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Sample records for school-based prevention programs

  1. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

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    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  2. A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.

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    Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program

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    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a school-based pediatric obesity program for elementary children. Children (n = 782) were between the ages of 7 and 9 and in the 2nd grade. A total of 323 (189 males) children who exceeded the 85th percentile for BMI were randomized into an integrated health...

  4. [Effectiveness of a school-based program to prevent obesity].

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    Pérez Solís, D; Díaz Martín, J J; Álvarez Caro, F; Suárez Tomás, I; Suárez Menéndez, E; Riaño Galán, I

    2015-07-01

    Intervention for childhood obesity is a public health priority. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an elementary school-based intervention against obesity in children. Non-randomised controlled trial was conducted on children from first to fifth grade from two public schools of Avilés (Spain). The intervention lasted for 2 school years comprising healthy diet workshops, educational chats, educational meetings, informative written material, and promotion of physical activities. Primary outcome measure was body mass index z-score. Secondary outcomes included: obesity and overweight prevalence, waist circumference, dietary habits, and physical activity. A total of 382 (177 girls, 205 boys) out of 526 pupils of both schools were included in the study. Complete anthropometric data were obtained in 340 of the 382 individuals. Compared to children in control group, those in intervention group decreased body mass index z-score from 1.14 to 1.02 (P=.017), and improved KIDMED score from 7.33 to 7.71 points (P=.045). The percentage of students who carried on an optimal diet increased from 42.6% to 52.3% (P=.021). There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, or in waist circumference between the intervention and control groups. This school-based program resulted in modest beneficial changes in body mass index and diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

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    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…

  6. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior

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    Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

  7. School-based smoking prevention programs with the promise of long-term effects

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    Flay Brian R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be.

  8. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

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    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  9. Adolescents' responses to a school-based prevention program promoting healthy eating at school

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    Hermans, R.C.J.; Bruin, H. de; Larsen, J.K.; Mensink, F.; Hoek, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programs, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. The present study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a

  10. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity injury prevention program

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    Collard, D.C.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Knol, D.L.; van Mechelen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of a school-based injury prevention program on physical activity injury incidence and severity. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial performed from January 1, 2006, through July 31, 2007. Setting: Forty Dutch primary schools. Participants: Atotal of 2210

  11. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

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    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  12. [Effect of school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program].

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    Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.

  13. Community-level Moderators of a School-Based Childhood Sexual Assault Prevention Program

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    Morris, Matthew C.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Last program compared to a waitlist control condition. Knowledge gains from pre- to post-interv...

  14. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

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    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  15. A national survey of school-based, adolescent suicide prevention programs.

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    Garland, A; Shaffer, D; Whittle, B

    1989-11-01

    A national survey of suicide prevention programs was conducted to determine the number, distribution and content of school-based, curriculum programs for adolescents. One hundred fifteen programs were identified. The total number of students and schools targeted for prevention efforts more than doubled during the academic years 1984/1985 to 1986/1987. Content of the programs was similar, with nearly all including information on suicide warning signs and other facts, as well as on accessing community mental health resources. Most included a separate component for school staff and parents. Ninety-five percent subscribed to the view that suicide is most commonly a response to extreme stress or pressure and could happen to anyone. Possible negative implications of this "stress model" of suicide were discussed. While this survey plays an important first step in providing a description of these programs, more evaluative research is needed to determine what effect, if any, these programs have on suicidal behavior.

  16. The Fourth R: A School-Based Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention Program

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    David A. Wolfe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.

  17. School-based internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents: a systematic literature review.

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    Whittemore, Robin; Chao, Ariana; Popick, Rachel; Grey, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    In response to the childhood obesity epidemic, numerous studies on school-based Internet obesity prevention interventions have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and evaluate the research on school-based Internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Medline, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched from January 1995 to August 2012 to locate relevant studies. Ninety-one reports were initially identified, with 12 meeting the inclusion criteria. Studies had variable control groups, program content, and sample characteristics. Though few authors reported on implementation processes or body mass index (BMI) outcomes, the majority of studies were effective in improving health behaviors in the short term. Most studies were judged to have a high or unclear risk of bias in at least two domains, thus the quality of evidence for this body of literature is moderate. Further research is needed to examine programs of longer duration, optimal dose and timing of programs, cost-effectiveness, and mediators and moderators of intervention outcomes.

  18. An ecological and theoretical deconstruction of a school-based obesity prevention program in Mexico.

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    Safdie, Margarita; Cargo, Margaret; Richard, Lucie; Lévesque, Lucie

    2014-08-10

    Ecological intervention programs are recommended to prevent overweight and obesity in children. The National Institute of Public Health (INSP) in Mexico implemented a successful ecological intervention program to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in school age children. This study assessed the integration of ecological principles and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs in this effective school-based obesity prevention program implemented in 15 elementary schools in Mexico City. Two coders applied the Intervention Analysis Procedure (IAP) to "map" the program's integration of ecological principles. A checklist gauged the use of SCT theory in program activities. Thirty-two distinct intervention strategies were implemented in one setting (i.e., school) to engage four different target-groups (students, parents, school representatives, government) across two domains (Nutrition and Physical Activity). Overall, 47.5% of the strategies targeted the school infrastructure and/or personnel; 37.5% of strategies targeted a key political actor, the Public Education Secretariat while fewer strategies targeted parents (12.5%) and children (3%). More strategies were implemented in the Nutrition domain (69%) than Physical Activity (31%). The most frequently used SCT construct within both intervention domains was Reciprocal Determinism (e.g., where changes to the environment influence changes in behavior and these behavioral changes influence further changes to the environment); no significant differences were observed in the use of SCT constructs across domains. Findings provide insight into a promising combination of strategies and theoretical constructs that can be used to implement a school-based obesity prevention program. Strategies emphasized school-level infrastructure/personnel change and strong political engagement and were most commonly underpinned by Reciprocal Determinism for both Nutrition and Physical Activity.

  19. Adolescents’ Responses to a School-Based Prevention Program Promoting Healthy Eating at School

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    Roel C. J. Hermans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo improve the effectiveness of school-based programs that aim to promote adolescents’ healthy food choices, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. This study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents’ food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a specific school-based prevention program, i.e., the Dutch “Healthy School Canteen Program.”MethodsThis study used a mixed-methods research design. First, seven semi-structured focus groups were conducted using a selective sample of 42 Dutch adolescents (25 girls, 17 boys, aged 13–16 years. Second, an online survey among 133 adolescent respondents (72 girls, 61 boys, aged 12–19 years using snowball sampling was conducted. Content analysis was performed to make inferences about the focus group discussions, whereas statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data.ResultsFindings from the group discussions indicated that healthy eating was only an issue of importance when adolescents perceived negative physical changes (e.g., with regard to looks or physical performance. Adolescents also indicated that they clearly wanted to make their own food and beverage choices at school. The quantitative data indicated that taste, price, and variety were seen as the most important aspects of a healthy food assortment (mean scores 8.1, 7.8, and 7.7 on a 10-point scale, respectively. In general, a majority of the adolescents (64% expressed that students should be involved in the organization of a healthy food environment in schools. At the same time, however, adolescents were not willing to participate themselves. This was mostly because they were skeptical about their ideas being heard and put into action by their schools.ConclusionSchool-based prevention programs, such as the Healthy School Program, should take into account that adolescents have a low risk perception of unhealthy eating and are seeking food

  20. Community-level moderators of a school-based childhood sexual assault prevention program.

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    Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Lastprogramcomparedtoawaitlistcontrolcondition.(*) Knowledge gains from pre- to post-intervention were assessed in 5 domains: safe versus unsafe people; safe choices; problem-solving; clear disclosure; and assertiveness. Participants were 1177 students (46% White, 26% African American, 15% Hispanic, 4% Asian American, 6% Other) in grades 1 through 6 from 14 public schools in Tennessee. Multilevel models accounting for the nesting of children within schools revealed large effect sizes for the intervention versus control across all knowledge domains (d's ranged from 1.56 to 2.13). The effectiveness of the program was moderated by mean per capita income and rates of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the community. Intervention effects were stronger for youth living in lower as compared to higher income counties, and for youth attending schools in counties with lower as compared to higher abuse/neglect rates. Child characteristics (sex, race) did not moderate intervention effects. This research identified two community-level factors that predicted the effectiveness of a CSA education and prevention program designed to improve children's knowledge of personal safety skills. School-based CSA prevention programs may require modification for communities with higher rates of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

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    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  2. Description of the Design and Implementation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program Addressing Needs of Middle School Students

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    Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…

  3. School-Based Education Programs for the Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cochrane Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programs for the prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). The programs deliver information about CSA and strategies to help children avoid it and encourage help seeking. Methods: Systematic review including meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster…

  4. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a school-based cannabis prevention program.

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    Ariza, Carles; Pérez, Anna; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Diéguez, Marta; Espelt, Albert; Pasarín, M Isabel; Suelves, Josep M; De la Torre, Rafael; Nebot, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The effectiveness of a cannabis prevention program in high school students was assessed. A quasi-experimental study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention implemented in an intervention group (IG) with 39 schools compared with a control group (CG) of 47 schools not exposed to the intervention. Of 224 secondary schools in Barcelona, 86 were assessed in the 2005-2006 school year through a personal questionnaire administered at baseline and 15 months after the intervention. Participants consisted of 4848 ninth graders (14-15 year-olds), 2803 assigned to the IG and 2043 to the CG, according to the type and size of the school and the socioeconomic status of the school's neighborhood. The intervention consisted of a school-based cannabis prevention program (xkpts.com), with four sessions and 16 activities, implemented over 6-10h, with materials for parents and web-based student involvement. Last-month cannabis use was assessed at baseline and at 15 months' follow-up. Process evaluation indicators were assessed. At 15 months follow-up, 8.2% of boys and 8.3% of girls in the IG became last-month cannabis users versus 11.8% of boys and 11.6% of girls in the CG. These differences were statistically significant (p=0.003), representing a 29% reduction in last-month cannabis users in the IG compared with the CG. The incidence of last-month cannabis use was lowest in classrooms that adhered to the program protocol. The xkpts.com program was effective in preventing progression to last-month cannabis use. Effectiveness was higher in classrooms that adhered closely to the protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender differences and a school-based obesity prevention program in Argentina: a randomized trial.

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    Rausch Herscovici, Cecile; Kovalskys, Irina; De Gregorio, María José

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of a school-based obesity prevention program that seeks to change food intake among students at schools in Rosario, Argentina. This was a prospective study involving 405 children 9-11 years of age at six schools in the poor areas of Rosario, Argentina, in May-October 2008. After matching for socioeconomic status, schools were selected by simple randomization; participants were assessed at baseline (T1) and again 6 months later, after completion of the intervention (T2). The program focused on increasing the children's knowledge of healthy nutrition and exercise through four workshops; educating the parents/caregivers; and offering healthy options at the school snack bar. The main outcome measures were the children's intake of healthy and unhealthy foods (assessed with a weekly food frequency questionnaire) and their body mass index (BMI). Of the 387 children assessed at T1, 369 were reassessed at T2 (205 intervention; 164 control). Girls at the schools where the intervention occurred increased their intake of three of the five healthy food items promoted by the program (fruits, vegetables, low-sugar cereals). Statistical significance was reached for skim milk (P = 0.03) and for pure orange juice (P = 0.05). Boys of both the intervention and control groups failed to improve their intake of healthy foods, but those of the intervention arm significantly reduced their intake of hamburgers and hot dogs (P = 0.001). Girls were more amenable to improving their dietary intake. Overall, the program was more likely to increase consumption of healthy food than to decrease intake of unhealthy foods. Gender differences should be taken into account when designing preventive interventions.

  6. Gender differences and a school-based obesity prevention program in Argentina: a randomized trial

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    Cecile Rausch Herscovici

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a school-based obesity prevention program that seeks to change food intake among students at schools in Rosario, Argentina. METHODS: This was a prospective study involving 405 children 9-11 years of age at six schools in the poor areas of Rosario, Argentina, in May-October 2008. After matching for socioeconomic status, schools were selected by simple randomization; participants were assessed at baseline (T1 and again 6 months later, after completion of the intervention (T2. The program focused on increasing the children's knowledge of healthy nutrition and exercise through four workshops; educating the parents/caregivers; and offering healthy options at the school snack bar. The main outcome measures were the children's intake of healthy and unhealthy foods (assessed with a weekly food frequency questionnaire and their body mass index (BMI. RESULTS: Of the 387 children assessed at T1, 369 were reassessed at T2 (205 intervention; 164 control. Girls at the schools where the intervention occurred increased their intake of three of the five healthy food items promoted by the program (fruits, vegetables, low-sugar cereals. Statistical significance was reached for skim milk (P = 0.03 and for pure orange juice (P = 0.05. Boys of both the intervention and control groups failed to improve their intake of healthy foods, but those of the intervention arm significantly reduced their intake of hamburgers and hot dogs (P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Girls were more amenable to improving their dietary intake. Overall, the program was more likely to increase consumption of healthy food than to decrease intake of unhealthy foods. Gender differences should be taken into account when designing preventive interventions.

  7. School-Based Programs to Prevent and Reduce Alcohol Use among Youth

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    Stigler, Melissa H.; Neusel, Emily; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Schools are an important setting for interventions aimed at preventing alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. A range of school-based interventions have been developed to prevent or delay the onset of alcohol use, most of which are targeted to middle-school students. Most of these interventions seek to reduce risk factors for alcohol use at the individual level, whereas other interventions also address social and/or environmental risk factors. Not all interventions that have been developed and implemented have been found to be effective. In-depth analyses have indicated that to be most effective, interventions should be theory driven, address social norms around alcohol use, build personal and social skills helping students resist pressure to use alcohol, involve interactive teaching approaches, use peer leaders, integrate other segments of the population into the program, be delivered over several sessions and years, provide training and support to facilitators, and be culturally and developmentally appropriate. Additional research is needed to develop interventions for elementary-school and high-school students and for special populations. PMID:22330213

  8. Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories

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    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

  9. Effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness program for transdiagnostic prevention in young adolescents.

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    Johnson, Catherine; Burke, Christine; Brinkman, Sally; Wade, Tracey

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety, depression and eating disorders show peak emergence during adolescence and share common risk factors. School-based prevention programs provide a unique opportunity to access a broad spectrum of the population during a key developmental window, but to date, no program targets all three conditions concurrently. Mindfulness has shown promising early results across each of these psychopathologies in a small number of controlled trials in schools, and therefore this study investigated its use in a randomised controlled design targeting anxiety, depression and eating disorder risk factors together for the first time. Students (M age 13.63; SD = .43) from a broad band of socioeconomic demographics received the eight lesson, once weekly.b ("Dot be") mindfulness in schools curriculum (N = 132) or normal lessons (N = 176). Anxiety, depression, weight/shape concerns and wellbeing were the primary outcome factors. Although acceptability measures were high, no significant improvements were found on any outcome at post-intervention or 3-month follow-up. Adjusted mean differences between groups at post-intervention were .03 (95% CI: -.06 to -.11) for depression, .01 (-.07 to -.09) for anxiety, .02 (-.05 to -.08) for weight/shape concerns, and .06 (-.08 to -.21) for wellbeing. Anxiety was higher in the mindfulness than the control group at follow-up for males, and those of both genders with low baseline levels of weight/shape concerns or depression. Factors that may be important to address for effective dissemination of mindfulness-based interventions in schools are discussed. Further research is required to identify active ingredients and optimal dose in mindfulness-based interventions in school settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Why did soft drink consumption decrease but screen time not? Mediating mechanisms in a school-based obesity prevention program

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    Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Singh, A.S.; Brug, J.; Mechelen, van, W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This paper aims to identify the mediating mechanisms of a school-based obesity prevention program (DOiT). Methods The DOiT-program was implemented in Dutch prevocational secondary schools and evaluated using a controlled, cluster-randomised trial (September 2003 to May 2004). We examined mediators of effects regarding (1) consumption of sugar containing beverages (SCB); (2) consumption of high caloric snacks; (3) screen-viewing behaviour; and (4) active commuting to school...

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Empirically Tested School-Based Dating Violence Prevention Programs

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    Sarah R. Edwards

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Teen dating violence prevention programs implemented in schools and empirically tested were subjected to meta-analysis. Eight studies met criteria for inclusion, consisting of both within and between designs. Overall, the weighted mean effect size (ES across studies was significant, ESr = .11; 95% confidence interval (CI = [.08, .15], p < .0001, showing an overall positive effect of the studied prevention programs. However, 25% of the studies showed an effect in the negative direction, meaning students appeared to be more supportive of dating violence after participating in a dating violence prevention program. This heightens the need for thorough program evaluation as well as the need for decision makers to have access to data about the effectiveness of programs they are considering implementing. Further implications of the results and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  12. Case Study of a School-Based Universal Dating Violence Prevention Program

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    Michele Cascardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of universal dating violence prevention programs has rapidly expanded in the past two decades. Many programs demonstrate change in attitudes supportive of dating violence, and a few show evidence of behavior change; however, detailed analysis of process and fidelity of program implementation is generally neglected. An important goal of prevention research is to identify successful initiatives that can be replicated and disseminated in the field. The purpose of the current case study is to document the implementation process of a middle school–based dating violence prevention curriculum in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Particular attention is given to the school context, such as the process of school and teacher recruitment, the program model, and classroom implementation of the dating violence prevention program in four areas: teacher training, student outcomes, program fidelity, and student engagement. Nine health and physical education teachers from six urban middle schools participated. Results describe effective strategies to secure school participation and engagement, and provide evidence regarding methods to train health and physical education teachers in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Furthermore, classroom observations demonstrate that teachers successfully implemented the five-lesson curriculum, which resulted in positive student outcomes to prevent dating violence. This case study represents an important step in deepening our understanding of the mechanisms of program delivery.

  13. Impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on violent delinquency: distinctive benefits for youth with maltreatment histories.

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    Crooks, Claire V; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A

    2011-06-01

    Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency due to child maltreatment history. In this study we conducted a follow-up to determine if participation in a school-based violence prevention program in grade 9 continued to provide a buffering effect on engaging in acts of violent delinquency for maltreated youth, 2 years post-intervention. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive school-based violence prevention program. Students (N=1,722; 52.8% female) from 20 schools participated in 21 75-min lessons in grade 9 health classes. Individual data (i.e., gender, child maltreatment experiences, and violent delinquency in grade 9) and school-level data (i.e., student perception of safety averaged across students in each school) were entered in a multilevel model to predict violent delinquency at the end of grade 11. Individual- and school-level factors predicting violent delinquency in grade 11 replicated previous findings from grade 9: being male, experiencing child maltreatment, being violent in grade 9, and attending a school with a lower perceived sense of safety among the entire student body increased violent delinquency. The cross-level interaction of individual maltreatment history and school-level intervention was also replicated: in non-intervention schools, youth with more maltreatment in their background were increasingly likely to engage in violent delinquency. The strength of this relationship was significantly attenuated in intervention schools. Follow-up findings are consistent with the buffering effect of the prevention program previously found post-intervention for the subsample of youth with maltreatment

  14. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Adolescents in South Korea: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunok

    2006-01-01

    The number of research papers evaluating programs designed to prevent adolescent smoking have increased in the last 13 years in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these programs, to review the features of the studies and to systemically assess the results on the knowledge about, and attitude to, smoking and smoking behavior. Database…

  15. Diffusion of school-based prevention programs in two urban districts: adaptations, rationales, and suggestions for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Wanis, Maggie G; Bazell, Nickie

    2010-03-01

    The diffusion of school-based preventive interventions involves the balancing of high-fidelity implementation of empirically-supported programs with flexibility to permit local stakeholders to target the specific needs of their youth. There has been little systematic research that directly seeks to integrate research- and community-driven approaches to diffusion. The present study provides a primarily qualitative investigation of the initial roll-out of two empirically-supported substance and violence prevention programs in two urban school districts that serve a high proportion of low-income, ethnic minority youth. The predominant ethnic group in most of our study schools was Asian American, followed by smaller numbers of Latinos, African Americans, and European Americans. We examined the adaptations made by experienced health teachers as they implemented the programs, the elicitation of suggested adaptations to the curricula from student and teacher stakeholders, and the evaluation of the consistency of these suggested adaptations with the core components of the programs. Data sources include extensive classroom observations of curricula delivery and interviews with students, teachers, and program developers. All health teachers made adaptations, primarily with respect to instructional format, integration of real-life experiences into the curriculum, and supplementation with additional resources; pedagogical and class management issues were cited as the rationale for these changes. Students and teachers were equally likely to propose adaptations that met with the program developers' approval with respect to program theory and implementation logistics. Tensions between teaching practice and prevention science-as well as implications for future research and practice in school-based prevention-are considered.

  16. Building a Foundation against Violence: Impact of a School-Based Prevention Program on Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bruce W.; Bacon, Tina P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Too Good for Violence Prevention Program (TGFV), a multifaceted interactive intervention. Grounded in Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the TGFV curricula focus on developing personal and interpersonal skills to solve conflict non-violently and resist social influences that lead to violence.…

  17. School-based depression and anxiety prevention programs for young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Perry, Yael; Calear, Alison L; Newby, Jill M; Christensen, Helen

    2017-02-01

    Depression and anxiety often emerge for the first time during youth. The school environment provides an ideal context to deliver prevention programs, with potential to offset the trajectory towards disorder. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of randomised-controlled trials of psychological programs, designed to prevent depression and/or anxiety in children and adolescents delivered in school settings. Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for articles published until February 2015. Eighty-one unique studies comprising 31,794 school students met inclusion criteria. Small effect sizes for both depression (g=0.23) and anxiety (g=0.20) prevention programs immediately post-intervention were detected. Small effects were evident after 12-month follow-up for both depression (g=0.11) and anxiety (g=0.13). Overall, the quality of the included studies was poor, and heterogeneity was moderate. Subgroup analyses suggested that universal depression prevention programs had smaller effect sizes at post-test relative to targeted programs. For anxiety, effect sizes were comparable for universal and targeted programs. There was some evidence that externally-delivered interventions were superior to those delivered by school staff for depression, but not anxiety. Meta-regression confirmed that targeted programs predicted larger effect sizes for the prevention of depression. These results suggest that the refinement of school-based prevention programs have the potential to reduce mental health burden and advance public health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of a School-Based Pediatric Obesity Prevention Program Facilitated by Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; El-Mubasher, Abeer; Gallagher, Martina; Tyler, Chermaine; Woehler, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated a school-based obesity intervention for elementary school children (N = 835) where health professionals assisted teachers with the integration of healthy messages into the school curriculum. Methods: Schools were randomized into a professional-facilitated intervention (PFI; N = 4) or a self-help (SH; N = 3)…

  19. Impact of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program faciliated by health professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated a school-based obesity intervention for elementary school children (N=835) where health professionals assisted teachers with the integration of healthy messages into the school curriculum. Schools were randomized into a professional-facilitated intervention (PFI; N=4) or a self-...

  20. Using Elite Athletes to Promote Drug Abstinence: Evaluation of a Single-Session School-Based Drug Use Prevention Program Delivered by Junior Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    School-based substance use prevention programs are a common method to approaching drug use in youths. Project SOS is a single-session drug prevention program developed by police officers and delivered by elite junior hockey players to students in grades 6 and 7. The current study evaluates the effects of Project SOS at achieving its objectives of…

  1. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; van Mechelen, W.; Brug, J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials.

  2. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chin A. Paw, Mai J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials. Methods: We revisited the Intervention Mapping (IM)…

  3. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Middle School Students in Nowshahr- Iran: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khazaee-Pool

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking among youths is a main public health concern, and detecting predictors of smoking is essential for designing preventive programs. Any interventional program should plan with highlighting on behavioral change models and based on operative interventional program. So, this study aimed to investigate school-based smoking prevention programs for middle school students in Nowshahr, Iran.Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed with 280 male students aged 15-17 years selected by multistage sampling. For this purpose, 6 middle schools were randomly recruited from male students in Nowshahr- Iran. Then, 140 students were randomly chosen for each the experimental and the control groups. After pretest, educational program based on Health Belief Model were performed in experimental group. Also, post-test was applied four months after interventional program in both experimental and control group.Results: Based on the results, the prevalence of smoking was higher at age 14 old in both experimental (38.7% and control (30 % groups. About 35% of participants in the experimental group and 33.6% in control group had smoker father. Additionally, 10% in experimental group and 7.8% in control group had smoker mother. Most main cause for smoking in 57.9% of the experimental group and 52.63% of the control group was reducing anxiety. Results also shown that there was a significant difference between students in the experimental and control groups after performing educational program in the mean scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, and preventive behaviors of smoking (P < 0.05.Conclusion: By performing educational program, it was found that the prevalence of cigarette smoking was decreased in the intervention group. So, with a better understanding of factors affecting on this complex behavior (cigarette smoking, it can be a valuable phase to

  4. Effects on alcohol use of a Swedish school-based prevention program for early adolescents: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beckman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to address the lack of evaluations of school-based substance use prevention programs and to conduct a quasi-experimental evaluation of the alcohol use part of the Triad intervention. Methods Eleven Swedish intervention schools (285 pupils and three control schools (159 pupils participated in the evaluation. Baseline measurements were conducted in 2011 before the alcohol part in the prevention program was implemented in the intervention schools (school year 6, ages 12–13. We estimated an Intention-To-Treat (ITT Difference-in-Difference (DD model to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention on subsequent alcohol use measured in grades 7, 8 and 9. Results The main results show no effect on the likelihood of drinking alcohol or drinking to intoxication. Conclusions The lack of positive effects highlights the need for policy-makers and public health officials need to carefully consider and evaluate prevention programs in order to ensure that they are worthwhile from school, health, and societal perspectives.

  5. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  6. Mediators and Moderators of a School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Mylien T; Kelly, Brynn M; Haaland, Wren L; Matsumiya, Brandon; Huey, Stanley J; McCarty, Carolyn A

    2016-10-01

    This study tested potential moderators and mediators of an indicated depression prevention program for middle school students, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA). Participants were 120 students randomly assigned to PTA, or a brief, individually administered supportive intervention (Individual Support Program, or ISP). Youths completed measures of depressive symptoms at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-month follow-up. Hierarchical regression was used to test three moderators-ethnic minority status, gender, and baseline depressive symptoms-and three mediators representing functional outcomes targeted by PTA-parent-child communication, attitude towards school, and health behavior. Ethnic minority status did not moderate PTA effects at post-intervention but did moderate PTA effects at 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, PTA appeared to be more effective for White participants than ethnic minority youth. Follow-up analyses suggested this moderation effect was due to the tendency of ethnic minority youth, especially those with fewer symptoms at baseline, to drop out by 12 months. Neither gender nor baseline depressive symptoms moderated the effects of PTA. Although PTA improved health behavior and attitudes toward school, there was no evidence that any of these functional outcomes measured mediated the impact of PTA on depressive symptoms. Future directions are discussed.

  7. Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

  8. Process evaluation of a school-based weight gain prevention program: the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.; Brug, J.; Mechelen, van W.

    2009-01-01

    Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the

  9. Exploring facilitating factors and barriers to the nationwide dissemination of a Dutch school-based obesity prevention program "DOiT": a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; van Mechelen, W.; Paulussen, T.G.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The evidence-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is a school-based obesity prevention program for 12 to 14-year olds attending the first two years of prevocational education. This paper describes the study protocol applied to evaluate (a) the nationwide

  10. Impact of School-Based HIV Prevention Program in Post-Conflict Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Katharine A.; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Shamblen, Steve; Tegli, Jemee; Garber, Salome; Fahnbulleh, Pearl W.; Korvah, Prince M.; Kolubah, Moses; Mulbah-Kamara, Comfort; Fulton, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a feasibility study to adapt and evaluate the impact of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention on sexual risk behaviors of in-school 6th grade youth in post-conflict Liberia (n = 812). The study used an attention-matched, group randomized controlled trial. Four matched pairs of elementary/middle schools in…

  11. Comparing School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programming: Mixed Outcomes in an At-Risk State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…

  12. School-based prevention program associated with increased short- and long-term retention of safety knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klas, Karla S; Vlahos, Peter G; McCully, Michael J; Piche, David R; Wang, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    Validation of program effectiveness is essential in justifying school-based injury prevention education. Although Risk Watch (RW) targets burn, fire, and life safety, its effectiveness has not been previously evaluated in the medical literature. Between 2007 and 2012, a trained fire service public educator (FSPE) taught RW to all second grade students in one public school district. The curriculum was delivered in 30-minute segments for 9 consecutive weeks via presentations, a safety smoke house trailer, a model-sized hazard house, a student workbook, and parent letters. A written pre-test (PT) was given before RW started, a post-test (PT#1) was given immediately after RW, and a second post-test (PT#2) was administered to the same students the following school year (ranging from 12 to 13 months after PT). Students who did not complete the PT or at least one post-test were excluded. Comparisons were made by paired t-test, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. After 183 (8.7%) were excluded for missing tests, 1,926 remaining students scored significantly higher (P = .0001) on PT#1 (mean 14.8) and PT#2 (mean 14.7) than the PT (mean 12.1). There was 1 FSPE and 36 school teachers with class size ranging from 10 to 27 (mean 21.4). Class size was not predictive of test score improvement (R = 0%), while analysis of variance showed that individual teachers trended toward some influence. This 6-year prospective study demonstrated that the RW program delivered by an FSPE effectively increased short-term knowledge and long-term retention of fire/life safety in early elementary students. Collaborative partnerships are critical to preserving community injury prevention education programs.

  13. A randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program 'Op Volle Kracht' in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Y.R.; Zundert, R.M.P. van; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Vlokhoven, B.S. van; Rensink, H.F.W.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of depressive symptoms increases during adolescence, from 10.0% to 24.5% at age 11 to 15, respectively. Experiencing elevated levels of depressive symptoms increases the risk of a depressive disorder in adulthood. A universal school-based depression prevention program Op

  14. Public Commitment, Resistance to Advertising, and Leisure Promotion in a School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: A Component Dismantling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W.; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Espada, Mireia; Orgilés José P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the…

  15. Relationships between the Family Environment and School-Based Obesity Prevention Efforts: Can School Programs Help Adolescents Who Are Most in Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in…

  16. Why did soft drink consumption decrease but screen time not? Mediating mechanisms in a school-based obesity prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brug Johannes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This paper aims to identify the mediating mechanisms of a school-based obesity prevention program (DOiT. Methods The DOiT-program was implemented in Dutch prevocational secondary schools and evaluated using a controlled, cluster-randomised trial (September 2003 to May 2004. We examined mediators of effects regarding (1 consumption of sugar containing beverages (SCB; (2 consumption of high caloric snacks; (3 screen-viewing behaviour; and (4 active commuting to school. To improve these behaviours the DOiT-program tried to influence the following potentially mediating variables: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and habit-strength. Results Both in boys (n = 418 and girls (n = 436 the DOiT-intervention reduced SCB consumption (between group difference in boys = -303.5 ml/day, 95% CI: -502.4;-104.5, between group difference in girls = -222.3 ml/day, 95% CI: -371.3;-73.2. The intervention did not affect the other examined behaviours. In girls, no intervention effect on hypothetical mediators was found nor evidence of any mediating mechanisms. Boys in intervention schools improved their attitude towards decreasing SCB consumption, while this behaviour became less of a habit. Indeed, attitude and habit strength were significant mediators of the DOiT-intervention's effect (4.5 and 3.8%, respectively on SCB consumption among boys. Conclusion Our findings imply that interventions aimed at EBRB-change should be gender-specific. Future studies aimed at reducing SCB consumption among boys should target attitude and habit strength as mediating mechanisms. Our study did not resolve the mediating mechanisms in girls. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN87127361

  17. Effectiveness of School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in the USA: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marseille, Elliot; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Biggs, M Antonia; P Miller, Amanda; Horvath, Hacsi; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Malekinejad, Mohsen; Kahn, James G

    2018-05-01

    School-based programs have been a mainstay of youth pregnancy prevention efforts in the USA. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess their effectiveness. Eligible studies evaluated the effect on pregnancy rates of programs delivered in elementary, middle, or high schools in the USA and Canada, published between January 1985 and September 2016. The primary outcome was pregnancy; secondary outcomes were delay in sexual initiation, condom use, and oral contraception use. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs with comparator groups were eligible. We developed a comprehensive search strategy, applied to major bibliographic databases, article bibliographies, gray literature, and contact with authors. We calculated risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each outcome and pooled data in random effects meta-analysis. We used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to assess evidence quality. Ten RCTs and 11 non-RCTs conducted from 1984 to 2016 yielded 30 unique pooled comparisons for pregnancy, of which 24 were not statistically significant. Six showed statistically significant changes in pregnancy rates: two with increased risk (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.65; and RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.75) and four with decreased risk ranging from RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.77, to RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.96. All studies were at high risk of bias, and the quality of evidence was low or very low. Identified evidence indicated no consistent difference in rates of pregnancies between intervention recipients and controls.

  18. How Do School-Based Prevention Programs Impact Teachers? Findings from a Randomized Trial of an Integrated Classroom Management and Social-Emotional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrovich, Celene E; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Berg, Juliette K; Pas, Elise T; Becker, Kimberly D; Musci, Rashelle; Embry, Dennis D; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    A number of classroom-based interventions have been developed to improve social and behavioral outcomes for students, yet few studies have examined how these programs impact the teachers who are implementing them. Impacts on teachers may affect students and therefore also serve as an important proximal outcome to examine. The current study draws upon data from a school-based randomized controlled trial testing the impact of two prevention programs. In one intervention condition, teachers were trained in the classroom behavior management program, PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG). In a second intervention condition, teachers were trained to use an integrated program, referred to as PATHS to PAX, of the PAX GBG and a social and emotional learning curriculum called Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS©). This study aimed to determine whether both interventions positively impacted teachers, with a particular interest in the teachers' own beliefs and perceptions regarding self-efficacy, burnout, and social-emotional competence. The sample included 350 K-5 teachers across 27 schools (18 schools randomized to intervention, 9 to control). Multilevel latent growth curve analyses indicated that the PATHS to PAX condition generally demonstrated the most benefits to teachers, relative to both the control and PAX GBG conditions. These findings suggest that school-based preventive interventions can have a positive impact on teachers' beliefs and perceptions, particularly when the program includes a social-emotional component. Several possible mechanisms might account for the added benefit to teachers. Additional research is needed to better understand how these programs impact teachers, as well as students.

  19. School-based programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity: evidence-based interventions for youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K; Nagle, Brian J; Arredondo, Elva M; Barquera, Simón; Elder, John P

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be gathered from such interventions. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1965 and December 2010. Interventions were considered eligible if they had a school-based component, were done in Latin America, evaluated an obesity related outcome (body mass index [BMI], weight, %body fat, waist circumference, BMI z-score), and compared youth exposed vs not exposed. Ten studies were identified as having a school-based component. Most interventions had a sample of normal and overweight children. The most successful interventions focused on prevention rather than treatment, had longer follow-ups, a multidisciplinary team, and fewer limitations in execution. Three prevention and 2 treatment interventions found sufficient improvements in obesity-related outcomes. We found sufficient evidence to recommend school-based interventions to prevent obesity among youth in Latin America. Evidence-based interventions in the school setting should be promoted as an important component for integrated programs, policies, and monitoring frameworks designed to reverse the childhood obesity in the region. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. The Devil Is in the Details: Examining the Evidence for "Proven" School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Allison Gruner; Murphy-Graham, Erin; Petrosino, Anthony; Chrismer, Sara Schwartz; Weiss, Carol H.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to promote evidence-based practice, government officials, researchers, and program developers have developed lists of model programs in the prevention field. This article reviews the evidence used by seven best-practice lists to select five model prevention programs. The authors' examination of this research raises questions about the…

  1. Public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion in a school-based drug abuse prevention program: a component dismantling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the Saluda prevention program in one of the following five experimental conditions: complete program, program minus public commitment, program minus resistance to advertising, program minus leisure promotion, and a waiting-list control. The students completed self-report surveys at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up assessments. When excluding the healthy leisure promotion component, the Saluda program showed no loss of efficacy neither on alcohol use nor on other substance-related variables, while public commitment and resistance to advertising improved the aforementioned program's efficacy.

  2. Depression as a moderator of benefit from Media Smart: a school-based eating disorder prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M; Wade, Tracey D

    2014-01-01

    To investigate if baseline depression moderated response to Media Smart, an 8-lesson school-based program previously found to achieve a long-term risk reduction effect in young adolescents. 540 Grade 8 students (M age = 13.62 years, SD = .37) from 4 schools participated with 11 classes receiving the Media Smart program (126 girls; 107 boys) and 13 comparison classes receiving their normal lessons (147 girls; 160 boys). Shape and weight concern, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, ineffectiveness, and perceived pressure were the outcome variables. Moderation was indicated by significant interaction effects for group (Media Smart; Control) × moderator (high depression; low depression) × time (post-program; 6-month follow-up; 2.5-year follow-up), with baseline entered as a covariate. Such effects were found for shape and weight concern, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness and perceived pressure. Post-hoc testing found high depression Media Smart participants scored significantly lower than their control counterparts at post-program on shape and weight concern, media internalization and dieting, whereas low depression Media Smart participants scored significantly lower on shape and weight concern at 2.5-year follow-up. Media Smart achieved a reduction in eating disorder risk factors for high-depression participants and a reduced rate of growth in risk factor scores for low-depression participants. Trial registry name: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Registration identification number: ACTRN12608000545369. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective…

  4. The Efficacy of a Universal School-Based Prevention Program for Eating Disorders among German Adolescents: Results from a Randomized-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschburger, Petra; Zitzmann, Jana

    2018-04-10

    Disordered eating is highly prevalent during adolescence and has a detrimental effect on further development. Effective prevention programs are needed to prevent unhealthy developmental trajectories. This study evaluated the efficacy of the POPS-program (POtsdam Prevention at Schools), a universal school-based eating disorder prevention program for adolescents. In a cluster-randomized design, we compared the intervention group receiving the prevention program to a waiting control group. Outcomes included indicators of disordered eating and relevant risk factors for eating disorders (body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, perceived media pressure, perfectionism, emotional element of exercise, social comparison, and perceived teasing). Questionnaires were administered at the start of the intervention, 3 and 12 months post intervention. At baseline, 1112 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years participated (49% girls; 51% intervention group). Intention-to-treat analyses with the complete data set and per-protocol analyses as a completer analysis were performed. The intervention group showed a more favorable course compared to the control group regarding all observed risk factors for eating disorders except for perceived teasing. Effect sizes were small but comparable to other primary prevention programs. At 1-year follow-up, a small but significant effect on disordered eating was observed. Results of the per-protocol analyses were mostly confirmed by the intention-to-treat analyses. Results were promising for both genders although girls benefited more regarding disordered eating and internalization of the thin ideal. Further studies are warranted examining successful program elements and whether gender-specific programs are needed.

  5. Evaluating return on investment in a school based health promotion and prevention program: the investment multiplier for the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon; Dawber, James; Yeatman, Heather; Quinsey, Karen; Morris, Darcy

    2014-08-01

    Successful health promotion and disease prevention strategies in complex community settings such as primary schools rely on acceptance and ownership across community networks. Assessing multiplier impacts from investment on related community activity over time are suggested as key alongside evidence of program health effects on targeted groups of individuals in gauging community network engagement and ownership, dynamic impacts, and program long term success and return on investment. An Australian primary school based health promotion and prevention strategy, the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program (SAKGNP), which has been providing garden and kitchen classes for year 3-6 students since 2008, was evaluated between 2011 and 2012. Returns on Australian Federal Government investment for school infrastructure grants up to $60,000 are assessed up to and beyond a two year mutual obligation period with: (i) Impacts on student lifestyle behaviours, food choices and eating habits surveyed across students (n = 491 versus 260) and parents (n = 300 versus 234) in 28 SAKGNP and 14 matched schools, controlling for school and parent level confounders and triangulated with SAKGNP pre-post analysis; (ii) Multiplier impacts of investment on related school and wider community activity up to two years; and (iii) Evidence of continuation and program evolution in schools observed beyond two years. SAKGNP schools showed improved student food choices (p = 0.024) and kitchen lifestyle behaviour (p = 0.019) domains compared to controls and in pre-post analysis where 20.0% (58/290) reported eating fruit and vegetables more often and 18.6% (54/290) preparing food at home more often. No significant differences were found in case control analysis for eating habits or garden lifestyle behaviour domains, although 32.3% of children helped more in the garden (91/278) and 15.6% (45/289) ate meals together more often in pre-post analysis. The multiplier impact on total

  6. The Effectiveness of a School-Based Mindfulness Training as a Program to Prevent Stress in Elementary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834335; Langenberg, George; Brandsma, Rob; Oort, Frans J.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the effects of mindfulness interventions on mental health and behavioral problems in children show promising results, but are primarily conducted with selected samples of children. The few studies investigating school-based interventions used self-selected samples, provided training

  7. The effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness training as a program to prevent stress in elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.; Langenberg, G.; Brandsma, R.; Oort, F.J.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the effects of mindfulness interventions on mental health and behavioral problems in children show promising results, but are primarily conducted with selected samples of children. The few studies investigating school-based interventions used self-selected samples, provided training

  8. Component analysis of a school-based substance use prevention program in Spain: contributions of problem solving and social skills training content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Pereira, Juan R; Orgilés, Mireia; García-Fernández, José M

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to examine the contribution of two intervention components, social skills training and problem solving training, to alcohol- and drug-related outcomes in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 341 Spanish students from age 12 to 15 who received the prevention program Saluda in one of four experimental conditions: full program, social skills condition, problem solving condition, and a wait-list control group. Students completed self-report surveys at the pretest, posttest and 12-month follow-up assessments. Compared to the wait-list control group, the three intervention conditions produced reductions in alcohol use and intentions to use other substances. The intervention effect size for alcohol use was greatest in magnitude for the full program with all components. Problem-solving skills measured at the follow-up were strongest in the condition that received the full program with all components. We discuss the implications of these findings, including the advantages and disadvantages of implementing tailored interventions to students by selecting intervention components after a skills-based needs assessment.

