WorldWideScience

Sample records for school-based individual intervention

  1. Effectiveness of an individual school-based intervention for children with aggressive behavior: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Londen, M. van; Dekovic, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Prinzie, P.; Lochman, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For elementary school-children with aggressive behaviour problems, there is a strong need for effective preventive interventions to interrupt the developmental trajectory towards more serious behaviour problems. AIM: The aim of this RCT-study was to evaluate a school-based individual

  2. A person-centered approach to individualizing a school-based universal preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Linda L; Bradley, Stephanie; Coffman, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on how individualized components may be embedded within a universal preventive intervention (TimeWise: Taking Charge of Leisure Time) to make program delivery more effective. Leisure related variables (motivation, boredom/interest and peer and parental influence) were used to suggest ways to individualize the program. Latent Class Analysis was used to develop individualized risk and strength profiles of adolescents (N = 617). Comparisons were made between a treatment and control group. Four classes were identified: undifferentiated high, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation/amotivation, undifferentiated low. These classes were related to substance use. Membership in the intrinsic class was associated with intervention group while the extrinsic class was related to the control group. Results were useful in suggesting ways to tailor a universal prevention program.

  3. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10 year old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome...... of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure...

  4. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10-year-old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.

  5. School-based interventions to address bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.

  6. Assessing the Outcomes of School-Based Partnership Resilience Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampane, Ruth; Huddle, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the outcomes of educational psychology school-based intervention. The aim was to determine whether the intervention served as an educational pathway to resilience. Through a concurrent mixed-methods research design interpreted through a pragmatic lens, academic school performance of students in a rural school was used as an…

  7. Global school-based childhood obesity interventions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-08-28

    The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  8. Global School-Based Childhood Obesity Interventions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Ickes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1 primary research; (2 overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3 school-based; (4 studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5 published in the English language; (6 child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7 studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  9. An Innovative School-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Natalia; Ranucci, Claudia; Buratta, Livia; Foglia, Elena; Fabi, Marta; Novelli, Francesca; Casucci, Simone; Reginato, Elisa; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Leonardi, Alessia; Romani, Giannermete; De Feo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles. To evaluate its effects on children's food habits and to highlight the key components which contribute most to the beneficial effects obtained from children's, teachers' and parents' perspectives. Design: An educational tool to improve personal awareness,…

  10. Implementation of school based physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Race, Douglas; Hoy, Christa; Ashe, Maureen C; Wharf Higgins, Joan; McKay, Heather A

    2015-03-01

    Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated with implementation. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n=15 interventions). Most (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. School-based interventions for improving contraceptive use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Bernholc, Alissa; Chen, Mario; Tolley, Elizabeth E

    2016-06-29

    Young women, especially adolescents, often lack access to modern contraception. Reasons vary by geography and regional politics and culture. The projected 2015 birth rate in 'developing' regions was 56 per 1000 compared with 17 per 1000 for 'developed' regions. To identify school-based interventions that improved contraceptive use among adolescents Until 6 June 2016, we searched for eligible trials in PubMed, CENTRAL, ERIC, Web of Science, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assigned individuals or clusters. The majority of participants must have been 19 years old or younger.The educational strategy must have occurred primarily in a middle school or high school. The intervention had to emphasize one or more effective methods of contraception. Our primary outcomes were pregnancy and contraceptive use. We assessed titles and abstracts identified during the searches. One author extracted and entered the data into RevMan; a second author verified accuracy. We examined studies for methodological quality.For unadjusted dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). For cluster randomized trials, we used adjusted measures, e.g. OR, risk ratio, or difference in proportions. For continuous outcomes, we used the adjusted mean difference (MD) or other measures from the models. We did not conduct meta-analysis due to varied interventions and outcome measures. The 11 trials included 10 cluster RCTs and an individually randomized trial. The cluster RCTs had sample sizes from 816 to 10,954; the median number of clusters was 24. Most trials were conducted in the USA and UK; one was from Mexico and one from South Africa.We focus here on the trials with moderate quality evidence and an intervention effect. Three addressed preventing pregnancy and HIV/STI through interactive sessions. One trial provided a multifaceted two-year program. Immediately after year one and

  12. A School-Based Mindfulness Intervention for Urban Youth: Exploring Moderators of Intervention Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark. T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines gender, grade-level, and baseline depressive symptoms as potential moderators of a school-based mindfulness intervention's impact on the self-regulatory outcomes of urban youth. Ninety-seven participants from four urban public schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list control condition. Fourth and fifth…

  13. A Cost Analysis of School-Based Lifestyle Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhoff, Marije; Bosma, Hans; van Schayck, Onno C P; Joore, Manuela A

    2018-05-31

    A uniform approach for costing school-based lifestyle interventions is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a template for costing primary school-based lifestyle interventions and apply this to the costing of the "Healthy Primary School of the Future" (HPSF) and the "Physical Activity School" (PAS), which aim to improve physical activity and dietary behaviors. Cost-effectiveness studies were reviewed to identify the cost items. Societal costs were reflected by summing up the education, household and leisure, labor and social security, and health perspectives. Cost inputs for HPSF and PAS were obtained for the first year after implementation. In a scenario analysis, the costs were explored for a hypothetical steady state. From a societal perspective, the per child costs were €2.7/$3.3 (HPSF) and €- 0.3/$- 0.4 (PAS) per day during the first year after implementation, and €1.0/$1.2 and €- 1.3/$- 1.6 in a steady state, respectively (2016 prices). The highest costs were incurred by the education perspective (first year: €8.7/$10.6 (HPSF) and €4.0/$4.9 (PAS); steady state: €6.1/$7.4 (HPSF) and €2.1/$2.6 (PAS)), whereas most of the cost offsets were received by the household and leisure perspective (first year: €- 6.0/$- 7.3 (HPSF) and €- 4.4/$- 5.4 (PAS); steady state: €- 5.0/$- 6.1 (HPSF) and €- 3.4/$- 4.1 (PAS)). The template proved helpful for costing HPSF and PAS from various stakeholder perspectives. The costs for the education sector were fully (PAS) and almost fully (HPSF) compensated by the savings within the household sector. Whether the additional costs of HPSF over PAS represent value for money will depend on their relative effectiveness.

  14. Systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent smoking for girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among

  15. Emotional Regulation: Considerations for School-Based Group Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Kristine M.; Brooks, Morgan; Rinaldo, Vincent J.; Bogner, Roselind; Hodges, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    School-based professionals have entered the 21st century with a heightened call to address the emotional and behavioral concerns of youth. While cognitive-behavioral therapies and psychoeducational groups have demonstrated moderate effects with children and adolescents, there is little available research to assist clinicians in refining treatments…

  16. Consultation: Creating School-Based Interventions. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.; Carlson, Jon

    Decades after consultation has become a mandated function of school counselors, consultants still seek effective ways to deliver this essential role. This book, geared towards mental health professionals, provides a set of skills for working with the school-based population. The ideas, based on Adlerian psychology, present a theory of consultation…

  17. Crisis Intervention Strategies for School-Based Helpers. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Thomas N., Ed.

    School-based helpers are helping professionals who work within educational settings and whose training and primary responsibility is to promote the mental health of students. Few resource materials provide these helpers with needed information and practical strategies--this text tries to meet that need. The 12 chapters here cover a wide range of…

  18. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  19. Effects of school-based interventions on mental health stigmatization: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix Denise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stigmatizing, or discriminatory, perspectives and behaviour, which target individuals on the basis of their mental health, are observed in even the youngest school children. We conducted a systematic review of the published and unpublished, scientific literature concerning the benefits and harms of school-based interventions, which were directed at students 18 years of age or younger to prevent or eliminate such stigmatization. Forty relevant studies were identified, yet only a qualitative synthesis was deemed appropriate. Five limitations within the evidence base constituted barriers to drawing conclusive inferences about the effectiveness and harms of school-based interventions: poor reporting quality, a dearth of randomized controlled trial evidence, poor methods quality for all research designs, considerable clinical heterogeneity, and inconsistent or null results. Nevertheless, certain suggestive evidence derived both from within and beyond our evidence base has allowed us to recommend the development, implementation and evaluation of a curriculum, which fosters the development of empathy and, in turn, an orientation toward social inclusion and inclusiveness. These effects may be achieved largely by bringing especially but not exclusively the youngest children into direct, structured contact with an infant, and likely only the oldest children and youth into direct contact with individuals experiencing mental health difficulties. The possible value of using educational activities, materials and contents to enhance hypothesized benefits accruing to direct contact also requires investigation. Overall, the curriculum might serve as primary prevention for some students and as secondary prevention for others.

  20. A Content Analysis of Kindergarten-12th Grade School-Based Nutrition Interventions: Taking Advantage of Past Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G.; Riddell, Martha C.; Haynes, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Design: Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content…

  1. Universality properties of school-based preventive intervention targeted at cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovský, Michal; Voňková, Hana; Gabrhelík, Roman; Šťastná, Lenka

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of school-based preventive intervention on cannabis use in Czech adolescents with different levels of risk factors and provide evidence of its universality. A randomized controlled prevention trial with six waves was conducted over a period of 33 months. We used a two-level logistic random-intercept model for panel data; we first looked at the statistical significance of the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, controlling for the characteristics of the children and time dummies. Then we analyzed the effects of the interactions between the intervention and the characteristics of the children on cannabis use and related it to the definition of universal preventive interventions. The setting for the study was in basic schools in the Czech Republic in the years 2007-2010. A total of 1,874 sixth-graders (mean age 11.82 years) who completed the baseline testing. According to our results, the prevention intervention was effective. We found all the selected characteristics of the children to be relevant in relation to cannabis use, except their relationships with their friends. We showed empirically that the intervention is universal in two dimensions for the selected characteristics of the children. First, all adolescents who undergo the intervention are expected to benefit. Second, with respect to the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, the total level of individual risk of cannabis use is superior to the composition of the risk factors in the individual risk profile. We present indicative evidence that the drug prevention intervention may be considered a true universal preventive intervention.

  2. The effect of a school-based educational intervention on menstrual health: an intervention study among adolescent girls in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, S.E.; Rahman, M.; Itsuko, K.; Mutahara, M.; Sakisaka, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Design: Intervention study. Setting: Araihazar area, Bangladesh. Participants:

  3. School-based cognitive behavioral interventions for anxious youth: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Raknes, Solfrid; Haaland, Aashild Tellefsen; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Baste, Valborg; Himle, Joe; Rapee, Ron; Hoffart, Asle

    2017-03-04

    Anxiety disorders are prevalent among adolescents and may have long-lasting negative consequences for the individual, the family and society. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment. However, many anxious youth do not seek treatment. Low-intensity CBT in schools may improve access to evidence-based services. We aim to investigate the efficacy of two CBT youth anxiety programs with different intensities (i.e., number and length of sessions), both group-based and administered as early interventions in a school setting. The objectives of the study are to examine the effects of school-based interventions for youth anxiety and to determine whether a less intensive intervention is non-inferior to a more intensive intervention. The present study is a randomized controlled trial comparing two CBT interventions to a waitlist control group. A total of 18 schools participate and we aim to recruit 323 adolescents (12-16 years). Youth who score above a cutoff on an anxiety symptom scale will be included in the study. School nurses recruit participants and deliver the interventions, with mental health workers as co-therapists and/or supervisors. Primary outcomes are level of anxiety symptoms and anxiety-related functional impairments. Secondary outcomes are level of depressive symptoms, quality of life and general psychosocial functioning. Non-inferiority between the two active interventions will be declared if a difference of 1.4 or less is found on the anxiety symptom measure post-intervention and a difference of 0.8 on the interference scale. Effects will be analyzed by mixed effect models, applying an intention to treat procedure. The present study extends previous research by comparing two programs with different intensity. A brief intervention, if effective, could more easily be subject to large-scale implementation in school health services. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02279251 . Registered on 15 October 2014. Retrospectively registered.

