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Sample records for school-based prevention approach

  1. Photoaging Mobile Apps in School-Based Tobacco Prevention: The Mirroring Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus Josef; Seeger, Werner; Buslaff, Fabian

    2016-06-28

    Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous. Adolescent smoking can best be prevented through health education at schools. Interventions that take advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance may be a novel way to improve prevention. In this first pilot study, we aimed to use mobile phone technology in accordance with the theory of planned behavior to improve school-based tobacco prevention. We used a free photoaging mobile phone app ("Smokerface") in three German secondary schools via a novel method called mirroring. The students' altered three-dimensional selfies on mobile phones or tablets were "mirrored" via a projector in front of their whole grade. Using an anonymous questionnaire, we then measured on a 5-point Likert scale the perceptions of the intervention among 125 students of both genders (average age 12.75 years). A majority of the students perceived the intervention as fun (77/125, 61.6%), claimed that the intervention motivated them not to smoke (79/125, 63.2%), and stated that they learned new benefits of non-smoking (81/125, 64.8%). Only a minority of students disagreed or fully disagreed that they learned new benefits of non-smoking (16/125, 12.8%) or that they were themselves motivated not to smoke (18/125, 14.4%). We have presented a novel method to integrate photoaging in school-based tobacco prevention that affects student peer groups and considers the predictors of smoking in accordance with the theory of planned behavior.

  2. A person-centered approach to individualizing a school-based universal preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Linda L; Bradley, Stephanie; Coffman, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on how individualized components may be embedded within a universal preventive intervention (TimeWise: Taking Charge of Leisure Time) to make program delivery more effective. Leisure related variables (motivation, boredom/interest and peer and parental influence) were used to suggest ways to individualize the program. Latent Class Analysis was used to develop individualized risk and strength profiles of adolescents (N = 617). Comparisons were made between a treatment and control group. Four classes were identified: undifferentiated high, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation/amotivation, undifferentiated low. These classes were related to substance use. Membership in the intrinsic class was associated with intervention group while the extrinsic class was related to the control group. Results were useful in suggesting ways to tailor a universal prevention program.

  3. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  4. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2013-04-30

    Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some

  5. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Perera, R

    2006-07-19

    Smoking rates in adolescents are rising in some countries. Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed goal of public health, but there is uncertainty about how to do this. Schools provide a route for communicating with a large proportion of young people, and school-based programmes for smoking prevention have been widely developed and evaluated. To review all randomized controlled trials of behavioural interventions in schools to prevent children (aged 5 to12) and adolescents (aged 13 to18) starting smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyclNFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts and studies identified in the bibliographies of articles. Individual MEDLINE searches were made for 133 authors who had undertaken randomized controlled trials in this area. Types of studies: those in which individual students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomized to the intervention or control groups and followed for at least six months. Children (aged 5 to12) or adolescents (aged 13 to18) in school settings. Types of interventions: Classroom programmes or curricula, including those with associated family and community interventions, intended to deter use of tobacco. We included programmes or curricula that provided information, those that used social influences approaches, those that taught generic social competence, and those that included interventions beyond the school into the community. We included programmes with a drug or alcohol focus if outcomes for tobacco use were reported. Types of outcome measures: Prevalence of non-smoking at follow up among those not smoking at baseline. We did not require biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use for study inclusion. We assessed whether identified citations were randomized controlled trials. We assessed the quality of design and execution, and

  6. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  7. School-based smoking prevention programmes: ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2011-01-01

    School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.

  8. A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High impact of implementation on school-based smoking prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    prevention trial-the X:IT study. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic...... into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking...... questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). INTERVENTION: The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school...

  10. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-07-01

    Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent smoking for girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among

  12. Effects of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a school-based pediatric obesity program for elementary children. Children (n = 782) were between the ages of 7 and 9 and in the 2nd grade. A total of 323 (189 males) children who exceeded the 85th percentile for BMI were randomized into an integrated health...

  13. Engaging Mexican Origin Families in a School-Based Preventive Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Anne M.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Millsap, Roger E.; Meza, Connie M.; Dumka, Larry E.; Germán, Miguelina; Genalo, M. Toni

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a culturally sensitive approach to engage Mexican origin families in a school-based, family-focused preventive intervention trial. The approach was evaluated via assessing study enrollment and intervention program participation, as well as examining predictors of engagement at each stage. Incorporating traditional cultural values into all aspects of engagement resulted in participation rates higher than reported rates of minority-focused trials not emphasizing cultural sensitivity. Family preferred language (English or Spanish) or acculturation status predicted engagement at all levels, with less acculturated families participating at higher rates. Spanish-language families with less acculturated adolescents participated at higher rates than Spanish-language families with more acculturated adolescents. Other findings included two-way interactions between family language and the target child’s familism values, family single- vs. dual-parent status, and number of hours the primary parent worked in predicting intervention participation. Editors’ Strategic Implications: The authors present a promising approach—which requires replication—to engaging and retaining Mexican American families in a school-based prevention program. The research also highlights the importance of considering acculturation status when implementing and studying culturally tailored aspects of prevention models. PMID:18004659

  14. [Effectiveness of a school-based program to prevent obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Solís, D; Díaz Martín, J J; Álvarez Caro, F; Suárez Tomás, I; Suárez Menéndez, E; Riaño Galán, I

    2015-07-01

    Intervention for childhood obesity is a public health priority. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an elementary school-based intervention against obesity in children. Non-randomised controlled trial was conducted on children from first to fifth grade from two public schools of Avilés (Spain). The intervention lasted for 2 school years comprising healthy diet workshops, educational chats, educational meetings, informative written material, and promotion of physical activities. Primary outcome measure was body mass index z-score. Secondary outcomes included: obesity and overweight prevalence, waist circumference, dietary habits, and physical activity. A total of 382 (177 girls, 205 boys) out of 526 pupils of both schools were included in the study. Complete anthropometric data were obtained in 340 of the 382 individuals. Compared to children in control group, those in intervention group decreased body mass index z-score from 1.14 to 1.02 (P=.017), and improved KIDMED score from 7.33 to 7.71 points (P=.045). The percentage of students who carried on an optimal diet increased from 42.6% to 52.3% (P=.021). There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, or in waist circumference between the intervention and control groups. This school-based program resulted in modest beneficial changes in body mass index and diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. School-Based Caries Prevention, Tooth Decay, and the Community Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, R R; Niederman, R

    2018-04-01

    The school and community context can contribute to inequity in child oral health. Whether the school and community affect the effectiveness of school-based caries prevention is unknown. The association between the school and community environment and dental caries, as well as their moderating effects with school-based caries prevention, was assessed using multilevel mixed-effects regression. Data were derived from a 6-y prospective cohort study of children participating in a school-based caries prevention program. For the school and community, living in a dental-shortage area and the proportion of children receiving free or reduced lunch were significantly related to an increased risk of dental caries at baseline. Caries prevention was associated with a significant per-visit decrease in the risk of untreated caries, but the rate of total caries experience increased over time. Caries prevention was more effective in children who had prior dental care at baseline and in schools with a higher proportion of low socioeconomic status students. There was significant variation across schools in the baseline prevalence of dental caries and the effect of prevention over time, although effects were modest. The school and community environment have a direct impact on oral health and moderate the association between school-based caries prevention and dental caries. Knowledge Transfer Statement: School-based caries prevention can be an effective means to reduce oral health inequity by embedding dental care within schools. However, the socioeconomic makeup of schools and characteristics of the surrounding community can affect the impact of school-based care.

  16. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…

  17. Indian students' perspectives on obesity and school-based obesity prevention: a qualitative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel; Tewari, Abha; Stigler, Melissa; Rodrigues, Lindsay; Arora, Monika; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Simmons, Rob; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2013-11-01

    Childhood obesity has recently been reported as a growing problem in low- and middle-income countries. One potential prevention strategy is to apply effective obesity prevention approaches from the United States and/or other Western countries into programs that can be implemented in developing countries such as India. The purpose of this study was to explore Indian students' perceptions of social-contextual factors related to obesity and whether they perceived a role for school-based obesity prevention. This study was conducted as a first step in a model to translate interventions from one culture to another. A total of 183 fourth- and fifth-grade students of middle socioeconomic status participated in focus group discussions. Analyses were guided by the essential principles of qualitative research and informed by social cognitive and social ecological theories. Results yielded five relevant themes: (a) student health behavior knowledge, (b) parental influence on health behavior, (c) school influence on health behavior, (d) media influence on health behavior, and (e) contexts for health promotion intervention. We found that students had moderate knowledge related to health behaviors (i.e., food intake and physical activity); that parents, schools, and the media are all important contributors to healthy and unhealthy behavior; and that schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity. Results suggest that Indian middle socioeconomic status students are already moderately aware of the health benefits to nutritious food intake and physical activity, but parents, schools, and the media can influence unhealthy behaviors.

  18. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  19. A Meta-Analytic Review of School-Based Prevention for Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath-Waller, Amy J.; Beasley, Erin; Beirness, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based prevention programming in reducing cannabis use among youth aged 12 to 19. It summarized the results from 15 studies published in peer-reviewed journals since 1999 and identified features that influenced program effectiveness. The results from the set of…

  20. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

  1. Adolescents' responses to a school-based prevention program promoting healthy eating at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.C.J.; Bruin, H. de; Larsen, J.K.; Mensink, F.; Hoek, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programs, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. The present study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a

  2. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity injury prevention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collard, D.C.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Knol, D.L.; van Mechelen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of a school-based injury prevention program on physical activity injury incidence and severity. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial performed from January 1, 2006, through July 31, 2007. Setting: Forty Dutch primary schools. Participants: Atotal of 2210

  3. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  4. School-Based Smoking Prevention with Media Literacy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Melinda C.; Schmidt, Spring J.; Shields, David; Zwarun, Lara; Sherblom, Stephen; Pulley, Cynthia; Rucker, Billy

    2011-01-01

    School-based tobacco prevention programs have had limited success reducing smoking rates in the long term. Media literacy programs offer an innovative vehicle for delivery of potentially more efficacious anti-tobacco education. However, these programs have been neither widely implemented nor well evaluated. We conducted a pre-post evaluation of a…

  5. Using Elite Athletes to Promote Drug Abstinence: Evaluation of a Single-Session School-Based Drug Use Prevention Program Delivered by Junior Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    School-based substance use prevention programs are a common method to approaching drug use in youths. Project SOS is a single-session drug prevention program developed by police officers and delivered by elite junior hockey players to students in grades 6 and 7. The current study evaluates the effects of Project SOS at achieving its objectives of…

  6. Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

  7. School-based smoking prevention programs with the promise of long-term effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flay Brian R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be.

  8. School-Based Programs to Prevent and Reduce Alcohol Use among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Melissa H.; Neusel, Emily; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Schools are an important setting for interventions aimed at preventing alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. A range of school-based interventions have been developed to prevent or delay the onset of alcohol use, most of which are targeted to middle-school students. Most of these interventions seek to reduce risk factors for alcohol use at the individual level, whereas other interventions also address social and/or environmental risk factors. Not all interventions that have been developed and implemented have been found to be effective. In-depth analyses have indicated that to be most effective, interventions should be theory driven, address social norms around alcohol use, build personal and social skills helping students resist pressure to use alcohol, involve interactive teaching approaches, use peer leaders, integrate other segments of the population into the program, be delivered over several sessions and years, provide training and support to facilitators, and be culturally and developmentally appropriate. Additional research is needed to develop interventions for elementary-school and high-school students and for special populations. PMID:22330213

  9. Mindfulness-based prevention for eating disorders: A school-based cluster randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Melissa J; Wade, Tracey D

    2015-11-01

    Successful prevention of eating disorders represents an important goal due to damaging long-term impacts on health and well-being, modest treatment outcomes, and low treatment seeking among individuals at risk. Mindfulness-based approaches have received early support in the treatment of eating disorders, but have not been evaluated as a prevention strategy. This study aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a novel mindfulness-based intervention for reducing the risk of eating disorders among adolescent females, under both optimal (trained facilitator) and task-shifted (non-expert facilitator) conditions. A school-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 19 classes of adolescent girls (N = 347) were allocated to a three-session mindfulness-based intervention, dissonance-based intervention, or classes as usual control. A subset of classes (N = 156) receiving expert facilitation were analyzed separately as a proxy for delivery under optimal conditions. Task-shifted facilitation showed no significant intervention effects across outcomes. Under optimal facilitation, students receiving mindfulness demonstrated significant reductions in weight and shape concern, dietary restraint, thin-ideal internalization, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment relative to control by 6-month follow-up. Students receiving dissonance showed significant reductions in socio-cultural pressures. There were no statistically significant differences between the two interventions. Moderate intervention acceptability was reported by both students and teaching staff. Findings show promise for the application of mindfulness in the prevention of eating disorders; however, further work is required to increase both impact and acceptability, and to enable successful outcomes when delivered by less expert providers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Community-level Moderators of a School-Based Childhood Sexual Assault Prevention Program

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Matthew C.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Last program compared to a waitlist control condition. Knowledge gains from pre- to post-interv...

  11. [Effect of school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.

  12. Tobacco use related attitudes and behaviors in Indian Adolescents: association with school-based prevention education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Khubchandani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent tobacco use in India has increased substantially within the past few decades. Schools can serve as an important avenue for prevention education, but little is known about the current practices of Indian schools in relation to tobacco use prevention education. Methods: To assess the extent and influence tobacco use prevention education in Indian schools,we analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data for India, which was a population-based study of a national random sample of 10112 students from 180 private and public schools.Variables such as student demographic profile, tobacco use behavior, perceptions about tobacco use, and exposure to school-based tobacco use prevention education were considered for analyses. Results: Prevalence of any form of tobacco use (14% and current smoking (8% was found to differ by gender. A quarter of the students believed that boys who smoke are more attractive or have more friends compared to non-smokers, and almost half of the students reported that smoking and health were never discussed as a part of a lesson in school. The association between school-based prevention education and tobacco use behavior was assessed (after adjustment forage, gender, and parental smoking. Students who were educated in school about tobacco use and its effects were significantly more likely to have negative attitude toward tobacco use and less likely to report use of tobacco. Conclusion: School-based tobacco use prevention education has beneficial influence on adolescents in India. Given the early age of initiation of tobacco use, school curricula in India should emphasize on tobacco use prevention education.

  13. School-based interventions for preventing Hiv, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in

  14. The Fourth R: A School-Based Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Wolfe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.

  15. School-based suicide prevention: content, process, and the role of trusted adults and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shashank V; Hartley, Samantha N; Kessler, Moira; Barstead, Maura

    2015-04-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death in youth, and numerous curricula and other prevention and intervention programs have been developed in the last 15 years. Comprehensive suicide prevention planning should include the 4 components of health promotion, prevention/education, intervention, and postvention. School-based suicide prevention and mental health education programs have become more common as an efficient and cost-effective way to reach youth. Process considerations that are based on the principles of therapeutic engagement with patients and families can provide mental health professionals with strategies that can assist education professionals, students, and the larger school community simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. "Unplugged," a European School-Based Program for Substance Use Prevention among Adolescents: Overview of Results from the EU-Dap Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D.; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Burkhart, Gregor; Caria, Maria Paola; Vadrucci, Serena; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The EU-Dap study aimed to develop and evaluate a school-based curriculum for the prevention of substance use among young people. The school curriculum, "Unplugged," is based on social influence approach and addresses social and personal skills, knowledge, and normative beliefs. It consists of 12 one-hour interactive sessions delivered by…

  17. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  18. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? A school based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gehan; Quach, Jon; Gold, Lisa; Anderson, Peter; Rickards, Field; Mensah, Fiona; Ainley, John; Gathercole, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2011-06-20

    Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If this preventive intervention can be shown to be efficacious, then

  19. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? a school based randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. Discussion A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If

  20. Predicting the life-time benefit of school-based smoking prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Aveyard, Paul; Barton, Pelham; Meads, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    School-based smoking prevention programmes may delay the age of smoking initiation, but do not appear to achieve lasting reductions in smoking prevalence beyond school-leaving age. We explored whether delaying the age at which someone initiates smoking may have life-time benefits by increasing the likelihood of quitting in later life. Data from the General Household Survey of Great Britain were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between age at which someone initiates regular smoking and the probability that the person will quit smoking later in life. The effect of confounding variables (sex, ethnicity, socio-economic class, education and geographical location) was taken into account. The predicted relationship was used in a cohort model to estimate the life-time reduction in smoking prevalence and all-cause mortality of a school-based smoking prevention programme. Age of regular smoking initiation was associated strongly with the probability of quitting later in life (coefficient -0.103, P < 0.001). The strength of the association was slightly reduced but still significant when confounding variables were included (coefficient -0.075, P < 0.001). An intervention that delays smoking initiation without decreasing smoking prevalence at age 18 may reduce adult smoking prevalence by 0.13-0.32% (depending on age) and all-cause mortality by 0.09% over the life-time of the sample. School-based smoking prevention programmes have potential for a beneficial effect over the life-time of the participants even if they have no apparent effect at school-leaving age.

  1. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-11-08

    School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Kenya), one in Latin America

  2. School-Based Obesity-Prevention Policies and Practices and Weight-Control Behaviors among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors

  3. Adolescent neurocognitive development, self-regulation, and school-based drug use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Black, David S; Zaman, Adnin; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Sussman, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is marked by several key development-related changes, including neurocognitive changes. Cognitive abilities associated with self-regulation are not fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood whereas tendencies to take risks and seek thrilling and novel experience seem to increase significantly throughout this phase, resulting in a discrepancy between increased susceptibility to poor regulation and lower ability to exercise self-control. Increased vulnerability to drug use initiation, maintenance, and dependence during adolescence may be explained based on this imbalance in the self-regulation system. In this paper, we highlight the relevance of schools as a setting for delivering adolescent drug use prevention programs that are based on recent findings from neuroscience concerning adolescent brain development. We discuss evidence from school-based as well as laboratory research that suggests that suitable training may improve adolescents' executive brain functions that underlie self-regulation abilities and, as a result, help prevent drug use and abuse. We note that considerable further research is needed in order (1) to determine that self-regulation training has effects at the neurocognitive level and (2) to effectively incorporate self-regulation training based on neuropsychological models into school-based programming.

  4. School-based internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Robin; Chao, Ariana; Popick, Rachel; Grey, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    In response to the childhood obesity epidemic, numerous studies on school-based Internet obesity prevention interventions have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and evaluate the research on school-based Internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Medline, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched from January 1995 to August 2012 to locate relevant studies. Ninety-one reports were initially identified, with 12 meeting the inclusion criteria. Studies had variable control groups, program content, and sample characteristics. Though few authors reported on implementation processes or body mass index (BMI) outcomes, the majority of studies were effective in improving health behaviors in the short term. Most studies were judged to have a high or unclear risk of bias in at least two domains, thus the quality of evidence for this body of literature is moderate. Further research is needed to examine programs of longer duration, optimal dose and timing of programs, cost-effectiveness, and mediators and moderators of intervention outcomes.

  5. A national survey of school-based, adolescent suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A; Shaffer, D; Whittle, B

    1989-11-01

    A national survey of suicide prevention programs was conducted to determine the number, distribution and content of school-based, curriculum programs for adolescents. One hundred fifteen programs were identified. The total number of students and schools targeted for prevention efforts more than doubled during the academic years 1984/1985 to 1986/1987. Content of the programs was similar, with nearly all including information on suicide warning signs and other facts, as well as on accessing community mental health resources. Most included a separate component for school staff and parents. Ninety-five percent subscribed to the view that suicide is most commonly a response to extreme stress or pressure and could happen to anyone. Possible negative implications of this "stress model" of suicide were discussed. While this survey plays an important first step in providing a description of these programs, more evaluative research is needed to determine what effect, if any, these programs have on suicidal behavior.

  6. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Prevention of Cannabis Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogan, Charlotte; Zarabi, Natalie; Stenström, Nils; Högberg, Pi; Skärstrand, Eva; Manrique-Garcia, Edison; Neovius, Kristian; Månsdotter, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug globally. Despite increasing evidence that cannabis use is associated with adverse health effects, the knowledge on preventative strategies is still limited. This study stemmed from a systematic review of effective prevention in which school-based programmes were identified as promising. The primary objective was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of Project ALERT (Adolescent, Learning, Experiences, Resistance, and Training), compared with ordinary ATOD (Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug) education, among Swedish students in the eighth grade of compulsory school. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the societal perspective with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as an outcome (willingness-to-pay threshold €50,000) and follow-up periods from 1 year to a lifetime, considering a discounting rate of 3%, and with costs inflated to 2013 levels. A Markov model was constructed on the basis of the 'states' of single use, regular use, daily use and use of other illicit drugs, which were associated with 'complications' of psychosis, schizophrenia, traffic accidents, depression and amotivational syndrome. Health and cost consequences were linked to both states and complications. The programme was cost saving on the basis of evidence from the USA (ratio 1:1.1), and was cost effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio €22,384 per QALY) after reasonable adjustment for the Swedish context and with 20 years of follow-up. When the target group was restricted to boys who were neither studying nor working/doing work experience, the programme was cost effective after 9 years and cost saving (ratio 1:3.2) after 20 years. School-based prevention such as Project ALERT has the potential to be cost effective and to be cost saving if implemented in deprived areas. In the light of the shifting landscape regarding legalization of cannabis, it seems rational to continue the health economic analysis of prevention initiated

  8. Cost Benefit of Comprehensive Primary and Preventive School-Based Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Connor, Katherine A; Mueller, Josiah M; Hong, Jonathan C; Velazquez, Gabriela Calderon; Johnson, Sara B

    2018-01-01

    The Rales Health Center is a comprehensive school-based health center at an urban elementary/middle school. Rales Health Center provides a full range of pediatric services using an enriched staffing model consisting of pediatrician, nurse practitioner, registered nurses, and medical office assistant. This staffing model provides greater care but costs more than traditional school-based health centers staffed by part-time nurses. The objective was to analyze the cost benefit of Rales Health Center enhanced staffing model compared with a traditional school-based health center (standard care), focusing on asthma care, which is among the most prevalent chronic conditions of childhood. In 2016, cost-benefit analysis using a decision tree determined the net social benefit of Rales Health Center compared with standard care from the U.S. societal perspective based on the 2015-2016 academic year. It was assumed that Rales Health Center could handle greater patient throughput related to asthma, decreased prescription costs, reduced parental resources in terms of missed work time, and improved student attendance. Univariate and multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. The expected cost to operate Rales Health Center was $409,120, compared with standard care cost of $172,643. Total monetized incremental benefits of Rales Health Center were estimated to be $993,414. The expected net social benefit for Rales Health Center was $756,937, which demonstrated substantial societal benefit at a return of $4.20 for every dollar invested. This net social benefit estimate was robust to sensitivity analyses. Despite the greater cost associated with the Rales Health Center's enhanced staffing model, the results of this analysis highlight the cost benefit of providing comprehensive, high-quality pediatric care in schools, particularly schools with a large proportion of underserved students. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  9. Diffusion of school-based prevention programs in two urban districts: adaptations, rationales, and suggestions for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Wanis, Maggie G; Bazell, Nickie

    2010-03-01

    The diffusion of school-based preventive interventions involves the balancing of high-fidelity implementation of empirically-supported programs with flexibility to permit local stakeholders to target the specific needs of their youth. There has been little systematic research that directly seeks to integrate research- and community-driven approaches to diffusion. The present study provides a primarily qualitative investigation of the initial roll-out of two empirically-supported substance and violence prevention programs in two urban school districts that serve a high proportion of low-income, ethnic minority youth. The predominant ethnic group in most of our study schools was Asian American, followed by smaller numbers of Latinos, African Americans, and European Americans. We examined the adaptations made by experienced health teachers as they implemented the programs, the elicitation of suggested adaptations to the curricula from student and teacher stakeholders, and the evaluation of the consistency of these suggested adaptations with the core components of the programs. Data sources include extensive classroom observations of curricula delivery and interviews with students, teachers, and program developers. All health teachers made adaptations, primarily with respect to instructional format, integration of real-life experiences into the curriculum, and supplementation with additional resources; pedagogical and class management issues were cited as the rationale for these changes. Students and teachers were equally likely to propose adaptations that met with the program developers' approval with respect to program theory and implementation logistics. Tensions between teaching practice and prevention science-as well as implications for future research and practice in school-based prevention-are considered.

  10. An ecological and theoretical deconstruction of a school-based obesity prevention program in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdie, Margarita; Cargo, Margaret; Richard, Lucie; Lévesque, Lucie

    2014-08-10

    Ecological intervention programs are recommended to prevent overweight and obesity in children. The National Institute of Public Health (INSP) in Mexico implemented a successful ecological intervention program to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in school age children. This study assessed the integration of ecological principles and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs in this effective school-based obesity prevention program implemented in 15 elementary schools in Mexico City. Two coders applied the Intervention Analysis Procedure (IAP) to "map" the program's integration of ecological principles. A checklist gauged the use of SCT theory in program activities. Thirty-two distinct intervention strategies were implemented in one setting (i.e., school) to engage four different target-groups (students, parents, school representatives, government) across two domains (Nutrition and Physical Activity). Overall, 47.5% of the strategies targeted the school infrastructure and/or personnel; 37.5% of strategies targeted a key political actor, the Public Education Secretariat while fewer strategies targeted parents (12.5%) and children (3%). More strategies were implemented in the Nutrition domain (69%) than Physical Activity (31%). The most frequently used SCT construct within both intervention domains was Reciprocal Determinism (e.g., where changes to the environment influence changes in behavior and these behavioral changes influence further changes to the environment); no significant differences were observed in the use of SCT constructs across domains. Findings provide insight into a promising combination of strategies and theoretical constructs that can be used to implement a school-based obesity prevention program. Strategies emphasized school-level infrastructure/personnel change and strong political engagement and were most commonly underpinned by Reciprocal Determinism for both Nutrition and Physical Activity.

  11. Community-level moderators of a school-based childhood sexual assault prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Janecek, Kim; Freeman, Rachel; Mielock, Alyssa; Garber, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Lastprogramcomparedtoawaitlistcontrolcondition.(*) Knowledge gains from pre- to post-intervention were assessed in 5 domains: safe versus unsafe people; safe choices; problem-solving; clear disclosure; and assertiveness. Participants were 1177 students (46% White, 26% African American, 15% Hispanic, 4% Asian American, 6% Other) in grades 1 through 6 from 14 public schools in Tennessee. Multilevel models accounting for the nesting of children within schools revealed large effect sizes for the intervention versus control across all knowledge domains (d's ranged from 1.56 to 2.13). The effectiveness of the program was moderated by mean per capita income and rates of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the community. Intervention effects were stronger for youth living in lower as compared to higher income counties, and for youth attending schools in counties with lower as compared to higher abuse/neglect rates. Child characteristics (sex, race) did not moderate intervention effects. This research identified two community-level factors that predicted the effectiveness of a CSA education and prevention program designed to improve children's knowledge of personal safety skills. School-based CSA prevention programs may require modification for communities with higher rates of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescents’ Responses to a School-Based Prevention Program Promoting Healthy Eating at School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. J. Hermans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo improve the effectiveness of school-based programs that aim to promote adolescents’ healthy food choices, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. This study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents’ food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a specific school-based prevention program, i.e., the Dutch “Healthy School Canteen Program.”MethodsThis study used a mixed-methods research design. First, seven semi-structured focus groups were conducted using a selective sample of 42 Dutch adolescents (25 girls, 17 boys, aged 13–16 years. Second, an online survey among 133 adolescent respondents (72 girls, 61 boys, aged 12–19 years using snowball sampling was conducted. Content analysis was performed to make inferences about the focus group discussions, whereas statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data.ResultsFindings from the group discussions indicated that healthy eating was only an issue of importance when adolescents perceived negative physical changes (e.g., with regard to looks or physical performance. Adolescents also indicated that they clearly wanted to make their own food and beverage choices at school. The quantitative data indicated that taste, price, and variety were seen as the most important aspects of a healthy food assortment (mean scores 8.1, 7.8, and 7.7 on a 10-point scale, respectively. In general, a majority of the adolescents (64% expressed that students should be involved in the organization of a healthy food environment in schools. At the same time, however, adolescents were not willing to participate themselves. This was mostly because they were skeptical about their ideas being heard and put into action by their schools.ConclusionSchool-based prevention programs, such as the Healthy School Program, should take into account that adolescents have a low risk perception of unhealthy eating and are seeking food

  13. The Influence of Organizational Culture on School-Based Obesity Prevention Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Kayla N; Solari Williams, Kayce D; Warren, Judith; McKyer, E Lisako Jones; Ory, Marcia G

    2018-06-01

    Although the influence of organizational culture has been examined on a variety of student outcomes, few studies consider the influence that culture may have on school-based obesity prevention interventions. We present a systematic review of the literature to examine how elements of organizational culture may affect the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions. Fourteen studies examining the impact of organizational-level characteristics on school-based obesity prevention interventions were identified through the online databases EBSCO (CINAHL, ERIC, Agricola), Web of Science, Medline (PubMed), and Scopus. Five themes were identified as elements of organizational culture that influence the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions: organizational response to limited resources, value placed on staff training and professional development, internal support, organizational values, and school climate. Organizational culture can greatly influence the success of school-based obesity interventions. The collection of data related to organizational-level factors may be used to identify strategies for creating and sustaining a supportive environment for obesity prevention interventions in the school setting. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  14. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  15. Child and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: School-Based Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…

  16. The theoretical model of the school-based prevention programme Unplugged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrucci, Serena; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D; van der Kreeft, Peer; Vassara, Maro; Scatigna, Maria; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Burkhart, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Unplugged is a school-based prevention programme designed and tested in the EU-Dap trial. The programme consists of 12 units delivered by class teachers to adolescents 12-14 years old. It is a strongly interactive programme including a training of personal and social skills with a specific focus on normative beliefs. The aim of this work is to define the theoretical model of the program, the contribution of the theories to the units, and the targeted mediators. The programme integrates several theories: Social Learning, Social Norms, Health Belief, theory of Reasoned Action-Attitude, and Problem Behaviour theory. Every theory contributes to the development of the units' contents, with specific weights. Knowledge, risk perception, attitudes towards drugs, normative beliefs, critical and creative thinking, relationship skills, communication skills, assertiveness, refusal skills, ability to manage emotions and to cope with stress, empathy, problem solving and decision making skills are the targeted mediators of the program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Universality properties of school-based preventive intervention targeted at cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovský, Michal; Voňková, Hana; Gabrhelík, Roman; Šťastná, Lenka

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of school-based preventive intervention on cannabis use in Czech adolescents with different levels of risk factors and provide evidence of its universality. A randomized controlled prevention trial with six waves was conducted over a period of 33 months. We used a two-level logistic random-intercept model for panel data; we first looked at the statistical significance of the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, controlling for the characteristics of the children and time dummies. Then we analyzed the effects of the interactions between the intervention and the characteristics of the children on cannabis use and related it to the definition of universal preventive interventions. The setting for the study was in basic schools in the Czech Republic in the years 2007-2010. A total of 1,874 sixth-graders (mean age 11.82 years) who completed the baseline testing. According to our results, the prevention intervention was effective. We found all the selected characteristics of the children to be relevant in relation to cannabis use, except their relationships with their friends. We showed empirically that the intervention is universal in two dimensions for the selected characteristics of the children. First, all adolescents who undergo the intervention are expected to benefit. Second, with respect to the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, the total level of individual risk of cannabis use is superior to the composition of the risk factors in the individual risk profile. We present indicative evidence that the drug prevention intervention may be considered a true universal preventive intervention.

  18. Photoaging Mobile Apps in School-Based Melanoma Prevention: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus Josef; Brieske, Christian Martin; Schaefer, Christoph Matthias; Buslaff, Fabian; Gatzka, Martina; Petri, Maximilian Philip; Sondermann, Wiebke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Stoffels, Ingo; Klode, Joachim

    2017-09-08

    Around 90% of melanomas are caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and are therefore eminently preventable. Tanning behavior is mostly initiated in early adolescence, often with the belief that it increases attractiveness; the problems related to malignant melanoma and other skin cancers are too far in the future to fathom. Given the substantial amount of time children and adolescents spend in schools, as well as with their mobile phones, addressing melanoma prevention via both of these ways is crucial. However, no school-based intervention using mobile apps has been evaluated to date. We recently released a photoaging mobile app, in which a selfie is altered to predict future appearance dependent on UV protection behavior and skin type. In this pilot study, we aimed to use mobile phone technology to improve school-based melanoma prevention and measure its preliminary success in different subgroups of students with regard to their UV protection behavior, Fitzpatrick skin type and age. We implemented a free photoaging mobile phone app (Sunface) in 2 German secondary schools via a method called mirroring. We "mirrored" the students' altered 3-dimensional (3D) selfies reacting to touch on mobile phones or tablets via a projector in front of their whole grade. Using an anonymous questionnaire capturing sociodemographic data as well as risk factors for melanoma we then measured their perceptions of the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale among 205 students of both sexes aged 13-19 years (median 15 years). We measured more than 60% agreement in both items that measured motivation to reduce UV exposure and only 12.5% disagreement: 126 (63.0%) agreed or strongly agreed that their 3D selfie motivated them to avoid using a tanning bed, and 124 (61.7%) to increase use of sun protection. However, only 25 (12.5%) disagreed with both items. The perceived effect on motivation was increased in participants with Fitzpatrick skin types 1-2 in both tanning bed avoidance

  19. School-based education programmes for the prevention of unintentional injuries in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Jessica; Mhizha-Murira, Jacqueline; Clarkson, Mandy; Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Staniforth, Joy Ul; Bhuchar, Munish; Kendrick, Denise

    2016-12-27

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children aged four to 18 years and are a major cause of ill health. The school setting offers the opportunity to deliver preventive interventions to a large number of children and has been used to address a range of public health problems. However, the effectiveness of the school setting for the prevention of different injury mechanisms in school-aged children is not well understood. To assess the effects of school-based educational programmes for the prevention of injuries in children and evaluate their impact on improving children's safety skills, behaviour and practices, and knowledge, and assess their cost-effectiveness. We ran the most recent searches up to 16 September 2016 for the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R); Embase and Embase Classic (Ovid); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded; ISI Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science; ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index; ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Sciences & Humanities; and the 14 October 2016 for the following electronic databases: Health Economics Evaluations Database (HEED); Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA); CINAHL Plus (EBSCO); ZETOC; LILACS; PsycINFO; ERIC; Dissertation Abstracts Online; IBSS; BEI; ASSIA; CSA Sociological Abstracts; Injury Prevention Web; SafetyLit; EconLit (US); PAIS; UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio; Open Grey; Index to Theses in the UK and Ireland; Bibliomap and TRoPHI. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs), and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies that evaluated school-based educational programmes aimed at preventing a range of injury mechanisms. The

  20. Effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-03-10

    To assess effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula keeping children never-smokers. Systematic review, meta-analysis. MEDLINE (1966+), EMBASE (1974+), Cinahl, PsycINFO (1967+), ERIC (1982+), Cochrane CENTRAL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts, conference proceedings. pooled analyses, fixed-effects models, adjusted ORs. Risk of bias assessed with Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. 50 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of school-based smoking curricula. Never-smokers age 5-18 (n=143,495); follow-up ≥6 months; all countries; no date/language limitations. Information, social influences, social competence, combined social influences/competence and multimodal curricula. Remaining a never-smoker at follow-up. Pooling all curricula, trials with follow-up ≤1 year showed no statistically significant differences compared with controls (OR 0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)), though trials of combined social competence/social influences curricula had a significant effect on smoking prevention (7 trials, OR 0.59 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.85)). Pooling all trials with longest follow-up showed an overall significant effect in favour of the interventions (OR 0.88 (0.82 to 0.95)), as did the social competence (OR 0.65 (0.43 to 0.96)) and combined social competence/social influences curricula (OR 0.60 (0.43 to 0.83)). No effect for information, social influences or multimodal curricula. Principal findings were not sensitive to inclusion of booster sessions in curricula or to whether they were peer-led or adult-led. Differentiation into tobacco-only or multifocal curricula had a similar effect on the primary findings. Few trials assessed outcomes by gender: there were significant effects for females at both follow-up periods, but not for males. RCTs of baseline never-smokers at longest follow-up found an overall significant effect with average 12% reduction in starting smoking compared with controls, but no effect for all trials pooled at ≤1 year. However, combined social

  1. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron

    2015-04-16

    Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both. In September 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and 11 other databases. We also searched two trials registers and screened the reference lists of previous reviews for additional trials. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs of school-based education interventions for the prevention of child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We summarised data for six outcomes: protective behaviours; knowledge of sexual abuse or sexual abuse prevention concepts; retention of protective behaviours over time; retention of knowledge over time; harm; and disclosures of sexual abuse. This is an update of a Cochrane Review that included 15 trials (up to August 2006). We identified 10 additional trials for the period to September 2014. We excluded one trial from the original review. Therefore, this update includes a total of 24 trials (5802 participants). We conducted several meta-analyses. More than half of the trials in each meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors.1. Meta-analysis of two trials (n = 102) evaluating protective behaviours favoured intervention (odds

  2. Description of the Design and Implementation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program Addressing Needs of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…

  3. School-Based Education Programs for the Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cochrane Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programs for the prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). The programs deliver information about CSA and strategies to help children avoid it and encourage help seeking. Methods: Systematic review including meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster…

  4. Young People and Alcohol--Where's the Risk? Changing the Focus of School-Based Prevention Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Research statistics highlighting the social costs of widespread excessive alcohol consumption have led to a proliferation of school-based prevention programmes that aim to give young people the skills and knowledge necessary to resist social pressure to drink alcohol and avoid potentially "risky" consumption. Such interventions offer,…

  5. Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

  6. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process evaluations of large-scale school based programs are necessary to aid in the interpretation of the outcome data. The Louisiana Health (LA Health) study is a multi-component childhood obesity prevention study for middle school children. The Physical Education (PEQ), Intervention (IQ), and F...

  7. Effects of a School-Based Stress Prevention Programme on Adolescents in Different Phases of Behavioural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierhaus, Marc; Maass, Asja; Fridrici, Mirko; Lohaus, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) are useful to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based stress prevention programme in adolescence to promote appropriate coping behaviour. The TTM assumes three consecutive phases in the adoption of behavioural patterns. Progress throughout the phases is promoted…

  8. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Interventions Aimed to Prevent or Reduce Violence in Teen Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rue, Lisa; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of violence in dating relationships has a significant impact on young people, including decreased mental and physical health. This review is the first to provide a quantitative synthesis of empirical evaluations of school-based programs implemented in middle and high schools that sought to prevent or reduce incidents of dating…

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a school-based cannabis prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Carles; Pérez, Anna; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Diéguez, Marta; Espelt, Albert; Pasarín, M Isabel; Suelves, Josep M; De la Torre, Rafael; Nebot, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The effectiveness of a cannabis prevention program in high school students was assessed. A quasi-experimental study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention implemented in an intervention group (IG) with 39 schools compared with a control group (CG) of 47 schools not exposed to the intervention. Of 224 secondary schools in Barcelona, 86 were assessed in the 2005-2006 school year through a personal questionnaire administered at baseline and 15 months after the intervention. Participants consisted of 4848 ninth graders (14-15 year-olds), 2803 assigned to the IG and 2043 to the CG, according to the type and size of the school and the socioeconomic status of the school's neighborhood. The intervention consisted of a school-based cannabis prevention program (xkpts.com), with four sessions and 16 activities, implemented over 6-10h, with materials for parents and web-based student involvement. Last-month cannabis use was assessed at baseline and at 15 months' follow-up. Process evaluation indicators were assessed. At 15 months follow-up, 8.2% of boys and 8.3% of girls in the IG became last-month cannabis users versus 11.8% of boys and 11.6% of girls in the CG. These differences were statistically significant (p=0.003), representing a 29% reduction in last-month cannabis users in the IG compared with the CG. The incidence of last-month cannabis use was lowest in classrooms that adhered to the program protocol. The xkpts.com program was effective in preventing progression to last-month cannabis use. Effectiveness was higher in classrooms that adhered closely to the protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwi, K J; Woolfenden, S R; Wheeler, D M; O'brien, T A; Tait, P; Williams, K W

    2007-07-18

    Child sexual abuse is a significant problem that requires an effective means of prevention. To assess: if school-based programmes are effective in improving knowledge about sexual abuse and self-protective behaviours; whether participation results in an increase in disclosure of sexual abuse and/or produces any harm; knowledge retention and the effect of programme type or setting. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and other databases using MESH headings and text words specific for child sexual assault and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in August 2006. RCTs or quasi-RCTs of school-based interventions to prevent child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis, using two imputed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (0.1, 0.2), were used for four outcomes: protective behaviours, questionnaire-based knowledge, vignette-based knowledge and disclosure of abuse. Meta-analysis was not possible for retention of knowledge, likelihood of harm, or effect of programme type and setting. Fifteen trials measuring knowledge and behaviour change as a result of school-based child sexual abuse intervention programmes were included. Over half the studies in each initial meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors. For behaviour change, two studies had data suitable for meta-analysis; results favoured intervention (OR 6.76, 95% CI 1.44, 31.84) with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=56.0%) and did not change significantly when adjustments using intraclass coefficients were made. Nine studies were included in a meta-analysis evaluating questionnaire-based knowledge. An increase in knowledge was found (SMD 0.59; 0.44, 0.74, heterogeneity (I2=66.4%). When adjusted for an ICC of 0.1 and 0.2 the results were SMD 0.6 (0.45, 0.75) and 0.57 (0.44, 0.71) respectively. Heterogeneity decreased

  11. School-Based and Community-Based Gun Safety Educational Strategies for Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Cheryl; Porter, Sallie; Kamienski, Mary; Lim, Aubrianne

    2018-05-01

    Nearly 1,300 children in the United States die because of firearm-related injury each year and another 5,790 survive gunshot wounds, making the prevention of firearm-related unintentional injury to children of vital importance to families, health professionals, and policy makers. To systematically review the evidence on school-based and community-based gun safety programs for children aged 3 to 18 years. Systematic review. Twelve databases were searched from their earliest records to December 2016. Interventional and analytic studies were sought, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, as well as before-and-after studies or cohort studies with or without a control that involved an intervention. The low level of evidence, heterogeneity of studies, and lack of consistent outcome measures precluded a pooled estimate of results. A best evidence synthesis was performed. Results support the premise that programs using either knowledge-based or active learning strategies or a combination of these may be insufficient for teaching gun safety skills to children. Gun safety programs do not improve the likelihood that children will not handle firearms in an unsupervised situation. Stronger research designs with larger samples are needed to determine the most effective way to transfer the use of the gun safety skills outside the training session and enable stronger conclusions to be drawn.

  12. Gender differences and a school-based obesity prevention program in Argentina: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch Herscovici, Cecile; Kovalskys, Irina; De Gregorio, María José

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of a school-based obesity prevention program that seeks to change food intake among students at schools in Rosario, Argentina. This was a prospective study involving 405 children 9-11 years of age at six schools in the poor areas of Rosario, Argentina, in May-October 2008. After matching for socioeconomic status, schools were selected by simple randomization; participants were assessed at baseline (T1) and again 6 months later, after completion of the intervention (T2). The program focused on increasing the children's knowledge of healthy nutrition and exercise through four workshops; educating the parents/caregivers; and offering healthy options at the school snack bar. The main outcome measures were the children's intake of healthy and unhealthy foods (assessed with a weekly food frequency questionnaire) and their body mass index (BMI). Of the 387 children assessed at T1, 369 were reassessed at T2 (205 intervention; 164 control). Girls at the schools where the intervention occurred increased their intake of three of the five healthy food items promoted by the program (fruits, vegetables, low-sugar cereals). Statistical significance was reached for skim milk (P = 0.03) and for pure orange juice (P = 0.05). Boys of both the intervention and control groups failed to improve their intake of healthy foods, but those of the intervention arm significantly reduced their intake of hamburgers and hot dogs (P = 0.001). Girls were more amenable to improving their dietary intake. Overall, the program was more likely to increase consumption of healthy food than to decrease intake of unhealthy foods. Gender differences should be taken into account when designing preventive interventions.

  13. Gender differences and a school-based obesity prevention program in Argentina: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Rausch Herscovici

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a school-based obesity prevention program that seeks to change food intake among students at schools in Rosario, Argentina. METHODS: This was a prospective study involving 405 children 9-11 years of age at six schools in the poor areas of Rosario, Argentina, in May-October 2008. After matching for socioeconomic status, schools were selected by simple randomization; participants were assessed at baseline (T1 and again 6 months later, after completion of the intervention (T2. The program focused on increasing the children's knowledge of healthy nutrition and exercise through four workshops; educating the parents/caregivers; and offering healthy options at the school snack bar. The main outcome measures were the children's intake of healthy and unhealthy foods (assessed with a weekly food frequency questionnaire and their body mass index (BMI. RESULTS: Of the 387 children assessed at T1, 369 were reassessed at T2 (205 intervention; 164 control. Girls at the schools where the intervention occurred increased their intake of three of the five healthy food items promoted by the program (fruits, vegetables, low-sugar cereals. Statistical significance was reached for skim milk (P = 0.03 and for pure orange juice (P = 0.05. Boys of both the intervention and control groups failed to improve their intake of healthy foods, but those of the intervention arm significantly reduced their intake of hamburgers and hot dogs (P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Girls were more amenable to improving their dietary intake. Overall, the program was more likely to increase consumption of healthy food than to decrease intake of unhealthy foods. Gender differences should be taken into account when designing preventive interventions.