  9. "Children at risk": development, implementation, and effectiveness of a school-based violence intervention and prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon L; Smith, Donald J

    2009-01-01

    Violence impacts the lives of children on a daily basis. In their communities, they witness drive-by shootings, drug deals, and violence in their schools while many endure abuse, neglect, and violent behavior in their homes. Because the traumatizing impact of such exposure disrupts a child's ability to concentrate and learn, the Dallas Independent School District (ISD) sought content expertise to develop a training vehicle for school district professionals. The program aimed to raise the awareness of educators to problems related to domestic violence and the myriad of circumstances at home and in the community that lead to exposure to violence. Approximately 15,000 faculty and staff of Dallas ISD were educated in the identification, intervention, and prevention of exposure to violence. Referrals and inquiries related to abuse have increased (approximately 70%) while the city of Dallas has witnessed a drop in the number of domestic violence and child abuse offenses.

  10. A randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program 'Op Volle Kracht' in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Yuli R; Van Zundert, Rinka Mp; Kuijpers, Rowella Cwm; Van Vlokhoven, Boukje S; Rensink, Hettie Fw; Engels, Rutger Cme

    2012-01-10

    The incidence of depressive symptoms increases during adolescence, from 10.0% to 24.5% at age 11 to 15, respectively. Experiencing elevated levels of depressive symptoms increases the risk of a depressive disorder in adulthood. A universal school-based depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK) was developed, based on the Penn Resiliency Program, aimed at preventing the increase of depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhancing positive development. In this study the effectiveness of OVK will be tested and possible mediators of program effects will be focus of study as well. The effectiveness of OVK will be tested in a randomized controlled trial with two conditions, intervention (OVK) and control condition (care as usual). Schools are randomly assigned to research conditions. OVK will be incorporated in the school curriculum, maximizing program attendance. OVK consists of 16 lessons of 50 min, given by trained psychologists to groups of 11-15 students. OVK contains Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, social skills training, problem solving and decision making. Outcomes are measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months follow up, to monitor long term program effects. Primary outcome is level of depressive symptoms, secondary outcomes are: anxiety, hopelessness, cognitive bias, substance use, truancy, life satisfaction, coping, self-efficacy, optimism, happiness, friendship, school performance and school attitude. The questionnaires for students will be administered in the school setting. Parents will complete a questionnaire at baseline only. In this paper the study into the effectiveness of the depression prevention program OVK was described. It is expected that OVK will prevent the increase in depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhance positive development in the intervention condition, compared to the control condition. If OVK will be effective, it can be implemented in the school context by which numerous adolescents can be reached. Netherlands Trial

  11. A randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program 'Op Volle Kracht' in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yuli R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of depressive symptoms increases during adolescence, from 10.0% to 24.5% at age 11 to 15, respectively. Experiencing elevated levels of depressive symptoms increases the risk of a depressive disorder in adulthood. A universal school-based depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK was developed, based on the Penn Resiliency Program, aimed at preventing the increase of depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhancing positive development. In this study the effectiveness of OVK will be tested and possible mediators of program effects will be focus of study as well. Method The effectiveness of OVK will be tested in a randomized controlled trial with two conditions, intervention (OVK and control condition (care as usual. Schools are randomly assigned to research conditions. OVK will be incorporated in the school curriculum, maximizing program attendance. OVK consists of 16 lessons of 50 min, given by trained psychologists to groups of 11-15 students. OVK contains Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, social skills training, problem solving and decision making. Outcomes are measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months follow up, to monitor long term program effects. Primary outcome is level of depressive symptoms, secondary outcomes are: anxiety, hopelessness, cognitive bias, substance use, truancy, life satisfaction, coping, self-efficacy, optimism, happiness, friendship, school performance and school attitude. The questionnaires for students will be administered in the school setting. Parents will complete a questionnaire at baseline only. Discussion In this paper the study into the effectiveness of the depression prevention program OVK was described. It is expected that OVK will prevent the increase in depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhance positive development in the intervention condition, compared to the control condition. If OVK will be effective, it can be implemented in the school context by which

  12. Effects of an Interactive School-Based Program for Preventing Adolescent Sexual Harassment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lijster, Gaby P A; Felten, Hanneke; Kok, Gerjo; Kocken, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual harassment behavior were presented to secondary school students. We evaluated its effectiveness, using a cluster-randomized controlled design to assign schools to an experimental condition [n = 14 schools; 431 students (51 % female)] and a control condition [n = 11 schools; 384 students (51 % female)]. To measure the effects of the intervention at first post-test and 6-month follow-up, our multilevel analyses used a two-level random intercept model. Outcome measures were sexual harassment behaviors, behavioral determinants and distal factors influencing these behaviors. At post-test, students in the experimental group reported a reduced intention to commit sexual harassment behavior and higher self-efficacy in rejecting it. At post-test and follow-up there was a significant positive effect on social norms for rejecting sexual harassment behavior. At follow-up, sexual self-esteem was higher in students in the experimental group than in the control group. Effects on these determinants will benefit adolescents' future sexual behaviors. In combination, the play and lessons, possibly together with continued sexual health education and skills programs on social-emotional learning in subsequent school years, have potential for preventing sexual harassment behavior.

  13. A High School-Based Evaluation of TakeCARE, a Video Bystander Program to Prevent Adolescent Relationship Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Kelli S; Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2017-03-01

    Although bystander programs to prevent relationship and sexual violence have been evaluated with college students, few evaluations have been conducted with high school students. This study evaluated the effectiveness of TakeCARE, a brief video bystander program designed to promote helpful bystander behavior in situations involving relationship violence among high school students. Students (N = 1295; 52.5% female; 72.3% Hispanic) reported their bystander behavior at a baseline assessment. Classrooms (N = 66) were randomized to view TakeCARE or to a control condition, and high school counselors administered the video in the classrooms assigned to view TakeCARE. Students again reported their bystander behavior at a follow-up assessment approximately 3 months afterward. Results indicate that students who viewed TakeCARE reported more helpful bystander behavior at the follow-up assessment than students in the control condition. Results of exploratory analyses of the likelihood of encountering and intervening upon specific situations calling for bystander behavior are also reported. TakeCARE is efficacious when implemented in an urban high school by high school counselors.

  14. Effect of an environmental school-based obesity prevention program on changes in body fat and body weight: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David W; Han, Hongmei; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Sothern, Melinda S; Stewart, Tiffany M; Webber, Larry S; Ryan, Donna H

    2012-08-01

    This study tested the efficacy of two school-based programs for prevention of body weight/fat gain in comparison to a control group, in all participants and in overweight children. The Louisiana (LA) Health study utilized a longitudinal, cluster randomized three-arm controlled design, with 28 months of follow-up. Children (N = 2,060; mean age = 10.5 years, SD = 1.2) from rural communities in grades 4-6 participated in the study. Seventeen school clusters (mean = 123 children/cluster) were randomly assigned to one of three prevention arms: (i) primary prevention (PP), an environmental modification (EM) program, (ii) primary + secondary prevention (PP+SP), the environmental program with an added classroom and internet education component, or (iii) control (C). Primary outcomes were changes in percent body fat and BMI z scores. Secondary outcomes were changes in behaviors related to energy balance. Comparisons of PP, PP+SP, and C on changes in body fat and BMI z scores found no differences. PP and PP+SP study arms were combined to create an EM arm. Relative to C, EM decreased body fat for boys (-1.7 ± 0.38% vs. -0.14 ± 0.69%) and attenuated fat gain for girls (2.9 ± 0.22% vs. 3.93 ± 0.37%), but standardized effect sizes were relatively small (environmental program did not enhance weight/fat gain prevention, but did impact physical activity and social support in overweight children.

  15. Assessment of Two School-Based Programs to Prevent Universal Eating Disorders: Media Literacy and Theatre-Based Methodology in Spanish Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Mora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the long-term effects of two school-based prevention programs administered to a universal mixed-sex sample of school-going adolescents on disturbed eating attitudes, aesthetic ideal internalization, and other eating disorder risk factors, when compared to a control group. Methods. Participants were 200 adolescents aged 12–15 selected by means of incidental sampling from second-year compulsory secondary education at schools. An interactive multimedia media literacy program (ML + NUT, Media Literacy and Nutrition and a program focused on the same topics using dramatic arts (Theatre Alive were applied and compared with a control group. Pretest, posttest (1 month later, and 5- and 13-month follow-up measurements were taken. Analyses were conducted with two-way mixed 3×3 ANCOVA (group × phase adjusted by baseline levels, body mass index, and sex. Results. Participants in both experimental groups showed significantly higher self-esteem scores than the control group over time. The ML + NUT group also presented lower aesthetic ideal internalization scores than the control group. Discussion. Both programs can benefit students’ self-esteem. Moreover, ML + NUT program was useful in reducing thin-ideal internalization. However, differences in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes were not found. The programs may be protective on the core psychological variables, which are essential to adaptive adolescent development.

  16. A pilot study of a school-based prevention and early intervention program to reduce oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Jo; Carlsson, Anthony; Vance, Alasdair

    2014-05-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) occurs when children's disruptive and antisocial behaviours start to interfere with their academic, emotional and/or social development. Recently, there has been a considerable investment to implement national school-based early intervention programs to help prevent the onset of ODD/CD. This paper describes the delivery of the Royal Children's Hospital, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service and Schools Early Action Program: a whole school, multi-level, multidisciplinary approach to address emerging ODD/CD and pre- versus post-delivery assessment in 40 schools over a 4-year period (2007-2010). All children from preparatory to grade 3 (ages 4-10 years) were screened for conduct problems (n = 8546) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Universal, targeted and indicated interventions were delivered in school settings. In total, 304 children participated in the targeted group program where the Child Behaviour Checklist was used as a pre- and post-intervention measure. Cohen's d effect sizes and a reliability change index were calculated to determine clinical significance. Significant reductions in both parent- and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms were noted. Parent, teacher and child feedback were very positive. A future randomized controlled trial of the program would address potential placebo and selection bias effects. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. School-based smoking prevention programmes: ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2011-01-01

    School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.

  18. "Unplugged," a European School-Based Program for Substance Use Prevention among Adolescents: Overview of Results from the EU-Dap Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D.; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Burkhart, Gregor; Caria, Maria Paola; Vadrucci, Serena; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The EU-Dap study aimed to develop and evaluate a school-based curriculum for the prevention of substance use among young people. The school curriculum, "Unplugged," is based on social influence approach and addresses social and personal skills, knowledge, and normative beliefs. It consists of 12 one-hour interactive sessions delivered by…

  19. Effects of an Interactive School-Based Program for Preventing Adolescent Sexual Harassment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijster, G.P.A. de; Felten, H.; Kok, G.; Kocken, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual

  20. For whom does it work? Subgroup differences in the effects of a school-based universal prevention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; Koot, H.M.; van Lier, P.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined subgroup differences in the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based preventive intervention. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) was delivered in Grade 1 and 2 in a randomized controlled trial including 759 students. Changes in externalizing and internalizing problems were modeled

  1. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2013-04-30

    Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some

  2. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-07-01

    Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of the bucco-lingual technique within a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazão Paulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supervised toothbrushing programs using fluoride dentifrice have reduced caries increment. However there is no information about the effectiveness of the professional cross-brushing technique within a community intervention. The aim was to assess if the bucco-lingual technique can increase the effectiveness of a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries. Methods A randomized double-blinded controlled community intervention trial to be analyzed at an individual level was conducted in a Brazilian low-income fluoridated area. Six preschools were randomly assigned to the test and control groups and 284 five-year-old children presenting at least one permanent molar with emerged/sound occlusal surface participated. In control group, oral health education and dental plaque dying followed by toothbrushing with fluoride dentifrice supervised directly by a dental assistant, was developed four times per year. At the remaining school days the children brushed their teeth under indirect supervising of the teachers. In test group, children also underwent a professional cross-brushing on surfaces of first permanent molar rendered by a specially trained dental assistant five times per year. Enamel and dentin caries were recorded on buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces of permanent molars during 18-month follow-up. Exposure time of surfaces was calculated and incidence density ratio was estimated using Poisson regression model. Results Difference of 21.6 lesions per 1,000 children between control and test groups was observed. Among boys whose caries risk was higher compared to girls, incidence density was 50% lower in test group (p = 0.016. Conclusion Modified program was effective among the boys. It is licit to project a relevant effect in a larger period suggesting in a broader population substantial reduction of dental care needs. Trial registration ISRCTN18548869.

  4. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Perera, R

    2006-07-19

    Smoking rates in adolescents are rising in some countries. Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed goal of public health, but there is uncertainty about how to do this. Schools provide a route for communicating with a large proportion of young people, and school-based programmes for smoking prevention have been widely developed and evaluated. To review all randomized controlled trials of behavioural interventions in schools to prevent children (aged 5 to12) and adolescents (aged 13 to18) starting smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyclNFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts and studies identified in the bibliographies of articles. Individual MEDLINE searches were made for 133 authors who had undertaken randomized controlled trials in this area. Types of studies: those in which individual students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomized to the intervention or control groups and followed for at least six months. Children (aged 5 to12) or adolescents (aged 13 to18) in school settings. Types of interventions: Classroom programmes or curricula, including those with associated family and community interventions, intended to deter use of tobacco. We included programmes or curricula that provided information, those that used social influences approaches, those that taught generic social competence, and those that included interventions beyond the school into the community. We included programmes with a drug or alcohol focus if outcomes for tobacco use were reported. Types of outcome measures: Prevalence of non-smoking at follow up among those not smoking at baseline. We did not require biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use for study inclusion. We assessed whether identified citations were randomized controlled trials. We assessed the quality of design and execution, and

  5. 78 FR 42788 - School-Based Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration School-Based... Gadsden County. SUMMARY: HRSA will be transferring a School-Based Health Center Capital (SBHCC) Program... support the expansion of services at school-based health centers will continue. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  6. A school-based, teacher-mediated prevention program (ERASE-Stress) for reducing terror-related traumatic reactions in Israeli youth: a quasi-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc; Berger, Rony

    2009-08-01

    Since September 2000 Israeli children have been exposed to a large number of terrorist attacks. A universal, school-based intervention for dealing with the threat of terrorism as well as with terror-related symptoms, ERASE-Stress (ES), was evaluated in a male religious middle school in southern Israel. The program was administered by the homeroom teachers as part of the school curriculum. It consists of 12 classroom sessions each lasting 90 minutes, and included psycho-educational material, skill training and resiliency strategies delivered to the students by homeroom teachers. One hundred and fourteen 7th and 8th grade students were randomly assigned to the ES intervention or were part of a waiting list (WL). They were assessed on measures of posttraumatic symptomatology, depression, somatic symptoms and functional problems before and 3 months after the intervention or the WL period. Three months after the program ended, students in the experimental group showed significant reduction in all measures compared to the waiting-list control group. The ERASE-Stress program may help students suffering from terror-related posttraumatic symptoms and mitigate the negative effects of future traumatic experiences. Furthermore, a school-based universal program such as the ERASE-Stress may potentially serve as an important and effective component of a community mental health policy for communities affected by terrorism.

  7. Changes in Body Mass Index During a 3-Year Elementary School-Based Obesity Prevention Program for American Indian and White Rural Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant but largely modifiable health risk, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and rural children. Elementary school-aged children typically experience the greatest increases in excess weight gain and therefore are important targets for reducing adolescent and adult obesity while improving children's health. Our study evaluated outcomes of a 3-year elementary school-based program for reducing obesity in American Indian and White students attending eight rural schools in the U.S. upper Midwest. Researchers measured body mass indexes (BMI) and other health indicators and behaviors of 308 beginning third-grade students and then again at the end of students' third, fourth, and fifth grades. The primary focus of this study is a mixed multilevel longitudinal model testing changes in age- and gender-adjusted BMI z scores ( zBMI). There was a significant decrease in zBMI across the 3-year study period. Ethnicity analyses showed that White students had overall decreases in zBMI whereas American Indian students' zBMIs remained stable across the program. Comparisons with children from an age- and cohort-matched national sample provided support for the effectiveness of the school program in reducing BMI and obesity during the study period. An elementary school-based health program that addresses a range of students' obesity-related health behaviors, the school health environment, and that involves educators and parents is an effective intervention for reducing or stabilizing BMI in rural White and American Indian students. School health programs for students living in rural communities may be especially effective due to greater school and community cohesiveness, and valuing of the school's primary role in improving community health.

  8. School-Based Smoking Prevention with Media Literacy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Melinda C.; Schmidt, Spring J.; Shields, David; Zwarun, Lara; Sherblom, Stephen; Pulley, Cynthia; Rucker, Billy

    2011-01-01

    School-based tobacco prevention programs have had limited success reducing smoking rates in the long term. Media literacy programs offer an innovative vehicle for delivery of potentially more efficacious anti-tobacco education. However, these programs have been neither widely implemented nor well evaluated. We conducted a pre-post evaluation of a…

  9. Parent Interest in a School-Based, School Nurse-Led Weight Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo

    2014-01-01

    Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…

  10. Evaluation of a Dutch school-based depression prevention program for youths in highrisk neighborhoods: study protocol of a two-armed randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, K.C.M.; Zundert, R.M.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has indicated that depression prevention programs attenuate the development of symptoms of depression in adolescents. To implement these programs on a large scale, implementation in a school setting with teachers providing the programs is needed. In the present study, the

  11. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  12. A Meta-Analytic Review of School-Based Prevention for Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath-Waller, Amy J.; Beasley, Erin; Beirness, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based prevention programming in reducing cannabis use among youth aged 12 to 19. It summarized the results from 15 studies published in peer-reviewed journals since 1999 and identified features that influenced program effectiveness. The results from the set of…

  13. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-Based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program: The HEALTHY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A.; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program…

  14. Implemented or not implemented? Process evaluation of the school-based obesity prevention program DOiT and associations with program effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; Hoekstra, T.; van Mechelen, W.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.

    This study investigates if and to what extent the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program was implemented as intended and how this affected program effectiveness. We collected data at 20 prevocational education schools in the Netherlands. We assessed seven process indicators:

  15. Implemented or not implemented? : Process evaluation of the school-based obesity prevention program DOiT and associations with program effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S; Hoekstra, T.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    This study investigates if and to what extent the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program was implemented as intended and how this affected program effectiveness. We collected data at 20 prevocational education schools in the Netherlands. We assessed seven process indicators:

  16. Evaluation of a Coordinated School-Based Obesity Prevention Program in a Hispanic Community: Choosing Healthy and Active Lifestyles for Kids/healthy Schools Healthy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; Rausch, John; Okah, Ebiere; Tsao, Daisy; Nieto, Andres; Lyda, Elizabeth; Meyer, Dodi; McCord, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a public health concern that disproportionately affects underserved and minority communities. Purpose: To evaluate whether a comprehensive obesity prevention program that targets children and school staff in an underserved Hispanic community affects obesity related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among both students and…

  17. A School-Based Program to Improve Life Skills and to Prevent HIV Infection in Multicultural Transgendered Youth in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, P. Jayne; Juday, Timothy R.; Charters, Cloudia W.

    2004-01-01

    Chrysalis is a weekly after-school drop-in group on O'ahu high school campuses for transgendered and questioning youth. Nine Chrysalis members, nine demographically matched TG youth, and five key informants participated in a study to evaluate program effectiveness in improving life skills and preventing HIV infection. Chrysalis members scored…

  18. School-Based Caries Prevention, Tooth Decay, and the Community Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, R R; Niederman, R

    2018-04-01

    The school and community context can contribute to inequity in child oral health. Whether the school and community affect the effectiveness of school-based caries prevention is unknown. The association between the school and community environment and dental caries, as well as their moderating effects with school-based caries prevention, was assessed using multilevel mixed-effects regression. Data were derived from a 6-y prospective cohort study of children participating in a school-based caries prevention program. For the school and community, living in a dental-shortage area and the proportion of children receiving free or reduced lunch were significantly related to an increased risk of dental caries at baseline. Caries prevention was associated with a significant per-visit decrease in the risk of untreated caries, but the rate of total caries experience increased over time. Caries prevention was more effective in children who had prior dental care at baseline and in schools with a higher proportion of low socioeconomic status students. There was significant variation across schools in the baseline prevalence of dental caries and the effect of prevention over time, although effects were modest. The school and community environment have a direct impact on oral health and moderate the association between school-based caries prevention and dental caries. Knowledge Transfer Statement: School-based caries prevention can be an effective means to reduce oral health inequity by embedding dental care within schools. However, the socioeconomic makeup of schools and characteristics of the surrounding community can affect the impact of school-based care.

  19. Análisis de coste-beneficio de un programa de prevención del tabaquismo en escolares Cost-benefit analysis of a school-based smoking prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Hormigo Amaro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar la eficiencia de un programa de prevención del tabaquismo en escolares de Barcelona (programa PASE.bcn. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis de coste-beneficio. Como costes se incluyeron los derivados del diseño y la ejecución del programa. Como beneficios se contabilizaron los costes sanitarios y las pérdidas de productividad evitados. La perspectiva de análisis es la social y el año de referencia es 2005. Resultados: Estimando una efectividad del 1%, el programa PASE.bcn lograría un beneficio anual de 1.558.311,46 €. Los beneficios sanitarios por fumador evitado son de 1997,57 €, mientras que los beneficios indirectos por fumador evitado son de 21.260,80 €. Dado que el coste del programa es de 68.526,03 €, la razón beneficio-coste del programa es de 22,74. Conclusiones: Los programas de prevención del tabaquismo en escolares generan un beneficio para la sociedad muy superior a sus costes. Los resultados justifican la aplicación universal de este tipo de programas.Objective: To analyze the efficiency of a school-based smoking prevention program in Barcelona (PASE.bcn program. Methods: A cost-benefit analysis was performed. As costs we included those corresponding to the design and implementation of the program. As benefits we considered healthcare costs and the productivity losses avoided. This study was conducted from a societal perspective, and the estimations of costs and benefits related to 2005. Results: Assuming an effectiveness of 1%, the PASE.bcn program would achieve a total benefit of 1,558,311.46 €. The healthcare benefits per prevented smoker were 1997.57 €, and the indirect benefits per prevented smoker were 21,260.80 €. Given the total cost of the school-based program (68,526.03 €, the cost-benefit ratio was 22.74. Conclusions: From a societal perspective, the benefits of school-based tobacco prevention programs, in terms of healthcare costs and productivity losses avoided, are far

  20. Evaluation of a Dutch school-based depression prevention program for youths in highrisk neighborhoods: study protocol of a two-armed randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindt Karlijn CM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that depression prevention programs attenuate the development of symptoms of depression in adolescents. To implement these programs on a large scale, implementation in a school setting with teachers providing the programs is needed. In the present study, the effectiveness of the Dutch depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK provided by school teachers during school hours with adolescents from high risk neighborhoods will be tested. The mediating effects of cognitive distortions and alexithymia will be evaluated as well. We hypothesize that the OVK program will prevent or decrease reported depressive symptoms, and that this association will be mediated by cognitive distortions and alexithymia. Methods/Design Schools with at least 30% of their pupils living in low income areas in the Netherlands are invited to participate in the study. Classes from vocational training up to pre-university level are eligible and 1324 adolescents (11-14 years will be participating in the study. Randomisation will be done at class level, randomly assigning participants to an intervention group (OVK and a control group (care as usual, stratifying by school level (high versus low. Trained school teachers will be delivering the program, which covers cognitive-behavioral and social problem-solving skills. Longitudinal data will be collected with self-report measurements administered in the school setting at baseline, post intervention and at two follow ups (at 6 and 12 months. Primary outcome is the level of depressive symptoms, and secondary outcomes include: cognitive errors, response style, attributional style, alexithymia, stressful life events, substance use, happiness, and school grades. Discussion If the OVK program proves to be effective when it is provided by school teachers, a structural implementation of the program in the school curriculum will enhance the quality of the lives of adolescents and their

  1. Effects of a randomized controlled trial to assess the six-months effects of a school based smoking prevention program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mutaz; Eggers, Sander Matthijs; Alotaiby, Fahad F; de Vries, Nanne; de Vries, Hein

    2016-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of a smoking prevention program which aimed to address smoking related cognitions and smoking behavior among Saudi adolescents age 13 to 15. A randomized controlled trial was used. Respondents in the experimental group (N=698) received five in-school sessions, while those in the control group (N=683) received no smoking prevention information (usual curriculum). Post-intervention data was collected six months after baseline. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess effects on smoking initiation, and linear regression analysis was applied to assess changes in beliefs and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess intervention effects. All analyses were adjusted for the nested structure of students within schools. At post-intervention respondents from the experimental group reported in comparison with those from the control group a significantly more negative attitude towards smoking, stronger social norms against smoking, higher self-efficacy towards non-smoking, more action planning to remain a non-smoker, and lower intentions to smoke in the future. Smoking initiation was 3.2% in the experimental group and 8.8% in the control group (pnon-smoking cognitions and non-smoking behavior. Therefore it is recommended to implement the program at a national level in Saudi-Arabia. Future studies are recommended to assess long term program effects and the conditions favoring national implementation of the program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. School-Based Programs Aimed at the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity: Evidence-Based Interventions for Youth in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K.; Nagle, Brian J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Barquera, Simon; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be…

  3. Assessing the sustained impact of a school-based obesity prevention program for adolescent boys: the ATLAS cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Dally, Kerry A; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-08-20

    Obesity prevention interventions targeting 'at-risk' adolescents are urgently needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sustained impact of the 'Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time' (ATLAS) obesity prevention program. Cluster RCT in 14 secondary schools in low-income communities of New South Wales, Australia. Participants were 361 adolescent boys (aged 12-14 years) 'at risk' of obesity. The intervention was based on Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory and involved: professional development, fitness equipment for schools, teacher-delivered physical activity sessions, lunch-time activity sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies. Assessments for the primary (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference) and secondary outcomes were conducted at baseline, 8- (post-intervention) and 18-months (follow-up). Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle using linear mixed models. After 18-months, there were no intervention effects for BMI or waist circumference. Sustained effects were found for screen-time, resistance training skill competency, and motivational regulations for school sport. There were no clinically meaningful intervention effects for the adiposity outcomes. However, the intervention resulted in sustained effects for secondary outcomes. Interventions that more intensively target the home environment, as well as other socio-ecological determinants of obesity may be needed to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents from low-income communities. Australian Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12612000978864.

  4. [The Barbie-Matrix: effectiveness of a school-based German program for the primary prevention of anorexia nervosa developed for girls up to the age of 12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Uwe; Joseph, Andrea; Sowa, Melanie; Strauss, Bernhard

    2007-06-01

    More than 25 % of the 12-year-old girls in Thuringia (Germany) show problematic eating behaviour as measured with the Eating-Attitudes-Test (EAT-26D), which corresponds to an increased risk for the development of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. This was the starting position of a controlled study using a pre-post-design to check the effectiveness of a newly developed German program for the prevention of anorexia nervosa in girls ("PriMa"). 42 Thuringian schools (20 as treatment group) with 1006 girls participated in the pilot study, which lasted from September 2004 to July 2005. Program effectiveness was analysed with mostly standardized questionnaires at three times of measurement (before, after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up) referring to body related self esteem (FBeK), satisfaction with body shape (KEDS), eating behaviour (EAT-26D) and body related attitudes. The program was established in 9 x 90-minute lessons including interactive exercises and discussing especially developed posters that show scenes of a Barbie-doll's life including the reports of a patient suffering from anorexia. Significant improvements on all variables could be reached for the higher risk group (EAT-26D >/= 10 points; = 26,7 %). Mean values in the EAT-26D decreased 5 points at the average which is equivalent with 6.6 % of the EAT-26D range, reflecting a practically significant change effect.

  5. Effect of nutrition changes on foods selected by students in a middle school-based diabetes prevention intervention program: the HEALTHY experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C; Stadler, Diane D; Staten, Myrlene A; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-02-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and à la carte venues are compared to the experience of control schools. The intervention was implemented in 21 middle schools from winter 2007 through spring 2009 (following a cohort of students from sixth through eighth grades); 21 schools acted as observed controls. The nutrition component targeted school food service environmental change. Data identifying foods and nutrients served (selected by students for consumption) were collected over a 20-day period at baseline and end of study. Analysis compared end of study values for intervention versus control schools. Intervention schools more successfully limited dessert and snack food portion size in NSLP and à la carte and lowered fat content of foods served. Servings of high-fiber grain-based foods and/or legumes were improved in SBP but not NSLP. Intervention and control schools eliminated >1% fat milk and added-sugar beverages in SBP, but intervention schools were more successful in NSLP and à la carte. The HEALTHY program demonstrated significant changes in the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served in the SBP, NSLP, and à la carte venues, as part of an effort to decrease childhood obesity and support beneficial effects in some secondary HEALTHY study outcomes. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. High impact of implementation on school-based smoking prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    prevention trial-the X:IT study. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic...... into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking...... questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). INTERVENTION: The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school...

  7. A Formative Evaluation of Healthy Habits, Healthy U: A Collaborative School-Based Cancer Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alicia; Spear, Caile; Pritchard, Mary; George, Kayla; Young, Kyle; Smith, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Healthy Habits, Healthy U (HHHU) is a two-day school-based primary prevention cancer education program that uses interactive classroom presentations designed to help students learn how to reduce their cancer risks. HHHU is a collaboration between a local cancer hospital, school district and university. HHHU incorporates real cancerous and…

  8. School-based suicide prevention: content, process, and the role of trusted adults and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shashank V; Hartley, Samantha N; Kessler, Moira; Barstead, Maura

    2015-04-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death in youth, and numerous curricula and other prevention and intervention programs have been developed in the last 15 years. Comprehensive suicide prevention planning should include the 4 components of health promotion, prevention/education, intervention, and postvention. School-based suicide prevention and mental health education programs have become more common as an efficient and cost-effective way to reach youth. Process considerations that are based on the principles of therapeutic engagement with patients and families can provide mental health professionals with strategies that can assist education professionals, students, and the larger school community simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Child and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: School-Based Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…

  10. Systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent smoking for girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among

  11. A School-Based Dental Program Evaluation: Comparison to the Massachusetts Statewide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, Corinna S; Kotelchuck, Milton; Declercq, Eugene; Kuhlthau, Karen; Jones, Kari; Yoder, Karen M

    2017-10-01

    School-based dental programs target high-risk communities and reduce barriers to obtaining dental services by delivering care to students in their schools. We describe the evaluation of a school-based dental program operating in Chelsea, a city north of Boston, with a low-income and largely minority population, by comparing participants' oral health to a Massachusetts oral health assessment. Standardized dental screenings were conducted for students in kindergarten, third, and sixth grades. Outcomes were compared in bivariate analysis, stratified by grade and income levels. A greater percentage of Chelsea students had untreated decay and severe treatment need than students statewide. Yet, fewer Chelsea third graders had severe treatment need, and more had dental sealants. There was no significant difference in the percentage of Chelsea students having severe treatment need or dental sealants by income level. Students participating in our program do not have lower decay levels than students statewide. However, they do have lower levels of severe treatment need, likely due to treatment referrals. Our results confirm that school-based prevention programs can lead to increased prevalence of dental sealants among high-risk populations. Results provide support for the establishment of full-service school-based programs in similar communities. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  12. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available as at August 2014. A total of 20 journal articles were relevant to the review. Research supported programs with longer durations (3 hours or more). Most programs taught resuscitation alone and few included content that was context-specific and relevant to the target group. The training experience of the facilitator did not appear to impact on student outcomes. Incorporating both practical and didactic components was found to be an important factor in delivering material and facilitating the retention of knowledge. Educational resources and facilitator training were found to be common features of effective programs. The review supports first aid in school curriculum and provides details of key components pertinent to design of school-based first aid programs. The findings suggest that first aid training may have benefits wider than the uptake and retention of knowledge and skills. There is a need for future research, particularly randomized controlled trials to aid in identifying best practice approaches. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  13. Engaging Mexican Origin Families in a School-Based Preventive Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Anne M.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Millsap, Roger E.; Meza, Connie M.; Dumka, Larry E.; Germán, Miguelina; Genalo, M. Toni

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a culturally sensitive approach to engage Mexican origin families in a school-based, family-focused preventive intervention trial. The approach was evaluated via assessing study enrollment and intervention program participation, as well as examining predictors of engagement at each stage. Incorporating traditional cultural values into all aspects of engagement resulted in participation rates higher than reported rates of minority-focused trials not emphasizing cultural sensitivity. Family preferred language (English or Spanish) or acculturation status predicted engagement at all levels, with less acculturated families participating at higher rates. Spanish-language families with less acculturated adolescents participated at higher rates than Spanish-language families with more acculturated adolescents. Other findings included two-way interactions between family language and the target child’s familism values, family single- vs. dual-parent status, and number of hours the primary parent worked in predicting intervention participation. Editors’ Strategic Implications: The authors present a promising approach—which requires replication—to engaging and retaining Mexican American families in a school-based prevention program. The research also highlights the importance of considering acculturation status when implementing and studying culturally tailored aspects of prevention models. PMID:18004659

  14. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process evaluations of large-scale school based programs are necessary to aid in the interpretation of the outcome data. The Louisiana Health (LA Health) study is a multi-component childhood obesity prevention study for middle school children. The Physical Education (PEQ), Intervention (IQ), and F...

  15. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Interventions Aimed to Prevent or Reduce Violence in Teen Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rue, Lisa; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of violence in dating relationships has a significant impact on young people, including decreased mental and physical health. This review is the first to provide a quantitative synthesis of empirical evaluations of school-based programs implemented in middle and high schools that sought to prevent or reduce incidents of dating…

  16. A qualitative study exploring adolescents' experiences with a school-based mental health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K

    2015-10-21

    Supporting positive mental health development in adolescents is a major public health concern worldwide. Although several school-based programs aimed at preventing depression have been launched, it is crucial to evaluate these programs and to obtain feedback from participating adolescents. This study aimed to explore adolescents' experiences with a -based cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program. Eighty-nine adolescents aged 13-15 years were divided into 12 focus groups. The focus group interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three categories and eight subcategories were found to be related to the experience of the school-based program. The first category, intrapersonal strategies, consisted of the subcategories of directed thinking, improved self-confidence, stress management, and positive activities. The second category, interpersonal awareness, consisted of the subcategories of trusting the group and considering others. The third category, structural constraints, consisted of the subcategories of negative framing and emphasis on performance. The school-based mental health program was perceived as beneficial and meaningful on both individual and group levels, but students expressed a desire for a more health-promoting approach.

  17. Adolescent neurocognitive development, self-regulation, and school-based drug use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Black, David S; Zaman, Adnin; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Sussman, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is marked by several key development-related changes, including neurocognitive changes. Cognitive abilities associated with self-regulation are not fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood whereas tendencies to take risks and seek thrilling and novel experience seem to increase significantly throughout this phase, resulting in a discrepancy between increased susceptibility to poor regulation and lower ability to exercise self-control. Increased vulnerability to drug use initiation, maintenance, and dependence during adolescence may be explained based on this imbalance in the self-regulation system. In this paper, we highlight the relevance of schools as a setting for delivering adolescent drug use prevention programs that are based on recent findings from neuroscience concerning adolescent brain development. We discuss evidence from school-based as well as laboratory research that suggests that suitable training may improve adolescents' executive brain functions that underlie self-regulation abilities and, as a result, help prevent drug use and abuse. We note that considerable further research is needed in order (1) to determine that self-regulation training has effects at the neurocognitive level and (2) to effectively incorporate self-regulation training based on neuropsychological models into school-based programming.

  18. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  19. The theoretical model of the school-based prevention programme Unplugged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrucci, Serena; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D; van der Kreeft, Peer; Vassara, Maro; Scatigna, Maria; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Burkhart, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Unplugged is a school-based prevention programme designed and tested in the EU-Dap trial. The programme consists of 12 units delivered by class teachers to adolescents 12-14 years old. It is a strongly interactive programme including a training of personal and social skills with a specific focus on normative beliefs. The aim of this work is to define the theoretical model of the program, the contribution of the theories to the units, and the targeted mediators. The programme integrates several theories: Social Learning, Social Norms, Health Belief, theory of Reasoned Action-Attitude, and Problem Behaviour theory. Every theory contributes to the development of the units' contents, with specific weights. Knowledge, risk perception, attitudes towards drugs, normative beliefs, critical and creative thinking, relationship skills, communication skills, assertiveness, refusal skills, ability to manage emotions and to cope with stress, empathy, problem solving and decision making skills are the targeted mediators of the program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Indian students' perspectives on obesity and school-based obesity prevention: a qualitative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel; Tewari, Abha; Stigler, Melissa; Rodrigues, Lindsay; Arora, Monika; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Simmons, Rob; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2013-11-01

    Childhood obesity has recently been reported as a growing problem in low- and middle-income countries. One potential prevention strategy is to apply effective obesity prevention approaches from the United States and/or other Western countries into programs that can be implemented in developing countries such as India. The purpose of this study was to explore Indian students' perceptions of social-contextual factors related to obesity and whether they perceived a role for school-based obesity prevention. This study was conducted as a first step in a model to translate interventions from one culture to another. A total of 183 fourth- and fifth-grade students of middle socioeconomic status participated in focus group discussions. Analyses were guided by the essential principles of qualitative research and informed by social cognitive and social ecological theories. Results yielded five relevant themes: (a) student health behavior knowledge, (b) parental influence on health behavior, (c) school influence on health behavior, (d) media influence on health behavior, and (e) contexts for health promotion intervention. We found that students had moderate knowledge related to health behaviors (i.e., food intake and physical activity); that parents, schools, and the media are all important contributors to healthy and unhealthy behavior; and that schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity. Results suggest that Indian middle socioeconomic status students are already moderately aware of the health benefits to nutritious food intake and physical activity, but parents, schools, and the media can influence unhealthy behaviors.

  1. [Process evaluation in relation to effectiveness assessment: experiences with school-based programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Carles; Villalbí, Joan R; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Nebot, Manel

    2011-06-01

    Evaluation of public health interventions usually focus on the quality of design and research methods, and less on the quality of the intervention or process evaluation. In process evaluation of school-based interventions, key issues are how completely the intervention is carried out and adherence to the protocol. In addition, exploration of intermediate variables, such as those that influence (and often predict) preventable behavior, is highly useful. This article describes the basic concepts in this topic, using examples of the effectiveness of some preventive interventions carried out in schools. The interventions discussed were mainly quasi-experimental studies, based on data from programs promoted by public health teams in the city of Barcelona. Data from process evaluation of preventive programs in secondary schools that underwent formal assessment of their effectiveness is provided. The examples are drawn from preventive programs of HIV infection or unprotected sexual intercourse (PRESSEC program) and drug consumption prevention (the PASE, PASE.bcn and x kpts programs). These examples show why the intervention process influences the impact of the programs and their results. Thorough planning of process evaluation is essential to obtain valid indicators that will identify, in the effectiveness evaluation of the intervention, the most efficacious strategies to obtain positive outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Salud Pública y Administración Sanitaria. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. The health Oriented pedagogical project (HOPP) - a controlled longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Per Morten; Hjelle, Ole Petter; Mamen, Asgeir; Meza, Trine J; Westerberg, Ane C

    2017-04-28

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD's is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545) with two control schools (n = 752); all aged 6-11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA) of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP) and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c). In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL), mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 ) as of June 20 th - 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.

  3. The health Oriented pedagogical project (HOPP - a controlled longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Morten Fredriksen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD’s is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. Methods The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545 with two control schools (n = 752; all aged 6–11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c. In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL, mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. Discussion HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. Trial registration The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 as of June 20th – 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.

  4. Investigating Stakeholder Attitudes and Opinions on School-Based Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodulman, Jessica A.; Starling, Randall; Kong, Alberta S.; Buller, David B.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Woodall, W. Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background: In several countries worldwide, school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs have been successful; however, little research has explored US stakeholders' acceptance toward school-based HPV vaccination programs. Methods: A total of 13 focus groups and 12 key informant interviews (N?=?117; 85% females; 66% racial/ethnic…

  5. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Programs in Schools: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of childhood asthma management through school-based clinic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Teresa; Bame, Sherry I

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is a leading chronic illness among American children. School-based health clinics (SBHCs) reduced expensive ER visits and hospitalizations through better healthcare access and monitoring in select case studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-benefit of SBHC programs in managing childhood asthma nationwide for reduction in medical costs of ER, hospital and outpatient physician care and savings in opportunity social costs of lowing absenteeism and work loss and of future earnings due to premature deaths. Eight public data sources were used to compare costs of delivering primary and preventive care for childhood asthma in the US via SBHC programs, including direct medical and indirect opportunity costs for children and their parents. The costs of nurse staffing for a nationwide SBHC program were estimated at $4.55 billion compared to the estimated medical savings of $1.69 billion, including ER, hospital, and outpatient care. In contrast, estimated total savings for opportunity costs of work loss and premature death were $23.13 billion. Medical savings alone would not offset the expense of implementing a SBHC program for prevention and monitoring childhood asthma. However, even modest estimates of reducing opportunity costs of parents' work loss would be far greater than the expense of this program. Although SBHC programs would not be expected to affect the increasing prevalence of childhood asthma, these programs would be designed to reduce the severity of asthma condition with ongoing monitoring, disease prevention and patient compliance.