  4. Intensive Intervention Practice Guide: School-Based Functional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Brittany; Pokorski, Elizabeth A.; Kumm, Skip; Sterrett, Brittany I.

    2017-01-01

    The National Center for Leadership in Intensive Intervention (NCLII), a consortium funded by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), prepares special education leaders to become experts in research on intensive intervention for students with disabilities who have persistent and severe academic (e.g., reading and math) and behavioral…

  5. Using Intervention Mapping for Systematic Development of Two School-Based Interventions Aimed at Increasing Children's Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinaerts, E.; De Nooijer, J.; De Vries, N. K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how the intervention mapping (IM) protocol could be applied to the development of two school-based interventions. It provides an extensive description of the development, implementation and evaluation of two interventions which aimed to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among primary…

  6. Evaluation of a school-based physical activity intervention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Non-communicable diseases and limited participation in school physical education have become increasing concerns in South Africa. In response to these concerns, a schoolbased physical activity intervention, Healthnutz, was implemented in three primary schools in Alexandra Township, Johannesburg.

  7. Effectiveness Of A School-Based Multicomponent Intervention On Nutritional Status Among Primary School Children In Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Nattapon; Panza, Alessio; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Kumar, Ramesh; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adults and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thais is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills, multicomponent, school-based intervention on child nutritional status. A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The interventions included education, diet, physical activity (PA), food-environment, school builtenvironment, and life-skills components. Subjects were measured at baseline and at 6 months post-treatment. The intervention group had significant differences in overall healthy practices (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048), dietary habits, physical activity, lower total cholesterol (TC) levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019) and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to the control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetables increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fast foods decreased in children after the intervention. This study indicated that a multidisciplinary approach in school-based interventions is most likely to be effective in preventing children from becoming overweight in the long term. More research should be conducted on school-based interventions with longer intervention periods and higher sustainability.

  8. Effectiveness of a school-based multicomponent intervention on children nutritional status among primary school children in bangkok, thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, N.; Panza, A.; Kumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adult and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thai is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a life skills multicomponent school-based intervention on children's nutritional status. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The intervention included education, dietary, physical activity, food-environment, school built-environment, and life skills components. Outcomes were measured at baseline and post-treatment measured after 6 months. Results: The intervention group had significant improvements in healthier practice (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048) on dietary habits and physical activity, lowered cholesterol levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019), and higher HDL levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetable increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fasts food decreased in children after the intervention. Conclusion: Childhood overweight and obesity is a serious public health problem based on its increasing rates and the associated health risks. This study indicated that multidisciplinary approach on school-based interventions is likely most effective to prevent children becoming overweight in long term. More research should be conducted on school-based intervention with longer intervention periods with higher sustainability. (author)

  9. Evaluation of a school-based intervention programme for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Parental divorce affects approximately 30 000 South African children annually. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Children of Divorce Intervention Programme (CODIP) at two South African schools. CODIP is a preventively oriented group programme which was developed to foster resilience ...

  10. Sleep Disorders in Children: Collaboration for School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, D. Erik

    2011-01-01

    The effects of sleep disturbance on children are wide ranging and include alterations in behavior, mood, cognition, and academic performance. Screening and intervention for pediatric sleep disorders within the schools are not widely implemented, and the concept of integrating school personnel into the multidisciplinary sleep team has yet to be…

  11. Harnessing complexity: taking advantage of context and relationships in dissemination of school-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Helen; Bowes, Glenn; Drew, Sarah; Glover, Sara; Godfrey, Celia; Patton, George; Trafford, Lea; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-03-01

    Schools and school systems are increasingly asked to use evidence-based strategies to promote the health and well-being of students. The dissemination of school-based health promotion research, however, offers particular challenges to conventional approaches to dissemination. Schools and education systems are multifaceted organizations that sit within constantly shifting broader contexts. This article argues that health promotion dissemination needs to be rethought for school communities as complex systems and that this requires understanding and harnessing the dynamic ecology of the sociopolitical context. In developing this argument, the authors draw on their experience of the dissemination process of a multilevel school-based intervention in a complex educational context. Building on this experience, they argue for the need to move beyond conventional dissemination strategies to a focus on active partnerships between developers and users of school-based intervention research and offer a conceptual tool for planning dissemination.

  12. School-Based Interventions for Overweight and Obesity in Minority School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L. Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric…

  13. Sustaining School-Based Asthma Interventions through Policy and Practice Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Laurie M.; Lachance, Laurie; Wilkin, Margaret; Clark, Noreen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Schools are an ideal setting for implementation of asthma interventions for children; however, sustaining school-based programs can be challenging. This study illustrates policy and practice changes brought about through the Childhood Asthma Linkages in Missouri (CALM) program to sustain such programs. Methods: Researchers analyzed…

  14. Body Talk: A School-based Group Intervention for Working with Disordered Eating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Susan Dahlgren

    2000-01-01

    Describes a school-based group intervention designed to address issues of body image, self-esteem, weight, and eating disturbances. This 10-session group provides female high school students with opportunities to explore their concerns about relationships, appearance, and what it means to be female. Provides descriptions of narrative techniques…

  15. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

  16. Incorporating Video Modeling into a School-Based Intervention for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlyn P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Video modeling is an intervention strategy that has been shown to be effective in improving the social and communication skills of students with autism spectrum disorders, or ASDs. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline empirically supported, step-by-step instructions for the use of video modeling by school-based speech-language…

  17. Roles of the State Asthma Program in Implementing Multicomponent, School-Based Asthma Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Laura L.; Wilce, Maureen A.; Gill, Sarah A.; Disler, Sheri L.; Collins, Pamela; Crawford, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a leading chronic childhood disease in the United States and a major contributor to school absenteeism. Evidence suggests that multicomponent, school-based asthma interventions are a strategic way to address asthma among school-aged children. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourages the 36 health…

  18. Evaluation of a School-Based Teen Obesity Prevention Minimal Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A school-based nutrition education minimal intervention (MI) was evaluated. Design: The design was experimental, with random assignment at the school level. Setting: Seven schools were randomly assigned as experimental, and 7 as delayed-treatment. Participants: The experimental group included 551 teens, and the delayed treatment group…

  19. Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Komproe, Ivan H; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S; Macy, Robert D; de Jong, Joop T V M

    2014-04-01

    contingent upon individual (for example, age, gender) and contextual (for example, family functioning, state of conflict, displacement) variables. Results suggest the potential benefit of school-based preventive interventions particularly in post-conflict settings. The study was registered as ISRCTN42284825.

  1. School-based interventions for preventing Hiv, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in

  2. School-based intervention for childhood disruptive behavior in disadvantaged settings: A school-based RCT with and without active teacher support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liber, J.M.; de Boo, G.M.; Huizenga, H.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support

  3. School-Based Gay-Affirmative Interventions: First Amendment and Ethical Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Public health professionals and educators have developed effective school-based interventions to reduce prejudice and stigma against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. Such interventions can reduce the harm caused to sexual minority youths by stigma and can improve health outcomes. However, critics have warned that these interventions attempt to control speech and religious beliefs protected by the First Amendment. We review this critique and assess the legal and ethical arguments. We conclude that, both legally and ethically, there is great leeway for schools to implement LGBT-affirmative interventions. Still, we recommend that interventionists attend critics’ concerns using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Using CBPR approaches, interventionists can achieve better community acceptance and cooperation and more successful interventions. PMID:23948002

  4. Adolescent Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Uptake in a School-Based Influenza Vaccination Intervention: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…

  5. Southeast Asian refugee children: a school-based mental health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Patricia G; Rossetti, Jeanette; Burns, Kenneth R; Popovich, Judith

    2005-09-01

    One particular focus of refugee studies in the United States has been the violence experience of Southeast Asian (S.E.A.) refugee children and its impact on mental health and school adaptation. Although virtually all researchers have found that the children have high rates of depression and/or post-traumatic stress disorder, findings concerning successful school adaptation have been inconclusive. Even so, concern has been generated on how to best meet the children's mental health needs. The purpose of our study was to provide an eight-week school-based program that was designed to reduce depression symptoms of S.E.A. refugee children. Specifically, this collaborative program addressed refugee adaptation issues, children's culture and the development of coping skills. All of the children were screened for depression using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Analysis of CDI data revealed that children's depression scores had a significant decrease between screening times 1 (approximately one month before the intervention) and 2 (fourth week of the intervention), 1 and 3 (eighth week of the intervention) and 1 and 4 (one month following the intervention). Globally, culturally sensitive mental health school-based programs may be an appropriate intervention to assist immigrant and refugee children in making a successful adaptation to host countries.

  6. Motivation and substance use outcomes among adolescents in a school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Shipley, Leandra; Stewart, David G

    2016-02-01

    The stages of change (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance) have been well studied in adult populations. However, fewer studies have examined how the stages of change are related to adolescent substance use. Furthermore, there have been no studies that have examined how the stages of change relate to outcomes in a school-based intervention. To better capture adolescent motivation, we added an additional group to the Transtheoretical Model of Change, which we titled Coerced Action, to represent adolescents that made changes to their substance use despite low problem recognition (representing the internal motivation of Precontemplation and the change behaviors of the Action group). We then examined how the stages of change were related to a thorough assessment of substance use at baseline and corresponding treatment outcomes. Our sample consisted of 264 adolescents (mean age: 16.1, 44.5% Caucasian, 37.5% female) who participated in an 8-week, school-based Motivational Enhancement intervention. Results indicated significant group differences across the stages of change in substance use patterns (alcohol use, negative consequences, affective dysregulation), as well as treatment outcomes (alcohol use and negative consequences). For instance, adolescents in the Action group demonstrated more negative consequences at 16weeks follow-up than those in Precontemplation and Coerced Action, F(1, 3)=8.23, pmotivation among adolescent substance users within school-based settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The health Oriented pedagogical project (HOPP) - a controlled longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Per Morten; Hjelle, Ole Petter; Mamen, Asgeir; Meza, Trine J; Westerberg, Ane C

    2017-04-28

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD's is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545) with two control schools (n = 752); all aged 6-11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA) of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP) and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c). In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL), mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 ) as of June 20 th - 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.

  8. The health Oriented pedagogical project (HOPP - a controlled longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Morten Fredriksen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD’s is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. Methods The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545 with two control schools (n = 752; all aged 6–11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c. In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL, mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. Discussion HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. Trial registration The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 as of June 20th – 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.