  14. THE CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL-BASED YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION: EXPERIENCES AND PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven school-based mental health care professionals and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Participants reported that they relied on a reactive strategy by responding to youths who were in crisis. They were challenged by a lack of support from faculty staff, lack of access to resources, and heavy caseloads. Findings highlight the need for a proactive and collaborative approach to suicide prevention among mental health care professionals, teachers and parents in South African schools and improved training and supervision.

  15. School-based suicide prevention programmes: the SEYLE cluster-randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Danuta; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Wall, Melanie; Eisenberg, Ruth; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Kelleher, Ian; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Guillemin, Francis; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Musa, George J; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Varnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir

    2015-04-18

    Suicidal behaviours in adolescents are a major public health problem and evidence-based prevention programmes are greatly needed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of school-based preventive interventions of suicidal behaviours. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study is a multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial. The SEYLE sample consisted of 11,110 adolescent pupils, median age 15 years (IQR 14-15), recruited from 168 schools in ten European Union countries. We randomly assigned the schools to one of three interventions or a control group. The interventions were: (1) Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training module targeting teachers and other school personnel, (2) the Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme (YAM) targeting pupils, and (3) screening by professionals (ProfScreen) with referral of at-risk pupils. Each school was randomly assigned by random number generator to participate in one intervention (or control) group only and was unaware of the interventions undertaken in the other three trial groups. The primary outcome measure was the number of suicide attempt(s) made by 3 month and 12 month follow-up. Analysis included all pupils with data available at each timepoint, excluding those who had ever attempted suicide or who had shown severe suicidal ideation during the 2 weeks before baseline. This study is registered with the German Clinical Trials Registry, number DRKS00000214. Between Nov 1, 2009, and Dec 14, 2010, 168 schools (11,110 pupils) were randomly assigned to interventions (40 schools [2692 pupils] to QPR, 45 [2721] YAM, 43 [2764] ProfScreen, and 40 [2933] control). No significant differences between intervention groups and the control group were recorded at the 3 month follow-up. At the 12 month follow-up, YAM was associated with a significant reduction of incident suicide attempts (odds ratios [OR] 0·45, 95% CI 0·24-0·85; p=0·014) and severe suicidal ideation (0·50, 0·27-0·92; p=0·025

  16. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greaves Colin J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP, a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM. The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their

  17. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity

  18. Evidence, theory and context--using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer J; Logan, Stuart; Greaves, Colin J; Wyatt, Katrina M

    2011-07-13

    Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives--establish motivation, take action and stay motivated--in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity behaviours. Although the process was time

  19. Cost-effectiveness of a school-based health promotion program in Canada: A life-course modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Ekwaru

    Full Text Available The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools has been recognized as a "best practice" in preventing childhood obesity. To inform decision making on the economic implications of APPLE Schools and to justify investment, we evaluated the project's cost-effectiveness following a life-course approach.We developed a state transition model for the lifetime progression of body weight status comparing elementary school students attending APPLE Schools and control schools. This model quantified the lifetime impact of APPLE Schools in terms of prevention of excess body weight, chronic disease and improved quality-adjusted life years (QALY, from a school system's cost perspective. Both costs and health outcomes were discounted to their present value using 3% discount rate.The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER of APPLE schools was CA$33,421 per QALY gained, and CA$1,555, CA$1,709 and CA$14,218 per prevented person years of excess weight, obesity and chronic disease, respectively. These estimates show that APPLE Schools is cost effective at a threshold of ICER < CA$50,000. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, APPLE Schools was cost effective more than 64% of the time per QALY gained, when using a threshold of ICERSchool-based health promotion, such as APPLE Schools is a cost-effective intervention for obesity prevention and reduction of chronic disease risk over the lifetime. Expanding the coverage and allocating resources towards school-based programs like the APPLE Schools program, is likely to reduce the public health burden of obesity and chronic diseases.

  20. Effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness program for transdiagnostic prevention in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Burke, Christine; Brinkman, Sally; Wade, Tracey

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety, depression and eating disorders show peak emergence during adolescence and share common risk factors. School-based prevention programs provide a unique opportunity to access a broad spectrum of the population during a key developmental window, but to date, no program targets all three conditions concurrently. Mindfulness has shown promising early results across each of these psychopathologies in a small number of controlled trials in schools, and therefore this study investigated its use in a randomised controlled design targeting anxiety, depression and eating disorder risk factors together for the first time. Students (M age 13.63; SD = .43) from a broad band of socioeconomic demographics received the eight lesson, once weekly.b ("Dot be") mindfulness in schools curriculum (N = 132) or normal lessons (N = 176). Anxiety, depression, weight/shape concerns and wellbeing were the primary outcome factors. Although acceptability measures were high, no significant improvements were found on any outcome at post-intervention or 3-month follow-up. Adjusted mean differences between groups at post-intervention were .03 (95% CI: -.06 to -.11) for depression, .01 (-.07 to -.09) for anxiety, .02 (-.05 to -.08) for weight/shape concerns, and .06 (-.08 to -.21) for wellbeing. Anxiety was higher in the mindfulness than the control group at follow-up for males, and those of both genders with low baseline levels of weight/shape concerns or depression. Factors that may be important to address for effective dissemination of mindfulness-based interventions in schools are discussed. Further research is required to identify active ingredients and optimal dose in mindfulness-based interventions in school settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Why did soft drink consumption decrease but screen time not? Mediating mechanisms in a school-based obesity prevention program

    OpenAIRE

    Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Singh, A.S.; Brug, J.; Mechelen, van, W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This paper aims to identify the mediating mechanisms of a school-based obesity prevention program (DOiT). Methods The DOiT-program was implemented in Dutch prevocational secondary schools and evaluated using a controlled, cluster-randomised trial (September 2003 to May 2004). We examined mediators of effects regarding (1) consumption of sugar containing beverages (SCB); (2) consumption of high caloric snacks; (3) screen-viewing behaviour; and (4) active commuting to school...

  2. Impact of a School-Based Pediatric Obesity Prevention Program Facilitated by Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; El-Mubasher, Abeer; Gallagher, Martina; Tyler, Chermaine; Woehler, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated a school-based obesity intervention for elementary school children (N = 835) where health professionals assisted teachers with the integration of healthy messages into the school curriculum. Methods: Schools were randomized into a professional-facilitated intervention (PFI; N = 4) or a self-help (SH; N = 3)…

  3. Impact of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program faciliated by health professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated a school-based obesity intervention for elementary school children (N=835) where health professionals assisted teachers with the integration of healthy messages into the school curriculum. Schools were randomized into a professional-facilitated intervention (PFI; N=4) or a self-...

  4. Evaluation of a School-Based Teen Obesity Prevention Minimal Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A school-based nutrition education minimal intervention (MI) was evaluated. Design: The design was experimental, with random assignment at the school level. Setting: Seven schools were randomly assigned as experimental, and 7 as delayed-treatment. Participants: The experimental group included 551 teens, and the delayed treatment group…

  5. Impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on violent delinquency: distinctive benefits for youth with maltreatment histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A

    2011-06-01

    Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency due to child maltreatment history. In this study we conducted a follow-up to determine if participation in a school-based violence prevention program in grade 9 continued to provide a buffering effect on engaging in acts of violent delinquency for maltreated youth, 2 years post-intervention. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive school-based violence prevention program. Students (N=1,722; 52.8% female) from 20 schools participated in 21 75-min lessons in grade 9 health classes. Individual data (i.e., gender, child maltreatment experiences, and violent delinquency in grade 9) and school-level data (i.e., student perception of safety averaged across students in each school) were entered in a multilevel model to predict violent delinquency at the end of grade 11. Individual- and school-level factors predicting violent delinquency in grade 11 replicated previous findings from grade 9: being male, experiencing child maltreatment, being violent in grade 9, and attending a school with a lower perceived sense of safety among the entire student body increased violent delinquency. The cross-level interaction of individual maltreatment history and school-level intervention was also replicated: in non-intervention schools, youth with more maltreatment in their background were increasingly likely to engage in violent delinquency. The strength of this relationship was significantly attenuated in intervention schools. Follow-up findings are consistent with the buffering effect of the prevention program previously found post-intervention for the subsample of youth with maltreatment

  6. Cost-effectiveness of a school-based health promotion program in Canada: A life-course modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwaru, John Paul; Ohinmaa, Arto; Tran, Bach Xuan; Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools) has been recognized as a "best practice" in preventing childhood obesity. To inform decision making on the economic implications of APPLE Schools and to justify investment, we evaluated the project's cost-effectiveness following a life-course approach. We developed a state transition model for the lifetime progression of body weight status comparing elementary school students attending APPLE Schools and control schools. This model quantified the lifetime impact of APPLE Schools in terms of prevention of excess body weight, chronic disease and improved quality-adjusted life years (QALY), from a school system's cost perspective. Both costs and health outcomes were discounted to their present value using 3% discount rate. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER) of APPLE schools was CA$33,421 per QALY gained, and CA$1,555, CA$1,709 and CA$14,218 per prevented person years of excess weight, obesity and chronic disease, respectively. These estimates show that APPLE Schools is cost effective at a threshold of ICER Schools was cost effective more than 64% of the time per QALY gained, when using a threshold of ICERSchool-based health promotion, such as APPLE Schools is a cost-effective intervention for obesity prevention and reduction of chronic disease risk over the lifetime. Expanding the coverage and allocating resources towards school-based programs like the APPLE Schools program, is likely to reduce the public health burden of obesity and chronic diseases.

  7. Promoting physical activity among children and adolescents: the strengths and limitations of school-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Michael; Okely, Anthony

    2005-04-01

    Paediatric overweight and obesity is recognised as one of Australia's most significant health problems and effective approaches to increasing physical activity and reducing energy consumption are being sought urgently. Every potential approach and setting should be subjected to critical review in an attempt to maximise the impact of policy and program initiatives. This paper identifies the strengths and limitations of schools as a setting for promoting physical activity. The strengths are: most children and adolescents attend school; most young people are likely to see teachers as credible sources of information; schools provide access to the facilities, infrastructure and support required for physical activity; and schools are the workplace of skilled educators. Potential limitations are: those students who like school the least are the most likely to engage in health-compromising behaviours and the least likely to be influenced by school-based programs; there are about 20 more hours per week available for physical activity outside schools hours than during school hours; enormous demands are already being made on schools; many primary school teachers have low levels of perceived competence in teaching physical education and fundamental movement skills; and opportunities for being active at school may not be consistent with how and when students prefer to be active.

  8. Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the PATHS curriculum. Promoting Alternative THinking Skills Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Chi-Ming; Greenberg, Mark T; Walls, Carla T

    2003-03-01

    In order for empirically validated school-based prevention programs to "go to scale," it is important to understand the processes underlying program dissemination. Data collected in effectiveness trials, especially those measuring the quality of program implementation and administrative support, are valuable in explicating important factors influencing implementation. This study describes findings regarding quality of implementation in a recent effectiveness trial conducted in a high-risk, American urban community. This delinquency prevention trial is a locally owned intervention, which used the Promoting Alternative THinking Skills Curriculum as its major program component. The intervention involved 350 first graders in 6 inner-city public schools. Three schools implemented the intervention and the other 3 were comparison schools from the same school district. Although intervention effects were not found for all the intervention schools, the intervention was effective in improving children's emotional competence and reducing their aggression in schools which effectively supported the intervention. This study, utilizing data from the 3 intervention schools (13 classrooms and 164 students), suggested that 2 factors contributed to the success of the intervention: (a) adequate support from school principals and (b) high degree of classroom implementation by teachers. These findings are discussed in light of the theory-driven models in program evaluation that emphasized the importance of the multiple factors influencing the implementation of school-based interventions.

  9. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a rural school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert L; Thomson, Jessica L; Rau, Kristi K; Ragusa, Shelly A; Sample, Alicia D; Singleton, Nakisha N; Anton, Stephen D; Webber, Larry S; Williamson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of intervention components of the Louisiana Health study, which was a multicomponent childhood obesity prevention program conducted in rural schools. Content analysis. Process evaluation assessed implementation in classrooms, gym classes, and cafeterias. Classroom teachers (n  =  232), physical education teachers (n  =  53), food service managers (n  =  33), and trained observers (n  =  9). Five process evaluation measures were created: Physical Education Questionnaire (PEQ), Intervention Questionnaire (IQ), Food Service Manager Questionnaire (FSMQ), Classroom Observation (CO), and School Nutrition Environment Observation (SNEO). Interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on all measures. Analysis of variance and χ(2) were used to compare differences across study groups on questionnaires and observations. The PEQ and one subscale from the FSMQ were eliminated because their reliability coefficients fell below acceptable standards. The subscale internal consistencies for the IQ, FSMQ, CO, and SNEO (all Cronbach α > .60) were acceptable. After the initial 4 months of intervention, there was evidence that the Louisiana Health intervention was being implemented as it was designed. In summary, four process evaluation measures were found to be sufficiently reliable and valid for assessing the delivery of various aspects of a school-based obesity prevention program. These process measures could be modified to evaluate the delivery of other similar school-based interventions.

  10. Evaluation of a school-based violence prevention media literacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingar, Kathryn R; Jolls, Tessa

    2014-06-01

    Evaluate whether Beyond Blame, a violence prevention media literacy curriculum, is associated with improved knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to media use and aggression. Using a quasi-experimental design, from 2007 to 2008, teachers from schools across Southern California administered the curriculum with or without training or served as controls. Students were tested before and after the curriculum was implemented, and during the fall semester of the next academic year. Multivariate hierarchical regression was used to compare changes from baseline to follow-up between the intervention and control groups. Compared with controls, at the first post-test, students in the trained and untrained groups reported increased knowledge of five core concepts/key questions of media literacy, increased self-rated exposure to media violence, as well as stronger beliefs that media violence affects viewers and that people can protect themselves by watching less. Regarding behaviours, controls were more likely to report ≥8 h of media consumption at the second post-test than at baseline (OR=2.11; 95% CI 1.13 to 3.97), pushing or shoving another student (OR=2.16; 95% CI 1.16 to 4.02) and threatening to hit or hurt someone (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.13 to 4.78). In comparison, there was no increase in these behaviours in the trained and untrained groups. This study suggests media literacy can be feasibly integrated into schools as an approach to improving critical analysis of media, media consumption and aggression. Changing the way youth engage media may impact many aspects of health, and an important next step will be to apply this framework to other topics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Evidence-based development of school-based and family-involved prevention of overweight across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brug, Johannes; Velde, Saskia J. te; Chinapaw, Mai J.M.

    2010-01-01

    balance among school-aged children. Earlier studies have indicated that school and family environments are key determinants of energy-balance behaviors in schoolchildren. Schools are an important setting for health promotion in this age group, but school-based interventions mostly fail to target...... intervention development targeting the most relevant energy balance-related behaviors and their personal, family-environmental and school-environmental determinants applying the Intervention Mapping protocol. The intervention scheme will undergo formative and pilot evaluation in five countries. The results......Background: There is an urgent need for more carefully developed public health measures in order to curb the obesity epidemic among youth. The overall aim of the "EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth" (ENERGY)-project is the development and formative...

  12. Case Study of a School-Based Universal Dating Violence Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cascardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of universal dating violence prevention programs has rapidly expanded in the past two decades. Many programs demonstrate change in attitudes supportive of dating violence, and a few show evidence of behavior change; however, detailed analysis of process and fidelity of program implementation is generally neglected. An important goal of prevention research is to identify successful initiatives that can be replicated and disseminated in the field. The purpose of the current case study is to document the implementation process of a middle school–based dating violence prevention curriculum in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Particular attention is given to the school context, such as the process of school and teacher recruitment, the program model, and classroom implementation of the dating violence prevention program in four areas: teacher training, student outcomes, program fidelity, and student engagement. Nine health and physical education teachers from six urban middle schools participated. Results describe effective strategies to secure school participation and engagement, and provide evidence regarding methods to train health and physical education teachers in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Furthermore, classroom observations demonstrate that teachers successfully implemented the five-lesson curriculum, which resulted in positive student outcomes to prevent dating violence. This case study represents an important step in deepening our understanding of the mechanisms of program delivery.

  13. Effectiveness of a universal school-based programme for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Chan, Kim Y K; Chan, Wincy S C; Liu, Patricia M Y; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-12-15

    Evidence of the effectiveness, rather than efficacy, of universal school-based programmes for preventing depression among adolescents is limited. This study examined the effectiveness of a universal depression prevention programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed" (LPD), which adopted the cognitive-behavioural model and aimed to reduce depressive symptoms and enhance protective factors of depression among secondary school students in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for this pilot study. Thirteen classes were assigned to the intervention or control conditions according to the deliberation of the programme administrator of the four participating schools. Implementation was carried out in two phases, with a professional-led first phase and teacher-led programme second phase. LPD consisted of a 12-week school-based face-to-face programme with psycho-educational lessons and homework assignments. Students completed the programme generally showed positive development in help-seeking attitudes and self-esteem. For students who had more depressive symptoms at pre-assessment, the programme was found to be significant in enhancing cognitive-restructuring skills and support-seeking behaviours. The programme was not, however, found to be statistically significant in reducing depressive symptoms of the participants over the study period. A small sample size, a high attrition rate, and a short follow-up time frame. The LPD programme was successful in building resilience of the students in general and enhancing the cognitive-behavioural skills of students with depressive symptoms. While we did not find sufficient evidence for concluding that the LPD was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, we believe that these results highlight the challenges of implementing evidence-based practices generated from highly controlled environments in real-life settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Empirically Tested School-Based Dating Violence Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Edwards

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Teen dating violence prevention programs implemented in schools and empirically tested were subjected to meta-analysis. Eight studies met criteria for inclusion, consisting of both within and between designs. Overall, the weighted mean effect size (ES across studies was significant, ESr = .11; 95% confidence interval (CI = [.08, .15], p < .0001, showing an overall positive effect of the studied prevention programs. However, 25% of the studies showed an effect in the negative direction, meaning students appeared to be more supportive of dating violence after participating in a dating violence prevention program. This heightens the need for thorough program evaluation as well as the need for decision makers to have access to data about the effectiveness of programs they are considering implementing. Further implications of the results and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  15. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Adolescents in South Korea: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunok

    2006-01-01

    The number of research papers evaluating programs designed to prevent adolescent smoking have increased in the last 13 years in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these programs, to review the features of the studies and to systemically assess the results on the knowledge about, and attitude to, smoking and smoking behavior. Database…

  16. Impact of School-Based HIV Prevention Program in Post-Conflict Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Katharine A.; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Shamblen, Steve; Tegli, Jemee; Garber, Salome; Fahnbulleh, Pearl W.; Korvah, Prince M.; Kolubah, Moses; Mulbah-Kamara, Comfort; Fulton, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a feasibility study to adapt and evaluate the impact of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention on sexual risk behaviors of in-school 6th grade youth in post-conflict Liberia (n = 812). The study used an attention-matched, group randomized controlled trial. Four matched pairs of elementary/middle schools in…

  17. A School-Based Violence Prevention Model for At-Risk Eighth Grade Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Stephen A.; Kaiser-Ulrey, Cheryl; Potts, Isabelle; Creason, Alia Haque

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of a school and community-based violence prevention program for at-risk eighth-grade students. School officials matched intervention students with community-based mentors in an employment setting. Findings suggest that mentored students had significant reductions in total number and days of suspensions, days of sanction,…

  18. Promoting Mental Health Literacy among Educators: Critical in School-Based Prevention and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…

  19. Comparing School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programming: Mixed Outcomes in an At-Risk State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…

  20. School-Based Drug Prevention among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…

  1. Building a Foundation against Violence: Impact of a School-Based Prevention Program on Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bruce W.; Bacon, Tina P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Too Good for Violence Prevention Program (TGFV), a multifaceted interactive intervention. Grounded in Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the TGFV curricula focus on developing personal and interpersonal skills to solve conflict non-violently and resist social influences that lead to violence.…

  2. School-based depression and anxiety prevention programs for young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Perry, Yael; Calear, Alison L; Newby, Jill M; Christensen, Helen

    2017-02-01

    Depression and anxiety often emerge for the first time during youth. The school environment provides an ideal context to deliver prevention programs, with potential to offset the trajectory towards disorder. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of randomised-controlled trials of psychological programs, designed to prevent depression and/or anxiety in children and adolescents delivered in school settings. Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for articles published until February 2015. Eighty-one unique studies comprising 31,794 school students met inclusion criteria. Small effect sizes for both depression (g=0.23) and anxiety (g=0.20) prevention programs immediately post-intervention were detected. Small effects were evident after 12-month follow-up for both depression (g=0.11) and anxiety (g=0.13). Overall, the quality of the included studies was poor, and heterogeneity was moderate. Subgroup analyses suggested that universal depression prevention programs had smaller effect sizes at post-test relative to targeted programs. For anxiety, effect sizes were comparable for universal and targeted programs. There was some evidence that externally-delivered interventions were superior to those delivered by school staff for depression, but not anxiety. Meta-regression confirmed that targeted programs predicted larger effect sizes for the prevention of depression. These results suggest that the refinement of school-based prevention programs have the potential to reduce mental health burden and advance public health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the Impact of a School-Based Group Approach with Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, T. Michael; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a school-based group intervention, "The Council for Boys and Young Men," specifically designed for adolescent males. The participants who attended an alternative school in a metropolitan area were randomly assigned to the intervention or to waitlist control groups. Measures assessed self-esteem, future…

  4. Effects on alcohol use of a Swedish school-based prevention program for early adolescents: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beckman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to address the lack of evaluations of school-based substance use prevention programs and to conduct a quasi-experimental evaluation of the alcohol use part of the Triad intervention. Methods Eleven Swedish intervention schools (285 pupils and three control schools (159 pupils participated in the evaluation. Baseline measurements were conducted in 2011 before the alcohol part in the prevention program was implemented in the intervention schools (school year 6, ages 12–13. We estimated an Intention-To-Treat (ITT Difference-in-Difference (DD model to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention on subsequent alcohol use measured in grades 7, 8 and 9. Results The main results show no effect on the likelihood of drinking alcohol or drinking to intoxication. Conclusions The lack of positive effects highlights the need for policy-makers and public health officials need to carefully consider and evaluate prevention programs in order to ensure that they are worthwhile from school, health, and societal perspectives.

  5. School-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention in Chilean Children: Effective in Controlling, but not Reducing Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Kain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N=1474. Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children’s nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA. Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant. % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2 while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7% in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24 and increased (1.22–1.35 in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P=0.024. Interaction group * time was significant for boys (P<0.0001 and girls (P=0.004. Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.

  6. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday Katherine E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i the malaria intervention alone; (ii the literacy intervention alone; (iii both interventions combined; or (iv control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of

  7. Preventing domestic abuse for children and young people: A review of school-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Downe, Soo

    2015-12-01

    Schools provide the setting in which interventions aimed at preventing intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) are delivered to young people in the general population and a range of programmes have been designed and evaluated. To date, most rigorous studies have been undertaken in North America and the extent to which programmes are transferable to other settings and cultures is uncertain. This paper reports on a mixed methods review, aimed at informing UK practise and policy, which included a systematic review of the international literature, a review of the UK grey literature and consultation with young people as well as experts to address the question of what works for whom in what circumstances. The context in which an intervention was delivered was found to be crucial. Context included: the wider policy setting; the national or regional level, where the local culture shaped understandings of IPVA, and the readiness of an individual school. The programmes included in the systematic review provided stronger evidence for changing knowledge and attitudes than for behavioural change and those young people who were at higher risk at baseline may have exerted a strong influence on study outcomes. Shifting social norms in the peer group emerged as a key mechanism of change and the young people consulted emphasised the importance of authenticity which could be achieved through the use of drama and which required those delivering programmes to have relevant expertise. While the consultation identified increasing interest in targeting interventions on boys, there was an identified lack of materials designed for minority groups of young people, especially Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender young people. Increased responsivity to the local context can be achieved by involving those who will deliver and receive these preventive programmes in their development. Schools need to be better prepared and supported in the task of delivering these interventions and this is

  8. Mediators and Moderators of a School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Mylien T; Kelly, Brynn M; Haaland, Wren L; Matsumiya, Brandon; Huey, Stanley J; McCarty, Carolyn A

    2016-10-01

    This study tested potential moderators and mediators of an indicated depression prevention program for middle school students, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA). Participants were 120 students randomly assigned to PTA, or a brief, individually administered supportive intervention (Individual Support Program, or ISP). Youths completed measures of depressive symptoms at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-month follow-up. Hierarchical regression was used to test three moderators-ethnic minority status, gender, and baseline depressive symptoms-and three mediators representing functional outcomes targeted by PTA-parent-child communication, attitude towards school, and health behavior. Ethnic minority status did not moderate PTA effects at post-intervention but did moderate PTA effects at 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, PTA appeared to be more effective for White participants than ethnic minority youth. Follow-up analyses suggested this moderation effect was due to the tendency of ethnic minority youth, especially those with fewer symptoms at baseline, to drop out by 12 months. Neither gender nor baseline depressive symptoms moderated the effects of PTA. Although PTA improved health behavior and attitudes toward school, there was no evidence that any of these functional outcomes measured mediated the impact of PTA on depressive symptoms. Future directions are discussed.

  9. A randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program 'Op Volle Kracht' in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Y.R.; Zundert, R.M.P. van; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Vlokhoven, B.S. van; Rensink, H.F.W.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of depressive symptoms increases during adolescence, from 10.0% to 24.5% at age 11 to 15, respectively. Experiencing elevated levels of depressive symptoms increases the risk of a depressive disorder in adulthood. A universal school-based depression prevention program Op

  10. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; van Mechelen, W.; Brug, J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials.

  11. Exploring facilitating factors and barriers to the nationwide dissemination of a Dutch school-based obesity prevention program "DOiT": a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; van Mechelen, W.; Paulussen, T.G.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The evidence-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is a school-based obesity prevention program for 12 to 14-year olds attending the first two years of prevocational education. This paper describes the study protocol applied to evaluate (a) the nationwide

  12. Public Commitment, Resistance to Advertising, and Leisure Promotion in a School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: A Component Dismantling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W.; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Espada, Mireia; Orgilés José P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the…

  13. Relationships between the Family Environment and School-Based Obesity Prevention Efforts: Can School Programs Help Adolescents Who Are Most in Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in…

  14. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chin A. Paw, Mai J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials. Methods: We revisited the Intervention Mapping (IM)…

  15. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Middle School Students in Nowshahr- Iran: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khazaee-Pool

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking among youths is a main public health concern, and detecting predictors of smoking is essential for designing preventive programs. Any interventional program should plan with highlighting on behavioral change models and based on operative interventional program. So, this study aimed to investigate school-based smoking prevention programs for middle school students in Nowshahr, Iran.Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed with 280 male students aged 15-17 years selected by multistage sampling. For this purpose, 6 middle schools were randomly recruited from male students in Nowshahr- Iran. Then, 140 students were randomly chosen for each the experimental and the control groups. After pretest, educational program based on Health Belief Model were performed in experimental group. Also, post-test was applied four months after interventional program in both experimental and control group.Results: Based on the results, the prevalence of smoking was higher at age 14 old in both experimental (38.7% and control (30 % groups. About 35% of participants in the experimental group and 33.6% in control group had smoker father. Additionally, 10% in experimental group and 7.8% in control group had smoker mother. Most main cause for smoking in 57.9% of the experimental group and 52.63% of the control group was reducing anxiety. Results also shown that there was a significant difference between students in the experimental and control groups after performing educational program in the mean scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, and preventive behaviors of smoking (P < 0.05.Conclusion: By performing educational program, it was found that the prevalence of cigarette smoking was decreased in the intervention group. So, with a better understanding of factors affecting on this complex behavior (cigarette smoking, it can be a valuable phase to

  16. School-based approaches to reducing the duration of untreated psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Jason; Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Hong, L Elliot; Reeves, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Students with emerging psychosis often experience delays in diagnosis and treatment that impact mental health and academic outcomes. School systems have tremendous potential to improve early identification and treatment of adolescent psychosis. As a community-based resource, schools can support outreach, education, and screening for adolescents with psychosis and engage identified students and their families for treatment. The concept of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP; the gap between symptom onset and treatment initiation) in adolescent psychosis and the potential role of schools in reducing DUP are reviewed. Future directions for clinical care and research needed to support school-based interventions are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Life course impact of school-based promotion of healthy eating and active living to prevent childhood obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools is a comprehensive school health program that is proven feasible and effective in preventing obesity among school aged children. To support decision making on expanding this program, evidence on its long-term health and economic impacts is particularly critical. In the present study we estimate the life course impact of the APPLE Schools programs in terms of future body weights and avoided health care costs.We modeled growth rates of body mass index (BMI using longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey collected between 1996-2008. These growth rate characteristics were used to project BMI trajectories for students that attended APPLE Schools and for students who attended control schools (141 randomly selected schools in the Canadian province of Alberta.Throughout the life course, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity was 1.2% to 2.8% (1.7 on average less among students attending APPLE Schools relative to their peers attending control schools. The life course prevalence of obesity was 0.4% to 1.4% (0.8% on average less among APPLE Schools students. If the APPLE Schools program were to be scaled up, the potential cost savings would be $33 to 82 million per year for the province of Alberta, or $150 to 330 million per year for Canada.These projected health and economic benefits seem to support broader implementation of school-based health promotion programs.

  18. Protocol for systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in African learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Theodosia; Puoane, Thandi; De Villiers, Anniza; Kengne, André Pascal

    2017-03-27

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in childhood in developing countries is a public health concern to many governments. Schools play a significant role in the obesity epidemic as well as provide favourable environments for change in behaviours in childhood which can be carried on into adulthood. There is dearth of information on intervention studies in poor-resource settings. This review will summarise the available evidence on school-based interventions that focused on promoting healthy eating and physical activity among learners aged 6-15 years in Africa and to identify factors that lead to successful interventions or potential barriers to success of these programmes within the African context. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRIMSA-P 2015. Relevant search terms and keywords generated from the subject headings and the African search filter will be used to conduct a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed), MEDLINE (EbscoHost), CINAHL (EbscoHost), Register Academic Search Complete (EbscoHost) and ISI Web of Science (Science Citation Index) for published literature on school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in learners in Africa. Grey literature will be also be obtained. The searches will cover 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2016. No language limitations will be applied. Full-text articles of eligible studies will be screened. Risk of bias and quality of reporting will be assessed. Data will be extracted, synthesised and presented by country and major regional groupings. Meta-analysis will be conducted for identical variables across studies, where data allow. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRISMA-P 2015. No primary data will be collected hence ethics is not a requirement. The findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, in conferences and in policy documents for decision-making, where needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  19. Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Sara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02. The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who

  20. School-based programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity: evidence-based interventions for youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K; Nagle, Brian J; Arredondo, Elva M; Barquera, Simón; Elder, John P

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be gathered from such interventions. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1965 and December 2010. Interventions were considered eligible if they had a school-based component, were done in Latin America, evaluated an obesity related outcome (body mass index [BMI], weight, %body fat, waist circumference, BMI z-score), and compared youth exposed vs not exposed. Ten studies were identified as having a school-based component. Most interventions had a sample of normal and overweight children. The most successful interventions focused on prevention rather than treatment, had longer follow-ups, a multidisciplinary team, and fewer limitations in execution. Three prevention and 2 treatment interventions found sufficient improvements in obesity-related outcomes. We found sufficient evidence to recommend school-based interventions to prevent obesity among youth in Latin America. Evidence-based interventions in the school setting should be promoted as an important component for integrated programs, policies, and monitoring frameworks designed to reverse the childhood obesity in the region. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3

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    Haller Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large

  2. School-based prevention program associated with increased short- and long-term retention of safety knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klas, Karla S; Vlahos, Peter G; McCully, Michael J; Piche, David R; Wang, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    Validation of program effectiveness is essential in justifying school-based injury prevention education. Although Risk Watch (RW) targets burn, fire, and life safety, its effectiveness has not been previously evaluated in the medical literature. Between 2007 and 2012, a trained fire service public educator (FSPE) taught RW to all second grade students in one public school district. The curriculum was delivered in 30-minute segments for 9 consecutive weeks via presentations, a safety smoke house trailer, a model-sized hazard house, a student workbook, and parent letters. A written pre-test (PT) was given before RW started, a post-test (PT#1) was given immediately after RW, and a second post-test (PT#2) was administered to the same students the following school year (ranging from 12 to 13 months after PT). Students who did not complete the PT or at least one post-test were excluded. Comparisons were made by paired t-test, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. After 183 (8.7%) were excluded for missing tests, 1,926 remaining students scored significantly higher (P = .0001) on PT#1 (mean 14.8) and PT#2 (mean 14.7) than the PT (mean 12.1). There was 1 FSPE and 36 school teachers with class size ranging from 10 to 27 (mean 21.4). Class size was not predictive of test score improvement (R = 0%), while analysis of variance showed that individual teachers trended toward some influence. This 6-year prospective study demonstrated that the RW program delivered by an FSPE effectively increased short-term knowledge and long-term retention of fire/life safety in early elementary students. Collaborative partnerships are critical to preserving community injury prevention education programs.

  3. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE

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    Sayal Kapil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16. The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28 which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023 had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628

  4. Challenges to obtaining parental permission for child participation in a school-based waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention intervention in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, Rima T; Al Mulla, Ahmad; Torossian, Lena; Karhily, Roubina; Shuayb, Lama; Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Janahi, Ibrahim; Al Ansari, Al Anoud; Afifi, Rema A

    2014-09-30

    Involving children in research studies requires obtaining parental permission. A school-based intervention to delay/prevent waterpipe use for 7th and 8th graders in Qatar was developed, and parental permission requested. Fifty three percent (2308/4314) of the parents returned permission forms; of those 19.5% of the total (840/4314) granted permission. This paper describes the challenges to obtaining parental permission. No research to date has described such challenges in the Arab world. A random sample of 40 schools in Doha, Qatar was selected for inclusion in the original intervention. Permission forms were distributed to parents for approval of their child's participation. The permission forms requested that parents indicate their reasons for non-permission if they declined. These were categorized into themes. In order to understand reasons for non-permission, interviews with parents were conducted. Phone numbers of parents were requested from the school administration; 12 of the 40 schools (30%) agreed to provide the contact information. A random sample of 28 parents from 12 schools was interviewed to reach data saturation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze their responses. Reasons for non-permission documented in both the forms and interviews included: poor timing; lack of interest; the child not wanting to participate; and the child living in a smoke-free environment. Interviews provided information on important topics to include in the consent forms, parents' decision-making processes regarding their child's participation, and considerations for communicating with parents. Many parents also indicated that this was the first time they had been asked to give an informed consent for their child's participation in a study. Results indicate that more attention needs to be given to the informed parental consent process. Researchers should consider enhancing both the methods of communicating information as well the specific information provided. Before

  5. Effectiveness of School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in the USA: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marseille, Elliot; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Biggs, M Antonia; P Miller, Amanda; Horvath, Hacsi; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Malekinejad, Mohsen; Kahn, James G

    2018-05-01

    School-based programs have been a mainstay of youth pregnancy prevention efforts in the USA. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess their effectiveness. Eligible studies evaluated the effect on pregnancy rates of programs delivered in elementary, middle, or high schools in the USA and Canada, published between January 1985 and September 2016. The primary outcome was pregnancy; secondary outcomes were delay in sexual initiation, condom use, and oral contraception use. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs with comparator groups were eligible. We developed a comprehensive search strategy, applied to major bibliographic databases, article bibliographies, gray literature, and contact with authors. We calculated risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each outcome and pooled data in random effects meta-analysis. We used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to assess evidence quality. Ten RCTs and 11 non-RCTs conducted from 1984 to 2016 yielded 30 unique pooled comparisons for pregnancy, of which 24 were not statistically significant. Six showed statistically significant changes in pregnancy rates: two with increased risk (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.65; and RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.75) and four with decreased risk ranging from RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.77, to RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.96. All studies were at high risk of bias, and the quality of evidence was low or very low. Identified evidence indicated no consistent difference in rates of pregnancies between intervention recipients and controls.

  6. Why did soft drink consumption decrease but screen time not? Mediating mechanisms in a school-based obesity prevention program

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    Brug Johannes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This paper aims to identify the mediating mechanisms of a school-based obesity prevention program (DOiT. Methods The DOiT-program was implemented in Dutch prevocational secondary schools and evaluated using a controlled, cluster-randomised trial (September 2003 to May 2004. We examined mediators of effects regarding (1 consumption of sugar containing beverages (SCB; (2 consumption of high caloric snacks; (3 screen-viewing behaviour; and (4 active commuting to school. To improve these behaviours the DOiT-program tried to influence the following potentially mediating variables: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and habit-strength. Results Both in boys (n = 418 and girls (n = 436 the DOiT-intervention reduced SCB consumption (between group difference in boys = -303.5 ml/day, 95% CI: -502.4;-104.5, between group difference in girls = -222.3 ml/day, 95% CI: -371.3;-73.2. The intervention did not affect the other examined behaviours. In girls, no intervention effect on hypothetical mediators was found nor evidence of any mediating mechanisms. Boys in intervention schools improved their attitude towards decreasing SCB consumption, while this behaviour became less of a habit. Indeed, attitude and habit strength were significant mediators of the DOiT-intervention's effect (4.5 and 3.8%, respectively on SCB consumption among boys. Conclusion Our findings imply that interventions aimed at EBRB-change should be gender-specific. Future studies aimed at reducing SCB consumption among boys should target attitude and habit strength as mediating mechanisms. Our study did not resolve the mediating mechanisms in girls. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN87127361

  7. School-based obesity-prevention interventions in low- and middle-income countries: Do they really work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is the most common nutrition-related health problem around the world, especially among children. Hundreds of studies have been conducted to test approaches to prevent obesity, and many were in children in schools. Most of these studies were conducted in higher-income countries. An article in...

  8. School Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Aid Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…

  9. A pilot study of a school-based prevention and early intervention program to reduce oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Jo; Carlsson, Anthony; Vance, Alasdair

    2014-05-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) occurs when children's disruptive and antisocial behaviours start to interfere with their academic, emotional and/or social development. Recently, there has been a considerable investment to implement national school-based early intervention programs to help prevent the onset of ODD/CD. This paper describes the delivery of the Royal Children's Hospital, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service and Schools Early Action Program: a whole school, multi-level, multidisciplinary approach to address emerging ODD/CD and pre- versus post-delivery assessment in 40 schools over a 4-year period (2007-2010). All children from preparatory to grade 3 (ages 4-10 years) were screened for conduct problems (n = 8546) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Universal, targeted and indicated interventions were delivered in school settings. In total, 304 children participated in the targeted group program where the Child Behaviour Checklist was used as a pre- and post-intervention measure. Cohen's d effect sizes and a reliability change index were calculated to determine clinical significance. Significant reductions in both parent- and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms were noted. Parent, teacher and child feedback were very positive. A future randomized controlled trial of the program would address potential placebo and selection bias effects. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. The Effectiveness of a School-Based Mindfulness Training as a Program to Prevent Stress in Elementary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834335; Langenberg, George; Brandsma, Rob; Oort, Frans J.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the effects of mindfulness interventions on mental health and behavioral problems in children show promising results, but are primarily conducted with selected samples of children. The few studies investigating school-based interventions used self-selected samples, provided training

  11. The effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness training as a program to prevent stress in elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.; Langenberg, G.; Brandsma, R.; Oort, F.J.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the effects of mindfulness interventions on mental health and behavioral problems in children show promising results, but are primarily conducted with selected samples of children. The few studies investigating school-based interventions used self-selected samples, provided training

  12. Process evaluation of a school-based weight gain prevention program: the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.; Brug, J.; Mechelen, van W.

    2009-01-01

    Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the

  13. Universal School-Based Implementation of Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment to Reduce and Prevent Alcohol, Marijuana, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use: Process and Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Maslowsky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT is an evidence-based approach to reducing substance use in adolescents. An emerging literature shows the promise of school-based SBIRT. However, most school-based SBIRT has only targeted substance-using adolescents and used school-based health clinics, which most schools lack. This project aimed to describe the following: a model for implementing universal SBIRT in high schools without school-based clinics, reasons students most commonly endorsed for reducing or avoiding substance use, students’ perceptions of SBIRT, and students’ intentions to change substance use or remain abstinent following SBIRT. Participants were N = 2513, 9th to 10th grade students in 10 high schools. Students rated SBIRT positively and indicated substantial intentions to reduce or delay substance use following SBIRT. Results support SBIRT’s potential to delay substance use among current abstainers in addition to reducing substance use among current users. This project demonstrates SBIRT’s feasibility as a universal method in high schools without in-school clinics.

  14. Efficacy of infant simulator programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy: a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Silburn, Sven R

    2016-11-05

    Infant simulator-based programmes, which aim to prevent teenage pregnancy, are used in high-income as well as low-income and middle-income countries but, despite growing popularity, no published evidence exists of their long-term effect. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of such a programme, the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) programme, on pregnancy outcomes of birth and induced abortion in Australia. In this school-based pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, eligible schools in Perth, Western Australia, were enrolled and randomised 1:1 to the intervention and control groups. Randomisation using a table of random numbers without blocking, stratification, or matching was done by a researcher who was masked to the identity of the schools. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP programme was administered to girls aged 13-15 years in the intervention schools, while girls of the same age in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Participants were followed until they reached 20 years of age via data linkage to hospital medical and abortion clinic records. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of pregnancy during the teenage years. Binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for differences in pregnancy rates between study groups. This study is registered as an international randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN24952438. 57 (86%) of 66 eligible schools were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention (28 schools) or the control group (29 schools). Then, between Feb 1, 2003, and May 31, 2006, 1267 girls in the intervention schools received the VIP programme while 1567 girls in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Compared with girls in the control group, a higher proportion of girls in the intervention group recorded at least one birth (97 [8%] of 1267 in the intervention group vs 67 [4%] of 1567 in the control group) or at least one

  15. A systematic review of the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programmes for First Nations, Inuit and Métis youth in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, K; Leatherdale, S T; Elton-Marshall, T

    2015-06-01

    First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) youth are disproportionately affected by obesity and represent known a high-risk group in Canada. School-based prevention programmes may have the potential to effectively influence obesity-related health behaviours (i.e. healthy eating and physical activity) among this population. We conducted a systematic review of nine electronic databases (2003-2014) to identify studies that describe school-based programmes that have been developed to improve obesity-related health behaviours and outcomes among FNIM youth in Canada. The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes and assess the strength of the methodologies used to evaluate them. Fifteen studies, representing seven distinct interventions, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of these programmes did not result in significant improvements in outcomes related to obesity, healthy eating, or physical activity among FNIM youth. The studies varied in design rigour and use of evaluation activities. The lack of literature on effective school-based programmes for FNIM youth in Canada that target obesity-related outcomes highlights a priority area for future intervention development, evaluation and dissemination within the peer-reviewed literature. Further research is needed on interventions involving Métis and Inuit youth, secondary school-aged FNIM youth and FNIM youth living in urban settings. © 2015 World Obesity.