  7. School-Based and Community-Based Gun Safety Educational Strategies for Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Cheryl; Porter, Sallie; Kamienski, Mary; Lim, Aubrianne

    2018-05-01

    Nearly 1,300 children in the United States die because of firearm-related injury each year and another 5,790 survive gunshot wounds, making the prevention of firearm-related unintentional injury to children of vital importance to families, health professionals, and policy makers. To systematically review the evidence on school-based and community-based gun safety programs for children aged 3 to 18 years. Systematic review. Twelve databases were searched from their earliest records to December 2016. Interventional and analytic studies were sought, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, as well as before-and-after studies or cohort studies with or without a control that involved an intervention. The low level of evidence, heterogeneity of studies, and lack of consistent outcome measures precluded a pooled estimate of results. A best evidence synthesis was performed. Results support the premise that programs using either knowledge-based or active learning strategies or a combination of these may be insufficient for teaching gun safety skills to children. Gun safety programs do not improve the likelihood that children will not handle firearms in an unsupervised situation. Stronger research designs with larger samples are needed to determine the most effective way to transfer the use of the gun safety skills outside the training session and enable stronger conclusions to be drawn.

  8. Letter to the editor regarding "Study design of 'Friends for Life': a process and effect evaluation of an indicated school-based prevention program": response to Lima et al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kösters MP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mia P Kösters,1 Mai JM Chinapaw,2 Marieke Zwaanswijk,3 Marcel F van der Wal,1 Hans M Koot4,51Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Public Health Service of Amsterdam (GGD, Amsterdam, 2Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, 3NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, 4Department of Developmental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, VU University, Amsterdam, 5EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsWe would like to respond to the paper "Childhood depression: a systematic review", recently published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment by Lima et al.1 The aforementioned paper presents a systematic review of childhood depression and refers several times to our paper, "Study design of ‘FRIENDS for Life’: a process and effect evaluation of an indicated school-based prevention programme for childhood anxiety and depression", published in BMC Public Health by Kösters et al.2 Unfortunately we noted a number of erroneous statements about our paper. We will address these in order of appearance.View original paper by Lima and colleagues.

  9. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Method: Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available…

  10. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  11. Evaluation of school-based reproductive health education program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Taskin, Lale

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of school-based reproductive health education for adolescent girls on the reproductive knowledge level of the girls. This research was carried out as a quasi-experimental study at two vocational girls high schools, one of which was used as the study school and the other as the control school. The study group (97 students) consisted of three classes representing every grade. The control group consisted of students selected likewise (92 students). Reproductive health education was given to students in the study group for 10 weeks; the control group was not subjected to any educational program. The impact of the program was evaluated with reproductive health knowledge test designed for this study. A pretest evaluated baseline knowledge, and a posttest measured the gain in knowledge. Baseline knowledge score of students in study and control group were similar and low (p > 0.05). We found that the reproductive health knowledge level of students in the study group increased significantly after the program of education. Post-test knowledge scores (75.03 +/- 13.82) of the students in the study group were higher than those of the control group (36.65 +/- 14.17). The results showed students' low baseline knowledge and a good ability to learn. A school-based reproductive health education is needed to promote knowledge and prevention in reproductive health among teenagers.

  12. School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Health and Economic Impact of Maine's 2009 Influenza Vaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Meltzer, Martin I; Mills, Dora A; Beeler Asay, Garrett R; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Graitcer, Samuel B; Dube, Nancy L; Thompson, Mark G; Patel, Suchita A; Peasah, Samuel K; Ferdinands, Jill M; Gargiullo, Paul; Messonnier, Mark; Shay, David K

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the societal economic and health impacts of Maine's school-based influenza vaccination (SIV) program during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. Primary and secondary data covering the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons. We estimated weekly monovalent influenza vaccine uptake in Maine and 15 other states, using difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis to assess the program's impact on immunization among six age groups. We also developed a health and economic Markov microsimulation model and conducted Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis. We used national survey data to estimate the impact of the SIV program on vaccine coverage. We used primary data and published studies to develop the microsimulation model. The program was associated with higher immunization among children and lower immunization among adults aged 18-49 years and 65 and older. The program prevented 4,600 influenza infections and generated $4.9 million in net economic benefits. Cost savings from lower adult vaccination accounted for 54 percent of the economic gain. Economic benefits were positive in 98 percent of Monte Carlo simulations. SIV may be a cost-beneficial approach to increase immunization during pandemics, but programs should be designed to prevent lower immunization among nontargeted groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the PATHS curriculum. Promoting Alternative THinking Skills Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Chi-Ming; Greenberg, Mark T; Walls, Carla T

    2003-03-01

    In order for empirically validated school-based prevention programs to "go to scale," it is important to understand the processes underlying program dissemination. Data collected in effectiveness trials, especially those measuring the quality of program implementation and administrative support, are valuable in explicating important factors influencing implementation. This study describes findings regarding quality of implementation in a recent effectiveness trial conducted in a high-risk, American urban community. This delinquency prevention trial is a locally owned intervention, which used the Promoting Alternative THinking Skills Curriculum as its major program component. The intervention involved 350 first graders in 6 inner-city public schools. Three schools implemented the intervention and the other 3 were comparison schools from the same school district. Although intervention effects were not found for all the intervention schools, the intervention was effective in improving children's emotional competence and reducing their aggression in schools which effectively supported the intervention. This study, utilizing data from the 3 intervention schools (13 classrooms and 164 students), suggested that 2 factors contributed to the success of the intervention: (a) adequate support from school principals and (b) high degree of classroom implementation by teachers. These findings are discussed in light of the theory-driven models in program evaluation that emphasized the importance of the multiple factors influencing the implementation of school-based interventions.

  14. Reducing School Violence: School-Based Curricular Programs and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.

  15. Engaging Stakeholders in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Regarding School-Based Sealant Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Gillette, Jane

    2018-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to describe the key lessons learned during the stakeholder engagement stage of planning a randomized clinical trial comparing outcomes of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) as an alternative to pit-and-fissure sealants in a school-based delivery system. Methods: Eighteen caregivers and community-based stakeholders with involvement in the school-based sealant program Sealants for Smiles from the state of Montana, were recruited for this qualitative study. United States (U.S.) Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) methodology standards were used to develop two semi-structured interview guides consisting of 6 questions. One interview guide was used for telephone interviews with caregivers and the second was used for a stakeholder focus group. Content analytic methods were used to analyze the data. Results: All participants believed that a study comparing SDF and sealants was clinically relevant. Non-caregiver stakeholders agreed with the proposed primary outcome of the study (caries prevention) whereas caregivers also emphasized the importance of child-centered outcomes such as minimizing dental anxiety associated with dental care. Stakeholders described potential concerns associated with SDF such as staining and perceptions of safety and discussed ways to address these concerns through community engagement, appropriate framing of the study, proper consent procedures, and ongoing safety monitoring during the trial. Finally, stakeholders suggested dissemination strategies such as direct communication of findings through professional organizations and encouraging insurance plans to incentivize SDF use by reimbursing dental providers. Conclusions: Involving key stakeholders in early planning is essential in developing patient-centered research questions, outcomes measures, study protocols, and dissemination plans for oral health research involving a school-based delivery system. Copyright © 2018

  16. Tobacco use related attitudes and behaviors in Indian Adolescents: association with school-based prevention education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Khubchandani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent tobacco use in India has increased substantially within the past few decades. Schools can serve as an important avenue for prevention education, but little is known about the current practices of Indian schools in relation to tobacco use prevention education. Methods: To assess the extent and influence tobacco use prevention education in Indian schools,we analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data for India, which was a population-based study of a national random sample of 10112 students from 180 private and public schools.Variables such as student demographic profile, tobacco use behavior, perceptions about tobacco use, and exposure to school-based tobacco use prevention education were considered for analyses. Results: Prevalence of any form of tobacco use (14% and current smoking (8% was found to differ by gender. A quarter of the students believed that boys who smoke are more attractive or have more friends compared to non-smokers, and almost half of the students reported that smoking and health were never discussed as a part of a lesson in school. The association between school-based prevention education and tobacco use behavior was assessed (after adjustment forage, gender, and parental smoking. Students who were educated in school about tobacco use and its effects were significantly more likely to have negative attitude toward tobacco use and less likely to report use of tobacco. Conclusion: School-based tobacco use prevention education has beneficial influence on adolescents in India. Given the early age of initiation of tobacco use, school curricula in India should emphasize on tobacco use prevention education.

  17. 45 CFR 2516.600 - How are funds for school-based service-learning programs distributed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are funds for school-based service-learning... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Distribution of Funds § 2516.600 How are funds for school-based service-learning programs distributed? (a) Of...

  18. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a rural school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert L; Thomson, Jessica L; Rau, Kristi K; Ragusa, Shelly A; Sample, Alicia D; Singleton, Nakisha N; Anton, Stephen D; Webber, Larry S; Williamson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of intervention components of the Louisiana Health study, which was a multicomponent childhood obesity prevention program conducted in rural schools. Content analysis. Process evaluation assessed implementation in classrooms, gym classes, and cafeterias. Classroom teachers (n  =  232), physical education teachers (n  =  53), food service managers (n  =  33), and trained observers (n  =  9). Five process evaluation measures were created: Physical Education Questionnaire (PEQ), Intervention Questionnaire (IQ), Food Service Manager Questionnaire (FSMQ), Classroom Observation (CO), and School Nutrition Environment Observation (SNEO). Interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on all measures. Analysis of variance and χ(2) were used to compare differences across study groups on questionnaires and observations. The PEQ and one subscale from the FSMQ were eliminated because their reliability coefficients fell below acceptable standards. The subscale internal consistencies for the IQ, FSMQ, CO, and SNEO (all Cronbach α > .60) were acceptable. After the initial 4 months of intervention, there was evidence that the Louisiana Health intervention was being implemented as it was designed. In summary, four process evaluation measures were found to be sufficiently reliable and valid for assessing the delivery of various aspects of a school-based obesity prevention program. These process measures could be modified to evaluate the delivery of other similar school-based interventions.

  19. A Marketing Plan for Recruiting Students into Pharmacy School-based Graduate Programs. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdford, David A.; Stratton, Timothy P.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines a marketing plan for recruiting students into pharmacy school-based graduate programs, particularly into social and administrative sciences. Addresses challenges and opportunities when recruiting, the need to clearly define the "product" that graduate programs are trying to sell to potential students, types of students…

  20. Predicting the life-time benefit of school-based smoking prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Aveyard, Paul; Barton, Pelham; Meads, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    School-based smoking prevention programmes may delay the age of smoking initiation, but do not appear to achieve lasting reductions in smoking prevalence beyond school-leaving age. We explored whether delaying the age at which someone initiates smoking may have life-time benefits by increasing the likelihood of quitting in later life. Data from the General Household Survey of Great Britain were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between age at which someone initiates regular smoking and the probability that the person will quit smoking later in life. The effect of confounding variables (sex, ethnicity, socio-economic class, education and geographical location) was taken into account. The predicted relationship was used in a cohort model to estimate the life-time reduction in smoking prevalence and all-cause mortality of a school-based smoking prevention programme. Age of regular smoking initiation was associated strongly with the probability of quitting later in life (coefficient -0.103, P < 0.001). The strength of the association was slightly reduced but still significant when confounding variables were included (coefficient -0.075, P < 0.001). An intervention that delays smoking initiation without decreasing smoking prevalence at age 18 may reduce adult smoking prevalence by 0.13-0.32% (depending on age) and all-cause mortality by 0.09% over the life-time of the sample. School-based smoking prevention programmes have potential for a beneficial effect over the life-time of the participants even if they have no apparent effect at school-leaving age.

  1. School Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Aid Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…

  2. Roles of the State Asthma Program in Implementing Multicomponent, School-Based Asthma Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Laura L.; Wilce, Maureen A.; Gill, Sarah A.; Disler, Sheri L.; Collins, Pamela; Crawford, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a leading chronic childhood disease in the United States and a major contributor to school absenteeism. Evidence suggests that multicomponent, school-based asthma interventions are a strategic way to address asthma among school-aged children. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourages the 36 health…

  3. School-Based Obesity-Prevention Policies and Practices and Weight-Control Behaviors among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Prevention of Cannabis Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogan, Charlotte; Zarabi, Natalie; Stenström, Nils; Högberg, Pi; Skärstrand, Eva; Manrique-Garcia, Edison; Neovius, Kristian; Månsdotter, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug globally. Despite increasing evidence that cannabis use is associated with adverse health effects, the knowledge on preventative strategies is still limited. This study stemmed from a systematic review of effective prevention in which school-based programmes were identified as promising. The primary objective was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of Project ALERT (Adolescent, Learning, Experiences, Resistance, and Training), compared with ordinary ATOD (Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug) education, among Swedish students in the eighth grade of compulsory school. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the societal perspective with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as an outcome (willingness-to-pay threshold €50,000) and follow-up periods from 1 year to a lifetime, considering a discounting rate of 3%, and with costs inflated to 2013 levels. A Markov model was constructed on the basis of the 'states' of single use, regular use, daily use and use of other illicit drugs, which were associated with 'complications' of psychosis, schizophrenia, traffic accidents, depression and amotivational syndrome. Health and cost consequences were linked to both states and complications. The programme was cost saving on the basis of evidence from the USA (ratio 1:1.1), and was cost effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio €22,384 per QALY) after reasonable adjustment for the Swedish context and with 20 years of follow-up. When the target group was restricted to boys who were neither studying nor working/doing work experience, the programme was cost effective after 9 years and cost saving (ratio 1:3.2) after 20 years. School-based prevention such as Project ALERT has the potential to be cost effective and to be cost saving if implemented in deprived areas. In the light of the shifting landscape regarding legalization of cannabis, it seems rational to continue the health economic analysis of prevention initiated

  5. Photoaging Mobile Apps in School-Based Tobacco Prevention: The Mirroring Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus Josef; Seeger, Werner; Buslaff, Fabian

    2016-06-28

    Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous. Adolescent smoking can best be prevented through health education at schools. Interventions that take advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance may be a novel way to improve prevention. In this first pilot study, we aimed to use mobile phone technology in accordance with the theory of planned behavior to improve school-based tobacco prevention. We used a free photoaging mobile phone app ("Smokerface") in three German secondary schools via a novel method called mirroring. The students' altered three-dimensional selfies on mobile phones or tablets were "mirrored" via a projector in front of their whole grade. Using an anonymous questionnaire, we then measured on a 5-point Likert scale the perceptions of the intervention among 125 students of both genders (average age 12.75 years). A majority of the students perceived the intervention as fun (77/125, 61.6%), claimed that the intervention motivated them not to smoke (79/125, 63.2%), and stated that they learned new benefits of non-smoking (81/125, 64.8%). Only a minority of students disagreed or fully disagreed that they learned new benefits of non-smoking (16/125, 12.8%) or that they were themselves motivated not to smoke (18/125, 14.4%). We have presented a novel method to integrate photoaging in school-based tobacco prevention that affects student peer groups and considers the predictors of smoking in accordance with the theory of planned behavior.

  6. 45 CFR 2516.300 - Who may participate in a school-based service-learning program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-learning program? 2516.300 Section 2516.300 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Eligibility To Participate § 2516.300 Who may participate in a school-based service-learning program? Students...

  7. 45 CFR 2516.100 - What is the purpose of school-based service-learning programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-learning programs? 2516.100 Section 2516.100 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Eligibility To Apply § 2516.100 What is the purpose of school-based service-learning programs? The purpose of...

  8. School-Based Mental Health Programs in the United States: Present Status and a Blueprint for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Reddy, Linda A.

    1998-01-01

    Provides overview of sociocultural and political factors in the United States that have influenced recent interest in school-based health and mental health programs. Describes four well-known programs and presents a new framework, the Tripartite Model of School-Based Mental Health Interventions, to stimulate thinking on future programs. Addresses…

  9. Grade Level and Gender Differences in a School-Based Reading Tutoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…

  10. A School-Based Program for Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pbert, Lori; Druker, Susan; Barton, Bruce; Schneider, Kristin L.; Olendzki, Barbara; Gapinski, Mary A.; Kurtz, Stephen; Osganian, Stavroula

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the dramatic increase in adolescent overweight and obesity, models are needed for implementing weight management treatment through readily accessible venues. We evaluated the acceptability and efficacy of a school-based intervention consisting of school nurse-delivered counseling and an afterschool exercise program in improving…

  11. Evaluating a School-Based Day Treatment Program for Students with Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Antoine Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Jade County Public Schools has provided school-based therapeutic day treatment in its public schools for more than 10 years. This program was adopted by the school system to provide an intervention in the school and classroom to address the challenging behaviors of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Currently, three human services…

  12. Cost Benefit of Comprehensive Primary and Preventive School-Based Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Connor, Katherine A; Mueller, Josiah M; Hong, Jonathan C; Velazquez, Gabriela Calderon; Johnson, Sara B

    2018-01-01

    The Rales Health Center is a comprehensive school-based health center at an urban elementary/middle school. Rales Health Center provides a full range of pediatric services using an enriched staffing model consisting of pediatrician, nurse practitioner, registered nurses, and medical office assistant. This staffing model provides greater care but costs more than traditional school-based health centers staffed by part-time nurses. The objective was to analyze the cost benefit of Rales Health Center enhanced staffing model compared with a traditional school-based health center (standard care), focusing on asthma care, which is among the most prevalent chronic conditions of childhood. In 2016, cost-benefit analysis using a decision tree determined the net social benefit of Rales Health Center compared with standard care from the U.S. societal perspective based on the 2015-2016 academic year. It was assumed that Rales Health Center could handle greater patient throughput related to asthma, decreased prescription costs, reduced parental resources in terms of missed work time, and improved student attendance. Univariate and multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. The expected cost to operate Rales Health Center was $409,120, compared with standard care cost of $172,643. Total monetized incremental benefits of Rales Health Center were estimated to be $993,414. The expected net social benefit for Rales Health Center was $756,937, which demonstrated substantial societal benefit at a return of $4.20 for every dollar invested. This net social benefit estimate was robust to sensitivity analyses. Despite the greater cost associated with the Rales Health Center's enhanced staffing model, the results of this analysis highlight the cost benefit of providing comprehensive, high-quality pediatric care in schools, particularly schools with a large proportion of underserved students. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  13. Healthy and Ready to Learn: Effects of a School-Based Public Health Insurance Outreach Program for Kindergarten-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jade Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Background: Rates of child insurance coverage have increased due to expansions in public programs, but many eligible children remain uninsured. Uninsured children are less likely to receive preventative care, which leads to poorer health and achievement in the long term. This study is an evaluation of a school-based health insurance outreach…

  14. The Influence of Organizational Culture on School-Based Obesity Prevention Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Kayla N; Solari Williams, Kayce D; Warren, Judith; McKyer, E Lisako Jones; Ory, Marcia G

    2018-06-01

    Although the influence of organizational culture has been examined on a variety of student outcomes, few studies consider the influence that culture may have on school-based obesity prevention interventions. We present a systematic review of the literature to examine how elements of organizational culture may affect the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions. Fourteen studies examining the impact of organizational-level characteristics on school-based obesity prevention interventions were identified through the online databases EBSCO (CINAHL, ERIC, Agricola), Web of Science, Medline (PubMed), and Scopus. Five themes were identified as elements of organizational culture that influence the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions: organizational response to limited resources, value placed on staff training and professional development, internal support, organizational values, and school climate. Organizational culture can greatly influence the success of school-based obesity interventions. The collection of data related to organizational-level factors may be used to identify strategies for creating and sustaining a supportive environment for obesity prevention interventions in the school setting. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  15. The Impact of a School-Based Cultural Awareness Program on Students Ethnic Identity and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Charley Alexandria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the influences of a school-based cultural awareness program on ethnic identity and self-esteem in fifth grade early adolescents. The development and implementation of a school-based cultural awareness program was intended to offer students a basic foundation for the development and/or…

  16. Evidence for the effectiveness of a national school-based mental health program in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Javier; Kessler, Ronald C; Squicciarini, Ana Maria; George, Myriam; Baer, Lee; Canenguez, Katia M; Abel, Madelaine R; McCarthy, Alyssa; Jellinek, Michael S; Murphy, J Michael

    2015-10-01

    Skills for Life (SFL) is the largest school-based mental health program in the world, screening and providing services to more than 1,000,000 students in Chile over the past decade. This is the first external evaluation of the program. Of the 8,372 primary schools in Chile in 2010 that received public funding, one-fifth (1,637) elected to participate in SFL. Each year, all first- and third-grade students in these schools are screened with validated teacher- and parent-completed measures of psychosocial functioning (the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Re-Revised [TOCA-RR] and the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-Chile [PSC-CL]). Students identified as being at risk on the TOCA-RR in first grade are referred to a standardized 10-session preventive intervention in second grade. This article explores the relationships between workshop participation and changes in TOCA-RR and PSC-CL scores, attendance, and promotion from third to fourth grades. In all, 16.4% of students were identified as being at-risk on the TOCA-RR. Statistically significant relationships were found between the number of workshop sessions attended and improvements in behavioral and academic outcomes after controlling for nonrandom selection into exposure and loss to follow-up. Effect sizes for the difference between attending most (7-10) versus fewer (0-6) sessions ranged from 0.08 to 0.16 standard deviations. This study provides empirical evidence that a large-scale mental health intervention early in schooling is significantly associated with improved behavioral and academic outcomes. Future research is needed to implement more rigorous experimental evaluation of the program, to examine longer-term effects, and to investigate possible predictors of heterogeneity of treatment response. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Life course impact of school-based promotion of healthy eating and active living to prevent childhood obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools is a comprehensive school health program that is proven feasible and effective in preventing obesity among school aged children. To support decision making on expanding this program, evidence on its long-term health and economic impacts is particularly critical. In the present study we estimate the life course impact of the APPLE Schools programs in terms of future body weights and avoided health care costs.We modeled growth rates of body mass index (BMI using longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey collected between 1996-2008. These growth rate characteristics were used to project BMI trajectories for students that attended APPLE Schools and for students who attended control schools (141 randomly selected schools in the Canadian province of Alberta.Throughout the life course, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity was 1.2% to 2.8% (1.7 on average less among students attending APPLE Schools relative to their peers attending control schools. The life course prevalence of obesity was 0.4% to 1.4% (0.8% on average less among APPLE Schools students. If the APPLE Schools program were to be scaled up, the potential cost savings would be $33 to 82 million per year for the province of Alberta, or $150 to 330 million per year for Canada.These projected health and economic benefits seem to support broader implementation of school-based health promotion programs.

  18. Long Live Love+: evaluation of the implementation of an online school-based sexuality education program in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje; de Waal, Esri; Kok, Gerjo

    2017-06-01

    Schools are a common setting for adolescents to receive health education, but implementation of these programs with high levels of completeness and fidelity is not self-evident. Programs that are only partially implemented (completeness) or not implemented as instructed (fidelity) are unlikely to be effective. Therefore, it is important to identify which determinants affect completeness and fidelity of program implementation. As part of the launch of Long Live Love+ (LLL+), an online school-based sexuality education program for adolescents aged 15-17, we performed a process evaluation among teachers and students to measure the levels of completeness and fidelity, identify factors influencing teachers' implementation, and to evaluate the students' response. Sixteen Biology teachers from nine secondary schools throughout the Netherlands who implemented LLL+ were interviewed and 60 students participated in 13 focus group discussions. Results showed that teachers' completeness ranged between 22-100% (M = 75%). Fidelity was high, but many teachers added elements. Teachers and students enjoyed LLL+, particularly the diversity in the exercises and its interactive character. The most important factors that influenced implementation were time and organizational constraints, lack of awareness on the impact of completeness and fidelity, and student response. These factors should be taken into account when developing school-based prevention programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Constraints on the performance of school-based dental program in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Amalia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of caries at ages ≥ 12 in Yogyakarta province (DMFT = 6.5, raises the question of the effectiveness of the school-based dental program (SBDP which, as a national oral health program in schools, is organized by community health centers (CHCs. Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore the possible constraints on work processes which might affect the performance of SBDPs in controlling caries. Methods: In-depth interviews was conducted in twelve CHCs, covering all five districts both in urban and rural areas. Subjects were 41 dentists and dental nurses working in these CHCs. The interviews were structured according to the following themes: resources and logistics; program planning; target achievement; monitoring and evaluation; and suggestions for possible improvements. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Results: The main constraints identified were limited resources and inflexible regulations for resource allocation in the CHC, and inadequate program planning and program evaluation. Inadequate participation of parents was also identified. Another constraint is thatpolicy at the district level orientates oral health towards curative intervention rather than prevention. Suggestions from interviewees include encouraging a policy for oral health, task delegation, a funding program using school health insurance, and a reorientation towards prevention. Conclusion: The weakness of management processes and the unsupported policy of the SBDP at the local level result in a lack of effectiveness. The constraints identified and suggestions for improvements could constitute a basis for improving program quality.Latar Belakang: Tingginya prevalensi karies pada usia ≥ 12 tahun (DMFT = 6.5 di Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY menimbulkan pertanyaan akan efektifitas Usaha Kesehatan Gigi Sekolah (UKGS. UKGS adalah salah satu program nasional di bidang kesehatan gigi dan mulut yang dilaksanakan oleh Puskesmas

  20. Universality properties of school-based preventive intervention targeted at cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovský, Michal; Voňková, Hana; Gabrhelík, Roman; Šťastná, Lenka

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of school-based preventive intervention on cannabis use in Czech adolescents with different levels of risk factors and provide evidence of its universality. A randomized controlled prevention trial with six waves was conducted over a period of 33 months. We used a two-level logistic random-intercept model for panel data; we first looked at the statistical significance of the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, controlling for the characteristics of the children and time dummies. Then we analyzed the effects of the interactions between the intervention and the characteristics of the children on cannabis use and related it to the definition of universal preventive interventions. The setting for the study was in basic schools in the Czech Republic in the years 2007-2010. A total of 1,874 sixth-graders (mean age 11.82 years) who completed the baseline testing. According to our results, the prevention intervention was effective. We found all the selected characteristics of the children to be relevant in relation to cannabis use, except their relationships with their friends. We showed empirically that the intervention is universal in two dimensions for the selected characteristics of the children. First, all adolescents who undergo the intervention are expected to benefit. Second, with respect to the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, the total level of individual risk of cannabis use is superior to the composition of the risk factors in the individual risk profile. We present indicative evidence that the drug prevention intervention may be considered a true universal preventive intervention.

  1. Suicide Prevention Programs in the Schools: A Review and Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Mazza, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of school-based suicide prevention programs from a public health perspective. A literature review of empirical studies examining school-based suicide prevention programs was conducted. Studies were required to contain information pertaining to the implementation and outcomes of a…

  2. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  3. The Child’s Voice in Determining Program Acceptability for a School-Based Mindfulness Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan McCabe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available School-based mindfulness interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing mental health symptoms. However, comparatively little research has investigated the acceptability of these programs from the perspective of the children. Program acceptability underpins engagement, and more engaging programs are also more efficacious (Cowan & Sheridan, 2003; Mautone et al., 2009 yet there is little literature which has considered the acceptability of school-based mindfulness programs. To address this gap, semi-structured interviews were conducted with upper primary aged children (N = 30 who had participated in a six week mindfulness program in four Australian primary schools. Thematic analysis of interviews revealed children found the program to be acceptable. Children reported that they enjoyed doing the mindfulness program, would recommend it to others, and learned about relaxing as well as felt relaxed while doing the program. Children also highlighted the use of culturally appropriate teaching materials and possible stigmatisation as threats to the acceptability of the program. The results of the study support the acceptability of mindfulness programs in school settings, grounded in the unique perspective of the child.

  4. School-based Yoga Programs in the United States: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Bethany; Ebert, Marina; Telles, Shirley; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2015-01-01

    Substantial interest has begun to emerge around the implementation of yoga interventions in schools. Researchers have found that yoga practices may enhance skills such as self-regulation and prosocial behavior, and lead to improvements in students' performance. These researchers, therefore, have proposed that contemplative practices have the potential to play a crucial role in enhancing the quality of US public education. The purpose of the present study was to provide a summary and comparison of school-based yoga programs in the United States. Online, listserv, and database searches were conducted to identify programs, and information was collected regarding each program's scope of work, curriculum characteristics, teacher-certification and training requirements, implementation models, modes of operation, and geographical regions. The online, listserv, and database searches took place in Boston, MA, USA, and New Haven, CT, USA. Thirty-six programs were identified that offer yoga in more than 940 schools across the United States, and more than 5400 instructors have been trained by these programs to offer yoga in educational settings. Despite some variability in the exact mode of implementation, training requirements, locations served, and grades covered, the majority of the programs share a common goal of teaching 4 basic elements of yoga: (1) physical postures, (2) breathing exercises, (3) relaxation techniques, and (4) mindfulness and meditation practices. The programs also teach a variety of additional educational, social-emotional, and didactic techniques to enhance students' mental and physical health and behavior. The fact that the present study was able to find a relatively large number of formal, school-based yoga programs currently being implemented in the United States suggests that the programs may be acceptable and feasible to implement. The results also suggest that the popularity of school-based yoga programs may continue to grow.

  5. Photoaging Mobile Apps in School-Based Melanoma Prevention: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus Josef; Brieske, Christian Martin; Schaefer, Christoph Matthias; Buslaff, Fabian; Gatzka, Martina; Petri, Maximilian Philip; Sondermann, Wiebke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Stoffels, Ingo; Klode, Joachim

    2017-09-08

    Around 90% of melanomas are caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and are therefore eminently preventable. Tanning behavior is mostly initiated in early adolescence, often with the belief that it increases attractiveness; the problems related to malignant melanoma and other skin cancers are too far in the future to fathom. Given the substantial amount of time children and adolescents spend in schools, as well as with their mobile phones, addressing melanoma prevention via both of these ways is crucial. However, no school-based intervention using mobile apps has been evaluated to date. We recently released a photoaging mobile app, in which a selfie is altered to predict future appearance dependent on UV protection behavior and skin type. In this pilot study, we aimed to use mobile phone technology to improve school-based melanoma prevention and measure its preliminary success in different subgroups of students with regard to their UV protection behavior, Fitzpatrick skin type and age. We implemented a free photoaging mobile phone app (Sunface) in 2 German secondary schools via a method called mirroring. We "mirrored" the students' altered 3-dimensional (3D) selfies reacting to touch on mobile phones or tablets via a projector in front of their whole grade. Using an anonymous questionnaire capturing sociodemographic data as well as risk factors for melanoma we then measured their perceptions of the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale among 205 students of both sexes aged 13-19 years (median 15 years). We measured more than 60% agreement in both items that measured motivation to reduce UV exposure and only 12.5% disagreement: 126 (63.0%) agreed or strongly agreed that their 3D selfie motivated them to avoid using a tanning bed, and 124 (61.7%) to increase use of sun protection. However, only 25 (12.5%) disagreed with both items. The perceived effect on motivation was increased in participants with Fitzpatrick skin types 1-2 in both tanning bed avoidance

  6. School-based Yoga Programs in the United States: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Bethany; Ebert, Marina; Telles, Shirley; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Substantial interest has begun to emerge around the implementation of yoga interventions in schools. Researchers have found that yoga practices may enhance skills such as self-regulation and prosocial behavior, and lead to improvements in students’ performance. These researchers, therefore, have proposed that contemplative practices have the potential to play a crucial role in enhancing the quality of US public education. Objective The purpose of the present study was to provide a summary and comparison of school-based yoga programs in the United States. Design Online, listserv, and database searches were conducted to identify programs, and information was collected regarding each program’s scope of work, curriculum characteristics, teacher-certification and training requirements, implementation models, modes of operation, and geographical regions. Setting The online, listserv, and database searches took place in Boston, MA, USA, and New Haven, CT, USA. Results Thirty-six programs were identified that offer yoga in more than 940 schools across the United States, and more than 5400 instructors have been trained by these programs to offer yoga in educational settings. Despite some variability in the exact mode of implementation, training requirements, locations served, and grades covered, the majority of the programs share a common goal of teaching 4 basic elements of yoga: (1) physical postures, (2) breathing exercises, (3) relaxation techniques, and (4) mindfulness and meditation practices. The programs also teach a variety of additional educational, social-emotional, and didactic techniques to enhance students’ mental and physical health and behavior. Conclusions The fact that the present study was able to find a relatively large number of formal, school-based yoga programs currently being implemented in the United States suggests that the programs may be acceptable and feasible to implement. The results also suggest that the popularity of school-based

  7. The Effectiveness of School-Based Nutritional Education Program among Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    In-Iw, Supinya; Saetae, Tridsanun; Manaboriboon, Boonying

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI), as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutri...

  8. School-based education programmes for the prevention of unintentional injuries in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Jessica; Mhizha-Murira, Jacqueline; Clarkson, Mandy; Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Staniforth, Joy Ul; Bhuchar, Munish; Kendrick, Denise

    2016-12-27

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children aged four to 18 years and are a major cause of ill health. The school setting offers the opportunity to deliver preventive interventions to a large number of children and has been used to address a range of public health problems. However, the effectiveness of the school setting for the prevention of different injury mechanisms in school-aged children is not well understood. To assess the effects of school-based educational programmes for the prevention of injuries in children and evaluate their impact on improving children's safety skills, behaviour and practices, and knowledge, and assess their cost-effectiveness. We ran the most recent searches up to 16 September 2016 for the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R); Embase and Embase Classic (Ovid); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded; ISI Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science; ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index; ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Sciences & Humanities; and the 14 October 2016 for the following electronic databases: Health Economics Evaluations Database (HEED); Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA); CINAHL Plus (EBSCO); ZETOC; LILACS; PsycINFO; ERIC; Dissertation Abstracts Online; IBSS; BEI; ASSIA; CSA Sociological Abstracts; Injury Prevention Web; SafetyLit; EconLit (US); PAIS; UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio; Open Grey; Index to Theses in the UK and Ireland; Bibliomap and TRoPHI. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs), and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies that evaluated school-based educational programmes aimed at preventing a range of injury mechanisms. The

  9. Effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-03-10

    To assess effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula keeping children never-smokers. Systematic review, meta-analysis. MEDLINE (1966+), EMBASE (1974+), Cinahl, PsycINFO (1967+), ERIC (1982+), Cochrane CENTRAL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts, conference proceedings. pooled analyses, fixed-effects models, adjusted ORs. Risk of bias assessed with Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. 50 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of school-based smoking curricula. Never-smokers age 5-18 (n=143,495); follow-up ≥6 months; all countries; no date/language limitations. Information, social influences, social competence, combined social influences/competence and multimodal curricula. Remaining a never-smoker at follow-up. Pooling all curricula, trials with follow-up ≤1 year showed no statistically significant differences compared with controls (OR 0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)), though trials of combined social competence/social influences curricula had a significant effect on smoking prevention (7 trials, OR 0.59 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.85)). Pooling all trials with longest follow-up showed an overall significant effect in favour of the interventions (OR 0.88 (0.82 to 0.95)), as did the social competence (OR 0.65 (0.43 to 0.96)) and combined social competence/social influences curricula (OR 0.60 (0.43 to 0.83)). No effect for information, social influences or multimodal curricula. Principal findings were not sensitive to inclusion of booster sessions in curricula or to whether they were peer-led or adult-led. Differentiation into tobacco-only or multifocal curricula had a similar effect on the primary findings. Few trials assessed outcomes by gender: there were significant effects for females at both follow-up periods, but not for males. RCTs of baseline never-smokers at longest follow-up found an overall significant effect with average 12% reduction in starting smoking compared with controls, but no effect for all trials pooled at ≤1 year. However, combined social

  10. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron

    2015-04-16

    Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both. In September 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and 11 other databases. We also searched two trials registers and screened the reference lists of previous reviews for additional trials. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs of school-based education interventions for the prevention of child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We summarised data for six outcomes: protective behaviours; knowledge of sexual abuse or sexual abuse prevention concepts; retention of protective behaviours over time; retention of knowledge over time; harm; and disclosures of sexual abuse. This is an update of a Cochrane Review that included 15 trials (up to August 2006). We identified 10 additional trials for the period to September 2014. We excluded one trial from the original review. Therefore, this update includes a total of 24 trials (5802 participants). We conducted several meta-analyses. More than half of the trials in each meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors.1. Meta-analysis of two trials (n = 102) evaluating protective behaviours favoured intervention (odds

  11. Young People and Alcohol--Where's the Risk? Changing the Focus of School-Based Prevention Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Research statistics highlighting the social costs of widespread excessive alcohol consumption have led to a proliferation of school-based prevention programmes that aim to give young people the skills and knowledge necessary to resist social pressure to drink alcohol and avoid potentially "risky" consumption. Such interventions offer,…

  12. Effects of a School-Based Stress Prevention Programme on Adolescents in Different Phases of Behavioural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierhaus, Marc; Maass, Asja; Fridrici, Mirko; Lohaus, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) are useful to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based stress prevention programme in adolescence to promote appropriate coping behaviour. The TTM assumes three consecutive phases in the adoption of behavioural patterns. Progress throughout the phases is promoted…

  13. Mindfulness-based prevention for eating disorders: A school-based cluster randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Melissa J; Wade, Tracey D

    2015-11-01

    Successful prevention of eating disorders represents an important goal due to damaging long-term impacts on health and well-being, modest treatment outcomes, and low treatment seeking among individuals at risk. Mindfulness-based approaches have received early support in the treatment of eating disorders, but have not been evaluated as a prevention strategy. This study aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a novel mindfulness-based intervention for reducing the risk of eating disorders among adolescent females, under both optimal (trained facilitator) and task-shifted (non-expert facilitator) conditions. A school-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 19 classes of adolescent girls (N = 347) were allocated to a three-session mindfulness-based intervention, dissonance-based intervention, or classes as usual control. A subset of classes (N = 156) receiving expert facilitation were analyzed separately as a proxy for delivery under optimal conditions. Task-shifted facilitation showed no significant intervention effects across outcomes. Under optimal facilitation, students receiving mindfulness demonstrated significant reductions in weight and shape concern, dietary restraint, thin-ideal internalization, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment relative to control by 6-month follow-up. Students receiving dissonance showed significant reductions in socio-cultural pressures. There were no statistically significant differences between the two interventions. Moderate intervention acceptability was reported by both students and teaching staff. Findings show promise for the application of mindfulness in the prevention of eating disorders; however, further work is required to increase both impact and acceptability, and to enable successful outcomes when delivered by less expert providers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwi, K J; Woolfenden, S R; Wheeler, D M; O'brien, T A; Tait, P; Williams, K W

    2007-07-18

    Child sexual abuse is a significant problem that requires an effective means of prevention. To assess: if school-based programmes are effective in improving knowledge about sexual abuse and self-protective behaviours; whether participation results in an increase in disclosure of sexual abuse and/or produces any harm; knowledge retention and the effect of programme type or setting. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and other databases using MESH headings and text words specific for child sexual assault and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in August 2006. RCTs or quasi-RCTs of school-based interventions to prevent child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis, using two imputed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (0.1, 0.2), were used for four outcomes: protective behaviours, questionnaire-based knowledge, vignette-based knowledge and disclosure of abuse. Meta-analysis was not possible for retention of knowledge, likelihood of harm, or effect of programme type and setting. Fifteen trials measuring knowledge and behaviour change as a result of school-based child sexual abuse intervention programmes were included. Over half the studies in each initial meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors. For behaviour change, two studies had data suitable for meta-analysis; results favoured intervention (OR 6.76, 95% CI 1.44, 31.84) with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=56.0%) and did not change significantly when adjustments using intraclass coefficients were made. Nine studies were included in a meta-analysis evaluating questionnaire-based knowledge. An increase in knowledge was found (SMD 0.59; 0.44, 0.74, heterogeneity (I2=66.4%). When adjusted for an ICC of 0.1 and 0.2 the results were SMD 0.6 (0.45, 0.75) and 0.57 (0.44, 0.71) respectively. Heterogeneity decreased

  15. School-based interventions for preventing Hiv, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in

  16. School Based Program to Teach Children Empathy and Bully Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Elizabeth A.; Hammond, Marsha; Rasmussen, Sandra

    A qualitative study examined empathy in the easily aroused child. Participants were interviewed about their experience of empathy, and cognitive process used to choose responses. Children identified emotions of victims drawing on experience as victims. Two themes were empathetic response and cognition leading to action. Participants used cognition…

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a school-based health promotion program in Canada: A life-course modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Ekwaru

    Full Text Available The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools has been recognized as a "best practice" in preventing childhood obesity. To inform decision making on the economic implications of APPLE Schools and to justify investment, we evaluated the project's cost-effectiveness following a life-course approach.We developed a state transition model for the lifetime progression of body weight status comparing elementary school students attending APPLE Schools and control schools. This model quantified the lifetime impact of APPLE Schools in terms of prevention of excess body weight, chronic disease and improved quality-adjusted life years (QALY, from a school system's cost perspective. Both costs and health outcomes were discounted to their present value using 3% discount rate.The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER of APPLE schools was CA$33,421 per QALY gained, and CA$1,555, CA$1,709 and CA$14,218 per prevented person years of excess weight, obesity and chronic disease, respectively. These estimates show that APPLE Schools is cost effective at a threshold of ICER < CA$50,000. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, APPLE Schools was cost effective more than 64% of the time per QALY gained, when using a threshold of ICERSchool-based health promotion, such as APPLE Schools is a cost-effective intervention for obesity prevention and reduction of chronic disease risk over the lifetime. Expanding the coverage and allocating resources towards school-based programs like the APPLE Schools program, is likely to reduce the public health burden of obesity and chronic diseases.

  18. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a 12-week, school-based obesity management program on obese primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gyu Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6&#8211;12 years old in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI ?#249;5 percentile were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA was performed before and after the program. Results:Height and weight increased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR increased significantly on the BIA (P&lt;0.01. Fat decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The total body water (TBW and percent body fat (PBF decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P&lt;0.05. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P&lt;0.01. Conclusion:The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.