  9. Effects of the X:IT smoking intervention: a school-based cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikker; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Due, Pernille

    2015-12-01

    Uptake of smoking in adolescence is still of major public health concern. Evaluations of school-based programmes for smoking prevention show mixed results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of X:IT, a multi-component school-based programme to prevent adolescent smoking. Data from a Danish cluster randomized trial included 4041 year-7 students (mean age: 12.5) from 51 intervention and 43 control schools. Outcome measure 'current smoking' was dichotomized into smoking daily, weekly, monthly or more seldom vs do not smoke. Analyses were adjusted for baseline covariates: sex, family socioeconomic position (SEP), best friend's smoking and parental smoking. We performed multilevel, logistic regression analyses of available cases and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses, replacing missing outcome values by multiple imputation. At baseline, 4.7% and 6.8% of the students at the intervention and the control schools smoked, respectively. After 1 year of the intervention, the prevalence was 7.9% and 10.7%, respectively. At follow-up, 553 students (13.7%) did not answer the question on smoking. Available case analyses: crude odds ratios (OR) for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.65 (0.48-0.88) and adjusted: 0.70 (0.47-1.04). ITT analyses: crude OR for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.67 (0.50-0.89) and adjusted: 0.61 (0.45-0.82). Students at intervention schools had a lower risk of smoking after a year of intervention in year 7. This multi-component intervention involving educational, parental and context-related intervention components seems to be efficient in lowering or postponing smoking uptake in Danish adolescents. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. School-Based Interventions Going Beyond Health Education to Promote Adolescent Health: Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, Nichola; Jamal, Farah; Viner, Russell M; Dickson, Kelly; Patton, George; Bonell, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Health education in school classrooms can be effective in promoting sexual health and preventing violence and substance use but effects are patchy and often short term. Classroom education is also challenging because of schools' increasing focus on academic-performance metrics. Other school-based approaches are possible, such as healthy school policies, improving how schools respond to bullying, and parent outreach, which go beyond health education to address broader health determinants. Existing systematic reviews include such interventions but often alongside traditional health education. There is scope for a systematic review of reviews to assess and synthesize evidence across existing reviews to develop an overview of the potential of alternative school-based approaches. We searched 12 databases to identify reviews published after 1980. Data were reviewed by two researchers. Quality was assessed using a modified Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews checklist and results were synthesized narratively. We screened 7,544 unique references and included 22 reviews. Our syntheses suggest that multicomponent school-based interventions, for example, including school policy changes, parent involvement, and work with local communities, are effective for promoting sexual health and preventing bullying and smoking. There is less evidence that such intervention can reduce alcohol and drug use. Economic incentives to keep girls in school can reduce teenage pregnancies. School clinics can promote smoking cessation. There is little evidence that, on their own, sexual-health clinics, antismoking policies, and various approaches targeting at-risk students are effective. There is good evidence that various whole-school health interventions are effective in preventing teenage pregnancy, smoking, and bullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-11-08

    School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Kenya), one in Latin America

  12. Skills for social and academic success: a school-based intervention for social anxiety disorder in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Paige H; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Klein, Rachel G

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS), a cognitive-behavioral, school-based intervention for adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Clinic-based treatment studies for socially anxious youth are reviewed, and a strong rationale for transporting empirically-based interventions into schools, such as SASS, is provided. The SASS program consists of 12, 40-min group sessions that emphasize social skills and in-vivo exposure. In addition to group sessions, students are seen individually at least twice and participate in 4 weekend social events with prosocial peers from their high schools. Meetings with teachers provide information about social anxiety and facilitate classroom exposures for socially anxious participants. Parents attend 2 psychoeducational meetings about social anxiety, its treatment, and approaches for managing their child's anxiety. Initial findings regarding the program's effectiveness are presented. We conclude by discussing the challenges involved in implementing treatment protocols in schools and provide suggestions to address these issues.

  13. Engaging Mexican Origin Families in a School-Based Preventive Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Anne M.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Millsap, Roger E.; Meza, Connie M.; Dumka, Larry E.; Germán, Miguelina; Genalo, M. Toni

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a culturally sensitive approach to engage Mexican origin families in a school-based, family-focused preventive intervention trial. The approach was evaluated via assessing study enrollment and intervention program participation, as well as examining predictors of engagement at each stage. Incorporating traditional cultural values into all aspects of engagement resulted in participation rates higher than reported rates of minority-focused trials not emphasizing cultural sensitivity. Family preferred language (English or Spanish) or acculturation status predicted engagement at all levels, with less acculturated families participating at higher rates. Spanish-language families with less acculturated adolescents participated at higher rates than Spanish-language families with more acculturated adolescents. Other findings included two-way interactions between family language and the target child’s familism values, family single- vs. dual-parent status, and number of hours the primary parent worked in predicting intervention participation. Editors’ Strategic Implications: The authors present a promising approach—which requires replication—to engaging and retaining Mexican American families in a school-based prevention program. The research also highlights the importance of considering acculturation status when implementing and studying culturally tailored aspects of prevention models. PMID:18004659

  14. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S

    2014-01-01

    Given that lifestyleshave similar determinants and that school-based interventions are usually targeted at all the risks that affect adolescents, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics and effects of school-based interventions acting on different behavioral domains of adolescent health promotion. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers who searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for experimental or observational studies with at least two measures of results published from 2007 to 2011, given that the research information available doubles every 5 years. Methodological quality was assessed with a standardized tool. Information was extracted from 35 studies aiming to prevent risk behaviors and promote healthy nutrition, physical activity, and mental and holistic health. Activities were based on theoretical models and were classified into interactive lessons, peer mediation, environmental changes, parents' and community activities, and tailored messages by computer-assisted training or other resources, usually including multiple components. In some cases, we identified some moderate to large, short- and long-term effects on behavioral and intermediate variable. This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. The Influence of Organizational Culture on School-Based Obesity Prevention Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Kayla N; Solari Williams, Kayce D; Warren, Judith; McKyer, E Lisako Jones; Ory, Marcia G

    2018-06-01

    Although the influence of organizational culture has been examined on a variety of student outcomes, few studies consider the influence that culture may have on school-based obesity prevention interventions. We present a systematic review of the literature to examine how elements of organizational culture may affect the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions. Fourteen studies examining the impact of organizational-level characteristics on school-based obesity prevention interventions were identified through the online databases EBSCO (CINAHL, ERIC, Agricola), Web of Science, Medline (PubMed), and Scopus. Five themes were identified as elements of organizational culture that influence the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions: organizational response to limited resources, value placed on staff training and professional development, internal support, organizational values, and school climate. Organizational culture can greatly influence the success of school-based obesity interventions. The collection of data related to organizational-level factors may be used to identify strategies for creating and sustaining a supportive environment for obesity prevention interventions in the school setting. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  16. Gender’s Effect on a School-Based Intervention in the Prepubertal Growth Spurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Children aged 10-11 years pass through a dynamic developmental period marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, all of which are sexually dimorphic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of gender on a school-based intervention in the prepubertal growth spurt. One hundred twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls, fifth and sixth grade students from an urban public elementary school in Portugal (10.8 ± 0.4 years, were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: a strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls, and an endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls; and a control group (18 boys, 21 girls; no training program. Training program for the two experimental groups was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. Compared with the values at the beginning of the protocol, both strength and endurance training programs produced significant improvements (p 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.16, Power= 0.29 and aerobic (p> 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.05, Power= 0.28 capacity. The results of the present study should be taken into consideration in order to optimize strength training school-based programs.

  17. A Preliminary Evaluation of a School-Based Media Education and Reduction Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, David S; Hswen, Yulin; Slaby, Ronald G; Rich, Michael

    2018-06-01

    While media education and reduction programs have been proposed to prevent adverse health and academic outcomes related to heavy electronic media use among school-aged children, few have been formally piloted and evaluated. We used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of Take the Challenge (TtC), a school-based media education/reduction program for the primary prevention of sleep deprivation, dysfunctional social-emotional behaviors, and poor academic performance. Sixth- to eighth-grade students at a rural Midwestern U.S. middle school received the TtC program, while a similar school in the same district served as the comparison group. Health-related and academic measures were collected from students and teachers at both schools before and after the intervention. The primary outcome measure was student-reported electronic media use (television, video games, Internet). Secondary measures included student health behaviors (student-reported sleep, exercise, and outdoor play) and academic activities (teacher-reported homework and classroom performance). Compared to the comparison group, students receiving TtC slept more and reduced television viewing, background television time, after-school video gaming, and weekend Internet use. Teachers reported increases in the extent to which TtC students completed homework assignments and stayed on task in the classroom. Well-designed school-based programs such as TtC can reduce electronic media use among middle-school children and improve related health and academic outcomes.

  18. The Child’s Voice in Determining Program Acceptability for a School-Based Mindfulness Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan McCabe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available School-based mindfulness interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing mental health symptoms. However, comparatively little research has investigated the acceptability of these programs from the perspective of the children. Program acceptability underpins engagement, and more engaging programs are also more efficacious (Cowan & Sheridan, 2003; Mautone et al., 2009 yet there is little literature which has considered the acceptability of school-based mindfulness programs. To address this gap, semi-structured interviews were conducted with upper primary aged children (N = 30 who had participated in a six week mindfulness program in four Australian primary schools. Thematic analysis of interviews revealed children found the program to be acceptable. Children reported that they enjoyed doing the mindfulness program, would recommend it to others, and learned about relaxing as well as felt relaxed while doing the program. Children also highlighted the use of culturally appropriate teaching materials and possible stigmatisation as threats to the acceptability of the program. The results of the study support the acceptability of mindfulness programs in school settings, grounded in the unique perspective of the child.

  19. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greaves Colin J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP, a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM. The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their

  20. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity

  1. Evidence, theory and context--using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer J; Logan, Stuart; Greaves, Colin J; Wyatt, Katrina M

    2011-07-13

    Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives--establish motivation, take action and stay motivated--in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity behaviours. Although the process was time

  2. A systematic review of school-based interventions targeting physical activity and sedentary behaviour among older adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynynen, S-T; van Stralen, M M; Sniehotta, F F; Araújo-Soares, V; Hardeman, W; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Vasankari, T.; Hankonen, N.

    2016-01-01

    Lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with health problems. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of school-based interventions to increase PA and decrease SB among 15-19-year-old adolescents, and examines whether intervention

  3. A School-Based Motivational Intervention to Promote Physical Activity from a Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cutre, David; Sierra, Ana C.; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Peláez-Pérez, Manuel; Cervelló, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    The authors analyzed the effects of a multidimensional intervention to promote physical activity (PA) in school, based on self-determination theory. The study involved 88 students, between 14 and 17 years old, who were divided into a control group (n = 59) and an experimental group (n = 29). In the experimental group, a 6-month intervention was…

  4. School-Based Educational Intervention to Improve Children's Oral Health-Related Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Holly; Dawett, Bhupinder; Leighton, Paul; Rose-Brady, Laura; Deery, Chris

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate a brief oral health promotion intervention delivered in schools by a primary care dental practice, aimed at changing oral health care knowledge and oral health-related behaviors in children. Cohort study with pretest-posttest design. Three primary schools. One hundred and fifty children (aged 9-12 years). Children received a 60-minute theory-driven classroom-based interactive educational session delivered by a dental care professional and received take-home literature on oral health. All children completed a questionnaire on oral health-related knowledge and self-reported oral health-related behaviors before, immediately after, and 6 weeks following the intervention. Children's dental knowledge significantly improved following the intervention, with improvement evident at immediate follow-up and maintained 6 weeks later. Significantly more children reported using dental floss 6 weeks after the intervention compared with baseline. No significant differences were detected in toothbrushing or dietary behaviors. School-based preventative oral health education delivered by primary care dental practices can generate short-term improvements in children's knowledge of oral health and some aspects of oral hygiene behavior. Future research should engage parents/carers and include objective clinical and behavioral outcomes in controlled study designs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. The effect of a school-based educational intervention on menstrual health: an intervention study among adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Sakisaka, Kayako

    2014-07-03

    To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Intervention study. Araihazar area, Bangladesh. 416 adolescent female students aged 11-16 years, in grade 6-8, and living with their parents. A school-based health education study conducted from April 2012 to April 2013. We randomly selected 3 of 26 high schools in the study area. We delivered 6 months of educational intervention by trained (by an obstetrician and gynaecologist) research assistants (RAs) on menstrual hygiene among school girls. RAs read the questionnaire and participants answered. The changes in knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding menstruation, menstrual disorders experienced, and the restrictions and behaviours practiced by menstruating adolescents were compared between the baseline and the follow-up assessments. After health education, participants reported a significant improvement (pmenstruation (78.6% vs 59.6%). The programme produced significant changes in the knowledge, beliefs and practices of menstrual hygiene, complications from lack of hygiene, and the behaviour and restrictions of the menstruating adolescents. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a health education programme for adolescents on menstrual hygiene in secondary schools serving rural Bangladesh. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of four school-based sexual violence interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Gibbs, Deborah; Hawkins, Stephanie R; Hart, Laurie; Ball, Barbara; Irvin, Neil; Littler, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study extends past research by examining factors associated with changes in attitudes, knowledge, and intended behaviors related to sexual assault. This study included 1,182 participants from four unique multiple-session school-based sexual violence interventions. Implementation and participant factors examined include single- versus mixed-gender groups, group setting versus classroom lecture setting, and participant gender. Participants completed self-administered, paper-and-pencil pre- and postsurveys. A significant desired overall effect was found on participants' reports of positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior regarding sexual harassment and personal boundaries and positive dating relationship norms (from pretest to posttest). There were steeper increases over time in both measures, with larger mixed-gender/single-gender differences among boys than among girls. Differences in the impact of participating in mixed- versus single-gender groups depended on classroom versus small group settings. The implications of these findings are discussed for sexual assault prevention programs.