  16. Development of Long Live Love+, a school-based online sexual health programme for young adults. An intervention mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevissen, F.E.F.; Empelen, P. van; Watzeels, A.; Duin, G. van; Meijer, S.; Lieshout, S. van; Kok, G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Dutch online programme called Long Live Love+ focusing on positive, coercion-free relationships, contraception use, and the prevention of STIs, using the Intervention Mapping (IM) approach. All six steps of the approach were followed. Step 1 confirmed the

  17. Development of "Long Live Love+," a School-Based Online Sexual Health Programme for Young Adults. An Intervention Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Fraukje E. F.; van Empelen, Pepijn; Watzeels, Anita; van Duin, Gee; Meijer, Suzanne; van Lieshout, Sanne; Kok, Gerjo

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Dutch online programme called "Long Live Love+" focusing on positive, coercion-free relationships, contraception use, and the prevention of STIs, using the Intervention Mapping (IM) approach. All six steps of the approach were followed. Step 1 confirmed the need for a sexual health programme…

  18. Evidence-based development of school-based and family-involved prevention of overweight across Europe: The ENERGY-project's design and conceptual framework

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    Klepp Knut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need for more carefully developed public health measures in order to curb the obesity epidemic among youth. The overall aim of the "EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth" (ENERGY-project is the development and formative evaluation of a theory-informed and evidence-based multi-component school-based and family-involved intervention program ready to be implemented and evaluated for effectiveness across Europe. This program aims at promoting the adoption or continuation of health behaviors that contribute to a healthy energy balance among school-aged children. Earlier studies have indicated that school and family environments are key determinants of energy-balance behaviors in schoolchildren. Schools are an important setting for health promotion in this age group, but school-based interventions mostly fail to target and involve the family environment. Methods Led by a multidisciplinary team of researchers from eleven European countries and supported by a team of Australian experts, the ENERGY-project is informed by the Environmental Research Framework for Weight gain Prevention, and comprises a comprehensive epidemiological analysis including 1 systematic reviews of the literature, 2 secondary analyses of existing data, 3 focus group research, and 4 a cross European school-based survey. Results and discussion The theoretical framework and the epidemiological analysis will subsequently inform stepwise intervention development targeting the most relevant energy balance-related behaviors and their personal, family-environmental and school-environmental determinants applying the Intervention Mapping protocol. The intervention scheme will undergo formative and pilot evaluation in five countries. The results of ENERGY will be disseminated among key stakeholders including researchers, policy makers and the general population. Conclusions The ENERGY-project is an international

  19. An Adaptive CBPR Approach to Create Weight Management Materials for a School-Based Health Center Intervention

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    Andrew L. Sussman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. From our previous clinical work with overweight/obese youth, we identified the need for research to create an effective weight management intervention to address the growing prevalence of adolescent metabolic syndrome. Formative assessment through an adaptive community-based participatory research (CBPR approach was conducted toward the development of a nutritional and physical activity (DVD and clinician toolkit for a school-based health center (SBHC weight management intervention. Methods. We first conducted parent and adolescent interviews on views and experiences about obesity while convening a community advisory council (CAC recruited from two participating urban New Mexico high schools. Thematic findings from the interviews were analyzed with the CAC to develop culturally and developmentally appropriate intervention materials. Results. Themes from the parent and adolescent interviews included general barriers/challenges, factors influencing motivation, and change facilitators. The CAC and university-based research team reached consensus on the final content of nutrition and physical activity topics to produce a DVD and clinician toolkit through six monthly sessions. These materials used in the SBHC intervention resulted in a greater reduction of body mass index when compared to adolescents receiving standard care. Conclusions. Formative assessment using an adaptive CBPR approach resulted in the creation of culturally and age appropriate weight reduction materials that were acceptable to study participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00841334.

  20. Estimating the Economic Value of Information for Screening in Disseminating and Targeting Effective School-based Preventive Interventions: An Illustrative Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen S; Salkever, David S; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Slade, Eric P; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    When candidates for school-based preventive interventions are heterogeneous in their risk of poor outcomes, an intervention's expected economic net benefits may be maximized by targeting candidates for whom the intervention is most likely to yield benefits, such as those at high risk of poor outcomes. Although increasing amounts of information about candidates may facilitate more accurate targeting, collecting information can be costly. We present an illustrative example to show how cost-benefit analysis results from effective intervention demonstrations can help us to assess whether improved targeting accuracy justifies the cost of collecting additional information needed to make this improvement.

  1. [BEO'S - physical activity and healthy eating at schools in Oberfranken, Bavaria concept and first results of a resource-oriented, systemic approach in school-based health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, C; Bodner, L; Liebl, S; Scholz, U; Wozniak, D; Möstl, M; Ungerer-Röhrich, U; Nagel, E; Loss, J

    2012-02-01

    The high prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents has led to an increase in school-based prevention programmes. The aim of the present paper is to present the concept of an initiative called "BEO'S" as well as the experience made with the implementation und acceptance of this programme in the participating schools. Different from the majority of school-based projects for healthy eating and physical activity, BEO'S pursues a systemic approach that includes the whole school and is tailored to the school's respective resources. Characteristics are (1) the participation of teachers, students, parents, and caretakers, (2) the motivation and empowerment of schools to plan and implement activities by themselves, (3) the focus on environmental approaches, and (4) addressing and considering the individual school's needs and resources. The university project team supports the schools by individual counselling as well as providing information materials, trainings and workshops for teachers, an internet page, newsletters, and financial support. In the school years 2007/08 and 2008/09, BEO'S was conducted at 14 primary and secondary schools in the district of Oberfranken, Bavaria. It was extended to other schools in 2009/10. The short- and mid-term goals are the improvement of the school's environments as well as the eating behaviour and physical activity of the students. In the long run, it is intended to prevent obesity and improve the students' health and school performance. The implementation processes showed that the teachers for physical education and domestic science as well as the headmasters were especially committed. The participation of the teaching staff, the students and the parents proved to be difficult, however. The schools implemented many activities for healthy eating and physical activity, but the planning process was not very systematic: needs assessment, status quo analysis, identification of successful strategies and definition of aims was

  2. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  3. Facilitators and barriers to the delivery of school-based smoking prevention interventions for children and young people: a protocol for a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, Fiona; Angus, Kathryn; Littlecott, Hannah; Allum, Karen; Wells, Valerie; Amos, Amanda; Haw, Sally; Bauld, Linda

    2018-04-06

    Despite a decline in child and adult smoking prevalence, young people who smoke (even occasionally) can rapidly become addicted to nicotine, with most adult smokers initiating smoking before they are 18. Schools have long been a popular setting to deliver youth smoking prevention interventions, but evidence of the effectiveness of school-based prevention programmes is mixed, and outcomes vary by the type of programme delivered. Existing systematic reviews that explore the factors contributing to the success or failure of school-based smoking prevention programmes often exclude qualitative studies, due to a focus on intervention effectiveness which qualitative research cannot answer. Instead, qualitative research is focussed on the experiences and perceptions of those involved in the programmes. This systematic review will address this gap by updating a 2009 review to examine qualitative studies. The aim is to generate deeper insight to help target resources which have the potential to save lives by preventing smoking initiation among children and young people. This systematic review will be searching the following databases: the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, HMIC, ERIC, ASSIA, Web of Science and CINAHL. In order to identify additional references, we will consult the reference lists of a sample of systematic reviews and search relevant organizational websites in order to identify appropriate grey literature. The search strategy will include key words and database-specific subject headings relating to smoking, children and young people, health promotion and school. Authors will independently screen, assess data quality and extract data for synthesis. Study findings will be synthesised thematically using 'best-fit framework syntheses'. This allows for an existing set of themes to be used as a starting point to map or code included studies. These themes are then adapted as coding takes place to accommodate new emerging themes. This review will focus on

  4. Using a mixed-methods approach to measure impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention study on fruit and vegetable intake of Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Elena; Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Pria, Simona Dalla; Messina, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption to help prevent childhood obesity. The 10-week-long intervention included sessions on nutrition education and media literacy. It also included a health communication media-based campaign workshop during which the children created posters, newsletters and video commercials related to fruits and vegetables targeted to their parents. For evaluation purposes, the study utilized a mixed-methods approach, including a quasi-experimental study (with one intervention group and one control group) and a focus group study. Four different elementary schools in Treviso (Veneto Region of Italy) agreed to participate in the research. The target population for the study included 10-year-old Italian children and their parents. Data indicate that this intervention was effective for children but not for parents. Evaluation results show that the intervention was effective in significantly increasing children's fruit and vegetable intake (Pmedia education intervention to address the children's obesity issue and, in particular, to increase children's fruit and vegetable intake. The study also opens a new perspective on the theoretical constructs investigated, because the development of 'ability of expression' could be considered one of the most important factors to determine the efficacy of the intervention.

  5. Public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion in a school-based drug abuse prevention program: a component dismantling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the Saluda prevention program in one of the following five experimental conditions: complete program, program minus public commitment, program minus resistance to advertising, program minus leisure promotion, and a waiting-list control. The students completed self-report surveys at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up assessments. When excluding the healthy leisure promotion component, the Saluda program showed no loss of efficacy neither on alcohol use nor on other substance-related variables, while public commitment and resistance to advertising improved the aforementioned program's efficacy.

  6. Support for school-based obesity prevention efforts: attitudes among administrators at nationally representative samples of US elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    With the continued threat of childhood obesity, many public health intervention efforts focus on school settings. The current study sought to document administrator attitudes regarding obesity and interest in improving relevant school practices (i.e., nutrition and physical activity) in elementary schools. Mail-back surveys were used to gather data from public and private elementary schools during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 school years. In each year, a different set of items pertaining to administrator attitudes was included. Numbers of responding schools annually ranged from 259 to 336 private schools, and from 578 to 748 public schools. The vast majority of elementary school administrators (>90%) agreed that schools can play a role in addressing childhood obesity, physical education improves a variety of academic outcomes, and they were interested in improving practices at their school. Concern about childhood obesity and perceiving that schools can play a role in addressing obesity were both associated with more interest in improving school practices. However, only one-third of administrators agreed that parents were interested in participating in improving nutrition and physical activity practices, suggesting opportunities for efforts to improve collaboration. Administrators are generally very supportive of school-based efforts to improve nutrition and physical activity practices and see the value in doing so. Given the amount of time children spend in school, schools are an essential venue for efforts to address childhood obesity.

  7. The Devil Is in the Details: Examining the Evidence for "Proven" School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Allison Gruner; Murphy-Graham, Erin; Petrosino, Anthony; Chrismer, Sara Schwartz; Weiss, Carol H.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to promote evidence-based practice, government officials, researchers, and program developers have developed lists of model programs in the prevention field. This article reviews the evidence used by seven best-practice lists to select five model prevention programs. The authors' examination of this research raises questions about the…

  8. Depression as a moderator of benefit from Media Smart: a school-based eating disorder prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M; Wade, Tracey D

    2014-01-01

    To investigate if baseline depression moderated response to Media Smart, an 8-lesson school-based program previously found to achieve a long-term risk reduction effect in young adolescents. 540 Grade 8 students (M age = 13.62 years, SD = .37) from 4 schools participated with 11 classes receiving the Media Smart program (126 girls; 107 boys) and 13 comparison classes receiving their normal lessons (147 girls; 160 boys). Shape and weight concern, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, ineffectiveness, and perceived pressure were the outcome variables. Moderation was indicated by significant interaction effects for group (Media Smart; Control) × moderator (high depression; low depression) × time (post-program; 6-month follow-up; 2.5-year follow-up), with baseline entered as a covariate. Such effects were found for shape and weight concern, media internalization, body dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness and perceived pressure. Post-hoc testing found high depression Media Smart participants scored significantly lower than their control counterparts at post-program on shape and weight concern, media internalization and dieting, whereas low depression Media Smart participants scored significantly lower on shape and weight concern at 2.5-year follow-up. Media Smart achieved a reduction in eating disorder risk factors for high-depression participants and a reduced rate of growth in risk factor scores for low-depression participants. Trial registry name: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Registration identification number: ACTRN12608000545369. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd. Taib, Mohd. Nasir; Mohd. Shariff, Zalilah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordere...

  10. Organizational approaches to prevent bedsores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kapshytar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Material and methods. The work is based on the prevention of bedsores in the surgical department of Zaporozhye PU «City Clinical Hospital № 2» and literature information. Results and discussion. Fundamental factor for the successful prevention of bedsores is to prevent compression of the skin and subcutaneous fat, which is achieved by changing the position of the patients in bed every 2 hours. Alternative ways are special plastic splint, bedsore mattresses with continuously changing pressure in individual sections, beds, cushions, pads and mattresses filled with water, air, foam, gel. When you are sick and always in bed doctors should not lift the head of the bed more than 45 degrees in order to reduce pressure on the sacrum. Also rubber rings are used which are placed under the sacrum, heel bumps and other bony prominences to avoid contact with the ground. In some cases, the position on the patient's abdomen is indicated. The changing over time pressure and vibration are provided by specific regulatory systems. The thesis of early activation of patients should be considered as one of the fundamental. Patient should be allowed to sit in the bed, stand up on his feet and walk around, firstly around the ward, as early as possible, consistent with the main and co-morbidities, the volume of surgery, age. The use of small laparotomic surgical approaches follows the principle of the earlier mobilization of the patient as well as possible, since it allows, for example, after cholecystectomy, to climb out of bed and walk around the ward after only 8-10 hours after surgery. Performing a small trocar access at endovideolaparascopic operation surgeons activate patients in the same terms. Doctors prescript daily massage of the possible locations of bedsores, as well as along the spine to improve the overall and local circulation of blood and regulation of the nervous tissue. Treatment of skin in places of possible formation of bedsores has its own

  11. School-based sexual health education interventions to prevent STI/HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A Sadiq; Abraham, Charles; Denford, Sarah; Ball, Susan

    2016-10-10

    School-based sexual health education has the potential to provide an inclusive and comprehensive approach to promoting sexual health among young people. We reviewed evaluations of school-based sexual health education interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to assess effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted infections and promoting condom use. We searched ten electronic databases, hand-searched key journals, and reference lists of included articles for potential studies. Data were extracted on outcomes, intervention characteristics, methods and study characteristics indicative of methodological quality. Where possible, data were synthesized using random effect meta-analysis. Intervention features found predominantly in effective interventions were noted. The initial search retrieved 21634 potentially relevant citations. Of these, 51 papers reporting on 31 interventions were included. No evaluation reported statistically significant effects on the incidence or prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus 2 infections. However, intervention participants reported statistically significant greater condom use in both randomised controlled trials and non-randomised trials for short (less than 6 months) follow-up periods (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.55 and OR = 2.88, 95 % CI = 1.41-5.90 respectively). For intermediate (6-10 months) and long-term (more than 10 months) follow-up periods, the effect was statistically significant (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI = 1.16-1.68) and marginally significant (OR = 1.22, 95 % CI = 0.99-1.50) among the randomised trials respectively. Only 12 of the 31 interventions reported implementation details, out of which seven reported on fidelity. School-based sexual health education has the potential to promote condom use among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. However, further work is needed to develop and evaluate interventions that have measurable effects on sexually transmitted infections.

  12. The Psychology School Mental Health Initiative: An Innovative Approach to the Delivery of School-Based Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Golden M.; Lean, Debra; Sweet, Susan D.; Moraes, Sabrina C.; Nelson, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that schools have, by default, become the primary mental health system for students in Canada. The goal of the present study was to design, implement, and evaluate the Psychology School Mental Health Initiative (PSMHI). The PSMHI is an innovative attempt to increase the capacity of school-based psychology staff to deliver…

  13. Towards dynamic and interdisciplinary frameworks for school-based mental health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Toole, Catriona

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to scrutinise two ostensibly disparate approaches to school-based mental health promotion and offer a conceptual foundation for considering possible synergies between them. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines current conceptualisations of child and youth mental health and explores how these inform school-based prevention and intervention approaches. The dominance of discrete, “expert-driven” psychosocial programmes as well as the...

  14. How Do School-Based Prevention Programs Impact Teachers? Findings from a Randomized Trial of an Integrated Classroom Management and Social-Emotional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrovich, Celene E; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Berg, Juliette K; Pas, Elise T; Becker, Kimberly D; Musci, Rashelle; Embry, Dennis D; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    A number of classroom-based interventions have been developed to improve social and behavioral outcomes for students, yet few studies have examined how these programs impact the teachers who are implementing them. Impacts on teachers may affect students and therefore also serve as an important proximal outcome to examine. The current study draws upon data from a school-based randomized controlled trial testing the impact of two prevention programs. In one intervention condition, teachers were trained in the classroom behavior management program, PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG). In a second intervention condition, teachers were trained to use an integrated program, referred to as PATHS to PAX, of the PAX GBG and a social and emotional learning curriculum called Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS©). This study aimed to determine whether both interventions positively impacted teachers, with a particular interest in the teachers' own beliefs and perceptions regarding self-efficacy, burnout, and social-emotional competence. The sample included 350 K-5 teachers across 27 schools (18 schools randomized to intervention, 9 to control). Multilevel latent growth curve analyses indicated that the PATHS to PAX condition generally demonstrated the most benefits to teachers, relative to both the control and PAX GBG conditions. These findings suggest that school-based preventive interventions can have a positive impact on teachers' beliefs and perceptions, particularly when the program includes a social-emotional component. Several possible mechanisms might account for the added benefit to teachers. Additional research is needed to better understand how these programs impact teachers, as well as students.

  15. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective…

  16. Effects of an Interactive School-Based Program for Preventing Adolescent Sexual Harassment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijster, G.P.A. de; Felten, H.; Kok, G.; Kocken, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual

  17. For whom does it work? Subgroup differences in the effects of a school-based universal prevention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; Koot, H.M.; van Lier, P.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined subgroup differences in the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based preventive intervention. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) was delivered in Grade 1 and 2 in a randomized controlled trial including 759 students. Changes in externalizing and internalizing problems were modeled

  18. The Efficacy of a Universal School-Based Prevention Program for Eating Disorders among German Adolescents: Results from a Randomized-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschburger, Petra; Zitzmann, Jana

    2018-04-10

    Disordered eating is highly prevalent during adolescence and has a detrimental effect on further development. Effective prevention programs are needed to prevent unhealthy developmental trajectories. This study evaluated the efficacy of the POPS-program (POtsdam Prevention at Schools), a universal school-based eating disorder prevention program for adolescents. In a cluster-randomized design, we compared the intervention group receiving the prevention program to a waiting control group. Outcomes included indicators of disordered eating and relevant risk factors for eating disorders (body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, perceived media pressure, perfectionism, emotional element of exercise, social comparison, and perceived teasing). Questionnaires were administered at the start of the intervention, 3 and 12 months post intervention. At baseline, 1112 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years participated (49% girls; 51% intervention group). Intention-to-treat analyses with the complete data set and per-protocol analyses as a completer analysis were performed. The intervention group showed a more favorable course compared to the control group regarding all observed risk factors for eating disorders except for perceived teasing. Effect sizes were small but comparable to other primary prevention programs. At 1-year follow-up, a small but significant effect on disordered eating was observed. Results of the per-protocol analyses were mostly confirmed by the intention-to-treat analyses. Results were promising for both genders although girls benefited more regarding disordered eating and internalization of the thin ideal. Further studies are warranted examining successful program elements and whether gender-specific programs are needed.

  19. Rethinking school-based health centers as complex adaptive systems: maximizing opportunities for the prevention of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Alison Moriarty

    2012-01-01

    This article examines school-based health centers (SBHCs) as complex adaptive systems, the current gaps that exist in contraceptive access, and the potential to maximize this community resource in teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention efforts. Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health challenge for the United States. Existing community resources need to be considered for their potential to impact teen pregnancy and STI prevention efforts. SBHCs are one such community resource to be leveraged in these efforts. They offer adolescent-friendly primary care services and are responsive to the diverse needs of the adolescents utilizing them. However, current restrictions on contraceptive availability limit the ability of SBHCs to maximize opportunities for comprehensive reproductive care and create missed opportunities for pregnancy and STI prevention. A clinical case explores the current models of health care services related to contraceptive care provided in SBHCs and the ability to meet or miss the needs of an adolescent seeking reproductive care in a SBHC.

  20. THE CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL-BASED YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION: EXPERIENCES AND PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. I...

  1. Effect of an environmental school-based obesity prevention program on changes in body fat and body weight: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David W; Han, Hongmei; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Sothern, Melinda S; Stewart, Tiffany M; Webber, Larry S; Ryan, Donna H

    2012-08-01

    This study tested the efficacy of two school-based programs for prevention of body weight/fat gain in comparison to a control group, in all participants and in overweight children. The Louisiana (LA) Health study utilized a longitudinal, cluster randomized three-arm controlled design, with 28 months of follow-up. Children (N = 2,060; mean age = 10.5 years, SD = 1.2) from rural communities in grades 4-6 participated in the study. Seventeen school clusters (mean = 123 children/cluster) were randomly assigned to one of three prevention arms: (i) primary prevention (PP), an environmental modification (EM) program, (ii) primary + secondary prevention (PP+SP), the environmental program with an added classroom and internet education component, or (iii) control (C). Primary outcomes were changes in percent body fat and BMI z scores. Secondary outcomes were changes in behaviors related to energy balance. Comparisons of PP, PP+SP, and C on changes in body fat and BMI z scores found no differences. PP and PP+SP study arms were combined to create an EM arm. Relative to C, EM decreased body fat for boys (-1.7 ± 0.38% vs. -0.14 ± 0.69%) and attenuated fat gain for girls (2.9 ± 0.22% vs. 3.93 ± 0.37%), but standardized effect sizes were relatively small (environmental program did not enhance weight/fat gain prevention, but did impact physical activity and social support in overweight children.

  2. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL, a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13–14 years old. Methods/Design Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13–14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity, body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Discussion It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016

  3. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah

    2016-10-20

    Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely 'Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively' (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13-14 years old. Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13-14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity), body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016, retrospectively registered).

  4. School-based systems change for obesity prevention in adolescents: outcomes of the Australian Capital Territory 'It's Your Move!'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakellis, Mary; Hoare, Erin; Sanigorski, Andrew; Crooks, Nicholas; Allender, Steven; Nichols, Melanie; Swinburn, Boyd; Chikwendu, Cal; Kelly, Paul M; Petersen, Solveig; Millar, Lynne

    2017-10-01

    The Australian Capital Territory 'It's Your Move!' (ACT-IYM) was a three-year (2012-2014) systems intervention to prevent obesity among adolescents. The ACT-IYM project involved three intervention schools and three comparison schools and targeted secondary students aged 12-16 years. The intervention consisted of multiple initiatives at individual, community, and school policy level to support healthier nutrition and physical activity. Intervention school-specific objectives related to increasing active transport, increasing time spent physically active at school, and supporting mental wellbeing. Data were collected in 2012 and 2014 from 656 students. Anthropometric data were objectively measured and behavioural data self-reported. Proportions of overweight or obesity were similar over time within the intervention (24.5% baseline and 22.8% follow-up) and comparison groups (31.8% baseline and 30.6% follow-up). Within schools, two of three the intervention schools showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity (pobesity among adolescents. Implications for public health: The incorporation of systems thinking has been touted as the next stage in obesity prevention and public health more broadly. These findings demonstrate that the use of systems methods can be effective on a small scale. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Effects of an Interactive School-Based Program for Preventing Adolescent Sexual Harassment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lijster, Gaby P A; Felten, Hanneke; Kok, Gerjo; Kocken, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual harassment behavior were presented to secondary school students. We evaluated its effectiveness, using a cluster-randomized controlled design to assign schools to an experimental condition [n = 14 schools; 431 students (51 % female)] and a control condition [n = 11 schools; 384 students (51 % female)]. To measure the effects of the intervention at first post-test and 6-month follow-up, our multilevel analyses used a two-level random intercept model. Outcome measures were sexual harassment behaviors, behavioral determinants and distal factors influencing these behaviors. At post-test, students in the experimental group reported a reduced intention to commit sexual harassment behavior and higher self-efficacy in rejecting it. At post-test and follow-up there was a significant positive effect on social norms for rejecting sexual harassment behavior. At follow-up, sexual self-esteem was higher in students in the experimental group than in the control group. Effects on these determinants will benefit adolescents' future sexual behaviors. In combination, the play and lessons, possibly together with continued sexual health education and skills programs on social-emotional learning in subsequent school years, have potential for preventing sexual harassment behavior.

  6. Nutritional approach to preeclampsia prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achamrah, Najate; Ditisheim, Agnès

    2018-05-01

    Although not fully understood, the physiopathology of preeclampsia is thought to involve an abnormal placentation, diffuse endothelial cell dysfunction and increased systemic inflammation. As micronutrients play a key role in placental endothelial function, oxidative stress and expression of angiogenic factors, periconceptional micronutrient supplementation has been proposed to reduce the risk of preeclampsia. However, recent studies reported conflicting results. Calcium intake (>1 g/day) may reduce the risk of preeclampsia in women with low-calcium diet. Data from recently updated Cochrane reviews did not support routine supplementation of vitamins C, E or D for either the prevention or treatment of preeclampsia. Evidences are also poor to support zinc or folic acid supplementation for preeclampsia prevention. Dark chocolate, flavonoid-rich food, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids might also be candidates for prevention of preeclampsia. Through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or vasoactive proprieties, micronutrients are good candidates for preeclampsia prevention. Calcium supplementation is recommended to prevent preeclampsia in women with low-calcium intake. Despite positive clinical and in-vitro data, strong evidence to support periconceptional supplementation of other micronutrients for preeclampsia risk-reduction is still lacking. Further studies are also needed to evaluate the benefit of nutritional supplementation such as chocolate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Detecting and describing preventive intervention effects in a universal school-based randomized trial targeting delinquent and violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoolmiller, M; Eddy, J M; Reid, J B

    2000-04-01

    This study examined theoretical, methodological, and statistical problems involved in evaluating the outcome of aggression on the playground for a universal preventive intervention for conduct disorder. Moderately aggressive children were hypothesized most likely to benefit. Aggression was measured on the playground using observers blind to the group status of the children. Behavior was micro-coded in real time to minimize potential expectancy biases. The effectiveness of the intervention was strongly related to initial levels of aggressiveness. The most aggressive children improved the most. Models that incorporated corrections for low reliability (the ratio of variance due to true time-stable individual differences to total variance) and censoring (a floor effect in the rate data due to short periods of observation) obtained effect sizes 5 times larger than models without such corrections with respect to children who were initially 2 SDs above the mean on aggressiveness.

  8. "Children at risk": development, implementation, and effectiveness of a school-based violence intervention and prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon L; Smith, Donald J

    2009-01-01

    Violence impacts the lives of children on a daily basis. In their communities, they witness drive-by shootings, drug deals, and violence in their schools while many endure abuse, neglect, and violent behavior in their homes. Because the traumatizing impact of such exposure disrupts a child's ability to concentrate and learn, the Dallas Independent School District (ISD) sought content expertise to develop a training vehicle for school district professionals. The program aimed to raise the awareness of educators to problems related to domestic violence and the myriad of circumstances at home and in the community that lead to exposure to violence. Approximately 15,000 faculty and staff of Dallas ISD were educated in the identification, intervention, and prevention of exposure to violence. Referrals and inquiries related to abuse have increased (approximately 70%) while the city of Dallas has witnessed a drop in the number of domestic violence and child abuse offenses.

  9. Component analysis of a school-based substance use prevention program in Spain: contributions of problem solving and social skills training content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Pereira, Juan R; Orgilés, Mireia; García-Fernández, José M

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to examine the contribution of two intervention components, social skills training and problem solving training, to alcohol- and drug-related outcomes in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 341 Spanish students from age 12 to 15 who received the prevention program Saluda in one of four experimental conditions: full program, social skills condition, problem solving condition, and a wait-list control group. Students completed self-report surveys at the pretest, posttest and 12-month follow-up assessments. Compared to the wait-list control group, the three intervention conditions produced reductions in alcohol use and intentions to use other substances. The intervention effect size for alcohol use was greatest in magnitude for the full program with all components. Problem-solving skills measured at the follow-up were strongest in the condition that received the full program with all components. We discuss the implications of these findings, including the advantages and disadvantages of implementing tailored interventions to students by selecting intervention components after a skills-based needs assessment.

  10. A randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program 'Op Volle Kracht' in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Yuli R; Van Zundert, Rinka Mp; Kuijpers, Rowella Cwm; Van Vlokhoven, Boukje S; Rensink, Hettie Fw; Engels, Rutger Cme

    2012-01-10

    The incidence of depressive symptoms increases during adolescence, from 10.0% to 24.5% at age 11 to 15, respectively. Experiencing elevated levels of depressive symptoms increases the risk of a depressive disorder in adulthood. A universal school-based depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK) was developed, based on the Penn Resiliency Program, aimed at preventing the increase of depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhancing positive development. In this study the effectiveness of OVK will be tested and possible mediators of program effects will be focus of study as well. The effectiveness of OVK will be tested in a randomized controlled trial with two conditions, intervention (OVK) and control condition (care as usual). Schools are randomly assigned to research conditions. OVK will be incorporated in the school curriculum, maximizing program attendance. OVK consists of 16 lessons of 50 min, given by trained psychologists to groups of 11-15 students. OVK contains Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, social skills training, problem solving and decision making. Outcomes are measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months follow up, to monitor long term program effects. Primary outcome is level of depressive symptoms, secondary outcomes are: anxiety, hopelessness, cognitive bias, substance use, truancy, life satisfaction, coping, self-efficacy, optimism, happiness, friendship, school performance and school attitude. The questionnaires for students will be administered in the school setting. Parents will complete a questionnaire at baseline only. In this paper the study into the effectiveness of the depression prevention program OVK was described. It is expected that OVK will prevent the increase in depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhance positive development in the intervention condition, compared to the control condition. If OVK will be effective, it can be implemented in the school context by which numerous adolescents can be reached. Netherlands Trial

  11. A randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program 'Op Volle Kracht' in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yuli R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of depressive symptoms increases during adolescence, from 10.0% to 24.5% at age 11 to 15, respectively. Experiencing elevated levels of depressive symptoms increases the risk of a depressive disorder in adulthood. A universal school-based depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK was developed, based on the Penn Resiliency Program, aimed at preventing the increase of depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhancing positive development. In this study the effectiveness of OVK will be tested and possible mediators of program effects will be focus of study as well. Method The effectiveness of OVK will be tested in a randomized controlled trial with two conditions, intervention (OVK and control condition (care as usual. Schools are randomly assigned to research conditions. OVK will be incorporated in the school curriculum, maximizing program attendance. OVK consists of 16 lessons of 50 min, given by trained psychologists to groups of 11-15 students. OVK contains Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, social skills training, problem solving and decision making. Outcomes are measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months follow up, to monitor long term program effects. Primary outcome is level of depressive symptoms, secondary outcomes are: anxiety, hopelessness, cognitive bias, substance use, truancy, life satisfaction, coping, self-efficacy, optimism, happiness, friendship, school performance and school attitude. The questionnaires for students will be administered in the school setting. Parents will complete a questionnaire at baseline only. Discussion In this paper the study into the effectiveness of the depression prevention program OVK was described. It is expected that OVK will prevent the increase in depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhance positive development in the intervention condition, compared to the control condition. If OVK will be effective, it can be implemented in the school context by which

  12. Economic evaluation of URMEL-ICE, a school-based overweight prevention programme comprising metabolism, exercise and lifestyle intervention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Schreiber, Anja; Wirt, Tamara; Wiedom, Martina; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Brandstetter, Susanne; Koch, Benjamin; Wartha, Olivia; Muche, Rainer; Wabitsch, Martin; Kilian, Reinhold; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2013-04-01

    Measuring the impact of the URMEL-ICE school-based overweight prevention programme on anthropometric measures in primary-school children, computing incremental cost-effectiveness relation (ICER) and net monetary benefit (NMB). This is an intervention study with historical control. Propensity score method is applied to account for group differences. One-year teacher-driven classroom implementation is used, which is based on especially developed teaching material including health education, physical activity breaks and parent involvement. 354 children in the control and 365 children in the intervention group at baseline and follow-up were analysed. Effectiveness is measured as cm waist circumference (WC) and unit (0.01) waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) increase prevented in intervention vs. control group using an adjusted two-level model. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, net benefit regression and a societal perspective for a 1-year time horizon are applied. WC gain was 1.61 cm and WHtR gain was 0.014 significantly less in intervention vs. control group. Intervention costs were euro24.09 per child. ICER was euro11.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) [8.78; 15.02]) per cm WC and euro18.55 (95% CI [14.04; 26.86]) per unit WHtR gain prevented. At a maximum willingness to pay (MWTP) of euro35, both values of the CIs for NMB regarding WC and WHtR are located in the positive range. The study gives new information about the cost-effectiveness of structured health promotion embedded in daily routine at primary schools. Assuming a MWTP of euro35 the intervention is cost-effective with a positive NMB. This result may help decision makers in implementing programmes to prevent childhood overweight in school settings.

  13. A High School-Based Evaluation of TakeCARE, a Video Bystander Program to Prevent Adolescent Relationship Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Kelli S; Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2017-03-01

    Although bystander programs to prevent relationship and sexual violence have been evaluated with college students, few evaluations have been conducted with high school students. This study evaluated the effectiveness of TakeCARE, a brief video bystander program designed to promote helpful bystander behavior in situations involving relationship violence among high school students. Students (N = 1295; 52.5% female; 72.3% Hispanic) reported their bystander behavior at a baseline assessment. Classrooms (N = 66) were randomized to view TakeCARE or to a control condition, and high school counselors administered the video in the classrooms assigned to view TakeCARE. Students again reported their bystander behavior at a follow-up assessment approximately 3 months afterward. Results indicate that students who viewed TakeCARE reported more helpful bystander behavior at the follow-up assessment than students in the control condition. Results of exploratory analyses of the likelihood of encountering and intervening upon specific situations calling for bystander behavior are also reported. TakeCARE is efficacious when implemented in an urban high school by high school counselors.

  14. Soil-transmitted helminths in southern highland Rwanda: associated factors and effectiveness of school-based preventive chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Olga; Heimer, Jakob; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean M; Ignatius, Ralf; Musemakweri, Andre; Ngabo, Fidele; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2014-07-01

    Preventive chemotherapy of schoolchildren against soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) is widely implemented in Rwanda. However, data on its actual efficacy are lacking. We assessed prevalence, associated factors and manifestation of STH infection among schoolchildren in southern highland Rwanda as well as cure and reinfection rates. Six hundred and twenty-two children (rural, 301; urban, 321) were included preceding the administration of a single dose of 500 mg mebendazole. Before treatment, and after 2 and 15 weeks, STH infection was determined by Kato-Katz smears and by PCR assays for Ascaris lumbricoides. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with STH infection were assessed. Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection was present in 38% of rural and in 13% of urban schoolchildren. Ascaris lumbricoides accounted for 96% of infections. Of these, one-third was detected by PCR exclusively. Factors associated with STH infection differed greatly between rural and urban children. Likewise, STH infection was associated with stunting and anaemia only among urban children. The cure rate after 2 weeks was 92%. Among eight non-cleared A. lumbricoides infections, seven were submicroscopic. Reinfection within 3 months occurred in 7%, but the rate was higher among rural children, and with initially present infection, particularly at comparatively high intensity. The rural-urban difference in factors associated with STH infection and in reinfection rates highlights the need for targeted interventions to reduce transmission. PCR assays may help in detecting low-level infections persisting after treatment. In southern Rwanda, mebendazole is highly effective against the STH infections predominated by A. lumbricoides. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP): a school-based and community-based cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael; Agus, Ashley; Cole, Jonathan; Doherty, Paul; Foxcroft, David; Harvey, Séamus; Murphy, Lynn; Percy, Andrew; Sumnall, Harry

    2018-03-09

    To assess the effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention (the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)), compared with alcohol education as normal (EAN), in reducing self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related harms (ARHs) in adolescents. 105 high schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and in Scotland. Schools were stratified by free school meal provision. Schools in NI were also stratified by school type (male/female/coeducational). Eligible students were in school year 8/S1 (aged 11-12 years) at baseline (June 2012). A classroom-based alcohol education intervention, coupled with a brief alcohol intervention for parents/carers. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: (1) The prevalence of self-reported HED in the previous 30 days and (2) the number of self-reported ARHs in the previous 6 months. Outcomes were assessed using two-level random intercepts models (logistic regression for HED and negative binomial for number of ARHs). At 33 months, data were available for 5160 intervention and 5073 control students (HED outcome), and 5234 and 5146 students (ARH outcome), respectively. Of those who completed a questionnaire at either baseline or 12 months (n=12 738), 10 405 also completed the questionnaire at 33 months (81.7%). Fewer students in the intervention group reported HED compared with EAN (17%vs26%; OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.73), with no significant difference in the number of self-reported ARHs (incident rate ratio=0.92, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.05). Although the classroom component was largely delivered as intended, there was low uptake of the parental component. There were no reported adverse effects. Results suggest that STAMPP could be an effective programme to reduce HED prevalence. While there was no significant reduction in ARH, it is plausible that effects on harms would manifest later. ISRCTN47028486; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  16. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S Y; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (psustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support.

  17. Assessment of Two School-Based Programs to Prevent Universal Eating Disorders: Media Literacy and Theatre-Based Methodology in Spanish Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Mora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the long-term effects of two school-based prevention programs administered to a universal mixed-sex sample of school-going adolescents on disturbed eating attitudes, aesthetic ideal internalization, and other eating disorder risk factors, when compared to a control group. Methods. Participants were 200 adolescents aged 12–15 selected by means of incidental sampling from second-year compulsory secondary education at schools. An interactive multimedia media literacy program (ML + NUT, Media Literacy and Nutrition and a program focused on the same topics using dramatic arts (Theatre Alive were applied and compared with a control group. Pretest, posttest (1 month later, and 5- and 13-month follow-up measurements were taken. Analyses were conducted with two-way mixed 3×3 ANCOVA (group × phase adjusted by baseline levels, body mass index, and sex. Results. Participants in both experimental groups showed significantly higher self-esteem scores than the control group over time. The ML + NUT group also presented lower aesthetic ideal internalization scores than the control group. Discussion. Both programs can benefit students’ self-esteem. Moreover, ML + NUT program was useful in reducing thin-ideal internalization. However, differences in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes were not found. The programs may be protective on the core psychological variables, which are essential to adaptive adolescent development.

  18. [Effectiveness of School-based Interventions for the Prevention and/or Reduction of Psychosocial Problems among Children and Adolescents: A Review of Reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, S; Landgraf-Rauf, K; Brand, T; Zeeb, H; Pischke, C R

    2017-04-01

    Objective: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for the maintenance of mental health and the prevention of psychosocial problems among pupils. Methods: A systematic literature search of reviews published between 2007 and 2015 was carried out. Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, Campbell Library, Cochrane Library, NICE, ERIC, and Web of Science. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using AMSTAR criteria) were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Results: 6 reviews covering 331 primary studies were included in this review of reviews. Findings of three reviews with a focus on the maintenance and/or promotion of mental health and general well-being suggested that interventions aimed at changes in the social and the school environment were more effective than those that only targeted individual behavior change among pupils. Interventions for the reduction of mobbing/bullying were most effective if they comprised organizational changes at schools, such as playground and schoolyard supervision, and disciplinary measures. One review suggested strong evidence for the effectiveness of classroom management to reduce violent behavior among pupils. Conclusions: Participation in interventions promoting changes in the school environment, in addition to individual behavior change, appears to be associated with improved mental health among pupils and reductions in mobbing/bullying and violent behavior at schools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza S Y Lai

    Full Text Available A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme.This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1 depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2 knowledge of mental health; (3 attitudes towards mental illness; (4 perceived social support; and (5 help-seeking behaviours.A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (p<.05. A preference among schoolchildren for whom to seek help from was identified.The universal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students' anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate

  20. A school-based interdisciplinary approach to promote health and academic achievement among children in a deprived neighborhood: study protocol for a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E; Jonkman, Caroline S; Harting, Janneke

    2018-04-10

    The large number of children that grow up in poverty is concerning, especially given the negative developmental outcomes that can persist into adulthood. Poverty has been found as a risk factor to negatively affect academic achievement and health outcomes in children. Interdisciplinary interventions can be an effective way to promote health and academic achievement. The present study aims to evaluate a school-based interdisciplinary approach on child health, poverty, and academic achievement using a mixed-method design. Generally taken, outcomes of this study increase the knowledge about effective ways to give disadvantaged children equal chances early in their lives. An observational study with a mixed-methods design including both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods will be used to evaluate the interdisciplinary approach. The overall research project exists of three study parts including a longitudinal study, a cross-sectional study, and a process evaluation. Using a multi-source approach we will assess child health as the primary outcome. Child poverty and child academic achievement will be assessed as secondary outcomes. The process evaluation will observe the program's effects on the school environment and the program's implementation in order to obtain more knowledge on how to disseminate the interdisciplinary approach to other schools and neighborhoods. The implementation of a school-based interdisciplinary approach via primary schools combining the cross-sectoral domains health, poverty, and academic achievement is innovative and a step forward to reach an ethnic minority population. However, the large variety of the interventions and activities within the approach can limit the validity of the study. Including a process evaluation will therefore help to improve the interpretation of our findings. In order to contribute to policy and practice focusing on decreasing the unequal chances of children growing up in deprived neighborhoods, it is

  1. Accident prevention in a contextual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    of such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning actions...

  2. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S. Y.; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W. C.; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, “The Little Prince is Depressed”, for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. Methods This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in “The Little Prince is Depressed” programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. Results A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (pmental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students’ anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support. PMID:26921275

  3. Effectiveness of the bucco-lingual technique within a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazão Paulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supervised toothbrushing programs using fluoride dentifrice have reduced caries increment. However there is no information about the effectiveness of the professional cross-brushing technique within a community intervention. The aim was to assess if the bucco-lingual technique can increase the effectiveness of a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries. Methods A randomized double-blinded controlled community intervention trial to be analyzed at an individual level was conducted in a Brazilian low-income fluoridated area. Six preschools were randomly assigned to the test and control groups and 284 five-year-old children presenting at least one permanent molar with emerged/sound occlusal surface participated. In control group, oral health education and dental plaque dying followed by toothbrushing with fluoride dentifrice supervised directly by a dental assistant, was developed four times per year. At the remaining school days the children brushed their teeth under indirect supervising of the teachers. In test group, children also underwent a professional cross-brushing on surfaces of first permanent molar rendered by a specially trained dental assistant five times per year. Enamel and dentin caries were recorded on buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces of permanent molars during 18-month follow-up. Exposure time of surfaces was calculated and incidence density ratio was estimated using Poisson regression model. Results Difference of 21.6 lesions per 1,000 children between control and test groups was observed. Among boys whose caries risk was higher compared to girls, incidence density was 50% lower in test group (p = 0.016. Conclusion Modified program was effective among the boys. It is licit to project a relevant effect in a larger period suggesting in a broader population substantial reduction of dental care needs. Trial registration ISRCTN18548869.

  4. Obesogenic environments: environmental approaches to obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipek, Tobias; Igel, Ulrike; Gausche, Ruth; Kiess, Wieland; Grande, Gesine

    2015-05-01

    Childhood obesity is a major concern for public health. There are multiple factors (e.g., genetic, social, and environmental) that contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Drawing from findings on "obesogenic environments" and core principles of preventive strategies to reduce health inequalities, this paper gives an overview of recent childhood prevention programs that target aspects of the physical environment ("environmental changes"). Out of the ten reviews we screened (including more than 300 studies), we identified very few that addressed aspects of the environment. We focus here on 14 programs that follow different approaches to environmental changes (e.g., access to/quality of playgrounds, changes in school cafeterias). Altering the environment offers opportunities for healthier behaviors and seems to be an effective strategy to prevent childhood obesity. However, the evaluation of those (mostly) multidimensional interventions does not allow drawing firm conclusions about the single effect of environmental changes. We conclude that obesity prevention programs should combine person-based and environmental approaches.

  5. Evaluating return on investment in a school based health promotion and prevention program: the investment multiplier for the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon; Dawber, James; Yeatman, Heather; Quinsey, Karen; Morris, Darcy

    2014-08-01

    Successful health promotion and disease prevention strategies in complex community settings such as primary schools rely on acceptance and ownership across community networks. Assessing multiplier impacts from investment on related community activity over time are suggested as key alongside evidence of program health effects on targeted groups of individuals in gauging community network engagement and ownership, dynamic impacts, and program long term success and return on investment. An Australian primary school based health promotion and prevention strategy, the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program (SAKGNP), which has been providing garden and kitchen classes for year 3-6 students since 2008, was evaluated between 2011 and 2012. Returns on Australian Federal Government investment for school infrastructure grants up to $60,000 are assessed up to and beyond a two year mutual obligation period with: (i) Impacts on student lifestyle behaviours, food choices and eating habits surveyed across students (n = 491 versus 260) and parents (n = 300 versus 234) in 28 SAKGNP and 14 matched schools, controlling for school and parent level confounders and triangulated with SAKGNP pre-post analysis; (ii) Multiplier impacts of investment on related school and wider community activity up to two years; and (iii) Evidence of continuation and program evolution in schools observed beyond two years. SAKGNP schools showed improved student food choices (p = 0.024) and kitchen lifestyle behaviour (p = 0.019) domains compared to controls and in pre-post analysis where 20.0% (58/290) reported eating fruit and vegetables more often and 18.6% (54/290) preparing food at home more often. No significant differences were found in case control analysis for eating habits or garden lifestyle behaviour domains, although 32.3% of children helped more in the garden (91/278) and 15.6% (45/289) ate meals together more often in pre-post analysis. The multiplier impact on total

  6. Book review: Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz Rozas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Hb 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Pb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (eBook 76.99€.Reseña. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Td 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Tb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (e-Libro 76.99€.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3092188

  7. What Sense Can We Make of the Possibility of Vocational Didactics? An Approach from the Spanish School-Based System Complemented by Non-Formal Vocational Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marhuenda-Fluixá

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution attempts to review the development of the field of didactics in Spain in the past 35 years and its contribution to the development and improvement of vocational education and training. We intend to show that the concern of didactics is an issue of great concern (and dispute in Southern Europe, for which we will use Spain as an example. We will particularly analyse from a didactical approach (taking didactics as a normative applied discipline well established in academia the possibilities that a traditionally school-based discipline has to improve the development of vocational education practice in and out of schools, for young and adult people, in terms of pedagogical innovation.