  20. Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Sara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02. The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who

  1. Promoting healthy computer use among middle school students: a pilot school-based health promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Marina; Portsmouth, Linda; Harris, Courtenay; Jacobs, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of notebook computers in many schools has become integral to learning. This has increased students' screen-based exposure and the potential risks to physical and visual health. Unhealthy computing behaviours include frequent and long durations of exposure; awkward postures due to inappropriate furniture and workstation layout, and ignoring computer-related discomfort. Describe the framework for a planned school-based health promotion program to encourage healthy computing behaviours among middle school students. This planned program uses a community- based participatory research approach. Students in Year 7 in 2011 at a co-educational middle school, their parents, and teachers have been recruited. Baseline data was collected on students' knowledge of computer ergonomics, current notebook exposure, and attitudes towards healthy computing behaviours; and teachers' and self-perceived competence to promote healthy notebook use among students, and what education they wanted. The health promotion program is being developed by an inter-professional team in collaboration with students, teachers and parents to embed concepts of ergonomics education in relevant school activities and school culture. End of year changes in reported and observed student computing behaviours will be used to determine the effectiveness of the program. Building a body of evidence regarding physical health benefits to students from this school-based ergonomics program can guide policy development on the healthy use of computers within children's educational environments.

  2. School-based suicide prevention programmes: the SEYLE cluster-randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Danuta; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Wall, Melanie; Eisenberg, Ruth; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Kelleher, Ian; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Guillemin, Francis; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Musa, George J; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Varnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir

    2015-04-18

    Suicidal behaviours in adolescents are a major public health problem and evidence-based prevention programmes are greatly needed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of school-based preventive interventions of suicidal behaviours. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study is a multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial. The SEYLE sample consisted of 11,110 adolescent pupils, median age 15 years (IQR 14-15), recruited from 168 schools in ten European Union countries. We randomly assigned the schools to one of three interventions or a control group. The interventions were: (1) Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training module targeting teachers and other school personnel, (2) the Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme (YAM) targeting pupils, and (3) screening by professionals (ProfScreen) with referral of at-risk pupils. Each school was randomly assigned by random number generator to participate in one intervention (or control) group only and was unaware of the interventions undertaken in the other three trial groups. The primary outcome measure was the number of suicide attempt(s) made by 3 month and 12 month follow-up. Analysis included all pupils with data available at each timepoint, excluding those who had ever attempted suicide or who had shown severe suicidal ideation during the 2 weeks before baseline. This study is registered with the German Clinical Trials Registry, number DRKS00000214. Between Nov 1, 2009, and Dec 14, 2010, 168 schools (11,110 pupils) were randomly assigned to interventions (40 schools [2692 pupils] to QPR, 45 [2721] YAM, 43 [2764] ProfScreen, and 40 [2933] control). No significant differences between intervention groups and the control group were recorded at the 3 month follow-up. At the 12 month follow-up, YAM was associated with a significant reduction of incident suicide attempts (odds ratios [OR] 0·45, 95% CI 0·24-0·85; p=0·014) and severe suicidal ideation (0·50, 0·27-0·92; p=0·025

  3. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  4. A School-Based Violence Prevention Model for At-Risk Eighth Grade Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Stephen A.; Kaiser-Ulrey, Cheryl; Potts, Isabelle; Creason, Alia Haque

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of a school and community-based violence prevention program for at-risk eighth-grade students. School officials matched intervention students with community-based mentors in an employment setting. Findings suggest that mentored students had significant reductions in total number and days of suspensions, days of sanction,…

  5. Optimizing Violence Prevention Programs: An Examination of Program Effectiveness among Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompkins, Amanda C.; Chauveron, Lisa M.; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session…

  6. A person-centered approach to individualizing a school-based universal preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Linda L; Bradley, Stephanie; Coffman, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on how individualized components may be embedded within a universal preventive intervention (TimeWise: Taking Charge of Leisure Time) to make program delivery more effective. Leisure related variables (motivation, boredom/interest and peer and parental influence) were used to suggest ways to individualize the program. Latent Class Analysis was used to develop individualized risk and strength profiles of adolescents (N = 617). Comparisons were made between a treatment and control group. Four classes were identified: undifferentiated high, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation/amotivation, undifferentiated low. These classes were related to substance use. Membership in the intrinsic class was associated with intervention group while the extrinsic class was related to the control group. Results were useful in suggesting ways to tailor a universal prevention program.

  7. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? A school based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gehan; Quach, Jon; Gold, Lisa; Anderson, Peter; Rickards, Field; Mensah, Fiona; Ainley, John; Gathercole, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2011-06-20

    Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If this preventive intervention can be shown to be efficacious, then

  8. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? a school based randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. Discussion A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If

  9. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-11-08

    School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Kenya), one in Latin America

  10. The Effectiveness of School-Based Nutritional Education Program among Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinya In-Iw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI, as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutritional program was provided to the intervention group. Weight and height, dietary record and % fat consumption, as well as self-administered questionnaires on healthy diet attitudes were collected at baseline and 4-month follow-up, and then compared between two groups. Results. There was a statistically significant change of BMI in the intervention group by  kg/m2 ( compared to the control group ( kg/m2, but no significant change in calorie and % fat consumption between groups. The attitudes on healthy eating behaviors in the intervention group were shown improving significantly (. Conclusions. Interactive and intensive nutritional education program as shown in the study was one of the most successful school-based interventions for obese adolescents.

  11. Impact of school-based educational programs on sexual behaviors among adolescents in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Monti, Zelia; Apolloni, Chiara; Nardelli, Federica; Di Naro, Edoardo; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This article aimed to determine sexual behaviors among female and male adolescents in northern Italy. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire evaluating sexual attitudes was distributed in middle and high schools in northern Italy. Adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were asked to participate at the survey. The study group included 664 participants. Overall, 164 (25%) adolescents had had at least one sexual intercourse. Among adolescents who have had sexual intercourse, 90 (55%) use condoms, 25 (15%) use hormonal contraception, and 49 (30%) do not use any contraception method. A total of 559 adolescents (84%) participated in school-based sexual education programs. This group had better knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and contraception methods in comparison with adolescents who have never participated in such educational programs (p sexual behaviors was observed (p = 1.0). School-based sexual education programs improve knowledge of sexual transmitted diseases and contraception methods. However, this knowledge does not correlate to high-risk sexual behaviors reduction.

  12. Effectiveness of a Universal School-Based Social Competence Program: The Role of Child Characteristics and Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Malti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the effectiveness of a school-based social competence curriculum PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies on teacher-rated aggressive behavior, ADHD, and prosocial behavior in children. The one-year prevention program was administered to children in 28 of 56 Swiss elementary schools (N = 1,675. Outcomes were assessed at pretest and posttest with a follow-up 2 years later. Moderator interactions involving baseline child characteristics and economic factors were tested. There were significant treatment effects for ADHD/impulsivity and aggression at the follow-up. Baseline development variables predicted higher prosocial behavior as well as lower aggressive behavior and ADHD at the follow-up. Economic risk factors predicted poor behavior outcomes at the follow-up. Development variables moderated the impact of PATHS on ADHD and aggression at the follow-up. However, for most outcomes, no main effects or moderation of treatment effects were found.

  13. Evidence-based development of school-based and family-involved prevention of overweight across Europe: The ENERGY-project's design and conceptual framework

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    Klepp Knut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need for more carefully developed public health measures in order to curb the obesity epidemic among youth. The overall aim of the "EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth" (ENERGY-project is the development and formative evaluation of a theory-informed and evidence-based multi-component school-based and family-involved intervention program ready to be implemented and evaluated for effectiveness across Europe. This program aims at promoting the adoption or continuation of health behaviors that contribute to a healthy energy balance among school-aged children. Earlier studies have indicated that school and family environments are key determinants of energy-balance behaviors in schoolchildren. Schools are an important setting for health promotion in this age group, but school-based interventions mostly fail to target and involve the family environment. Methods Led by a multidisciplinary team of researchers from eleven European countries and supported by a team of Australian experts, the ENERGY-project is informed by the Environmental Research Framework for Weight gain Prevention, and comprises a comprehensive epidemiological analysis including 1 systematic reviews of the literature, 2 secondary analyses of existing data, 3 focus group research, and 4 a cross European school-based survey. Results and discussion The theoretical framework and the epidemiological analysis will subsequently inform stepwise intervention development targeting the most relevant energy balance-related behaviors and their personal, family-environmental and school-environmental determinants applying the Intervention Mapping protocol. The intervention scheme will undergo formative and pilot evaluation in five countries. The results of ENERGY will be disseminated among key stakeholders including researchers, policy makers and the general population. Conclusions The ENERGY-project is an international

  14. Effects of a School-Based Sexuality Education Program on Peer Educators: The Teen PEP Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May…

  15. Program Support and Value of Training in Mentors' Satisfaction and Anticipated Continuation of School-Based Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillin, Samuel D.; Straight, Gerald G.; Saeki, Elina

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested a theoretical model of training practices in school-based mentoring by comparing the differences between two mentoring programs on mentor-reported program support, value of training, relationship satisfaction, and plans to continue mentoring. The two mentoring programs that we compared were conducted at the same school and…

  16. Evaluation of a School-Based Teen Obesity Prevention Minimal Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A school-based nutrition education minimal intervention (MI) was evaluated. Design: The design was experimental, with random assignment at the school level. Setting: Seven schools were randomly assigned as experimental, and 7 as delayed-treatment. Participants: The experimental group included 551 teens, and the delayed treatment group…

  17. A school-based oral health educational program: the experience of Maringa- PR, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrado, Carlos Alberto; Maciel, Sandra Mara; Oliveira, Márcia Regina

    2004-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results of a school-based oral health educational strategy adopted in public primary schools from the city of Maringa, State of Parana, Brazil. The study sample was composed by 556 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years old, 124 schoolteachers and a group of 55 mothers. The educational approach was implemented for 18 months and consisted of reinforcements of interventions addressed to students and schoolteachers at school level and few activities targeted at the mothers, performed by means of home visits. Baseline and follow-up interviews focused on oral health care were undertaken for the entire study population. As a stimulus for the students to achieve proper oral hygiene habits, the simplified oral hygiene index was assessed at three different moments. A statistically significant improvement in their oral hygiene index (pstudied. They also point out the need of intensifying the preparation of schoolteachers in oral health topics, as well the instructions to the mothers for their oral health care. Moreover, they highlight the importance of the continuous implementation of school-based programs to promote the oral health.

  18. “Yet” ~ A Brief School-Based Program for Fourth Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Rogelberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available “Yet” is a school-based youth development program intended to introduce elementarygrade students to concepts of growth mindset, self-leadership, resilience and self-talk to promote healthy coping strategies to persist in tasks toward more positive educational outcomes.  Drawing from psychology, education, and management literature focusing on self-leadership, the “Yet” program encourages interaction and internalization of concepts such as “growing the brain,” and “stinkin’ thinking,” while modeling how to reframe set-backs to things students have not mastered…”yet,” and practicing adaptive self-talk to promote coping and persistence.  This unique program holds promise because it is approximately 30 minutes long, occurs within the context of a regular school day, and can be implemented with a high measure of fidelity because it is script-based.  The success of the program may be augmented by principal and teacher support along with online videos.

  19. Follow-up data on the effectiveness of New Zealand's national school based child protection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, F; Hawkins, R M

    1994-08-01

    In 1987, in response to concerns relating to the high incidence of (reported) child sexual abuse, the Ministry of Education and New Zealand Policy jointly introduced a national school-based personal safety program, Keeping Ourselves Safe. In December 1990, 252 children were interviewed in eight primary schools, selected as representative of the ethnic, economic, and social diversity of New Zealand society (Briggs 1991). The interview schedule was designed on problem-solving lines to establish whether children could identify and respond safely to a wide range of potentially unsafe situations. One year later, 117 of the children were available for interview using the same questionnaire. Children exposed to Keeping Ourselves Safe had retained and increased their safety strategies during that time. The variables of gender, age, race, and academic level did not affect improvement but the number of initial gains by children with highly committed teachers was almost double the number achieved by teachers classified as having low levels of commitment. Prior to using the program, children from low socioeconomic groups had significantly lower knowledge and skill levels than their middle-class contemporaries. Middle-class children also gained more from the program. The difference in gains achieved is explained in terms of parental participation in the school program.

  20. Effects of a school-based sexuality education program on peer educators: the Teen PEP model

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May 2008. The sample consisted of 96 intervention (i.e. Teen PEP peer educators) and 61 comparison students from five high schools in New Jersey. Baseline a...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of a school-based health promotion program in Canada: A life-course modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwaru, John Paul; Ohinmaa, Arto; Tran, Bach Xuan; Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools) has been recognized as a "best practice" in preventing childhood obesity. To inform decision making on the economic implications of APPLE Schools and to justify investment, we evaluated the project's cost-effectiveness following a life-course approach. We developed a state transition model for the lifetime progression of body weight status comparing elementary school students attending APPLE Schools and control schools. This model quantified the lifetime impact of APPLE Schools in terms of prevention of excess body weight, chronic disease and improved quality-adjusted life years (QALY), from a school system's cost perspective. Both costs and health outcomes were discounted to their present value using 3% discount rate. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER) of APPLE schools was CA$33,421 per QALY gained, and CA$1,555, CA$1,709 and CA$14,218 per prevented person years of excess weight, obesity and chronic disease, respectively. These estimates show that APPLE Schools is cost effective at a threshold of ICER Schools was cost effective more than 64% of the time per QALY gained, when using a threshold of ICERSchool-based health promotion, such as APPLE Schools is a cost-effective intervention for obesity prevention and reduction of chronic disease risk over the lifetime. Expanding the coverage and allocating resources towards school-based programs like the APPLE Schools program, is likely to reduce the public health burden of obesity and chronic diseases.

  2. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  3. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  4. A school-based health education program can improve cholesterol values for middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotts, T B; Goldberg, C S; Palma Davis, L M; Durussel-Weston, J E; Aaronson, S M; Lin, K; Eagle, K A

    2008-09-01

    This prospective study aimed to measure the impact of a school-based multidisciplinary education program on risk factors for atherosclerosis in sixth-grade students. A prospective study was performed in which patients served as their own controls. Healthy sixth-grade students from three middle schools in a city of approximately 100,000 were exposed to an educational program promoting healthful habits through behavioral and environmental change. Risk factors including body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), cholesterol panel, and random blood glucose were measured before program initiation, then 5 months afterward. Of 711 sixth-graders at three middle schools, 287 (47% boys; mean age, 11.5 +/- 0.37 years) consented to participate in the study. The mean total cholesterol value decreased from 169 +/- 26 to 154 +/- 26 mg/dl (p value decreased from 86 +/- 25 to 84 +/- 23 mg/dl (p = 0.01), and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol value decreased from 56 +/- 13 to 50 +/- 13 mg/dl (p value decreased from 96 +/- 13 to 93 +/- 15 mm/dl (p = 0.01). The mean SBP did not change, showing 109 +/- 12.5 mmHg before the program and 108 +/- 11.5 mmHg afterward. The DBP decreased from 63.6 +/- 8.6 to 62.3 +/- 7.8 mmHg (p = 0.01). The Project Healthy Schools program is feasible and appears to be effective. The results showed significant improvement in risk factors for early atherosclerosis among sixth-grade students including total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, random glucose levels, and diastolic blood pressure. Further study with a larger group and a longer follow-up period would be valuable.

  5. Longitudinal behavioral effects of a school-based fruit and vegetable promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jessica A; Franko, Debra L; Thompson, Douglas R; Power, Thomas J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of a school-based program on kindergarten and first grade children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. The program included lunchroom, classroom, school-wide, and family components. The primary dependent variable, F&V consumed at lunch, was assessed using weighed plate waste. Hierarchical linear models were used to analyze the differences between intervention and control groups and to account for repeated measurements. Children in the experimental group consumed more F&V (F = 29 g; V = 6 g; 0.43 portions/lunch; 0.28 servings/lunch) at the end of Year 1 compared with children in the control group. At the end of Year 2, children in the experimental group consumed more fruit (21 g; 0.23 portions/lunch; 0.15 servings/lunch), but not more vegetables compared with children in the control group. The intervention resulted in increased F&V consumption, with more pronounced and enduring effects for fruits than vegetables.

  6. One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…

  7. School-Based Mental Health Program Evaluation: Children's School Outcomes and Acute Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Mandell, David S.; Hadley, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of school-based mental health programs on children's school outcomes and the utilization of acute mental health services. Methods: The study sample included 468 Medicaid-enrolled children aged 6 to 17 years who were enrolled 1 of 2 school-based mental health programs (SBMHs) in a metropolitan area…

  8. Expanding Free School-based Human Papilloma Virus (HPV Vaccination Programs to Include School-aged Males in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Krater-Melamed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bill 70 (HPV Vaccine Act was presented to the Nova Scotia House of Assembly with the aim of expanding the current Nova Scotia school-based HPV vaccination program to include males. In recent years, increased awareness of HPV and HPV-caused cancers has led to the implementation of school-based female HPV vaccination programs across Canada. Changing guidelines, based on recent evidence, suggest that males should also be included in these programs. Program expansion to include males aims to reduce the prevalence of HPV-causing cancers and their ensuing costs, to promote equal access to healthcare services, and to make Nova Scotia a leader in HPV prevention. Support from the Canadian public and high profile political actors along with pressure from other provinces and interest groups, including the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, influenced the passing of the HPV Vaccine Act. In order to implement this reform, the provincial financial commitment to the previous HPV program was expanded to cover the cost of male vaccination.

  9. School-Based Sleep Education Programs for Short Sleep Duration in Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Chan, Man-Sum; Lam, Ying-Yin; Lai, Cindy Sin-Yee; Yeung, Wing-Fai

    2017-06-01

    Insufficient sleep among students is a major school health problem. School-based sleep education programs tailored to reach large number of students may be one of the solutions. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the programs' effectiveness and current status. Electronic databases were searched up until May 2015. Randomized controlled trials of school-based sleep intervention among 10- to 19-year-old students with outcome on total sleep duration were included. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane's risk of bias assessment. Seven studies were included, involving 1876 students receiving sleep education programs and 2483 attending classes-as-usual. Four weekly 50-minute sleep education classes were most commonly provided. Methodological quality was only moderate, with a high or an uncertain risk of bias in several domains. Compared to classes-as-usual, sleep education programs produced significantly longer weekday and weekend total sleep time and better mood among students at immediate post-treatment, but the improvements were not maintained at follow-up. Limited by the small number of studies and methodological limitations, the preliminary data showed that school-based sleep education programs produced short-term benefits. Future studies should explore integrating sleep education with delayed school start time or other more effective approaches. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  10. Evidence-based development of school-based and family-involved prevention of overweight across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brug, Johannes; Velde, Saskia J. te; Chinapaw, Mai J.M.

    2010-01-01

    balance among school-aged children. Earlier studies have indicated that school and family environments are key determinants of energy-balance behaviors in schoolchildren. Schools are an important setting for health promotion in this age group, but school-based interventions mostly fail to target...... intervention development targeting the most relevant energy balance-related behaviors and their personal, family-environmental and school-environmental determinants applying the Intervention Mapping protocol. The intervention scheme will undergo formative and pilot evaluation in five countries. The results......Background: There is an urgent need for more carefully developed public health measures in order to curb the obesity epidemic among youth. The overall aim of the "EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth" (ENERGY)-project is the development and formative...

  11. Effectiveness of a universal school-based programme for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Chan, Kim Y K; Chan, Wincy S C; Liu, Patricia M Y; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-12-15

    Evidence of the effectiveness, rather than efficacy, of universal school-based programmes for preventing depression among adolescents is limited. This study examined the effectiveness of a universal depression prevention programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed" (LPD), which adopted the cognitive-behavioural model and aimed to reduce depressive symptoms and enhance protective factors of depression among secondary school students in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for this pilot study. Thirteen classes were assigned to the intervention or control conditions according to the deliberation of the programme administrator of the four participating schools. Implementation was carried out in two phases, with a professional-led first phase and teacher-led programme second phase. LPD consisted of a 12-week school-based face-to-face programme with psycho-educational lessons and homework assignments. Students completed the programme generally showed positive development in help-seeking attitudes and self-esteem. For students who had more depressive symptoms at pre-assessment, the programme was found to be significant in enhancing cognitive-restructuring skills and support-seeking behaviours. The programme was not, however, found to be statistically significant in reducing depressive symptoms of the participants over the study period. A small sample size, a high attrition rate, and a short follow-up time frame. The LPD programme was successful in building resilience of the students in general and enhancing the cognitive-behavioural skills of students with depressive symptoms. While we did not find sufficient evidence for concluding that the LPD was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, we believe that these results highlight the challenges of implementing evidence-based practices generated from highly controlled environments in real-life settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Promoting Mental Health Literacy among Educators: Critical in School-Based Prevention and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…

  13. School-Based Drug Prevention among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…

  14. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  15. Teacher and Principal Survey Results in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program was conducted to assess the costs and benefits of combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved almost 30,000 elementary school children from 10 sites across the country. Classroom procedures, such as weekly fluoride mouthrinse, were administered or…

  16. Effectiveness of the Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program: An Impact Evaluation Utilizing a Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Catherine M.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Youth suicide is a serious public health issue in the United States. It is currently the third leading cause of death for youth aged 10 to 19. School-based prevention programs may be an effective method of educating youth and enhancing their help-seeking. Most school-based suicide prevention programs have not been rigorously evaluated for their…

  17. Can school-based oral health education and a sugar-free chewing gum program improve oral health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from......'s oral hygiene; in certain circumstances children may benefit from using polyol-containing chewing gum in terms of reduced dental caries....

  18. The Role of Empowerment in a School-Based Community Service Program with Inner-City, Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullan, Rebecca L.; Power, Thomas J.; Leff, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable fiscal and structural support for youth service programs, research has not demonstrated consistent outcomes across participants or programs, suggesting the need to identify critical program processes. The present study addresses this need through preliminary examination of the role of program empowerment in promoting positive identity development in inner-city, African American youth participating in a pilot school-based service program. Results suggest that participants who experienced the program as empowering experienced increases in self-efficacy, sense of civic responsibility, and ethnic identity, over and above general engagement and enjoyment of the program. Preliminary exploration of differences based on participant gender suggests that some results may be stronger and more consistent for males than females. These findings provide preliminary support for the importance of theoretically grounded program processes in producing positive outcomes for youth service participants. PMID:25104875

  19. The effect of a school-based outdoor education program on Visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of an education programme developed based on the school-based outdoor education approach on the academic achievement of visual arts teachers, as well as their self-efficacy beliefs for using museums and the natural environment. The aim is likewise to explore the ...

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of a School-Based Emotional Health Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Elena; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; Kernic, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: School-based screening for health conditions can help extend the reach of health services to underserved populations. Screening for mental health conditions is growing in acceptability, but evidence of cost-effectiveness is lacking. This study assessed costs and effectiveness associated with the Developmental Pathways Screening…

  1. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  2. School-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention in Chilean Children: Effective in Controlling, but not Reducing Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Kain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N=1474. Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children’s nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA. Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant. % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2 while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7% in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24 and increased (1.22–1.35 in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P=0.024. Interaction group * time was significant for boys (P<0.0001 and girls (P=0.004. Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.

  3. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greaves Colin J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP, a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM. The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their

  4. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity

  5. Evidence, theory and context--using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer J; Logan, Stuart; Greaves, Colin J; Wyatt, Katrina M

    2011-07-13

    Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives--establish motivation, take action and stay motivated--in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity behaviours. Although the process was time

  6. Evaluation of a school-based diabetes education intervention, an extension of Program ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Matthew David

    Background: The prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes in the United States has increased over the past two decades and rates remain high. The latest data from the National Center for Health Statistics estimates that 36% of adults and 17% of children and adolescents in the US are obese (CDC Adult Obesity, CDC Childhood Obesity). Being overweight or obese greatly increases one's risk of developing several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 8% of adults in the US have diabetes, type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of these cases. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is still rare, however clinical reports suggest an increase in the frequency of diagnosis (CDC Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011). Results from the Diabetes Prevention Program show that the incidence of type 2 diabetes can be reduced through the adoption of a healthier lifestyle among high-risk individuals (DPP, 2002). Objectives: This classroom-based intervention included scientific coverage of energy balance, diabetes, diabetes prevention strategies, and diabetes management. Coverage of diabetes management topics were included in lesson content to further the students' understanding of the disease. Measurable short-term goals of the intervention included increases in: general diabetes knowledge, diabetes management knowledge, and awareness of type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. Methods: A total of 66 sixth grade students at Tavelli Elementary School in Fort Collins, CO completed the intervention. The program consisted of nine classroom-based lessons; students participated in one lesson every two weeks. The lessons were delivered from November of 2005 to May of 2006. Each bi-weekly lesson included a presentation and interactive group activities. Participants completed two diabetes knowledge questionnaires at baseline and post intervention. A diabetes survey developed by Program ENERGY measured general diabetes knowledge and awareness of type 2 diabetes prevention strategies

  7. Preventing domestic abuse for children and young people: A review of school-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Downe, Soo

    2015-12-01

    Schools provide the setting in which interventions aimed at preventing intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) are delivered to young people in the general population and a range of programmes have been designed and evaluated. To date, most rigorous studies have been undertaken in North America and the extent to which programmes are transferable to other settings and cultures is uncertain. This paper reports on a mixed methods review, aimed at informing UK practise and policy, which included a systematic review of the international literature, a review of the UK grey literature and consultation with young people as well as experts to address the question of what works for whom in what circumstances. The context in which an intervention was delivered was found to be crucial. Context included: the wider policy setting; the national or regional level, where the local culture shaped understandings of IPVA, and the readiness of an individual school. The programmes included in the systematic review provided stronger evidence for changing knowledge and attitudes than for behavioural change and those young people who were at higher risk at baseline may have exerted a strong influence on study outcomes. Shifting social norms in the peer group emerged as a key mechanism of change and the young people consulted emphasised the importance of authenticity which could be achieved through the use of drama and which required those delivering programmes to have relevant expertise. While the consultation identified increasing interest in targeting interventions on boys, there was an identified lack of materials designed for minority groups of young people, especially Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender young people. Increased responsivity to the local context can be achieved by involving those who will deliver and receive these preventive programmes in their development. Schools need to be better prepared and supported in the task of delivering these interventions and this is

  8. THE CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL-BASED YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION: EXPERIENCES AND PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven school-based mental health care professionals and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Participants reported that they relied on a reactive strategy by responding to youths who were in crisis. They were challenged by a lack of support from faculty staff, lack of access to resources, and heavy caseloads. Findings highlight the need for a proactive and collaborative approach to suicide prevention among mental health care professionals, teachers and parents in South African schools and improved training and supervision.

  9. Evaluation of a school-based violence prevention media literacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingar, Kathryn R; Jolls, Tessa

    2014-06-01

    Evaluate whether Beyond Blame, a violence prevention media literacy curriculum, is associated with improved knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to media use and aggression. Using a quasi-experimental design, from 2007 to 2008, teachers from schools across Southern California administered the curriculum with or without training or served as controls. Students were tested before and after the curriculum was implemented, and during the fall semester of the next academic year. Multivariate hierarchical regression was used to compare changes from baseline to follow-up between the intervention and control groups. Compared with controls, at the first post-test, students in the trained and untrained groups reported increased knowledge of five core concepts/key questions of media literacy, increased self-rated exposure to media violence, as well as stronger beliefs that media violence affects viewers and that people can protect themselves by watching less. Regarding behaviours, controls were more likely to report ≥8 h of media consumption at the second post-test than at baseline (OR=2.11; 95% CI 1.13 to 3.97), pushing or shoving another student (OR=2.16; 95% CI 1.16 to 4.02) and threatening to hit or hurt someone (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.13 to 4.78). In comparison, there was no increase in these behaviours in the trained and untrained groups. This study suggests media literacy can be feasibly integrated into schools as an approach to improving critical analysis of media, media consumption and aggression. Changing the way youth engage media may impact many aspects of health, and an important next step will be to apply this framework to other topics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The Academic Differences between Students Involved in School-Based Robotics Programs and Students Not Involved in School-Based Robotics Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoullos, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This research study aimed to identify any correlation between participation in afterschool robotics at the high school level and academic performance. Through a sample of N = 121 students, the researcher examined the grades and attendance of students who participated in a robotics program in the 2011-2012 school year. The academic record of these…

  11. Effectiveness of universal school-based mental health awareness programs among youth in the US: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and low mental health literacy have been found to be barriers to seeking help for mental health related issues in adolescents. Prior research has found that it is possible to improve these outcomes using school-based mental health interventions. The purpose of this study was to review empirical literature pertaining to universal interventions addressing mental health among students enrolled in US K-12 schools, especially related to health disparities in vulnerable populations. METHODS PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, PUBMED, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for K-12 school-based mental health awareness interventions in the US. Universal studies that measured knowledge, attitudes, and/or help-seeking pertinent to mental health were included. RESULTS A total of 15 studies were selected to be part of the review. There were 7 pretest/posttest case series, 5 non-randomized experimental trial, 1 Solomon 4-groups, and 2 randomized controlled trial designs (RCT). Nine studies measuring knowledge, 8 studies measuring attitudes, and 4 studies measuring help-seeking, indicated statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS Although results of all studies indicated some level of improvement, more research on implementation of universal school-based mental health awareness programs is needed using RCT study designs, and long-term follow up implementation. PMID:27866385

  12. A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR IMPROVING THE RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AT AGES 12 TO 16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Laparidis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease begins in childhood and this can be correlated with the presence of risk factors in adults. It is reasonable to initiate healthful lifestyle training in childhood to promote improved cardiovascular health in adult life. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-basedprogram designed to reduce specific modifiable risk factors for preventing cardiovascular diseases.Methods. The sample was 343 students (160 boys, 183 girls aged 12–16 years from the prefecture of Larissa, Greece. The duration of intervention was 1 school year. The practical part of intervention took place during the class of physical education, while the theoretical part took place in the classroom. Measurements weretaken at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the intervention. The following parameters were measured: weight, height, blood pressure, heart rate, components of the Healthy Eating Index, VO2max,Fitnessgram test battery (1 mile run-walk, trunk lift, push up, curl up, back saver sit and reach.Results. There were significant differences between the school-groups in the 1 mile run walk (p<0,001,90o push up test (p<0,001, Healthy Eating Index (p<0,001, fruit component (p<0,001, saturated fat intake(p<0,05 and variety component (p<0,001. In the intervention group there was significant increase in VO2max(p<0,05, in the weight (p<0,001, in the Healthy Eating Index (p<0,05, in the trunk lift test (p<0,001, in the push up test (p<0,05, in the sit and reach test (p<0,001 and in the component of fruits (p<0,001, while there was significant reduction in the 1 mile run walk test (p<0,001, in the body mass index (p<0,05 and in the component of saturated fat (p<0,05.Conclusion. The intervention program was successfully implemented in schools and there were many significant and positive effects. These results highlight the importance of multicomponent programs for theprevention of CVD in schools. Additional

  13. Protocol for systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in African learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Theodosia; Puoane, Thandi; De Villiers, Anniza; Kengne, André Pascal

    2017-03-27

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in childhood in developing countries is a public health concern to many governments. Schools play a significant role in the obesity epidemic as well as provide favourable environments for change in behaviours in childhood which can be carried on into adulthood. There is dearth of information on intervention studies in poor-resource settings. This review will summarise the available evidence on school-based interventions that focused on promoting healthy eating and physical activity among learners aged 6-15 years in Africa and to identify factors that lead to successful interventions or potential barriers to success of these programmes within the African context. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRIMSA-P 2015. Relevant search terms and keywords generated from the subject headings and the African search filter will be used to conduct a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed), MEDLINE (EbscoHost), CINAHL (EbscoHost), Register Academic Search Complete (EbscoHost) and ISI Web of Science (Science Citation Index) for published literature on school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in learners in Africa. Grey literature will be also be obtained. The searches will cover 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2016. No language limitations will be applied. Full-text articles of eligible studies will be screened. Risk of bias and quality of reporting will be assessed. Data will be extracted, synthesised and presented by country and major regional groupings. Meta-analysis will be conducted for identical variables across studies, where data allow. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRISMA-P 2015. No primary data will be collected hence ethics is not a requirement. The findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, in conferences and in policy documents for decision-making, where needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  14. School Programs To Prevent Smoking: The National Cancer Institute Guide to Strategies That Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    This guide to school-based smoking prevention programs for educators is the product of five years of work to prevent cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is currently funding 23 coordinated intervention trials directed at youth. Although not all the studies are complete, sufficient results are available to recommend the most effective…

  15. A Cost Analysis Plan for the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foch, Craig B.

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Project (NPDDP) delivers school-based preventive dental care to approximately 14,000 children in ten United States cities. The program, begun in 1976, is to be conducted over a six and one-half year period. The costing definitions and allocation rules to be used in the project are the principal…

  16. Cost of Treatment Procedures in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foch, Craig B.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program (NPDDP) delivered five different regimens of school based preventive dental care to groups of children in 10 American cities between 1977 and 1981. All clinical techniques employed had previously been demonstrated to be both safe and effective in clinical trials. The purpose of the NPDDP was…

  17. Prevention of Targeted School Violence by Responding to Students' Psychosocial Crises: The NETWASS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…

  18. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  19. Effect of the School-Based Telemedicine Enhanced Asthma Management (SB-TEAM) Program on Asthma Morbidity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Jill S; Fagnano, Maria; Tajon, Reynaldo S; Tremblay, Paul; Wang, Hongyue; Butz, Arlene; Perry, Tamara T; McConnochie, Kenneth M

    2018-03-05

    Poor adherence to recommended preventive asthma medications is common, leading to preventable morbidity. We developed the School-Based Telemedicine Enhanced Asthma Management (SB-TEAM) program to build on school-based supervised therapy programs by incorporating telemedicine at school to overcome barriers to preventive asthma care. To evaluate the effect of the SB-TEAM program on asthma morbidity among urban children with persistent asthma. In this randomized clinical trial, children with persistent asthma aged 3 to 10 years in the Rochester City School District in Rochester, New York, were stratified by preventive medication use at baseline and randomly assigned to the SB-TEAM program or enhanced usual care for 1 school year. Participants were enrolled at the beginning of the school year (2012-2016), and outcomes were assessed through the end of the school year. Data were analyzed between May 2017 and November 2017 using multivariable modified intention-to-treat analyses. Supervised administration of preventive asthma medication at school as well as 3 school-based telemedicine visits to ensure appropriate assessment, preventive medication prescription, and follow-up care. The school site component of the telemedicine visit was completed by telemedicine assistants, who obtained history and examination data. These data were stored in a secure virtual waiting room and then viewed by the primary care clinician, who completed the assessment and communicated with caregivers via videoconference or telephone. Preventive medication prescriptions were sent to pharmacies that deliver to schools for supervised daily administration. The primary outcome was the mean number of symptom-free days per 2 weeks, assessed by bimonthly blinded interviews. Of the 400 enrolled children, 247 (61.8%) were male and 230 (57.5%) were African American, and the mean (SD) age was 7.8 (1.7) years. Demographic characteristics and asthma severity in the 2 groups were similar at baseline. Among

  20. Promoting physical activity and improving dietary quality of Singaporean adolescents: effectiveness of a school-based fitness and wellness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loong, Claudine; Leo, Latasha; Goh, Danielle; Lim, Pei Sin; Loke, Wai Mun

    2018-01-13

    Limited data are available on the effectiveness of the school-based structured fitness and wellness program to influence dietary quality and physical activity levels in Singaporean adolescents. The study examined if a 20-h (over 10 weeks) school-based structured fitness and wellness module affects the diet quality indices, energy intakes, physical activity levels and the associated energy expenditures in a group of healthy, male adolescents with low diet quality and physical activity levels. Participant demography, anthropometry, dietary intake and daily physical activity were obtained at the beginning, mid-point and end of the 10-week program. Physical activity levels were assessed accelerometrically over a 1-weekday period. Dietary intake were taken using a structured 7-day food diary, and diet quality assessed using the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). The 31 enrolled participants (age 19.8 ± 0.6 years) with body mass index (BMI) (19.8 ± 0.6 kg/m2) followed diets of low diet quality scores (48.3 ± 9.6 out of 100) and engaged in 3.87 ± 2.00 h of physical activity daily before the start of the intervention. Their dietary quality and physical activity levels did not change significantly throughout the intervention period. They scored poorly in the moderation and overall balance components of the diet quality assessment. The physical activity duration correlated inversely to the diet quality scores. Our results suggest that the prescribed school-based fitness and wellness module was ineffective in influencing the diet quality and physical activity levels of Singaporean male adolescents with low diet quality and physical activity levels.

  1. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  2. Gender Differences in Alcohol Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella J.; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M.; Prytula, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a study of the outcomes of a school-based alcohol abuse prevention initiative. The initiative was focused on identifying, developing, disseminating, and evaluating information for high school students based on the school community needs. Student learning outcomes were measured using pre- and post-tests…

  3. One size (never) fits all: segment differences observed following a school-based alcohol social marketing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason

    2015-04-01

    According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. A sample of 371 year 10 students (aged: 14-16 years; 51.4% boys) participated in a prospective (pre-post) multisite alcohol social marketing program. Game On: Know Alcohol (GO:KA) program included 6, student-centered, and interactive lessons to teach adolescents about alcohol and strategies to abstain or moderate drinking. A repeated measures design was used. Baseline demographics, drinking attitudes, drinking intentions, and alcohol knowledge were cluster analyzed to identify segments. Change on key program outcome measures and satisfaction with program components were assessed by segment. Three segments were identified; (1) Skeptics, (2) Risky Males, (3) Good Females. Segments 2 and 3 showed greatest change in drinking attitudes and intentions. Good Females reported highest satisfaction with all program components and Skeptics lowest program satisfaction with all program components. Three segments, each differing on psychographic and demographic variables, exhibited different change patterns following participation in GO:KA. Post hoc analysis identified that satisfaction with program components differed by segment offering opportunities for further research. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  4. A Qualitative Evaluation of Student Learning and Skills Use in a School-Based Mindfulness and Yoga Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariotis, Jacinda K; Mirabal-Beltran, Roxanne; Cluxton-Keller, Fallon; Gould, Laura Feagans; Greenberg, Mark T; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies on school-based mindfulness and yoga programs have focused primarily on quantitative measurement of program outcomes. This study used qualitative data to investigate program content and skills that students remembered and applied in their daily lives. Data were gathered following a 16-week mindfulness and yoga intervention delivered at three urban schools by a community non-profit organization. We conducted focus groups and interviews with nine classroom teachers who did not participate in the program and held six focus groups with 22 fifth and sixth grade program participants. This study addresses two primary research questions: (1) What skills did students learn, retain, and utilize outside the program? and (2) What changes did classroom teachers expect and observe among program recipients? Four major themes related to skill learning and application emerged as follows: (1) youths retained and utilized program skills involving breath work and poses; (2) knowledge about health benefits of these techniques promoted self-utilization and sharing of skills; (3) youths developed keener emotional appraisal that, coupled with new and improved emotional regulation skills, helped de-escalate negative emotions, promote calm, and reduce stress; and (4) youths and teachers reported realistic and optimistic expectations for future impact of acquired program skills. We discuss implications of these findings for guiding future research and practice.