  7. The pro children intervention: applying the intervention mapping protocol to develop a school-based fruit and vegetable promotion programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Wind, Marianne; Hildonen, Christina; Bjelland, Mona; Aranceta, Javier; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The importance of careful theory-based intervention planning is recognized for fruit and vegetable promotion. This paper describes the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop the Pro Children intervention to promote consumption of fruit and vegetable among 10- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Based on a needs assessment, promotion of intake of fruit and vegetable was split into performance objectives and related personal, social and environmental determinants. Crossing the performance objectives with related important and changeable determinants resulted in a matrix of learning and change objectives for which appropriate educational strategies were identified. Theoretically similar but culturally relevant interventions were designed, implemented and evaluated in Norway, the Netherlands and Spain during 2 school years. Programme activities included provision of fruits and vegetables in the schools, guided classroom activities, computer-tailored feedback and advice for children, and activities to be completed at home with the family. Additionally, optional intervention components for community reinforcement included incorporation of mass media, school health services or grocery stores. School project committees were supported. The Pro Children intervention was carefully developed based on the IM protocol that resulted in a comprehensive school-based fruit and vegetable promotion programme, but culturally sensible and locally relevant. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. A school-based intervention program in promoting leisure-time physical activity: trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Masato; Chua, Khai Leng; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2018-04-02

    Regular participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is important to manage obesity. Physical education (PE) is considered to play an important role in promoting lifelong participation in physical activity (PA) because it provides an existing network where cost-effective interventions can be implemented to produce sustainable change in health behavior. However, the association between compulsory school PA (e.g., PE lessons) and body composition levels has received mixed support in the literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether a school-based intervention targeting salient PA benefits and barriers grounded on the theory of planned behavior would promote young people's participation in MVPA during leisure time and reduce body mass index (BMI) of overweight students. A total of 171 students from 3 secondary schools in Singapore underwent the control condition followed by the intervention condition. Both the conditions consisted of PE lessons twice per week over 4 weeks. In the control condition, PE teachers encouraged students to participate in PA during leisure time without providing persuasive message. While in the intervention condition, PE teachers delivered persuasive messages that targeted the salient benefits and barriers associated with PA to the students at the last 5 to 10 min of each PE lesson. PA levels over a week were measured objectively with wrist-mounted GENEActiv Original accelerometers and subjectively with self-reporting questionnaires three times (Baseline, Post 1, and Post 2) in each condition. Student's self-reported PA level was measured using the Leisure-Time Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and their attitudes, intentions, subjective norms and perceived behavior control towards leisure-time PA were measured with a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior. Furthermore, students' intention, determination and

  9. Examining School-Based Bullying Interventions Using Multilevel Discrete Time Hazard Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaman, M. Alex; Geiger, Jennifer Mullins; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica; Hedberg, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Although schools have been trying to address bulling by utilizing different approaches that stop or reduce the incidence of bullying, little remains known about what specific intervention strategies are most successful in reducing bullying in the school setting. Using the social-ecological framework, this paper examines school-based disciplinary interventions often used to deliver consequences to deter the reoccurrence of bullying and aggressive behaviors among school-aged children. Data for this study are drawn from the School-Wide Information System (SWIS) with the final analytic sample consisting of 1,221 students in grades K – 12 who received an office disciplinary referral for bullying during the first semester. Using Kaplan-Meier Failure Functions and Multi-level discrete time hazard models, determinants of the probability of a student receiving a second referral over time were examined. Of the seven interventions tested, only Parent-Teacher Conference (AOR=0.65, pbullying and aggressive behaviors. By using a social-ecological framework, schools can develop strategies that deter the reoccurrence of bullying by identifying key factors that enhance a sense of connection between the students’ mesosystems as well as utilizing disciplinary strategies that take into consideration student’s microsystem roles. PMID:22878779

  10. EFFECTS OF A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION ON BMI AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Graf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children's Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS and control schools (CS either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05. The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001. For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020. All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p < 0.001, adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified

  11. Childhood obesity management shifting from health care system to school system: intervention study of school-based weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert; Ho, Mandy; Keung, Vera M W; Kwong, Amy C M

    2014-11-03

    dietary habits and positive attitudes towards exercise were observed among the intervention group. School based weight management programme integrated into a Health Promoting School approach with improved school policies and environment in supporting individual skills of obese students and their parents appears to be a promising practice for sustaining weight control. ISRCTN58795797.

  12. School-based HPV immunization of young adolescents: effects of two brief health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Vaughn I; Auslander, Beth A; Cox, Dena S; Rosenthal, Susan L; Rupp, Richard E; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent immunization rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) are low and interventions within school-based health centers (SBHCs) may increase HPV uptake and series completion. We examined the effect of a parent health message intervention on HPV vaccination intent, first dose uptake and series completion among adolescents who received care at SBHCs. Via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI), 445 parents of young adolescents were randomly assigned to 2 two-level interventions using a 2 × 2 design (rhetorical question (RQ) or no-RQ and one-sided or two-sided message). The RQ intervention involved asking the parent a question they were likely to endorse (e.g., "Do you want to protect your daughter from cervical cancer?") with the expectation that they would then behave in a manner consistent with their endorsement (i.e., agree to vaccinate). For the one-sided message, parents were given information that emphasized the safety and effectiveness of HPV vaccine, whereas the two-sided message acknowledged that some parents might have concerns about the vaccine, followed by reassurance regarding the safety and effectiveness. At CATI conclusion, parents indicated intentions to have their adolescents vaccinated. Parents who endorsed any intent were sent a consent form to return and all adolescents with signed returned consents were vaccinated at SBHCs. Medical records were reviewed for uptake/completion. Parents were 87% female; adolescents were 66% male and racially/ethnically diverse. 42.5% of parents indicated some intention to immunize, 51.4% were unsure, and 6.1% were not interested. 34% (n = 151) of adolescents received their first dose with series completion rates of 67% (n = 101). The RQ component of the intervention increased intention to vaccinate (RR = 1.45; 95%CI 1.16,1.81), but not first dose uptake or series completion. The 1-sided and 2-sided messages had no effect. This brief, RQ health intervention enhanced intent, but did not impact vaccination

  13. Exploring subgroup effects by socioeconomic position of three effective school-based dietary interventions: the European TEENAGE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lien, N.; Haerens, L.; te Velde, S.J.; Mercken, L.; Klepp, K.I.; Moore, L.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Faggiano, F.; Lenthe, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore subgroup effects by high and low socioeconomic position (SEP) of three previously conducted, effective European interventions. Methods: Reanalyses stratified by SEP were conducted by the research groups of each study. All studies were school-based:

  14. A School-Based Intervention Associated with Improvements in Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles in Young People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallén, Eva Flygare; Müllersdorf, Maria; Christensson, Kyllike; Marcus, Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates a multifactorial school-based intervention with the aim of decreasing cardiometabolic risk factors by means of a healthy lifestyle, primarily with daily physical activity and healthy food during school hours, at an upper secondary school for students with intellectual disabilities. The outcome is measured in terms of…

  15. Manualization, Feasibility, and Effectiveness of the School-Based Social Competence Intervention for Adolescents (SCI-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichter, Janine P.; Herzog, Melissa J.; Owens, Sarah A.; Malugen, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Despite the movement toward identification of evidence-based practices (EBPs), there is a discrepancy in the availability of school-based EBPs targeting the unique needs of students with high functioning forms of autism and related social needs. Based on calls for systematic intervention development and evaluation processes, the current study…

  16. How Family Socioeconomic Status, Peer Behaviors, and School-Based Intervention on Healthy Habits Influence Adolescent Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Maldonado, Concepción; Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Psychologists in schools can play an important role in developing policies and programs to promote healthy eating habits. This study analyses the contributions of family socioeconomic status, peer influence (schoolmates' food consumption), and school-based nutrition interventions to explain adolescent eating behaviors. Data were obtained from the…

  17. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi: a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I.H.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Ndayisaba, A.; Ntamatumba, P.; Sipsma, H.; Smallegange, E.S.; Macy, R.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving

  18. Computer-Related Posture and Discomfort in Primary School Children: The Effects of a School-Based Ergonomic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Sara; Earle, Deirdre; Galvin, Rose

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a school-based ergonomic intervention on childrens' posture and discomfort while using computers using a pre/post test study design. The sample comprised 23 children age 9 and 10 years. Posture was assessed with Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and a workstation assessment was completed using a Visual…

  19. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi : A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S.; Macy, Robert D.; de Jong, Joop T V M; Komproe, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving

  20. Evaluation of Antistigma Interventions With Sixth-Grade Students: A School-Based Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Kirstin; Phelan, Jo C; DuPont-Reyes, Melissa J; Barkin, Kay F; Villatoro, Alice P; Link, Bruce G

    2017-04-01

    School-based interventions for preadolescents provide the opportunity, in a ubiquitous institutional setting, to attack stigmatizing attitudes before they are firmly entrenched, and thus they may reduce mental illness stigma in the overall population. This study evaluated the effectiveness of classroom-based interventions in reducing stigma and increasing understanding of mental illness and positive attitudes toward treatment seeking among sixth-grade students. In an ethnically and racially diverse sample (N=721), 40% of participants were Latino, 26% were white, and 24% were African American; the mean age was 11.5. In a fully crossed design, classrooms from a school district in Texas were randomly assigned to receive all three, two, one, or none of the following interventions: a PowerPoint- and discussion-based curriculum, contact with two college students who described their experiences with mental illness, and exposure to antistigma printed materials. Standard and vignette-based quantitative measures of mental health knowledge and attitudes, social distance, and help-seeking attitudes were assessed pre- and postintervention. Printed materials had no significant effects on outcomes and were grouped with the control condition for analysis. For eight of 13 outcomes, the curriculum-only group reported significantly more positive outcomes than the control group; the largest between-group differences were for stigma awareness and action, recognition of mental illness in the vignettes, and positive orientation to treatment. The contact-alone group reported significantly more positive outcomes on three vignette-based measures. Results were most promising for a classroom-based curriculum that can be relatively easily disseminated to and delivered by teachers, offering the potential for broad application in the population.