  8. School-Based Programs Aimed at the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity: Evidence-Based Interventions for Youth in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K.; Nagle, Brian J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Barquera, Simon; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be…

  9. Making a Math Teaching Aids of Junior High School Based on Scientific Approach Through an Integrated and Sustainable Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, E.; Mashuri

    2017-04-01

    Not all of teachers of Mathematics in Junior High School (JHS) can design and create teaching aids. Moreover, if teaching aids should be designed so that it can be used in learning through scientific approaches. The problem: How to conduct an integrated and sustainable training that the math teacher of JHS, especially in Semarang can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach? The purpose of this study to find a way of integrated and continuous training so that the math teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. This article was based on research with a qualitative approach. Through trials activities of resulting of training model, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), interviews, and triangulation of the results of the research were: (1) Produced a training model of integrated and sustainable that the mathematics teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. (2) In training, there was the provision of material and workshop (3) There was a mentoring in the classroom. (4) Sustainability of the consultation. Our advice: (1) the trainer should be clever, (2) the training can be held at the holidays, while the assistance during the holiday season was over.

  10. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…

  11. Thinking Outside the Box While Playing the Game: A Creative School-Based Approach to Working with Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Angel; Lasser, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating child-developed board games in a counseling setting may promote social, emotional, and behavioral development in children. Using this creative approach, counselors can actively work with children to address referred concerns and build skills that may generalize outside of counseling sessions. A description of the method is…

  12. The Effects of School-Based Discrimination on Adolescents of Color Sexual Health Outcomes: A Social Determinants Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respress, Brandon N; Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka N; Opara, Ijeoma

    2018-01-01

    Social inequalities are at the heart of disparities in sexual health outcomes among African American and Latino/a adolescents living in the United States. Schools are typically the largest and primary context in youth development. School characteristics such as peer and teacher discrimination and school performance were examined to determine whether such characteristics predict sexual behavior in adolescents of color. This study utilized a representative sample of high school age students to assess sexual risk behavior. Findings indicate that there was a clear disparity in sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. School characteristics such as teacher discrimination and Grade Point Average were significant predictors to sexual risky behaviors among adolescents of color. The study adds to the literature in examining contextual factors that are associated with adolescent sexual risk behavior, and findings provide implications for future prevention work.

  13. Biomedical Approaches to HIV Prevention in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, Christine L

    2018-04-17

    Effective HIV prevention techniques for women are of critical importance, as nearly half of all HIV infections globally are in women. This article reviews the recent literature on biomedical approaches to HIV prevention in women. In trials in which women were adherent to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP was equally efficacious in men and women. However, in studies of oral PrEP exclusively in women, adherence was low, and it was not efficacious. In trials of topical PrEP, including vaginal tenofovir gel and the monthly dapivirine ring, efficacy was also dependent upon adherence. Treatment as prevention (TasP) is a very effective HIV prevention strategy, though limited in that it is not controlled by the HIV-uninfected partner. Adherence is an important factor in the efficacy of biomedical interventions for HIV prevention in women; continued research is needed to identify the most efficacious and acceptable agents for women. Oral PrEP is currently recommended for the following groups of HIV-negative women: heterosexual women in ongoing sexual relationships with a partner infected with or at substantial risk of HIV infection and women who inject drugs and share injection or drug preparation equipment.

  14. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics. Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012). For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences. Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  15. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Schilpzand

    Full Text Available While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics.Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012. For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences.Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p < 0.001, consented to participate (71% versus 56%; p < 0.001, agreed to teacher participation (90% versus 82%; p < 0.001 and agreed to follow-up contact (91% versus 80%; p < 0.001. Fewer cohort 2 parents required reminders (52% versus 63%; p < 0.001, and cohort 2 parents responded more promptly than cohort 1 parents (mean difference: 19.4 days, 95% CI: 18.0 to 20.9, p < 0.001.These results illustrate the value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  16. The implementation and effectiveness of school-based nutrition promotion programmes using a health-promoting schools approach: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate implementation and effectiveness of nutrition promotion programmes using the health-promoting schools (HPS) approach, to indicate areas where further research is needed and to make recommendations for practice in this field. The searched electronic databases included: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Health Reference Center, Informit Search, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Social Services Abstracts and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria were: (i) controlled or before-and-after studies evaluating a nutrition intervention and involving the HPS approach, either fully or in part; (ii) provision of information about components and delivery of the intervention; and (iii) report on all evaluated outcomes. Schools. Students, parents and school staff. All included studies described intervention delivery and six reported on process evaluation. In intervention schools school environment and ethos were more supportive, appropriate curriculum was delivered and parents and/or the community were more engaged and involved. Students participated in interventions at differing levels, but the majority was satisfied with the intervention. The evidence indicates that nutrition promotion programmes using the HPS approach can increase participants' consumption of high-fibre foods, healthier snacks, water, milk, fruit and vegetables. It can also reduce participants' 'breakfast skipping', as well as reduce intakes of red food, low-nutrient dense foods, fatty and cream foods, sweet drinks consumption and eating disorders. It can help to develop hygienic habits and improved food safety behaviours. More professional training for teachers in the HPS approach, further qualitative studies, longer intervention periods, improved follow-up evaluations and adequate funding are required for future school-based nutrition promotion programmes.

  17. Approaches to Preventative and Therapeutic HIV vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Glenda E.; Laher, Fatima; Lazarus, Erica; Ensoli, Barbara; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Novel strategies are being researched to discover vaccines to prevent and treat HIV-1. Nonefficacious preventative vaccine approaches include bivalent recombinant gp120 alone, HIV gene insertion into an Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) virus vector and the DNA prime/Ad5 boost vaccine regimen. However, the ALVAC-HIV prime/AIDSVAX® B/E gp120 boost regimen showed 31.2% efficacy at 3.5 years, and is being investigated as clade C constructs with an additional boost. Likewise, although multiple therapeutic vaccines have failed in the past, in a non-placebo controlled trial, a Tat vaccine demonstrated immune cell restoration, reduction of immune activation, and reduced HIV-1 DNA viral load. Monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization or treatment show promise, with VRC01 entering advanced clinical trials. PMID:26985884

  18. Global school-based childhood obesity interventions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-08-28

    The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  19. Global School-Based Childhood Obesity Interventions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Ickes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1 primary research; (2 overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3 school-based; (4 studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5 published in the English language; (6 child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7 studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  20. Community Attitudes toward School-Based Sexuality Education in a Conservative State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael S.; Thompson, Sharon H.; M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Yannessa, John F.; Duffy, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess community attitudes toward school-based abstinence-plus sexuality education. A dual sampling approach of landlines and cell phones resulted in 988 adults from two counties completing "The South Carolina Survey of Public Opinion on Pregnancy Prevention." Among respondents, 87.1% supported…

  1. A school-based, teacher-mediated prevention program (ERASE-Stress) for reducing terror-related traumatic reactions in Israeli youth: a quasi-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc; Berger, Rony

    2009-08-01

    Since September 2000 Israeli children have been exposed to a large number of terrorist attacks. A universal, school-based intervention for dealing with the threat of terrorism as well as with terror-related symptoms, ERASE-Stress (ES), was evaluated in a male religious middle school in southern Israel. The program was administered by the homeroom teachers as part of the school curriculum. It consists of 12 classroom sessions each lasting 90 minutes, and included psycho-educational material, skill training and resiliency strategies delivered to the students by homeroom teachers. One hundred and fourteen 7th and 8th grade students were randomly assigned to the ES intervention or were part of a waiting list (WL). They were assessed on measures of posttraumatic symptomatology, depression, somatic symptoms and functional problems before and 3 months after the intervention or the WL period. Three months after the program ended, students in the experimental group showed significant reduction in all measures compared to the waiting-list control group. The ERASE-Stress program may help students suffering from terror-related posttraumatic symptoms and mitigate the negative effects of future traumatic experiences. Furthermore, a school-based universal program such as the ERASE-Stress may potentially serve as an important and effective component of a community mental health policy for communities affected by terrorism.

  2. Effectiveness of a randomized school-based intervention involving families and teachers to prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana B Cunha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention involving the families and teachers that aimed to promote healthy eating habits in adolescents; the ultimate aim of the intervention was to reduce the increase in body mass index (BMI of the students.Paired cluster randomized school-based trial conducted with a sample of fifth graders.Twenty classes were randomly assigned into either an intervention group or a control group.From a total of 574 eligible students, 559 students participated in the study (intervention: 10 classes with 277 participants; control: 10 classes with 282 participants. The mean age of students was 11 years.Students attended 9 nutritional education sessions during the 2010 academic year. Parents/guardians and teachers received information on the same subjects.Changes in BMI and percentage of body fat.Intention-to-treat analysis showed that changes in BMI were not significantly different between the 2 groups (β = 0.003; p = 0.75. There was a major reduction in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and cookies in the intervention group; students in this group also consumed more fruits.Encouraging the adoption of healthy eating habits promoted important changes in the adolescent diet, but this did not lead to a reduction in BMI gain. Strategies based exclusively on the quality of diet may not reduce weight gain among adolescents.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01046474.

  3. Healing and Preventing Pain: Complementary and Integrative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Pain Management Healing and Preventing Pain, Complementary and Integrative Approaches Past ... Pain Management" Articles Putting A Pause In Pain / Healing and Preventing Pain Complementary and Integrative Approaches / Pain ...

  4. Changes in Body Mass Index During a 3-Year Elementary School-Based Obesity Prevention Program for American Indian and White Rural Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant but largely modifiable health risk, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and rural children. Elementary school-aged children typically experience the greatest increases in excess weight gain and therefore are important targets for reducing adolescent and adult obesity while improving children's health. Our study evaluated outcomes of a 3-year elementary school-based program for reducing obesity in American Indian and White students attending eight rural schools in the U.S. upper Midwest. Researchers measured body mass indexes (BMI) and other health indicators and behaviors of 308 beginning third-grade students and then again at the end of students' third, fourth, and fifth grades. The primary focus of this study is a mixed multilevel longitudinal model testing changes in age- and gender-adjusted BMI z scores ( zBMI). There was a significant decrease in zBMI across the 3-year study period. Ethnicity analyses showed that White students had overall decreases in zBMI whereas American Indian students' zBMIs remained stable across the program. Comparisons with children from an age- and cohort-matched national sample provided support for the effectiveness of the school program in reducing BMI and obesity during the study period. An elementary school-based health program that addresses a range of students' obesity-related health behaviors, the school health environment, and that involves educators and parents is an effective intervention for reducing or stabilizing BMI in rural White and American Indian students. School health programs for students living in rural communities may be especially effective due to greater school and community cohesiveness, and valuing of the school's primary role in improving community health.

  5. A Buddhist approach to suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disayavanish, Chamlong; Disayavanish, Primprao

    2007-08-01

    The majority of the Thai population is Buddhists and Buddhism has a great deal of influence on their mind, character, way of life, and health, particularly mental health. According to the Four Noble Truths (Cattări ariyasaccani), suicide is a form of suffering that is originated from craving (Tanhă). Therefore, human beings cannot avoid suffering by taking their own lives, nor do they escape from "the wheel of suffering" by doing so. Moreover, the consequence of suicide is a rebirth in the woeful planes of existence, and hence further suffering endlessly. From the present study, the Buddhist approach to suicide prevention can be considered in the following areas: 1) Buddhist attitude toward suicide, 2) faith and confidence in life after death, 3) providing monks with general knowledge and understanding about suicide and life after death, 4) early identification of mental disorders, persons at risk of suicide and prompt referral to appropriate mental health professionals, 5) control of access to instruments of suicide, 6) control of alcohol and drug abuse, 7) prevention of HIV infection, 8) responsible media reporting and 9) practice of meditation.

  6. Policy and Prevention Approaches for Disordered and Hazardous Gaming and Internet Use: an International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Doh, Young Yim; Wu, Anise M S; Kuss, Daria J; Pallesen, Ståle; Mentzoni, Rune; Carragher, Natacha; Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Problems related to high levels of gaming and Internet usage are increasingly recognized as a potential public health burden across the developed world. The aim of this review was to present an international perspective on prevention strategies for Internet gaming disorder and related health conditions (e.g., Internet addiction), as well as hazardous gaming and Internet use. A systematic review of quantitative research evidence was conducted, followed by a search of governmental reports, policy and position statements, and health guidelines in the last decade. The regional scope included the USA, UK, Australia, China, Germany, Japan, and South Korea. Prevention studies have mainly involved school-based programs to train healthier Internet use habits in adolescents. The efficacy of selective prevention is promising but warrants further empirical attention. On an international scale, the formal recognition of gaming or Internet use as a disorder or as having quantifiable harms at certain levels of usage has been foundational to developing structured prevention responses. The South Korean model, in particular, is an exemplar of a coordinated response to a public health threat, with extensive government initiatives and long-term strategic plans at all three levels of prevention (i.e., universal, selective, and indicated). Western regions, by comparison, are dominated by prevention approaches led by non-profit organizations and private enterprise. The future of prevention of gaming and Internet problems ultimately relies upon all stakeholders working collaboratively in the public interest, confronting the reality of the evidence base and developing practical, ethical, and sustainable countermeasures.

  7. Análisis de coste-beneficio de un programa de prevención del tabaquismo en escolares Cost-benefit analysis of a school-based smoking prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Hormigo Amaro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar la eficiencia de un programa de prevención del tabaquismo en escolares de Barcelona (programa PASE.bcn. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis de coste-beneficio. Como costes se incluyeron los derivados del diseño y la ejecución del programa. Como beneficios se contabilizaron los costes sanitarios y las pérdidas de productividad evitados. La perspectiva de análisis es la social y el año de referencia es 2005. Resultados: Estimando una efectividad del 1%, el programa PASE.bcn lograría un beneficio anual de 1.558.311,46 €. Los beneficios sanitarios por fumador evitado son de 1997,57 €, mientras que los beneficios indirectos por fumador evitado son de 21.260,80 €. Dado que el coste del programa es de 68.526,03 €, la razón beneficio-coste del programa es de 22,74. Conclusiones: Los programas de prevención del tabaquismo en escolares generan un beneficio para la sociedad muy superior a sus costes. Los resultados justifican la aplicación universal de este tipo de programas.Objective: To analyze the efficiency of a school-based smoking prevention program in Barcelona (PASE.bcn program. Methods: A cost-benefit analysis was performed. As costs we included those corresponding to the design and implementation of the program. As benefits we considered healthcare costs and the productivity losses avoided. This study was conducted from a societal perspective, and the estimations of costs and benefits related to 2005. Results: Assuming an effectiveness of 1%, the PASE.bcn program would achieve a total benefit of 1,558,311.46 €. The healthcare benefits per prevented smoker were 1997.57 €, and the indirect benefits per prevented smoker were 21,260.80 €. Given the total cost of the school-based program (68,526.03 €, the cost-benefit ratio was 22.74. Conclusions: From a societal perspective, the benefits of school-based tobacco prevention programs, in terms of healthcare costs and productivity losses avoided, are far

  8. School Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Targeting Anxiety in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Quasi-Experimental Randomised Controlled Trail Incorporating a Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Chris; Hill, Vivian; Charman, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Children with a diagnosis of autism are more likely to experience anxiety than their typically developing peers. Research suggests that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) could offer a way to help children with autism manage their anxiety but most evidence is based on clinical trials. This study investigated a school-based CBT programme using a…

  9. Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative

  10. Methodological Approaches to the Prevention Of Schoolgirls’ Deviant Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Parfanovych

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodological approaches to the system of girls’ deviant behavior prevention thatact on different levels on prevention are identified: gender, personality oriented, systematic,synergetic, security and safety, interdisciplinary, institutional, which are provided at differentlevels of prevention. Methodological approaches were applied while developing the design,implementing and analyzing of schoolgirls deviant behavior prevention. Such approaches canbe implemented in practice, if the realities of girls’ socialization in various areas and theproblem are treated from the socio-pedagogical point of view.Key words: schoolgirls, deviant behavior, prevention, methodological approaches.

  11. Social-Emotional Needs: A School-Based Approach to Preventing Suicide among Students with Gifts and Talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a succinct primer on some of the basic constructs that adults need to know to help keep students with gifts and talents from completing suicide. It focuses on the school as the primary context to look out for potentially suicidal gifted students. This makes sense, as students spend a considerable amount of time in school,…

  12. Effect of a school-based oral health education in preventing untreated dental caries and increasing knowledge, attitude, and practices among adolescents in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Kayako, Sakisaka; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Islam, Md Jahirul; Mostofa, Md Golam

    2016-03-25

    There is a dearth of published literature that demonstrates the impact and effectiveness of school-based oral health education (OHE) program in Bangladesh and it is one of the most neglected activities in the field of public health. Keeping this in mind, the objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of OHE program in: 1) increasing oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices and 2) decreasing the prevalence of untreated dental caries among 6-8 grade school students in Bangladesh. This intervention study was conducted in Araihazar Thana, Narayanganj district, Bangladesh during April 2012 to March 2013. The total participants were 944 students from three local schools. At baseline, students were assessed for oral health knowledge, attitude and practices using a self-administered structured questionnaire and untreated dental caries was assessed using clinical examination. Follow up study was done after 6 months from baseline. McNemar's chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the impact of OHE program on four recurrent themes of oral health between the baseline and follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the impact of the intervention group on our outcome variables. Significant improvement was observed regarding school aged adolescents' self-reported higher knowledge, attitude and practices scores (p level of knowledge regarding oral health compared to baseline. Compared with baseline participants in the follow-up were 1.89 times (95 % CI = 1.44-2.87) more likely to have higher attitude towards oral health. In addition, OHE intervention was found to be significantly associated with higher level of practices toward oral health (AOR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.12, 3.38). This study indicated that OHE intervention was effective in increasing i) knowledge, ii) attitude, and iii) practices towards oral health; it also significantly reduced the prevalence of untreated dental caries among school aged adolescents from grade 6-8 in a

  13. Community perceptions on the community-directed treatment and school-based approaches for the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among school-age children in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, K; Magnussen, P; Sheshe, A; Ntakamulenga, R; Ndawi, B; Olsen, A

    2009-01-01

    The success of the Community-Directed Treatment (ComDT) approach in the control of onchocerciasis and filariasis has caught the attention of other disease control programmes. In this study the ComDT approach was implemented and compared with the school-based approach for control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among school-age children in Lushoto District, Tanzania. This was a qualitative study, consisting of in-depth interviews with village leaders, community drug distributors (CDDs) and schoolteachers, as well as focus group discussions with separate groups of mothers and fathers to assess the perceptions and experiences of the villagers on the implementation of the two approaches. It was found that the villagers accepted the ComDT approach and took the responsibility of selecting the CDDs, organizing and implementing their own method of distributing drugs to the school-age children in their villages. The ComDT approach was well received and was successfully implemented in the villages. Although the villagers pointed out the limitation in reaching the non-enrolled children in the school-based approach, they also expressed satisfaction with this approach. This study suggests that the ComDT approach is well accepted and can be implemented effectively to ensure better coverage of especially non-enrolled school-age children.

  14. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-Based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program: The HEALTHY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A.; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program…

  15. Impact and Acceptability of the Coach and Teacher Training within a School-Based Sport-for-Health Smoking Prevention Intervention: Smokefree Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnham-Lee, Katy; Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E.; Knowles, Zoe; Foweather, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact and acceptability of a three-hour bespoke training workshop for sports coaches and teachers to subsequently deliver a sport-for-health smoking prevention intervention in primary schools. Questionnaires were completed pre- and post-training by both teachers (N = 24) and coaches (N = 8), and post-intervention by…

  16. Evaluation of a Coordinated School-Based Obesity Prevention Program in a Hispanic Community: Choosing Healthy and Active Lifestyles for Kids/healthy Schools Healthy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; Rausch, John; Okah, Ebiere; Tsao, Daisy; Nieto, Andres; Lyda, Elizabeth; Meyer, Dodi; McCord, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a public health concern that disproportionately affects underserved and minority communities. Purpose: To evaluate whether a comprehensive obesity prevention program that targets children and school staff in an underserved Hispanic community affects obesity related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among both students and…

  17. Evaluation of a Dutch school-based depression prevention program for youths in highrisk neighborhoods: study protocol of a two-armed randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, K.C.M.; Zundert, R.M.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has indicated that depression prevention programs attenuate the development of symptoms of depression in adolescents. To implement these programs on a large scale, implementation in a school setting with teachers providing the programs is needed. In the present study, the

  18. A School-Based Program to Improve Life Skills and to Prevent HIV Infection in Multicultural Transgendered Youth in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, P. Jayne; Juday, Timothy R.; Charters, Cloudia W.

    2004-01-01

    Chrysalis is a weekly after-school drop-in group on O'ahu high school campuses for transgendered and questioning youth. Nine Chrysalis members, nine demographically matched TG youth, and five key informants participated in a study to evaluate program effectiveness in improving life skills and preventing HIV infection. Chrysalis members scored…

  19. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  20. Effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive programme on weight and fasting blood glucose in "at-risk" adolescents of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani Salameh, Ayman; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; El-Hneiti, Mamdouh; Shaheen, Abeer; Williams, Leonie M; Gallagher, Robyn

    2017-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive programme for type 2 diabetes by change in weight and fasting blood glucose level in Jordanian adolescents. Sixteen percent of Jordanian adults have obesity-related type 2 diabetes and 5.6% of obese adolescents examined, however one-third unexamined. Rates in Arabic countries will double in 20 years, but this can be prevented and reversed by controlling obesity. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 unisex high schools in Irbid, Jordan, in 2012. Intervention and control participants, aged 12 to 18 years, were visibly overweight/obese. They were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 205) or control (n = 196) groups. At-risk students were assessed before and after the 12-week intervention, for change in weight and fasting blood glucose level following preventive instruction and parent-supported changes. Mean age of participants was 15.3 years with equal percentages of both males (49.4%) and females. Post intervention, the intervention group, demonstrated statistically significant reductions: mean difference of 3.3 kg in weight (P blood glucose (P blood glucose in Jordanian at-risk adolescents. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Preventing anxiety and depression in adolescents: A randomised controlled trial of two school based Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to 1 establish the efficacy of two Internet-based prevention programmes to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents; and 2 investigate the distribution of psychological symptoms in a large sample of Australian adolescents prior to the implementation of the intervention. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 976 Year 9–10 students from twelve Australian secondary schools in 2009. Four schools were randomly allocated to the Anxiety Internet-based prevention programme (n = 372, five schools to the Depression Internet-based prevention programme (n = 380 and three to their usual health classes (n = 224. The Thiswayup Schools for Anxiety and Depression prevention courses were presented over the Internet and consist of 6–7 evidence-based, curriculum consistent lessons to improve the ability to manage anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Data analysis was constrained by both study attrition and data corruption. Thus post-intervention data were only available for 265/976 students. Compared to the control group, students in the depression intervention group showed a significant improvement in anxiety and depressive symptoms at the end of the course, whilst students in the anxiety intervention demonstrated a reduction in symptoms of anxiety. No significant differences were found in psychological distress. The Thiswayup Schools Depression and Anxiety interventions appear to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents using a curriculum based, blended online and offline cognitive behavioural therapy programme that was implemented by classroom teachers. Given the study limitations, particularly the loss of post-intervention data, these findings can only be considered preliminary and need to be replicated in future research.

  2. Assessing the sustained impact of a school-based obesity prevention program for adolescent boys: the ATLAS cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Dally, Kerry A; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-08-20

    Obesity prevention interventions targeting 'at-risk' adolescents are urgently needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sustained impact of the 'Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time' (ATLAS) obesity prevention program. Cluster RCT in 14 secondary schools in low-income communities of New South Wales, Australia. Participants were 361 adolescent boys (aged 12-14 years) 'at risk' of obesity. The intervention was based on Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory and involved: professional development, fitness equipment for schools, teacher-delivered physical activity sessions, lunch-time activity sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies. Assessments for the primary (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference) and secondary outcomes were conducted at baseline, 8- (post-intervention) and 18-months (follow-up). Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle using linear mixed models. After 18-months, there were no intervention effects for BMI or waist circumference. Sustained effects were found for screen-time, resistance training skill competency, and motivational regulations for school sport. There were no clinically meaningful intervention effects for the adiposity outcomes. However, the intervention resulted in sustained effects for secondary outcomes. Interventions that more intensively target the home environment, as well as other socio-ecological determinants of obesity may be needed to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents from low-income communities. Australian Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12612000978864.

  3. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  4. Perceptions of middle school educators in Hawai'i about school-based gardening and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ameena T; Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-07-01

    Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai'i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai'i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health.

  5. Perceptions of Middle School Educators in Hawai‘i about School-based Gardening and Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Methods Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai‘i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. Conclusions In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai‘i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health. PMID:21886287

  6. Evaluation of a Dutch school-based depression prevention program for youths in highrisk neighborhoods: study protocol of a two-armed randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindt Karlijn CM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that depression prevention programs attenuate the development of symptoms of depression in adolescents. To implement these programs on a large scale, implementation in a school setting with teachers providing the programs is needed. In the present study, the effectiveness of the Dutch depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK provided by school teachers during school hours with adolescents from high risk neighborhoods will be tested. The mediating effects of cognitive distortions and alexithymia will be evaluated as well. We hypothesize that the OVK program will prevent or decrease reported depressive symptoms, and that this association will be mediated by cognitive distortions and alexithymia. Methods/Design Schools with at least 30% of their pupils living in low income areas in the Netherlands are invited to participate in the study. Classes from vocational training up to pre-university level are eligible and 1324 adolescents (11-14 years will be participating in the study. Randomisation will be done at class level, randomly assigning participants to an intervention group (OVK and a control group (care as usual, stratifying by school level (high versus low. Trained school teachers will be delivering the program, which covers cognitive-behavioral and social problem-solving skills. Longitudinal data will be collected with self-report measurements administered in the school setting at baseline, post intervention and at two follow ups (at 6 and 12 months. Primary outcome is the level of depressive symptoms, and secondary outcomes include: cognitive errors, response style, attributional style, alexithymia, stressful life events, substance use, happiness, and school grades. Discussion If the OVK program proves to be effective when it is provided by school teachers, a structural implementation of the program in the school curriculum will enhance the quality of the lives of adolescents and their

  7. Effects of a randomized controlled trial to assess the six-months effects of a school based smoking prevention program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mutaz; Eggers, Sander Matthijs; Alotaiby, Fahad F; de Vries, Nanne; de Vries, Hein

    2016-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of a smoking prevention program which aimed to address smoking related cognitions and smoking behavior among Saudi adolescents age 13 to 15. A randomized controlled trial was used. Respondents in the experimental group (N=698) received five in-school sessions, while those in the control group (N=683) received no smoking prevention information (usual curriculum). Post-intervention data was collected six months after baseline. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess effects on smoking initiation, and linear regression analysis was applied to assess changes in beliefs and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess intervention effects. All analyses were adjusted for the nested structure of students within schools. At post-intervention respondents from the experimental group reported in comparison with those from the control group a significantly more negative attitude towards smoking, stronger social norms against smoking, higher self-efficacy towards non-smoking, more action planning to remain a non-smoker, and lower intentions to smoke in the future. Smoking initiation was 3.2% in the experimental group and 8.8% in the control group (pnon-smoking cognitions and non-smoking behavior. Therefore it is recommended to implement the program at a national level in Saudi-Arabia. Future studies are recommended to assess long term program effects and the conditions favoring national implementation of the program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PRALIMAP: study protocol for a high school-based, factorial cluster randomised interventional trial of three overweight and obesity prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrinier Nelly

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increase in overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents in the last decade, effective prevention strategies for these conditions in adolescents are urgently needed. The PRALIMAP (Promotion de l'ALImentation et de l'Activité Physique trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness for these conditions of 3 health promotion strategies -- educational, screening and environmental -- applied singly or in combination in high schools over a 2-year intervention period. Methods PRALIMAP is a stratified 2 × 2 × 2 factorial cluster randomised controlled trial including 24 state high schools in Lorraine, northeastern France, in 2 waves: 8 schools in 2006 (wave 1 and 16 in 2007 (wave 2. Students entering the selected high schools in the 4 academic years from 2006 to 2009 are eligible for data collection. Interventional strategies are organized over 2 academic years. The follow-up consists of 3 visits: at the entry of grade 10 (T0, grade 11 (T1 and grade 12 (T2. At T0, 5,458 (85.7% adolescents participated. The educational strategy consists of nutritional lessons, working groups and a final party. The screening strategy consists in detecting overweight/obesity and eating disorders in adolescents and proposing, if necessary, an adapted care management program of 7 group educational sessions. The environmental strategy consists in improving dietary and physical activity offerings in high schools and facilities, especially catering. The main outcomes are body size evolution over time, nutritional behaviour and knowledge, health and quality of life. An evaluation process documents how each intervention strategy is implemented in the schools and estimates the dose of the intervention, allowing for a per protocol analysis after the main intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion PRALIMAP aims at improving the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in adolescents by translating current evidence into public health practice

  9. New Horizons in Organizational Stress Prevention Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaffey, Thomas N.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses and describes some active Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs). An EAP is a stress intervention program that, when combined with other stress prevention procedures, can serve as an effective base for developing a comprehensive managerial system for combating organizational stress. (Author/IRT)

  10. Effects of PREPARE, a Multi-component, School-Based HIV and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programme on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviour and IPV: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine; Eggers, Sander M; Townsend, Loraine; Aarø, Leif E; de Vries, Petrus J; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; De Koker, Petra; McClinton Appollis, Tracy; Mtshizana, Yolisa; Koech, Joy; Wubs, Annegreet; De Vries, Hein

    2016-09-01

    Young South Africans, especially women, are at high risk of HIV. We evaluated the effects of PREPARE, a multi-component, school-based HIV prevention intervention to delay sexual debut, increase condom use and decrease intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adolescents. We conducted a cluster RCT among Grade eights in 42 high schools. The intervention comprised education sessions, a school health service and a school sexual violence prevention programme. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Regression was undertaken to provide ORs or coefficients adjusted for clustering. Of 6244 sampled adolescents, 55.3 % participated. At 12 months there were no differences between intervention and control arms in sexual risk behaviours. Participants in the intervention arm were less likely to report IPV victimisation (35.1 vs. 40.9 %; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.61-0.99; t(40) = 2.14) suggesting the intervention shaped intimate partnerships into safer ones, potentially lowering the risk for HIV.

  11. Modularity Design Approach for Preventive Machine Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, D.; Pudji, E.; Ngatilah, Y.; Handoyo, R.

    2018-01-01

    In a company, machine maintenance system will be very influential in production process activity. The company should have a scheduled engine maintenance system that does not require high costs when repairing and replacing machine parts. Modularity Design method is able to provide solutions to the engine maintenance scheduling system and can prevent fatal damage to the engine components. It can minimize the cost of repair and replacement of these machine components.The paper provides a solution to machine maintenance problems. The paper is also completed with case study of milling machines. That case studies can give us a real description about impact implementation of modularity design to prevent fatal damage to components and minimize the cost of repair and replacement of components of the machine.

  12. Food systems approach to cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanamala, Jairam

    2017-08-13

    New cancer cases are expected to surge 57% worldwide in the next two decades. The greatest burden will be in low- and middle-income countries that are ill equipped to face this epidemic. Similarly, in the United States, low-income populations are at greater risk for cancer. As most cancers contain over 50 genetic alterations, and as these alterations define dysregulation of over 10 different critical cellular signaling pathways, a "silver bullet" treatment is not effective against most cancers. Instead, the latest World Cancer Report (2012) suggests a research shift toward developing prevention strategies for cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that a diet high in plant-based foods is preventive of a variety of chronic diseases, including cancer. A plethora of bioactive compounds-such as polyphenols, glucosinolates and carotenoids in fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes-are shown to suppress a variety of biological capabilities required for tumor growth. While much research has shown that plant bioactive compounds can suppress sustained proliferative signaling, angiogenesis, and metastasis, as well as promote cancer stem cell apoptosis, public health campaigns to increase fruit and vegetable consumption have, overall, been less effective than desired. Thus, there is a need for innovative strategies to support increased consumption of bioactive compounds for cancer prevention particularly in vulnerable populations. Many practices of the farm-to-fork continuum, including preharvest practices, postharvest storage, and processing and consumer practices, affect a food's bioactive compound content, composition, and chemopreventive bioactivity. Food system practices may be adjusted to reduce the toxic compound levels (e.g., glycoalkaloids in potatoes) and improve the bioactive compound profile, thus, elevate the cancer fighting properties of fruits, vegetables, and other food products. This review presents current scientific evidence outlining farm-to-fork effects

  13. [The Barbie-Matrix: effectiveness of a school-based German program for the primary prevention of anorexia nervosa developed for girls up to the age of 12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Uwe; Joseph, Andrea; Sowa, Melanie; Strauss, Bernhard

    2007-06-01

    More than 25 % of the 12-year-old girls in Thuringia (Germany) show problematic eating behaviour as measured with the Eating-Attitudes-Test (EAT-26D), which corresponds to an increased risk for the development of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. This was the starting position of a controlled study using a pre-post-design to check the effectiveness of a newly developed German program for the prevention of anorexia nervosa in girls ("PriMa"). 42 Thuringian schools (20 as treatment group) with 1006 girls participated in the pilot study, which lasted from September 2004 to July 2005. Program effectiveness was analysed with mostly standardized questionnaires at three times of measurement (before, after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up) referring to body related self esteem (FBeK), satisfaction with body shape (KEDS), eating behaviour (EAT-26D) and body related attitudes. The program was established in 9 x 90-minute lessons including interactive exercises and discussing especially developed posters that show scenes of a Barbie-doll's life including the reports of a patient suffering from anorexia. Significant improvements on all variables could be reached for the higher risk group (EAT-26D >/= 10 points; = 26,7 %). Mean values in the EAT-26D decreased 5 points at the average which is equivalent with 6.6 % of the EAT-26D range, reflecting a practically significant change effect.

  14. A school based community randomized trial of the effect of peer health education on primary prevention knowledge, attitude and behaviours towards HPV among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferrara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: this study in the prospect of promoting adherence to the primary and secondary preven- tion programmes will research knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the student population attending high schools regarding HPV infections and will also promote health education sessions based on peer education.
    Methods: we carried out a cross-sectional kaP survey regarding HPV infection, HPV vaccination, and sexual health, of students and a peer educational intervention. To verify the effectiveness of peer educators in changing opinions and beliefs about HPV a self-com- pletion questionnaire was made and distributed pre (T1 and post (T2 peer educator intervention. The same questionnaires were assigned to the control group.
    Results: the sample consisted of 900 students, mean age was 16.6±1.4, having relationship 34.4%. at T1, 64.6% of students in experimental group said that they knew HPV, 83.4% how it is transmitted and 71.1% HPV vaccination, 54.7% perceived dangerousness with significant gender-related difference. at T2 the percentages increased. at T1, 14.1% of females were vaccinated at T2 they were 17.5%. The main factors associated with the students’ propensity to vaccination were: having at least one sister; being in favour of vaccinations in general; knowing that the vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer; and being aware that they could be infected by HPV.
    Conclusion: both the HPV test and HPV vaccine need effective communication and monitoring of the spread of knowledge, especially among women identified as most in need of information and included in the age group at risk, in wich it is crucial to encourage informed choices. This underlines the need to plan adequate educational programmes....

  15. Effect of nutrition changes on foods selected by students in a middle school-based diabetes prevention intervention program: the HEALTHY experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C; Stadler, Diane D; Staten, Myrlene A; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-02-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and à la carte venues are compared to the experience of control schools. The intervention was implemented in 21 middle schools from winter 2007 through spring 2009 (following a cohort of students from sixth through eighth grades); 21 schools acted as observed controls. The nutrition component targeted school food service environmental change. Data identifying foods and nutrients served (selected by students for consumption) were collected over a 20-day period at baseline and end of study. Analysis compared end of study values for intervention versus control schools. Intervention schools more successfully limited dessert and snack food portion size in NSLP and à la carte and lowered fat content of foods served. Servings of high-fiber grain-based foods and/or legumes were improved in SBP but not NSLP. Intervention and control schools eliminated >1% fat milk and added-sugar beverages in SBP, but intervention schools were more successful in NSLP and à la carte. The HEALTHY program demonstrated significant changes in the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served in the SBP, NSLP, and à la carte venues, as part of an effort to decrease childhood obesity and support beneficial effects in some secondary HEALTHY study outcomes. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. A coordinated school health approach to obesity prevention among Appalachian youth: the Winning with Wellness Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetzina, Karen E; Dalton, William T; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Azzazy, Nora; VonWerssowetz, Katrina M; Givens, Connie; Pfortmiller, Deborah T; Stern, H Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has been an increasing problem in the United States, especially in rural areas. Effective prevention approaches are needed. This article describes the development, implementation, effectiveness, feasibility, and sustainability of a school-based obesity prevention pilot project, Winning with Wellness. The program was based on the coordinated school health model and included a community-based participatory research approach aimed at promoting healthy eating and physical activity in a rural Appalachian elementary school. Findings from this preliminary project revealed improvements in nutrition offerings and increased physical activity during the school day. In addition, the program was found to be acceptable to teachers, successfully implemented utilizing both existing and newly developed resources, and sustainable as evidenced in continued practice and expansion to other area schools.

  17. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  18. Proposing New Heuristic Approaches for Preventive Maintenance Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid Esmailian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of preventive maintenance management is to perform a series of tasks that prevent or minimize production breakdowns and improve reliability of production facilities. An important objective of preventive maintenance management is to minimize downtime of production facilities. In order to accomplish this objective, personnel should efficiently allocate resources and determine an effective maintenance schedule. Gopalakrishnan (1997 developed a mathematical model and four heuristic approaches to solve the preventive maintenance scheduling problem of assigning skilled personnel to work with tasks that require a set of corresponding skills. However, there are several limitations in the prior work in this area of research. The craft combination problem has not been solved because the craft combination is assumed as given. The craft combination problem concerns the computation of all combinations of assigning multi skilled workers to accomplishment of a particular task. In fact, determining craft combinations is difficult because of the exponential number of craft combinations that are possible. This research provides a heuristic approach for determining the craft combination and four new heuristic approach solution for the preventive maintenance scheduling problem with multi skilled workforce constraints. In order to examine the new heuristic approach and to compare the new heuristic approach with heuristic approach of Gopalakrishnan (1997, 81 standard problems have been generated based on the criterion suggested by from Gopalakrishnan (1997. The average solution quality (SQ of the new heuristic approaches is 1.86% and in old heuristic approaches is 8.32%. The solution time of new heuristic approaches are shorter than old heuristic approaches. The solution time of new heuristic approaches is 0.78 second and old heuristic approaches is 6.43 second, but the solution time of mathematical model provided by Gopalakrishnan (1997 is 152 second.

  19. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  20. Letter to the editor regarding "Study design of 'Friends for Life': a process and effect evaluation of an indicated school-based prevention program": response to Lima et al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kösters MP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mia P Kösters,1 Mai JM Chinapaw,2 Marieke Zwaanswijk,3 Marcel F van der Wal,1 Hans M Koot4,51Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Public Health Service of Amsterdam (GGD, Amsterdam, 2Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, 3NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, 4Department of Developmental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, VU University, Amsterdam, 5EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsWe would like to respond to the paper "Childhood depression: a systematic review", recently published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment by Lima et al.1 The aforementioned paper presents a systematic review of childhood depression and refers several times to our paper, "Study design of ‘FRIENDS for Life’: a process and effect evaluation of an indicated school-based prevention programme for childhood anxiety and depression", published in BMC Public Health by Kösters et al.2 Unfortunately we noted a number of erroneous statements about our paper. We will address these in order of appearance.View original paper by Lima and colleagues.

  1. PREVENTING CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: OLD MEANS, NEW APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CĂRĂUȘAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify corruption prevention tools and new ways of approaching them. The research question is how society coped with corruption in an era heavily marked by the media and the internet. The hypothesis that led us to the study was that new strategies of communication are necessary and based on them the civil society capacity to monitor and evaluate can be improved. The new approaches highlighted new entities, such as education, NGOs, media and internet, or new concepts, such as prevention, local strategies, audit, image and identity. Among these new entities involved in prevention, education should act as a real inner actor to change.

  2. Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP): a theoretically based approach for teaching HIV prevention to adolescents through an exploration of popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; McLaughlin, Nadine; Gray, Angela; Ogedegbe, Anthony; Hageman, Ivan; Knowlton, Courtney; Rodriguez, Anna; Beeder, Ann

    2010-05-01

    Using popular culture to engage students in discussions of HIV prevention is a nontraditional approach that may complement current prevention efforts and enhance the ability to reach youth who are at high risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Hip-hop or rap music is the dominant genre of music among adolescents, especially Black and Latino youth who are disproportionately impacted by HIV and AIDS. This paper describes the rationale and development of the Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP) program, a school-based program that uses hip-hop/rap music as a vehicle for raising awareness among adolescents about HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory and the Sexual Script Theory were used in developing the program. It was piloted and evaluated among 26 middle school students in East Harlem, New York. The lessons learned from a formative evaluation of the program and the implications for developing other programs targeting public health problems are discussed. The RHAP program challenges the traditional pedagogue-student paradigm and provides an alternative approach to teaching about HIV prevention and awareness.

  3. School-Based Efforts to Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    While bullying historically has occurred within or in close proximity to the school, advances in communication technologies have allowed would-be bullies to extend their reach. Cyberbullying--as it is termed--has become a significant concern among adolescents and adults alike. As a result, parents, school professionals, law enforcement, and youth…

  4. Lessons from obesity prevention for the prevention of mental disorders: the primordial prevention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven

    2014-09-10

    Emerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity. Obesity prevention research since the 1970's represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet and physical activity and so there may be clear lessons from obesity prevention that apply to the prevention of mental disorders. For obesity, as for common mental disorders, adolescence represents a key period of vulnerability. In this paper we briefly discuss relationships between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and mental health, lifestyle risk factor interventions in obesity prevention research, the current state of mental health prevention, and the implications of current applications of systems thinking in obesity prevention research for lifestyle interventions. We propose a potential focus for future mental health promotion interventions and emphasise the importance of lessons available from other lifestyle modification intervention programmes.

  5. Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, C. A. M.; Taunton, J. E.; Lloyd-Smith, D. R.; McKenzie, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach for preventing running injuries. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Much of the research on running injuries is in the form of expert opinion and comparison trials. Recent systematic reviews have summarized research in orthotics, stretching before running, and interventions to prevent soft tissue injuries. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common factors implicated in running injuries are errors in training methods, inappropriate training surfaces and running shoes, malalign...

  6. Diagnostic and Prevention Approach in Post Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Ilone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive jaundice (icterus was an emergency situation in gastroenterology. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was a nonsurgical approach to release obstruction, mostly in common bile duct. Nowadays, this procedure was become frequently used in daily practice, but several complications also emerging. One of the severe complication was Post-ERCP Pancreatitis (PEP. Since it has a high mortality and morbidity, and also reduce patient quality of life, several approaches have been developed to reduce its incidence. In general, approaches consist of patient identification, efficient procedure, until pharmacological agent prevention. Although there were still contradiction among these, careful approach should be considered for each patients for a better outcomes.

  7. The impact of active stakeholder involvement on recruitment, retention and engagement of schools, children and their families in the cluster randomised controlled trial of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP): a school-based intervention to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J; McHugh, C; Minton, J; Eke, H; Wyatt, K

    2017-08-14

    Recruitment and retention of participants is crucial for statistical power and internal and external validity and participant engagement is essential for behaviour change. However, many school-based interventions focus on programme content rather than the building of supportive relationships with all participants and tend to employ specific standalone strategies, such as incentives, to improve retention. We believe that actively involving stakeholders in both intervention and trial design improves recruitment and retention and increases the chances of creating an effective intervention. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme, HeLP (an obesity prevention programme for children 9-10 years old) was developed using intervention mapping and involved extensive stakeholder involvement in both the design of the trial and the intervention to ensure that: (i) delivery methods were suitably engaging, (ii) deliverers had the necessary skills and qualities to build relationships and (iii) the intervention dovetailed with the National Curriculum. HeLP was a year-long intervention consisting of 4 multi-component phases using a range of delivery methods. We recruited 1324 children from 32 schools from the South West of England to a cluster-randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of HeLP in preventing obesity. The primary outcome was change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) at 24 months post randomisation. Secondary outcomes included additional anthropometric and behavioural (physical activity and diet) measures at 18 and 24 months. Anthropometric and behavioural measures were taken in 99%, 96% and 94% of children at baseline, 18 and 24 months, respectively, with no differential follow up between the control and intervention groups at each time point. All children participated in the programme and 92% of children and 77% of parents across the socio-economic spectrum were considered to have actively engaged with HeLP. We attribute our excellent

  8. Human rights-based approach to unintentional injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, J Morag; Ryan, Mark Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Unintentional injury remains an important global public health issue, and efforts to address it are often hampered by a lack of visibility, leadership, funding, infrastructure, capacity and evidence of effective solutions. The growing support for a socioecological model and a systems approach to prevention-along with the acknowledgement that injury prevention can be a byproduct of salutogenic design and activities-has increased opportunities to integrate unintentional injury prevention into other health promotion and disease prevention agendas. It has also helped to integrate it into the broader human development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals. This growing support provides new opportunities to use a human rights-based approach to address the issue. The human rights-based approach is based on the idea that all members of society have social, economic and cultural rights and that governments are responsible and accountable for upholding those rights. It incorporates a systems approach, addresses inequity and places an emphasis on the most vulnerable corners of humanity. It also leverages legal statutes and provides organisations with the opportunity to build existing international goals and benchmarks into their monitoring efforts. This paper describes the approach and highlights how it can leverage attention and investment to address current challenges for unintentional injury. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

  10. Multisectoral approaches to early pregnancy prevention in colleges ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Multisectoral approaches to early pregnancy prevention in colleges in Togo. The goal of this program is to generate knowledge about the early pregnancy phenomenon through operational research, and to develop multisectoral strategies focusing on teens, in conjunction with stakeholders in the education, health and legal ...

