nd class of overwroughtness - "permissible." The arduousness of the educational process in an innovative school is rated as the third class of the first degree ofthe overwroughtness (3

  19. Association between treated/untreated traumatic dental injuries and impact on quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren

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    Pordeus Isabela A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic dental injury (TDI could have physical and psychosocial consequences for children. Thus, it is important to measure the impact of TDI on the quality of life of children (QoL. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between treated/untreated TDI and the impact on the quality of life of 11-to-14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 1612 male and female schoolchildren aged 11 to 14 years attending public and private elementary schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select the children. Three calibrated examiners used the Andreasen classification for the diagnosis of TDI. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 - Impact Short Form (ISF:16, composed of 16 items and self-administered by all children. Other oral conditions (dental caries and malocclusion and the Social Vulnerability Index were determined and used as controlling variables. Results Two hundred nineteen children were diagnosed with untreated TDI and 64 were diagnosed with treated TDI. There were no statistically significant associations between untreated or treated TDI and overall CPQ11-14 (Fisher = 0.368 and Fisher = 0.610, respectively. Children with an untreated TDI were 1.4-fold (95% CI = 1.1-2.1 more likely to report impact on the item "avoided smiling/laughing" than those without TDI, whereas children with a treated TDI were twofold (95% CI = 1.1-3.5 more likely to report impact on the item "other children asked questions" than those without TDI. Conclusions Neither treated nor untreated TDI was associated with oral symptoms, functional limitations or emotional wellbeing. However, children with a TDI in the anterior teeth experienced a negative impact on social wellbeing, mainly with regard to avoiding smiling or laughing and being

  20. Growth, lung function, and physical activity in schoolchildren who were very-low-birth-weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, Aline Dill; Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Schumann, Deise; Zatti, Helen; Mattiello, Rita; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Stein, Renato Tetelbom

    2016-01-01

    To compare somatic growth, lung function, and level of physical activity in schoolchildren who had been very-low-birth-weight preterm infants (VLBWPIs) or normal-birth-weight full-term infants. We recruited two groups of schoolchildren between 8 and 11 years of age residing in the study catchment area: those who had been VLBWPIs (birth weight prematuros com muito baixo peso e escolares nascidos a termo e com peso adequado. Foram recrutados escolares com idade de 8 a 11 anos residentes na mesma área de abrangência do estudo: prematuros e com peso < 1.500 g e controles (nascidos a termo e com peso ≥ 2.500 g). Foram obtidas medidas antropométricas e espirométricas e aplicado um questionário sobre a atividade física. Além disso, foram coletadas informações do período perinatal/neonatal dos recém-nascidos com muito baixo peso (RNMBP) de seus prontuários médicos. Dos 93 escolares avaliados, 48 crianças no grupo RNMBP e 45 no grupo controle. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação às características antropométricas e nutricionais ou aos parâmetros de função pulmonar. Não foram encontradas associações entre as variáveis perinatais/neonatais e parâmetros da função pulmonar dos escolares no grupo RNMBP. Embora sem diferença significativa em relação aos níveis de atividade física, o grupo RNMBP apresentou uma tendência de ser mais ativo que o grupo controle. Nos escolares aqui estudados o crescimento e a função pulmonar parecem não ser afetados por prematuridade, peso ao nascimento ou nível de atividade física.

  1. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given ener