  5. Challenges to obtaining parental permission for child participation in a school-based waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention intervention in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, Rima T; Al Mulla, Ahmad; Torossian, Lena; Karhily, Roubina; Shuayb, Lama; Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Janahi, Ibrahim; Al Ansari, Al Anoud; Afifi, Rema A

    2014-09-30

    Involving children in research studies requires obtaining parental permission. A school-based intervention to delay/prevent waterpipe use for 7th and 8th graders in Qatar was developed, and parental permission requested. Fifty three percent (2308/4314) of the parents returned permission forms; of those 19.5% of the total (840/4314) granted permission. This paper describes the challenges to obtaining parental permission. No research to date has described such challenges in the Arab world. A random sample of 40 schools in Doha, Qatar was selected for inclusion in the original intervention. Permission forms were distributed to parents for approval of their child's participation. The permission forms requested that parents indicate their reasons for non-permission if they declined. These were categorized into themes. In order to understand reasons for non-permission, interviews with parents were conducted. Phone numbers of parents were requested from the school administration; 12 of the 40 schools (30%) agreed to provide the contact information. A random sample of 28 parents from 12 schools was interviewed to reach data saturation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze their responses. Reasons for non-permission documented in both the forms and interviews included: poor timing; lack of interest; the child not wanting to participate; and the child living in a smoke-free environment. Interviews provided information on important topics to include in the consent forms, parents' decision-making processes regarding their child's participation, and considerations for communicating with parents. Many parents also indicated that this was the first time they had been asked to give an informed consent for their child's participation in a study. Results indicate that more attention needs to be given to the informed parental consent process. Researchers should consider enhancing both the methods of communicating information as well the specific information provided. Before

  6. The Shaping Healthy Choices Program: design and implementation methodologies for a multicomponent, school-based nutrition education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E; Linnell, Jessica D; Smith, Martin H; Briggs, Marilyn; Bergman, Jacqueline; Brian, Kelley M; Dharmar, Madan; Feenstra, Gail; Hillhouse, Carol; Keen, Carl L; Nguyen, Lori M; Nicholson, Yvonne; Ontai, Lenna; Schaefer, Sara E; Spezzano, Theresa; Steinberg, Francene M; Sutter, Carolyn; Wright, Janel E; Young, Heather M; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    To provide a framework for implementation of multicomponent, school-based nutrition interventions. This article describes the research methods for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a model to improve nutrition and health-related knowledge and behaviors among school-aged children. Longitudinal, pretest/posttest, randomized, controlled intervention. Four elementary schools in California. Fourth-grade students at intervention (n = 252) and control (n = 238) schools and their parents and teachers. Power analyses demonstrate that a minimum of 159 students per group will be needed to achieve sufficient power. The sample size was determined using the variables of nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference score, and body mass index percentile. A multicomponent school-based nutrition education intervention over 1 academic year, followed by activities to support sustainability of the program. Dietary and nutrition knowledge and behavior, critical thinking skills, healthy food preferences and consumption, and physical activity will be measured using a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, a vegetable preferences assessment tool, the Test of Basic Science Process Skills, digital photography of plate waste, PolarActive accelerometers, anthropometrics, a parent questionnaire, and the School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey. Evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative data will use paired t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests and regression modeling using P = .05 to determine statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Qualitative Exploration of Implementation Factors in a School-Based Mindfulness and Yoga Program: Lessons Learned from Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mirabal-Beltran, Roxanne; Cluxton-Keller, Fallon; Gould, Laura Feagans; Greenberg, Mark T.; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors relevant for successful implementation of school-based interventions is essential to ensure that programs are provided in an effective and engaging manner. The perspectives of two key stakeholders critical for identifying implementation barriers and facilitators – students and their classroom teachers – merit attention in this context and have rarely been explored using qualitative methods. This study reports qualitative perspectives of fifth and sixth grade participants and their teachers of a 16-week school-based mindfulness and yoga program in three public schools serving low-income urban communities. Four themes related to program implementation barriers and facilitators emerged: program delivery factors, program buy-in, implementer communication with teachers, and instructor qualities. Feedback from students and teachers is discussed in the context of informing implementation, adaptation, and future development of school-based mindfulness and yoga programming in urban settings. PMID:28670007

  8. A school-based intervention program in promoting leisure-time physical activity: trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Masato; Chua, Khai Leng; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2018-04-02

    Regular participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is important to manage obesity. Physical education (PE) is considered to play an important role in promoting lifelong participation in physical activity (PA) because it provides an existing network where cost-effective interventions can be implemented to produce sustainable change in health behavior. However, the association between compulsory school PA (e.g., PE lessons) and body composition levels has received mixed support in the literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether a school-based intervention targeting salient PA benefits and barriers grounded on the theory of planned behavior would promote young people's participation in MVPA during leisure time and reduce body mass index (BMI) of overweight students. A total of 171 students from 3 secondary schools in Singapore underwent the control condition followed by the intervention condition. Both the conditions consisted of PE lessons twice per week over 4 weeks. In the control condition, PE teachers encouraged students to participate in PA during leisure time without providing persuasive message. While in the intervention condition, PE teachers delivered persuasive messages that targeted the salient benefits and barriers associated with PA to the students at the last 5 to 10 min of each PE lesson. PA levels over a week were measured objectively with wrist-mounted GENEActiv Original accelerometers and subjectively with self-reporting questionnaires three times (Baseline, Post 1, and Post 2) in each condition. Student's self-reported PA level was measured using the Leisure-Time Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and their attitudes, intentions, subjective norms and perceived behavior control towards leisure-time PA were measured with a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior. Furthermore, students' intention, determination and

  9. Decreasing In-home Smoking of Adults-Results from a School-based Intervention Program in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Anh, Le Vu; Cook, Margaret; Capra, Mike

    2016-01-01

    It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011-2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group) involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children's exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children's reported their father's in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention ( p Viet Nam to increase children's awareness on the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke and to help them to be able to avoid their exposure to secondhand smoke at their home environment.

  10. School-Based Peer Mentoring in High School: A Program Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Felicia Cecile

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation is an initial investigation of a peer mentoring program in a suburban high school in the southeastern United States. Additionally, the Peer Mentoring Program (PMP) study examined whether the Program improves academic performance and attendance, and decreases referrals. Utilizing an experimental design, a Participant and a…

  11. A National Profile of School-Based Transition Programs for Deaf Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Bruce; Bullis, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The transition programs of 326 secondary educational programs for deaf and severely hearing-impaired adolescents were surveyed. Results suggested that residential schools had higher implementation rates (for desirable transition characteristics) than did mainstream and other programs. All groups valued the identified transition practices more than…

  12. The Hemingway Project: A Collaborative School-based Program for Teacher Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Shannon K.; And Others

    At Weber State University (Utah), teacher educators have collaborated with English faculty to design a pilot program (Hemingway Project) which serves as an initial effort to restructure the teacher education program. The program, funded by the Hemingway Foundation, is intended to provide greater integration of the university experience with actual…

  13. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  14. Expanding Children's Food Experiences: The Impact of a School-Based Kitchen Garden Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K.; Johnson, Britt; Block, Karen; Macfarlane, Susie; Gold, Lisa; Kulas, Jenny; Townsend, Mardie; Long, Caroline; Ukoumunne, Obioha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate achievement of the "Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program" in increasing child appreciation of diverse, healthy foods. Design: Comparative 2-year study. Setting: Six program and 6 comparison primary schools in rural and metropolitan Victoria, Australia, matched for socioeconomic status and size. Participants: A…

  15. School-Based Supported Employment: A Comprehensive Supported Employment Program for Mildly Mentally Retarded Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Valda B.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Supported employment opportunities can help to meet the transition needs of individuals enrolled in special education programs. A review of related literature discusses characteristics of supported employment program participants, the need for individual transition planning, the school's role and responsibility, vocational planning, benefits,…

  16. Pilot Study of a School-Based Parent Training Program for Preschoolers with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke R; Wainer, Allison L

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a parenting training program designed for early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ESCE) programs serving students with autistic spectrum disorders. Thirteen teachers representing three intermediate school districts implemented the intervention with 27…

  17. Exploring Children's Perceptions of Two School-Based Social Inclusion Programs: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; McPherson, Amy C.; Aslam, Henna; McKeever, Patricia; Wright, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although social exclusion among typically developing school-aged children has been well explored, it is under-researched for children with disabilities even though they are at a higher risk for being excluded. While there are a number of different programs available to improve social inclusion at school, the appeal of these programs to…

  18. Mentor Age and Youth Developmental Outcomes in School-Based Mentoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, NaYoung

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring programs that provide guidance and support for disadvantaged youth have expanded rapidly during the past decade in the United States. Research suggests that students with teenage mentors exhibit positive youth development, including enhanced academic self-esteem and connectedness. By contrast, some studies showed that programs that offer…

  19. Cost analysis of school-based sexuality education programs in six countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivela, J.; Ketting, E.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Policy-makers who are making decisions on sexuality education programs face important economic questions: what are the costs of developing sexuality education programs; and what are the costs of implementing and scaling them up? This study responds to these questions by assessing the

  20. An Evaluation of a School-Based Professional Development Program on Teachers' Efficacy for Technology Integration: Findings from an Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoretz, Yvonne; Childress, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to determine the impact of a school-based, job-embedded professional development program on elementary and middle school teacher efficacy for technology integration. Participant bi-weekly journal postings were analyzed using Grappling's "Technology and Learning Spectrum" (Porter, 2001) to…

  1. The Perceived Effectiveness of the School Based Support Program: A National Capacity Building Initiative by the National Center for Educational Development at Qatar University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the school-based support program (SBSP) as perceived by teachers who participated in this program. SBSP was designed to collectively build the capacity and promote the overall quality of teaching and learning in identified independent schools in the State of Qatar.…

  2. Oral health knowledge and attitudes of primary school teachers toward school-based oral health programs in Abha-Khamis, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyas Tikare

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The oral health knowledge among primary school teachers was found to be good with positive attitudes toward school-based oral health programs. The most significant barriers in implementing a school oral health program were administrative barriers. There is a need for concerned school authorities and health policy makers to address these barriers and to promote oral health in the community.

  3. Initial Findings from a Novel School-Based Program, EMPATHY, Which May Help Reduce Depression and Suicidality in Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Silverstone

    Full Text Available We describe initial pilot findings from a novel school-based approach to reduce youth depression and suicidality, the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Towards Healthy Youth (EMPATHY program. Here we present the findings from the pilot cohort of 3,244 youth aged 11-18 (Grades 6-12. They were screened for depression, suicidality, anxiety, use of drugs, alcohol, or tobacco (DAT, quality-of-life, and self-esteem. Additionally, all students in Grades 7 and 8 (mean ages 12.3 and 13.3 respectively also received an 8-session cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT based program designed to increase resiliency to depression. Following screening there were rapid interventions for the 125 students (3.9% who were identified as being actively suicidal, as well as for another 378 students (11.7% who were felt to be at higher-risk of self-harm based on a combination of scores from all the scales. The intervention consisted of an interview with the student and their family followed by offering a guided internet-based CBT program. Results from the 2,790 students who completed scales at both baseline and 12-week follow-up showed significant decreases in depression and suicidality. Importantly, there was a marked decrease in the number of students who were actively suicidal (from n=125 at baseline to n=30 at 12-weeks. Of the 503 students offered the CBT program 163 (32% took part, and this group had significantly lower depression scores compared to those who didn't take part. There were no improvements in self-esteem, quality-of-life, or the number of students using DAT. Only 60 students (2% of total screened required external referral during the 24-weeks following study initiation. These results suggest that a multimodal school-based program may provide an effective and pragmatic approach to help reduce youth depression and suicidality. Further research is required to determine longer-term efficacy, reproducibility, and key program elements.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  4. Initial Findings from a Novel School-Based Program, EMPATHY, Which May Help Reduce Depression and Suicidality in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Peter H; Bercov, Marni; Suen, Victoria Y M; Allen, Andrea; Cribben, Ivor; Goodrick, Jodi; Henry, Stu; Pryce, Catherine; Langstraat, Pieter; Rittenbach, Katherine; Chakraborty, Samprita; Engels, Rutger C; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We describe initial pilot findings from a novel school-based approach to reduce youth depression and suicidality, the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Towards Healthy Youth (EMPATHY) program. Here we present the findings from the pilot cohort of 3,244 youth aged 11-18 (Grades 6-12). They were screened for depression, suicidality, anxiety, use of drugs, alcohol, or tobacco (DAT), quality-of-life, and self-esteem. Additionally, all students in Grades 7 and 8 (mean ages 12.3 and 13.3 respectively) also received an 8-session cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) based program designed to increase resiliency to depression. Following screening there were rapid interventions for the 125 students (3.9%) who were identified as being actively suicidal, as well as for another 378 students (11.7%) who were felt to be at higher-risk of self-harm based on a combination of scores from all the scales. The intervention consisted of an interview with the student and their family followed by offering a guided internet-based CBT program. Results from the 2,790 students who completed scales at both baseline and 12-week follow-up showed significant decreases in depression and suicidality. Importantly, there was a marked decrease in the number of students who were actively suicidal (from n=125 at baseline to n=30 at 12-weeks). Of the 503 students offered the CBT program 163 (32%) took part, and this group had significantly lower depression scores compared to those who didn't take part. There were no improvements in self-esteem, quality-of-life, or the number of students using DAT. Only 60 students (2% of total screened) required external referral during the 24-weeks following study initiation. These results suggest that a multimodal school-based program may provide an effective and pragmatic approach to help reduce youth depression and suicidality. Further research is required to determine longer-term efficacy, reproducibility, and key program elements. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02169960.

  5. Initial Findings from a Novel School-Based Program, EMPATHY, Which May Help Reduce Depression and Suicidality in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Peter H.; Bercov, Marni; Suen, Victoria Y. M.; Allen, Andrea; Cribben, Ivor; Goodrick, Jodi; Henry, Stu; Pryce, Catherine; Langstraat, Pieter; Rittenbach, Katherine; Chakraborty, Samprita; Engels, Rutger C.; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We describe initial pilot findings from a novel school-based approach to reduce youth depression and suicidality, the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Towards Healthy Youth (EMPATHY) program. Here we present the findings from the pilot cohort of 3,244 youth aged 11–18 (Grades 6-12). They were screened for depression, suicidality, anxiety, use of drugs, alcohol, or tobacco (DAT), quality-of-life, and self-esteem. Additionally, all students in Grades 7 and 8 (mean ages 12.3 and 13.3 respectively) also received an 8-session cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) based program designed to increase resiliency to depression. Following screening there were rapid interventions for the 125 students (3.9%) who were identified as being actively suicidal, as well as for another 378 students (11.7%) who were felt to be at higher-risk of self-harm based on a combination of scores from all the scales. The intervention consisted of an interview with the student and their family followed by offering a guided internet-based CBT program. Results from the 2,790 students who completed scales at both baseline and 12-week follow-up showed significant decreases in depression and suicidality. Importantly, there was a marked decrease in the number of students who were actively suicidal (from n=125 at baseline to n=30 at 12-weeks). Of the 503 students offered the CBT program 163 (32%) took part, and this group had significantly lower depression scores compared to those who didn’t take part. There were no improvements in self-esteem, quality-of-life, or the number of students using DAT. Only 60 students (2% of total screened) required external referral during the 24-weeks following study initiation. These results suggest that a multimodal school-based program may provide an effective and pragmatic approach to help reduce youth depression and suicidality. Further research is required to determine longer-term efficacy, reproducibility, and key program elements. Trial Registration Clinical

  6. Cost analysis of a school-based comprehensive malaria program in primary schools in Sikasso region, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccario, Roberta; Rouhani, Saba; Drake, Tom; Nagy, Annie; Bamadio, Modibo; Diarra, Seybou; Djanken, Souleymane; Roschnik, Natalie; Clarke, Siân E; Sacko, Moussa; Brooker, Simon; Thuilliez, Josselin

    2017-06-12

    The expansion of malaria prevention and control to school-aged children is receiving increasing attention, but there are still limited data on the costs of intervention. This paper analyses the costs of a comprehensive school-based intervention strategy, delivered by teachers, that included participatory malaria educational activities, distribution of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN), and Intermittent Parasite Clearance in schools (IPCs) in southern Mali. Costs were collected alongside a randomised controlled trial conducted in 80 primary schools in Sikasso Region in Mali in 2010-2012. Cost data were compiled between November 2011 and March 2012 for the 40 intervention schools (6413 children). A provider perspective was adopted. Using an ingredients approach, costs were classified by cost category and by activity. Total costs and cost per child were estimated for the actual intervention, as well as for a simpler version of the programme more suited for scale-up by the government. Univariate sensitivity analysis was performed. The economic cost of the comprehensive intervention was estimated to $10.38 per child (financial cost $8.41) with malaria education, LLIN distribution and IPCs costing $2.13 (20.5%), $5.53 (53.3%) and $2.72 (26.2%) per child respectively. Human resources were found to be the key cost driver, and training costs were the greatest contributor to overall programme costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that an adapted intervention delivering one LLIN instead of two would lower the economic cost to $8.66 per child; and that excluding LLIN distribution in schools altogether, for example in settings where malaria control already includes universal distribution of LLINs at community-level, would reduce costs to $4.89 per child. A comprehensive school-based control strategy may be a feasible and affordable way to address the burden of malaria among schoolchildren in the Sahel.

  7. Cost analysis of a school-based comprehensive malaria program in primary schools in Sikasso region, Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maccario

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expansion of malaria prevention and control to school-aged children is receiving increasing attention, but there are still limited data on the costs of intervention. This paper analyses the costs of a comprehensive school-based intervention strategy, delivered by teachers, that included participatory malaria educational activities, distribution of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN, and Intermittent Parasite Clearance in schools (IPCs in southern Mali. Methods Costs were collected alongside a randomised controlled trial conducted in 80 primary schools in Sikasso Region in Mali in 2010-2012. Cost data were compiled between November 2011 and March 2012 for the 40 intervention schools (6413 children. A provider perspective was adopted. Using an ingredients approach, costs were classified by cost category and by activity. Total costs and cost per child were estimated for the actual intervention, as well as for a simpler version of the programme more suited for scale-up by the government. Univariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Results The economic cost of the comprehensive intervention was estimated to $10.38 per child (financial cost $8.41 with malaria education, LLIN distribution and IPCs costing $2.13 (20.5%, $5.53 (53.3% and $2.72 (26.2% per child respectively. Human resources were found to be the key cost driver, and training costs were the greatest contributor to overall programme costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that an adapted intervention delivering one LLIN instead of two would lower the economic cost to $8.66 per child; and that excluding LLIN distribution in schools altogether, for example in settings where malaria control already includes universal distribution of LLINs at community-level, would reduce costs to $4.89 per child. Conclusions A comprehensive school-based control strategy may be a feasible and affordable way to address the burden of malaria among schoolchildren in the Sahel.

  8. Decreasing In-home Smoking of Adults—Results from a School-based Intervention Program in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Huong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011–2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children’s reported their father’s in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention (p < 0.001 in the intervention school while no change happened in the control school. The study found that the better changed smoking location of adult smokers as reported by children associated with the school who received intervention activities (adjusted OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.28–3.24. Poorer changed attitudes towards secondhand smoke of children associated with a lower percentage of better change in smoking location of their fathers/other adult smokers (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28–0.96. Children’s poorer changed knowledge towards secondhand smoke also associated with poorer changed smoking location of adult smokers (aOR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.07–7.76. It is recommended by this study that similar school based intervention approaches should be applied in primary schools in Viet Nam to increase children’s awareness on the

  9. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT ampersand E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact

  10. A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChausse, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    To determine the impact of Positive Prevention PLUS, a school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention program on delaying sexual intercourse, birth control use, and pregnancy. I randomly assigned a diverse sample of ninth grade students in 21 suburban public high schools in California into treatment (n = 2483) and control (n = 1784) groups that participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Between October 2013 and May 2014, participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys regarding sexual behavior and pregnancy. Participants in the treatment group were offered Positive Prevention PLUS, an 11-lesson adolescent pregnancy prevention program. The program had statistically significant impacts on delaying sexual intercourse and increasing the use of birth control. However, I detected no program effect on pregnancy rates at 6-month follow-up. The Positive Prevention PLUS program demonstrated positive impacts on adolescent sexual behavior. This suggests that programs that focus on having students practice risk reduction skills may delay sexual activity and increase birth control use.

  11. Efficacy of infant simulator programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy: a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Silburn, Sven R

    2016-11-05

    Infant simulator-based programmes, which aim to prevent teenage pregnancy, are used in high-income as well as low-income and middle-income countries but, despite growing popularity, no published evidence exists of their long-term effect. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of such a programme, the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) programme, on pregnancy outcomes of birth and induced abortion in Australia. In this school-based pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, eligible schools in Perth, Western Australia, were enrolled and randomised 1:1 to the intervention and control groups. Randomisation using a table of random numbers without blocking, stratification, or matching was done by a researcher who was masked to the identity of the schools. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP programme was administered to girls aged 13-15 years in the intervention schools, while girls of the same age in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Participants were followed until they reached 20 years of age via data linkage to hospital medical and abortion clinic records. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of pregnancy during the teenage years. Binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for differences in pregnancy rates between study groups. This study is registered as an international randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN24952438. 57 (86%) of 66 eligible schools were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention (28 schools) or the control group (29 schools). Then, between Feb 1, 2003, and May 31, 2006, 1267 girls in the intervention schools received the VIP programme while 1567 girls in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Compared with girls in the control group, a higher proportion of girls in the intervention group recorded at least one birth (97 [8%] of 1267 in the intervention group vs 67 [4%] of 1567 in the control group) or at least one

  12. Tuberculosis Infection in Urban Adolescents: Results of a School-Based Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M. Anita; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a tuberculosis skin testing program introduced for seventh and tenth grade students in Boston (Massachusetts) public schools. Positivity rate was significantly higher in tenth grade students. Among those testing positive, the majority were born outside the United States. Results suggest that testing may identify a significant number of…

  13. Do School-Based Tutoring Programs Significantly Improve Student Performance on Standardized Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Terri; Henderson, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This study used a pre-post, nonequivalent control group design to examine the impact of an in-district, after-school tutoring program on eighth grade students' standardized test scores in language arts and mathematics. Students who had scored in the near-passing range on either the language arts or mathematics aspect of a standardized test at the…

  14. Caring Is the Key: Building a School-based Intergenerational Service Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Joseph

    This manual is designed for high school teachers and students who plan to participate in intergenerational community service programs. Intergenerational community service is a powerful teaching tool that introduces problem solving and active learning while enhancing self-esteem. Four case studies describe what schools in Pennsylvania are doing to…

  15. Effectiveness of the universal prevention program 'Healthy School and Drugs': study protocol of a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Kleinjan, M.; Vermulst, A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a

  16. Effectiveness of the universal prevention program 'Healthy School and Drugs': Study protocol of a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Kleinjan, M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a

  17. Process evaluation of a national school-based iron supplementation program for adolescent girls in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2014-09-16

    Iron deficiency anemia remains as one of the most common nutritional problems in Iran, especially in women and girls. A process evaluation study of the national iron supplementation program targeting girls attending high schools was conducted to examine degree of exposure and satisfaction of the targets with the intervention components, and to assess the delivery (quantity), fidelity (quality), and environmental mediators of the intervention. Three assessment tools were developed and used for the process evaluation. A total of 8 schools were selected using a simple randomization method. Data were collected from students (n = 658 of 661 participants), teachers (n = 80), and school principals (n = 7 of 8). For the qualitative measures semi-structured interviews were conducted with the three study groups. Mean continuous compliance was 62.3%. Intolerance to pills and no water supply in classrooms accounted for 47.72% and 36.21% of the refusals, respectively. The refusal rate was significantly correlated (p knowledge of iron deficiency issues (p < 0.05). The odds of refusal in the absence of a classroom water supply were 2.02 (95% CI 1 · 044 to 3 · 900) times greater than for those classrooms with a water supply. Student exposure to the program's goal was satisfactory; however, delivery and fidelity of educational materials and training sessions were inadequate. The findings suggest that the methods of delivery and the fidelity of the program components, education materials and training sessions were insufficient and need to be improved. Additionally, specific attention has to be given to contextual factors to ensure the success of the program.

  18. A systematic review of the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programmes for First Nations, Inuit and Métis youth in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, K; Leatherdale, S T; Elton-Marshall, T

    2015-06-01

    First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) youth are disproportionately affected by obesity and represent known a high-risk group in Canada. School-based prevention programmes may have the potential to effectively influence obesity-related health behaviours (i.e. healthy eating and physical activity) among this population. We conducted a systematic review of nine electronic databases (2003-2014) to identify studies that describe school-based programmes that have been developed to improve obesity-related health behaviours and outcomes among FNIM youth in Canada. The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes and assess the strength of the methodologies used to evaluate them. Fifteen studies, representing seven distinct interventions, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of these programmes did not result in significant improvements in outcomes related to obesity, healthy eating, or physical activity among FNIM youth. The studies varied in design rigour and use of evaluation activities. The lack of literature on effective school-based programmes for FNIM youth in Canada that target obesity-related outcomes highlights a priority area for future intervention development, evaluation and dissemination within the peer-reviewed literature. Further research is needed on interventions involving Métis and Inuit youth, secondary school-aged FNIM youth and FNIM youth living in urban settings. © 2015 World Obesity.

  19. (S)Partners for Heart Health: a school-based program for enhancing physical activity and nutrition to promote cardiovascular health in 5th grade students

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Joseph J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Jager, Kathleen B; Sehnert, Scott T; Yee, Kimbo E; Klavinski, Rita A; Feltz, Deborah L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA). In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-discipl...

  20. Effectiveness of reducing the risk of eating-related problems using the German school-based intervention program, "Torera", for preadolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, U; Schaefer, J-M; Wick, K; Brix, C; Bormann, B; Sowa, M; Schwartze, D; Strauss, B

    2014-08-01

    Representative surveys indicate that eating disorders are an increasing problem, especially among (pre)adolescents. We assessed the effects of a German school-based primary prevention program ("Torera") for seventh graders. Torera especially relates to pathological eating behavior in the realm of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. The program is built upon two previously evaluated modules for sixth graders with a gender-specific adaption. The coeducational intervention involves nine manual-guided lessons touching a wide range of eating-related problems. Twenty-two Thuringian secondary schools (n = 256 boys and 277 girls, aged 11-13 years at baseline) participated in a trial with 2 control groups (untreated and pretreated) with pre-post assessment. Primary outcomes were conspicuous eating behavior and body self-esteem, measured by standardized questionnaires (SCOFF, EAT-26D, and FBeK). Girls and students at risk showed significant improvement with small (d = 0.35) to medium (d = 0.66) effect sizes on eating behavior, significantly mediated by body self-esteem. Boys only improved with respect to eating attitudes, revealing a small effect size (d = 0.35). With relatively low implementation costs (about 2.50 per student), Torera provides an efficient model for reducing risky eating behavior and strengthening body self-esteem without negative side effects. To improve the effectiveness of the intervention, further research efforts focusing on at-risk groups (secondary prevention) and structural actions for prevention (e.g., offering healthy school catering) are needed.

  1. The Role of Ethnicity in School-Based Obesity Intervention for School-Aged Children: A Pilot Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Sabrina A.; Carter, Jocelyn S.; DeCator, Draycen D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of obesity have risen disproportionately for ethnic minority youth in the United States. School-based programs may be the most comprehensive and cost-effective way to implement primary prevention in children. In this study we evaluated the effect of a school-based obesity prevention on the outcome of body mass index percentile…

  2. A school-based human papillomavirus vaccination program in barretos, Brazil: final results of a demonstrative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro Fregnani

    Full Text Available The implementation of a public HPV vaccination program in several developing countries, especially in Latin America, is a great challenge for health care specialists.To evaluate the uptake and the three-dose completion rates of a school-based HPV vaccination program in Barretos (Brazil.THE STUDY INCLUDED GIRLS WHO WERE ENROLLED IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND WHO REGULARLY ATTENDED THE SIXTH AND SEVENTH GRADES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (MEAN AGE: 11.9 years. A meeting with the parents or guardians occurred approximately one week before the vaccination in order to explain the project and clarify the doubts. The quadrivalent vaccine was administered using the same schedule as in the product package (0-2-6 months. The school visits for regular vaccination occurred on previously scheduled dates. The vaccine was also made available at Barretos Cancer Hospital for the girls who could not be vaccinated on the day when the team visited the school.Among the potential candidates for vaccination (n = 1,574, the parents or guardians of 1,513 girls (96.1% responded to the invitation to participate in the study. A total of 1,389 parents or guardians agreed to participate in the program (acceptance rate = 91.8%. The main reason for refusing to participate in the vaccination program was fear of adverse events. The vaccine uptake rates for the first, second, and third doses were 87.5%, 86.3% and 85.0%, respectively. The three-dose completion rate was 97.2%.This demonstrative study achieved high rates of vaccination uptake and completion of three vaccine doses in children 10-16 years old from Brazil. The feasibility and success of an HPV vaccination program for adolescents in a developing country may depend on the integration between the public health and schooling systems.

  3. Effectiveness of Fresh Start: A Randomized Study of a School-Based Program to Retain a Negative Attitude Toward Substance Use in Secondary School Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onrust, Simone A; van der Heijden, Amy; Zschämisch, Anna L; Speetjens, Paula A M

    2018-05-12

    The transition to secondary school is linked to more positive attitudes toward substance use, which prelude the moment of first use. Fresh Start is a school-based prevention program for secondary school freshmen (12-13 years old) to retain negative attitudes. This study evaluates the effectiveness of Fresh Start on the attitudes toward smoking, alcohol use, and cannabis use, and on multiple secondary outcome measures. In addition, the effect of timing of the program within the schoolyear was examined. A cluster randomized trial was conducted. 48 classes, containing 1083 secondary school freshmen, were randomly allocated to the experimental or waiting list control condition. Experimental classes completed Fresh Start between October 2015 and January 2016 and waiting list control classes completed Fresh Start between March 2016 and May 2016. Measurements were scheduled at three points in time (September 2015, February 2016, and June 2016). Data were analyzed by means of multilevel analyses. Fresh Start had small but significant effects on the attitudes toward smoking, alcohol use and cannabis use. The majority of secondary outcome measures were not influenced by Fresh Start, although a small, adverse effect was found on the perceived social acceptance of cannabis use by friends. Timing of the intervention within the schoolyear did not influence its effectiveness. Conclusions/Importance: Fresh Start can help to delay the development of positive attitudes toward substance use in secondary school freshmen. Strengths and limitations, implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (phand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487

  5. Estimating the Economic Value of Information for Screening in Disseminating and Targeting Effective School-based Preventive Interventions: An Illustrative Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen S; Salkever, David S; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Slade, Eric P; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    When candidates for school-based preventive interventions are heterogeneous in their risk of poor outcomes, an intervention's expected economic net benefits may be maximized by targeting candidates for whom the intervention is most likely to yield benefits, such as those at high risk of poor outcomes. Although increasing amounts of information about candidates may facilitate more accurate targeting, collecting information can be costly. We present an illustrative example to show how cost-benefit analysis results from effective intervention demonstrations can help us to assess whether improved targeting accuracy justifies the cost of collecting additional information needed to make this improvement.

  6. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  7. Assessing the Effectiveness of a School-Based Dental Clinic on the Oral Health of Children Who Lack Access to Dental Care: A Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, Rachel; Walker, Mary P.; Liu, Ying; Simmer-Beck, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    This program evaluation examines the effectiveness of a school-based dental clinic. A repeated-measures design was used to longitudinally examine secondary data from participants (N = 293). Encounter intensity was developed to normalize data. Multivariate analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to investigate the effect of encounter…

  8. Feasibility, Acceptability and Preliminary Treatment Outcomes in a School-Based CBT Intervention Program for Adolescents with ASD and Anxiety in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmic, Irene E.; Aljunied, Mariam; Reaven, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for anxiety difficulties and disorders. Clinic-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective; however, few published school-based CBT programs for youth with ASD exist. In this study, the Facing Your Fears CBT protocol was adapted for delivery and piloted within a school…

  9. Stress at Work and Its Subsequent Problems among Teachers of the Public Schools Which Operate the School-Based Violence Reduction Program (VRP) in Tulkarm Governorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteer, Rabee

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the work-related stress and its subsequent problems among teachers of the public schools which operated the school-based Violence Reduction Program (VRP) in the governorate of Tulkarm during the second semester of 2015-2016. Besides, it aimed to identify the effect of specific variables, such as gender, specialization,…

  10. Assessing the Implementation Fidelity of a School-Based Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Program in Physical Education and Other Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartí, Amparo; Liops-Goig, Ramon; Wright, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model was developed to foster responsibility and teach life skills that transfer to various settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the implementation fidelity of a school-based TPSR program in physical education and other subject areas. Method: Systematic observation was…

  11. Pilot Evaluation of the Feasibility and Acceptability of StressOFF Strategies: A Single-Session School-Based Stress Management Program for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Amy J.; Heath, Nancy L.; Carsley, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the pilot evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of StressOFF Strategies, a "single-session" (45 min) adolescent-targeted, school-based psychoeducational program, which introduces cognitive behavioral techniques and mindfulness-based techniques. Five hundred and sixty-five Grade 9 students (57% female;…

  12. School Health Connection Goes Electronic: Developing a Health Information Management System for New Orleans' School-Based Health Centers. Program Results Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorfer, Darl

    2011-01-01

    From February 2008 through April 2011, School Health Connection, a program of the Louisiana Public Health Institute, developed an electronic health information management system for newly established school-based health centers in Greater New Orleans. School Health Connection was established as part of a broader effort to restore community health…

  13. Merging contemporary learning theory with mental health promotion to produce an effective schools-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Margaret; Knight, Bruce Allen; Withyman, Cathie

    2017-07-01

    Approximately three quarters of all major mental disorders begin in adolescence. Finding ways to buffer against stress, access social support and connection and flexibly draw upon a range of coping mechanisms are vital strategies that young people can use to promote mental health and wellbeing and to navigate this turbulent life transition successfully. Within Australia, like other parts of the world such as the UK and the USA, it is a sad reality that when young people do become distressed they are not self-caring or supporting others effectively, and not seeking or receiving appropriate help. In order to respond proactively to this issue, a nurse-initiated mental health promotion program was developed. It is termed, iCARE, which stands for Creating Awareness, Resilience and Enhanced Mental Health. The aim of this paper is to discuss the underpinning educational theory that assists in developing in young people a sense of belonging, empathy, self-care and resilience, and why the strategies chosen to engage young people are likely to be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementing an Alcohol and Other Drug Use Prevention Program Using University-High School Partnerships: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Wyrick, David L.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Caldwell, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: School-based alcohol and other drug use prevention remains an important national strategy. Collaborative partnerships between universities and high schools have the potential to enhance prevention programming; however, there are challenges to sustaining such partnerships. Purpose: The purpose of this commentary is to underscore…

  15. The Short-Term Effectiveness of a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training Program in a College Setting with Residence Life Advisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Although the college years prove to be a vulnerable time for students and a critical period for suicide prevention, few school-based prevention strategies have been empirically evaluated. The current study examined the short-term effects of Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training program that teaches how to recognize warning…

  16. Bridging Public Health and Education: Results of a School-Based Physical Activity Program to Increase Student Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Williams, Shannon L; Franks, Padra; Kay, Christi; Meyer, Adria; Cornett, Kelly; Mosier, Brian

    Power Up for 30 (PU30) is a schoolwide intervention that encourages schools to provide an additional 30 minutes of physical activity during the school day, beyond physical education. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of PU30 on Georgia public elementary schools and their students. A total of 719 of 1320 public elementary schools in Georgia that were sent a baseline survey about school physical activity during October 2013 to September 2014 completed the survey, 160 of which were asked to complete a second survey. In the interim (March to June 2015), half (80) of these schools implemented the PU30 program. The interim surveys, which were completed during March to June 2015, assessed opportunities for student physical activity and staff member professional development focused on student physical activity. Compared with schools that had not implemented the program, more schools using the PU30 program reported offering before- and after-school physical activity programs. Forty-four of 78 (57%) PU30 schools compared with 20 of 53 (38%) non-PU30 schools offered before-school physical activity programs. Likewise, more PU30 schools than non-PU30 schools offered after-school physical activity programs (35% vs 16%), and a greater proportion of students at PU30 schools compared with non-PU30 schools met fitness benchmarks: recess 5 days per week (91% [288 of 323] vs 80% [273 of 341]), offering ≥11 minutes per day of classroom-based physical activity (39% [53 of 136] vs 25% [47 of 189] for kindergarten through second grade; 20% [37 of 187] vs 6% [9 of 152] for grades 3 through 5), and receiving physical activity-related professional development time (42% [136 of 323] vs 14% [48 of 341]). The surveys provided a statewide picture of the physical activity opportunities offered to students and staff members in Georgia elementary schools and demonstrated the effective use of a comprehensive, multicomponent program to offer more school-based physical activity

  17. Effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs in quality of life and asthma exacerbations in asthmatic children aged five to 18: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne

    2016-11-01

    Asthma is a common, chronic, non-communicable respiratory disease that affects millions of children worldwide. Asthma exacerbations can range from mild to severe and can have an unfavorable impact on the quality of life of children and their caregivers. Asthma exacerbations often result in absenteeism from school or work, activity intolerance and emergency hospital visits. One strategy to address this health issue in an attempt to improve health outcomes is school-based asthma educational programs. A review of the literature revealed that previous systematic reviews have examined similar topics on the effectiveness of school-based asthma educational programs that have included collaborative efforts between parents and schools. No systematic reviews were found that examined the effectiveness of school-based asthma educational programs that exclusively included children and their caregivers. Research has not been systematically reviewed to determine the effectiveness of a school-based asthma educational program within a familial context. To identify the best available evidence on the effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs that exclusively included both children and caregivers on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to 18 years with a clinical diagnosis of asthma. Children aged five to 18 years of any gender, race or ethnicity with a clinical diagnosis of asthma and their caregivers. School-based family asthma educational programs. Randomized controlled trials. Quality of life and the number of asthma exacerbations measured by either missed days from school or work, and/or physical activity intolerance, and/or emergency hospital visits. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies from inception of the database to August 21, 2015. Quantitative papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity before inclusion in the review

  18. Facilitators and barriers to the delivery of school-based smoking prevention interventions for children and young people: a protocol for a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, Fiona; Angus, Kathryn; Littlecott, Hannah; Allum, Karen; Wells, Valerie; Amos, Amanda; Haw, Sally; Bauld, Linda

    2018-04-06

    Despite a decline in child and adult smoking prevalence, young people who smoke (even occasionally) can rapidly become addicted to nicotine, with most adult smokers initiating smoking before they are 18. Schools have long been a popular setting to deliver youth smoking prevention interventions, but evidence of the effectiveness of school-based prevention programmes is mixed, and outcomes vary by the type of programme delivered. Existing systematic reviews that explore the factors contributing to the success or failure of school-based smoking prevention programmes often exclude qualitative studies, due to a focus on intervention effectiveness which qualitative research cannot answer. Instead, qualitative research is focussed on the experiences and perceptions of those involved in the programmes. This systematic review will address this gap by updating a 2009 review to examine qualitative studies. The aim is to generate deeper insight to help target resources which have the potential to save lives by preventing smoking initiation among children and young people. This systematic review will be searching the following databases: the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, HMIC, ERIC, ASSIA, Web of Science and CINAHL. In order to identify additional references, we will consult the reference lists of a sample of systematic reviews and search relevant organizational websites in order to identify appropriate grey literature. The search strategy will include key words and database-specific subject headings relating to smoking, children and young people, health promotion and school. Authors will independently screen, assess data quality and extract data for synthesis. Study findings will be synthesised thematically using 'best-fit framework syntheses'. This allows for an existing set of themes to be used as a starting point to map or code included studies. These themes are then adapted as coding takes place to accommodate new emerging themes. This review will focus on

  19. Relationship between Tobacco Advertising and Youth Smoking: Assessing the Effectiveness of a School-Based Antismoking Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramini, Richard F.; Bridge, Patrick D.

    2001-01-01

    The Hazards of Tobacco (C) program, which focuses on smoking prevention among youth, was completed by 259 suburban sixth graders (199 controls) and 166 urban fifth through seventh graders. Participation significantly changed understanding of the role of tobacco advertising and the intention to smoke in both samples. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  20. Effects of a School-Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal and Visual Memory in Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 minutes sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests for three times over a period of 18 ...

  1. Effect of a School-based Nutrition Education Program on the Nutritional Status of Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Keshani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions carried out through one year for children, using active learning methods. Mothers’ education was carried out in person in both lecture and question-answer sessions also via sending text messages and pamphlets. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC of children were measured before and after the intervention. Also a 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed. Two separate nutrition knowledge questionnaires were filled up by children and their mothers. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: 171 children (83 in the case and 88 in the control group, aged 9.5-10.5 years, completed the study. Anthropometric and nutritional knowledge of the participants in both the intervention and control groups was significantly increased. Weight, height, WC and nutritional knowledge increased significantly more in the intervention group compared to the controls. Consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased in the intervention group while plain sugar and fast foods intake increased among the controls. There were no significant differences between the changes in the intake of any of the food groups in the two groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, the designed nutrition education program could increase students’ nutritional knowledge, and lead to a non-significant change towards reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods such as fast foods, sweets and salty snacks.

  2. Effective nationwide school-based participatory extramural program on adolescent body mass index, health knowledge and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Jimenez, Camille C; Lim, Jean; Isasi, Carmen R; Blank, Arthur E; Lounsbury, David W; Fredericks, Lynn; Bouchard, Michelle; Faith, Myles S; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2018-01-16

    Adolescent obesity is a major public health concern. Open to all high school students regardless of weight status, HealthCorps is a nationwide program offering a comprehensive high school-based participatory educational program to indirectly address obesity. We tested a hypothesis that the HealthCorps program would decrease BMI z-scores among overweight or obese students, and reduce obesity rates, and evaluated its effects on health knowledge and behaviors. HealthCorps aimed to improve student knowledge and behaviors regarding nutrition quality, physical activity, sleep, breakfast intake, and mental resilience. Participating students received through HealthCorps coordinators weekly or bi-weekly classroom lessons either for a semester or a year in addition to various during- and after-school health-promoting activities and mentorship. Self-reported height and weight were collected along with questionnaires assessing knowledge and behaviors during 2013-2014 academic year among 14 HealthCorps-participating New York City high schools. This quasi experimental two-arm pre-post trial included 611 HealthCorps and 221 comparison arm students for the analytic sample. Sex-specific analyses stratified by weight status were adjusted for age and Hispanic ethnicity with clustering effects of schools and students taken into account. HealthCorps female overweight/obese and obese student had a significant decrease in BMI z-scores (post-pre delta BMI z-score = -0.16 (95%CI = (-0.26, -0.05), p = 0.004 for the former; and = -0.23 (-0.44, -0.03), p = 0.028, for the latter) whereas comparison female counterparts did not. The HealthCorps students, but not the comparison students, had a significant increase for all knowledge domains except for the breakfast realm, and reported a greater number of significant behavior changes including fruit and vegetable intake and physical activities. The HealthCorps program was associated with reduced BMI z-score in overweight/obese and obese

  3. What Works to Prevent Adolescent Smoking? A Systematic Review of the National Cancer Institute's Research-Tested Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Elyse J.; Primack, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cigarette use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Although school is an ideal setting for antismoking interventions, school-based programs have not been successful in the long term. The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of programs deemed to be successful short-term Research-Tested…

  4. (SPartners for Heart Health: a school-based program for enhancing physical activity and nutrition to promote cardiovascular health in 5th grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnert Scott T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA. In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(Spartner" with elementary school physical education (PE teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (Spartnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1 improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2 increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3 increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. Methods/Design This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students

  5. (S)Partners for Heart Health: a school-based program for enhancing physical activity and nutrition to promote cardiovascular health in 5th grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joseph J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Jager, Kathleen B; Sehnert, Scott T; Yee, Kimbo E; Klavinski, Rita A; Feltz, Deborah L

    2008-12-22

    The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA). In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU) faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(S)partner" with elementary school physical education (PE) teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (S)partnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1) improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2) increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3) increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly) designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students (Spartners). The final 10 minutes of each lesson

  6. Support for school-based obesity prevention efforts: attitudes among administrators at nationally representative samples of US elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    With the continued threat of childhood obesity, many public health intervention efforts focus on school settings. The current study sought to document administrator attitudes regarding obesity and interest in improving relevant school practices (i.e., nutrition and physical activity) in elementary schools. Mail-back surveys were used to gather data from public and private elementary schools during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 school years. In each year, a different set of items pertaining to administrator attitudes was included. Numbers of responding schools annually ranged from 259 to 336 private schools, and from 578 to 748 public schools. The vast majority of elementary school administrators (>90%) agreed that schools can play a role in addressing childhood obesity, physical education improves a variety of academic outcomes, and they were interested in improving practices at their school. Concern about childhood obesity and perceiving that schools can play a role in addressing obesity were both associated with more interest in improving school practices. However, only one-third of administrators agreed that parents were interested in participating in improving nutrition and physical activity practices, suggesting opportunities for efforts to improve collaboration. Administrators are generally very supportive of school-based efforts to improve nutrition and physical activity practices and see the value in doing so. Given the amount of time children spend in school, schools are an essential venue for efforts to address childhood obesity.