  11. Preventing Zika disease with novel vector control approaches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Preventing Zika disease with novel vector control approaches. The highest numbers of dengue cases in Latin America in the last few years have occurred in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. These countries have also faced outbreaks of chikungunya (2014-2015) and Zika (2015-2016). All three diseases are transmitted by the ...

  12. Ecological approaches to the prevention of unintentional injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Allegrante

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Injury as a cause of significant morbidity and mortality has remained fairly stable in countries with developed economies. Although injury prevention often is conceptualised as a biomedical construct, such a reductionist perspective overlooks the importance of the psychological, environmental, and sociocultural conditions as contributing factors to injury and its consequences. This paper describes the potential of the ecological model for understanding the antecedent causes of unintentional injuries and guiding injury prevention approaches. We review the origins and conceptualise the elements of the ecological model and conclude with some examples of applications of ecological approaches to the prevention of unintentional injury and promotion of community safety.

    Methods: A review of the English-language literature on the conceptualization of ecological models in public health and injury prevention, including the application of the ecological model in the prevention of falls and road traffic injuries and in the community safety promotion movement.

    Results: Three dimensions are important in social-ecological systems that comprise key determinants of injuries: 1 the individual and his or her behaviour, 2 the physical environment, and 3 the social environment. Social and environmental determinants have profound impact on population health and in the causation of injuries.

    Conclusions: Social and environmental determinants of injury should be studied with the same energy, urgency, and intellectual rigor as physical determinants. Application of the ecological model in injury prevention shows the most promise in falls injury prevention, road traffic injury prevention, and community safety promotion.

  13. Pressure sores--a multifaceted approach to prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staas, W. E.; Cioschi, H. M.

    1991-01-01

    The incidence and effect of pressure sores on the disabled and elderly population have created a challenge to physicians and health care professionals, from emergency departments to rehabilitation units, and in the community. If not prevented, the morbidity and mortality of patients and the direct and indirect costs to both patients and the health care system are radically increased. In this article we define the impact on our health care system of pressure sores, provide an overview of a multifaceted approach to their prevention and management, and introduce successful behavioral and educational approaches for patients with chronic, recurrent sores. A coordinated approach with patients as informed participants and their care givers enhances the chances for success. PMID:1830985

  14. Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10-12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloigne, M.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Maes, L.; Brug, J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify family- and school-based correlates of specific energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, breakfast consumption, soft drink consumption) among 10-12-year-olds, using the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain

  15. Evaluating Environmental Management Approaches to Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Langford, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen an upsurge in prevention work focused on changing the campus and community environments in which college students make decisions about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. This approach, called "environmental management," is based on three fundamental premises: (1) Substance use problems are aggravated by a physical, social,…

  16. A qualitative study exploring adolescents' experiences with a school-based mental health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K

    2015-10-21

    Supporting positive mental health development in adolescents is a major public health concern worldwide. Although several school-based programs aimed at preventing depression have been launched, it is crucial to evaluate these programs and to obtain feedback from participating adolescents. This study aimed to explore adolescents' experiences with a -based cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program. Eighty-nine adolescents aged 13-15 years were divided into 12 focus groups. The focus group interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three categories and eight subcategories were found to be related to the experience of the school-based program. The first category, intrapersonal strategies, consisted of the subcategories of directed thinking, improved self-confidence, stress management, and positive activities. The second category, interpersonal awareness, consisted of the subcategories of trusting the group and considering others. The third category, structural constraints, consisted of the subcategories of negative framing and emphasis on performance. The school-based mental health program was perceived as beneficial and meaningful on both individual and group levels, but students expressed a desire for a more health-promoting approach.

  17. Major accident prevention through applying safety knowledge management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Many scattered resources of knowledge are available to use for chemical accident prevention purposes. The common approach to management process safety, including using databases and referring to the available knowledge has some drawbacks. The main goal of this article was to devise a new emerged knowledge base (KB) for the chemical accident prevention domain. The scattered sources of safety knowledge were identified and scanned. Then, the collected knowledge was formalized through a computerized program. The Protégé software was used to formalize and represent the stored safety knowledge. The domain knowledge retrieved as well as data and information. This optimized approach improved safety and health knowledge management (KM) process and resolved some typical problems in the KM process. Upgrading the traditional resources of safety databases into the KBs can improve the interaction between the users and knowledge repository.

  18. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  19. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  20. Community and school-based health education for dengue control in rural Cambodia: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-12-05

    Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP), and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.

  1. Community and school-based health education for dengue control in rural Cambodia: a process evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokrin Khun

    Full Text Available Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP, and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.

  2. Process evaluation of school-based peer education for HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2005, a survey was conducted among all the 27 high schools of Aden, which revealed low levels of knowledge on major prevention measures, and a high level of stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWH). The results served as a baseline for implementing a school-based peer education ...

  3. Alternative approaches to ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, L; Sampson, J; Fumagalli, J; Panigada, M; Kolobow, T

    2011-03-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which develops in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, is the most common nosocomial infection in patients with acute respiratory failure. The major mechanism of lower respiratory tract colonization is aspiration of bacteria-colonized secretions from the oropharynx into the lower airways. The hydrostatic pressure of the secretions that collect in the subglottic space, which is the area above the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff, or aerosolization of bacteria from the secretions collected within the respiratory tubing may facilitate the leakage into the lower airways. Ideally, the elimination of the mechanisms responsible for aspiration would decrease the incidence of VAP. Several preventive measures have been tested in clinical trials with little success.Here we present the results of our efforts to develop novel approaches for the prevention of VAP. Specifically, we found that keeping ventilated patients in a lateral position, which eliminates gravitational forces, is feasible and possibly advantageous. Additionally, several novel medical devices have been recently developed to prevent bacterial biofilm formation from the ETT and breathing tubing. These devices include coated ETTs, mucus shavers and mucus slurpers. Prevention of ETT bacterial colonization showed decreased bacterial colonization of the respiratory circuit and of the lower respiratory tract in laboratory studies and clinical trials. Future large studies should be designed to test the hypothesis that VAP can be prevented with these novel strategies. While there is a current focus on the use of respiratory devices to prevent biofilm formation and microaspiration, it is important to remember that lower respiratory tract colonization is multifactorial. Prevention of VAP cannot be achieved solely by eliminating bacterial biofilm on respiratory devices, and more comprehensive care of the intubated patient needs to be implemented.

  4. School-Based Interventions Going Beyond Health Education to Promote Adolescent Health: Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, Nichola; Jamal, Farah; Viner, Russell M; Dickson, Kelly; Patton, George; Bonell, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Health education in school classrooms can be effective in promoting sexual health and preventing violence and substance use but effects are patchy and often short term. Classroom education is also challenging because of schools' increasing focus on academic-performance metrics. Other school-based approaches are possible, such as healthy school policies, improving how schools respond to bullying, and parent outreach, which go beyond health education to address broader health determinants. Existing systematic reviews include such interventions but often alongside traditional health education. There is scope for a systematic review of reviews to assess and synthesize evidence across existing reviews to develop an overview of the potential of alternative school-based approaches. We searched 12 databases to identify reviews published after 1980. Data were reviewed by two researchers. Quality was assessed using a modified Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews checklist and results were synthesized narratively. We screened 7,544 unique references and included 22 reviews. Our syntheses suggest that multicomponent school-based interventions, for example, including school policy changes, parent involvement, and work with local communities, are effective for promoting sexual health and preventing bullying and smoking. There is less evidence that such intervention can reduce alcohol and drug use. Economic incentives to keep girls in school can reduce teenage pregnancies. School clinics can promote smoking cessation. There is little evidence that, on their own, sexual-health clinics, antismoking policies, and various approaches targeting at-risk students are effective. There is good evidence that various whole-school health interventions are effective in preventing teenage pregnancy, smoking, and bullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parent Interest in a School-Based, School Nurse-Led Weight Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo

    2014-01-01

    Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…

  6. Adolescent Health Care in School-Based Health Centers. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2008

    2008-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) are considered one of the most effective strategies for delivering preventive care, including reproductive and mental health care services, to adolescents--a population long considered difficult to reach. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) recommends practices and policies to assure…

  7. Functional Foods and Lifestyle Approaches for Diabetes Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alkhatib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods contain biologically active ingredients associated with physiological health benefits for preventing and managing chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A regular consumption of functional foods may be associated with enhanced anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, insulin sensitivity, and anti-cholesterol functions, which are considered integral to prevent and manage T2DM. Components of the Mediterranean diet (MD—such as fruits, vegetables, oily fish, olive oil, and tree nuts—serve as a model for functional foods based on their natural contents of nutraceuticals, including polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, and unsaturated fatty acids. Polyphenols within MD and polyphenol-rich herbs—such as coffee, green tea, black tea, and yerba maté—have shown clinically-meaningful benefits on metabolic and microvascular activities, cholesterol and fasting glucose lowering, and anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation in high-risk and T2DM patients. However, combining exercise with functional food consumption can trigger and augment several metabolic and cardiovascular protective benefits, but it is under-investigated in people with T2DM and bariatric surgery patients. Detecting functional food benefits can now rely on an “omics” biological profiling of individuals’ molecular, genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, but is under-investigated in multi-component interventions. A personalized approach for preventing and managing T2DM should consider biological and behavioral models, and embed nutrition education as part of lifestyle diabetes prevention studies. Functional foods may provide additional benefits in such an approach.

  8. The Norwegian healthy body image programme: study protocol for a randomized controlled school-based intervention to promote positive body image and prevent disordered eating among Norwegian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Engen, Kethe M E; Pettersen, Gunn; Friborg, Oddgeir; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Kolle, Elin; Piran, Niva; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2018-03-06

    Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating raise the risk for eating disorders. In the prevention of eating disorders, many programmes have proved partly successful in using cognitive techniques to combat such risk factors. However, specific strategies to actively promote a positive body image are rarely used. The present paper outlines a protocol for a programme integrating the promotion of a positive body image and the prevention of disordered eating. Using a cluster randomized controlled mixed methods design, 30 high schools and 2481 12th grade students were allocated to the Healthy Body Image programme or to a control condition. The intervention comprised three workshops, each of 90 min with the main themes body image, media literacy, and lifestyle. The intervention was interactive in nature, and were led by trained scientists. The outcome measures include standardized instruments administered pre-post intervention, and at 3 and 12 months follow-ups, respectively. Survey data cover feasibility and implementation issues. Qualitative interviews covers experiential data about students' benefits and satisfaction with the programme. The present study is one of the first in the body image and disordered eating literature that integrates a health promotion and a disease prevention approach, as well as integrating standardized outcome measures and experiential findings. Along with mediator and moderator analyses it is expected that the Healthy Body Image programme may prove its efficacy. If so, plans are made with respect to further dissemination as well as communicating the findings to regional and national decision makers in the education and health care services. The study was registered and released at ClinicalTrials.gov 21th August 2016 with the Clinical Trial.gov ID: PRSNCT02901457 . In addition, the study is approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics.

  9. A Participatory Action Research Approach to Developing Youth-Friendly Strategies for the Prevention of Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lesley; Hendricks, Farah

    2017-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy among school-going youth is a concern worldwide, but in socially-economically challenged environments it is a result of, and contributory factor to, a complex web of social injustice. In South Africa, most of the school-based prevention interventions to date have been adult-designed and imparted, with the voice of the target…

  10. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Promotion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…

  11. The Equity Consequences of School-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Adam E.; Miran, Meir

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the introduction of school-based management (SBM) affects schools' incomes and educational equity? Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of financial reports coming from 31 SBM schools during a period of four sequential years reveals that the overall inequity among schools has…

  12. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  13. The Role of Ethnicity in School-Based Obesity Intervention for School-Aged Children: A Pilot Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Sabrina A.; Carter, Jocelyn S.; DeCator, Draycen D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of obesity have risen disproportionately for ethnic minority youth in the United States. School-based programs may be the most comprehensive and cost-effective way to implement primary prevention in children. In this study we evaluated the effect of a school-based obesity prevention on the outcome of body mass index percentile…

  14. Responsibility, Authority, and Accountability in School-Based and Non-School-Based Management: Principals' Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshtain, Yael; Gibton, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how primary school principals in Israel cope with the gaps between authority and responsibility in their work, deriving from partially implemented decentralization processes, and how this relates to school-based management (SBM) and accountability principles. Design/methodology/approach: Using…

  15. Injury prevention risk communication: A mental models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel Cecelia; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    fail to see risks, do not make use of available protective interventions or misjudge the effectiveness of protective measures. If these misunderstandings can be reduced through context-appropriate risk communications, then their improved mental models may help people to engage more effectively...... and create an expert model of the risk situation, interviewing lay people to elicit their comparable mental models, and developing and evaluating communication interventions designed to close the gaps between lay people and experts. This paper reviews the theory and method behind this research stream...... interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the ‘mental models’ that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people...

  16. A PSO approach for preventive maintenance scheduling optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.M.N.A.; Lapa, C.M.F.; Mol, A.C.A.; Luz, A.F. da

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach for preventive maintenance policy optimization, focused in reliability and cost. The probabilistic model for reliability and cost evaluation is developed in such a way that flexible intervals between maintenance are allowed. As PSO is skilled for realcoded continuous spaces, a non-conventional codification has been developed in order to allow PSO to solve scheduling problems (which is discrete) with variable number of maintenance interventions. In order to evaluate the proposed methodology, the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) of a typical 4-loop PWR has been considered. Results demonstrate ability in finding optimal solutions, for which expert knowledge had to be automatically discovered by PSO. (author)

  17. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  18. Preventing Lone Wolf Terrorism: some CT Approaches Addressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bakker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief discussion of the epistemological and phenomenological difficulties associated with the concept of lone wolf terrorism, a number of possible counter-terrorist approaches are discussed. Lone operator terrorist acts should be considered ‘black swan’ occurrences that are almost impossible to categorize or systematize, let alone forecast. Thus, not the profile of the perpetrator, but the modus operandi offer clues for a better response to this particular threat. Furthermore, almost all lone operators do display a degree of commitment to, and identification with, extremist movements – providing leads for preventing new rounds of radicalization within this potential group of sympathizers or followers. With the apparent increase of Islamist lone wolf terrorism and fears for right-wing extremists wanting to follow the example of the Norwegian mass murderer A.B. Breivik, new questions need to be posed, addressing the role of virtual communities with which lone operators identify themselves. 

  19. Preventing HIV transmission in Chinese internal migrants: a behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaona; Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Cai, Rui; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China.

  20. Preventing HIV Transmission in Chinese Internal Migrants: A Behavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China. PMID:25610903

  1. Estrategias novedosas de prevención de embarazo e ITS/VIH/sida entre adolescentes escolarizados mexicanos A novel school-based strategy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs, and teen pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Torres

    2006-08-01

    collected data on contraception knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual behaviors. RESULTS: A total of 11 117 students from 40 schools participated in the baseline (52% female, the mean age of both males and females was 15.5. A total of 10% of the females and 24% of the men surveyed were sexually active at baseline, but only 39% of those sexually active reported using a condom at the time of their first sexual intercourse. Among the sexually active students surveyed, a third of the males and a fifth of the females reported at least one condom slip or breakage. Most of the students were aware of EC. CONCLUSIONS: The low proportion of students that report using condoms accompanied by their incorrect use points to the need for HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancy prevention efforts. This novel approach offers adolescents EC, a backup method to the condom. The approach is feasible as students know what EC is and furthermore it appears that they are willing to use this method.

  2. Combining Internal and External Evaluation: A Case for School-Based Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, David

    1994-01-01

    School-based evaluation, the focus of this article, is conceived of as neither a synonym for internal evaluation nor an antonym for external evaluation, but as a combination that is examined through a review of recent research. A school-based evaluation in Israel illustrates combining these approaches in a complementary way. (SLD)

  3. A school-based public health model to reduce oral health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Valiente, Jonathan E; Espinosa, Gloria; Yepes, Claudia; Padilla, Cesar; Puffer, Maryjane; Slavkin, Harold C; Chung, Paul J

    2018-12-01

    Although dental decay is preventable, it remains the most common pediatric chronic disease. We describe a public health approach to implementing a scalable and sustainable school-based oral health program for low-income urban children. The Los Angeles Trust for Children's Health, a nonprofit affiliated with the Los Angeles Unified School District, applied a public health model and developed a broad-based community-coalition to a) establish a District Oral Health Nurse position to coordinate oral health services, and b) implement a universal school-based oral health screening and fluoride varnishing program, with referral to a dental home. Key informant interviews and focus groups informed program development. Parent surveys assessed preventative oral health behaviors and access to oral health services. Results from screening exams, program costs and rates of reimbursement were recorded. From 2012 to 2015, six elementary schools and three dental provider groups participated. Four hundred ninety-one parents received oral health education and 89 served as community oral health volunteers; 3,399 screenings and fluoride applications were performed on 2,776 children. Sixty-six percent of children had active dental disease, 27 percent had visible tooth decay, and 6 percent required emergent care. Of the 623 students who participated for two consecutive years, 56 percent had fewer or no visible caries at follow-up, while only 17 percent had additional disease. Annual program cost was $69.57 per child. Using a broad based, oral health coalition, a school-based universal screening and fluoride varnishing program can improve the oral health of children with a high burden of untreated dental diseases. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. A school-based cross-sectional survey of adverse events following co-administration of albendazole and praziquantel for preventive chemotherapy against urogenital schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Kwale County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njenga, Sammy M; Ng'ang'a, Paul M; Mwanje, Mariam T; Bendera, Fatuma S; Bockarie, Moses J

    2014-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomiasis are mostly prevalent in developing countries due to poor sanitation and lack of adequate clean water. School-age children tend to be the target of chemotherapy-based control programmes because they carry the heaviest worm and egg burdens. The present study examines adverse events (AEs) experienced following co-administration of albendazole and praziquantel to school-age children in a rural area in Kwale County, Kenya. Children were treated with single doses of albendazole and praziquantel tablets and then interviewed using a questionnaire for post treatment AEs. Overall, 752 children, 47.6% boys, participated in the study. Their median (interquartile range) age was 12.0 (10.0-14.0) years. A total of 190 (25.3%) children reportedly experienced at least one AE. In total, 239 cases of AEs were reported with the most frequent being abdominal pains (46.3%), dizziness (33.2%) and nausea (21.1%). Majority of the reported AEs (80.8%) resolved themselves while 12.1% and 6.3% were countered by, respectively, self-medication and visiting a nearby health facility. More girls (60.5%) than boys (39.5%) reported AEs (P = 0.027). The AEs were mild and transient, and were no worse than those expected following monotherapy. The current study adds to the evidence base that dual administration of albendazole and praziquantel in school-based mass drug administration is safe with only mild adverse events noted.

  5. The Nutrition Club Approach: Community Mobilization to Prevent Child Malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugyen, Anh Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To establish a scalable and sustainable, community led approach to prevent and manage child malnutrition, and increase vulnerable families’ access to food security. Methods: The establishment of the nutrition club is a participatory community mobilization process involving local leaders including the Women’s Union, Farmers Union and Youth Union, local health workers and caregivers of young children. The first step in the process is the formation of district and commune management boards and community development boards. This is followed by a training needs assessment and capacity strengthening of local partners. Nutrition club facilitators are selected by the community and are widely respected and committed to community service. Monthly nutrition club meetings are attended by pregnant women and caregivers of children under five years old. Activities during the nutrition club meeting includes: care and nutrition during pregnancy and the post partum period, complementary feeding, child care practices, development of home gardens and hygiene and sanitation; using interactive facilitation methods such as games, skills practice, role plays and competitions. Follow up home visits are conducted to reinforce positive practices and support vulnerable families. Caregivers who attend the nutrition club have access to community led interest groups such as: chicken raising, livelihoods, agriculture and micro-credit schemes. Nutrition club members pay a small monthly fee that covers cost of refreshments and utilities. Monitoring and supervision is conducted by a team of government district and health center staff. Sustainability of the approach is promoted by mobilizing and utilizing existing resources. An agreement is made between the community development board and World Vision that support for running costs will gradually be reduced and discontinued after four years. The alignment of the nutrition club approach with government policy and priorities

  6. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajj, Samar; Fisher, Brian; Smith, Jennifer; Pike, Ian

    2017-09-12

    Background : Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods : Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology-group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders' observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results : The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ' common g round ' among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders' verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusion s : Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ' common ground' among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  7. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Al-Hajj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology—group analytics (GA. GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders’ observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ‘common ground’ among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders’ verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ‘common ground’ among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  8. Physical urticarias: mast cell disfunction. Preventive, diagnostic and therapeutical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Geller

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present and discuss the current classification of physicalurticarias based on immunologic and pathophysiological mechanisms.To describe clinical symptoms, triggering and worsening factors,different diagnostic tools, and to list the available pharmacologicaltherapeutic approaches as well as the methods of physicaldesensitization. Methods: The literature search was carried out usingMedline. Forty studies were evaluated including case-control series,meta-analyses, case reports and reviews in the English language. Thekeywords used were physical urticarias, classification, and physicaldesensitization. A didactic diagnostic classification of differentgroups of physical urticarias was made, as well as a description ofthe several modalities of these dermatatologic conditions causedby physical stimuli, as localized or diffuse, classical or atypical,acquired or familial, with or without IgE involvement. The geneticpredisposing factors were determined. Results: Physical urticaria isdue to mast cell dysfunction with lowered threshold for the releaseof cytoplasmic anaphylactic mediators triggered by physical factors.These precipitating environmental physical factors include cold, heat,mechanical stimuli, exercises, exposure to sunlight and skin contactwith water. Conclusions: Physical urticarias occur in approximately17% of chronic urticaria patients and different forms may coexist inthe same individual. Treatments include prevention, antihistamines(classical and non-sedating presentations and, occasionally,corticosteroids, dapsone and other anti-inflammatory drugs, and thepotential use of specific physical desensitization.

  9. Inhibition of Mutation: A Novel Approach to Preventing and Treating Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romesberg, Floyd E

    2007-01-01

    .... Specific biochemical pathways are responsible for introducing mutation to the genome. Using drug(s) to inhibit one or more of these proteins and thereby prevent cancer is a novel and unique cancer prevention approach...

  10. Noninvasive inductive stent heating: alternative approach to prevent instent restenosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Michael G; Günther, Rolf W; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2004-05-01

    To test noninvasive inductive heating of implanted vascular stents as an alternative approach for reduction or prevention of neointimal hyperplasia. Calorimetric pretests were performed to get an orientation on the different parameters of influence for inductive heating of stents. The field strength was set to a maximum of 90 kA/m within a frequency range from 80 kHz to 320 kHz. The electromagnetic field was emitted by a custom-made water-cooled copper winding antenna. A flow model for stent heating was set up to assess the increase in temperature of an expanded 316L stainless steel stent with typical coronary stent dimensions of 3.5 mm diameter and 14.5 mm in length, and in a second setup with 4.5 mm diameter and 13 mm in length, respectively. The stent was located in a bioartificial artery, simulated by a fibrinogen matrix with a defined number of vital cells. The system was exposed to a pulsating perfusion and to an electromagnetic field of 200 kHz over a period of 20 minutes and in a second setup to an electromagnetic field of 300 kHz and increasing intensity up to maximum power-output. Afterward, the artificial vessel was sliced and examined by fluorescence microscopy to evaluate the number and location of damaged cells. The calorimetric tests show an exponential correlation of energy uptake in the stent with an increase in frequency and a constant generator output. At a frequency of 80 kHz, the power uptake accounts for 0.1 W (250 kHz 1.0 W; 320 kHz 1.9 W, respectively). The flow tests confirmed feasibility to elevate the stent temperature from 37 degrees C body temperature to 44 degrees C at 200 kHz within 55 seconds. The temperature increase of the fluid passing the heated vessel region was only marginal (maximum of 0.5 degrees C). Cell necrosis after 20 minutes of treatment was not observed. In a second set-up with 4.5 mm stent diameter, a frequency of 300 kHz and with maximum power output, the stent temperature was increased to 80 degrees C and there was

  11. The research landscape of school-based sexuality education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roien, Line Anne; Graugaard, Christian; Simovska, Venka

    2018-01-01

    pupils 6 to 12 years of age. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws upon the methodology of systematic research mapping and presents a broad overview of research on sexuality education in a school setting for pupils aged 6-16. We searched the leading bibliographic databases in the field, i...... a rare, if not the first, comprehensive overview of research on school-based sexuality education including a focus on school children 6 to 12 years of age.......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to map and discuss the overall characteristics of international research on school-based sexuality education, published in academic journals, with a particular focus on the framing of non-conservative approaches including sex education research targeting...

  12. New approaches to the implementation of cardiovascular disease prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jørstad, H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the biggest contemporary health problems worldwide. To aid preventive measures, risk calculators have been developed to estimate the risk of dying of cardiovascular disease within 10 years, for use in healthy individuals. Decisions to initiate preventive measures are

  13. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...

  14. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  15. Frameworks: A Community-Based Approach to Preventing Youth Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Kristine; Bean, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    Few youth suicide prevention programs are theory based and systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the pilot implementation of a community-based youth suicide prevention project guided by an ecological perspective. One hundred fifty-seven adults representing various constituencies from educators to health care providers and 131 ninth-grade…

  16. Reducing School Violence: School-Based Curricular Programs and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.

  17. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT): systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods: Applying the

  18. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT) : Systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Singh (Amika); M.J.M. Chin A Paw (Marijke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); T.L.S. Visscher (Tommy); J. Brug (Hans); W. van Mechelen (Willem)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods:

  19. Preventing School Shootings: A Public Health Approach to Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

  20. Moving Toward Bioadjuvant Approaches to Head and Neck Cancer Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Nabil F.; Hammond, Anthea; Shin, Dong M.; Khuri, Fadlo R.

    2007-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma affects >45,000 Americans annually. Patients who are successfully treated for their primary tumor are at high risk of developing a second primary tumor, making effective preventive strategies highly desirable for this disease. Although a landmark study in 1990 suggested some benefit of high-dose retinoids in head and neck cancer prevention, subsequent trials using more tolerable doses have shown limited clinical success. Newer preventive strategies have included bioadjuvant therapy combining retinoids with interferon and α-tocopherol, combinations of molecularly targeted agents, and oncolytic viruses. Furthermore, considerable evidence has supported a cancer protective role for several nutrients, including green tea and curcumin analogs. Natural compounds such as these with favorable long-term safety profiles might be particularly suited to the cancer prevention setting, in which patients will usually tolerate only moderate risk and toxicity

  1. An Innovative Partnership Approach for Environmental Management and Pollution Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, Mujde; Aydlett, Guy M.

    1997-01-01

    A partnership between a university and a government regulatory agency sought to assist industries with pollution prevention and waste management. Economic incentives were developed to promote waste minimization. (SK)

  2. Burn prevention in Zambia: a targeted epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess primary burn prevention knowledge in a rural Zambian population that is disproportionately burdened by burn injuries. A 10-question survey was completed by youths, and a 15-question survey was completed by adults. The survey was available in both English and Nyanja. The surveys were designed to test their knowledge in common causes, first aid, and emergency measures regarding burn injuries. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between burn knowledge, age, school, and socioeconomic variables. A burn prevention coloring book, based on previous local epidemiological data, was also distributed to 800 school age youths. Five hundred fifty youths and 39 adults completed the survey. The most significant results show knowledge deficits in common causes of burns, first aid treatment of a burn injury, and what to do in the event of clothing catching fire. Younger children were more likely to do worse than older children. The adults performed better than the youths, but still lack fundamental burn prevention and treatment knowledge. Primary burn prevention data from the youths and adults surveyed demonstrate a clear need for burn prevention and treatment education in this population. In a country where effective and sustainable burn care is lacking, burn prevention may be a better investment to reduce burn injury than large investments in healthcare resources.

  3. Preventive Biomechanics: A Paradigm Shift With a Translational Approach to Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Bates, Nathaniel A

    2017-09-01

    Preventive medicine techniques have alleviated billions of dollars' worth of the economic burden in the medical care system through the implementation of vaccinations and screenings before the onset of disease symptoms. Knowledge of biomechanical tendencies has progressed rapidly over the past 20 years such that clinicians can identify, in healthy athletes, the underlying mechanisms that lead to catastrophic injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. As such, preventive medicine concepts can be applied to noncontact musculoskeletal injuries to reduce the economic burden of sports medicine treatments and enhance the long-term health of athletes. To illustrate the practical medical benefits that could be gained from preventive biomechanics applied to the ACL as well as the need and feasibility for the broad implementation of these principles. Literature review. The recent literature pertinent to the screening and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries was reviewed and compiled into a clinical commentary on the current state and applicability of preventive biomechanics. Investigators have identified neuromuscular training protocols that screen for and correct the underlying biomechanical deficits that lead to ACL injuries. The literature shows that when athletes comply with these prescribed training protocols, the incidence of injuries is significantly reduced within that population. Such preventive biomechanics practices employ basic training methods that would be familiar to athletic coaches and have the potential to save billions of dollars in cost in sports medicine. The widespread implementation of preventive biomechanics concepts could profoundly affect the field of sports medicine with a minimum of initial investment.

  4. Emerging nanotechnology approaches for HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Tewodros; Moseman, E Ashley; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Salvador-Morales, Carolina; Shi, Jinjun; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Langer, Robert; von Andrian, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is no cure and no preventive vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved treatment, but it has to be taken for a lifetime, has major side effects and is ineffective in patients in whom the virus develops resistance. Nanotechnology is an emerging multidisciplinary field that is revolutionizing medicine in the 21st century. It has a vast potential to radically advance the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. In this review, we discuss the challenges with the current treatment of the disease and shed light on the remarkable potential of nanotechnology to provide more effective treatment and prevention for HIV/AIDS by advancing antiretroviral therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy, vaccinology and microbicides. PMID:20148638

  5. A Modern Approach to Preventing Prosthetic Joint Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Paraskevi Vivian; Congiusta, Dominick; Scuderi, Giles R; Cushner, Fred D

    2018-02-28

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is recognized as one of the most successful surgical procedures performed today. One of the most common and dreaded complications of TKA is postoperative infection. To prevent infections, it is critical to identify patients at high risk through analyzing their risk factors, and help in addressing them prior to surgery. The effort to prevent infection must be carried through every step of the surgical process, from preoperative counseling to intraoperative measures and postoperative protocols. Hair removal, the application of antiseptics, the utilization of antibiotics, barbed sutures, smart dressings, and antibacterial washes are some of the avenues surgeons may explore to help prevent infection. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Suicide Prevention in College Students: A Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Rodríguez, María Del C; Huertas, Ivonne Bayron

    2013-01-01

    Described by Durkheim (1966) as the crudest expression of the social phenomena, suicide is of interest to clinicians, academics and researchers. Within the academic context, this issue has to be addressed and prevented. We are interested in sharing the process of participative action that led to the creation of a Suicide Prevention Program (SPP) for college students. Based on knowledge that was generated through a collaborative effort among all sectors of the academic community, we developed a prevention campaign that is culturally sensitive to our university's environment. This campaign is directed towards overcoming the stigma of seeking help and is characterized by promoting a sense of wellbeing in a holistic manner, paying attention not only to the individual, but also to elements of their sociocultural environment.

  7. School-Based Health Clinics: An Analysis of the Johns Hopkins Study. Research Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demsko, Tobin W.

    School-based health clinics, adolescent pregnancy prevention programs offering comprehensive health services, represent the latest initiative to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy. Researchers at Johns Hopkins University designed and administered a pregnancy prevention program which offered sexuality education and family planning services…

  8. [Cervix uteri cancer: a critical approach to its prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Michele Mandagara; da Silva, Emilia Nalva Ferreira; Pinto, Ione Carvalho; Coimbra, Valéria Cristina Christello

    2004-08-01

    This article is a pilot study of one of the authors master dissertation about problems related to the preventive measures of cervix cancer. Four women with cancer that were hospitalized at the gynecological ward or under chemotherapy treatment at a hospital in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil, were interviewed. Data were collected from April to June 2001, and of the women interviewed only one was examined preventively according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health. Therefore, health professionals should be urged to promote care as well as health education.

  9. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  10. Preventing HIV transmission in chinese internal migrants: A behavioral approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Liu (Xiaona); V. Erasmus (Vicky); X. Sun (Xinying); R. Cai (Rui); Y. Shi (Yuhui); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a

  11. Role of phytochemicals in colon cancer prevention. A nutrigenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Specific food compounds, especially from fruits and vegetables, may protect against development of colon cancer. In this thesis effects and mechanisms of various phytochemicals in relation to colon cancer prevention were studied through application of large-scale gene expression profiling.

  12. Prevention of Targeted School Violence by Responding to Students' Psychosocial Crises: The NETWASS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…

  13. Sexual Harassment Prevention Initiatives: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    Quantitative Approach: The Survey The quantitative approach appears to be the dominant form of mainstream psychological research today , and Gelo et al. (2008...that viewpoint and remark that the characteristics of today ‟s psychological research demonstrate realities that can be replicated through studies...2000). The right of passage? The experiences of female pilots in commercial aviation. Feminism & Psychology, 10, 195-225. Davis, A., & Bremner, G

  14. Boys and CSA Prevention: Issues Surrounding Gender and Approaches for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Nagel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Freda Briggs (2007), a leader in the field of child protection in Australia continues to raise concerns about the vulnerability and victimisation of boys that she believes is substantially under-recognised. She argues that boys have not been well supported by child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs with child protection curriculum not yet…

  15. Prevention of treatable infectious diseases: A game-theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijón, Sofía; Supervie, Virginie; Breban, Romulus

    2017-09-25

    We model outcomes of voluntary prevention using an imperfect vaccine, which confers protection only to a fraction of vaccinees for a limited duration. Our mathematical model combines a single-player game for the individual-level decision to get vaccinated, and a compartmental model for the epidemic dynamics. Mathematical analysis yields a characterization for the effective vaccination coverage, as a function of the relative cost of prevention versus treatment; note that cost may involve monetary as well as non-monetary aspects. Three behaviors are possible. First, the relative cost may be too high, so individuals do not get vaccinated. Second, the relative cost may be moderate, such that some individuals get vaccinated and voluntary vaccination alleviates the epidemic. In this case, the vaccination coverage grows steadily with decreasing relative cost of vaccination versus treatment. Unlike previous studies, we find a third case where relative cost is sufficiently low so epidemics may be averted through the use of prevention, even for an imperfect vaccine. However, we also found that disease elimination is only temporary-as no equilibrium exists for the individual strategy in this third case-and, with increasing perceived cost of vaccination versus treatment, the situation may be reversed toward the epidemic edge, where the effective reproductive number is 1. Thus, maintaining relative cost sufficiently low will be the main challenge to maintain disease elimination. Furthermore, our model offers insight on vaccine parameters, which are otherwise difficult to estimate. We apply our findings to the epidemiology of measles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. OBESITY IN CHILDREN: NEW PREVENTION CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES. LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga K. Netrebenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents modern concepts of the obesity origins in children and adults. We substantiate the point of view of antenatal origin of obesity caused by malnutrition of a woman during pregnancy and also consider the possibility of influence of infant and young child nutrition on the development of obesity in the future. New opportunities for obesity prevention should be aimed at optimizing women's nutrition before and during childbearing, supporting breastfeeding, observing the timing of complementary feeding and adequate feeding of children after one year of age. 

  17. [Review of the approach to exercise behavior modification from the viewpoint of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takuo; Kouta, Munetsugu; Shigemori, Kenta; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the approaches to behavior modification for exercise from the viewpoint of preventive medicine. Articles were searched according to the particular field of preventive medicine, i.e., primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention, and other fields of prevention. In the field of primary prevention for elderly people living at home, many fall prevention programs were found to have been carried out. In these studies, various programs were found to be effective if the exercise proved to be sufficient. Although some approaches were observed to be based on the productive aging theory and social capital, the number of such studies was small. In the field of secondary prevention, illness and functional disorders are prevented from becoming worse. It is therefore important for each individual to exercise by himself/herself and also acquire sufficient self-monitoring skills. Social capital is useful for learning good exercise habits. In the field of tertiary prevention, although exercise therapy is effective for improving physical functions and preventing disease recurrence in patients with chronic disease, some patients nevertheless find it difficult to continue such an exercise therapy. The approaches to behavior modification were extremely effective for patients with chronic disease. In other fields of preventive medicine, daily exercises such stair climbing are effective methods for reducing the risk of chronic disease and such a behavior modification may lead to a considerable public health gain. In the future, further studies with a many lines of evidence should be performed, and approaches based on behavioral science should be established.

  18. Preventing food crises using a food policy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, C Peter

    2010-01-01

    A food crisis occurs when rates of hunger and malnutrition rise sharply at local, national, or global levels. This definition distinguishes a food crisis from chronic hunger, although food crises are far more likely among populations already suffering from prolonged hunger and malnutrition. A food crisis is usually set off by a shock to either supply or demand for food and often involves a sudden spike in food prices. It is important to remember that in a market economy, food prices measure the scarcity of food, not its value in any nutritional sense. Except in rare circumstances, the straightforward way to prevent a food crisis is to have rapidly rising labor productivity through economic growth and keep food prices stable while maintaining access by the poor. The formula is easier to state than to implement, especially on a global scale, but it is good to have both the objective, reducing short-run spikes in hunger, and the deep mechanisms, pro-poor economic growth and stable food prices, clearly in mind. A coherent food policy seeks to use these mechanisms, and others, to achieve a sustained reduction in chronic hunger over the long run while preventing spikes in hunger in the short run.

  19. Student Voices in School-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Siu Yin Annie; Adamson, Bob

    2015-01-01

    The value of student voices in dialogues about learning improvement is acknowledged in the literature. This paper examines how the views of students regarding School-based Assessment (SBA), a significant shift in examination policy and practice in secondary schools in Hong Kong, have largely been ignored. The study captures student voices through…

  20. Understanding Ethics in School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Hazel; Burstow, Bob

    2018-01-01

    The notion of the "teacher as researcher" has been in the education lexicon since the mid-1970s. School-based research, we suggest, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance, flourishing within the emerging, complex school landscape. This empirical research engages with 25 school leaders to explore the ways in which…

  1. Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…

  2. School-Based Management: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Patricia, Ed.; Potter, Eugenia Cooper, Ed.

    School-based management (SBM), sometimes called site-based management, is fast becoming the hottest restructuring item in the arsenal of reformers, teachers' unions, governors, and legislators who want to change the traditional ways in which schools and school districts do business. This document comprises three main sections with contributions…

  3. Information and Communication Technology and School Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communication technology and school based assessment (SBA) is practice that broadens the form mode, means and scope of assessment in the school using modern technologies in order to facilitate and enhance learning. This study sought to ascertain the efficacy of Information and Communication ...

  4. Prevention Strategies Against HIV Transmission: A Proactive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Antonio J; Miles, Jovan D; Mosley, Juan F; Smith, Lillian L; Prather, April S; Gurley, Marcus M; Phan, Linh D; Everton, Emily C

    2018-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has now transformed into a manageable chronic condition. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proven efficacious at controlling the disease progression. Based on compelling evidence, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV. However, there are approximately 50 000 new cases of HIV in the United States each year. In this article, we review proactive methods to reduce the transmission of HIV, which include reinforcing patient education, gel-coated condoms that destroy HIV, HIV vaccinations, and adequately utilizing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Further development and consistent utilization of innovative prevention tools can significantly reduce the incidence of HIV infections regardless of HIV status.

  5. Stroke prevention-surgical and interventional approaches to carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajamani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra cranial carotid artery stenosis is an important cause of stroke, which often needs treatment with carotid revascularization. To prevent stroke recurrence, carotid endarterectomy (CEA has been well-established for several decades for symptomatic high and moderate grade stenosis. Carotid stenting is a less invasive alternative to CEA and several recent trials have compared the efficacy of the 2 procedures in patients with carotid stenosis. Carotid artery stenting has emerged as a potential mode of therapy for high surgical risk patients with symptomatic high-grade stenosis. This review focuses on the current data available that will enable the clinician to decide optimal treatment strategies for patients with carotid stenosis.

  6. Severe accident prevention and mitigation: A utility perspective - EDF approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidard, M.

    1998-01-01

    Current plans have excellent safety records and are cost competitive. For future plants, excellence in safety will remain a prerequisite, as well as increased cost competitiveness. When contemplating solutions to Severe Accident challenges, cost effectiveness is essential in the decision making process. This cost effectiveness must be understood not only in terms of capital cost, but also of Operation and Maintenance costs as well as absence of additional risks to plant operators. Examples are given to illustrate the recommended approach

  7. Preventing Lone Wolf Terrorism: some CT Approaches Addressed

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Bakker; Beatrice de Graaf

    2011-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the epistemological and phenomenological difficulties associated with the concept of lone wolf terrorism, a number of possible counter-terrorist approaches are discussed. Lone operator terrorist acts should be considered ‘black swan’ occurrences that are almost impossible to categorize or systematize, let alone forecast. Thus, not the profile of the perpetrator, but the modus operandi offer clues for a better response to this particular threat. Furtherm...

  8. Biofilm eradication and prevention: a pharmaceutical approach to medical device infections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shunmugaperumal, Tamilvanan

    2010-01-01

    "Biofilm Eradication and Preventions presents the basics of biofilm formation on medical devices, diseases related to this formation, and approaches pharmaceutical researchers need to take to limit this problem...

  9. Wildland fire management. Volume 1: Prevention methods and analysis. [systems engineering approach to California fire problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, S. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.

  10. Conceptualizing the Engaging Bystander Approach to Sexual Violence Prevention on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Koenick, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put…

  11. The European smoking prevention framework approach (ESFA): short-term effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, H. de; Mudde, A.; Kremers, S.; Wetzels, J.; Uiters, E.; Ariza, C.; Duarte Vitoria, P.; Fielder, A.; Holm, K.; Janssen, L.H.M.; Lehtuvuori, R.; Candel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) resulted in a smoking prevention project for six European countries. It included activities on four levels: adolescents, schools, parents and out-of-school activities. Common goals and objectives were developed, but countries were also able

  12. Travellers' diarrhoea: contemporary approaches to therapy and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Herbert L

    2006-01-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea remains a major public health problem, contributing to significant morbidity and disability. Because bacterial enteropathogens cause a majority of this form of diarrhoea, antibacterial drugs are effective when used in chemoprophylaxis or for empirical treatment.A review of the MEDLINE listings for travellers' diarrhoea for the past 4 years was conducted; a library of >1,000 scientific articles on the topic was also considered in developing this review. Persons who travel from industrialised countries to developing countries of the tropical and semi-tropical world are the individuals who experience travellers' diarrhoea. While diarrhoea occurs with reduced frequency among persons travelling to low-risk areas from other low- or other high-risk areas, and there remain areas of intermediate risk, this review looks primarily at the illness occurring in persons from industrialised regions visiting high-risk regions of Latin America, Africa and Southern Asia. The material reviewed deals with the high frequency of acquiring diarrhoea during international travel to high-risk areas, seen in approximately 40%, and the expected bacterial causes of illness, of which diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli is the most important. The host risk factors associated with increased susceptibility to diarrhoea include young age, lack of previous travel to high-risk regions in the past 6 months, indiscriminate food and beverage selection patterns, and host genetics. It appears feasible to decrease the rate of illness among the travelling public by careful food and beverage selection or through chemoprophylaxis with nonabsorbed rifaximin. Chemoprophylaxis with rifaximin should help to reduce the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and hopefully prevent post-diarrhoea complications, including irritable bowel syndrome. Early empirical therapy with antibacterial drugs, including rifaximin, a fluoroquinolone or azithromycin, will decrease the duration of illness and return

  13. A practical approach to incident prevention and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kevin; Williams, Pat [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Our industry has taken grand interest in improving safety in the last few decades, particularly of our process operations. This has resulted in significant improvements in overall industry safety statistics. Despite this improvement in our efforts, incidents still occur where people are injured, and these tragic incidents may even be fatal. Organizations have implemented various programs to lessen the chance of these incidents occurring, three of which are most commonly: check the box, minimize legal liability, and take a practical approach. Most often it is the practical approach that proves to influence the most improvements because it is an approach focused on the employees and the organizations business needs together. The plants that show the most safety are to no surprise run by reliable individuals. Usually, the causes of incidents stem from a failure to perform and maintain basic procedures. The answers to each plant's safety dilemmas are not found in any one program, but instead lie in understanding the anatomy of what it means to be safe. Only when that is understood can a solution be constructed and catered to the entire physiology of the problem. There are three basic tenants that need to be considered in any safety improvement strategy in order for it to be effective: capability, awareness and motivation. The third is further comprised of two factors that should not be overlooked: desire and accountability. Therefore, process safety is not driven by fancy software or rigid structure programs. It is apparent that several factors come into play when implementing safer practices. The focus of these practices should be on manufacturing employees. When improvement efforts are focused on activities and behaviors whose implementation is practical in a plant environment and address the three main areas of the anatomy, the likelihood of success increases substantially. (author)

  14. Prevention of Youth Violence: A Public Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aradhana Bela; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    The causes of youth violence are multifactorial and include biological, individual, familial, social, and economic factors. The influence of parents, family members, and important adults can shape the beliefs of the child toward violence in a significant manner. However, the influence of school and the neighborhood also have an important role in attitudes and behaviors of children toward violence. The complexity of factors related to violence requires a comprehensive public health approach. This article focuses on evidence-based models of intervention to reduce violence while emphasizing collective impact as a guiding principle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MD Anderson's Population Health Approaches to Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxhall, Lewis; Moreno, Mark; Hawk, Ernest

    2018-02-01

    Texas's size and unique population demographics present challenges to addressing the state's cancer burden. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is one of 69 National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers across the United States. While these centers traditionally have focused on research, education and training, and providing research-driven patient care, they are in a unique position to collaboratively advance population health through cancer control. Unlike the traditional academic model of a three-legged stool representing research, education, and patient care, MD Anderson's mission includes a fourth leg that incorporates population health approaches. MD Anderson has leveraged state- and national-level data and freely available resources to develop population-health priorities and a set of evidence-based actions across policy, public and professional education, and community-based clinical service domains to address these priorities. Population health approaches complement dissemination and implementation research and treatment, and will be increasingly needed to address the growing cancer burden in Texas and the nation.