  1. Impact of a school-based food garden on attitudes and identification skills regarding vegetables and fruit: a 12-month intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerset, Shawn; Markwell, Katherine

    2009-02-01

    To determine changes in ability to identify specific vegetables and fruits, and attitudes towards vegetables and fruit, associated with the introduction of a school-based food garden. A 12-month intervention trial using a historical control (control n 132, intervention n 120), class-based, self-administered questionnaires requiring one-word answers and 3-point Likert scale responses. A state primary school (grades 4 to 7) in a low socio-economic area of Brisbane, Australia. The introduction of a school-based food garden, including the funding of a teacher coordinator for 11 h/week to facilitate integration of garden activities into the curriculum. Ability to identify a series of vegetables and fruits, attitudes towards vegetables and fruit. Frequency distributions for each item were generated and chi2 analyses were used to determine statistical significance. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to detect major trends in data. The intervention led to enhanced ability to identify individual vegetables and fruits, greater attention to origins of produce (garden-grown and fresh), changes to perceived consumption of vegetables and fruits, and enhanced confidence in preparing fruit and vegetable snacks, but decreased interest in trying new fruits. The introduction of this school-based food garden was associated with skill and attitudinal changes conducive to enhancing vegetable and fruit consumption. The ways in which such changes might impact on dietary behaviours and intake require further analysis.

  2. Effect of Visual Art School-Based Stroke Intervention for Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ashleigh B; Montgomery, Chelsea M; Dillard, Wesley A; Morrill, Kenneth; Hoesli, Coral; Gillette, Wesley M; Johnson, Brandon K; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2017-08-01

    Community stroke awareness initiatives have traditionally been used to expand knowledge of stroke signs and risk factors to high-risk adult populations. Here, we use a novel unfettered, visual art-based approach for an elementary school initiative to raise stroke awareness. Seventh graders in a middle school art class received stroke awareness training during the course of the 2015 to 2016 school year through their teacher in the visual arts class. In turn, they used this training to develop their own artistic interpretations of key stroke awareness concepts via project-based learning and then present their projects to raise awareness about stroke. We evaluated our predata and postdata to determine whether the visual art school-based stroke intervention was effective in both educating students about stroke and enabling them to effectively disseminate this information to parents and other adults in their community. The pretest evaluation indicates a fair or good knowledge about stroke, and no student indicated an "outstanding" or "excellent" knowledge. The posttest evaluation indicated a higher degree of stroke awareness because students were rated as having an "outstanding," "excellent," or "very good" performance especially in the ability to translate knowledge of stroke awareness lessons learned in their art class into a well-articulated stroke-related project and presentation. Pearson χ test reveals significant difference (P art teacher to lead the educational component in the intervention indicates that expertise in neurology or stroke is not necessary to facilitate understanding of stroke and highlights the importance of creativeness in stroke education for children.

  3. Treatment Integrity of School-Based Interventions with Children in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" 1991-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Gresham, Frank M.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed all school-based experimental studies with individuals 0 to 18 years published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" (JABA) between 1991 and 2005. A total of 142 articles (152 studies) that met review criteria were included. Nearly all (95%) of these experiments provided an operational definition of the independent variable,…

  4. School-Based Interventions to Reduce Obesity Risk in Children in High- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charlotte E L; Albar, Salwa Ali; Vargas-Garcia, Elisa J; Xu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    School-based interventions are relatively new and were first introduced in the United States in the 1990s. Early programs were mainly education based with many of the findings now embedded in school policy in the form of a healthy eating curriculum. More recent school programs have taken education outside the classroom and attempted to engage parents as well as teachers. Environmental changes such as improving the quality of foods available at lunchtime and at other times during the school day are now common. Reviews of evaluations of school-based programs have demonstrated that they are effective and successfully improve dietary quality such as increasing fruit and vegetable intake and decreasing sweet and savory snacks and sweetened drinks; not just in school but over the whole day and particularly in younger school children. School-based interventions are also effective at reducing obesity if components to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors are also targeted but not if only dietary behaviors are tackled. Most of the high-quality evaluation studies using randomized controlled trials have been carried out in high-income countries as they are costly to run. However, middle-income countries have benefitted from the information available from these evaluation studies and many are now starting to fund and evaluate school-based programs themselves, resulting in unique problems such as concomitant under- and overnutrition being addressed. Action for the future demands more focus on populations most at risk of poor dietary quality and obesity in order to reduce inequalities in health and on adolescents who have not benefited as much as younger children from school-based interventions. This will involve innovative solutions within schools as well as targeting the food environment outside schools such as reducing the density of fast-food outlets and marketing of sweet and savory snacks and drinks. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A school-based physical activity promotion intervention in children: rationale and study protocol for the PREVIENE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tercedor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. Methods A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age from six schools in Granada (Spain will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children. Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry, physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery, and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference. Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires, academic achievement (grades from the official school’s records, and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires. To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. Discussion The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.

  6. A school-based physical activity promotion intervention in children: rationale and study protocol for the PREVIENE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercedor, Pablo; Villa-González, Emilio; Ávila-García, Manuel; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Martínez-Baena, Alejandro; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Pérez-López, Isaac José; García-Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Mandic, Sandra; Palomares-Cuadros, Juan; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Huertas-Delgado, Francisco Javier

    2017-09-26

    The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions) to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age) from six schools in Granada (Spain) will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school) or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children). Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry), physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery), and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference). Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires), academic achievement (grades from the official school's records), and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires). To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.

  7. Integrating Autism Care through a School-Based Intervention Model: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Dang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility of monitoring the progress of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD both in school and at home to promote a school-based integrated care model between parents, teachers, and medical providers. This is a prospective cohort study. To monitor progress, outcome measures were administered via an online platform developed for caregivers and teachers of children (n = 30 attending a school specializing in neurodevelopmental disorders and using an integrated medical and education program. Longitudinal analysis showed improvements in a novel scale, the Teacher Autism Progress Scale (TAPS, which was designed to measure key autism-related gains in a school environment (2.1-point improvement, p = 0.004, ES = 0.324. The TAPS showed a strong and statistically significant correlation, with improvement in aberrant behavior (r = −0.50; p = 0.008 and social responsiveness (r = −0.70; p < 0.001. The results also showed non-statistically significant improvements in aberrant behavior, social responsiveness, and quality of life over time at both school and home. To assess feasibility of ongoing progress measurement, we assessed missing data, which showed caregivers were more likely to miss surveys during summer. Results demonstrate the value and feasibility of online, longitudinal data collection in school to assist with individualized education planning and collaborative care for children with ASD. Lessons learned in this pilot will support school outcomes researchers in developing more efficacious, collaborative treatment plans between clinicians, caregivers, and teachers.

  8. Changing the Smoking Trajectory: Evaluating the Impact of School-Based Tobacco Interventions on Changes to Susceptibility to Future Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G. Cole

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available School-based programs and policies can reduce student smoking rates. However, their impact on never-smoking students has not been investigated despite the clear transition between non-susceptible, susceptible, and ever tried smoking statuses. The objective of this paper was to examine the longitudinal student-level impact of six changes in school-based tobacco control programs and policies on student transitions in susceptibility to smoking over one year. Two multinomial logistic regression models identified the relative risk of a change in self-reported susceptibility to smoking or in trying a cigarette among never-smoking students in each of the six intervention schools compared to the relative risk among never-smoking students in control schools. Model 1 identified the relative risk of a change in smoking susceptibility status among baseline non-susceptible never smoking students, while Model 2 identified the relative risk of a change in smoking susceptibility status among baseline susceptible never smoking students. Students at some intervention schools were at increased risk of becoming susceptible to or trying a cigarette at one year follow-up. Intervention studies should examine changes to susceptibility to future smoking when evaluating impact to ensure that school-based tobacco control programs and policies do not negatively change the risk status of never-smoking students.

  9. Testing Causal Impacts of a School-Based SEL Intervention Using Instrumental Variable Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Catalina; Nathanson, Lori; Rivers, Susan; Brackett, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Children's social-emotional skills, such as conflict resolution and emotion regulation, have been linked to a number of highly regarded academic and social outcomes. The current study presents preliminary results from a causal test of the theory of change of RULER, a universal school-based approach to social and emotional learning (SEL).…

  10. Closing the Gap: Principal Perspectives on an Innovative School-Based Mental Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Kate F.; Powers, Joelle D.; Edwards, Jeffrey D.; Wegmann, Kate M.; Lechner, Ethan; Swick, Danielle C.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health needs among children in the United States have significant consequences for children and their families, as well as the schools that serve them. This qualitative study evaluated the second year of an innovative school-based mental health project that created a multi-system partnership between an urban school district, a public mental…

  11. School-Based Health Promotion Intervention: Parent and School Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Fernandez, Anna M.; Hernandez, Jennifer; Villa, Manuela; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is high, particularly among minority youth. The objective of this article was to evaluate parent and school staff perspectives of childhood health and weight qualitatively to guide the development of a school-based obesity prevention program for minority youth. Methods: Hispanic parents (N?=?9) of…

  12. Evaluation of Project Chrysalis: A School-based Intervention To Reduce Negative Consequences of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…

  13. Decreasing In-home Smoking of Adults-Results from a School-based Intervention Program in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Anh, Le Vu; Cook, Margaret; Capra, Mike

    2016-01-01

    It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011-2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group) involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children's exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children's reported their father's in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention ( p Viet Nam to increase children's awareness on the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke and to help them to be able to avoid their exposure to secondhand smoke at their home environment.

  14. Project PANK: Rationale, study protocol and baseline results of a multidisciplinary school based intervention in children with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Batalau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cardiovascular disease risk factors occur more frequently in children with obesity. Project PANK is a multidisciplinary school-based intervention lasting 6 months to improve BMI z-score, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, blood pressure (BP, nutrition, physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviour (SB, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG. Methods/DesignA total of 77 children (7-10 years were recruited from an urban school. The protocol includes PA and SB individual meetings for children/parents; increasing school exercise; PA and SB lessons for children; A goal in the number of steps/day to accomplish in and after school. In nutrition, the protocol includes three individual meetings for children/parents and six lessons for children. ResultsPositive associations were found between the BMI Z-score, WC, and WHtR with TG; the BMI Z-score and WHtR with glucose; the light PA time and HDL-C; the vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous PA with CRF; the caloric intake and lipids with LDL-C, BMI z-score, WC, and WHtR. A negative association was found between CRF and TG. ConclusionBaseline results stress the importance of multidisciplinary school-based interventions. We hypothesized that PANK will improve blood variables, anthropometric measures, and BP, by changing food intake, enhancing PA and CRF, and decreasing SB.