  7. Improving childrens self-esteem and perceived social related abilities: the evaluation of a school-based program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lemma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objective: Health education programmes delivered in school settings are often design to enhance child self–esteem or various social skills in order to improve the way that they interact in every day life. Although these are becoming increasingly frequent, little is known about the real efficacy of many of the available programs that claim to be able to positively develop these psychologica dimensions. This study, which takes a Public Health approach, examines the effect of a school-based educational programme, designed following the WHO recommendations, in order to favour children’s self-esteem and improve perceived socio-relational competences.

    Method: To test the effectiveness of this intervention, a non randomized, controlled, prospective study was set up. All 291 eligible students, aged between 8-10 years, were enrolled. To assess self-esteem and perceived supportive relationship, a well-known and descriptive scales were utilised (MSCS, SPPC, AIR.

    Results: No difference was found between the experimental and control groups with respect to the children’s self-esteem and perceived socio-relational competences following the intervention, except in the quality of their relationships with their teachers, which improved in the experimental group and declined in the control group.

    Discussion: The educational programme used in our study did not seem to be able to enhance self-esteem in the intervention group, but the methodological instruments used to monitor the change in self-esteem domonstrated a different rate of change in the more disadvantaged sub-groups of the observed population.

  8. Investigating the experiences in a school-based occupational therapy program to inform community-based paediatric occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rens, Lezahn; Joosten, Annette

    2014-06-01

    A collaborative approach with teachers is required when providing community-based occupational therapy to educationally at risk children. Collaborators share common goals and interact and support each other but challenges arise in providing collaborative occupational therapy in settings outside the school environment. The aim of this study was to capture experiences of teachers and occupational therapists working within a school-based occupational therapy program to determine if their experiences could inform collaborative practice. In this pilot study, participant responses to questionnaires (n = 32) about their experiences formed the basis for focus groups and individual interviews. Two focus group were conducted, one with teachers (n = 11) and one with occupational therapy participants (n = 6). Individual interviews were conducted with the supervising occupational therapist, school principal and two leading teachers. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data from closed questions, and thematic analysis using a constant comparison approach was used to analyse open ended questions, focus groups and interviews. Three main themes emerged: (i) the need for occupational therapists to spend time in the school, to explain their role, build relationships, understand classroom routines and the teacher role; (ii) occupational therapists need to not see themselves as the expert but develop equal partnerships to set collaborative goals and (iii) occupational therapists advocating for all parties to be informed throughout the occupational therapy process. The pilot study findings identified teacher and therapist experiences within the school setting that could inform improved collaborative practice with teachers and community-based occupational therapists and these findings warrant further investigation. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Why and How to Promote Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors: Direct, Mediated and Moderated Effects of the CEPIDEA School-Based Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette Paula; Zuffianò, Antonio; Gerbino, Maria; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2015-12-01

    Prosocial behaviors are considered integral to intervention goals that seek to promote successful youth development. This study examines the effect of a school-based intervention program entirely designed to promote prosocial behaviors called Promoting Prosocial and Emotional Skills to Counteract Externalizing Problems in Adolescence (Italian acronym CEPIDEA). The CEPIDEA curriculum was incorporated into routine educational practices and included five major components that reflect the personal determinants of prosocial behavior during adolescence. The present study assessed 151 students (48.7% female; M(age) = 12.4) of the intervention school and 140 students (51.2% female; M(age) = 13.0) of the control school at three points. A multi-group latent curve analysis revealed that the intervention group, compared with the control group, showed an increase in prosocial behavior, interpersonal self-efficacy beliefs, and agreeableness along with a decrease in physical aggression above and beyond the normative developmental trend of the these variables. Participants of the intervention also obtained higher grades than the control group at the end of middle school. Moderation effects for prosocial behavior and agreeableness evidenced that those who benefited most from the intervention were those adolescents with lower normative development of prosocial behavior, low initial level of agreeableness, and high initial level of physical aggression. The results also showed that the increase of prosocial behaviors mediated the decline of verbal aggression in adolescents who had attended the intervention. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at promoting prosocial behaviors while having the potential to support positive outcomes may also counteract or redirect negative trajectories of functioning.

  10. Preparing Occupational Therapy Students to Address Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Intervention in School-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Cindy DeRuiter; Bilics, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Directors of entry-level occupational therapy (OT) programs were surveyed regarding how their programs prepare students to become mental health practitioners in schools. Analysis of quantitative data included descriptive statistics to examine participants' ratings of their program's ability to prepare students for mental health practice. We found…

  11. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd. Taib, Mohd. Nasir; Mohd. Shariff, Zalilah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordere...

  12. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday Katherine E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i the malaria intervention alone; (ii the literacy intervention alone; (iii both interventions combined; or (iv control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of

  13. Effectiveness of Universal School-Based Mental Health Awareness Programs among Youth in the United States: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and low mental health literacy have been identified as links to social adversity, and barriers to seeking and adhering to treatment among adolescents suffering from mental illness. Prior research has found that it is possible to improve these outcomes using school-based mental health…

  14. School-based obesity-prevention interventions in low- and middle-income countries: Do they really work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is the most common nutrition-related health problem around the world, especially among children. Hundreds of studies have been conducted to test approaches to prevent obesity, and many were in children in schools. Most of these studies were conducted in higher-income countries. An article in...

  15. Wanted: A Developmentally Oriented Alcohol Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)

  16. School-Based Health Clinics: An Analysis of the Johns Hopkins Study. Research Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demsko, Tobin W.

    School-based health clinics, adolescent pregnancy prevention programs offering comprehensive health services, represent the latest initiative to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy. Researchers at Johns Hopkins University designed and administered a pregnancy prevention program which offered sexuality education and family planning services…

  17. An Evaluation of a School-Based Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program Using a Logic Model Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulton, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy and the subsequent social morbidities associated with unintended pregnancies are complex issues facing school nurses in their daily work. In contemporary practice, school nurses are being held to higher standards of accountability and being asked to demonstrate the effective outcomes of their interventions. The purpose of this…

  18. Rethinking school-based health centers as complex adaptive systems: maximizing opportunities for the prevention of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Alison Moriarty

    2012-01-01

    This article examines school-based health centers (SBHCs) as complex adaptive systems, the current gaps that exist in contraceptive access, and the potential to maximize this community resource in teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention efforts. Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health challenge for the United States. Existing community resources need to be considered for their potential to impact teen pregnancy and STI prevention efforts. SBHCs are one such community resource to be leveraged in these efforts. They offer adolescent-friendly primary care services and are responsive to the diverse needs of the adolescents utilizing them. However, current restrictions on contraceptive availability limit the ability of SBHCs to maximize opportunities for comprehensive reproductive care and create missed opportunities for pregnancy and STI prevention. A clinical case explores the current models of health care services related to contraceptive care provided in SBHCs and the ability to meet or miss the needs of an adolescent seeking reproductive care in a SBHC.

  19. THE CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL-BASED YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION: EXPERIENCES AND PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. I...

  20. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  1. 40 CFR 68.175 - Prevention program/Program 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.175 Prevention program/Program 3. (a) For each Program 3 process, the owner or operator shall provide the information indicated in paragraphs (b) through (p) of this section. If the same information applies to more than one covered process...

  2. 40 CFR 68.170 - Prevention program/Program 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.170 Prevention program/Program 2. (a) For each Program 2 process, the owner or operator shall provide in the RMP the information... the process. (c) The name(s) of the chemical(s) covered. (d) The date of the most recent review or...

  3. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large

  4. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL, a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13–14 years old. Methods/Design Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13–14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity, body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Discussion It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016

  5. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah

    2016-10-20

    Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely 'Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively' (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13-14 years old. Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13-14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity), body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016, retrospectively registered).

  6. School-based systems change for obesity prevention in adolescents: outcomes of the Australian Capital Territory 'It's Your Move!'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakellis, Mary; Hoare, Erin; Sanigorski, Andrew; Crooks, Nicholas; Allender, Steven; Nichols, Melanie; Swinburn, Boyd; Chikwendu, Cal; Kelly, Paul M; Petersen, Solveig; Millar, Lynne

    2017-10-01

    The Australian Capital Territory 'It's Your Move!' (ACT-IYM) was a three-year (2012-2014) systems intervention to prevent obesity among adolescents. The ACT-IYM project involved three intervention schools and three comparison schools and targeted secondary students aged 12-16 years. The intervention consisted of multiple initiatives at individual, community, and school policy level to support healthier nutrition and physical activity. Intervention school-specific objectives related to increasing active transport, increasing time spent physically active at school, and supporting mental wellbeing. Data were collected in 2012 and 2014 from 656 students. Anthropometric data were objectively measured and behavioural data self-reported. Proportions of overweight or obesity were similar over time within the intervention (24.5% baseline and 22.8% follow-up) and comparison groups (31.8% baseline and 30.6% follow-up). Within schools, two of three the intervention schools showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity (pobesity among adolescents. Implications for public health: The incorporation of systems thinking has been touted as the next stage in obesity prevention and public health more broadly. These findings demonstrate that the use of systems methods can be effective on a small scale. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Feasibility of the Positive Thoughts and Actions Prevention Program for Middle Schoolers at Risk for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. McCarty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adolescent depression, few school-based prevention programs have been developed and tested in the United States with middle school populations. This study examined the acceptability and changes in targeted outcomes for a new preventative program, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA. Sixty-seven 7th grade students with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited from public schools and randomized to the 12-week PTA program with a parent-component or to a school-as-usual control group. The PTA prevention program was well received by students and parents, yielding high rates of participation and satisfaction among those randomized to receive the intervention. However, analyses of the efficacy of the program in changing depressive symptoms were not significant. In terms of our proximal program targets, most differences were not statistically significant, though effect sizes suggested advantage of PTA over control group in coping, cognitive style, and parent-child communication. This preliminary research highlights a need for further testing of programs for school-based prevention of depression and promotion of positive emotional health.

  8. A Mediation Analysis of a Tobacco Prevention Program for Adolescents in India: How Did Project MYTRI Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Melissa Harrell; Perry, Cheryl L.; Smolenski, Derek; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of a mediation analysis of Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, controlled trial of a multiple-component, school-based tobacco prevention program for sixth- to ninth-graders (n = 14,085) in Delhi and Chennai, India. A mediation analysis identifies "how"…

  9. Addressing Adolescent Substance Abuse: An Evaluation of Washington's Prevention and Intervention Services Program. 2001-03 Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Dennis D.

    2004-01-01

    To directly address the state of Washington's concerns regarding student alcohol and other drug use, in 1989 the state Legislature passed the Omnibus Alcohol and Controlled Substances Act (ESSHB 1793). One part of this act called for the creation of a school-based alcohol and other dug abuse prevention and early intervention program. The Office of…

  10. Detecting and describing preventive intervention effects in a universal school-based randomized trial targeting delinquent and violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoolmiller, M; Eddy, J M; Reid, J B

    2000-04-01

    This study examined theoretical, methodological, and statistical problems involved in evaluating the outcome of aggression on the playground for a universal preventive intervention for conduct disorder. Moderately aggressive children were hypothesized most likely to benefit. Aggression was measured on the playground using observers blind to the group status of the children. Behavior was micro-coded in real time to minimize potential expectancy biases. The effectiveness of the intervention was strongly related to initial levels of aggressiveness. The most aggressive children improved the most. Models that incorporated corrections for low reliability (the ratio of variance due to true time-stable individual differences to total variance) and censoring (a floor effect in the rate data due to short periods of observation) obtained effect sizes 5 times larger than models without such corrections with respect to children who were initially 2 SDs above the mean on aggressiveness.

  11. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal Kapil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16. The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28 which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023 had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628

  12. Economic evaluation of URMEL-ICE, a school-based overweight prevention programme comprising metabolism, exercise and lifestyle intervention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Schreiber, Anja; Wirt, Tamara; Wiedom, Martina; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Brandstetter, Susanne; Koch, Benjamin; Wartha, Olivia; Muche, Rainer; Wabitsch, Martin; Kilian, Reinhold; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2013-04-01

    Measuring the impact of the URMEL-ICE school-based overweight prevention programme on anthropometric measures in primary-school children, computing incremental cost-effectiveness relation (ICER) and net monetary benefit (NMB). This is an intervention study with historical control. Propensity score method is applied to account for group differences. One-year teacher-driven classroom implementation is used, which is based on especially developed teaching material including health education, physical activity breaks and parent involvement. 354 children in the control and 365 children in the intervention group at baseline and follow-up were analysed. Effectiveness is measured as cm waist circumference (WC) and unit (0.01) waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) increase prevented in intervention vs. control group using an adjusted two-level model. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, net benefit regression and a societal perspective for a 1-year time horizon are applied. WC gain was 1.61 cm and WHtR gain was 0.014 significantly less in intervention vs. control group. Intervention costs were euro24.09 per child. ICER was euro11.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) [8.78; 15.02]) per cm WC and euro18.55 (95% CI [14.04; 26.86]) per unit WHtR gain prevented. At a maximum willingness to pay (MWTP) of euro35, both values of the CIs for NMB regarding WC and WHtR are located in the positive range. The study gives new information about the cost-effectiveness of structured health promotion embedded in daily routine at primary schools. Assuming a MWTP of euro35 the intervention is cost-effective with a positive NMB. This result may help decision makers in implementing programmes to prevent childhood overweight in school settings.

  13. A Meta-analysis of the Effectiveness of Interactive Middle School Cannabis Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lize, Steven E; Iachini, Aidyn L; Tang, Weizhou; Tucker, Joshua; Seay, Kristen D; Clone, Stephanie; DeHart, Dana; Browne, Teri

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis examines the effectiveness of interactive middle school-based drug prevention programs on adolescent cannabis use in North America, as well as program characteristics that could moderate these effects. Interactive programs, compared to more didactic, lecture style programs, involve participants in skill-building activities and focus on interaction among participants. A systematic literature search was conducted for English-language studies from January 1998 to March 2014. Studies included evaluations using random assignment or a quasi-experimental design of interactive school-based substance use prevention programs delivered to adolescents (aged 12-14) in North American middle schools (grades 6-8). Data were extracted using a coding protocol. The outcomes of interest were post-treatment cannabis use, intent to use, and refusal skills compared across intervention and control groups. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated from continuous measures, and dichotomous measures were converted to the d index. A total of 30 studies yielding 23 independent samples were included. The random effects pooled effect size for cannabis use (k = 21) was small ([Formula: see text]= -0.07, p prevention programs. The pooled effect sizes for intention to use (k = 3) and refusal skills (k = 3) were not significant. Moderator analyses indicated significant differences in program effectiveness between instructor types, with teachers found to be most effective ([Formula: see text]= -0.08, p = 0.02). The findings provide further support for the use of interactive school-based programs to prevent cannabis use among middle school students in North America.

  14. The Effects of School-Based Maum Meditation Program on the Self-Esteem and School Adjustment in Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Gyeong; Lee, In Soo

    2013-01-01

    Self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the lower grades of primary school, the beginning stage of school life, have a close relationship with development of personality, mental health and characters of children. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify the effect of school-based Maum Meditation program on children in the lower grades of primary school, as a personality education program. The result showed that the experimental group with application of Maum Meditation program had significant improvements in self-esteem and school adjustment, compared to the control group without the application. In conclusion, since the study provides significant evidence that the intervention of Maum Meditation program had positive effects on self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the early stage of primary school, it is suggested to actively employ Maum Meditation as a school-based meditation program for mental health promotion of children in the early school ages, the stage of formation of personalities and habits. PMID:23777717

  15. Soil-transmitted helminths in southern highland Rwanda: associated factors and effectiveness of school-based preventive chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Olga; Heimer, Jakob; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean M; Ignatius, Ralf; Musemakweri, Andre; Ngabo, Fidele; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2014-07-01

    Preventive chemotherapy of schoolchildren against soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) is widely implemented in Rwanda. However, data on its actual efficacy are lacking. We assessed prevalence, associated factors and manifestation of STH infection among schoolchildren in southern highland Rwanda as well as cure and reinfection rates. Six hundred and twenty-two children (rural, 301; urban, 321) were included preceding the administration of a single dose of 500 mg mebendazole. Before treatment, and after 2 and 15 weeks, STH infection was determined by Kato-Katz smears and by PCR assays for Ascaris lumbricoides. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with STH infection were assessed. Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection was present in 38% of rural and in 13% of urban schoolchildren. Ascaris lumbricoides accounted for 96% of infections. Of these, one-third was detected by PCR exclusively. Factors associated with STH infection differed greatly between rural and urban children. Likewise, STH infection was associated with stunting and anaemia only among urban children. The cure rate after 2 weeks was 92%. Among eight non-cleared A. lumbricoides infections, seven were submicroscopic. Reinfection within 3 months occurred in 7%, but the rate was higher among rural children, and with initially present infection, particularly at comparatively high intensity. The rural-urban difference in factors associated with STH infection and in reinfection rates highlights the need for targeted interventions to reduce transmission. PCR assays may help in detecting low-level infections persisting after treatment. In southern Rwanda, mebendazole is highly effective against the STH infections predominated by A. lumbricoides. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida. PMID:22367261

  17. Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP): a school-based and community-based cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael; Agus, Ashley; Cole, Jonathan; Doherty, Paul; Foxcroft, David; Harvey, Séamus; Murphy, Lynn; Percy, Andrew; Sumnall, Harry

    2018-03-09

    To assess the effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention (the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)), compared with alcohol education as normal (EAN), in reducing self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related harms (ARHs) in adolescents. 105 high schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and in Scotland. Schools were stratified by free school meal provision. Schools in NI were also stratified by school type (male/female/coeducational). Eligible students were in school year 8/S1 (aged 11-12 years) at baseline (June 2012). A classroom-based alcohol education intervention, coupled with a brief alcohol intervention for parents/carers. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: (1) The prevalence of self-reported HED in the previous 30 days and (2) the number of self-reported ARHs in the previous 6 months. Outcomes were assessed using two-level random intercepts models (logistic regression for HED and negative binomial for number of ARHs). At 33 months, data were available for 5160 intervention and 5073 control students (HED outcome), and 5234 and 5146 students (ARH outcome), respectively. Of those who completed a questionnaire at either baseline or 12 months (n=12 738), 10 405 also completed the questionnaire at 33 months (81.7%). Fewer students in the intervention group reported HED compared with EAN (17%vs26%; OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.73), with no significant difference in the number of self-reported ARHs (incident rate ratio=0.92, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.05). Although the classroom component was largely delivered as intended, there was low uptake of the parental component. There were no reported adverse effects. Results suggest that STAMPP could be an effective programme to reduce HED prevalence. While there was no significant reduction in ARH, it is plausible that effects on harms would manifest later. ISRCTN47028486; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  18. Adding a Social Marketing Campaign to a School-Based Nutrition Education Program Improves Children's Dietary Intake: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitstein, Jonathan L; Cates, Sheryl C; Hersey, James; Montgomery, Doris; Shelley, Mack; Hradek, Christine; Kosa, Katherine; Bell, Loren; Long, Valerie; Williams, Pamela A; Olson, Sara; Singh, Anita

    2016-08-01

    Evidence supports the use of social marketing campaigns to improve nutrition knowledge and reinforce the effects of nutrition education programs. However, the additional effects of parent-focused social marketing with nutrition education have received little attention. Our aim was to assess the impact of the Iowa Nutrition Network's school-based nutrition education program (Building and Strengthening Iowa Community Support for Nutrition and Physical Activity [BASICS]) and the benefits of adding a multichannel social marketing intervention (BASICS Plus) to increase parent-directed communication. A quasi-experimental design with three study conditions compared a school-based nutrition education program (BASICS) with a school-based and social marketing intervention (BASICS Plus) and a no-treatment comparison group. The study included 1,037 third-grade students attending 33 elementary schools and their parents. Measures included parents' reports of their children's in-home consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) and use of low-fat/fat-free milk. Data on F/V were collected using a modified version of the University of California Cooperative Extension Food Behavior Checklist; and data on milk use were collected using two questions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multilevel, mixed-effect regression models that account for correlation within repeated measures and children within school were used to compare the mean change over time in the outcome variable for one study group with the mean change over time for another study group. Children in BASICS increased mean consumption of fruit by 0.16 cups (P=0.04) compared with children in the comparison group. Children in BASICS Plus increased mean consumption of fruit by 0.17 cups (P=0.03) and mean consumption of vegetables by 0.13 cups (P=0.02). Children in BASICS Plus were 1.3 times (P=0.05) more likely to use low-fat/fat-free milk than children in either the BASICS group or the comparison group

  19. Study protocol: the Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX) study - a randomized controlled trial of the impact of school-based physical activity programs on children's physical activity, cognitive function, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Catherine M; Duquesnay, Paula J; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Chomitz, Virginia R; Chui, Kenneth; Economos, Christina D; Langevin, Elizabeth G; Nelson, Miriam E; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2016-10-13

    Physical activity (PA) is critical to preventing childhood obesity and contributes to children's overall physical and cognitive health, yet fewer than half of all children achieve the recommended 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Schools are an ideal setting to meeting PA guidelines, but competing demands and limited resources have impacted PA opportunities. The Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX) Study is a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the impact of two innovative school-based PA programs on children's MVPA, cognitive function, and academic outcomes. Twenty-four public elementary schools from low-income, ethnically diverse communities around Massachusetts were recruited and randomized to receive either 100 Mile Club® (walking/running program) or Just Move™ (classroom-based PA program) intervention, or control. Schoolchildren (grades 3-4, approximately 50 per school) were recruited to participate in evaluation. Primary outcome measures include PA via 7-day accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X+ and wGT3X-BT), cognitive assessments, and academic achievement via state standardized test scores. Additional measures include height and weight, surveys assessing psycho-social factors related to PA, and dietary intake. School-level surveys assess PA infrastructure and resources and intervention implementation. Data are collected at baseline, mid-point (5-6 months post-baseline), and post-intervention (approximately 1.5 years post-baseline). Demographic data were collected by parents/caregivers at baseline. Mixed-effect models will test the short- and long-term effects of both programs on minutes spent in MVPA, as well as secondary outcomes including cognitive and academic outcomes. The FLEX study will evaluate strategies for increasing children's MVPA through two innovative, low-cost, school-based PA programs as well as their impact on children's cognitive functioning and academic success. Demonstration of a relationship

  20. Study protocol: the Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX study – a randomized controlled trial of the impact of school-based physical activity programs on children’s physical activity, cognitive function, and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Wright

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is critical to preventing childhood obesity and contributes to children’s overall physical and cognitive health, yet fewer than half of all children achieve the recommended 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Schools are an ideal setting to meeting PA guidelines, but competing demands and limited resources have impacted PA opportunities. The Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX Study is a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the impact of two innovative school-based PA programs on children’s MVPA, cognitive function, and academic outcomes. Methods Twenty-four public elementary schools from low-income, ethnically diverse communities around Massachusetts were recruited and randomized to receive either 100 Mile Club® (walking/running program or Just Move™ (classroom-based PA program intervention, or control. Schoolchildren (grades 3–4, approximately 50 per school were recruited to participate in evaluation. Primary outcome measures include PA via 7-day accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X+ and wGT3X-BT, cognitive assessments, and academic achievement via state standardized test scores. Additional measures include height and weight, surveys assessing psycho-social factors related to PA, and dietary intake. School-level surveys assess PA infrastructure and resources and intervention implementation. Data are collected at baseline, mid-point (5–6 months post-baseline, and post-intervention (approximately 1.5 years post-baseline. Demographic data were collected by parents/caregivers at baseline. Mixed-effect models will test the short- and long-term effects of both programs on minutes spent in MVPA, as well as secondary outcomes including cognitive and academic outcomes. Discussion The FLEX study will evaluate strategies for increasing children’s MVPA through two innovative, low-cost, school-based PA programs as well as their impact on children’s cognitive

  1. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S Y; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (psustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support.

  2. [Effectiveness of School-based Interventions for the Prevention and/or Reduction of Psychosocial Problems among Children and Adolescents: A Review of Reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, S; Landgraf-Rauf, K; Brand, T; Zeeb, H; Pischke, C R

    2017-04-01

    Objective: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for the maintenance of mental health and the prevention of psychosocial problems among pupils. Methods: A systematic literature search of reviews published between 2007 and 2015 was carried out. Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, Campbell Library, Cochrane Library, NICE, ERIC, and Web of Science. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using AMSTAR criteria) were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Results: 6 reviews covering 331 primary studies were included in this review of reviews. Findings of three reviews with a focus on the maintenance and/or promotion of mental health and general well-being suggested that interventions aimed at changes in the social and the school environment were more effective than those that only targeted individual behavior change among pupils. Interventions for the reduction of mobbing/bullying were most effective if they comprised organizational changes at schools, such as playground and schoolyard supervision, and disciplinary measures. One review suggested strong evidence for the effectiveness of classroom management to reduce violent behavior among pupils. Conclusions: Participation in interventions promoting changes in the school environment, in addition to individual behavior change, appears to be associated with improved mental health among pupils and reductions in mobbing/bullying and violent behavior at schools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Program Administration | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Structure Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development

  4. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza S Y Lai

    Full Text Available A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme.This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1 depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2 knowledge of mental health; (3 attitudes towards mental illness; (4 perceived social support; and (5 help-seeking behaviours.A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (p<.05. A preference among schoolchildren for whom to seek help from was identified.The universal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students' anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate

  5. Effect of a school-based oral health education in preventing untreated dental caries and increasing knowledge, attitude, and practices among adolescents in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Kayako, Sakisaka; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Islam, Md Jahirul; Mostofa, Md Golam

    2016-03-25

    There is a dearth of published literature that demonstrates the impact and effectiveness of school-based oral health education (OHE) program in Bangladesh and it is one of the most neglected activities in the field of public health. Keeping this in mind, the objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of OHE program in: 1) increasing oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices and 2) decreasing the prevalence of untreated dental caries among 6-8 grade school students in Bangladesh. This intervention study was conducted in Araihazar Thana, Narayanganj district, Bangladesh during April 2012 to March 2013. The total participants were 944 students from three local schools. At baseline, students were assessed for oral health knowledge, attitude and practices using a self-administered structured questionnaire and untreated dental caries was assessed using clinical examination. Follow up study was done after 6 months from baseline. McNemar's chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the impact of OHE program on four recurrent themes of oral health between the baseline and follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the impact of the intervention group on our outcome variables. Significant improvement was observed regarding school aged adolescents' self-reported higher knowledge, attitude and practices scores (p level of knowledge regarding oral health compared to baseline. Compared with baseline participants in the follow-up were 1.89 times (95 % CI = 1.44-2.87) more likely to have higher attitude towards oral health. In addition, OHE intervention was found to be significantly associated with higher level of practices toward oral health (AOR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.12, 3.38). This study indicated that OHE intervention was effective in increasing i) knowledge, ii) attitude, and iii) practices towards oral health; it also significantly reduced the prevalence of untreated dental caries among school aged adolescents from grade 6-8 in a

  6. Effective prevention programs for tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, M A

    1999-01-01

    Several types of prevention programs have shown effects on delaying or reducing youth tobacco use for periods of 1-5 years or more. These are referred to as evidence-based programs. However, they are not widely used. At the same time, with few exceptions, adolescent tobacco use rates have been stable or have increased in the 1990s. The challenge for prevention is to identify critical components shared by effective prevention programs--that is, components most associated with effect, and then to evaluate factors that are most likely to promote adoption, implementation, and diffusion of effective programs across schools and communities in the United States. Effective tobacco prevention programs focus on counteracting social influences on tobacco use, include either direct training of youth in resistance and assertiveness skills or, for policy and community organization interventions, direct or indirect (through adults) training in community activism, and are mainly theory-based, with an emphasis on three levels of theory: (a) personal (attitudes, normative expectations, and beliefs); (b) social (social or group behavior); and/or (c) environmental (communications and diffusion). Program effects increase with the use of booster sessions, standardized implementor training and support, multiple program components, and multiple levels of theory. Overall, multi-component community programs that have a school program as a basis, with supportive parent, media, and community organization components, have shown the most sustained effects on tobacco use. Positive program adoption by the school or community, extent and quality of program implementation, and existence of credible networks of leaders to promote the program are critical for any effect. Research on predictors of adoption, implementation, and diffusion of evidence-based programs is scanty relative to outcome research. In addition, more research is needed on why multi-component programs appear to be most effective

  7. Staff Directory | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program values the contributions of its fellows and works to provide relevant and useful experiences in research and education in return. Our staff is here to provide unwavering support and guidance to each fellow as they progress through the program.

  8. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  9. The impact of a school based oral hygiene instruction program on the gingival health of middle school children in Riyadh: Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessa Alwayli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the impact of a school-based oral hygiene instructions program on the gingival health of children in randomly selected middle schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred and fourteen children were selected from nine schools that were randomly determined from Riyadh City public schools. After obtaining the parents′ consent, the criteria-guided enrolment of study participants yielded 457 children in the control group and 457 students in the experimental group. The intervention design was 90 days experimental period with an intermediate follow-up visit at 45 days. A calibrated examiner (HW measured the plaque index (PI and the gingival index (GI. The indices were measured at day 1, day 45 and day 90 in both the control and the experimental groups. Results were analyzed with Wilcoxon sign rank test for each index, site, and by sessions for each group to determine if the scores had increased, decreased, or remained the same between intervals. Results: Plaque and gingival scores in the control group showed a steady improvement throughout the experimental period when compared with the baseline scores. Scores in the experimental group were significantly improved at each session between baseline and session 2 (45 days and session 3 (90days respectively. Conclusions: The continued reduction of GI and PI scores at the end of the intervention observed in this pilot study suggest that a school-based oral hygiene measures program can significantly improve oral health among school children in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Construction principles of prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bochaver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the basic principles for the development of effective programs for prevention of substance abuse among young people employed in the United States. They are based on the model of “risk factors and protective factors” and suggest a consistent, systematic, coordinated deployment of preventive interventions for children of different ages and in different social contexts (individually, in family, at school, in community. These principles can be useful for transfer of foreign experience on the Russian reality and for development of a new generation of programs for the prevention of substance abuse in Russia. Also, these principles and ideas may be partly extrapolated to develop prevention programs for other social risks.

  11. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M; Naus, Monika

    2010-05-04

    Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine in a

  12. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ogilvie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having

  13. Emotionally Troubled Teens' Help-Seeking Behaviors: An Evaluation of Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.; Ossege, Julianne; King, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Many school-based suicide prevention programs do not show a positive impact on help-seeking behaviors among emotionally troubled teens despite their being at high risk for suicide. This study is a secondary analysis of the Surviving the Teens® program evaluation to determine its effect on help-seeking behaviors among troubled youth. Results showed…

  14. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eRoden

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 minutes sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests for three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  15. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  16. Effects of a School-Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal and Visual Memory in Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children’s socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills. PMID:23267341

  17. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S. Y.; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W. C.; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, “The Little Prince is Depressed”, for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. Methods This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in “The Little Prince is Depressed” programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. Results A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (pmental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students’ anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support. PMID:26921275

  18. Effect of a school-based intervention on physical activity and quality of life through serial mediation of social support and exercise motivation: the PESSOA program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, A M; Palmeira, A L; Martins, S S; Minderico, C S; Sardinha, L B

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support and behavioral regulation of exercise on physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), in a Portuguese school-based intervention. We hypothesized that serial mediation effects would be present leading to greater levels of PA and QoL. The sample comprised 1042 students (549 boys), aged 10-16 years, BMI = 19.31 ± 3.51, allocated to two groups of schools: control (n = 207) and intervention (n = 835). This study will report the 24 months results of the program, which aimed to develop healthy lifestyles. Questionnaires were used to measure PA, QoL, motivation to exercise and social support. There was no direct impact of the intervention on QoL or PA. Serial mediation analyses were conducted. Social support (P motivation (P = 0.085) increased more on intervention group. Indirect effects were observed in all serial mediation models. The positive indirect effects on PA and QoL were explained by the increase on peer/parent support in serial with the increase in intrinsic motivation (P motivation (P school-based intervention promoted the development of social support and motivational mechanisms that explained higher levels of PA and QoL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Process Evaluation of a School-Based Education Program about Organ Donation and Registration, and the Intention for Continuance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubsaet, A.; Reinaerts, E. B. M.; Brug, J.; van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the process evaluation of an organ donation education program for high school students aged 15-18 years of which the effectiveness was established. The program consisted of three components: a video with group discussion, an interactive computer-tailored program and a registration training session. A cross-sectional survey was…

  20. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Teachers or Psychologists: Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Melanie S.; Adelson, Jill L.; Patak, Margarete A.; Pössel, Patrick; Hautzinger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates a depression prevention program for adolescents led by psychologists vs. teachers in comparison to a control. The universal school-based prevention program has shown its efficacy in several studies when implemented by psychologists. The current study compares the effects of the program as implemented by teachers versus that implemented by psychologists under real-life conditions. A total of 646 vocational track 8th grade students from Germany participated either in a universal prevention program, led by teachers (n = 207) or psychologists (n = 213), or a teaching-as-usual control condition (n = 226). The design includes baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (at 6 and 12 months post-intervention). The cognitive-behavioral program includes 10 sessions held in a regular school setting in same-gender groups and is based on the social information-processing model of social competence. Positive intervention effects were found on the change in girls’ depressive symptoms up to 12 months after program delivery when the program was implemented by psychologists. No such effects were found on boys or when program was delivered by teachers. The prevention program can successfully be implemented for girls by psychologists. Further research is needed for explanations of these effects. PMID:24837667

  2. Teachers or Psychologists: Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs in Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie S. Wahl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates a depression prevention program for adolescents led by psychologists vs. teachers in comparison to a control. The universal school-based prevention program has shown its efficacy in several studies when implemented by psychologists. The current study compares the effects of the program as implemented by teachers versus that implemented by psychologists under real-life conditions. A total of 646 vocational track 8th grade students from Germany participated either in a universal prevention program, led by teachers (n = 207 or psychologists (n = 213, or a teaching-as-usual control condition (n = 226. The design includes baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (at 6 and 12 months post-intervention. The cognitive-behavioral program includes 10 sessions held in a regular school setting in same-gender groups and is based on the social information-processing model of social competence. Positive intervention effects were found on the change in girls’ depressive symptoms up to 12 months after program delivery when the program was implemented by psychologists. No such effects were found on boys or when program was delivered by teachers. The prevention program can successfully be implemented for girls by psychologists. Further research is needed for explanations of these effects.

  3. A Program to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a School Based Upon a Practical Application of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Carl G.

    This practicum report describes a program to aid in reducing the incidence of disruptive behavior of students through the use of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology. The report contains a general definition of the problem, which was the reduction of the disruptive student behavior, and the objectives to be achieved from the program. There is a…

  4. Long Live Love+: Evaluation of the Implementation of an Online School-Based Sexuality Education Program in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje; de Waal, Esri; Kok, Gerjo

    2017-01-01

    Schools are a common setting for adolescents to receive health education, but implementation of these programs with high levels of completeness and fidelity is not self-evident. Programs that are only partially implemented (completeness) or not implemented as instructed (fidelity) are unlikely to be effective. Therefore, it is important to…

  5. Examining Guidelines for School-Based Breakfast Programs in Canada: A Systematic Review of the Grey Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Katelyn M; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Hanning, Rhona M; Stapleton, Jackie; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-06-01

    School breakfast programs are widespread and serve varying objectives regarding youth health promotion. Evidence-based guidelines for breakfast programs may be important in maximizing their effectiveness related to student outcomes, yet it is unclear what is available in Canada. A systematic review was conducted to identify and compare Canadian guidelines related to breakfast programs. Data sources included grey literature databases, customized search engines, targeted websites, and content expert consultations. Eligible guidelines met the following criteria: government and nongovernment sources at the federal and provincial/territorial levels, current version, and intended for program coordinators. Recommendations for program delivery were extracted, categorized, and mapped onto the 4 environments outlined in the ANGELO framework, and they were classified as "common" or "inconsistent" across guidelines. Fifteen sets of guidelines were included. No guidelines were available from federal or territorial governments and 4 provincial governments. There were few references to peer-reviewed literature within the guidelines and despite many common recommendations for program delivery, conflicting recommendations were also identified. Potential barriers to program participation, including a lack of consideration of allergies and other dietary restrictions, were identified. Future research should identify how guidelines are implemented and evaluate what effect their implementation has on program delivery and student outcomes.

  6. Rationale and study protocol of the EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) program: cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school-based physical activity integration program for mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Nicholas; Lubans, David R; Holmes, Kathryn; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel strategies are required to increase school-based physical activity levels of children. Integrating physical activity in mathematics lessons may lead to improvements in students’ physical activity levels as well as enjoyment, engagement and learning. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a curriculum-based physical activity integration program known as EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) on children’s daily school time physical activ...

  7. Qualitative process evaluation of an Australian alcohol media literacy study: recommendations for designing culturally responsive school-based programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe S. Gordon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol media literacy programs seek to mitigate the potentially harmful effects of alcohol advertising on children’s drinking intentions and behaviours through equipping them with skills to challenge media messages. In order for such programs to be effective, the teaching and learning experiences must be tailored to their specific cultural context. Media in the Spotlight is an alcohol media literacy program aimed at 9 to 12 year old Australian children. This study evaluates the process and implementation of the program, outlining the factors that facilitated and inhibited implementation. From this evaluation, a pedagogical framework has been developed for health professionals implementing culturally responsive programs in school settings. Methods Process measures included: semi-structured interviews with teachers before and after the program was implemented (n = 11 interviews, program evaluation questionnaires completed by children (n = 166, lesson observations completed by teachers (n = 35 observations, and reflective journal entries completed by the researcher (n = 44 entries. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse all of the data sets using NVivo. Inductive coding was used, whereby the findings were derived from the research objectives and multiple readings and interpretations of the data. Results Five key pedagogical considerations were identified that facilitated implementation. These were: connecting to the students’ life worlds to achieve cultural significance; empowering students with real-world skills to ensure relevance; ensuring programs are well structured with strong connections to the school curriculum; creating developmentally appropriate activities while providing a range of assessment opportunities; and including hands-on and interactive activities to promote student engagement. Three potential inhibitors to implementing the alcohol media literacy program in upper

  8. Qualitative process evaluation of an Australian alcohol media literacy study: recommendations for designing culturally responsive school-based programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chloe S; Kervin, Lisa K; Jones, Sandra C; Howard, Steven J

    2017-02-02

    Alcohol media literacy programs seek to mitigate the potentially harmful effects of alcohol advertising on children's drinking intentions and behaviours through equipping them with skills to challenge media messages. In order for such programs to be effective, the teaching and learning experiences must be tailored to their specific cultural context. Media in the Spotlight is an alcohol media literacy program aimed at 9 to 12 year old Australian children. This study evaluates the process and implementation of the program, outlining the factors that facilitated and inhibited implementation. From this evaluation, a pedagogical framework has been developed for health professionals implementing culturally responsive programs in school settings. Process measures included: semi-structured interviews with teachers before and after the program was implemented (n = 11 interviews), program evaluation questionnaires completed by children (n = 166), lesson observations completed by teachers (n = 35 observations), and reflective journal entries completed by the researcher (n = 44 entries). A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse all of the data sets using NVivo. Inductive coding was used, whereby the findings were derived from the research objectives and multiple readings and interpretations of the data. Five key pedagogical considerations were identified that facilitated implementation. These were: connecting to the students' life worlds to achieve cultural significance; empowering students with real-world skills to ensure relevance; ensuring programs are well structured with strong connections to the school curriculum; creating developmentally appropriate activities while providing a range of assessment opportunities; and including hands-on and interactive activities to promote student engagement. Three potential inhibitors to implementing the alcohol media literacy program in upper-elementary school classrooms were identified. These included topic

  9. Problem and pro-social behavior among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: the implication for developing policy for school based mental health programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44 children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7% of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63. Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate

  10. Problem and pro-social behavior among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: the implication for developing policy for school based mental health programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44) children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7%) of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63). Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate screening measure in this

  11. Did We Get Our Money’s Worth? Bridging Economic and Behavioral Measures of Program Success in Adolescent Drug Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Scheier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.

  12. Did we get our money's worth? Bridging economic and behavioral measures of program success in adolescent drug prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M

    2013-11-08

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of "cost efficiency". The languages and methods of each respective discipline don't necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.

  13. Did We Get Our Money’s Worth? Bridging Economic and Behavioral Measures of Program Success in Adolescent Drug Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kevin N.; Scheier, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy. PMID:24217178

  14. Universal School-Based Implementation of Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment to Reduce and Prevent Alcohol, Marijuana, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use: Process and Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Maslowsky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT is an evidence-based approach to reducing substance use in adolescents. An emerging literature shows the promise of school-based SBIRT. However, most school-based SBIRT has only targeted substance-using adolescents and used school-based health clinics, which most schools lack. This project aimed to describe the following: a model for implementing universal SBIRT in high schools without school-based clinics, reasons students most commonly endorsed for reducing or avoiding substance use, students’ perceptions of SBIRT, and students’ intentions to change substance use or remain abstinent following SBIRT. Participants were N = 2513, 9th to 10th grade students in 10 high schools. Students rated SBIRT positively and indicated substantial intentions to reduce or delay substance use following SBIRT. Results support SBIRT’s potential to delay substance use among current abstainers in addition to reducing substance use among current users. This project demonstrates SBIRT’s feasibility as a universal method in high schools without in-school clinics.