  16. Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Anna; Stockwell, Brent R

    2012-12-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect the lives of millions of patients and their families. Due to the complexity of these diseases and our limited understanding of their pathogenesis, the design of therapeutic agents that can effectively treat these diseases has been challenging. Huntington disease (HD) is one of several neurological disorders with few therapeutic options. HD, like numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, involves extensive neuronal cell loss. One potential strategy to combat HD and other neurodegenerative disorders is to intervene in the execution of neuronal cell death. Inhibiting neuronal cell death pathways may slow the development of neurodegeneration. However, discovering small molecule inhibitors of neuronal cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, we review candidate therapeutic targets controlling cell death mechanisms that have been the focus of research in HD, as well as an emerging strategy that has been applied to developing small molecule inhibitors-fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). FBDD has been successfully used in both industry and academia to identify selective and potent small molecule inhibitors, with a focus on challenging proteins that are not amenable to traditional high-throughput screening approaches. FBDD has been used to generate potent leads, pre-clinical candidates, and has led to the development of an FDA approved drug. This approach can be valuable for identifying modulators of cell-death-regulating proteins; such compounds may prove to be the key to halting the progression of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A typology of beverage taxation: Multiple approaches for obesity prevention and obesity prevention-related revenue generation

    OpenAIRE

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Eidson, Shelby S

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a global problem. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are a leading contributor of added sugars in individual diets and thus to obesity. Governments have considered taxing SSBs to prevent obesity and generate revenue, but no ?one-size-fits-all' taxation approach exists. We describes three key considerations for governments interested in exploring beverage taxation: (i) what type of tax to apply plus how and where the tax is collected and presented to consumers; (ii) what types of bever...

  18. Novel therapeutic and prevention approaches for schistosomiasis: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ridi, Rashika A F; Tallima, Hatem A-M

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease affecting approximately 600 million people in 74 developing countries, with 800 million, mostly children at risk. To circumvent the threat of having praziquantel (PZQ) as the only drug used for treatment, several PZQ derivatives were synthesized, and drugs destined for other parasites were used with success. A plethora of plant-derived oils and extracts were found to effectively kill juvenile and adult schistosomes, yet none was progressed to pre- and clinical studies except an oleo-gum resin extracted from the stem of Commiphora molmol, myrrh, which action was challenged in several trials. We have proposed an essential fatty acid, a component of our diet and cells, the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA) as a remedy for schistosomiasis, due to its ability to activate the parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase, with subsequent hydrolysis of the apical lipid bilayer sphingomyelin molecules, allowing access of specific antibody molecules, and eventual worm attrition. This concept was convincingly supported using larval and adult Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium worms in in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in inbred mice and outbred hamsters. Even if ARA proves to be an entirely effective and safe therapy for schistosomiasis, it will not prevent reinfection, and accordingly, the need for developing an effective vaccine remains an urgent priority. Our studies have supported the status of S. mansoni calpain, glutathione-S-transferase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, and 2-cys peroxiredoxin as vaccine candidates, as they are larval excreted-secreted products and, contrary to the surface membrane molecules, are entirely accessible to the host immune system effector elements. We have proposed that the use of these molecules, in conjunction with Th2 cytokines-inducing adjuvants for recruiting and activating eosinophils and basophils

  19. Novel Therapeutic and Prevention Approaches for Schistosomiasis: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashika A.F. El Ridi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease affecting approximately 600 million people in 74 developing countries, with 800 million, mostly children at risk. To circumvent the threat of having praziquantel (PZQ as the only drug used for treatment, several PZQ derivatives were synthesized, and drugs destined for other parasites were used with success. A plethora of plant-derived oils and extracts were found to effectively kill juvenile and adult schistosomes, yet none was progressed to pre- and clinical studies except an oleo-gum resin extracted from the stem of Commiphora molmol, myrrh, which action was challenged in several trials. We have proposed an essential fatty acid, a component of our diet and cells, the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA as a remedy for schistosomiasis, due to its ability to activate the parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase, with subsequent hydrolysis of the apical lipid bilayer sphingomyelin molecules, allowing access of specific antibody molecules, and eventual worm attrition. This concept was convincingly supported using larval and adult Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium worms in in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in inbred mice and outbred hamsters. Even if ARA proves to be an entirely effective and safe therapy for schistosomiasis, it will not prevent reinfection, and accordingly, the need for developing an effective vaccine remains an urgent priority. Our studies have supported the status of S. mansoni calpain, glutathione-S-transferase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, and 2-cys peroxiredoxin as vaccine candidates, as they are larval excreted-secreted products and, contrary to the surface membrane molecules, are entirely accessible to the host immune system effector elements. We have proposed that the use of these molecules, in conjunction with Th2 cytokines-inducing adjuvants for recruiting and activating

  20. Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders within management systems: A scoping review of practices, approaches, and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Amin; Neumann, W Patrick; Imbeau, Daniel; Bigelow, Philip; Pagell, Mark; Wells, Richard

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and summarize the current research evidence on approaches to preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) within Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS). Databases in business, engineering, and health and safety were searched and 718 potentially relevant publications were identified and examined for their relevance. Twenty-one papers met the selection criteria and were subjected to thematic analysis. There was very little literature describing the integration of MSD risk assessment and prevention into management systems. This lack of information may isolate MSD prevention, leading to difficulties in preventing these disorders at an organizational level. The findings of this review argue for further research to integrate MSD prevention into management systems and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. [Criteria catalogue to systematize conceptual approaches in universal prevention of childhood overweight : Methodological approach and first results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babitsch, Birgit; Geene, Raimund; Hassel, Holger; Kliche, Thomas; Bacchetta, Britta; Baltes, Simon; Nold, Sandra; Rosenfeldt, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Overweight and obesity are serious health risks for children and adolescents. Hence, various prevention projects have been initiated and implemented. Until now, a systematic overview of interventions in different settings has been lacking. The aim of the "Prevention of child overweight" project (SkAP-project) is to prepare a systematic overview of the conceptual approaches used in universal prevention of overweight among children and adolescents. First of all, a comprehensive criteria catalogue will be developed based on systematic searches. In the next step the criteria catalogue will be applied to identify and characterize conceptual approaches. Criteria to describe conceptual approaches as well as determinants of childhood overweight were determined by systematic searches. The searches included relevant data bases and were further expanded by internet and hand search. Three settings (kindergarten, school and communities) and families are addressed by the systematic searches. Additional non-setting specific searches were conducted. A comprehensive criteria catalogue was developed, which allows a detailed analysis of conceptual approaches. This catalogue covers further quality criteria as well as determinants of childhood overweight. Currently, the criteria catalogue is being employed. Although the detailed analysis of conceptual approaches can be regarded as advantage of the criteria catalogue, there are also some limitations, such as the lack of necessary information provided in publications. Overall, the application will reveal an overview regarding universal prevention in childhood overweight, which is still lacking, and will support development in this field.

  2. Scientific approaches to AIDS prevention and control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, T; Shao, Y

    2011-04-01

    The HIV epidemic in China started among intravenous drug users in the late 1980s. The second wave of the epidemic was caused by an outbreak in the paid plasma donors in central China in the mid-1990s. Sexually transmitted HIV cases have steadily increased and comprised more than half the reported HIV/AIDS infections since 2007. In the last 5 years, there has been a sharp increase of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. The HIV epidemic in China has expanded from high-risk groups to the general population and from rural regions to urban areas. This brief article discusses the history of HIV epidemics in China and the challenges facing the current AIDS control efforts in the country. It explains that only scientific approaches can sustain the national AIDS control programs and introduce the type of research needed to address those challenges. The selected research areas include molecular epidemiology, drug resistance surveillance, and the Chinese HIV vaccine research.

  3. Children's perceptions of school-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, T P; Meadan, H

    2000-09-01

    An important first step in understanding school-based violence is understanding children's subjective perceptions of the phenomena. Understanding these perceptions is likely to be a major factor in determining the integrity of both prevalence and intervention studies. We investigated how elementary and secondary aged children perceived school-based violence. A sample of 979 children from a nested random sample of elementary (grades 3-6) and middle school (grades 7-8) classrooms in Jerusalem participated in this study. To understand children's perception of school violence, we used an instrument composed of 19 dichotomous items, each presenting a one-line description of a behaviour, which the respondent would define as either 'intentionally harmful' or not. Eighth graders were significantly less likely to label the behaviours described as violent compared to all other grades; and seventh graders were less likely as compared to third, fourth and fifth graders; also, some between-gender differences were found. The respondents often view the behaviours described as intentional and aggressive; this finding should serve as an impetus to widen the scope of school-based violence interventions to include these behaviours, especially for younger children.

  4. Evaluation of a Statewide Initiative in the United States to Prevent/Reduce Sexual Harassment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Mark D.; Bryant, Yaphet U.; Dantzler, Joyce; Martin, Saran; D'Amico, Marie; Griffith, Brian; Gallun, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify best practices in the implementation of school-based sexual violence prevention education. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase plan was implemented to evaluate the Sexual Harassment/Assault Prevention Project (SHAPP) in one state in the USA. First, a structured review of the prevention…

  5. implementation of a school-based hiv prevention curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-05

    May 5, 2014 ... people living with HIV/AIDS. INTRODUCTION ... Young people, ages 15 to 24, account for almost half of all new HIV ... Without any tracking, it is unclear whether PSABH has been ... Know someone who died of AIDS. Y/N.

  6. School Based Program to Teach Children Empathy and Bully Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Elizabeth A.; Hammond, Marsha; Rasmussen, Sandra

    A qualitative study examined empathy in the easily aroused child. Participants were interviewed about their experience of empathy, and cognitive process used to choose responses. Children identified emotions of victims drawing on experience as victims. Two themes were empathetic response and cognition leading to action. Participants used cognition…

  7. School-based interventions to address bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.

  8. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  9. School-Based Health Promotion Intervention: Parent and School Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Fernandez, Anna M.; Hernandez, Jennifer; Villa, Manuela; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is high, particularly among minority youth. The objective of this article was to evaluate parent and school staff perspectives of childhood health and weight qualitatively to guide the development of a school-based obesity prevention program for minority youth. Methods: Hispanic parents (N?=?9) of…

  10. A Formative Evaluation of Healthy Habits, Healthy U: A Collaborative School-Based Cancer Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alicia; Spear, Caile; Pritchard, Mary; George, Kayla; Young, Kyle; Smith, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Healthy Habits, Healthy U (HHHU) is a two-day school-based primary prevention cancer education program that uses interactive classroom presentations designed to help students learn how to reduce their cancer risks. HHHU is a collaboration between a local cancer hospital, school district and university. HHHU incorporates real cancerous and…

  11. Roles of the State Asthma Program in Implementing Multicomponent, School-Based Asthma Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Laura L.; Wilce, Maureen A.; Gill, Sarah A.; Disler, Sheri L.; Collins, Pamela; Crawford, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a leading chronic childhood disease in the United States and a major contributor to school absenteeism. Evidence suggests that multicomponent, school-based asthma interventions are a strategic way to address asthma among school-aged children. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourages the 36 health…

  12. Towards a Model of School-Based Curriculum Development and Assessment Using the SOLO Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John

    1989-01-01

    One factor preventing the wider acceptance of school-based curriculum development and assessment is the problem of comparing performances of different students, in different schools. The SOLO taxonomy is used to describe the complexity of learning outcomes in a language that is generally applicable across the curriculum. (Author/MLW)

  13. The Varied Circumstances Prompting Requests for Emergency Contraception at School-Based Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, Abbey; Harrison, Patricia A.; Amidon, Donna; Finnegan, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the circumstances that prompt teenagers to request emergency contraception (EC). This evaluation was designed to refine the EC clinical protocol and improve pregnancy prevention efforts in high school-based clinics by analyzing information on EC use and subsequent contraception use of EC patients. Methods: Sites…

  14. Plagiarism education and prevention a subject-driven case-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, Cara

    2011-01-01

    Academic librarians and university instructors worldwide are grappling with an increasing incidence of student plagiarism. Recent publications urge educators to prevent plagiarism by teaching students about the issue, and some have advocated the value of a subject-specific approach to plagiarism prevention education. There is, however, a complete lack of resources and guidance for librarians and instructors who want to adopt this approach in their teaching. This book opens with a brief overview of plagiarism today, followed by arguments in favour of a subject-based approach. The rest of the bo

  15. School based assessment module for invasion games category in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School based assessment module for invasion games category in physical education. ... This study identify the level of basic skills of invasion games category when using School Based Assessment Module. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. A ‘systems’ approach to suicide prevention: radical change or doing the same things better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Fitzpatrick

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a significant public health concern. Continued high suicide rates, coupled with emerging international evidence, have led to the development of a ‘systems’ approach to suicide prevention, which is now being trialled as part of a proposed Suicide Prevention Framework for NSW (New South Wales, Australia. The Framework replicates successful international approaches. It is organised around nine components, ranging from individual to population-level approaches, to improve coordination and integration of existing services. If implemented fully, the Framework may lead to a significant reduction in suicide. However, to ensure its long-term success, we must attend to underlying structures within the system and their interrelationships. Such an approach will also ensure that policy makers and local suicide prevention action groups, particularly in rural areas, are able to respond to local challenges and incorporate multiple perspectives into their practice, including evidence for the broader social determinants of suicide.

  17. [Environmental approaches in the prevention of obesity in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Leitzmann, M

    2011-03-01

    This article aims to provide a structured review of how to create settings and environments that prevent the development of childhood overweight and obesity. It also describes which institutions and levels are responsible for environmental (global) approaches in obesity prevention and which evidence exists in terms of process and outcomes of different preventive measures. Environmental approaches in disease prevention deal with social and technical-material conditions of daily living, as those conditions significantly influence health behavior. Strategies that focus on the obesogenic environment are considered increasingly important in the prevention of obesity in children and adolescents. They can be applied at different levels (e.g., schools, communities). These interventions should aim to improve the availability of healthy foods and physical activity facilities, e.g., by provision of healthy meals and foods in schools, restaurants, and stores and by price reductions of healthy foods. Physical activity can be supported by creating attractive green spaces and playgrounds in schools and cities, improving sidewalk networks and a supportive pedestrian environment, and implementing walk-to-school projects. On a national level, policies and legislation can support changes in the social and situational environments, e.g., relating to catering in schools or TV advertisement. The practice of environmental approaches is complex, because many stakeholders from different sectors have to be involved. This may account for the observation that environmental approaches are currently underrepresented in obesity prevention.

  18. A typology of beverage taxation: multiple approaches for obesity prevention and obesity prevention-related revenue generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Eidson, Shelby S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a global problem. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are a leading contributor of added sugars in individual diets and thus to obesity. Governments have considered taxing SSBs to prevent obesity and generate revenue, but no 'one-size-fits-all' taxation approach exists. We describes three key considerations for governments interested in exploring beverage taxation: (i) what type of tax to apply plus how and where the tax is collected and presented to consumers; (ii) what types of beverages to tax; and (iii) the amount of tax needed to affect consumption and/or obesity prevention-related revenue generation. We offer examples of existing beverage taxes in the United States and internationally. The information will be useful to policymakers at all levels of government, as they continue to consider beverage taxation policies.

  19. 78 FR 42788 - School-Based Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration School-Based... Gadsden County. SUMMARY: HRSA will be transferring a School-Based Health Center Capital (SBHCC) Program... support the expansion of services at school-based health centers will continue. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  20. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment approach, training, and technical assistance for DOE contractors. FY 1995 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, S.

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy and its contractors are faced with environmental concerns and large waste management costs. Federal legislation and DOE Orders require sites to develop waste minimization/pollution prevention programs. In response to these requirements, the Kansas City Plant developed a pollution prevention tool called a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA). Pilot assessments resulted in the development of a graded approach to reduce the amount of effort required for activities that utilized nonhazardous and/or low-volume waste streams. The project`s objectives in FY95 were to validate DOE`s PPOA Graded Approach methodology, provide PPOA training and technical assistance to interested DOE personnel and DOE contractors, enhance the methodology with energy analysis and tools for environmental restoration activities, implement a DOE-wide PPOA database, and provide support to DOE EM-334 in the completion of a report which estimates the future potential for pollution prevention and waste minimization in the DOE complex.

  1. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment approach, training, and technical assistance for DOE contractors. FY 1995 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemberton, S.

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy and its contractors are faced with environmental concerns and large waste management costs. Federal legislation and DOE Orders require sites to develop waste minimization/pollution prevention programs. In response to these requirements, the Kansas City Plant developed a pollution prevention tool called a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA). Pilot assessments resulted in the development of a graded approach to reduce the amount of effort required for activities that utilized nonhazardous and/or low-volume waste streams. The project's objectives in FY95 were to validate DOE's PPOA Graded Approach methodology, provide PPOA training and technical assistance to interested DOE personnel and DOE contractors, enhance the methodology with energy analysis and tools for environmental restoration activities, implement a DOE-wide PPOA database, and provide support to DOE EM-334 in the completion of a report which estimates the future potential for pollution prevention and waste minimization in the DOE complex

  2. Social network approaches to recruitment, HIV prevention, medical care, and medication adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Latkin, Carl A.; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A.; Knowlton, Amy R.; Alexander, Kamila A.; Williams, Chyvette T.; Boodram, Basmattee

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews current issues and advancements in social network approaches to HIV prevention and care. Social network analysis can provide a method to understand health disparities in HIV rates and treatment access and outcomes. Social network analysis is a value tool to link social structural factors to individual behaviors. Social networks provide an avenue for low cost and sustainable HIV prevention interventions that can be adapted and translated into diverse populations. Social ne...

  3. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age children, able to read/write English) on the basis of a screening questionnaire. We used stratified purposeful sampling to obtain maximum variation in two groups: parents who had ever immunised at least one child against influenza or who had never done so. We conducted focus groups (teleconference or internet forum) and individual interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Setting Ontario, Canada. Results Of the 55 participants, 16 took part in four teleconference focus groups, 35 in 6 internet forum focus groups and four in individual interviews conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Participants who stated that a school-based influenza immunisation programme would be worthwhile for their child valued its convenience and its potential to reduce influenza transmission without interfering with the family routine. However, most thought that for a programme to be acceptable, it would need to be well designed and voluntary, with adequate parental control and transparent communication between the key stakeholder groups of public health, schools and parents. Conclusions These results will benefit decision-makers in the public health and education sectors as they consider the advantages and disadvantages of immunising children in schools as part of a system-wide influenza prevention approach. Further research is needed to assess the perceptions of school board and public health stakeholders. PMID:24902736

  4. Natural approaches to prevention and treatment of infections of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Kathleen A

    2008-09-01

    Infections of the lower urinary tract are common occurrences in young women, during pregnancy, and in peri- and postmenopausal women. Because of the chronic nature of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and the potential for antibiotic resistance, a natural approach to prevention and treatment is desirable. Clinical research suggests the best natural options for long-term prevention include cranberry, mannose, and probiotics. Botanicals that can be effective at the first sign of an infection and for short-term prophylaxis include berberine and uva ursi. Estriol cream and vitamins A and C have also been shown to prevent UTIs, while potassium salts can alkalinize the urine and reduce dysuria.

  5. Selecting measures to prevent deleterious alkali-silica reaction in concrete : rationale for the AASHTO PP65 prescriptive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    PP65-11 provides two approaches for selecting preventive measures: (i) a performance approach based on laboratory testing, and (ii) a prescriptive approach based on a consideration of the reactivity of the aggregate, type and size of structure, expos...

  6. School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Health and Economic Impact of Maine's 2009 Influenza Vaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Meltzer, Martin I; Mills, Dora A; Beeler Asay, Garrett R; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Graitcer, Samuel B; Dube, Nancy L; Thompson, Mark G; Patel, Suchita A; Peasah, Samuel K; Ferdinands, Jill M; Gargiullo, Paul; Messonnier, Mark; Shay, David K

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the societal economic and health impacts of Maine's school-based influenza vaccination (SIV) program during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. Primary and secondary data covering the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons. We estimated weekly monovalent influenza vaccine uptake in Maine and 15 other states, using difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis to assess the program's impact on immunization among six age groups. We also developed a health and economic Markov microsimulation model and conducted Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis. We used national survey data to estimate the impact of the SIV program on vaccine coverage. We used primary data and published studies to develop the microsimulation model. The program was associated with higher immunization among children and lower immunization among adults aged 18-49 years and 65 and older. The program prevented 4,600 influenza infections and generated $4.9 million in net economic benefits. Cost savings from lower adult vaccination accounted for 54 percent of the economic gain. Economic benefits were positive in 98 percent of Monte Carlo simulations. SIV may be a cost-beneficial approach to increase immunization during pandemics, but programs should be designed to prevent lower immunization among nontargeted groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available as at August 2014. A total of 20 journal articles were relevant to the review. Research supported programs with longer durations (3 hours or more). Most programs taught resuscitation alone and few included content that was context-specific and relevant to the target group. The training experience of the facilitator did not appear to impact on student outcomes. Incorporating both practical and didactic components was found to be an important factor in delivering material and facilitating the retention of knowledge. Educational resources and facilitator training were found to be common features of effective programs. The review supports first aid in school curriculum and provides details of key components pertinent to design of school-based first aid programs. The findings suggest that first aid training may have benefits wider than the uptake and retention of knowledge and skills. There is a need for future research, particularly randomized controlled trials to aid in identifying best practice approaches. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  8. Effectiveness Of A School-Based Multicomponent Intervention On Nutritional Status Among Primary School Children In Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Nattapon; Panza, Alessio; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Kumar, Ramesh; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adults and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thais is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills, multicomponent, school-based intervention on child nutritional status. A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The interventions included education, diet, physical activity (PA), food-environment, school builtenvironment, and life-skills components. Subjects were measured at baseline and at 6 months post-treatment. The intervention group had significant differences in overall healthy practices (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048), dietary habits, physical activity, lower total cholesterol (TC) levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019) and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to the control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetables increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fast foods decreased in children after the intervention. This study indicated that a multidisciplinary approach in school-based interventions is most likely to be effective in preventing children from becoming overweight in the long term. More research should be conducted on school-based interventions with longer intervention periods and higher sustainability.

  9. Effectiveness of a school-based multicomponent intervention on children nutritional status among primary school children in bangkok, thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, N.; Panza, A.; Kumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adult and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thai is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a life skills multicomponent school-based intervention on children's nutritional status. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The intervention included education, dietary, physical activity, food-environment, school built-environment, and life skills components. Outcomes were measured at baseline and post-treatment measured after 6 months. Results: The intervention group had significant improvements in healthier practice (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048) on dietary habits and physical activity, lowered cholesterol levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019), and higher HDL levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetable increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fasts food decreased in children after the intervention. Conclusion: Childhood overweight and obesity is a serious public health problem based on its increasing rates and the associated health risks. This study indicated that multidisciplinary approach on school-based interventions is likely most effective to prevent children becoming overweight in long term. More research should be conducted on school-based intervention with longer intervention periods with higher sustainability. (author)

  10. Approaches that use software to support the prevention of pressure ulcer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchione, F G; Araújo, L M Q; Araújo, L V

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and costs for pressure ulcer (PU) treatment remain high even though preventive methods are applied. Approaches that use software to support the prevention of PU are presented in the literature to make it more effective. Identify the state of art of the approaches that use software to support the prevention of PUs. A systematic literature review was performed to analyze approaches that use software to support the prevention of PU. ACM, IEEE, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Embase databases have been searched with a predetermined search string to identify primary studies. We selected the ones that met the established inclusion criteria. Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. To support prevention, most approaches monitor the patient to provide information about exposure to pressure, temperature level, humidity level and estimated body position in bed providing risk factor intensity charts and intensity maps. The main method to perform patient's monitoring is using sensors installed on the mattress, but recently, alternative methods have been proposed such as electronic sensors and tactile sensory coils. Part of the approaches performs automated management of the risk factors using ventilation tubes and mattresses with porous cells to decrease body's temperature and movable cells to automatically redistribute the pressure over the body. Matters as cost of the approach, patient comfort and hygiene of the monitoring equipment is only briefly discussed in the selected articles. No experiments have been conducted to evidence the approached may reduce PU incidence. Currently, approaches that use software to support the prevention of PU provide relevant information to health professionals such as risk factor intensity charts and intensity maps. Some of them can even automatically manage risk factors in a limited way. Yet, the approaches are based on risk factor monitoring methods that require patient's contact with the monitoring equipment. Therefore, some

  11. Reinventing School-Based Management: A School Board Guide to School-Based Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Darrel W.

    This report critiques the movement to decentralize decision making in public education. It provides an indepth examination of school-based management (SBM) with the aim of revealing why this type of reform seems to have had so little payoff for students. It addresses several key questions: What are the objectives of SBM, and are these objectives…

  12. Support for At-Risk Girls: A School-Based Mental Health Nursing Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamshick, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Mental health problems often go undiagnosed or unaddressed until a crisis or extreme event brings the problem to the forefront. Youth are particularly at risk for lack of identification and treatment in regard to mental health issues. This article describes an advanced nursing practice mental health initiative for at-risk teenage girls based on Hildegard Peplau's nursing theory, group process, and healing through holistic health approaches. A support group, RICHES, was developed with focus on core components of relationships, identity, communication, health, esteem, and support. The acronym RICHES was chosen as the name of the support group. Selected themes and issues addressed in this school-based support group are illustrated in case vignettes. Through a collaborative approach with the community and school, this practice initiative presents a unique healing process that extends knowledge in the realm of intervention with at-risk teenage girls. Further research is needed on the efficacy of support groups to modify risk factors and to address goals for primary prevention in at-risk teenage girls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Social network approaches to recruitment, HIV prevention, medical care, and medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, Carl A; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Knowlton, Amy R; Alexander, Kamila A; Williams, Chyvette T; Boodram, Basmattee

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the current issues and advancements in social network approaches to HIV prevention and care. Social network analysis can provide a method to understand health disparities in HIV rates, treatment access, and outcomes. Social network analysis is a valuable tool to link social structural factors to individual behaviors. Social networks provide an avenue for low-cost and sustainable HIV prevention interventions that can be adapted and translated into diverse populations. Social networks can be utilized as a viable approach to recruitment for HIV testing and counseling, HIV prevention interventions, optimizing HIV medical care, and medication adherence. Social network interventions may be face-to-face or through social media. Key issues in designing social network interventions are contamination due to social diffusion, network stability, density, and the choice and training of network members. There are also ethical issues involved in the development and implementation of social network interventions. Social network analyses can also be used to understand HIV transmission dynamics.

  14. Optimizing Online Suicide Prevention: A Search Engine-Based Tailored Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Scherr, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Search engines are increasingly used to seek suicide-related information online, which can serve both harmful and helpful purposes. Google acknowledges this fact and presents a suicide-prevention result for particular search terms. Unfortunately, the result is only presented to a limited number of visitors. Hence, Google is missing the opportunity to provide help to vulnerable people. We propose a two-step approach to a tailored optimization: First, research will identify the risk factors. Second, search engines will reweight algorithms according to the risk factors. In this study, we show that the query share of the search term "poisoning" on Google shows substantial peaks corresponding to peaks in actual suicidal behavior. Accordingly, thresholds for showing the suicide-prevention result should be set to the lowest levels during the spring, on Sundays and Mondays, on New Year's Day, and on Saturdays following Thanksgiving. Search engines can help to save lives globally by utilizing a more tailored approach to suicide prevention.

  15. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention : methods, progress and international development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borys, J.M.; Le Bodo, Y.; Jebb, S.A.; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C.; Richard, D.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Romon, M.; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S.; Swinburn, B.

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for

  16. Perceived Benefits and Challenges of Coordinated Approaches to Chronic Disease Prevention in State Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Sonia; Best, Leslie; Jones, Ellen; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic disease prevention efforts have historically been funded categorically according to disease or risk factor. Federal agencies are now progressively starting to fund combined programs to address common risk. The purpose of this study was to inform transitions to coordinated chronic disease prevention by learning views on perceived benefits and challenges of a coordinated approach to funding. Methods A national survey on evidence-based public health was conducted from March through May 2013 among state health department employees working in chronic disease prevention (N = 865). Participants were asked to rank the top 3 benefits and top 3 challenges in coordinating chronic disease approaches from provided lists and could provide additional responses. Descriptive analyses, χ2 tests, and analysis of variance were conducted. Results The most common perceived benefits of coordinated approaches to chronic disease prevention were improved health outcomes, common risk factors better addressed, and reduced duplication of program efforts. The most common perceived challenges were funding restrictions, such as disease-specific performance measures; competing priorities; lack of communication across programs; funding might be reduced; agency not structured for program coordination; and loss of disease-specific partner support. Rankings of benefits and challenges were similar across states and participant roles; the perceived challenges “lack of communication across programs” (P = .02) and “funding might be reduced” differed by program area (P organizational support for coordinated approaches, and create benefits for organizational partners. PMID:24809362

  17. Educating Masters of Public Health Students on Tobacco Control and Prevention: An Integrated Curriculum Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Aquilino, Mary; Abramsohn, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive training in the area of tobacco control and prevention has not been available to public health students receiving professional degrees. This study describes findings of a project designed to develop and evaluate an integrated approach to the education of Masters of Public Health (MPH) students at the University of Iowa…

  18. Preventing Chronic Pain: A Human Systems Approach-Results From a Massive Open Online Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricton, James; Anderson, Kathleen; Clavel, Alfred; Fricton, Regina; Hathaway, Kate; Kang, Wenjun; Jaeger, Bernadette; Maixner, William; Pesut, Daniel; Russell, Jon; Weisberg, Mark B; Whitebird, Robin

    2015-09-01

    Chronic pain conditions are the top reason patients seek care, the most common reason for disability and addiction, and the biggest driver of healthcare costs; their treatment costs more than cancer, heart disease, dementia, and diabetes care. The personal impact in terms of suffering, disability, depression, suicide, and other problems is incalculable. There has been much effort to prevent many medical and dental conditions, but little effort has been directed toward preventing chronic pain. To address this deficit, a massive open online course (MOOC) was developed for students and healthcare professionals. "Preventing Chronic Pain: A Human Systems Approach" was offered by the University of Minnesota through the online platform Coursera. The first offering of this free open course was in the spring of 2014 and had 23 650 participants; 53% were patients or consumers interested in pain. This article describes the course concepts in preventing chronic pain, the analytic data from course participants, and postcourse evaluation forms.

  19. A Multifactorial Approach to Sport-Related Concussion Prevention and Education: Application of the Socioecological Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register-Mihalik, Johna; Baugh, Christine; Kroshus, Emily; Y Kerr, Zachary; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2017-03-01

    To offer an overview of sport-related concussion (SRC) prevention and education strategies in the context of the socioecological framework (SEF). Athletic trainers (ATs) will understand the many factors that interact to influence SRC prevention and the implications of these interactions for effective SRC education. Concussion is a complex injury that is challenging to identify and manage, particularly when athletes fail to disclose symptoms to their health care providers. Education is 1 strategy for increasing disclosure. However, limited information addresses how ATs can integrate the many factors that may influence the effectiveness of SRC education into their specific settings. Public health models provide an example through the SEF, which highlights the interplay among various levels of society and sport that can facilitate SRC prevention strategies, including education. For ATs to develop appropriate SRC prevention strategies, a framework for application is needed. A growing body of information concerning SRC prevention indicates that knowledge alone is insufficient to change concussion-related behaviors. The SEF allows this information to be considered at levels such as policy and societal, community, interpersonal (relationships), and intrapersonal (athlete). The use of such a framework will facilitate more comprehensive SRC prevention efforts that can be applied in all athletic training practice settings. Clinical Applications: Athletic trainers can use this information as they plan SRC prevention strategies in their specific settings. This approach will aid in addressing the layers of complexity that exist when developing a concussion-management policy and plan.

  20. [Nutritional approaches to modulate oxidative stress that induce Alzheimer's disease. Nutritional approaches to prevent Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Humberto Herman; Alanís-Garza, Eduardo Javier; Estrada Puente, María Fernanda; Mureyko, Lucía Liliana; Alarcón Torres, David Alejandro; Ixtepan Turrent, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the world; symptoms first appear after age 65 and have a progressive evolution. Expecting an increase on its incidence and knowing there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, it is a necessity to prevent progression. The change in diet due to globalization may explain the growth of the incidence in places such as Japan and Mediterranean countries, which used to have fewer incidences. There is a direct correlation between disease progression and the increased intake of alcohol, saturated fats, and red meat. Therefore, we find obesity and higher serum levels in cholesterol due to saturated fat as a result. A way to decrease the progression of Alzheimer's is through a diet rich in polipheno/es (potent antioxidants), unsaturated fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated), fish, vegetable fa t, fruits with low glycemic index, and a moderate consumption of red wine. Through this potent antioxidant diet we accomplish the prevention of dementia and the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This article emphasizes the food and other components that have been demonstrated to decrease the oxidative stress related to these progressive diseases.

  1. A Review of Nutrition-Specific and Nutrition-Sensitive Approaches to Preventing Moderate Acute Malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucha, Noreen; Jimenez, Michelle; Stone-Jimenez, Maryanne; Brown, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Recent literature reviews have demonstrated the limited efficacy of targeted supplementary feeding programmes aimed at both treating and preventing moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), with high rates of defaulting, low coverage and high associated costs. There is a growing interest in a) reviewing and improving protocols / tools for the management of acute malnutrition and b) increasing the quality and variety of products available for the treatment / prevention of moderate acute malnutrition. There is however, varying evidence on the impact of nutritional products aimed at preventing or treating acute malnutrition, or on the comparative efficacy of different products. Following several literature reviews and operational research with varying results, there is increasing consensus that MAM should be tackled not only through products, and that clearer guidance should be provided on broader preventive strategies, such as optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and caregiving practices, optimal maternal nutrition, counselling, social protection, food security and livelihoods, and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). The CMAM Forum has commissioned Technical Briefs which aim to summarise current thinking and practice relating to preventive approaches to MAM, looking at the role of both nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. The work is being launched in January 2014 and results will be available for presentation at the IAEA MAM Symposium in May 2014. The briefs aim to provide: • An overview of approaches to preventing MAM across different sectors (e.g. agriculture, health, IYCF, social protection, water and sanitation) and in different contexts. • A review of current knowledge including: – Evidence from systematic and literature reviews. – Existing approaches and practice for prevention of MAM. – Current guidance on making programmatic choices relating to MAM prevention interventions and decision-making frameworks.

  2. Stress-Prevention in Secondary Schools: Online- versus Face-to-Face-Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrici, Mirko; Lohaus, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the evaluation of an internet-delivered stress-prevention program for adolescents as a possible alternative for school-based implementation of mental health promotion. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 904 adolescents in grades eight and nine were assigned to four treatment conditions…

  3. Promoting the Role of Occupational Therapy in School-Based Collaboration: Outcome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This evidence-based project provided a professional development opportunity for educators to enhance the awareness of school-based occupational therapy and promote a collaborative approach when supporting student participation in daily learning tasks. Through asynchronous web-based delivery, participants viewed five narrated PowerPoint…

  4. Testing Causal Impacts of a School-Based SEL Intervention Using Instrumental Variable Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Catalina; Nathanson, Lori; Rivers, Susan; Brackett, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Children's social-emotional skills, such as conflict resolution and emotion regulation, have been linked to a number of highly regarded academic and social outcomes. The current study presents preliminary results from a causal test of the theory of change of RULER, a universal school-based approach to social and emotional learning (SEL).…

  5. The effect of a school-based outdoor education program on Visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of an education programme developed based on the school-based outdoor education approach on the academic achievement of visual arts teachers, as well as their self-efficacy beliefs for using museums and the natural environment. The aim is likewise to explore the ...

  6. The Research Landscape of School-Based Sexuality Education: Systematic Mapping of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roien, Line Anne; Graugaard, Christian; Simovska, Venka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map and discuss the overall characteristics of international research on school-based sexuality education, published in academic journals, with a particular focus on the framing of non-conservative approaches including sexuality education research targeting young pupils 6-12 years of age.…

  7. Effectiveness of primary school-based oral health education in West Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartono, S.W.; Lambri, S.E.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2002-01-01

    A study in West Java has indicated that involvement of primary health care personnel and schoolteachers in oral health education (OHE) at primary schools is a feasible approach that is sustainable. AIM: The present study aims to assess the effects of that school-based OHE programme on pupils who had

  8. Teacher Consultation to Enhance Implementation of School-Based Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayworm, Ashley M.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Hunnicutt, Kayleigh L.; Schiedel, K. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) is an alternative approach to school discipline that has been gaining recognition in the public and academic spheres as a way to engage students who misbehave in school. RJ has promise to address racial/ethnic, gender, and disability disproportionality in school discipline. One aspect of school-based RJ that has received…

  9. A Community-Driven Approach to Generate Urban Policy Recommendations for Obesity Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Díez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing research interest in targeting interventions at the neighborhood level to prevent obesity. Healthy urban environments require including residents’ perspectives to help understanding how urban environments relate to residents’ food choices and physical activity levels. We describe an innovative community-driven process aimed to develop environmental recommendations for obesity prevention. We conducted this study in a low-income area in Madrid (Spain, using a collaborative citizen science approach. First, 36 participants of two previous Photovoice projects translated their findings into policy recommendations, using an adapted logical framework approach. Second, the research team grouped these recommendations into strategies for obesity prevention, using the deductive analytical strategy of successive approximation. Third, through a nominal group session including participants, researchers, public health practitioners and local policy-makers, we discussed and prioritized the obesity prevention recommendations. Participants identified 12 policy recommendations related to their food choices and 18 related to their physical activity. The research team grouped these into 11 concrete recommendations for obesity prevention. The ‘top-three’ ranked recommendations were: (1 to adequate and increase the number of public open spaces; (2 to improve the access and cost of existing sports facilities and (3 to reduce the cost of gluten-free and diabetic products.

  10. Harnessing complexity: taking advantage of context and relationships in dissemination of school-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Helen; Bowes, Glenn; Drew, Sarah; Glover, Sara; Godfrey, Celia; Patton, George; Trafford, Lea; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-03-01

    Schools and school systems are increasingly asked to use evidence-based strategies to promote the health and well-being of students. The dissemination of school-based health promotion research, however, offers particular challenges to conventional approaches to dissemination. Schools and education systems are multifaceted organizations that sit within constantly shifting broader contexts. This article argues that health promotion dissemination needs to be rethought for school communities as complex systems and that this requires understanding and harnessing the dynamic ecology of the sociopolitical context. In developing this argument, the authors draw on their experience of the dissemination process of a multilevel school-based intervention in a complex educational context. Building on this experience, they argue for the need to move beyond conventional dissemination strategies to a focus on active partnerships between developers and users of school-based intervention research and offer a conceptual tool for planning dissemination.

  11. Barriers and facilitators to uptake of the school-based HPV vaccination programme in an ethnically diverse group of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  12. Play it forward! A community-based participatory research approach to childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hanson, Carrie; Doty, Jennifer; Jagaraj, Kimberly; Braaten, Kent; Doherty, William J

    2016-03-01

    To date there has been limited success with childhood obesity prevention interventions. This may be due in part, to the challenge of reaching and engaging parents in interventions. The current study used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to engage parents in cocreating and pilot testing a childhood obesity prevention intervention. Because CBPR approaches to childhood obesity prevention are new, this study aims to detail the creation, including the formation of the citizen action group (CAG), and implementation of a childhood obesity prevention intervention using CBPR methods. A CBPR approach was used to recruit community members to partner with university researchers in the CAG (n = 12) to create and implement the Play It Forward! childhood obesity intervention. The intervention creation and implementation took 2 years. During Year 1 (2011-2012), the CAG carried out a community needs and resources assessment and designed a community-based and family focused childhood obesity prevention intervention. During Year 2 (2012-2013), the CAG implemented the intervention and conducted an evaluation. Families (n = 50; 25 experimental/25 control group) with children ages 6-12 years participated in Play It Forward! Feasibility and process evaluation data suggested that the intervention was highly feasible and participants in both the CAG and intervention were highly satisfied. Specifically, over half of the families attended 75% of the Play It Forward! events and 33% of families attended all the events. Equal collaboration between parents and academic researchers to address childhood obesity may be a promising approach that merits further testing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Quality improvement collaborative: A novel approach to improve infection prevention and control. Perceptions of lead infection prevention nurses who participated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Debra; Hine, Victoria; Bucior, Helen; Foster, Wendy; Mukombe, Nyarayi; Ryan, Jane; Smirthwaite, Sandra; Winfield, Jodie

    2018-03-01

    In response to the ongoing infection prevention (IP) challenges in England, a 90-day quality improvement (QI) collaborative programme was developed. The paper discusses the approach, benefits, challenges and evaluation of the programme. The objective of the collaborative was to develop new approaches to enable sustainable and effective IP. Six trusts in the region participated in the collaborative. Each defined their bespoke IP focus. There was no expectation that statistically significant measurable improvements would be identified during the short time frame. The experiences of the participants were sought both during the programme to facilitate its constant review and at the end of the programme to evaluate its effectiveness. The feedback focused on achievements, barriers to change and benefits of participating in a QI collaborative. To measure the potential success of the projects, participants completed the Model for Understanding Success in Quality framework. (MUSIQ; Kaplan et al., 2012). Since each trusts IP focus was bespoke commonalities of success were not evaluated. Participants identified a positive outcome from their QI interventions. The MUSIQ score identified the projects had the potential for success. The feedback from the participants demonstrated that it is worthy of further development.

  14. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demo...

  15. A "Mindful Rational Living" Approach for Addressing HIV in the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenneville, Tiffany; St. John Walsh, Audra

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a "mindful rational living" approach, which incorporates mindfulness techniques with rational emotive behavioral therapy strategies for addressing HIV in the school setting. The utility of this approach for attending to the physical, mental, and psychosocial aspects of school-based HIV prevention and treatment will…

  16. A game-theoretical approach for reciprocal security-related prevention investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reniers, Genserik; Soudan, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces important security risks from neighbouring companies. Investing in reciprocal security preventive measures is therefore necessary to avoid major accidents. These investments do not, however, provide a direct return on investment for the investor-company and thus plants are hesitative to invest. Moreover, there is likelihood that even if a company has fully invested in reciprocal security prevention, its neighbour has not, and as a result the company can experience a major accident caused by an initial (minor or major) accident that occurred in an adjacent chemical enterprise. In this article we employ a game-theoretic approach to interpret and model behaviour of two neighbouring chemical plants while negotiating and deciding on reciprocal security prevention investments.