  15. Preventing domestic abuse for children and young people: A review of school-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Downe, Soo

    2015-12-01

    Schools provide the setting in which interventions aimed at preventing intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) are delivered to young people in the general population and a range of programmes have been designed and evaluated. To date, most rigorous studies have been undertaken in North America and the extent to which programmes are transferable to other settings and cultures is uncertain. This paper reports on a mixed methods review, aimed at informing UK practise and policy, which included a systematic review of the international literature, a review of the UK grey literature and consultation with young people as well as experts to address the question of what works for whom in what circumstances. The context in which an intervention was delivered was found to be crucial. Context included: the wider policy setting; the national or regional level, where the local culture shaped understandings of IPVA, and the readiness of an individual school. The programmes included in the systematic review provided stronger evidence for changing knowledge and attitudes than for behavioural change and those young people who were at higher risk at baseline may have exerted a strong influence on study outcomes. Shifting social norms in the peer group emerged as a key mechanism of change and the young people consulted emphasised the importance of authenticity which could be achieved through the use of drama and which required those delivering programmes to have relevant expertise. While the consultation identified increasing interest in targeting interventions on boys, there was an identified lack of materials designed for minority groups of young people, especially Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender young people. Increased responsivity to the local context can be achieved by involving those who will deliver and receive these preventive programmes in their development. Schools need to be better prepared and supported in the task of delivering these interventions and this is

  16. The Shaping Healthy Choices Program: design and implementation methodologies for a multicomponent, school-based nutrition education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E; Linnell, Jessica D; Smith, Martin H; Briggs, Marilyn; Bergman, Jacqueline; Brian, Kelley M; Dharmar, Madan; Feenstra, Gail; Hillhouse, Carol; Keen, Carl L; Nguyen, Lori M; Nicholson, Yvonne; Ontai, Lenna; Schaefer, Sara E; Spezzano, Theresa; Steinberg, Francene M; Sutter, Carolyn; Wright, Janel E; Young, Heather M; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    To provide a framework for implementation of multicomponent, school-based nutrition interventions. This article describes the research methods for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a model to improve nutrition and health-related knowledge and behaviors among school-aged children. Longitudinal, pretest/posttest, randomized, controlled intervention. Four elementary schools in California. Fourth-grade students at intervention (n = 252) and control (n = 238) schools and their parents and teachers. Power analyses demonstrate that a minimum of 159 students per group will be needed to achieve sufficient power. The sample size was determined using the variables of nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference score, and body mass index percentile. A multicomponent school-based nutrition education intervention over 1 academic year, followed by activities to support sustainability of the program. Dietary and nutrition knowledge and behavior, critical thinking skills, healthy food preferences and consumption, and physical activity will be measured using a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, a vegetable preferences assessment tool, the Test of Basic Science Process Skills, digital photography of plate waste, PolarActive accelerometers, anthropometrics, a parent questionnaire, and the School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey. Evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative data will use paired t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests and regression modeling using P = .05 to determine statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a school-based diabetes education intervention, an extension of Program ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Matthew David

    Background: The prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes in the United States has increased over the past two decades and rates remain high. The latest data from the National Center for Health Statistics estimates that 36% of adults and 17% of children and adolescents in the US are obese (CDC Adult Obesity, CDC Childhood Obesity). Being overweight or obese greatly increases one's risk of developing several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 8% of adults in the US have diabetes, type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of these cases. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is still rare, however clinical reports suggest an increase in the frequency of diagnosis (CDC Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011). Results from the Diabetes Prevention Program show that the incidence of type 2 diabetes can be reduced through the adoption of a healthier lifestyle among high-risk individuals (DPP, 2002). Objectives: This classroom-based intervention included scientific coverage of energy balance, diabetes, diabetes prevention strategies, and diabetes management. Coverage of diabetes management topics were included in lesson content to further the students' understanding of the disease. Measurable short-term goals of the intervention included increases in: general diabetes knowledge, diabetes management knowledge, and awareness of type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. Methods: A total of 66 sixth grade students at Tavelli Elementary School in Fort Collins, CO completed the intervention. The program consisted of nine classroom-based lessons; students participated in one lesson every two weeks. The lessons were delivered from November of 2005 to May of 2006. Each bi-weekly lesson included a presentation and interactive group activities. Participants completed two diabetes knowledge questionnaires at baseline and post intervention. A diabetes survey developed by Program ENERGY measured general diabetes knowledge and awareness of type 2 diabetes prevention strategies

  18. Effect of school-based interventions on physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents: a review of reviews and systematic update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriemler, S; Meyer, U; Martin, E

    2011-01-01

    School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness although there is controversy about the optimal strategy to intervene.......School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness although there is controversy about the optimal strategy to intervene....

  19. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Anderssen, S A; Holme, I M

    2011-01-01

    at the I-school carried out 60 min of PA daily. The PA lessons were planned, organized and led by expert physical education (PE) teachers. In the C-school, children were offered the normal 45 min of PE twice weekly. The intervention resulted in a greater beneficial development in systolic (P=0......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 2-year school-based physical activity (PA) intervention in 9-year-old children on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. One intervention school (I-school) (n=125) and one control school (C-school) (n=131) were included. The children...

  20. Decreasing In-home Smoking of Adults—Results from a School-based Intervention Program in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Huong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011–2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children’s reported their father’s in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention (p < 0.001 in the intervention school while no change happened in the control school. The study found that the better changed smoking location of adult smokers as reported by children associated with the school who received intervention activities (adjusted OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.28–3.24. Poorer changed attitudes towards secondhand smoke of children associated with a lower percentage of better change in smoking location of their fathers/other adult smokers (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28–0.96. Children’s poorer changed knowledge towards secondhand smoke also associated with poorer changed smoking location of adult smokers (aOR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.07–7.76. It is recommended by this study that similar school based intervention approaches should be applied in primary schools in Viet Nam to increase children’s awareness on the

  1. Effects of School-Based Educational Interventions for Enhancing Adolescents Abilities in Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena V Nordheim

    Full Text Available Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the certainty of the evidence.Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low.Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health

  2. Effects of School-Based Educational Interventions for Enhancing Adolescents Abilities in Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, Lena V; Gundersen, Malene W; Espehaug, Birgitte; Guttersrud, Øystein; Flottorp, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to assess the certainty of the evidence. Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low. Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health claims. The small

  3. Child and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: School-Based Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…

  4. Headteachers' prior beliefs on child health and their engagement in school based health interventions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Charlotte; Christian, Danielle; Davies, Helen; Rance, Jaynie; Stratton, Gareth; Rapport, Frances; Brophy, Sinead

    2015-04-18

    Schools play an important role in promoting the health of children. However, little consideration is often given to the influence that headteachers' and school staff's prior beliefs have on the implementation of public health interventions. This study examined primary school headteachers' and school health co-ordinators' views regarding child health in order to provide greater insights on the school's perspective for those designing future school-based health interventions. A qualitative study was conducted using 19 semi-structured interviews with headteachers, deputy headteachers and school health co-ordinators in the primary school setting. All transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Whilst many participants in this study believed good health was vital for learning, wide variance was evident regarding the perceived health of school pupils and the magnitude of responsibility schools should take in addressing child health behaviours. Although staff in this study acknowledged the importance of their role, many believed the responsibility placed upon schools for health promotion was becoming too much; suggesting health interventions need to better integrate school, parental and societal components. With mental health highlighted as an increasing priority in many schools, incorporating wellbeing outcomes into future school based health interventions is advocated to ensure a more holistic understanding of child health is gained. Understanding the health beliefs of school staff when designing interventions is crucial as there appears to be a greater likelihood of interventions being successfully adopted if staff perceive a health issue as important among their pupils. An increased dependability on schools for addressing health was expressed by headteachers in this study, highlighting a need for better understanding of parental, child and key stakeholder perspectives on responsibility for child health. Without this understanding, there is potential for certain

  5. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention for enhancing adolescents’ positive attitudes towards people with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tsiantis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents’ attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16-18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research.

  6. Effects of a school-based intervention on active commuting to school and health-related fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Villa-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active commuting to school has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The main objective was to investigate the effects of a school-based intervention on active commuting to school and health-related fitness in school-age children of Southern Spain. Methods A total of 494 children aged 8 to 11 years were invited to participate in the study. The schools were non-randomly allocated (i.e., school level allocation into the experimental group (EG or the control group (CG. The EG received an intervention program for 6 months (a monthly activity focused on increasing the level of active commuting to school and mainly targeting children’s perceptions and attitudes. Active commuting to school and health-related fitness (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and speed-agility, were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Children with valid data on commuting to school at baseline and follow-up, sex, age and distance from home to school were included in the final analysis (n = 251. Data was analyzed through a factorial ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Results At follow up, the EG had higher rates of cycling to school than CG for boys only (p = 0.04, but not for walking to school for boys or girls. The EG avoided increases in the rates of passive commuting at follow up, which increased in the CG among girls for car (MD = 1.77; SE = 0.714; p = 0.010 and bus (MD = 1.77; SE = 0.714; p = 0.010 modes. Moreover, we observed significant interactions and main effects between independent variables (study group, sex and assessment time point on health-related fitness (p < 0.05 over the 6-month period between groups, with higher values in the control group (mainly in boys. Conclusion A school-based intervention focused on increasing active commuting to school was associated with increases in rates of cycling to school among boys, but not for

  7. LEARNING MODEL OF SCHOOL-BASED ANTI BULLYING INTERVENTION IN EAP (ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Ambarini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual learning can be integrated in any subjects in school. One of the subject is Guidance and Couseling subject that provides opportunities for students to develop their social skills and communication. Today, the phenomenon of bullying often occurs in every aspect of life, and one of them is in educational institutions such as schools. School should be a place to establish a positive attitude and character, but the fact the school becomes the scene of bullying practices. The research question is how the bilingual learning of school-based anti bullying intervension integrated with Guidance and Counseling materials by using English for Academic Purposes settings is. This qualitative study used descriptive qualitative method that aims to understand the process and the outcome of bilingual learning process from the viewpoint or perspective of the participants. This research takes the view that since people are instruments, the objects of the research together with the researcher herself, their active involvement in the process is the key to any sustainable efforts. This research is aslo supposed to identify the students‘ understanding of the school-based anti bullying materials that are implemented in EAP settings. The impact of thus program implementation is certainly expected as the strategies to minimize the impacts that will occur in bullying behavior by the integration of anti-bullying bilingual learning model through guidance and counseling materials.

  8. The costs and cost-effectiveness of a school-based comprehensive intervention study on childhood obesity in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Meng

    Full Text Available The dramatic rise of overweight and obesity among Chinese children has greatly affected the social economic development. However, no information on the cost-effectiveness of interventions in China is available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost and the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention program for childhood obesity. We hypothesized the integrated intervention which combined nutrition education and physical activity (PA is more cost-effective than the same intensity of single intervention.And Findings: A multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted in six large cities during 2009-2010. A total of 8301 primary school students were categorized into five groups and followed one academic year. Nutrition intervention, PA intervention and their shared common control group were located in Beijing. The combined intervention and its' control group were located in other 5 cities. In nutrition education group, 'nutrition and health classes' were given 6 times for the students, 2 times for the parents and 4 times for the teachers and health workers. "Happy 10" was carried out twice per day in PA group. The comprehensive intervention was a combination of nutrition and PA interventions. BMI and BAZ increment was 0.65 kg/m(2 (SE 0.09 and 0.01 (SE 0.11 in the combined intervention, respectively, significantly lower than that in its' control group (0.82 ± 0.09 for BMI, 0.10 ± 0.11 for BAZ. No significant difference were found neither in BMI nor in BAZ change between the PA intervention and its' control, which is the same case in the nutrition intervention. The single intervention has a relative lower intervention costs compared with the combined intervention. Labor costs in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Jinan was higher compared to other cities. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $120.3 for BMI and $249.3 for BAZ in combined intervention, respectively.The school-based integrated obesity intervention program was cost

  9. [Effectiveness of School-based Interventions for the Prevention and/or Reduction of Psychosocial Problems among Children and Adolescents: A Review of Reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, S; Landgraf-Rauf, K; Brand, T; Zeeb, H; Pischke, C R

    2017-04-01

    Objective: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for the maintenance of mental health and the prevention of psychosocial problems among pupils. Methods: A systematic literature search of reviews published between 2007 and 2015 was carried out. Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, Campbell Library, Cochrane Library, NICE, ERIC, and Web of Science. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using AMSTAR criteria) were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Results: 6 reviews covering 331 primary studies were included in this review of reviews. Findings of three reviews with a focus on the maintenance and/or promotion of mental health and general well-being suggested that interventions aimed at changes in the social and the school environment were more effective than those that only targeted individual behavior change among pupils. Interventions for the reduction of mobbing/bullying were most effective if they comprised organizational changes at schools, such as playground and schoolyard supervision, and disciplinary measures. One review suggested strong evidence for the effectiveness of classroom management to reduce violent behavior among pupils. Conclusions: Participation in interventions promoting changes in the school environment, in addition to individual behavior change, appears to be associated with improved mental health among pupils and reductions in mobbing/bullying and violent behavior at schools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Andersen, Lars Bo; Mamen, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) following a school-based physical activity (PA) intervention. In total, 259 children (age 9.3+/-0.3 years) were invited to participate, of whom 256 participated. The children from the intervention school (63...... boys, 62 girls) carried out 60-min PA over 2 school years. The children from the control school (62 boys, 69 girls) had the regular curriculum-defined amount of physical education in school, i.e. 45 min twice weekly. One hundred and eighty-eight children (73.4%) successfully completed both the baseline...