  15. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels among Ethnic Minority Children Attending School-Based Afterschool Programs in a High-Poverty Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdeok Kim, Marc Lochbaum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic minority children living in high poverty neighborhoods are at high risk of having insufficient physical activity (PA during school days and, thus, the importance of school as a place to facilitate PA in these underserved children has been largely emphasized. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA in minority children, with particular focus on the relative contributions of regular physical education (PE and school-based afterschool PA program in promoting moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA during school days. PA data were repeatedly measured using a Polar Active accelerometer across multiple school days (M = 5.3 days per child, from seventy-five ethnic minority children attending a Title I public elementary school in a high-poverty neighborhood in the US. The minutes and percentage of MVPA accumulated during school, PE, and afterschool PA program were compared to the current recommendations (≥30-min of MVPA during school hours; and ≥50% of MVPA during PE or afterschool PA program as well as by the demographic characteristics including sex, grade, ethnicity, and weight status using a general linear mixed model that accounts for repeated observations. On average, children spent 41.6 mins (SE = 1.8 of MVPA during school hours and of those, 14.1 mins (SE = 0.6 were contributed during PE. The average proportion of time spent in MVPA during PE was 31.3% (SE = 1.3, which was significantly lower than the recommendation (≥50% of MVPA, whereas 54.2% (SE = 1.2 of time in afterschool PA program were spent in MVPA. The percentage of monitoring days meeting current recommendations were 69.5% (SE = 0.03, 20.8% (SE = 0.02, and 59.6% (SE = 0.03 for during school, PE, and afterschool PA program, respectively. Our findings highlighted that school-based afterschool PA, in addition to regular PE classes, could be of great benefit to promote PA in minority children during school days. Further research and practice are still needed to

  16. Brief Report: Coaching Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a School-Based Multi-Sport Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Edoardo G.

    2016-01-01

    While physical activity (PA) is often overwhelming for people with ASD, appropriate engagement strategies can result in increased motivation to participate and associated physical and psychosocial benefits. In this framework, the multi-sport Supporting Success program aims to inform good-practice coaching strategies for community coaches to engage…

  17. The Impact of the School-Based Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) Program on Conflict-Affected Children in Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Akesson, Bree; Stark, Lindsay; Flouri, Eirini; Okot, Braxton; McCollister, Faith; Boothby, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children in northern Uganda have undergone significant psychosocial stress during the region's lengthy conflict. A Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) program was implemented in 21 schools identified as amongst those most severely affected by conflict-induced displacement across Gulu and Amuru Districts. The PSSA intervention…

  18. Evaluation of a School-Based Sex Education Program for Low Income Male High School Students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Monica; Ross, Ines

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated a 1-year sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile. Findings for 92 students in the baseline year, 1993, and 196 students in the 1998 cohort show a reduction in the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse, changes attitudes toward abstinence, and differences in communication about…

  19. The Rural Special Education Project: A School-Based Program That Prepares Special Educators to Teach Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Greg; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A Northern Arizona University program prepares preservice special education teachers to work with Native American children and families. University students live on the Navajo reservation and receive practical classroom experience at Kayenta Unified School District (Arizona). Anglo students are paired with Navajo students who act as "cultural…

  20. Development of a school-based program for adolescents at-risk for depression in India: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M; Vijay Sagar, K John

    2014-08-01

    A majority of adolescents in India, who are at risk for depression, do not receive treatment or receive it when the psychopathology has become entrenched and chronic. The present pilot study was an endeavor to assess the felt needs of adolescents vis-à-vis the difficulties and stressors experienced by them. For this purpose, 300 students across three schools were screened using standardized measures. Another objective of the study was to develop and test a school-based Coping Skills Program to address adolescents at-risk for depression. Schools were sequentially assigned to intervention or control conditions; students of index (n=13) and control (n=6) groups were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months follow-up. At post-intervention for the index group, all outcomes measures except coping skills-including depressive symptoms, negative cognitions, academic stress, and social problem-solving-showed change in the expected direction, this difference assuming significance at follow-up. The program was rated positively by students using anonymous feedback and there was low to nil perceived stigmatization. Results are discussed in the context of need for such intervention programs in India, and future scope of research involving larger samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New benchmarks for costs and cost-efficiency of school-based feeding programs in food-insecure areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Cavallero, Andrea; Minervini, Licia; Mirabile, Mariana; Molinas, Luca; de la Mothe, Marc Regnault

    2011-12-01

    School feeding is a popular intervention that has been used to support the education, health and nutrition of school children. Although the benefits of school feeding are well documented, the evidence on the costs of such programs is remarkably thin. Address the need for systematic estimates of the cost of different school feeding modalities, and of the determinants of the considerable cost variation among countries. WFP project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected for 78 projects in 62 countries through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The standardized yearly average school feeding cost per child, not including school-level costs, was US$48. The yearly costs per child were lowest at US$23 for biscuit programs reaching school-going children and highest at US$75 for take-home rations programs reaching families of schoolgoing children. The average cost of programs combining on-site meals with extra take-home rations for children from vulnerable households was US$61. Commodity costs were on average 58% of total costs and were highest for biscuit and take-home rations programs (71% and 68%, respectively). Fortified biscuits provided the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery, whereas take-home rations were more cost-efficient in terms of food quantities delivered. Both costs and effects should be considered carefully when designing school feeding interventions. The average costs of school feeding estimated here are higher than those found in earlier studies but fall within the range of costs previously reported. Because this analysis does not include school-level costs, these

  2. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  3. Implementation of a School-Wide Adolescent Character Education and Prevention Program: Evaluating the Relationships between Principal Support, Faculty Implementation, and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Carol K.; Griswold, J. Suzy; Cirillo, Kathleen; Rosebrock, Jim; Nouza, Noreen; Berry, Cami

    2011-01-01

    School-based character education and violence prevention programs focus on improving prosocial competencies and reducing negative behaviors in students. The Capturing Kids' Hearts Campus by Design model is a school-level intervention that impacts student behavior by enhancing school climate through improved relational and conflict management…

  4. Results of prevention programs with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C L

    1987-09-01

    Programs for preventing smoking and alcohol and drug abuse have radically changed in the past decade. Instead of being regarded as a health or discipline problem that involves only a few deviant adolescents, drug use has begun to be viewed as social behavior that is functional for adolescents, not capricious, and is normative for that population. The most successful prevention programs have sought to delay the onset of tobacco use. Based on theoretical and etiological research, these programs target factors that have repeatedly been predictive of adolescent smoking, alcohol and drug use. The programs teach adolescents (1) why people their age smoke tobacco or use alcohol and drugs; (2) how these meanings get established by peers, older role models and advertising; (3) how to resist these influences to smoke or to use alcohol and drugs; and (4) life skills and competencies to counterbalance the functions that drug use serves. Because of the association with the onset of smoking and the onset of using other drugs, these strategies are being studied for alcohol use and other drugs. In addition, elected peer leaders are trained to conduct these activities with their classmates and act as new role models for non-use. Evaluations of these approaches are optimistic. Studies in northern California and Minnesota reveal 50-70% reductions in the onset of smoking. Botvin's 'Life Skills Training' program demonstrates success in delaying heavy alcohol and marijuana use.

  5. True Love: Effectiveness of a School-Based Program to Reduce Dating Violence Among Adolescents in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Piras, Claudia; Van Buren, S Janae; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence. "Amor… pero del Bueno" (True Love) was piloted in two urban, low-income high schools in Mexico City to prevent dating violence. The intervention consisted of school-level and individual-level components delivered over 16 weeks covering topics on gender roles, dating violence, sexual rights, and strategies for coping with dating violence. The short-term impact was assessed quasi-experimentally, using matching techniques and fixed-effects models. A sample of 885 students (381 students exposed to the classroom-based curriculum of the individual-level component (SCC, IL-1) and 540 exposed only to the school climate component (SCC)) was evaluated for the following: changes in dating violence behaviors (psychological, physical and sexual), beliefs related to gender norms, knowledge, and skills for preventing dating violence. We found a 58 % (p violence, respectively, among SCC, IL-1 males compared to males exposed only to the SCC component. We also found a significant reduction in beliefs and attitudes justifying sexism and violence in dating relationships among SCC, IL-1 females (6 %; p < 0.05) and males (7 %; p < 0.05).

  6. A Comprehensive Multi-Media Program to Prevent Smoking among Black Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joy S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Implemented program to decrease incidence of new smokers among black adolescents. Program combined school-based curriculum with comprehensive media intervention. There were two experimental conditions: one group participated in school-based intervention and was prompted to participate in multimedia intervention; other group had access to…

  7. Workplace Wellness Programs to Promote Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Sharon K

    2016-08-01

    To define the diversity of and business case for workplace wellness programs, highlight best practices for a comprehensive health promotion program, and describe the opportunities for employees to become wellness advocates. Current literature and articles published between 2010 and 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Enhancement Research Organization, National Business Group on Health, Wellness Councils of America, best practice program guidelines and internet resources. Employers are increasingly affected by rising health care costs and epidemic rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases within the workforce. Employers who offer workplace wellness programs can contribute to the overall health and well-being of their employees, improve employee productivity and retention, and reduce absenteeism and health care costs. Employees participating in workplace wellness programs can reduce their health risks and serve as health promotion advocates. Nurses can lead by example by participating in their workplace wellness programs, serving as an advocate to influence their employers and colleagues, and educating their patients regarding the benefits of workplace wellness programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. School-Based Health Promotion Intervention: Parent and School Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Fernandez, Anna M.; Hernandez, Jennifer; Villa, Manuela; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is high, particularly among minority youth. The objective of this article was to evaluate parent and school staff perspectives of childhood health and weight qualitatively to guide the development of a school-based obesity prevention program for minority youth. Methods: Hispanic parents (N?=?9) of…

  9. The impact of the school-based Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) program on conflict-affected children in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Akesson, Bree; Stark, Lindsay; Flouri, Eirini; Okot, Braxton; McCollister, Faith; Boothby, Neil

    2011-11-01

    Children in northern Uganda have undergone significant psychosocial stress during the region's lengthy conflict. A Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) program was implemented in 21 schools identified as amongst those most severely affected by conflict-induced displacement across Gulu and Amuru Districts. The PSSA intervention comprised a series of 15 class sessions designed to progressively increase children's resilience through structured activities involving drama, movement, music and art (with additional components addressing parental support and community involvement). Eight schools were selected by random quota sampling from those schools receiving the PSSA intervention. Two hundred and three children were identified in these schools as being scheduled to receive intervention, and were followed up 12 months later following engagement with PSSA activities. A comparison group comprised 200 children selected from schools that had met inclusion criteria for receipt of intervention, but were not scheduled for intervention coverage until later. Preliminary research used participatory focus group methodology to determine local indicators of child well-being as viewed by parents, teachers, and children respectively. Pre- and post- assessments focused on ratings for each child - by parents, teachers and children - with respect to these indicators. Significant increases in ratings of child well-being were observed in both intervention and comparison groups over a 12-month period. However, the well-being of children who had received the PSSA intervention increased significantly more than for children in the comparison group, as judged by child and parent (but not teacher) report. This effect was evident despite considerable loss-to-follow-up at post-testing as a result of return of many households to communities of origin. General improvement in child well-being over a 12-month period suggests that recovery and reconstruction efforts in Northern Uganda following

  10. Effects of a School-Based Sports Program on Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, and Cardiometabolic Health in Youth With Physical Disabilities : Data From the Sport-2-Stay-Fit Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Balemans, Astrid; Lankhorst, Kristel; Te Velde, Saskia; van Gaalen, Leendert; de Groot, Janke; Meilij, JMA; Takken, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of a school-based once-a-week sports program on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents with a physical disability. Methods: This controlled clinical trial included 71 children and adolescents from four schools

  11. School-based sexual health education interventions to prevent STI/HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A Sadiq; Abraham, Charles; Denford, Sarah; Ball, Susan

    2016-10-10

    School-based sexual health education has the potential to provide an inclusive and comprehensive approach to promoting sexual health among young people. We reviewed evaluations of school-based sexual health education interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to assess effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted infections and promoting condom use. We searched ten electronic databases, hand-searched key journals, and reference lists of included articles for potential studies. Data were extracted on outcomes, intervention characteristics, methods and study characteristics indicative of methodological quality. Where possible, data were synthesized using random effect meta-analysis. Intervention features found predominantly in effective interventions were noted. The initial search retrieved 21634 potentially relevant citations. Of these, 51 papers reporting on 31 interventions were included. No evaluation reported statistically significant effects on the incidence or prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus 2 infections. However, intervention participants reported statistically significant greater condom use in both randomised controlled trials and non-randomised trials for short (less than 6 months) follow-up periods (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.55 and OR = 2.88, 95 % CI = 1.41-5.90 respectively). For intermediate (6-10 months) and long-term (more than 10 months) follow-up periods, the effect was statistically significant (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI = 1.16-1.68) and marginally significant (OR = 1.22, 95 % CI = 0.99-1.50) among the randomised trials respectively. Only 12 of the 31 interventions reported implementation details, out of which seven reported on fidelity. School-based sexual health education has the potential to promote condom use among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. However, further work is needed to develop and evaluate interventions that have measurable effects on sexually transmitted infections.

  12. PRALIMAP: study protocol for a high school-based, factorial cluster randomised interventional trial of three overweight and obesity prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrinier Nelly

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increase in overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents in the last decade, effective prevention strategies for these conditions in adolescents are urgently needed. The PRALIMAP (Promotion de l'ALImentation et de l'Activité Physique trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness for these conditions of 3 health promotion strategies -- educational, screening and environmental -- applied singly or in combination in high schools over a 2-year intervention period. Methods PRALIMAP is a stratified 2 × 2 × 2 factorial cluster randomised controlled trial including 24 state high schools in Lorraine, northeastern France, in 2 waves: 8 schools in 2006 (wave 1 and 16 in 2007 (wave 2. Students entering the selected high schools in the 4 academic years from 2006 to 2009 are eligible for data collection. Interventional strategies are organized over 2 academic years. The follow-up consists of 3 visits: at the entry of grade 10 (T0, grade 11 (T1 and grade 12 (T2. At T0, 5,458 (85.7% adolescents participated. The educational strategy consists of nutritional lessons, working groups and a final party. The screening strategy consists in detecting overweight/obesity and eating disorders in adolescents and proposing, if necessary, an adapted care management program of 7 group educational sessions. The environmental strategy consists in improving dietary and physical activity offerings in high schools and facilities, especially catering. The main outcomes are body size evolution over time, nutritional behaviour and knowledge, health and quality of life. An evaluation process documents how each intervention strategy is implemented in the schools and estimates the dose of the intervention, allowing for a per protocol analysis after the main intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion PRALIMAP aims at improving the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in adolescents by translating current evidence into public health practice

  13. Cost effectiveness of the MDOT preventive maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportations (MDOT) pavement preservation program dates back to 1992. MDOTs pavement preservation strategy is primarily implemented through its capital preventive maintenance (CPM) program, in which preventive main...

  14. Obesity Prevention Interventions in US Public Schools: Are Schools Using Programs That Promote Weight Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Wintner, Suzanne; Lee, Rebekka M; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-12-28

    Despite substantial research on school-based obesity prevention programs, it is unclear how widely they are disseminated. It is also unknown whether schools use obesity programs that inadvertently promote weight stigma or disordered weight-control behaviors. In spring 2016, we distributed an online survey about school wellness programming to a simple random sample of US public school administrators (N = 247 respondents; 10.3% response rate). We analyzed survey responses and conducted immersion/crystallization analysis of written open-ended responses. Slightly less than half (n = 117, 47.4%) of schools offered any obesity prevention program. Only 17 (6.9%) reported using a predeveloped program, and 7 (2.8%) reported using a program with evidence for effectiveness. Thirty-seven schools (15.0%) reported developing intervention programs that focused primarily on individual students' or staff members' weight rather than nutrition or physical activity; 28 schools (11.3% of overall) used staff weight-loss competitions. School administrators who reported implementing a program were more likely to describe having a program champion and adequate buy-in from staff, families, and students. Lack of funding, training, and time were widely reported as barriers to implementation. Few administrators used educational (n = 12, 10.3%) or scientific (n = 6, 5.1%) literature for wellness program decision making. Evidence-based obesity prevention programs appear to be rarely implemented in US schools. Schools may be implementing programs lacking evidence and programs that may unintentionally exacerbate student weight stigma by focusing on student weight rather than healthy habits. Public health practitioners and researchers should focus on improving support for schools to implement evidence-based programs.

  15. Effectiveness of a randomized school-based intervention involving families and teachers to prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana B Cunha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention involving the families and teachers that aimed to promote healthy eating habits in adolescents; the ultimate aim of the intervention was to reduce the increase in body mass index (BMI of the students.Paired cluster randomized school-based trial conducted with a sample of fifth graders.Twenty classes were randomly assigned into either an intervention group or a control group.From a total of 574 eligible students, 559 students participated in the study (intervention: 10 classes with 277 participants; control: 10 classes with 282 participants. The mean age of students was 11 years.Students attended 9 nutritional education sessions during the 2010 academic year. Parents/guardians and teachers received information on the same subjects.Changes in BMI and percentage of body fat.Intention-to-treat analysis showed that changes in BMI were not significantly different between the 2 groups (β = 0.003; p = 0.75. There was a major reduction in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and cookies in the intervention group; students in this group also consumed more fruits.Encouraging the adoption of healthy eating habits promoted important changes in the adolescent diet, but this did not lead to a reduction in BMI gain. Strategies based exclusively on the quality of diet may not reduce weight gain among adolescents.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01046474.

  16. Preventing violence against children in schools: Contributions from the Be Safe program in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Steven; Zwart, Christine; Chahal, Inem; Lane, David; Cummings, Harry

    2018-02-01

    Violence against children is a global public health issue with serious social, economic, physical, and emotional impacts. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a school-based program aimed to prevent and respond to physical, sexual, and psychological violence against children in Sri Lanka from the perspective of parents. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used. A total of 835 parents of children who participated in the program were surveyed across seven districts in Sri Lanka. Dose-response analyses were conducted to assess for correlations between program exposure and perceived prevention of violence against children. Low to moderate correlations were found between exposure to the program and perceived child safety in schools, school policies, and in the community. The findings provide preliminary evidence of program effectiveness; however, more efforts are needed to validate and sustain outcomes. Implications for future violence prevention programming, along with the use of dose-response evaluations, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptions of middle school educators in Hawai'i about school-based gardening and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ameena T; Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-07-01

    Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai'i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai'i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health.

  18. Perceptions of Middle School Educators in Hawai‘i about School-based Gardening and Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Methods Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai‘i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. Conclusions In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai‘i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health. PMID:21886287

  19. Effects of a School-Based Sports Program on Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, and Cardiometabolic Health in Youth With Physical Disabilities: Data From the Sport-2-Stay-Fit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Balemans, Astrid; Lankhorst, Kristel; Te Velde, Saskia; van Gaalen, Leendert; de Groot, Janke; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a school-based once-a-week sports program on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents with a physical disability. This controlled clinical trial included 71 children and adolescents from four schools for special education [mean age 13.7 (2.9) years, range 8-19, 55% boys]. Participants had various chronic health conditions including cerebral palsy (37%), other neuromuscular (44%), metabolic (8%), musculoskeletal (7%), and cardiovascular (4%) disorders. Before recruitment and based on the presence of school-based sports, schools were assigned as sport or control group. School-based sports were initiated and provided by motivated experienced physical educators. The sport group ( n  = 31) participated in a once-a-week school-based sports program for 6 months, which included team sports. The control group ( n  = 40) followed the regular curriculum. Anaerobic performance was assessed by the Muscle Power Sprint Test. Secondary outcome measures included aerobic performance, VO 2 peak, strength, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, body composition, and the metabolic profile. A significant improvement of 16% in favor of the sport group was found for anaerobic performance ( p  = 0.003). In addition, the sport group lost 2.8% more fat mass compared to the control group ( p  = 0.007). No changes were found for aerobic performance, VO 2 peak, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and the metabolic profile. Anaerobic performance and fat mass improved following a school-based sports program. These effects are promising for long-term fitness and health promotion, because sports sessions at school eliminate certain barriers for sports participation and adding a once-a-week sports session showed already positive effects for 6 months. This trial was registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR4698).

  20. Effects of a School-Based Sports Program on Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, and Cardiometabolic Health in Youth With Physical Disabilities: Data From the Sport-2-Stay-Fit Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maremka Zwinkels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of a school-based once-a-week sports program on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents with a physical disability.MethodsThis controlled clinical trial included 71 children and adolescents from four schools for special education [mean age 13.7 (2.9 years, range 8–19, 55% boys]. Participants had various chronic health conditions including cerebral palsy (37%, other neuromuscular (44%, metabolic (8%, musculoskeletal (7%, and cardiovascular (4% disorders. Before recruitment and based on the presence of school-based sports, schools were assigned as sport or control group. School-based sports were initiated and provided by motivated experienced physical educators. The sport group (n = 31 participated in a once-a-week school-based sports program for 6 months, which included team sports. The control group (n = 40 followed the regular curriculum. Anaerobic performance was assessed by the Muscle Power Sprint Test. Secondary outcome measures included aerobic performance, VO2 peak, strength, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, body composition, and the metabolic profile.ResultsA significant improvement of 16% in favor of the sport group was found for anaerobic performance (p = 0.003. In addition, the sport group lost 2.8% more fat mass compared to the control group (p = 0.007. No changes were found for aerobic performance, VO2 peak, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and the metabolic profile.ConclusionAnaerobic performance and fat mass improved following a school-based sports program. These effects are promising for long-term fitness and health promotion, because sports sessions at school eliminate certain barriers for sports participation and adding a once-a-week sports session showed already positive effects for 6 months.Clinical Trial RegistrationThis trial was registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR

  1. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site's pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office's (RL's) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program

  2. The effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to 18 years diagnosed with asthma: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne

    2015-10-01

    asthma and the major public health concern it poses to society. In addition to conducting asthma prevention activities, NAEPP collaborates with other stakeholders to develop asthma educational programs for minority populations who are disproportionately affected by asthma. The program believes that adequate control of asthma, through modern treatment and educational programs, can be reinforced by the development of partnerships with caregivers, schools and healthcare providers. The NAEPP Expert Panel Report 3, Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma (EPR-3), has a provision that specifies that asthma education programs for children should include their caregivers. Caregivers' involvement is crucial for achieving the goals of asthma management in children, which supports the interest of GINA and NAEPP to include caregivers in school-based asthma education programs for children. The guidelines recommend education for asthma management should occur at all points of care, including schools. According to the EPR-3, schools are ideal locations to facilitate asthma education programs because they provide access to large numbers of children in an environment in which they are accustomed to learning. The long term effects of these approaches are improved healthcare practices, reduced mortality and morbidity, and reduced costs of asthma care.Although there is no cure for asthma, research evidence has demonstrated that asthma symptoms can be well-controlled with the appropriate medications, adherence to treatment, avoidance of asthma triggers, and education about disease management. Research studies that have investigated the effectiveness of school-based asthma education programs that have included caregivers have demonstrated beneficial effects of these programs on the quality of life and disease management of children with asthma, versus no school-based family asthma education programs.A randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted by Clark et al. that included 835

  3. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  4. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  5. Applying systematic review search methods to the grey literature: a case study examining guidelines for school-based breakfast programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Katelyn; Stapleton, Jackie; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Hanning, Rhona M; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2015-10-22

    Grey literature is an important source of information for large-scale review syntheses. However, there are many characteristics of grey literature that make it difficult to search systematically. Further, there is no 'gold standard' for rigorous systematic grey literature search methods and few resources on how to conduct this type of search. This paper describes systematic review search methods that were developed and applied to complete a case study systematic review of grey literature that examined guidelines for school-based breakfast programs in Canada. A grey literature search plan was developed to incorporate four different searching strategies: (1) grey literature databases, (2) customized Google search engines, (3) targeted websites, and (4) consultation with contact experts. These complementary strategies were used to minimize the risk of omitting relevant sources. Since abstracts are often unavailable in grey literature documents, items' abstracts, executive summaries, or table of contents (whichever was available) were screened. Screening of publications' full-text followed. Data were extracted on the organization, year published, who they were developed by, intended audience, goal/objectives of document, sources of evidence/resources cited, meals mentioned in the guidelines, and recommendations for program delivery. The search strategies for identifying and screening publications for inclusion in the case study review was found to be manageable, comprehensive, and intuitive when applied in practice. The four search strategies of the grey literature search plan yielded 302 potentially relevant items for screening. Following the screening process, 15 publications that met all eligibility criteria remained and were included in the case study systematic review. The high-level findings of the case study systematic review are briefly described. This article demonstrated a feasible and seemingly robust method for applying systematic search strategies to

  6. Psychological Treatment as Part of Dropout Prevention: An Israeli Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Hava; Hain, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the integration of psychotherapy in a comprehensive dropout prevention program developed at the Dean of Students' office of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. The program's psychologists conducted psychotherapy with a subset of dropout prevention program participants who had reacted with emotional turmoil to the…

  7. The Effect of a School-Based Outdoor Education Program on Visual Arts Teachers' Success and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursen, Cigdem; Islek, Didem

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of an education programme developed based on the school-based outdoor education approach on the academic achievement of visual arts teachers, as well as their self-efficacy beliefs for using museums and the natural environment. The aim is likewise to explore the views of the teachers on the…

  8. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Marketing Efforts: A Case Study of a Foreign Language Immersion Program in a School-Choice Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Beal, Brent D.

    2016-01-01

    The marketization of K-12 education has led to an increase in school-based marketing efforts. Relatively little research, however, has examined how public schools market themselves, who is involved in marketing, and how these marketing efforts impact key stakeholders, including school administrators, teachers, students, and parents.We explore…

  9. A Holistic School-Based Nutrition Program Fails to Improve Teachers' Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a holistic school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) approach, on teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to nutrition in rural China. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two…

  10. Use of quality management methods in the transition from efficacious prevention programs to effective prevention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vicki-Smith; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2008-06-01

    This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools used in quality management, and discusses how they might be applied to prepare a prevention program for implementation by community agencies. Prevention programs are conceptualized as having multiple consumers (i.e., stakeholders), including the participants who receive the service, the service providers, the organizations that deliver the program, and the researchers who evaluate the programs. As an illustration of one step in the application of QFD to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services, analysis of the needs and preferences of Family Courts for the implementation of an the New Beginnings Program is presented.

  11. Conflict of Interest in the Evaluation and Dissemination of "Model" School-Based Drug and Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M.; Conde, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Conflict of interest refers to a set of conditions in which professional judgment concerning the validity of research might be influenced by a secondary competing interest. The competing interest that has received most attention in the literature addressing the prevalence and effects of such conflicts on the practice of empirical research has been…

  12. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    G.V. Korobeynikov; V.U. Drojjin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results...

  13. Opportunities for technology-based HIV prevention programming among high school students in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mwaba, Kelvin; Prescott, Tonya L; Roman, Nicolette V; Rooi, Bronwyn; Bull, Sheana

    2014-01-01

    One in three new cases of HIV in South Africa is among adolescents. Given that adolescents are particularly affected, scalable, and cost-effective prevention programs are urgently needed. This study aims to identify opportunities to integrate technology into youth HIV prevention efforts. In 2012, 1107 8th-11th graders completed a paper-and-pencil survey. Respondents were enrolled in one of three public high schools in Langa, a lower income community in Cape Town, South Africa. Eighty-nine percent of respondents have used text messaging (SMS) and 86% have gone online. If an HIV prevention program was offered online, 66% of youth would be somewhat or extremely likely to access it; slightly fewer (55%) felt the same about SMS-based programming. In comparison, 85% said they would be somewhat or extremely likely to access a school-based HIV prevention program. Interest in Internet- (60%) and SMS-based (54%) HIV prevention programming was similar for youth who had a self-appraised risk of HIV compared to youth who appraised their risk to be lower, as it was for youth who were tired of hearing messages about HIV prevention. Technology use is common - even among high school students who live in lower income communities. At the same time, these data reveal that it is not uncommon for youth to be tired of hearing messages about HIV prevention, and many of the typical topics key to HIV prevention have low interest levels among youth. HIV prevention researchers need to be mindful of the extent of existing programming that youth are exposed to. Technology-based programming may be especially amenable to meeting these requirements because of its novelty especially in developing countries, and because interactive functionality can be easily integrated into the program design. Given the preference for school- and Internet-based programming, it seems that a hybrid approach is likely feasible and acceptable.

  14. Preventing Sexual Violence in Adolescence: Comparison of a Scientist-Practitioner Program and a Practitioner Program Using a Cluster-Randomized Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Christoph; Schiller, Eva-Maria; Zimmermann, Maria; Kärtner, Joscha

    2018-02-01

    Numerous school-based prevention programs have been developed by scientists and practitioners to address sexual violence in adolescence. However, such programs struggle with two major challenges. First, the effectiveness of many well-established practitioner programs has not been rigorously evaluated. Second, effective scientific programs may be hard to implement into everyday school practice. Combining the knowledge of scientists and practitioners in a scientist-practitioner program could be a helpful compromise. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of a scientist-practitioner program and a practitioner program using a cluster-randomized experimental design. Twenty-seven school classes were randomly assigned to either one of two programs or a control group. Outcome variables (knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and iatrogenic effects) were assessed at pretest, posttest, and a 6-month follow-up for 453 adolescents (55% female, Mage = 14.18). Short-term effects were found in both programs regarding general knowledge, knowledge of professional help, and victim-blaming attitudes. Long-term effects were found in both programs regarding general knowledge and knowledge of professional help and, in the practitioner program, in a reduction of victimization. No other effects were found on attitudes and behavior. No iatrogenic effects in the form of increased anxiety were found. Both the scientist-practitioner and the practitioner program show promise for the prevention of sexual violence in adolescence; in particular, the practitioner program may be a more cost-effective method.

  15. Youth exposure to violence prevention programs in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

    2014-04-01

    This paper assesses how many children and youth have had exposure to programs aimed at preventing various kinds of violence perpetration and victimization. Based on a national sample of children 5-17, 65% had ever been exposed to a violence prevention program, 55% in the past year. Most respondents (71%) rated the programs as very or somewhat helpful. Younger children (5-9) who had been exposed to higher quality prevention programs had lower levels of peer victimization and perpetration. But the association did not apply to older youth or youth exposed to lower quality programs. Disclosure to authorities was also more common for children with higher quality program exposure who had experienced peer victimizations or conventional crime victimizations. The findings are consistent with possible benefits from violence prevention education programs. However, they also suggest that too few programs currently include efficacious components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  17. Evaluating the impact of implementation factors on family-based prevention programming: methods for strengthening causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Coffman, Donna L; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2014-04-01

    Despite growing recognition of the important role implementation plays in successful prevention efforts, relatively little work has sought to demonstrate a causal relationship between implementation factors and participant outcomes. In turn, failure to explore the implementation-to-outcome link limits our understanding of the mechanisms essential to successful programming. This gap is partially due to the inability of current methodological procedures within prevention science to account for the multitude of confounders responsible for variation in implementation factors (i.e., selection bias). The current paper illustrates how propensity and marginal structural models can be used to improve causal inferences involving implementation factors not easily randomized (e.g., participant attendance). We first present analytic steps for simultaneously evaluating the impact of multiple implementation factors on prevention program outcome. Then, we demonstrate this approach for evaluating the impact of enrollment and attendance in a family program, over and above the impact of a school-based program, within PROSPER, a large-scale real-world prevention trial. Findings illustrate the capacity of this approach to successfully account for confounders that influence enrollment and attendance, thereby more accurately representing true causal relations. For instance, after accounting for selection bias, we observed a 5% reduction in the prevalence of 11th grade underage drinking for those who chose to receive a family program and school program compared to those who received only the school program. Further, we detected a 7% reduction in underage drinking for those with high attendance in the family program.

  18. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  19. Impact and Acceptability of the Coach and Teacher Training within a School-Based Sport-for-Health Smoking Prevention Intervention: Smokefree Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnham-Lee, Katy; Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E.; Knowles, Zoe; Foweather, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact and acceptability of a three-hour bespoke training workshop for sports coaches and teachers to subsequently deliver a sport-for-health smoking prevention intervention in primary schools. Questionnaires were completed pre- and post-training by both teachers (N = 24) and coaches (N = 8), and post-intervention by…

  20. Contribution of formative research to design an environmental program for obesity prevention in schools in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Théodore, Florence L; Safdie, Margarita; Duque, Tiffany; Villanueva, María Ángeles; Torres, Catalina; Rivera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and key findings of formative research conducted to design a school-based program for obesity prevention. Formative research was based on the ecological model and the principles of social marketing. A mixed method approach was used. Qualitative (direct observation, indepth interviews, focus group discussions and photo-voice) and quantitative (closed ended surveys, checklists, anthropometry) methods were employed. Formative research key findings, including barriers by levels of the ecological model, were used for designing a program including environmental strategies to discourage the consumption of energy dense foods and sugar beverages. Formative research was fundamental to developing a context specific obesity prevention program in schools that seeks environment modification and behavior change.

  1. Effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive programme on weight and fasting blood glucose in "at-risk" adolescents of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani Salameh, Ayman; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; El-Hneiti, Mamdouh; Shaheen, Abeer; Williams, Leonie M; Gallagher, Robyn

    2017-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive programme for type 2 diabetes by change in weight and fasting blood glucose level in Jordanian adolescents. Sixteen percent of Jordanian adults have obesity-related type 2 diabetes and 5.6% of obese adolescents examined, however one-third unexamined. Rates in Arabic countries will double in 20 years, but this can be prevented and reversed by controlling obesity. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 unisex high schools in Irbid, Jordan, in 2012. Intervention and control participants, aged 12 to 18 years, were visibly overweight/obese. They were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 205) or control (n = 196) groups. At-risk students were assessed before and after the 12-week intervention, for change in weight and fasting blood glucose level following preventive instruction and parent-supported changes. Mean age of participants was 15.3 years with equal percentages of both males (49.4%) and females. Post intervention, the intervention group, demonstrated statistically significant reductions: mean difference of 3.3 kg in weight (P blood glucose (P blood glucose in Jordanian at-risk adolescents. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  4. Preventing anxiety and depression in adolescents: A randomised controlled trial of two school based Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to 1 establish the efficacy of two Internet-based prevention programmes to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents; and 2 investigate the distribution of psychological symptoms in a large sample of Australian adolescents prior to the implementation of the intervention. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 976 Year 9–10 students from twelve Australian secondary schools in 2009. Four schools were randomly allocated to the Anxiety Internet-based prevention programme (n = 372, five schools to the Depression Internet-based prevention programme (n = 380 and three to their usual health classes (n = 224. The Thiswayup Schools for Anxiety and Depression prevention courses were presented over the Internet and consist of 6–7 evidence-based, curriculum consistent lessons to improve the ability to manage anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Data analysis was constrained by both study attrition and data corruption. Thus post-intervention data were only available for 265/976 students. Compared to the control group, students in the depression intervention group showed a significant improvement in anxiety and depressive symptoms at the end of the course, whilst students in the anxiety intervention demonstrated a reduction in symptoms of anxiety. No significant differences were found in psychological distress. The Thiswayup Schools Depression and Anxiety interventions appear to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents using a curriculum based, blended online and offline cognitive behavioural therapy programme that was implemented by classroom teachers. Given the study limitations, particularly the loss of post-intervention data, these findings can only be considered preliminary and need to be replicated in future research.

  5. Adolescents' reactions to universal and indicated prevention programs for depression: perceived stigma and consumer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M; Wignall, Ann; Sheffield, Jeanie; Kowalenko, Nick; Davis, Anna; McLoone, Jordana; Spence, Susan H

    2006-06-01

    There is a common view that one of the major considerations in selecting between universal and indicated interventions is the marked stigma produced by the latter. However, to date there has been no empirical examination of this assumption. The current study examined reported stigma and program satisfaction following two school-based interventions aimed at preventing depression in 532 middle adolescents. The interventions were conducted either across entire classes by classroom teachers (universal delivery) or in small high risk groups by mental health professionals (indicated delivery). The indicated delivery was associated with significantly greater levels of perceived stigma, but effect sizes were small and neither program was associated with marked stigma in absolute terms. Perceived stigma was more strongly associated with aspects of the individual including being male and showing greater externalizing symptomatology. In contrast, the indicated program was evaluated more positively by both participants and program leaders and effect sizes for these measures of satisfaction were moderate to large. The results point to the need for further empirical evaluation of both perceived stigma and program satisfaction in providing balanced considerations of the value of indicated and universal programs.

  6. Resources for Developing Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James P.; Nies, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of videos and printed materials that may be used as educational tools in rape prevention programs. Focuses on sources that are aimed directly at men. Also outlines the use of consultants or lecturers as one of many resources in the construction and implementation of rape prevention programs. (KW)

  7. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  8. Implementing a Coach-Delivered Dating Violence Prevention Program with High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; O'Connor, Brian; Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-05-10

    Teen dating violence and sexual violence are severe public health problems. Abusive behaviors within the context of dating or romantic relationships are associated with adverse health outcomes. Promoting positive bystander intervention and increasing knowledge of abusive behaviors are promising strategies for preventing dating and sexual violence. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based, athletic coach-delivered dating violence prevention program that has been shown to increase positive bystander behaviors and reduce abuse perpetration among high school male athletes. Identifying specific barriers and facilitators based on the coaches' experiences with program delivery combined with the coaches' and athletes' program perceptions may help optimize future CBIM implementation and sustainability. Semi-structured interviews with coaches (n = 36) explored the implementers' perspectives on strategies that worked well and potential barriers to program implementation. Ten focus groups with male athletes (n = 39) assessed their experiences with CBIM and the suitability of having their coaches deliver this program. Coaches described using the CBIM training cards and integrating program delivery during practice. Athletes reported coaches routinely delivering the CBIM program and adding their own personal stories or examples to the discussions. Key facilitators to program implementation include support from the violence prevention advocate, the ease of integrating CBIM into the sports season, and using the program materials. Barriers to implementation included finding sufficient time for the program, dynamics of delivering sensitive program content, and participant constraints. Coaches and athletes alike found the program feasible and acceptable to implement within the sports setting. Both coaches and athletes offered insights on the implementation and the feasibility and acceptability of CBIM within school-based athletic programs. These experiences by

  9. From "best practice" to "next practice": the effectiveness of school-based health promotion in improving healthy eating and physical activity and preventing childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Christina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, we reported on the success of Comprehensive School Health (CSH in improving diets, activity levels, and body weights. The successful program was recognized as a "best practice" and has inspired the development of the Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating (APPLE Schools. The project includes 10 schools, most of which are located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The present study examines the effectiveness of a CSH program adopted from a "best practice" example in another setting by evaluating temporal changes in diets, activity levels and body weight. Methods In 2008 and 2010, we surveyed grade 5 students from approximately 150 randomly selected schools from the Canadian province of Alberta and students from 10 APPLE Schools. Students completed the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, questions on physical activity, and had their height and weight measured. Multilevel regression methods were used to analyze changes in diets, activity levels, and body weight between 2008 and 2010. Results In 2010 relative to 2008, students attending APPLE Schools were eating more fruits and vegetables, consuming fewer calories, were more physically active and were less likely obese. These changes contrasted changes observed among students elsewhere in the province. Conclusions These findings provide evidence on the effectiveness of CSH in improving health behaviors. They show that an example of "best practice" may lead to success in another setting. Herewith the study provides the evidence that investments for broader program implementation based on "best practice" are justified.

  10. From "best practice" to "next practice": the effectiveness of school-based health promotion in improving healthy eating and physical activity and preventing childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2005, we reported on the success of Comprehensive School Health (CSH) in improving diets, activity levels, and body weights. The successful program was recognized as a "best practice" and has inspired the development of the Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating (APPLE) Schools. The project includes 10 schools, most of which are located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The present study examines the effectiveness of a CSH program adopted from a "best practice" example in another setting by evaluating temporal changes in diets, activity levels and body weight. Methods In 2008 and 2010, we surveyed grade 5 students from approximately 150 randomly selected schools from the Canadian province of Alberta and students from 10 APPLE Schools. Students completed the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, questions on physical activity, and had their height and weight measured. Multilevel regression methods were used to analyze changes in diets, activity levels, and body weight between 2008 and 2010. Results In 2010 relative to 2008, students attending APPLE Schools were eating more fruits and vegetables, consuming fewer calories, were more physically active and were less likely obese. These changes contrasted changes observed among students elsewhere in the province. Conclusions These findings provide evidence on the effectiveness of CSH in improving health behaviors. They show that an example of "best practice" may lead to success in another setting. Herewith the study provides the evidence that investments for broader program implementation based on "best practice" are justified. PMID:22413778

  11. Dropout Prevention: A Study of Prevention Programs Used by High Schools to Increase Graduation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study focused on the relationship between dropout prevention programs and graduation rates in one school district in Florida during the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout prevention program data analyzed included high school principals' perceptions in regard to perceived effectiveness, fidelity of implementation, cost efficacy,…

  12. Pressure ulcer prevention program: a journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmore, Barbara; Lebovits, Sarah; Baldock, Philip; Suggs, Barbara; Ayello, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' regulations regarding nonpayment for hospital-acquired conditions such as pressure ulcers have prompted a marked increase in focus on preventive care. Our hospital also used this change in payment policy as an opportunity to strengthen our pressure ulcer prevention practices. We used an 8-spoke prevention wheel to develop and implement practice changes that reduced pressure ulcer incidence from 7.3% to 1.3% in 3 years. Because it is about the journey, we will describe the mechanisms we designed and implemented, and identify strategies that worked or did not work as we promulgated a quality improvement process for pressure ulcer prevention in our large urban hospital center.