  17. Designing System Reforms: Using a Systems Approach to Translate Incident Analyses into Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Natassia; Read, Gemma J. M.; van Mulken, Michelle R. H.; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Advocates of systems thinking approaches argue that accident prevention strategies should focus on reforming the system rather than on fixing the “broken components.” However, little guidance exists on how organizations can translate incident data into prevention strategies that address the systemic causes of accidents. This article describes and evaluates a series of systems thinking prevention strategies that were designed in response to the analysis of multiple incidents. The study was undertaken in the led outdoor activity (LOA) sector in Australia, which delivers supervised or instructed outdoor activities such as canyoning, sea kayaking, rock climbing and camping. The design process involved workshops with practitioners, and focussed on incident data analyzed using Rasmussen's AcciMap technique. A series of reflection points based on the systemic causes of accidents was used to guide the design process, and the AcciMap technique was used to represent the prevention strategies and the relationships between them, leading to the creation of PreventiMaps. An evaluation of the PreventiMaps revealed that all of them incorporated the core principles of the systems thinking approach and many proposed prevention strategies for improving vertical integration across the LOA system. However, the majority failed to address the migration of work practices and the erosion of risk controls. Overall, the findings suggest that the design process was partially successful in helping practitioners to translate incident data into prevention strategies that addressed the systemic causes of accidents; refinement of the design process is required to focus practitioners more on designing monitoring and feedback mechanisms to support decisions at the higher levels of the system. PMID:28066296

  18. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  19. Coping planning: a patient-centred and strengths-focused approach to suicide prevention training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallman, Helen M

    2018-04-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of premature death and, despite significant investment, the prevalence rate has remained relatively stable for more than a decade. Theoretically, the use of 'safety planning' as a response to suicidality likely maintains suicide as a potential solution for vulnerable people. This paper describes a theoretically-supported paradigm shift from safety planning to 'coping planning' to improve patient outcomes and improve the confidence and competence of clinicians working with people with suicidality. Coping planning is a strategy used to support people with acute distress. Its components of 'caring', 'collaborating' and 'connecting' reinforce existing strengths, promote self-efficacy and link people with more intensive supports, as needed. Coping planning overcomes the limitations of existing approaches. It reframes suicide prevention from managing patients disclosing suicidality to ensuring patients have minimally sufficient temporary support to help them cope. This approach has the potential to promote coping self-efficacy and prevent deterioration that leads to suicide.

  20. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infants: Long-Tern Consequences and Modern Approaches for Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya G. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses modern ideas about the genesis of the most common variants of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID in infants, and their ability to lead to long-term negative consequences for the health of the child. The article provides data on role of intestinal microbiota in development of FGID in infants and current approaches to prevention and correction using probiotics with proven effectiveness. 

  1. A 3-Component Approach Incorporating Focus Groups in Strategic Planning for Sexual Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.

  2. Re-evaluating the Rose approach: comparative benefits of the population and high-risk preventive strategies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie-Therese

    2009-10-01

    Options for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, the greatest global cause of death, include population preventive measures (the Rose approach), or specifically seeking out and managing high-risk cases. However, the likely benefit of a population approach has been recently questioned.

  3. Re-evaluating the Rose approach: comparative benefits of the population and high-risk preventive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooney, Marie-Therese; Dudina, Alexandra; Whincup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Options for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, the greatest global cause of death, include population preventive measures (the Rose approach), or specifically seeking out and managing high-risk cases. However, the likely benefit of a population approach has been recently...

  4. How Do Teachers Learn Together? A Study of School-Based Teacher Learning in China from the Perspective of Organisational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Wong, Jocelyn L. N.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of professional development have examined the influence of school-based approaches on in-service teacher learning and change but have seldom investigated teachers' job-embedded learning processes. This paper explores the dynamic processes of teacher learning in school-based settings. A qualitative comparative case study based on the…

  5. Prevention approaches in a preclinical canine model of Alzheimer’s disease: Benefits and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina R. Davis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aged dogs spontaneously develop many features of human aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD including cognitive decline and neuropathology. In this review, we discuss age-dependent learning tasks, memory tasks, and functional measures that can be used in aged dogs for sensitive treatment outcome measures. Neuropathology that is linked to cognitive decline is described along with examples of treatment studies that show reduced neuropathology in aging dogs (dietary manipulations, behavioral enrichment, immunotherapy, and statins. Studies in canine show that multi-targeted approaches may be more beneficial than single pathway manipulations (e.g. antioxidants combined with behavioral enrichment. Aging canine studies show good predictive validity for human clinical trials outcomes (e.g. immunotherapy and several interventions tested in dogs strongly support a prevention approach (e.g. immunotherapy and statins. Further, dogs are ideally suited for prevention studies as they the age because onset of cognitive decline and neuropathology strongly support longitudinal interventions that can be completed within a 3-5 year period. Disadvantages to using the canine model are that they lengthy, use labor-intensive comprehensive cognitive testing, and involve costly housing (almost as high as that of nonhuman primates. However overall, using the dog as a preclinical model for testing preventive approaches for AD may complement work in rodents and nonhuman primates.

  6. A School-Based Dental Program Evaluation: Comparison to the Massachusetts Statewide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, Corinna S; Kotelchuck, Milton; Declercq, Eugene; Kuhlthau, Karen; Jones, Kari; Yoder, Karen M

    2017-10-01

    School-based dental programs target high-risk communities and reduce barriers to obtaining dental services by delivering care to students in their schools. We describe the evaluation of a school-based dental program operating in Chelsea, a city north of Boston, with a low-income and largely minority population, by comparing participants' oral health to a Massachusetts oral health assessment. Standardized dental screenings were conducted for students in kindergarten, third, and sixth grades. Outcomes were compared in bivariate analysis, stratified by grade and income levels. A greater percentage of Chelsea students had untreated decay and severe treatment need than students statewide. Yet, fewer Chelsea third graders had severe treatment need, and more had dental sealants. There was no significant difference in the percentage of Chelsea students having severe treatment need or dental sealants by income level. Students participating in our program do not have lower decay levels than students statewide. However, they do have lower levels of severe treatment need, likely due to treatment referrals. Our results confirm that school-based prevention programs can lead to increased prevalence of dental sealants among high-risk populations. Results provide support for the establishment of full-service school-based programs in similar communities. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  7. School-based obesity policy, social capital, and gender differences in weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Thomas, Breanca

    2013-06-01

    We examined the associations among school-based obesity policies, social capital, and adolescents' self-reported weight control behaviors, focusing on how the collective roles of community and adopted policies affect gender groups differently. We estimated state-level ecologic models using 1-way random effects seemingly unrelated regressions derived from panel data for 43 states from 1991 to 2009, which we obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. We used multiplicative interaction terms to assess how social capital moderates the effects of school-based obesity policies. School-based obesity policies in active communities were mixed in improving weight control behaviors. They increased both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors among boys but did not increase healthy weight control behaviors among girls. Social capital is an important contextual factor that conditions policy effectiveness in large contexts. Heterogeneous behavioral responses are associated with both school-based obesity policies and social capital. Building social capital and developing policy programs to balance outcomes for both gender groups may be challenging in managing childhood obesity.

  8. School-Based Management: The Next Needed Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1986-01-01

    Recommends the implementation of school-based management systems as one way to meet government demands for educational reform. Describes the functions of principals, school advisory councils, school-site budgeting and accounting, and annual planning and performance reports in successful school-based management systems. Presents examples of…

  9. School-Based Management and Effectiveness of Public Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to achieve its statutory roles, objectives and aspirations. We suggest that the adoption of School-based management by way of increasing the principals' sphere of influence would facilitate effective service delivery in schools. Keywords: school-based management, principals' effectiveness, public secondary schools.

  10. Strategies for Fostering the Efficacy of School-Based Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined community participation in the School-Based Management Committees (SBMC), the challenges hindering participation, and strategies for fostering efficacy of the School Based Management Committee. The number 340 schools were selected from the population of 2543 public primary schools in ...

  11. School Based Management: A Detailed Guide for Successful Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Richard G.

    This book examines school-based management and provides strategies to implement management changes. The 14 chapters examine the components of good schools, including clarity of purpose, leadership, professionalism, lack of bureaucratic control, competition, and choice. The text describes the components of school-based management and the need for…

  12. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  13. School-based data and management of technological innovations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School-based data and management of technological innovations in public secondary schools in Cross River State. ... Global Journal of Educational Research ... Result indicated that: there is no significant positive relationship between school-based data and principals management of technological innovation.

  14. Strengthening School-Based Occupational Therapy through Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucey, Janet C.; Provident, Ingrid M.

    2018-01-01

    This article evaluates a peer mentoring experience for school-based practitioners and its effect on collaborative consultation practices. Best practice and public school policy promote the use of collaborative consultation services but school-based practitioners report significant barriers in achieving effective collaborative consultation…

  15. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwalajtys, Tina; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.

  16. Integrating multiple programme and policy approaches to hepatitis C prevention and care for injection drug users: a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, Guthrie S; Klein, Susan J; Candelas, Alma R; O'Connell, Daniel A; Rothman, Jeffrey R; Feldman, Ira S; Tsui, Dennis S; Cotroneo, Richard A; Flanigan, Colleen A

    2007-10-01

    New York State is home to an estimated 230,000 individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and roughly 171,500 active injection drug users (IDUs). HCV/HIV co-infection is common and models of service delivery that effectively meet IDUs' needs are required. A HCV strategic plan has stressed integration. HCV prevention and care are integrated within health and human service settings, including HIV/AIDS organisations and drug treatment programmes. Other measures that support comprehensive HCV services for IDUs include reimbursement, clinical guidelines, training and HCV prevention education. Community and provider collaborations inform programme and policy development. IDUs access 5 million syringes annually through harm reduction/syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) and a statewide syringe access programme. Declines in HCV prevalence amongst IDUs in New York City coincided with improved syringe availability. New models of care successfully link IDUs at SEPs and in drug treatment to health care. Over 7000 Medicaid recipients with HCV/HIV co-infection had health care encounters related to their HCV in a 12-month period and 10,547 claims for HCV-related medications were paid. The success rate of transitional case management referrals to drug treatment is over 90%. Training and clinical guidelines promote provider knowledge about HCV and contribute to quality HCV care for IDUs. Chart reviews of 2570 patients with HIV in 2004 documented HCV status 97.4% of the time, overall, in various settings. New HCV surveillance systems are operational. Despite this progress, significant challenges remain. A comprehensive, public health approach, using multiple strategies across systems and mobilizing multiple sectors, can enhance IDUs access to HCV prevention and care. A holisitic approach with integrated services, including for HCV-HIV co-infected IDUs is needed. Leadership, collaboration and resources are essential.

  17. A holistic approach to the environmental evaluation of food waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Font Vivanco, David; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J

    2017-01-01

    The environmental evaluation of food waste prevention is considered a challenging task due to the globalised nature of the food supply chain and the limitations of existing evaluation tools. The most significant of these is the rebound effect: the associated environmental burdens of substitutive consumption that arises as a result of economic savings made from food waste prevention. This study introduces a holistic approach to addressing these challenges, with a focus on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household food waste in the UK. It uses a hybrid life-cycle assessment model coupled with a highly detailed multi-regional environmentally extended input output analysis to capture environmental impacts across the global food supply chain. The study also takes into consideration the rebound effect, which was modelled using a linear specification of an almost ideal demand system. The study finds that food waste prevention could lead to substantial reductions in GHG emissions in the order of 706-896kg CO 2 -eq. per tonne of food waste, with most of these savings (78%) occurring as a result of avoided food production overseas. The rebound effect may however reduce such GHG savings by up to 60%. These findings provide a deeper insight into our understanding of the environmental impacts of food waste prevention: the study demonstrates the need to adopt a holistic approach when developing food waste prevention policies in order to mitigate the rebound effect and highlight the importance of increasing efficiency across the global food supply chain, particularly in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. School-Based Peer Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopels, Sandra; Dupper, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes extent and impact of harassment; responses of victims, school personnel, and perpetrators to harassment; and legal redress available to victims. Includes specific steps social workers and other school personnel should take to prevent or alleviate such problems. (LBT)

  19. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Lind

    Full Text Available School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns.We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program.Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone.Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process.Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal

  20. Approach/avoidance motivation, message framing and skin cancer prevention: a test of the congruency hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevey, David; Dolan, Michelle

    2014-08-01

    The congruency hypothesis posits that approach-orientated individuals are persuaded to engage in prevention behaviours by positively framed messages; conversely, negatively framed messages are more persuasive in encouraging those who are avoidance-orientated. A 2 (frame: loss vs gain) × 2 (motivation: avoidance vs approach) design examined the effects of skin cancer information on sun-protective intentions and free sunscreen sample requests among 533 young adults. Gain-framed messages had the strongest effect on sun-protective intentions for approach-oriented individuals, whereas loss-framed messages had the strongest effect on avoidance-oriented individuals. Message framing effects on precautionary sun behaviour intentions were moderated by motivational differences. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Offering pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention to pregnant and postpartum women: a clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika L; Weber, Shannon; Cohan, Deborah

    2017-03-08

    HIV prevention during pregnancy and lactation is critical for both maternal and child health. Pregnancy provides a critical opportunity for clinicians to elicit women's vulnerabilities to HIV and offer HIV testing, treatment and referral and/or comprehensive HIV prevention options for the current pregnancy, the postpartum period and safer conception options for future pregnancies. In this commentary, we review the safety of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine in pregnant and lactating women and suggest opportunities to identify pregnant and postpartum women at substantial risk of HIV. We then describe a clinical approach to caring for women who both choose and decline pre-exposure prophylaxis during pregnancy and postpartum, highlighting areas for future research. Evidence suggests that pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine is safe in pregnancy and lactation. Identifying women vulnerable to HIV and eligible for pre-exposure prophylaxis is challenging in light of the myriad of individual, community, and structural forces impacting HIV acquisition. Validated risk calculators exist for specific populations but have not been used to screen and offer HIV prevention methods. Partner testing and engagement of men living with HIV are additional means of reaching at-risk women. However, women's vulnerabilities to HIV change over time. Combining screening for HIV vulnerability with HIV and/or STI testing at standard intervals during pregnancy is a practical way to prompt providers to incorporate HIV screening and prevention counselling. We suggest using shared decision-making to offer women pre-exposure prophylaxis as one of multiple HIV prevention strategies during pregnancy and postpartum, facilitating open conversations about HIV vulnerabilities, preferences about HIV prevention strategies, and choosing a method that best meets the needs of each woman. Growing evidence suggests that pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir

  2. Promising approaches for the treatment and prevention of viral respiratory illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Megremis, Spyridon; Kitsioulis, Nikolaos A; Vangelatou, Olympia; West, Peter; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi

    2017-10-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections are the most common human ailments, leading to enormous health and economic burden. Hundreds of viral species and subtypes have been associated with these conditions, with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinoviruses being the most frequent and with the highest burden. When considering prevention or treatment of viral respiratory tract infections, potential targets include the causative pathogens themselves but also the immune response, disease transmission, or even just the symptoms. Strategies targeting all these aspects are developing concurrently, and several novel and promising approaches are emerging. In this perspective we overview the entire range of options and highlight some of the most promising approaches, including new antiviral agents, symptomatic or immunomodulatory drugs, the re-emergence of natural remedies, and vaccines and public health policies toward prevention. Wide-scale prevention through immunization appears to be within reach for respiratory syncytial virus and promising for influenza virus, whereas additional effort is needed in regard to rhinovirus, as well as other respiratory tract viruses. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lessons From a Pilot Community-Driven Approach for Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgendorf, Amy; Stedman, John; Inzeo, Paula Tran; McCall, Ann; Burrows, Judy; Krueger, Scott; Christens, Brian; Pollard, Ethen; Meinen, Amy; Korth, Amy; Wolf, Lesley; Adams, Alexandra

    2016-11-01

    The Wisconsin Obesity Prevention Initiative has piloted a novel approach for community action for obesity prevention that incorporates both coalition and community organizing efforts in 2 counties. This article describes lessons learned to date from this experience. A description of the progress made in these communities and the support provided by Initiative staff and other partners are drawn from process evaluation of the pilot from November 2014 through December 2015, as well as the reflections of community partners. In Marathon County, building towards coalition action required thoughtful re-engagement and restructuring of an existing obesity-focused coalition. Community organizing surfaced local concerns related to the root causes of obesity, including poverty and transit. In Menominee County, coalition and community organizing efforts both have drawn attention to cultural assets for health promotion, such as traditional food practices, as well as the links between cultural loss and obesity. Building coalition action and community organizing varies across community contexts and requires addressing various steps and challenges. Both approaches require critical local examination of existing community action and stakeholders, attention to relationship building, and support from outside partners. In coalition action, backbone staff provide important infrastructure, including member recruitment and facilitating group processes towards collaboration. Community organizing involves broad resident engagement to identify shared interests and concerns and build new leadership. A community-driven systems change model offers potential to increase community action for obesity prevention.

  4. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentner, A.M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.

    2010-01-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  5. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  6. [Serial clinical examinations as the main approach to dental caries prevention in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh

    2015-01-01

    Leading scientific and organizational prerequisites for the feasibility of clinical examination of the entire child population of the Russian Federation to the dentist is, above all, the high prevalence and intensity of dental diseases in children of all ages. As a result of many years of research and follow-up of children of preschool and school age we have proved the need to distinguish a group of children with zero activity of dental caries. The referring criteria are determined according to the results of comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination in order to determine the degree of risk of dental caries and individual caries resistance. The age-specific risk group is settled by "Stop caries" software. In order to optimize the preventive activities children are divided in 5 groups for routine preventive dental care. Unfortunately the efforts of modern dental services aimed at eliminating the consequences of caries process by filling cavities. Individualized preventive approach will increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and save public funds allocated in the amount of compulsory health insurance for pediatric dentistry.

  7. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  9. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  10. Time to foster a rational approach to preventing cardiovascular morbid events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jay N; Duprez, Daniel A

    2008-07-29

    Efforts to prevent atherosclerotic morbid events have focused primarily on risk factor prevention and intervention. These approaches, based on the statistical association of risk factors with events, have dominated clinical practice in the last generation. Because the cardiovascular abnormalities eventuating in morbid events are detectable in the arteries and heart before the development of symptomatic disease, recent efforts have focused on identifying the presence of these abnormalities as a more sensitive and specific guide to the need for therapy. Advances in noninvasive techniques for studying the vasculature and the left ventricle now provide the opportunity to use early disease rather than risk factors as the tool for clinical decision making. A disease scoring system has been developed using 10 tests of vascular and cardiac function and structure. More extensive data to confirm the sensitivity and specificity of this scoring system and to demonstrate its utility in tracking the response to therapy are needed to justify widespread application in clinical practice.

  11. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-06-05

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  12. An ecosystem approach to human health and the prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tumaco, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Carlos A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted during 1996-1997 in 20 villages of Tumaco, Colombia, to evaluate the effectiveness of personal protective measures against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. The intervention was effective, but the high costs of the preventive measures and the lack of a more holistic approach hampered the intervention's sustainability. This paper analyzes the results using an ecosystem approach to human health. Using this approach, we found that CL has been present in the study area for a long time and affects farmers and those living closest to the forest. The forest constitutes the habitat for insect vectors (sandflies and parasite reservoirs (wild mammals. Four spatial scales were identified in this ecosystem: residential, village, regional, and global. From the ecosystem perspective, three interventions are proposed to prevent CL in the 20 villages: improve housing construction, organize village housing in clusters, and make diagnosis and treatment of CL more accessible. The design and implementation of these interventions require active involvement by people with the disease (village inhabitants and decision-makers (local authorities.

  13. Prevention and control of blood stream infection using the balanced scorecard approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohsiswatmo, Rinawati; Rafika, Sarah; Marsubrin, Putri M T

    2014-07-01

    to obtain formulation of an effective and efficient strategy to overcome blood stream infection (BSI). operational research design with qualitative and quantitative approach. The study was divided into two stages. Stage I was an operational research with problem solving approach using qualitative and quantitative method. Stage II was performed using quantitative method, a form of an interventional study on strategy implementation, which was previously established in stage I. The effective and efficient strategy for the prevention and control of infection in neonatal unit Cipto Mangunkusumo (CM) Hospital was established using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach, which involved several related processes. the BSC strategy was proven to be effective and efficient in substantially reducing BSI from 52.31°/oo to 1.36°/oo in neonates with birth weight (BW) 1000-1499 g (p=0.025), and from 29.96°/oo to 1.66°/oo in BW 1500-1999 g (p=0.05). Gram-negative bacteria still predominated as the main cause of BSI in CMH Neonatal Unit. So far, the sources of the microorganisms were thought to be from the environment of treatment unit (tap water filter and humidifying water in the incubator). Significant reduction was also found in neonatal mortality rate weighing 1000-1499 g at birth, length of stay, hospitalization costs, and improved customer satisfaction. effective and efficient infection prevention and control using BSC approach could significantly reduce the rate of BSI. This approach may be applied for adult patients in intensive care unit with a wide range of adjustment.

  14. Diagnostic and Preventive Approaches for Dental Caries in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Karami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Oral health status plays an essential role in human health. Recently, enhancement in oral health caries has been noted in both developed and developing countries. Dental caries is still very common among children. Screening and preventive interventions is necessary. The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic and preventive approaches for dental caries in children. Evidence Acquisition Searching PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library (for 5 recent years from 2011 - 2016, and reference lists for keywords and phrases such as “dental caries in children” and prevention and diagnosis, we included trials and controlled observational studies regarding the diagnosis and preventive techniques for dental caries in children. Results We found no study demonstrating the effects of screening by primary care providers on clinical outcomes. In a cohort study, pediatrician examination associated with a sensitivity of 0.76 was reported to identify dental caries in children. The results of the new randomized trials that were confirmed by previous studies showed that the efficacy of fluoride varnish is more than no varnish in reduction of dental caries from 18% to 59%. Some of the trials regarding xylitol had no results regarding the effects on dental caries. New observational studies have shown an association between early childhood fluoride use and enamel fluorosis. There is no evidence on the accuracy of prediction instruments in primary care settings. Conclusions We found no direct evidence that reveals that screening by primary care clinicians can decrease early childhood caries. Previous evidences reviewed by the United State Preventive Services Task Force demonstrated that oral fluoride supplementation is effective in decreasing caries incidences, and recent evidences supported the effectiveness of fluoride varnish in higher-risk children.

  15. Effectiveness of an individual school-based intervention for children with aggressive behavior: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Londen, M. van; Dekovic, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Prinzie, P.; Lochman, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For elementary school-children with aggressive behaviour problems, there is a strong need for effective preventive interventions to interrupt the developmental trajectory towards more serious behaviour problems. AIM: The aim of this RCT-study was to evaluate a school-based individual

  16. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  17. Advancing biomarker research: utilizing 'Big Data' approaches for the characterization and prevention of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Cha, Danielle S; Jerrell, Jeanette M; Swardfager, Walter; Kim, Rachael D; Costa, Leonardo G; Baskaran, Anusha; Soczynska, Joanna K; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Brietzke, Elisa; Powell, Alissa M; Gallaugher, Ashley; Kudlow, Paul; Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    To provide a strategic framework for the prevention of bipolar disorder (BD) that incorporates a 'Big Data' approach to risk assessment for BD. Computerized databases (e.g., Pubmed, PsychInfo, and MedlinePlus) were used to access English-language articles published between 1966 and 2012 with the search terms bipolar disorder, prodrome, 'Big Data', and biomarkers cross-referenced with genomics/genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, inflammation, oxidative stress, neurotrophic factors, cytokines, cognition, neurocognition, and neuroimaging. Papers were selected from the initial search if the primary outcome(s) of interest was (were) categorized in any of the following domains: (i) 'omics' (e.g., genomics), (ii) molecular, (iii) neuroimaging, and (iv) neurocognitive. The current strategic approach to identifying individuals at risk for BD, with an emphasis on phenotypic information and family history, has insufficient predictive validity and is clinically inadequate. The heterogeneous clinical presentation of BD, as well as its pathoetiological complexity, suggests that it is unlikely that a single biomarker (or an exclusive biomarker approach) will sufficiently augment currently inadequate phenotypic-centric prediction models. We propose a 'Big Data'- bioinformatics approach that integrates vast and complex phenotypic, anamnestic, behavioral, family, and personal 'omics' profiling. Bioinformatic processing approaches, utilizing cloud- and grid-enabled computing, are now capable of analyzing data on the order of tera-, peta-, and exabytes, providing hitherto unheard of opportunities to fundamentally revolutionize how psychiatric disorders are predicted, prevented, and treated. High-throughput networks dedicated to research on, and the treatment of, BD, integrating both adult and younger populations, will be essential to sufficiently enroll adequate samples of individuals across the neurodevelopmental trajectory in studies to enable the characterization

  18. Orotracheal Intubation Using the Retromolar Space: A Reliable Alternative Intubation Approach to Prevent Dental Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linh T. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in airway management, perianesthetic dental injury remains one of the most common anesthesia-related adverse events and cause for malpractice litigation against anesthesia providers. Recommended precautions for prevention of dental damage may not always be effective because these techniques involve contact and pressure exerted on vulnerable teeth. We describe a novel approach using the retromolar space to insert a flexible fiberscope for tracheal tube placement as a reliable method to achieve atraumatic tracheal intubation. Written consent for publication has been obtained from the patient.

  19. Why We Need Evidence-Based, Community-Wide Approaches for Prevention of Teen Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Wanda D; Warner, Lee; Kappeler, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    Teen pregnancy and childbearing have declined over the past two decades to historic lows. The most recent declines have occurred during a time of coordinated national efforts focused on teen pregnancy. This article highlights a federal partnership to reduce teen pregnancy through the implementation of innovative, evidence-based approaches in affected communities, with a focus on reaching African-American and Latino/Hispanic youth. This initiative has the potential to transform the design and implementation of future teen pregnancy prevention efforts and provide a model that can be replicated in communities across the nation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A salutogenic approach to prevention of metabolic syndrome: a mixed methods population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettola, Juhani; Viljanen, Anna Maria

    2014-12-01

    To find a salutogenic approach for prevention of metabolic syndrome in primary care practice. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods procedure was used to find salutogenic approaches for lifestyle change by assessing individual need, potential, and personal motivation. Data from a population health survey and interviews that focused on a sense of coherence were analysed. Altogether 480 Finnish subjects participated in a population health survey, and 43 of them were interviewed. The 43 interviewees' data were included in the final analysis. With the health survey participants' liability for MetS was assessed, and the objective need for lifestyle intervention was determined. Through the focused interviews potential and personal motivation for lifestyle modification were explored. Finally the data of the 43 interviewed subjects were merged. Four possible lifestyle intervention approaches were identified for specific intervention. First, subjects with a strong sense of coherence only need encouragement to maintain a healthy lifestyle; second, professional support was found important for subjects with gaps in health awareness to improve health understanding; third, strengthening of social support for lifestyle change is necessary for subjects with various practical constraints in their everyday life; and fourth, strengthening of stress adaptation is important for subjects with redundant concerns about their health. Salutogenic client-centred lifestyle modification approaches should be part of primary care practice. Further, a cross-disciplinary approach is needed in primary care research and practice to combat the exploding lifestyle illnesses.

  1. "School Banding": Principals' Perspectives of Teacher Professional Development in the School-Based Management Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daphnee Hui Lin; Chiu, Chi Shing

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how principals' leadership approaches to teacher professional development arise from school banding and may impact upon teacher professional capital and student achievement. Design/methodology/approach: The case study is situated within the context of school-based management, comprising reflective…

  2. i Engaging as an innovative approach to engage patients in their own fall prevention care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng HM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Huey-Ming Tzeng,1 Chang-Yi Yin21College of Nursing, Washington State University, Spokane, WA, USA; 2Department of History, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Decreasing patient fall injuries during hospitalization continues to be a ­challenge at the bedside. Empowering patients to become active participants in their own fall ­prevention care could be a solution. In a previous study, elderly patients recently discharged from a United States hospital expressed a need for nurses to give and repeat directives about fall prevention; when the nurse left a brochure on the topic, but did not provide any (or limited verbal explanations about the content or the importance of the information, the patient felt that the information was insufficient. To address patients’ needs, we developed “i ­Engaging”, a Web-based software application for use at the bedside. i Engaging is an innovative approach that is used to engage patients in their own fall prevention care during hospital stays. The application was designed based on the assumption that patients are the best and most critical sources of information about their health status. i Engaging has not yet been tested in clinical trials.Keywords: patient, safety, hospital, nursing care, fall, consumer involvement

  3. Venous thromboembolism: the prevailing approach to diagnosis, prevention and treatment among Internal Medicine practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Arie; Gavish, Israel; Kfir, Hila; Rimbrot, Sofia

    2017-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common cause of death and the leading cause of sudden death in hospitalized medical patients. Despite the existence of guidelines for prevention and treatment of this disorder, their implementation in everyday life is not always accomplished. We performed a survey among directors of Internal Medicine departments in our country in order to evaluate their attitude and approach to this issue. A questionnaire with pertinent questions regarding prevention and treatment of VTE, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) was sent to each one of the directors of Internal Medicine Departments around the country. Sixty-nine out of 97 (71%) of the Internal Medicine departments directors responded the questionnaire. We found that several of the current guidelines were followed in a reasonable way. On the other hand, heterogeneity of responses was also present and the performance of current guidelines was imperfectly followed, and showed to be deficient in several aspects. An effort should be done in order to reemphasize and put in effect current guidelines for the prevention and treatment of VTE among hospitalists and Internal Medicine practitioners.

  4. Teen Pregnancy Prevention: Implementation of a Multicomponent, Community-Wide Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Trisha; Tevendale, Heather D; Fuller, Taleria R; House, L Duane; Romero, Lisa M; Brittain, Anna; Varanasi, Bala

    2017-03-01

    This article provides an overview and description of implementation activities of the multicomponent, community-wide initiatives of the Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program initiated in 2010 by the Office of Adolescent Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The community-wide initiatives applied the Interactive Systems Framework for dissemination and implementation through training and technical assistance on the key elements of the initiative: implementation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) interventions; enhancing quality of and access to youth-friendly reproductive health services; educating stakeholders about TPP; working with youth in communities most at risk of teen pregnancy; and mobilizing the community to garner support. Of nearly 12,000 hours of training and technical assistance provided, the majority was for selecting, implementing, and evaluating an evidence-based TPP program. Real-world implementation of a community-wide approach to TPP takes time and effort. This report describes implementation within each of the components and shares lessons learned during planning and implementation phases of the initiative. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to increase knowledge about cervical cancer and improve uptake of ... Poor knowledge about cervical cancer plays a role in limiting screening uptake. HPV ... Article Metrics.

  6. Resources available for school based mental health services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resources available for school based mental health services in Enugu urban and head teachers' knowledge of childhood mental health problems. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ...

  7. Morphing Literacy: Boys Reshaping Their School-Based Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Heather A.; Stanford, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Details about a two-year ethnographic case study research in middle school boys to understand school literacy are presented. The study revealed that boys resist many school-based practices by transforming the assigned literacy work.

  8. A Socio-Technical Approach to Preventing, Mitigating, and Recovering from Ransomware Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Recently there have been several high-profile ransomware attacks involving hospitals around the world. Ransomware is intended to damage or disable a user's computer unless the user makes a payment. Once the attack has been launched, users have three options: 1) try to restore their data from backup; 2) pay the ransom; or 3) lose their data. In this manuscript, we discuss a socio-technical approach to address ransomware and outline four overarching steps that organizations can undertake to secure an electronic health record (EHR) system and the underlying computing infrastructure. First, health IT professionals need to ensure adequate system protection by correctly installing and configuring computers and networks that connect them. Next, the health care organizations need to ensure more reliable system defense by implementing user-focused strategies, including simulation and training on correct and complete use of computers and network applications. Concomitantly, the organization needs to monitor computer and application use continuously in an effort to detect suspicious activities and identify and address security problems before they cause harm. Finally, organizations need to respond adequately to and recover quickly from ransomware attacks and take actions to prevent them in future. We also elaborate on recommendations from other authoritative sources, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Similar to approaches to address other complex socio-technical health IT challenges, the responsibility of preventing, mitigating, and recovering from these attacks is shared between health IT professionals and end-users.

  9. Bring in the social context: towards an integrated approach to health promotion and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur

    2011-03-01

    In this paper I take up the quest for an integrated approach to health promotion and prevention that incorporates the social context. I suggest that an integrated theory of public health has to rethink the individual society relationships and move beyond the dominance of socialization theory and individual level analysis. A theoretical analysis of key issues in an integrated theory of public health. I maintain that we must shift the attention away from the individual to the social organization and the embeddedness of the social actor in the ongoing social networks and relationships; we must pay attention to the definition of levels of analysis and the relationships between them; we must emphasize the social mechanisms that influence people in social relationships and networks and connect various levels; we must reconsider some of the epistemological and methodological ideas that have been taken for granted and pay attention to issues of emergence and reductionism and the use of multiple methods. I conclude by suggesting that if public health is to move forward and develop better theories, and more efficient ways of prevention and health promotion, it needs to move beyond reductionist models of social behaviour and develop a transdisciplinary approach that integrates various elements from different disciplines and different levels of analysis.

  10. Moving towards a population health approach to the primary prevention of common mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacka Felice N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a need for the development of effective universal preventive approaches to the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety, at a population level. Poor diet, physical inactivity and smoking have long been recognized as key contributors to the high prevalence noncommunicable diseases. However, there are now an increasing number of studies suggesting that the same modifiable lifestyle behaviors are also risk factors for common mental disorders. In this paper we point to the emerging data regarding lifestyle risk factors for common mental disorders, with a particular focus on and critique of the newest evidence regarding diet quality. On the basis of this most recent evidence, we consequently argue for the inclusion of depression and anxiety in the ranks of the high prevalence noncommunicable diseases influenced by habitual lifestyle practices. We believe that it is both feasible and timely to begin to develop effective, sustainable, population-level prevention initiatives for the common mental illnesses that build on the established and developing approaches to the noncommunicable somatic diseases.

  11. A novel approach to breast cancer prevention: reducing excessive ovarian androgen production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secreto, Giorgio; Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Muti, Paola; Zumoff, Barnett; Sant, Milena; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing endogenous estrogen production and activity in women at high risk for breast cancer is a prominent approach to prevention of the disease. A number of clinical trials have shown that the administration of selective-estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors significantly reduces the incidence of breast cancer in healthy women. Unfortunately, these drugs often produce adverse effects on the quality of life and are, therefore, poorly accepted by many women, even those who are at high risk for breast cancer. We propose a novel alternative approach to decreasing estrogen production: suppression of ovarian synthesis of the androgen precursors of estrogens by administration of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia. The specific target population would be elderly postmenopausal women, at increased risk of breast cancer, and with high blood levels of testosterone, marker of ovarian hyperandrogenemia, and recognized factor of risk for breast cancer. Testosterone levels are measured at baseline to identify women at risk and during the follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The postmenopausal ovary is an important source of excessive androgen production which originates from the ovarian interstitial cell hyperplasia frequently present in breast cancer patients. We propose to counter the source of androgen excess in women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia, thus reducing the substrate for estrogen formation without completely inhibiting estrogen synthesis. Available evidence indicates that gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be safely used for breast cancer prevention in postmenopausal women.

  12. New approaches to the prevention of organ allograft rejection and tolerance induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Jessamyn; Tian, Chaorui; Iacomini, John

    2007-07-15

    The therapeutic use of organ allograft transplantation is dependent on the discovery and clinical application of immunologic strategies to blunt the immune response and prevent graft rejection. It was the discovery of powerful immunotherapeutics such as cyclosporine A and rapamycin that has allowed for the widespread use of organ transplantation to treat organ failure. However, despite the attainment of impressive survival rates 1 year after organ transplantation, a significant number of organ allografts are lost to immune-mediated chronic rejection. Furthermore, significant morbidity and mortality can be associated with the use of currently available immunosuppressive regimens. Thus, the development of novel approaches to prevent of organ allograft rejection remains extremely important. Here we discuss two promising and novel avenues of research. First, the discovery and characterization of naturally occurring immune inhibitory signals have led to recent research aimed at exploiting these pathways to induce peripheral tolerance to alloantigen. Furthermore, we discuss new approaches to the induction of donor-specific tolerance by induction of molecular chimerism and the transfer of alloantigen-expressing mature T cells.

  13. Case studies on the use of the 'risk matrix' approach for accident prevention in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumenigo, Cruz; Vilaragut, Juan J.; Soler, Karen; Cruz, Yoanis; Batista, Fidel; Morales, Jorge L.; Perez, Adrian; Farlane, Teresa Mc.; Guerrero, Mayrka

    2010-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy is the only practice during which humans are directly exposed to a radiation beam to receive high doses. Accidental exposures have occurred throughout the world, thus showing the need for systematic safety assessments, capable to identify preventive measures and to minimize consequences of accidental exposure. The 'risk matrix' approach is a semi quantitative method to evaluate the likelihood and the severity of events by means of a scale, and defines acceptability criteria on the basis of the risk. For each accident sequence identified, the following questions come up: how often is it?, how severe are the consequences? and, what safety measures should be taken to prevent it?. From these answers we can obtain the resulting risk by using the 'Risk Matrix' table. In this study we have used this method to conduct the study in 3 cases (real radiotherapy departments). The case study identified the major weaknesses in radiotherapy service and proposed measures to reduce the risk of accidents. The method is practical and it could be applied in hospitals. This approach allows regulators to improve the quality of their inspections and the rigor of the assessments made to grant the operating license to the entities working with radiotherapy. (author)

  14. The development of an inherent safety approach to the prevention of domino accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, Valerio; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Salzano, Ernesto

    2009-11-01

    The severity of industrial accidents in which a domino effect takes place is well known in the chemical and process industry. The application of an inherent safety approach for the prevention of escalation events leading to domino accidents was explored in the present study. Reference primary scenarios were analyzed and escalation vectors were defined. Inherent safety distances were defined and proposed as a metric to express the intensity of the escalation vectors. Simple rules of thumb were presented for a preliminary screening of these distances. Swift reference indices for layout screening with respect to escalation hazard were also defined. Two case studies derived from existing layouts of oil refineries were selected to understand the potentialities coming from the application in the methodology. The results evidenced that the approach allows a first comparative assessment of the actual domino hazard in a layout, and the identification of critical primary units with respect to escalation events. The methodology developed also represents a useful screening tool to identify were to dedicate major efforts in the design of add-on measures, optimizing conventional passive and active measures for the prevention of severe domino accidents.

  15. The rogerian approach as a possibility of intervention, prevention and combating bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rone Aparecido Dias Barbosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a phenomenon that happens in schools and it became evident especially in recent decades. How the professionals working in education deal with interpersonal relationships in the school environment can be decisive in preventing and combating this phenomenon, which can cause major consequences for those involved in its occurrence. In this sense, Carl Ransom Rogers published articles and books dealing with the facilitation of relationships between teachers and students for personal development, a matter which, in this study, will seize to relate to bullying. The objective of this work is to collaborate with the humanities on the theme growing about bullying from the perspective of Humanistic Psychology. We performed a literature search on this topic in journals, books and scientific databases PePSIC, SciELO and BVS-Psi Brasil. The person-centered approach and other derived formulations of such an approach, such as student-centered learning and humanistic conciliation are the main findings, which aim to promote the facilitation of interpersonal relationships and, thus, are characterized as important tools to be used by teachers and allied professionals to prevent and combat bullying.

  16. Population-based dietary approaches for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Noel P; Kalupahana, Nishan Sudheera

    2016-04-01

    As the incidence of noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes continues to rise at an alarming rate in South-East Asia, it is imperative that urgent and population-wide strategies are adopted. The most important contributors to the rise in noncommunicable disease are a rise in mean caloric intake and a decrease in physical activity. The evidence for population-based dietary approaches to counter these factors is reviewed. Several structural and cohesive interdepartmental coordination efforts are required for effective implementation of prevention strategies. Since low- and middle-income countries may lack the frameworks for effective and integrated multi-stakeholder intervention, implementation of population-based dietary and physical-activity approaches may be delayed and may be too late for effective prevention in current at-risk cohorts. Evidence-based strategies to decrease energy intake and increase physical activity are now well established and their urgent adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region is essential. In the context of Sri Lanka, for example, it is recommended that the most effective and easy-to-implement interventions would be media campaigns, restrictions on advertisement of unhealthy foods, taxation of unhealthy foods, subsidies for production of healthy foods, and laws on nutrition labelling that introduce colour coding of packaged foods.

  17. Elearning approaches to prevent weight gain in young adults: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Charoula Konstantia; Hankey, Catherine Ruth; Lean, Michael Ernest John

    2015-12-01

    Preventing obesity among young adults should be a preferred public health approach given the limited efficacy of treatment interventions. This study examined whether weight gain can be prevented by online approaches using two different behavioral models, one overtly directed at obesity and the other covertly. A three-group parallel randomized controlled intervention was conducted in 2012-2013; 20,975 young adults were allocated a priori to one control and two "treatment" groups. Two treatment groups were offered online courses over 19 weeks on (1) personal weight control ("Not the Ice Cream Van," NTICV) and, (2) political, environmental, and social issues around food ("Goddess Demetra," "GD"). Control group received no contact. The primary outcome was weight change over 40 weeks. Within-group 40-week weight changes were different between groups (P < 0.001): Control (n = 2,134): +2.0 kg (95% CI = 1.5, 2.3 kg); NTICV (n = 1,810): -1.0 kg (95% CI = -1.3, -0.5); and GD (n = 2,057): -1.35 kg (95% CI = -1.4 to -0.7). Relative risks for weight gain vs. NTICV = 0.13 kg (95% CI = 0.10, 0.15), P < 0.0001; GD = 0.07 kg (95% CI = 0.05, 0.10), P < 0.0001. Both interventions were associated with prevention of the weight gain observed among control subjects. This low-cost intervention could be widely transferable as one tool against the obesity epidemic. Outside the randomized controlled trial setting, it could be enhanced using supporting advertising and social media. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. [A population-targeted approach to connect prevention, care and welfare: visualising the trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, L C; Drewes, H W; Lette, M; Baan, C A

    2017-01-01

    To map initiatives in the Netherlands using a population-targeted approach to link prevention, care and welfare. Descriptive investigation, based on conversations and structured interviews. We searched for initiatives in which providers in the areas of prevention, care and welfare together with health insurers and/or local authorities attempted to provide the 'triple aim': improving the health of the population and the quality of care, and managing costs. We found potential initiatives on the basis of interviews with key figures, project databases and congress programmes. We looked for additional information on websites and via contact persons to gather additional information to determine whether the initiative met the inclusion criteria. An initiative should link prevention, care and welfare with a minimum of three players actively pursuing a population-targeted goal through multiple interventions for a non-disease specific and district-transcending population. We described the goal, organisational structure, parties involved, activities and funding on the basis of interviews conducted in the period August-December 2015 with the managers of the initiatives included. We found 19 initiatives which met the criteria where there was experimentation with organisational forms, levels of participation, interventions and funding. It was noticeable that the interventions mostly concerned medical care. There was a lack of insight into the 'triple aim', mostly because data exchange between parties is generally difficult. There is an increasing number of initiatives that follow a population-targeted approach. Although the different parties strive to connect the three domains, they are still searching for an optimal collaboration, organisational form, data exchange and financing.

  19. Storied experiences of school-based habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Anne C.

    The purpose of this study has been to consider the eco-pedagogical promise of school-based habitat restoration. How does the practice of restoration foster a lived sense of being in a more-than-human world1 while inviting alternative approaches to teaching and learning? What opportunities does it offer to resist the societal forces and patterns, reinforced through the school system, which are eroding and effacing human relationships with other life? A literature review sets the broader context for an in-depth exploration of the experiences and understandings of participants (students, teachers, parents) involved in a case study. I proceeded with my research on the assumption that both the discursive and non-discursive dimensions of habitat restoration were key to appreciating its eco-pedagogical potential. Through participant observation over a ten month period, interviewing and a survey, I listened to some of the ways that habitat restoration challenged the typically disembodied, decontextualized organization of schooling by privileging hands-on involvement and encouraging attentive, caring relationships within the human and natural communities of which students were a part. I investigated particular storylines and metaphors which encoded and supported participants' endeavours, especially with regard to their potential to disrupt human-centered values and beliefs. This study suggests that the promise of habitat restoration lies in the openings created to attune to and interact with human and nonhuman others in fully embodied, locally situated and personally meaningful ways. Participants overwhelmingly attested to the importance of the experience of restoration which many deemed to be memorable and motivating and to provide fertile ground for future engagements in/for nature and society. As participants attended to the nuances and complexities of their interactions with a specific place and its inhabitants, their intimate involvement added a depth of feeling and

  20. A Cost Analysis of School-Based Lifestyle Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhoff, Marije; Bosma, Hans; van Schayck, Onno C P; Joore, Manuela A

    2018-05-31

    A uniform approach for costing school-based lifestyle interventions is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a template for costing primary school-based lifestyle interventions and apply this to the costing of the "Healthy Primary School of the Future" (HPSF) and the "Physical Activity School" (PAS), which aim to improve physical activity and dietary behaviors. Cost-effectiveness studies were reviewed to identify the cost items. Societal costs were reflected by summing up the education, household and leisure, labor and social security, and health perspectives. Cost inputs for HPSF and PAS were obtained for the first year after implementation. In a scenario analysis, the costs were explored for a hypothetical steady state. From a societal perspective, the per child costs were €2.7/$3.3 (HPSF) and €- 0.3/$- 0.4 (PAS) per day during the first year after implementation, and €1.0/$1.2 and €- 1.3/$- 1.6 in a steady state, respectively (2016 prices). The highest costs were incurred by the education perspective (first year: €8.7/$10.6 (HPSF) and €4.0/$4.9 (PAS); steady state: €6.1/$7.4 (HPSF) and €2.1/$2.6 (PAS)), whereas most of the cost offsets were received by the household and leisure perspective (first year: €- 6.0/$- 7.3 (HPSF) and €- 4.4/$- 5.4 (PAS); steady state: €- 5.0/$- 6.1 (HPSF) and €- 3.4/$- 4.1 (PAS)). The template proved helpful for costing HPSF and PAS from various stakeholder perspectives. The costs for the education sector were fully (PAS) and almost fully (HPSF) compensated by the savings within the household sector. Whether the additional costs of HPSF over PAS represent value for money will depend on their relative effectiveness.