  11. Acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students about a school-based dietary intervention in Isfahan, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Lajevardi, Bahareh; Bahreynian, Maryam; Omid-Ghaemi, Vahid; Movahedian, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Snacks play an important role in child health and nutritional status. Schools are considered as the preferred place to encourage healthy eating among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of buffet school-based intervention on acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students in Iran. Primary school students (n = 1120, 68.83% girls) from first to third grade, with one of their parents, participated in this prospective field trial study conducted in Isfahan, Iran. The study was consisted of three phases; schools selection, kitchen selection, implementation including two different parts, getting order and distribution. We provided hot snacks as traditional and healthy fast food according to taste and food preferences of children. Acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students were evaluated via a researcher made questionnaire before and after the intervention in one-third of participants as a representative sample of students who ordered the snacks. Most of the students usually ate snack in the break-time at school, the eagerness of provided snacks was 98.8% and 63.6% in girls and boys, respectively. The most interesting tastes were Ashe Reshteh and Tahchin, (45.1% girls vs. 36.8% boys), while bean (among girls) and Ashe Jo (among boys) were ranked as the lowest. More than half of parents (66.7%) evaluated the price of snacks as "acceptable," showing their satisfaction. Results of this study indicate that school-based interventions accompanied with parental and principals' support is considered as a practical approach to promote healthful eating at an early age. Developing effective interventions for youth might, therefore, help to prevent unhealthy dietary choices becoming habitual.

  12. Effectiveness of a multicomponent school based intervention to reduce bullying among adolescents in Chandigarh, North India: A quasi-experimental study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bullying perpetration and victimization is associated with significant academic, psychosocial and health related problems among adolescents. There is a need to develop effective interventions to prevent bullying among adolescents, especially in low and middle income countries. This paper presents the study protocol to develop, and evaluate the effect of multi-component school based prevention program for bullying in India. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Methods: The study will be conducted among 846 students of grade 7th and 8th in the intervention and control schools in Chandigarh, Union Territory, North India. A government and a private school will be selected purposively in each of the intervention and control arm. The intervention is based on socio-ecological model, and will be administered at individual, relationship (parents and teachers and school level. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of students experiencing any kind of bullying (bullying, victimization, or both, in each study arm. The effectiveness of the intervention will be measured by performing difference in difference analysis and generalized estimating equations. Expected impact for public health: Bullying is an aggressive behaviour with significant morbidities, including psychological or physical trauma, affecting individuals not only in their adolescence, but also later in their adulthood. This quasi-experimental study is expected to provide evidence on whether multi-component bullying prevention intervention program, can reduce the burden of bullying perpetration and victimization among school adolescents in India. The results of the study will add in the exiting literature on bullying intervention program, especially, from the low middle-income countries, as there are limited studies available on this topic in these countries.

  13. RE-AIM Analysis of a School-Based Nutrition Education Intervention in Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Andrew L.; Liao, Yue; Alberts, Janel; Huh, Jimi; Robertson, Trina; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few nutrition interventions in kindergarten classes have been evaluated, and none has been tested for program effectiveness, implementation, and dissemination. Building a Healthy Me (BHM) is a nutrition intervention for kindergarteners that is classroom-based and includes a family component. This study evaluated the public health…

  14. Prevention of smoking in adolescents with lower education: A school based intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Willemsen, M.C.; Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Spruijt, R.D.; Hira Sing, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and

  15. School-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention in Chilean Children: Effective in Controlling, but not Reducing Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Kain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N=1474. Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children’s nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA. Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant. % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2 while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7% in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24 and increased (1.22–1.35 in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P=0.024. Interaction group * time was significant for boys (P<0.0001 and girls (P=0.004. Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.

  16. A School-Based Phonological Awareness Intervention for Struggling Readers in Early French Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Nancy; D'Angelo, Nadia; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The current intervention study investigated the sustained effectiveness of phonological awareness training on the reading development of 16 children in French immersion who were identified as at-risk readers based on grade 1 English measures. The intervention program provided children from three cohorts with supplemental reading in small groups on…

  17. School Based Multicomponent Intervention for Obese Children in Udupi District, South India - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Baby S; Bhat, Vinod H

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity and overweight is a global epidemics and has been increasing in the developing countries. Childhood obesity is linked with increased mortality and morbidity independent of adult obesity. Declining physical activity, access to junk food and parenting style are the major determinants of overweight in children. Thus, there is a need for increasing the physical activity of children, educating the parents as well as the children on lifestyle modification. This can be achieved through implementation of multicomponent intervention. To evaluate the effectiveness of multicomponent intervention on improving the lifestyle practices, reducing the body fat and improving the self esteem of obese children from selected schools of Udupi District, South India. A sample of 120 obese children were enrolled for multicomponent intervention. The components of multicomponent intervention were: education provided to the obese children on lifestyle modification, education of the parents and increasing the physical education activity of these children in the form of aerobics under the supervision of physical education teacher. There was an attrition of 25% in the intervention group. Thus the final sample in the intervention group was 90. Total sample of 131 overweight/ obese children enrolled as controls. There was an attrition of 20.61% in the control group. Thus, the final sample in the control group was 104. Intervention group received the multicomponent intervention for six month. Mixed Method Repeated measures Ananlysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied for analysis of data. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in reducing the Body Mass Index (BMI), triceps, biceps, subscapular skin fold thickness of obese children. The intervention was also effective in improving the lifestyle practices and self-esteem of obese children. Overweight/obese children need to control diet and perform vigorous exercise at least for 20 minutes a day to reduce the excess fat

  18. A school-based intervention to reduce overweight and inactivity in children aged 6–12 years : Study design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Jansen (Wilma); H. Raat (Hein); E. Joosten-van Zwanenburg (Evelien); I. Reuvers (Ivo); R. Walsem, van (Ron); J. Brug (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground Effective interventions to prevent overweight and obesity in children are urgently needed especially in inner-city neighbourhoods where prevalence of overweight and inactivity among primary school children is high. A school based intervention was developed aiming at the

  19. School-based programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity: evidence-based interventions for youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K; Nagle, Brian J; Arredondo, Elva M; Barquera, Simón; Elder, John P

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be gathered from such interventions. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1965 and December 2010. Interventions were considered eligible if they had a school-based component, were done in Latin America, evaluated an obesity related outcome (body mass index [BMI], weight, %body fat, waist circumference, BMI z-score), and compared youth exposed vs not exposed. Ten studies were identified as having a school-based component. Most interventions had a sample of normal and overweight children. The most successful interventions focused on prevention rather than treatment, had longer follow-ups, a multidisciplinary team, and fewer limitations in execution. Three prevention and 2 treatment interventions found sufficient improvements in obesity-related outcomes. We found sufficient evidence to recommend school-based interventions to prevent obesity among youth in Latin America. Evidence-based interventions in the school setting should be promoted as an important component for integrated programs, policies, and monitoring frameworks designed to reverse the childhood obesity in the region. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chin A. Paw, Mai J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials. Methods: We revisited the Intervention Mapping (IM)…

  1. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  2. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lima-Serrano

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed.

  3. An Adaptive CBPR Approach to Create Weight Management Materials for a School-Based Health Center Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Sussman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. From our previous clinical work with overweight/obese youth, we identified the need for research to create an effective weight management intervention to address the growing prevalence of adolescent metabolic syndrome. Formative assessment through an adaptive community-based participatory research (CBPR approach was conducted toward the development of a nutritional and physical activity (DVD and clinician toolkit for a school-based health center (SBHC weight management intervention. Methods. We first conducted parent and adolescent interviews on views and experiences about obesity while convening a community advisory council (CAC recruited from two participating urban New Mexico high schools. Thematic findings from the interviews were analyzed with the CAC to develop culturally and developmentally appropriate intervention materials. Results. Themes from the parent and adolescent interviews included general barriers/challenges, factors influencing motivation, and change facilitators. The CAC and university-based research team reached consensus on the final content of nutrition and physical activity topics to produce a DVD and clinician toolkit through six monthly sessions. These materials used in the SBHC intervention resulted in a greater reduction of body mass index when compared to adolescents receiving standard care. Conclusions. Formative assessment using an adaptive CBPR approach resulted in the creation of culturally and age appropriate weight reduction materials that were acceptable to study participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00841334.

  4. A school-based intervention to promote physical activity among adolescent girls: Rationale, design, and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglisi Lauren

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity levels decline markedly among girls during adolescence. School-based interventions that are multi-component in nature, simultaneously targeting curricular, school environment and policy, and community links, are a promising approach for promoting physical activity. This report describes the rationale, design and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised trial, which aims to prevent the decline in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA among adolescent girls. Methods/Design A community-based participatory research approach and action learning framework are used with measurements at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Within each intervention school, a committee develops an action plan aimed at meeting the primary objective (preventing the decline in accelerometer-derived MVPA. Academic partners and the State Department of Education and Training act as critical friends. Control schools continue with their usual school programming. 24 schools were matched then randomized into intervention (n = 12 and control (n = 12 groups. A total of 1518 girls (771 intervention and 747 control completed baseline assessments (86% response rate. Useable accelerometer data (≥10 hrs/day on at least 3 days were obtained from 79% of this sample (n = 1199. Randomisation resulted in no differences between intervention and control groups on any of the outcomes. The mean age (SE of the sample was 13.6 (± 0.02 years and they spent less than 5% of their waking hours in MVPA (4.85 ± 0.06. Discussion Girls in Sport will test the effectiveness of schools working towards the same goal, but developing individual, targeted interventions that bring about changes in curriculum, school environment and policy, and community links. By using community-based participatory research and an action learning framework in a secondary school setting, it aims to add to the body of literature on effective school-based

  5. Improving children's physical self-perception through a school-based physical activity intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars B.; Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brondeel, Ruben

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity at school can improve the mental health of all children – especially if it targets children's developmental needs and is carried out in a positive social climate. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a 9-month school intervention focusing......) PE lessons, 2) in-class activity outside PE, and 3) physical activity during break-time. It used a cluster-randomized design to select 24 Danish schools either for intervention or for control. Survey data on self-perception variables, socio-demographics and physical activity was collected prior...... on physical self-worth, self-perceived sport competence, body attractiveness, social competences and global self-worth in children aged 10–13 years. Methods Taking self-determination theory as its starting point, the intervention was developed and pilot-tested in close co-operation with schools. It targeted 1...