  13. Participation in preventive care programs: individual determinants, social interactions and program design.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouckaert, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral research focuses on existing medical preventive care programs. Because of externalities (e.g. in the prevention of communicable diseases) or the program cost-benefit ratio, preventive care programs require high participation rates. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have set clear participation objectives – next to quality targets – which are measured and evaluated over time (National Center for Health Statistics, 2012). For example, the 2010 pa...

  14. Effects of PREPARE, a Multi-component, School-Based HIV and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programme on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviour and IPV: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine; Eggers, Sander M; Townsend, Loraine; Aarø, Leif E; de Vries, Petrus J; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; De Koker, Petra; McClinton Appollis, Tracy; Mtshizana, Yolisa; Koech, Joy; Wubs, Annegreet; De Vries, Hein

    2016-09-01

    Young South Africans, especially women, are at high risk of HIV. We evaluated the effects of PREPARE, a multi-component, school-based HIV prevention intervention to delay sexual debut, increase condom use and decrease intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adolescents. We conducted a cluster RCT among Grade eights in 42 high schools. The intervention comprised education sessions, a school health service and a school sexual violence prevention programme. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Regression was undertaken to provide ORs or coefficients adjusted for clustering. Of 6244 sampled adolescents, 55.3 % participated. At 12 months there were no differences between intervention and control arms in sexual risk behaviours. Participants in the intervention arm were less likely to report IPV victimisation (35.1 vs. 40.9 %; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.61-0.99; t(40) = 2.14) suggesting the intervention shaped intimate partnerships into safer ones, potentially lowering the risk for HIV.

  15. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  16. Team teaching fire prevention program: evaluation of an education technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank L. Ryan; Frank H. Gladen; William S. Folkman

    1978-01-01

    The California Department of Forestry's Team Teaching Fire Prevention Program consists of small-group discussions, slides or films, and a visit by Smokey Bear to school classrooms. In a survey, teachers and principals who had experienced the program responded favorably to it. The conduct by team members also received approval. The limited criticisms of the Program...

  17. [German Prevention Programs for Eating Disorders - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Mara; Adametz, Luise; Richter, Felicitas; Strauß, Bernhard; Berger, Uwe

    2018-02-13

    In the past years a considerable amount of primary and secondary prevention programs for eating disorders was developed in German speaking countries. However, up to now there has been no systematic review of contents and evaluation studies. The main objective of the present systematic review is to identify and outline German prevention programs for eating disorders. This should facilitate the selection of appropriate and effective interventions for medical experts, other professionals and teachers. A systematic literature research was conducted and 22 German-language primary and secondary prevention programs were identified. Half of them were evaluated. The programs were conducted either in school, on the internet or in a group setting. The findings show that throughout almost all programs a reduction in weight and shape concerns and drive for thinness as well as an increase of (body) self-esteem could be observed in either the total sample or the high-risk sample. However, programs were inconsistently effective in reducing disordered eating behavior in the target population. All studies were effective in reducing at least one risk factor. Overall, higher effect sizes were found for secondary prevention programs than for primary prevention programs. Lastly, limitations of the studies and suggestions for future prevention efforts are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. A school based community randomized trial of the effect of peer health education on primary prevention knowledge, attitude and behaviours towards HPV among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferrara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: this study in the prospect of promoting adherence to the primary and secondary preven- tion programmes will research knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the student population attending high schools regarding HPV infections and will also promote health education sessions based on peer education.
    Methods: we carried out a cross-sectional kaP survey regarding HPV infection, HPV vaccination, and sexual health, of students and a peer educational intervention. To verify the effectiveness of peer educators in changing opinions and beliefs about HPV a self-com- pletion questionnaire was made and distributed pre (T1 and post (T2 peer educator intervention. The same questionnaires were assigned to the control group.
    Results: the sample consisted of 900 students, mean age was 16.6±1.4, having relationship 34.4%. at T1, 64.6% of students in experimental group said that they knew HPV, 83.4% how it is transmitted and 71.1% HPV vaccination, 54.7% perceived dangerousness with significant gender-related difference. at T2 the percentages increased. at T1, 14.1% of females were vaccinated at T2 they were 17.5%. The main factors associated with the students’ propensity to vaccination were: having at least one sister; being in favour of vaccinations in general; knowing that the vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer; and being aware that they could be infected by HPV.
    Conclusion: both the HPV test and HPV vaccine need effective communication and monitoring of the spread of knowledge, especially among women identified as most in need of information and included in the age group at risk, in wich it is crucial to encourage informed choices. This underlines the need to plan adequate educational programmes....

  19. Application Guidelines | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personal Statement of Research Goals In narrative form, describe your research interests and goals and how these relate to cancer prevention and control. Please also provide insight into your short- and long-term career goals, and explain how the CPFP will help you achieve those goals.

  20. A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachel M; Meyer, Adria; Kay, Christi; Allensworth, Diane; Gazmararian, Julie A

    2014-06-26

    Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 - 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 - 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument "Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool" or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p grades and gender, with the most significant decreases for students overweight or obese at baseline (p Students also showed significant increases in performance on the PACER test across grades and cohorts (p improve their practices over time, as measured via the CITT instrument. The present report

  1. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper....... The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  2. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    . The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following......When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  3. Preventing Occupational Skin Disease: A Review of Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Bethany; Arrandale, Victoria H; Holness, D Linn

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease that impacts a variety of worker groups. Skin protection and disease prevention training programs have shown promise for improving prevention practices and reducing the incidence of OCD. This review details the features of training programs for primary prevention of OCD and identifies gaps in the literature. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth review: many studies included wet workers employed in health care, hairdressing, cleaning, and food preparation; 1 program featured manufacturing workers. Few programs provided content on allergic contact dermatitis, and only 1 was evaluated for long-term effectiveness. Effective programs were similar in content, delivery method, and timing and were characterized by industry specificity, multimodal learning, participatory elements, skin care resource provision, repeated sessions, and management engagement. Long-term effectiveness, generalizability beyond OCD, workplace health and safety culture impact, and translation of programs in the North American context represent areas for future research.

  4. Primary prevention research: a preliminary review of program outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaps, E; Churgin, S; Palley, C S; Takata, B; Cohen, A Y

    1980-07-01

    This article reviews 35 drug abuse prevention program evaluations employing drug-specific outcome measures. Many of these evaluations assessed the effects of "new generation" prevention strategies: affective, peer-oriented, and multidimensional approaches. Only 14 studies evaluated purely informational programs. Evaluations were analyzed to ascertain (1) characteristics of the programs under study, (2) characteristics of the research designs, and (3) patterns among findings. This review provides some evidence that the newer prevention strategies may produce more positive and fewer negative outcomes than did older drug information approaches. Over 70% of the programs using the newer strategies produced some positive effects; only 29% showed negative effects. In contrast, 46% of informational programs showed positive effects; 46% showed negative effects. These findings must be approached with great caution, since the research was frequently scientifically inadequate, and since rigor of research was negatively correlated with intensity and duration of program services.

  5. Emotionally troubled teens' help-seeking behaviors: an evaluation of surviving the Teens® suicide prevention and depression awareness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Catherine M; Sorter, Michael T; Ossege, Julianne; King, Keith A

    2014-10-01

    Many school-based suicide prevention programs do not show a positive impact on help-seeking behaviors among emotionally troubled teens despite their being at high risk for suicide. This study is a secondary analysis of the Surviving the Teens(®) program evaluation to determine its effect on help-seeking behaviors among troubled youth. Results showed significant increases in mean scores of the Behavioral Intent to Communicate with Important Others Regarding Emotional Health Issues subscale (p Teens program has a positive effect on help-seeking behaviors in troubled youth. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Jump start: a targeted substance abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, N G; Donohew, L

    1997-10-01

    A substance abuse prevention and life skills program for economically disadvantaged, high sensation seeking African American teens was developed and tested in Cincinnati, Ohio. Formative research was conducted to determine program content and format. Over two implementations, 289 individuals in the target population were recruited as participants for the field test of the program. For the first implementation, participants were randomly selected from the city's summer youth employment program. For the second, a media campaign was designed to recruit participants. Process evaluation indicated that participants evaluated the program extremely positively. Outcome evaluation indicated that significant pretest differences between high and low sensation seekers were neutralized for liquor and marijuana in both years of the program and for attitude toward drugs in the first year of the program. These results suggest that sensation seeking is a useful message design and audience-targeting variable for substance abuse prevention program design. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  7. Implementation of a Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Program among School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavon Young

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test students’ knowledge of cardiovascular disease information and to determine if a carefully structured training program administered to high school students would increase their knowledge about cardiovascular disease and risk factors that are preventable. A pilot study was conducted during which fifty high school students from nine counties in the State of Mississippi were measured for their knowledge of hypertension both at baseline and after the completion of an intervention training activity. There were significant gains in knowledge between the pre-test and the post-test that the students completed. The gains in knowledge indicate that elimination of risk factors is possible if all health care and school-based prevention programs are implemented to positively impact changes in eating and physical activity behaviors. Students’ involvement in such activities could translate into significant changes in risk factors at these ages and throughout their lifetime. It is widely accepted that these behavioral changes, if sustained into adulthood, could have the potential to influence cardiovascular risk reduction.

  8. [Online gaming. Potential risk and prevention programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malischnig, Doris

    2014-12-01

    Online gaming is more and more common and increasingly accessible. Due to a lack of social control the participation could be a potential risk for certain customers. The given article focuses on prevention measures that are provided by the Austrian online gaming operator, the Austrian Lotteries, provider of the online gaming platform win2day, in the light of the specifics of Internet gaming in order to avoid problems with gaming.

  9. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  10. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  11. Rationale and study protocol of the EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) program: cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school-based physical activity integration program for mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Nicholas; Lubans, David R; Holmes, Kathryn; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-08

    Novel strategies are required to increase school-based physical activity levels of children. Integrating physical activity in mathematics lessons may lead to improvements in students' physical activity levels as well as enjoyment, engagement and learning. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a curriculum-based physical activity integration program known as EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) on children's daily school time physical activity levels. Secondary aims include exploring the impact of EASY Minds on their engagement and 'on task' behaviour in mathematics. Grade 5/6 classes from eight public schools in New South Wales, Australia will be randomly allocated to intervention (n = 4) or control (n = 4) groups. Teachers from the intervention group will receive one day of professional development, a resource pack and asked to adapt their lessons to embed movement-based learning in their daily mathematics program in at least three lessons per week over a six week period. Intervention support will be provided via a weekly email and three lesson observations. The primary outcomes will be children's physical activity levels (accelerometry) across both the school day and during mathematics lessons (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time). Children's 'on-task' behaviour, enjoyment of mathematics and mathematics attainment will be assessed as secondary outcomes. A detailed process evaluation will be undertaken. EASY Minds is an innovative intervention that has the potential to improve key physical and academic outcomes for primary school aged children and help guide policy and practice regarding the teaching of mathematics. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12613000637741 13/05/2013.

  12. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Application Period is Open until August 25 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application period for the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is open. Since 1987, CPFP has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows to train the next generation of researchers and leaders in the field. |

  13. Effect of Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee F.; Segal, Jodi B.; Kim, Miyong T.; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about how childhood obesity lifestyle prevention programs affect BP. We assessed the effects of childhood obesity prevention programs on BP in children in developed countries. Methods and Results We searched databases up to April 22, 2013 for relevant randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments. Studies were included if they applied a diet and/or physical activity intervention(s) and were followed for ≥1 year (or ≥ 6 months for school-based intervention studies); they were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese subjects or those with a medical condition. In our meta-analysis, intervention effects were calculated for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using weighted random effects models. Of the 23 included intervention studies (involving 18,925 participants), 21 involved a school setting. Our meta-analysis included 19 studies reporting on SBP and 18 on DBP. The pooled intervention effect was −1.64 mmHg (95% CI: -2.56, −0.71; P=0.001) for SBP and -1.44 mmHg (95% CI: −2.28, −0.60; P=0.001) for DBP. The combined diet and physical activity interventions led to a significantly greater reduction in both SBP and DBP than the diet-only or physical activity-only intervention. Thirteen interventions (46%) had a similar effect on both adiposity-related outcomes and BP; while 11 interventions (39%) showed a significant desirable effect on BP, but not on adiposity-related outcomes. Conclusions Obesity prevention programs have a moderate effect on reducing BP and those targeting at both diet and physical activity seem to be more effective. PMID:24552832

  14. Effect of childhood obesity prevention programs on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee F; Segal, Jodi B; Kim, Miyong T; Wang, Youfa

    2014-05-06

    Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about how childhood obesity lifestyle prevention programs affect BP. We assessed the effects of childhood obesity prevention programs on BP in children in developed countries. We searched databases up to April 22, 2013, for relevant randomized, controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments. Studies were included if they applied a diet or physical activity intervention(s) and were followed for ≥ 1 year (or ≥ 6 months for school-based intervention studies); they were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese subjects or those with a medical condition. In our meta-analysis, intervention effects were calculated for systolic BP and diastolic BP with the use of weighted random-effects models. Of the 23 included intervention studies (involving 18 925 participants), 21 involved a school setting. Our meta-analysis included 19 studies reporting on systolic BP and 18 on diastolic BP. The pooled intervention effect was -1.64 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.56 to -0.71; P=0.001) for systolic BP and -1.44 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.28 to -0.60; P=0.001) for diastolic BP. The combined diet and physical activity interventions led to a significantly greater reduction in both systolic BP and diastolic BP than the diet-only or physical activity-only intervention. Thirteen interventions (46%) had a similar effect on both adiposity-related outcomes and BP, whereas 11 interventions (39%) showed a significant desirable effect on BP but not on adiposity-related outcomes. Obesity prevention programs have a moderate effect on reducing BP, and those targeting both diet and physical activity seem to be more effective.

  15. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Schoolwide Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tia Navelene; Leite, Walter; Smith, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Violence prevention programs are commonplace in today's schools, though reviews of the literature reveal mixed empirical findings on their effectiveness. Often, these programs include a variety of components such as social skills training, student mentoring, and activities designed to build a sense of school community that have not been tested for…

  16. A Primary Prevention Program to Reduce Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullari, Salvatore; Redmon, William K.

    This paper presents a theoretical model for a primary prevention program for bulimia and anorexia nervosa to be used with adolescents and young women considered most at risk of developing these eating disorders. Characteristics of potential anorexics and bulimics are identified to aid in the selection of target groups for the program. It is…

  17. Wellness Programs: Preventive Medicine to Reduce Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Gilbert R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wellness program is a formalized approach to preventive health care that can positively affect employee lifestyle and reduce future health-care costs. Describes programs for health education, smoking cessation, early detection, employee assistance, and fitness, citing industry success figures. (eight references) (MLF)

  18. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  19. Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Kramer, Rachel A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research literature on youth suicide that has emerged during the past two decades and examines the possibility of linking this research to the practice of suicide prevention. Such research could be used to develop and evaluate appropriate crisis centers and hotlines as well as school-based suicide awareness curriculum programs. Table…

  20. School-Based Efforts to Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    While bullying historically has occurred within or in close proximity to the school, advances in communication technologies have allowed would-be bullies to extend their reach. Cyberbullying--as it is termed--has become a significant concern among adolescents and adults alike. As a result, parents, school professionals, law enforcement, and youth…

  1. Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0374 TITLE: Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Casey T...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM...7 9. Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………..7 1 Annual Report for Period: Sep 30, 2016 to Sept 29, 2017 Strength at Home

  2. Indicator for success of obesity reduction programs in adolescents: Body composition or body mass index? evaluating a school-based health promotion project after 12 weeks of intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Kalantari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity in adolescence is the strongest risk factor for obesity in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on different anthropometric indices in 12–16-year-old boy adolescents after 12 Weeks of Intervention. Methods: A total of 96 male adolescents from two schools participated in this study. The schools were randomly assigned to intervention (53 students and control school (43 students. Height and weight of students were measured and their body mass index (BMI was calculated. Body fat percent (BF and body muscle percent (BM was assessed using a bioimpedance analyzer considering the age, gender, and height of students at baseline and after intervention. The obesity reduction intervention was implemented in the intervention school based on the Ottawa charter for health promotion. Results: Twelve weeks of intervention decreased BF percent in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (decreased by 1.81% in the intervention group and increased by 0.39% in the control group, P < 0.01. However, weight, BMI, and BM did not change significantly. Conclusions: The result of this study showed that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention decreased the body fat percent in obese adolescents, although these changes was not reflected in the BMI. It is possible that BMI is not a good indicator in assessment of the success of obesity management intervention.

  3. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT): systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods: Applying the

  4. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT) : Systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Singh (Amika); M.J.M. Chin A Paw (Marijke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); T.L.S. Visscher (Tommy); J. Brug (Hans); W. van Mechelen (Willem)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods:

  5. Evaluation of high myopia complications prevention program in university freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Gow-Lieng; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2016-10-01

    High myopia is a global eye health problem because of its high incidence of sight-threatening complications. Due to the role of awareness, self-examination, and preventive behavior in prevention of morbidity of high myopia complications, promoting knowledge, capabilities, and attitude of high myopic personnel are required in this regard.In this quasi-experiment study, 31 freshmen with high myopia in a national university were enrolled in 2014. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire based on health belief model (HBM) and self-efficacy theory. The intervention program consisted of 1 educational session lasting 150 minutes by lecturing of high myopia complications, virtual reality experiencing, similarity modeling, and quibbling a film made on high myopia complications preventive concepts.Implementing the educational program showed immediate effect in knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior intention. While 6 weeks after the educational program, significant increases were observed in cues to action, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior intention.This article provided that, after a single session, there was positive improvement in high myopia complication prevention behavior intention among participants. These positive effects confirmed the efficacy of the education program and will probably induce behavior change.

  6. Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    This paper describes the Project ALERT program (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resistance Training) which was established by the Rand Corporation to prevent smoking and drug use among seventh graders. The program is based on the social influence model of drug use initiation. Curriculum features are described including motivation to resist and…

  7. Suicide Prevention in the Dot Com Era: Technological Aspects of a University Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jessica; VanDeusen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University's Suicide Prevention Program utilizes multiple technological components, including an online training course, a Web site, and 2 social networking Web site profiles, as integral aspects of a comprehensive program. This article discusses the development, maintenance, use, and impact of the technological aspects of this…

  8. Optimal investment in a portfolio of HIV prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, G S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors determine the optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds and investigate the impact of different allocation methods on health outcomes. The authors present a resource allocation model that can be used to determine the allocation of HIV prevention funds that maximizes quality-adjusted life years (or life years) gained or HIV infections averted in a population over a specified time horizon. They apply the model to determine the allocation of a limited budget among 3 types of HIV prevention programs in a population of injection drug users and nonusers: needle exchange programs, methadone maintenance treatment, and condom availability programs. For each prevention program, the authors estimate a production function that relates the amount invested to the associated change in risky behavior. The authors determine the optimal allocation of funds for both objective functions for a high-prevalence population and a low-prevalence population. They also consider the allocation of funds under several common rules of thumb that are used to allocate HIV prevention resources. It is shown that simpler allocation methods (e.g., allocation based on HIV incidence or notions of equity among population groups) may lead to alloctions that do not yield the maximum health benefit. The optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds in a population depends on HIV prevalence and incidence, the objective function, the production functions for the prevention programs, and other factors. Consideration of cost, equity, and social and political norms may be important when allocating HIV prevention funds. The model presented in this article can help decision makers determine the health consequences of different allocations of funds.

  9. A Case Study of Culturally Relevant School-Based Programming for First Nations Youth: Improved Relationships, Confidence and Leadership, and School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Burleigh, Dawn; Snowshoe, Angela; Lapp, Andrea; Hughes, Ray; Sisco, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Schools are expected to promote social and emotional learning skills among youth; however, there is a lack of culturally-relevant programming available. The Fourth R: Uniting Our Nations programs for Aboriginal youth include strengths-based programs designed to promote healthy relationships and cultural connectedness, and improve school success…

  10. Implementation of adolescent-friendly voluntary medical male circumcision using a school based recruitment program in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Montague

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data from South Africa demonstrate that risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in males increases dramatically after adolescence. Targeting adolescent HIV-negative males may be an efficient and cost-effective means of maximising the established HIV prevention benefits of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC in high HIV prevalence-, low circumcision practice-settings. This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting male high school students for VMMC in such a setting in rural KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Following community and key stakeholder consultations on the acceptability of VMMC recruitment through schools, information and awareness raising sessions were held in 42 high schools in Vulindlela. A three-phase VMMC demand-creation strategy was implemented in partnership with a local non-governmental organization, ZimnadiZonke, that involved: (i community consultation and engagement; (ii in-school VMMC awareness sessions and centralized HIV counselling and testing (HCT service access; and (iii peer recruitment and decentralized HCT service access. Transport was provided for volunteers to the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA clinic where the forceps-guided VMMC procedure was performed on consenting HIV-negative males. HIV infected volunteers were referred to further care either at the CAPRISA clinic or at public sector clinics. Between March 2011 and February 2013, a total of 5165 circumcisions were performed, the majority (71% in males aged between 15 and 19 years. Demand-creation strategies were associated with an over five-fold increase in VMMC uptake from an average of 58 procedures/month in initial community engagement phases, to an average of 308 procedures/month on initiation of the peer recruitment-decentralized service phase. Post-operative adverse events were rare (1.2%, mostly minor and self-resolving. CONCLUSIONS: Optimizing a high volume

  11. Westinghouse Hanford Company Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, B.C.

    1994-10-01

    This plan documents Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Pollution Prevention (P2) (formerly Waste Minimization) program. The program includes WHC; BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR); and ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). The plan specifies P2 program activities and schedules for implementing the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness (WMin/P2) Program Plan requirements (DOE 1994a). It is intended to satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in both the Hanford Site WMin/P2 plan and paragraph C of this plan. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988) is included in the WHC P2 program. WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH are committed to implementing an effective P2 program as identified in the Hanford Site WMin/P2 Plan. This plan provides specific information on how the WHC P2 program will develop and implement the goals, activities, and budget needed to accomplish this. The emphasis has been to provide detailed planning of the WHC P2 program activities over the next 3 years. The plan will guide the development and implementation of the program. The plan also provides background information on past program activities. Because the plan contains greater detail than in the past, activity scope and implementation schedules may change as new priorities are identified and new approaches are developed and realized. Some activities will be accelerated, others may be delayed; however, all of the general program elements identified in this plan and contractor requirements identified in the Site WMin/P2 plan will be developed and implemented during the next 3 years. This plan applies to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH organizations and subcontractors. It will be distributed to those with defined responsibilities in this plan; and the policy, goals, objectives, and strategy of the program will be communicated to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH employees

  12. Preliminary program evaluation of emergency department HIV prevention counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitlinger, Andrea P; Lindsell, Christopher J; Ruffner, Andrew H; Wayne, D Beth; Hart, Kimberly W; Trott, Alexander T; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Lyons, Michael S

    2011-07-01

    Controversy surrounds the linkage of prevention counseling with emergency department (ED)-based HIV testing. Further, the effectiveness and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED setting is unknown. We investigate these issues by conducting a preliminarily exploration of several related aspects of our ED's HIV prevention counseling and testing program. Our urban, academic ED provides formal client-centered prevention counseling in conjunction with HIV testing. Five descriptive, exploratory observations were conducted, involving surveys and analysis of electronic medical records and programmatic data focused on (1) patient perception and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED, (2) patient perceptions of the need to link prevention counseling with testing, and (3) potential effectiveness of providing prevention counseling in conjunction with ED-based HIV testing. Of 110 ED patients surveyed after prevention counseling and testing, 98% believed privacy was adequate, and 97% reported that their questions were answered. Patients stated that counseling would lead to improved health (80%), behavioral changes (72%), follow-up testing (77%), and discussion with partners (74%). However, 89% would accept testing without counseling, 32% were willing to seek counseling elsewhere, and 26% preferred not to receive the counseling. Correct responses to a 16-question knowledge quiz increased by 1.6 after counseling (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 12.0). The program completed counseling for 97% of patients tested; however, 6% of patients had difficulty recalling the encounter and 13% denied received testing. Among patients undergoing repeated testing, there was no consistent change in self-reported risk behaviors. Participants in the ED prevention counseling and testing program considered counseling acceptable and useful, though not required. Given adequate resources, prevention counseling can be provided in the ED, but it is unlikely that all patients benefit

  13. School-based obesity policy, social capital, and gender differences in weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Thomas, Breanca

    2013-06-01

    We examined the associations among school-based obesity policies, social capital, and adolescents' self-reported weight control behaviors, focusing on how the collective roles of community and adopted policies affect gender groups differently. We estimated state-level ecologic models using 1-way random effects seemingly unrelated regressions derived from panel data for 43 states from 1991 to 2009, which we obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. We used multiplicative interaction terms to assess how social capital moderates the effects of school-based obesity policies. School-based obesity policies in active communities were mixed in improving weight control behaviors. They increased both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors among boys but did not increase healthy weight control behaviors among girls. Social capital is an important contextual factor that conditions policy effectiveness in large contexts. Heterogeneous behavioral responses are associated with both school-based obesity policies and social capital. Building social capital and developing policy programs to balance outcomes for both gender groups may be challenging in managing childhood obesity.

  14. Information resources for US Department of Energy pollution prevention programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.L.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) pollution prevention efforts being conducted under the aegis of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with evaluating pollution prevention information resources. The goal of this activity was to improve the effectiveness of DOE`s pollution prevention activities through improved information flow, both within the complex, and more specifically, between DOE and other organizations that share similar pollution prevention challenges. This report presents our findings with respect to the role of information collection and dissemination within the complex, opportunities for teaming from successes of the private sector, and specific information needs of the DOE pollution prevention community. These findings were derived from a series of interviews with pollution prevention coordinators from across the DOE complex, review of DOE site and facility pollution prevention plans, and workshops with DOE information users as well as an information resources workshop that brought together information specialists from private industry, non-profit organizations, as well as state and regional pollution prevention assistance programs.

  15. Understanding small business engagement in workplace violence prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Worksite wellness, safety, and violence prevention programs have low penetration among small, independent businesses. This study examined barriers and strategies influencing small business participation in workplace violence prevention programs (WVPPs). A semistructured interview guide was used in 32 telephone interviews. The study took place at the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center. Participating were a purposive sample of 32 representatives of small business-serving organizations (e.g., business membership organizations, regulatory agencies, and economic development organizations) selected for their experience with small businesses. This study was designed to inform improved dissemination of Crime Free Business (CFB), a WVPP for small, independent retail businesses. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to identify key barriers and strategies for promoting programs and services to small businesses. Three key factors that influence small business engagement emerged from the analysis: (1) small businesses' limited time and resources, (2) low salience of workplace violence, (3) influence of informal networks and source credibility. Identified strategies include designing low-cost and convenient programs, crafting effective messages, partnering with influential organizations and individuals, and conducting outreach through informal networks. Workplace violence prevention and public health practitioners may increase small business participation in programs by reducing time and resource demands, addressing small business concerns, enlisting support from influential individuals and groups, and emphasizing business benefits of participating in the program.

  16. Purpose and methods of a Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, P.A.; Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program (PPAP), which is required by DOE Order 5400.1, is to foster the philosophy that prevention is superior to remediation. The goal of the program is to incorporate pollution prevention into the decision-making process at every level throughout the organization. The objectives are to instill awareness, disseminate information, provide training and rewards for identifying the true source or cause of wastes, and encourage employee participation in solving environmental issues and preventing pollution. PPAP at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was created several years ago and continues to grow. We believe that we have implemented several unique methods of communicating environmental awareness to promote a more active work force in identifying ways of reducing pollution.

  17. Family Violence Prevention and Services Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.

  18. Pollution prevention program for new projects -- Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lum, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to relay the experience of the Office of New Production Reactors (NP) in developing and implementing its pollution prevention program. NP was established to plan, design, and construct a new safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear reactor capacity necessary to provide an assured supply of tritium to maintain the nation`s long-term deterrent capability. The Program offered the Department of Energy an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to environmental protection via minimization of environmental releases; new design offers the best opportunity for pollution prevention. The NP pollution prevention program was never fully implemented because NP`s tritium production design activity was recovery terminated. The information in this paper represented lessons learned from the last three years of NP operation.

  19. Effectiveness and Evaluation of Crime Prevention Programs in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Beato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of the crime prevention policies adopted by the Government of Minas Gerais (Brazil. In this work, greater emphasis is placed on studies evaluating outcomes than on studies dealing with the process of setting up and implementing programs and projects. In order to allow a more systematic discussion, the Maryland Scale, which categorizes research and evaluations according to the methodological strengths and weaknesses in five levels, is employed. Subsequently, the authors draw a parallel between Brazil and other settings. Finally, this essay lays out the implications of this discussion regarding the prevention programs

  20. The Role of Extension Nutrition Education in Student Achievement of Nutrition Standards in Grades K-3: A Descriptive Evaluation of a School-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mary E.; Schreiber, Debera

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive evaluation of the impact of an in-school Extension nutrition education program in a small, very rural county. The evaluation focused on understanding the nature of the role the Extension educator plays in delivering nutrition education, the impact of the program on student learning and achievement…

  1. An Evaluation of "Success and Dyslexia"--A Multi Component School-Based Coping Program for Primary School Students with Learning Disabilities: Is It Feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Nola Virginia; Frydenberg, Erica; Bond, Lyndal

    2012-01-01

    A learning disabilities coping program was implemented in the final year of two primary schools within the context of a whole class coping program and whole school learning disabilities professional development. Using data collected over three years from school surveys, reports, interviews, school documents and a field diary, this paper reports on…

  2. A Comprehensive Review of School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Programs and Their Implications for School Health: Do the Controversies Accurately Reflect the Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Dominique G.; Bass, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whereas legislation for body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening programs has passed in 25 states, the programs are often subject to ethical debates about confidentiality and privacy, school-to-parent communication, and safety and self-esteem issues for students. Despite this debate, no comprehensive analysis has been completed…

  3. Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1–6, one community-based intervention (study 7–8, and four family-based interventions (study 9–13. Studies’ levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT’s, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children’s, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found

  4. The impact of active stakeholder involvement on recruitment, retention and engagement of schools, children and their families in the cluster randomised controlled trial of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP): a school-based intervention to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J; McHugh, C; Minton, J; Eke, H; Wyatt, K

    2017-08-14

    Recruitment and retention of participants is crucial for statistical power and internal and external validity and participant engagement is essential for behaviour change. However, many school-based interventions focus on programme content rather than the building of supportive relationships with all participants and tend to employ specific standalone strategies, such as incentives, to improve retention. We believe that actively involving stakeholders in both intervention and trial design improves recruitment and retention and increases the chances of creating an effective intervention. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme, HeLP (an obesity prevention programme for children 9-10 years old) was developed using intervention mapping and involved extensive stakeholder involvement in both the design of the trial and the intervention to ensure that: (i) delivery methods were suitably engaging, (ii) deliverers had the necessary skills and qualities to build relationships and (iii) the intervention dovetailed with the National Curriculum. HeLP was a year-long intervention consisting of 4 multi-component phases using a range of delivery methods. We recruited 1324 children from 32 schools from the South West of England to a cluster-randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of HeLP in preventing obesity. The primary outcome was change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) at 24 months post randomisation. Secondary outcomes included additional anthropometric and behavioural (physical activity and diet) measures at 18 and 24 months. Anthropometric and behavioural measures were taken in 99%, 96% and 94% of children at baseline, 18 and 24 months, respectively, with no differential follow up between the control and intervention groups at each time point. All children participated in the programme and 92% of children and 77% of parents across the socio-economic spectrum were considered to have actively engaged with HeLP. We attribute our excellent

  5. [HIV prevention program for young people--the WYSH Project as a model of "combination prevention"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Kihara, Masako

    2010-03-01

    In face of the HIV pandemic that still grows, unsuccessful efforts of developing biomedical control measures or the failure of cognitive-behavioral approach to show sustained social level effectiveness, behavioral strategy is now expected to evolve into a structural prevention ("combination prevention") that involves multiple behavioral goals and multilevel approaches. WYSH Project is a combination prevention project for youth developed through socio-epidemiological approach that integrates epidemiology with social science such as social marketing and mixed method. WYSH Project includes mass education programs for youth in schools and programs for out-of-school youth through cyber network and peer communication. Started in 2002, it expanded nationwide with supports from related ministries and parent-teacher associations and has grown into a single largest youth prevention project in Japan.

  6. A school-based public health model to reduce oral health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Valiente, Jonathan E; Espinosa, Gloria; Yepes, Claudia; Padilla, Cesar; Puffer, Maryjane; Slavkin, Harold C; Chung, Paul J

    2018-12-01

    Although dental decay is preventable, it remains the most common pediatric chronic disease. We describe a public health approach to implementing a scalable and sustainable school-based oral health program for low-income urban children. The Los Angeles Trust for Children's Health, a nonprofit affiliated with the Los Angeles Unified School District, applied a public health model and developed a broad-based community-coalition to a) establish a District Oral Health Nurse position to coordinate oral health services, and b) implement a universal school-based oral health screening and fluoride varnishing program, with referral to a dental home. Key informant interviews and focus groups informed program development. Parent surveys assessed preventative oral health behaviors and access to oral health services. Results from screening exams, program costs and rates of reimbursement were recorded. From 2012 to 2015, six elementary schools and three dental provider groups participated. Four hundred ninety-one parents received oral health education and 89 served as community oral health volunteers; 3,399 screenings and fluoride applications were performed on 2,776 children. Sixty-six percent of children had active dental disease, 27 percent had visible tooth decay, and 6 percent required emergent care. Of the 623 students who participated for two consecutive years, 56 percent had fewer or no visible caries at follow-up, while only 17 percent had additional disease. Annual program cost was $69.57 per child. Using a broad based, oral health coalition, a school-based universal screening and fluoride varnishing program can improve the oral health of children with a high burden of untreated dental diseases. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. High School Students' Perceptions of Alcohol Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Grade 11 students' perceptions of programs related to the prevention of alcohol use in high school settings through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data elicited from student questionnaires (n=452) and focus groups. It was found that students felt a need for increased information on alcohol…

  8. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am I eligible? To be considered for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), you must meet eligibility criteria related to educational attainment, US citizenship/permanent residency status, and the duration of prior postdoctoral research experience. Refer to the Eligibility Requirements for details. How do I apply? You must apply through our online application process.

  9. 77 FR 4239 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... victims of sexual assault. The ASD(HA) shall direct that all sexual assault patients be given priority, so... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 103 [DoD-2008-OS-0124; 0790-AI37] Sexual... Program on prevention, response, and oversight to sexual assault. It is DoD policy to establish a culture...

  10. Developing a Culturally Appropriate Depression Prevention Program: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardemil, Esteban V.; Kim, Saeromi; Davidson, Tatiana; Sarmiento, Ingrid A.; Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; Sanchez, Monica; Torres, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the first author and his colleagues in the development and implementation of a depression prevention program that specifically targets Latina mothers. Building on the earlier papers that highlight the underutilization of mental health services by Latinos in general, this paper will make the case that the…

  11. U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of School Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Natakie

    2016-01-01

    In response to high profile violent incidents and crimes, many schools have developed plans that address school discipline to create a school climate and culture wherein everyone is valued and treated with respect. The problem that prompted this study is teachers are struggling with effectively implementation prevention program. The purpose of…

  12. Cancer Prevention Programs in the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Michael P.

    When employees develop cancer, businesses bear not only the direct medical costs of the disease, but also the indirect costs associated with lost work time, disability payments, loss of a trained employee, and retraining. Research has confirmed that aggressive prevention and screening programs can be, and indeed are, effective in limiting the…

  13. Postoperative pneumonia-prevention program for the inpatient surgical ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Sherry M; Martin, Molinda; Yoon, Jung K; Bech, Fritz

    2010-04-01

    Postoperative pneumonia can lead to increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, and costs. Pneumonia-prevention programs have been successfully implemented in ICU settings, but no program exists for surgical ward patients. A pilot prevention program was designed and implemented based on literature review. The program consisted of education of physicians and ward staff and a standardized postoperative electronic order set consisting of incentive spirometer, chlorhexidine oral hygiene, ambulation, and head-of-bed elevation. Quarterly staff meetings discussed the results of and compliance with the program. The intervention commenced in April 2007. Baseline incidence of inpatient ward pneumonia was calculated from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY 2007. Postintervention incidence was calculated in the same manner from FY 2007 through FY 2008. Any patient who contracted pneumonia in the ICU was excluded from analysis. There was a significant decrease in ward pneumonia incidence from 0.78% in the preintervention group compared with 0.18% in the postintervention group (p = 0.006), representing an 81% decrease in incidence from 2006 to 2008. The pneumonia-prevention program was very successful in diminishing postoperative pneumonia on the surgical ward. There was a highly statistically significant 4-fold decrease in pneumonia incidence after program implementation. The interventions were not costly but did require ongoing communication and cooperation between physician and nursing leadership to achieve compliance with the measures. This program has great potential for dissemination to hospital surgical wards and could decrease inpatient postoperative pneumonias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers.

  15. Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Lessio, Anne; Herrera, Christine; Hanning, Rhona; Rush, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Best practices identified solely on the strength of research evidence may not be entirely relevant or practical for use in community-based public health and the practice of chronic disease prevention. Aiming to bridge the gap between best practices literature and local knowledge and expertise, the Ontario Public Health Association, through the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice initiative, developed a set of resources to strengthen evidence-informed decision making in chronic disease prevention programs. A Program Assessment Tool, described in this article, emphasizes better processes by incorporating review criteria into the program planning and implementation process. In a companion paper, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool,” we describe another tool, which emphasizes better evidence by providing guidelines and worksheets to identify, synthesize, and incorporate evidence from a range of sources (eg, peer-reviewed literature, gray literature, local expertise) to strengthen local programs. The Program Assessment Tool uses 19 criteria derived from literature on best and promising practices to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation. We describe the benefits, strengths, and challenges in implementing the tool in 22 community-based chronic disease prevention projects in Ontario, Canada. The Program Assessment Tool helps put best processes into operation to complement adoption and adaptation of evidence-informed practices for chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721789

  16. Implementation of Adolescent-Friendly Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Using a School Based Recruitment Program in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Montague, Carl; Ngcobo, Nelisiwe; Mahlase, Gethwana; Frohlich, Janet; Pillay, Cheryl; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Humphries, Hilton; Dellar, Rachael; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data from South Africa demonstrate that risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in males increases dramatically after adolescence. Targeting adolescent HIV-negative males may be an efficient and cost-effective means of maximising the established HIV prevention benefits of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in high HIV prevalence-, low circumcision practice-settings. This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting male high school students for...

  17. Predictors of Middle School Students’ Interest in Participating in an Incentive-Based Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Program in Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. Morean

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students’ interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6–8 attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1 intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race, smoking history, and trait impulsivity and/or (2 aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency. Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8% reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools.

  18. Predictors of middle school students' interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Camenga, Deepa R; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Schepis, Ty S; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students' interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6-8) attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1) intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race), smoking history, and trait impulsivity) and/or (2) aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency). Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8%) reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games) offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools.

  19. Collecting costs of community prevention programs: communities putting prevention to work initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavjou, Olga A; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Hoerger, Thomas J; Trogdon, Justin G; Cash, Amanda J

    2014-08-01

    Community-based programs require substantial investments of resources; however, evaluations of these programs usually lack analyses of program costs. Costs of community-based programs reported in previous literature are limited and have been estimated retrospectively. To describe a prospective cost data collection approach developed for the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) program capturing costs for community-based tobacco use and obesity prevention strategies. A web-based cost data collection instrument was developed using an activity-based costing approach. Respondents reported quarterly expenditures on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead; partner efforts; and in-kind contributions. Costs were allocated across CPPW objectives and strategies organized around five categories: media, access, point of decision/promotion, price, and social support and services. The instrument was developed in 2010, quarterly data collections took place in 2011-2013, and preliminary analysis was conducted in 2013. Preliminary descriptive statistics are presented for the cost data collected from 51 respondents. More than 50% of program costs were for partner organizations, and over 20% of costs were for labor hours. Tobacco communities devoted the majority of their efforts to media strategies. Obesity communities spent more than half of their resources on access strategies. Collecting accurate cost information on health promotion and disease prevention programs presents many challenges. The approach presented in this paper is one of the first efforts successfully collecting these types of data and can be replicated for collecting costs from other programs. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. [Prevention of cardiovascular diseases - Prophylactic program in a selected enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szyjkowska, Agata; Siedlecki, Patryk; Szymczak, Wiesław; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2017-10-17

    In Poland cardiovascular diseases (CVD), classified as work-related diseases, are responsible for 25% of disability and cause 50% of all deaths, including 26.9% of deaths in people aged under 65 years. The aim of the study was to analyze employee expectations regarding CVD- oriented prophylactic activities in the selected enterprise. A questionnaire, developed for this study, consists of: socio-demographic data, job characteristics, occupational factors, and questions about the respondents' expectations concerning the prevention program. The study group comprised 407 multi-profile company employees aged (mean) 46.7 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), including 330 men (81.1%), mean age = 46.9 (SD = 9.2) and 77 women (18.9%), mean age = 45.9 (SD = 8.2) The study was performed using the method of auditorium survey. Employees declared the need for actions related to physical activity: use of gym, swimming pool, tennis (56.5%), smoking habits - education sessions on quitting smoking (24.6%). A few people were interested in activities related to healthy diet. According to the majority of the study group, the scope of preventive examinations should be expanded. Based on our own findings and literature data CVD- -oriented preventive program, addressed to the analyzed enterprise was prepared. The program will be presented in another paper. The results showed significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the classic and occupational CVD risk factors between men and women, as well as in preferences for participation in prevention programs. Therefore, gender differences should be taken into account when planning prevention programs. Med Pr 2017;68(6):757-769. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.