  1. Everywhere in Japan: an international approach to working with commercial gay businesses in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Nigel; Koerner, Jane; Kaneko, Noriyo; Shiono, Satoshi; Takaku, Michiko; Boseley, Ross; Ichikawa, Seiichi

    2017-06-01

    In the UK and Japan, there is concern regarding rising rates of annual new HIV infections among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). Whilst in the UK and Europe, gay businesses are increasingly recognized as being important settings through which to deliver HIV prevention and health promotion interventions to target vulnerable populations; in Japan such settings-based approaches are relatively underdeveloped. This article draws on qualitative data from a recently completed study conducted to explore whether it is feasible, acceptable and desirable to build on the recent European Everywhere project for adaptation and implementation in Japan. A series of expert workshops were conducted in Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka with intersectoral representatives from Japanese and UK non-governmental organizations (NGOs), gay businesses, universities and gay communities (n = 46). Further discussion groups and meetings were held with NGO members and researchers from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's Research Group on HIV Prevention Policy, Programme Implementation and Evaluation among MSM (n = 34). The results showed that it is desirable, feasible and acceptable to adapt and implement a Japanese version of Everywhere. Such a practical, policy-relevant, settings-based HIV prevention framework for gay businesses may help to facilitate the necessary scale up of prevention responses among MSM in Japan. Given the high degree of sexual mobility between countries in Asia, there is considerable potential for the Everywhere Project (or its Japanese variant) to be expanded and adapted to other countries within the Asia-Pacific region. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 'It's a logistical nightmare!' Recommendations for optimising human papillomavirus school-based vaccination experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Spring Chenoa Cooper; Bernard, Diana; McCaffery, Kirsten; Skinner, S Rachel

    2010-09-01

    To date, no published studies examine procedural factors of the school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program from the perspective of those involved. This study examines the factors that were perceived to impact optimal vaccination experience. Schools across Sydney were selected to reflect a range of vaccination coverage at the school level and different school types to ensure a range of experiences. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with girls; and one-on-one interviews were undertaken with parents, teachers and nurses until saturation of data in all emergent themes was reached. Focus groups and interviews explored participants' experiences in school-based HPV vaccination. Transcripts were analysed, letting themes emerge. Themes related to participants' experience of the organisational, logistical and procedural aspects of the vaccination program and their perceptions of an optimal process were organised into two categories: (1) preparation for the vaccination program and (2) vaccination day strategies. In (1), themes emerged regarding commitment to the process from those involved, planning time and space for vaccinations, communication within and between agencies, and flexibility. In (2), themes included vaccinating the most anxious girls first, facilitating peer support, use of distraction techniques, minimising waiting time girls, and support staff. A range of views exists on what constitutes an optimal school-based program. Several findings were identified that should be considered in the development of guidelines for implementing school-based programs. Future research should evaluate how different approaches to acquiring parental consent, and the use of anxiety and fear reduction strategies impact experience and uptake in the school-based setting.

  3. Acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students about a school-based dietary intervention in Isfahan, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Lajevardi, Bahareh; Bahreynian, Maryam; Omid-Ghaemi, Vahid; Movahedian, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Snacks play an important role in child health and nutritional status. Schools are considered as the preferred place to encourage healthy eating among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of buffet school-based intervention on acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students in Iran. Primary school students (n = 1120, 68.83% girls) from first to third grade, with one of their parents, participated in this prospective field trial study conducted in Isfahan, Iran. The study was consisted of three phases; schools selection, kitchen selection, implementation including two different parts, getting order and distribution. We provided hot snacks as traditional and healthy fast food according to taste and food preferences of children. Acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students were evaluated via a researcher made questionnaire before and after the intervention in one-third of participants as a representative sample of students who ordered the snacks. Most of the students usually ate snack in the break-time at school, the eagerness of provided snacks was 98.8% and 63.6% in girls and boys, respectively. The most interesting tastes were Ashe Reshteh and Tahchin, (45.1% girls vs. 36.8% boys), while bean (among girls) and Ashe Jo (among boys) were ranked as the lowest. More than half of parents (66.7%) evaluated the price of snacks as "acceptable," showing their satisfaction. Results of this study indicate that school-based interventions accompanied with parental and principals' support is considered as a practical approach to promote healthful eating at an early age. Developing effective interventions for youth might, therefore, help to prevent unhealthy dietary choices becoming habitual.

  4. Cost analysis of a school-based comprehensive malaria program in primary schools in Sikasso region, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccario, Roberta; Rouhani, Saba; Drake, Tom; Nagy, Annie; Bamadio, Modibo; Diarra, Seybou; Djanken, Souleymane; Roschnik, Natalie; Clarke, Siân E; Sacko, Moussa; Brooker, Simon; Thuilliez, Josselin

    2017-06-12

    The expansion of malaria prevention and control to school-aged children is receiving increasing attention, but there are still limited data on the costs of intervention. This paper analyses the costs of a comprehensive school-based intervention strategy, delivered by teachers, that included participatory malaria educational activities, distribution of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN), and Intermittent Parasite Clearance in schools (IPCs) in southern Mali. Costs were collected alongside a randomised controlled trial conducted in 80 primary schools in Sikasso Region in Mali in 2010-2012. Cost data were compiled between November 2011 and March 2012 for the 40 intervention schools (6413 children). A provider perspective was adopted. Using an ingredients approach, costs were classified by cost category and by activity. Total costs and cost per child were estimated for the actual intervention, as well as for a simpler version of the programme more suited for scale-up by the government. Univariate sensitivity analysis was performed. The economic cost of the comprehensive intervention was estimated to $10.38 per child (financial cost $8.41) with malaria education, LLIN distribution and IPCs costing $2.13 (20.5%), $5.53 (53.3%) and $2.72 (26.2%) per child respectively. Human resources were found to be the key cost driver, and training costs were the greatest contributor to overall programme costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that an adapted intervention delivering one LLIN instead of two would lower the economic cost to $8.66 per child; and that excluding LLIN distribution in schools altogether, for example in settings where malaria control already includes universal distribution of LLINs at community-level, would reduce costs to $4.89 per child. A comprehensive school-based control strategy may be a feasible and affordable way to address the burden of malaria among schoolchildren in the Sahel.

  5. Cost analysis of a school-based comprehensive malaria program in primary schools in Sikasso region, Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maccario

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expansion of malaria prevention and control to school-aged children is receiving increasing attention, but there are still limited data on the costs of intervention. This paper analyses the costs of a comprehensive school-based intervention strategy, delivered by teachers, that included participatory malaria educational activities, distribution of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN, and Intermittent Parasite Clearance in schools (IPCs in southern Mali. Methods Costs were collected alongside a randomised controlled trial conducted in 80 primary schools in Sikasso Region in Mali in 2010-2012. Cost data were compiled between November 2011 and March 2012 for the 40 intervention schools (6413 children. A provider perspective was adopted. Using an ingredients approach, costs were classified by cost category and by activity. Total costs and cost per child were estimated for the actual intervention, as well as for a simpler version of the programme more suited for scale-up by the government. Univariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Results The economic cost of the comprehensive intervention was estimated to $10.38 per child (financial cost $8.41 with malaria education, LLIN distribution and IPCs costing $2.13 (20.5%, $5.53 (53.3% and $2.72 (26.2% per child respectively. Human resources were found to be the key cost driver, and training costs were the greatest contributor to overall programme costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that an adapted intervention delivering one LLIN instead of two would lower the economic cost to $8.66 per child; and that excluding LLIN distribution in schools altogether, for example in settings where malaria control already includes universal distribution of LLINs at community-level, would reduce costs to $4.89 per child. Conclusions A comprehensive school-based control strategy may be a feasible and affordable way to address the burden of malaria among schoolchildren in the Sahel.

  6. Cervical cancer prevention in HIV-infected women using the "see and treat" approach in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; de Klerk, Ronny; Monare, Barati; Ratshaa, Bakgaki; Friedman, Harvey M; Zetola, Nicola M

    2012-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in resource-limited settings, particularly among HIV-infected women. Given the challenges of cytology-based approaches, the efficiency of new screening programs need to be assessed. Community and hospital-based clinics in Gaborone, Botswana. To determine the feasibility and efficiency of the "see and treat" approach using visual inspection acetic acid (VIA) and enhanced digital imaging (EDI) for cervical cancer prevention in HIV-infected women. A 2-tier community-based cervical cancer prevention program was implemented. HIV-infected women were screened by nurses at the community using the VIA/EDI approach. Low-grade lesions were treated with cryotherapy on the same visit. Women with complex lesions were referred to our second tier specialized clinic for evaluation. Weekly quality control assessments were performed by a specialist in collaboration with the nurses on all pictures taken. From March 2009 through January 2011, 2175 patients were screened for cervical cancer at our community-based clinic. Two hundred fifty-three patients (11.6%) were found to have low-grade lesions and received same-day cryotherapy. One thousand three hundred forty-seven (61.9%) women were considered to have a normal examination, and 575 (27.3%) were referred for further evaluation and treatment. Of the 1347 women initially considered to have normal exams, 267 (19.8%) were recalled based on weekly quality control assessments. Two hundred ten (78.6%) of the 267 recalled women, and 499 (86.8%) of the 575 referred women were seen at the referral clinic. Of these 709 women, 506 (71.4%) required additional treatment. Overall, 264 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 2 or 3 were identified and treated, and 6 microinvasive cancers identified were referred for further management. Our "see and treat" cervical cancer prevention program using the VIA/EDI approach is a feasible, high-output and high-efficiency program, worthy of considering as an

  7. System versus traditional approach in road traffic injury prevention. A call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICsand require concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. A variety of measures need to be considered when planning activities. This is particularly true in LMICs. Iran, for example, despite its enormous efforts in recent years in both pre-crash and post crash measures as well as social policy changes, continues to be challenged by the sheer magnitude of this major public health problem. Accordingly, stakeholders’ perceptions, the approach and the kind of preventive activities are crucial. On the whole, there are two different approaches in RTI prevention: the individual approach and the system approach.In the individual approach, there is a tendency for researchers and particularly practitioners to identify only one or a few elements, which usually can be found in many LMICs. Traditionally, in such countries many studies have focused on factors relating to driver errors, poor vehicles and the road environment instead of finding the reason for injury outcome. In many LMICs, the majority of preventive activities target road-user behaviors, which are usually tackled by means of education and enforcement. Hence the primary responsibility is assigned to the road user. However, while safe road-user behavior is one important component, changing such behavior should not simply be focused on education and enforcement. When WHO launched its call to action, it invited members of the public to be part of the solution. The initiative focused on five important courses of action for the general public including: not speeding; wearing a seat-belt; being visible on the road; wearing a helmet; and never drinking and driving. Studies on public education efficiency have revealed that a decrease in crashes due to such campaigns can occur only if they clearly target specific forms of behavior, like seat belt use or helmet

  8. School-based intervention to reduce anxiety in children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (PACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stallard Paul

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional problems such as anxiety and low mood in children are common, impair everyday functioning and increase the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few children with emotional health problems are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate preventive approaches. Methods/Design The study is designed to be a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an efficacious school-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT prevention program (FRIENDS on symptoms of anxiety and low mood in children 9 to 10 years of age. The unit of allocation is schools which are assigned to one of three conditions: school-led FRIENDS, health-led FRIENDS or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcome measures assess changes in self-esteem, worries, bullying and life satisfaction. An economic evaluation will be undertaken. Discussion As of September 2011, 41 schools have been recruited and randomized. Final 12-month assessments are scheduled to be completed by May 2013. Trial Registration ISRCTN23563048

  9. A cost-outcome approach to pre and post-implementation of national sports injury prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A

    2007-12-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) has developed a pre and post-implementation cost-outcome formulae for sport injury prevention to provide information regarding the success of a prevention programme. The ACC provides for the cost of all personal injuries in NZ and invests in prevention programmes to offset 1.6 million annual claims that cost $NZD 1.9 billion. The ACC invests in nine national community sport injury prevention programmes that represent 40% of sport claims and costs. Pre-implementation is used to determine the decision whether to invest in implementation and to determine the level of such investment for the injury prevention programme. Post-implementation is calculated two ways: unadjusted, assuming ceteris paribus; and adjusted assuming no prevention programme was in place. Post-implementation formulae provide a return on investment (ROI) for each dollar invested in the programme and cost-savings. The cost-outcome formulae approach allows ACC to manage expectations of the prevention programme as well as when it will provide a ROI, allowing it to take a long-term view for investment in sport injury prevention. Originally developed for its sport injury prevention programmes, the cost-outcome formulae have now been applied to the other prevention programmes ACC invests in such as home, road and workplace injury prevention.

  10. An integrated approach to prevent the erosion of salt marshes in the lagoon of Venice

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    Alberto Barausse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss of coastal habitats is a widespread problem in Europe. To protect the intertidal salt marshes of the lagoon of Venice from the erosion due to natural and human causes which is diffusely and intensely impacting them, the European Commission has funded the demonstrative project LIFE VIMINE. LIFE VIMINE aims to protect the most interior, hard-to-access salt marshes in the northern lagoon of Venice through an integrated approach, whose core is the prevention of erosion through numerous, small but spatially-diffuse soil-bioengineering protections works, mainly placed through semi-manual labour and with low impact on the environment and the landscape. The effectiveness of protection works in the long term is ensured through routine, temporally-continuous and spatially-diffuse actions of monitoring and maintenance. This method contrasts the common approach to managing hydraulic risk and erosion in Italy which is based on large, one-off and irreversible protection actions. The sustainability of the LIFE VIMINE approach is ensured by the participatory involvement of stakeholders and the recognition that protecting salt marshes means defending the benefits they provide to society through their ecological functions, as well as protecting the jobs linked to the existence or conservation of this habitat.

  11. Should care homes adopt a static-led approach to pressure ulcer prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Delia Catherine

    A static-led approach refers to the provision of high-specification foam mattresses for the whole of a population at risk of pressure damage. Such mattresses have been found to reduce the risk of pressure ulceration and cost less overall than standard mattresses, even in populations where only 1 in 100 patients develops a pressure ulcer. Reduced pressure ulcer prevalence and reduced costs resulting from decreased expenditure on dynamic mattresses following the implementation of a static-led approach have been reported. Pressure ulcers cause pain, a reduced quality of life, loss of independence, depression and social isolation for those in whom they develop. Organizations are increasingly having to pay out large sums of money following litigation surrounding pressure ulcers. This article explains why NHS healthcare providers and private care organizations need to work together to consider implementing a static-led approach to pressure ulcer prevention within care homes in order to reduce pressure ulcer incidence cost-effectively within their local populations.

  12. Preventing behavioural and emotional problems in children who have a developmental disability: a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Sanders, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend in parenting intervention research has been the adoption of a public health approach to improve the quality of parenting at a population level. This has involved delivering parenting interventions on a large scale and in a cost-effective manner. Such trials have been demonstrated to reduce negative parenting practices, prevent child maltreatment, and reduce child behavioural and emotional problems. However, these trials have been restricted to parents of children who are developing typically. This paper explores the rational for the extension of a population health approach to parenting interventions for children with developmental disabilities. It is argued that a population-based implementation and evaluation trial of an empirically supported system of interventions is needed to determine whether this approach is viable and can have a positive impact on parents and their children in a disability context. The Stepping Stones Triple P--Positive Parenting Program is presented as an example of a parenting intervention that satisfies the requirements for such a trial. Tasks and challenges of such a trial are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comprehensive approach to RCM-based preventive maintenance program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.E.; Davis, T.; Pennington, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    In late 1986, Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE ampersand G) concluded that to support its vision and strategic planning it would be necessary to develop a consistent approach to maintenance for all nuclear units at the artificial island. General Physics Corporation was selected to lead a consultant team to support full-scale development of a preventive maintenance (PM) program for Salem and Hope Creek generating stations based on a reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) approach. RCM was selected because it represents a systematic approach to developing a PM program that provides a logical, consistent, and traceable methodology and produces a well-documented engineering basis for the program. Early in 1987, primary objectives for the PM program were defined. The Phase I tasks addressed key programmatic areas such as maintenance philosophy, procedures, condition monitoring, performance trending, equipment failure data base, ogranization, PM program effectiveness evaluation, RCM process, reliability/availability modeling, information management, training, spare parts, software/hardware, and commitments. Phase I of the PM program development project was completed in January 1988. Highlights of the Phase I work and the PM program manual are described

  14. Strategies to prevent positioning-related complications associated with the lateral suboccipital approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Yuichi; Sasajima, Hiroyasu; Goto, Yukihiro; Taniyama, Ichita; Aita, Kazuyasu; Owada, Kei; Tatsuzawa, Kazunori; Mineura, Katsuyoshi

    2014-02-01

    The lateral positioning used for the lateral suboccipital surgical approach is associated with various pathophysiologic complications. Strategies to avoid complications including an excessive load on the cervical vertebra and countermeasures against pressure ulcer development are needed. We retrospectively investigated positioning-related complications in 71 patients with cerebellopontine angle lesions undergoing surgery in our department between January 2003 and December 2010 using the lateral suboccipital approach. One patient postoperatively developed rhabdomyolysis, and another presented with transient peroneal nerve palsy on the unaffected side. Stage I and II pressure ulcers were noted in 22 and 12 patients, respectively, although neither stage III nor more severe pressure ulcers occurred. No patients experienced cervical vertebra and spinal cord impairments, brachial plexus palsy, or ulnar nerve palsy associated with rotation and flexion of the neck. Strategies to prevent positioning-related complications, associated with lateral positioning for the lateral suboccipital surgical approach, include the following: atraumatic fixation of the neck focusing on jugular venous perfusion and airway pressure, trunk rotation, and sufficient relief of weightbearing and protection of nerves including the peripheral nerves of all four extremities.

  15. Preventing Drug Abuse Among Hispanic Adolescents: Developing a Responsive Intervention Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven P; Schwinn, Traci M; Hursh, Hilary A

    2015-10-01

    Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The program, called Vamos, is aimed at the risk and protective factors as well as the cultural prerogatives that demark the adolescent years of Hispanic American youths. Innovative in its approach, the program is delivered through a smartphone application (app). By interacting with engaging content presented via the app, youths can acquire the cognitive-behavioral skills necessary to avoid risky situations, urges, and pressures associated with early drug use. The intervention development process is presented in detail, and an evaluation plan to determine the program's efficacy is outlined. Lessons for practice and intervention programming are discussed.

  16. The History of Petroleum Pollution in Malaysia; Urgent Need for Integrated Prevention Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Sakari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum pollution is known as point and non-point source of contaminations in the environment. A major class of petroleum contaminant is groups of compounds consist of two or more fused benzene rings called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic. Source identification of petroleum pollution is necessary to prevent pollution entry into the environment. Eight sedimentary cores were obtained from developed and developing areas around Peninsular Malaysia to investigate the historical profile of PAHs, their characteristics and its possible origins. The results showed that the PAHs concentrations varied from very minimum to 2400 ng/g d. w. in average quarter century intervals. Most of the studied locations showed high contribution of PAHs from combusted fuel, coal, biomasses and wood materials except for the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia in which revealed dominance of petroleum products. The findings indicate that PAHs are delivered from different intermediate materials such as asphalt, street dust, vehicular emission and crankcase oil. However, there has been a decline of PAHs input into the marine environment in recent years; petroleum is shown to be a significant cause of marine pollution since the second quarter of 20th century. An overview on sourced materials of petroleum pollution indicates multi-approach necessity toward pollution control, regardless of concentration and possible degradation processes. Various sectors both governmental and non-governmental are needed for prevention and control of petroleum pollution where different sources apparently contribute to the pollution generation process.

  17. STEADI: CDC's approach to make older adult fall prevention part of every primary care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Kelly; Lee, Robin

    2017-12-01

    Primary care providers play a critical role in protecting older adult patients from one of the biggest threats to their health and independence-falls. A fall among an older adult patient cannot only be fatal or cause a devastating injury, but can also lead to problems that can effect a patient's overall quality of life. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the STEADI initiative to give health care providers the tools they need to help reduce their older adult patient's risk of a fall. CDC's STEADI resources have been distributed widely and include practical materials and tools for health care providers and their patients that are designed to be integrated into every primary care practice. As the population ages, the need for fall prevention efforts, such as CDC's STEADI, will become increasingly critical to safeguard the health of Americans. STEADI's electronic health records (EHRs), online trainings, assessment tools, and patient education materials are available at no-cost and can be downloaded online at www.cdc.gov/STEADI. Health care providers should look for opportunities to integrate STEADI materials into their practice, using a team-based approach, to help protect their older patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Successful prevention of HIV transmission from mother to infant in Brazil using a multidisciplinary team approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie A. Nogueira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the HIV vertical transmission rate (VTR and associated risk factors by use of zidovudine and infant care education in Brazil. METHODS: Since 1995, a prospective cohort of HIV infected pregnant women has been followed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A multidisciplinary team was established to implement the best available strategy to prevent maternal-infant HIV transmission. Patients with AIDS or low CD4 and high viral load received anti-retroviral drugs in addition to zidovudine. Children were considered infected if they had 2 positive PCR-RNA tests between 1 and 4 months of age, or were HIV antibody positive after 18 months. Education regarding infant treatment and use of formula instead of breast feeding was provided. RESULTS: Between 1995 and August, 2000, HIV status was determined for 145 infants. Compliance with intra-partum treatment, infant treatment and use of formula was 88.2%. Intra-partum zidovudine treatment was completed in 134/145 (92.6% of patients; 88.1% had rupture of membranes 4 hours were associated with increased HIV transmission. CONCLUSION: HIV vertical transmission in Brazil was reduced to a level similar to other countries with the most effective prevention programs using a multidisciplinary team approach. A high level of compliance for use of anti-retroviral drugs, the provision of health education to mothers, and use of formula for all exposed infants.

  19. Successful prevention of HIV transmission from mother to infant in Brazil using a multidisciplinary team approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Susie A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the HIV vertical transmission rate (VTR and associated risk factors by use of zidovudine and infant care education in Brazil. METHODS: Since 1995, a prospective cohort of HIV infected pregnant women has been followed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A multidisciplinary team was established to implement the best available strategy to prevent maternal-infant HIV transmission. Patients with AIDS or low CD4 and high viral load received anti-retroviral drugs in addition to zidovudine. Children were considered infected if they had 2 positive PCR-RNA tests between 1 and 4 months of age, or were HIV antibody positive after 18 months. Education regarding infant treatment and use of formula instead of breast feeding was provided. RESULTS: Between 1995 and August, 2000, HIV status was determined for 145 infants. Compliance with intra-partum treatment, infant treatment and use of formula was 88.2%. Intra-partum zidovudine treatment was completed in 134/145 (92.6% of patients; 88.1% had rupture of membranes 4 hours were associated with increased HIV transmission. CONCLUSION: HIV vertical transmission in Brazil was reduced to a level similar to other countries with the most effective prevention programs using a multidisciplinary team approach. A high level of compliance for use of anti-retroviral drugs, the provision of health education to mothers, and use of formula for all exposed infants.

  20. New Therapeutic Approaches to Prevent or Delay Beta-Cell Failure in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Floriana Elvira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The most recent estimates of International Diabetes Federation indicate that 382 million people have diabetes, and the incidence of this disease is increasing. While in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM beta-cell death is autoimmunemediated, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM results from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors that impair beta-cell function and insulin action. Many people with T2DM remain unaware of their illness for a long time because symptoms may take years to appear or be recognized, while the body is affected by excess blood glucose. These patients are often diagnosed only when diabetes complications have already developed. The aim of this article was to perform a review based on literature data on therapeutic modalities to prevent/delay beta cell function decline. Material and Methods: We searched MEDLINE from 2000 to the present to identify the therapeutic approaches to prevent or delay beta-cell failure in patients with T2DM. Results and conclusions: Several common polymorphisms in genes linked to monogenic forms of diabetes appear to influence the response to T2DM pharmacotherapy. Recent studies report the role of the G protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40, also known as Free Fatty Acids Receptor 1 (FFAR1 in the regulation of beta-cell function- CNX-011-67 (a GPR40 agonist has the potential to provide good and durable glycemic control in T2DM patients.

  1. New approaches to infection prevention and control: implementing a risk-based model regionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wale, Martin; Kibsey, Pamela; Young, Lisa; Dobbyn, Beverly; Archer, Jana

    2016-06-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks result in substantial inconvenience to patients and disruption of clinical activity. Between 1 April 2008 and 31 March 2009, the Vancouver Island Health Authority (Island Health) declared 16 outbreaks of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci and Clostridium difficile in acute care facilities. As a result, infection prevention and control became one of Island Health's highest priorities. Quality improvement methodology, which promotes a culture of co-production between front-line staff, physicians and Infection Control Practitioners, was used to develop and test a bundle of changes in practices. A series of rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, specific to decreasing hospital-acquired infections, were undertaken by a community hospital, selected for its size, clinical specialty representation, and enthusiasm amongst staff and physicians for innovation and change. Positive results were incorporated into practice at the test site, and then introduced throughout the rest of the Health Authority. The changes implemented as a result of this study have enabled better control of antibiotic resistant organisms and have minimized disruption to routine activity, as well as saving an estimated $6.5 million per annum. When outbreaks do occur, they are now controlled much more promptly, even in existing older facilities. Through this process, we have changed our approach in Infection Prevention and Control (IPAC) from a rules-based approach to one that is risk-based, focusing attention on identifying and managing high-risk situations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  2. Systematic review of sex work interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: examining combination prevention approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awungafac, George; Delvaux, Therese; Vuylsteke, Bea

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. The Systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between 1 January 2000 and 22 July 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529). We considered cohort interventions, randomised controlled trials and cross-sectional surveys of SW programmes. A framework was used in the description and mapping of intervention to desired outcomes. Twenty-six papers(reporting on 25 studies) were included. A strategy that empowered peer educator leaders to steer community activities showed a twofold increase in coverage of behaviour change communication and utilisation of health facility among SW. Brief alcohol harm reduction effort demonstrated a significant effect on sexual violence and engagement in sex trading. A risk reduction counselling intervention among drug-injecting SW showed an effect on alcohol, substance use and engagement in sex work. No study on a promising intervention like PrEP among SWs was found. We observed that interventions that combined some structural components, biomedical and behavioural strategies tend to accumulate more desired outcomes. The evidence base that can be considered in intervention designs to prevent HIV in SW in SSA is vast. The health sector should consider interventions to reduce binge alcohol intake and intravenous drug use among sex workers. Programmes should staunchly consider multicomponent approaches that explore community-based structural approaches. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal intervention targeting student resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Hodder, Rebecca; Wolfenden, Luke; Richards, Jody; Leane, Catherine; Green, Sue; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, 10-20% of adolescents experience mental health problems. Strategies aimed at strengthening resilience protective factors provide a potential approach for reducing mental health problems in adolescents. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a universal, school-based intervention targeting resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 20 intervention and 12 control secondary schools located in socio-economically disadvantaged areas of NSW, Australia. Data were collected from 3115 students at baseline (Grade 7, 2011), of whom 2149 provided data at follow up (Grade 10, 2014; enrolments in Grades 7 to 10 typically aged 12-16 years; 50% male; 69.0% retention). There were no significant differences between groups at follow-up for three mental health outcomes: total SDQ, internalising problems, and prosocial behaviour. A small statistically significant difference in favour of the control group was found for externalising problems. Findings highlight the continued difficulties in developing effective, school-based prevention programs for mental health problems in adolescents. ANZCTR (Ref no: ACTRN12611000606987). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) Positive Deviance Hearth (PDH) Approach in Burundi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madagasha, Aristide; Tse, Carmen; Baik, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and Objectives: PDH approach utilizes local resources and solutions to rehabilitate and prevent future malnutrition in children under five. Although PDH focuses on addressing underweight, PDH includes children with MAM and may have potential to address and prevent MAM where community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM), specifically targeted supplementary feeding component, may not be appropriate. The objectives are: 1) to assess the effectiveness of PDH to reduce moderate and severe underweight in participant children as well as prevent malnutrition in younger siblings of participant children; and 2) to assess PDH’s effectiveness for treatment and prevention of MAM in ten villages in Burundi. Methods: Starting September to November 2012, PDH was implemented by trained community volunteers in the ten villages. A “positive deviant” inquiry identified local practices that positively impact child nutritional status. These practices were transferred to families of malnourished children through experiential learning during 12 days of “Hearth” sessions. Two weeks of home visits followed Hearth. Mid-upper arm circumference of participant children (n = 70) were measured on the first day of Hearth, with appropriate referral for cases of severe acute malnutrition. Weights of children were assessed at Day 1 (n = 94), 12 (n = 94), 30 (n = 74) and one year after the start of Hearth (n = 92). Weight gain of children at Day 12 and 30 were compared with standard weight gains for PDH (200-250 grams for Day 12 and 400 grams for Day 30). Younger siblings were also weighed at the one year follow-up (n = 73). Results: Mean weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) of the children improved from -3.1±0.2 to -1.1±0.1 (p<0.001), showing sustained catch-up growth at home. Almost all children achieved the standard weight gain on Day 12 and Day 30 (92.6% (87/94) and 98.6% (73/74), respectively). Within one year, severe and moderate underweight decreased from 77

  5. Precision Nutrition: A Review of Personalized Nutritional Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Toro-Martín

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account in designing personalized and unbiased nutritional solutions for individuals or population sub-groups. Likewise, a concerted effort among basic, clinical scientists and health professionals will be needed to establish a comprehensive framework allowing the implementation of these new findings at the population level. In a world characterized by an overwhelming increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, tailored nutrition prescription represents a promising approach for both the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome. This review aims to discuss recent works in the field of precision nutrition analyzing most relevant aspects affecting an individual response to lifestyle/nutritional interventions. Latest advances in the analysis and monitoring of dietary habits, food behaviors, physical activity/exercise and deep phenotyping will be discussed, as well as the relevance of novel applications of nutrigenomics, metabolomics and microbiota profiling. Recent findings in the development of precision nutrition are highlighted. Finally, results from published studies providing examples of new avenues to successfully implement innovative precision nutrition approaches will be reviewed.

  6. Generalized Philosophy of Alerting with Applications for Parallel Approach Collision Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Lee F.; Kuchar, James K.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to develop formal guidelines for the design of hazard avoidance systems. An alerting system is automation designed to reduce the likelihood of undesirable outcomes that are due to rare failures in a human-controlled system. It accomplishes this by monitoring the system, and issuing warning messages to the human operators when thought necessary to head off a problem. On examination of existing and recently proposed logics for alerting it appears that few commonly accepted principles guide the design process. Different logics intended to address the same hazards may take disparate forms and emphasize different aspects of performance, because each reflects the intuitive priorities of a different designer. Because performance must be satisfactory to all users of an alerting system (implying a universal meaning of acceptable performance) and not just one designer, a proposed logic often undergoes significant piecemeal modification before gamma general acceptance. This report is an initial attempt to clarify the common performance goals by which an alerting system is ultimately judged. A better understanding of these goals will hopefully allow designers to reach the final logic in a quicker, more direct and repeatable manner. As a case study, this report compares three alerting logics for collision prevention during independent approaches to parallel runways, and outlines a fourth alternative incorporating elements of the first three, but satisfying stated requirements. Three existing logics for parallel approach alerting are described. Each follows from different intuitive principles. The logics are presented as examples of three "philosophies" of alerting system design.

  7. Cervical cancer prevention: safety, acceptability, and feasibility of a single-visit approach in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Paul D; Gaffikin, Lynne; Deganus, Sylvia; Lewis, Robbyn; Emerson, Mark; Adadevoh, Sydney

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and acceptability of a single-visit approach to cervical cancer prevention combining visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid wash (VIA) and cryotherapy. The study was observational. Nine clinicians were trained in VIA and cryotherapy. Over 18 months 3665 women were VIA-tested. If positive and eligible, cryotherapy was offered immediately. Treated women were followed-up at 3 months and 1 year. The test-positive rate was 13.2%. Of those eligible, 70.2% and 21% received immediate or delayed treatment, respectively. No major complications were recorded, and 5.6% presented for a perceived problem post-cryotherapy. Among those treated over 90% expressed satisfaction with their experience, and 96% had an indentifiable squamo-columnar junction. Only 2.6% (6/232) were test positive, 1-year posttreatment. A single-visit approach using VIA and cryotherapy proved to be safe, acceptable, and feasible in an urban African setting.

  8. [Head masters' perception of school-based hostility in Alicante, Spain: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Fernández, Carmen; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Torres Cantero, Alberto M

    2006-01-01

    There is growing social concern about school violence but little is known about how this situation is experienced in the schools. The objective of this study was to know the perception that School's head masters have of the school-based hostility, on their causes, how they value current preventive strategies, and their recommendations to develop future preventive interventions. We conducted an exploratory study with 14 semistructured interviews of School's head masters. Interviews were conducted at the Schools between May and June 2003 in 1 independent school, 9 state comprehensive schools, and 4 other comprehensive schools within the city of Alicante. The perception of the head masters is that the prevalence of violence is low, more verbal than physical and within gender. They identify lack of punctuality, absenteeism and lack of interest as forms of hostility. As causes they identified age, family problems, school environment, society, media (TV and video-games) and poor language skills. Preventive methods in use were, on one hand, extra-lessons and transversal contents foreseen in the Education Law and common to all schools, and, on the other hand, ideological and pedagogical contents which were specific of some centres. Recommendations focused in demands for increased economic support and skilled human resources. School-based violence is not perceived as an alarming school issue, nor by its magnitude neither by the immediate causes and students' characteristics to which it is associated. A heavier emphasis is placed on external and environmental causes perceived as much more difficult to confront.

  9. Effects of school-based interventions on mental health stigmatization: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix Denise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stigmatizing, or discriminatory, perspectives and behaviour, which target individuals on the basis of their mental health, are observed in even the youngest school children. We conducted a systematic review of the published and unpublished, scientific literature concerning the benefits and harms of school-based interventions, which were directed at students 18 years of age or younger to prevent or eliminate such stigmatization. Forty relevant studies were identified, yet only a qualitative synthesis was deemed appropriate. Five limitations within the evidence base constituted barriers to drawing conclusive inferences about the effectiveness and harms of school-based interventions: poor reporting quality, a dearth of randomized controlled trial evidence, poor methods quality for all research designs, considerable clinical heterogeneity, and inconsistent or null results. Nevertheless, certain suggestive evidence derived both from within and beyond our evidence base has allowed us to recommend the development, implementation and evaluation of a curriculum, which fosters the development of empathy and, in turn, an orientation toward social inclusion and inclusiveness. These effects may be achieved largely by bringing especially but not exclusively the youngest children into direct, structured contact with an infant, and likely only the oldest children and youth into direct contact with individuals experiencing mental health difficulties. The possible value of using educational activities, materials and contents to enhance hypothesized benefits accruing to direct contact also requires investigation. Overall, the curriculum might serve as primary prevention for some students and as secondary prevention for others.

  10. Assessment of the Sustainability Capacity of a Coordinated Approach to Chronic Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Combs, Todd; Polk, LaShaun; Dexter, Sarah

    2017-12-07

    This article outlines some factors that influenced the sustainability capacity of a coordinated approach to chronic disease prevention in state and territory health departments. This study involved a cross-sectional design and mixed-methods approach. Quantitative data were collected using the Program Sustainability Assessment Tool (PSAT), a 40-item multiple-choice instrument that assesses 8 domains of sustainability capacity (environmental support, funding stability, partnerships, organizational capacity, program evaluation, program adaptation, communications, and strategic planning). Qualitative data were collected via phone interviews. The PSAT was administered to staff and stakeholders from public health departments in 50 US states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, who were involved in the implementation of coordinated chronic disease programs. Phone interviews were conducted with program coordinators in each state. Sustainability score patterns and state-level categorical results, as well as strengths and opportunities for improvement across the 8 program sustainability domains, were explored. On average, programs reported the strongest sustainability capacity in the domains of program adaptation, environmental support, and organizational capacity, while funding stability, strategic planning, and communications yielded lowest scores, indicating weakest capacity. Scores varied the most by state in environmental support and strategic planning. The PSAT results highlight the process through which states approached the sustainability of coordinated chronic disease initiatives. This process included an initial focus on program evaluation and partnerships with transfer of priority to long-term strategic planning, communications, and funding stability to further establish coordinated chronic disease efforts. Qualitative interviews provided further context to PSAT results, indicating that leadership, communications, partnerships, funding stability, and policy

  11. Prevention of postoperative visual field defect after the occipital transtentorial approach: anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Baydin, Serhat; Güngör, Abuzer; Middlebrooks, Erik H; Komune, Noritaka; Iihara, Koji; Rhoton, Albert L

    2017-10-20

    OBJECTIVE A postoperative visual field defect resulting from damage to the occipital lobe during surgery is a unique complication of the occipital transtentorial approach. Though the association between patient position and this complication is well investigated, preventing the complication remains a challenge. To define the area of the occipital lobe in which retraction is least harmful, the surface anatomy of the brain, course of the optic radiations, and microsurgical anatomy of the occipital transtentorial approach were examined. METHODS Twelve formalin-fixed cadaveric adult heads were examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and 0° and 45° endoscopes. The optic radiations were examined by fiber dissection and MR tractography techniques. RESULTS The arterial and venous relationships of the lateral, medial, and inferior surfaces of the occipital lobe were defined anatomically. The full course of the optic radiations was displayed via both fiber dissection and MR tractography. Although the stems of the optic radiations as exposed by both techniques are similar, the terminations of the fibers are slightly different. The occipital transtentorial approach provides access for the removal of lesions involving the splenium, pineal gland, collicular plate, cerebellomesencephalic fissure, and anterosuperior part of the cerebellum. An angled endoscope can aid in exposing the superior medullary velum and superior cerebellar peduncles. CONCLUSIONS Anatomical findings suggest that retracting the inferior surface of the occipital lobe may avoid direct damage and perfusion deficiency around the calcarine cortex and optic radiations near their termination. An accurate understanding of the course of the optic radiations and vascular relationships around the occipital lobe and careful retraction of the inferior surface of the occipital lobe may reduce the incidence of postoperative visual field defect.

  12. A Model for Technovocational School-Based Curriculum Planning and Evaluation under the Framework of Total Quality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yen-Zen

    In the current climate of rapid technological advance and social value change, many have suggested that schools should use a school-based approach to curriculum planning. How to design such a curriculum in order to train graduates suited for employment has become an important issue. Many domestic and international enterprises have successfully…

  13. A Research-Informed, School-Based Professional Development Workshop Programme to Promote Dialogic Teaching with Interactive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Sara; Dragovic, Tatjana; Warwick, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigated the influence of a research-informed, school-based, professional development workshop programme on the quality of classroom dialogue using the interactive whiteboard (IWB). The programme aimed to develop a dialogic approach to teaching and learning mediated through more interactive uses of the IWB,…

  14. Translating Pressure Ulcer Prevention Into Intensive Care Nursing Practice: Overlaying a Care Bundle Approach With a Model for Research Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyib, Nahla; Coyer, Fiona

    This article reports on the development and implementation process used to integrate a care bundle approach (a pressure ulcer [PU] prevention bundle to improve patients' skin integrity in intensive care) and the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU). The PU prevention care bundle demonstrated significant reduction in PU incidence, with the OMRU model providing a consolidated framework for the implementation of bundled evidence in an effective and consistent manner into daily clinical nursing practice.

  15. Primary care providers' discussion of fall prevention approaches with their older adult patients—DocStyles, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Burns

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Falls are the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal injuries among older adults. The American and British Geriatric Societies recommend a fall risk assessment to identify risk factors and guide interventions to prevent these falls. This study describes the self-reported discussion of fall prevention approaches used by primary care providers (PCPs—family practitioners, internists and nurse practitioners—who treat older adults. Results are described overall and by PCP type.We analyzed a sample of 1210 U.S. PCPs who participated in the 2014 DocStyles survey. PCPs reported on their recommendation of fall prevention approaches including general exercise, Tai Chi, medication adjustments, home safety modifications, vitamin D supplements, assistive devices, alarm systems, and referral to physical therapy, foot specialist, or vision specialist. Frequencies and adjusted odds ratios for fall prevention approaches were assessed by provider and practice characteristics.Self-reported discussion of any fall prevention approaches was 89.3%. Controlling for provider and practice characteristics, there were significant differences for some approaches by provider type. Family practitioners were more likely to suggest home modification [adjusted Odds Ratio: 1.8 (1.3–2.4], exercise [aOR: 2.0 (1.5–2.5], and Tai Chi [aOR: 1.5 (1.0–2.2] than internists. Nurse practitioners were more likely to suggest home modification [aOR: 2.1 (1.3–3.4] and less likely to suggest vitamin D [aOR: 0.6 (0.4–1.0] than internists.Fall prevention suggestions vary by type of PCP. Dissemination of geriatric guidelines should include all PCPs who routinely see older adults. Keywords: Primary care providers, Falls, Prevention, Older adults, Geriatrics

  16. A Systematic Approach for Dynamic Security Assessment and the Corresponding Preventive Control Scheme Based on Decision Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Sun, Kai; Rather, Zakir Hussain

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a decision tree (DT)-based systematic approach for cooperative online power system dynamic security assessment (DSA) and preventive control. This approach adopts a new methodology that trains two contingency-oriented DTs on a daily basis by the databases generated from power...... system simulations. Fed with real-time wide-area measurements, one DT of measurable variables is employed for online DSA to identify potential security issues, and the other DT of controllable variables provides online decision support on preventive control strategies against those issues. A cost......-effective algorithm is adopted in this proposed approach to optimize the trajectory of preventive control. The paper also proposes an importance sampling algorithm on database preparation for efficient DT training for power systems with high penetration of wind power and distributed generation. The performance...

  17. Meeting report on the Bellagio Conference 'prevention of vascular diseases in the emerging world: An approach to global health equity'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, J H; Robinson, S W; Alderman, M; Couser, W G; Grundy, S M; Smith, S C; Remuzzi, G; Unwin, N

    2006-10-01

    Representatives from five international organizations (International Society of Nephrology, World Heart Federation, International Diabetes Federation, International Atherosclerosis Federation, and International Society of Hypertension) participated in a strategic planning workshop in December 2005 in Bellagio, Italy sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation. There were equal representatives from developed and developing countries. Global perspectives on diabetes and cardiovascular and renal diseases were presented, with special emphasis on China, India, Latin America, and Africa. The rationale and effectiveness of preventive measures were discussed. It was apparent that measures for primary prevention and early intervention for all the chronic vascular diseases are similar. The five organizations agreed that an integrated global approach to chronic vascular diseases is needed. They resolved to collaborate and work towards an integrated approach to chronic vascular diseases with the establishment of a 5-year plan for the prevention and treatment of chronic vascular diseases, including public advocacy, advising international and national agencies, and improving education and the practice of established approaches.

  18. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  19. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yueren Zhao,1–3 Taro Kishi,1 Nakao Iwata,1 Manabu Ikeda3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital Fujita Kokoro Care Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan Abstract: A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set, an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy. Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8% were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4% relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total

  20. Parents' asthma information needs and preferences for school-based asthma support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aloola, Noha Abdullah; Nissen, Lisa; Alewairdhi, Huda Abdullaziz; Al Faryan, Nawaf; Saini, Bandana

    2017-11-01

    This study sought to investigate parents' needs and preferences for school-based asthma support in Saudi Arabian primary schools. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the period between November 2015 and February 2016, with a convenience sample that comprised Saudi parents and carers of children with asthma. Recruitment of participants was primarily driven through Saudi primary schools; passive snowballing and social networks were used to boost participation rates further. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated and data were thematically organised using a latent content analysis approach. Twenty interviews were conducted. Six themes emerged from the interviews and were grouped into three major categories: (1) general asthma management issues; (2) school-based asthma management issues; and (3) communication dissatisfaction. Participants expressed concern at schools' social and physical environments and a lack of confidence in the ability of schools to manage their child's asthma, especially when their child was ill. Most of the participants advocated for staff training and school community engagement to improve the management of asthma in Saudi primary schools. This research clearly describes a need for school-based asthma support, including asthma-related policies, procedures and education on asthma and first aid in Saudi primary schools.