  6. A randomised controlled feasibility trial for an educational school-based mental health intervention: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Katharine Elizabeth; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max

    2012-03-22

    With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors' knowledge. If efficacious the intervention could provide a

  7. A novel school-based intervention to improve nutrition knowledge in children: cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Ken K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years were recruited in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measures were change in nutrition knowledge scores, attitudes to healthy eating and acceptability of the intervention by children and teachers. Results Twelve intervention and 13 control schools (comprising 1133 children completed the trial. The main reason for non-completion was time pressure of the school curriculum. Mean total nutrition knowledge score increased by 1.1 in intervention (baseline to follow-up: 28.3 to 29.2 and 0.3 in control schools (27.3 to 27.6. Total nutrition knowledge score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline score, deprivation, and school size, was higher in intervention than in control schools (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.05 to 2.16; p = 0.042. At follow-up, more children in the intervention schools said they 'are currently eating a healthy diet' (39.6% or 'would try to eat a healthy diet' (35.7% than in control schools (34.4% and 31.7% respectively; chi-square test p Conclusions The 'Top Grub' card game facilitated the enjoyable delivery of nutrition education in a sample of UK primary school age children. Further studies should determine whether improvements in nutrition knowledge are sustained and lead to changes in dietary behaviour.

  8. Is a school-based physical activity intervention effective for increasing tibial bone strength in boys and girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Heather M; Kontulainen, Saija A; Khan, Karim M; McKay, Heather A

    2007-03-01

    This 16-month randomized, controlled school-based study compared change in tibial bone strength between 281 boys and girls participating in a daily program of physical activity (Action Schools! BC) and 129 same-sex controls. The simple, pragmatic intervention increased distal tibia bone strength in prepubertal boys; it had no effect in early pubertal boys or pre or early pubertal girls. Numerous school-based exercise interventions have proven effective for enhancing BMC, but none have used pQCT to evaluate the effects of increased loading on bone strength during growth. Thus, our aim was to determine whether a daily program of physical activity, Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) would improve tibial bone strength in boys and girls who were pre- (Tanner stage 1) or early pubertal (Tanner stage 2 or 3) at baseline. Ten schools were randomized to intervention (INT, 7 schools) or control (CON, 3 schools). The bone-loading component of AS! BC included a daily jumping program (Bounce at the Bell) plus 15 minutes/day of classroom physical activity in addition to regular physical education. We used pQCT to compare 16-month change in bone strength index (BSI, mg2/mm4) at the distal tibia (8% site) and polar strength strain index (SSIp, mm3) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) in 281 boys and girls participating in AS! BC and 129 same-sex controls. We used a linear mixed effects model to analyze our data. Children were 10.2+/-0.6 years at baseline. Intervention boys tended to have a greater increase in BSI (+774.6 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 672.7, 876.4) than CON boys (+650.9 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 496.4, 805.4), but the difference was only significant in prepubertal boys (p=0.03 for group x maturity interaction). Intervention boys also tended to have a greater increase in SSIp (+198.6 mm3; 95% CI: 182.9, 214.3) than CON boys (+177.1 mm3; 95% CI: 153.5, 200.7). Change in BSI and SSIp was similar between CON and INT girls. Our findings suggest that a simple, pragmatic program of daily activity

  9. Evaluation of a school-based intervention programme for South African children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Cornelius J; Wild, Lauren G

    2013-01-01

    Parental divorce affects approximately 30 000 South African children annually. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Children of Divorce Intervention Programme (CODIP) at two South African schools. CODIP is a preventively oriented group programme which was developed to foster resilience by helping children cope more effectively with possible academic, behavioural, and emotional problems brought about by their parents' divorce. Twenty-five 10- to 14-year-old boys from two primary schools were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups and 1 delayed intervention control group. The experimental groups attended 12 one-hour weekly sessions; the control group received no intervention until after the study was completed. Children's understanding of divorce related events and social, emotional and behavioural adjustment was assessed one week before the intervention and three months thereafter using a battery of self-rated, teacher-rated and parent-rated questionnaires. One-way ANOVAs indicated no statistically significant decline in children's self-reported problematic beliefs about divorce or total difficulties. However, teachers' and parents' ratings indicated that compared to the control group, the combined experimental groups showed significant improvement in their general behavioural, emotional and social adjustment after programme participation. The results suggest that South African children who experience parental divorce may benefit from participation in CODIP.

  10. A meta-review of school-based disaster interventions for child and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Children and adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups affected by natural and man-made disaster. To better understand research and practice concerning mental health and psychosocial support efforts in humanitarian settings, the authors conducted a comprehensive review of all intervention ...

  11. Improving awareness of preconception health among adolescents: experience of a school-based intervention in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafeddine, Lama; El Rafei, Rym; Azizi, Sophie; Sinno, Durriyah; Alamiddine, Kawthar; Howson, Christopher P; Walani, Salimah R; Ammar, Walid; Nassar, Anwar; Yunis, Khalid

    2014-07-31

    Maternal behavior before and after conception affects maternal and child health. Limited awareness of adolescents in preconception health may be addressed through school education. The aim of this intervention is to assess preconception health awareness among adolescents in Lebanese high schools and to test the effectiveness of a one-time educational session in improving preconception knowledge. The intervention consisted of a 30-minute educational session about good practices in preconception health, developed by the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network's (NCPNN) research team. A convenience sample of high school Lebanese students in grades 10 to 12, aged 14 to 26 years old, from 70 private and public schools in all six Lebanese provinces, participated in the intervention in 2011 and 2012. A multiple-choice questionnaire administered prior to and 2 months after the session was used to assess knowledge improvement among the students. A total of 7,290 students were enrolled. After the session, mean scores of correct answers increased from 4.36 to 6.42 out of 10, representing a 47.2% improvement (p improvement was observed for questions about Trisomy 21, folic acid intake and toxoplasmosis with percentages improvement of 96%, 172% and 83% respectively. Being female or in private school was a significant predictor of higher scores in both pre-test and post-test (p students. We recommend expanding the scope of this intervention into universities in Lebanon.

  12. A Psychoeducational School-Based Group Intervention for Socially Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Damer, Diana E.; Mellou, Angeliki; Mitropoulou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a psychoeducational group for social anxiety aimed at elementary children. An 8-week psychoeducational program based on empirically validated risk factors was designed. Interventions included cognitive restructuring, anxiety management techniques, and social skills training. Pre-and posttest data from 3 groups…

  13. Intervention Effects of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme on Obesity Related Behavioural Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kobel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children’s behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA, a decrease in screen media use (SMU, more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years participated in the cluster-randomised study and were assessed at baseline and 1736 of them at follow-up. Teachers delivered lessons, which included behavioural contracting and budgeting of SMU and SDC. Daily SMU, PA behaviours, SDC, and breakfast patterns were assessed via parental questionnaire. After one-year intervention, significant effects were found in the intervention group for SMU of girls, children without migration background, and children with parents having a low education level. In the control group, second grade children skipped breakfast significantly more often. Tendencies but no significant differences were found for PA and SDC. This intervention seems to affect groups, which are usually hard to reach, such as children of parents with low education levels, which shows that active parental involvement is vital for successful interventions.

  14. Promoting Mental Health Literacy among Educators: Critical in School-Based Prevention and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…

  15. Relaxation and Guided Imagery: A School-Based Intervention for Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Heather L.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the effect of relaxation and guided imagery on lung function and anxiety by employing a multiple baseline design across four middle school students with asthma. With the introduction of the intervention, it was found that lung function improved and anxiety decreased in all students. (Contains 63 references, 1 table, and…

  16. Methods Used to Document Procedural Fidelity in School-Based Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, David; Hawkins, Renee; McCoy, Dacia; Wahl, Elaine; Shier, Ashley; Denune, Hilary; Kimener, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There has been a paucity of guidance on the methodological details needed for measuring and sampling the independent variable or actual intervention occurrences in research and practice. Furthermore, the planning and support necessary to document the independent variable in both circumstances may be considerable. The current study extends prior…

  17. Total and Marginal Cost Analysis for a High School Based Bystander Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Joshua L.; Bush, Heather M.; Coker, Ann L.; Brancato, Candace J.; Clear, Emily R.; Recktenwald, Eileen A.

    2018-01-01

    Costs of providing the Green Dot bystander-based intervention, shown to be effective in the reduction of sexual violence among Kentucky high school students, were estimated based on data from a large cluster-randomized clinical trial. Rape Crisis Center Educators were trained to provide Green Dot curriculum to students. Implementing Green Dot in…

  18. Impact of a school-based intervention to promote fruit intake: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, R; Araújo, A; Padrão, P; Lopes, O; Moreira, A; Abreu, S; Vale, S; Pereira, B; Moreira, P

    2016-07-01

    There is evidence that fruit consumption among school children is below the recommended levels. This study aims to examine the effects of a dietary education intervention program me, held by teachers previously trained in nutrition, on the consumption of fruit as a dessert at lunch and dinner, among children 6-12 years old. This is a randomized trial with the schools as the unit of randomisation. A total of 464 children (239 female, 6-12years) from seven elementary schools participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Three schools were allocated to the intervention and four to the control group. For the intervention schools, we delivered professional development training to school teachers (12 sessions of 3 h each). The training provided information about nutrition, healthy eating, the importance of drinking water and healthy cooking activities. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop classroom activities focused on the learned topics. Sociodemographic was assessed at baseline and anthropometric, dietary intake and physical activity assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Dietary intake was evaluated by a 24-h dietary recall and fruit consumption as a dessert was gathered at lunch and dinner. Intervened children reported a significant higher intake in the consumption of fruit compared to the controlled children at lunch (P = 0.001) and at dinner (P = 0.012), after adjusting for confounders. Our study provides further support for the success of intervention programmes aimed at improving the consumption of fruit as a dessert in children. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A randomised controlled feasibility trial for an educational school-based mental health intervention: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisholm Katharine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors

  20. Protocol for systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in African learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Theodosia; Puoane, Thandi; De Villiers, Anniza; Kengne, André Pascal

    2017-03-27

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in childhood in developing countries is a public health concern to many governments. Schools play a significant role in the obesity epidemic as well as provide favourable environments for change in behaviours in childhood which can be carried on into adulthood. There is dearth of information on intervention studies in poor-resource settings. This review will summarise the available evidence on school-based interventions that focused on promoting healthy eating and physical activity among learners aged 6-15 years in Africa and to identify factors that lead to successful interventions or potential barriers to success of these programmes within the African context. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRIMSA-P 2015. Relevant search terms and keywords generated from the subject headings and the African search filter will be used to conduct a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed), MEDLINE (EbscoHost), CINAHL (EbscoHost), Register Academic Search Complete (EbscoHost) and ISI Web of Science (Science Citation Index) for published literature on school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in learners in Africa. Grey literature will be also be obtained. The searches will cover 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2016. No language limitations will be applied. Full-text articles of eligible studies will be screened. Risk of bias and quality of reporting will be assessed. Data will be extracted, synthesised and presented by country and major regional groupings. Meta-analysis will be conducted for identical variables across studies, where data allow. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRISMA-P 2015. No primary data will be collected hence ethics is not a requirement. The findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, in conferences and in policy documents for decision-making, where needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  1. School-based diabetes interventions and their outcomes: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Pansier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases, while type 2 diabetes in children is increasing at alarming rates globally. Against this backdrop, the school is a critical environment for children with diabetes. They continue to face barriers to education that may lead to depression, poor academic performance, and poor quality of life. To address these challenges, diabetes interventions have been implemented in school and the goal was to systematically review these interventions and their outcomes between 2000 and 2013. Fifteen studies were included in the narrative synthesis. Education of school personnel was the main focus before 2006. Studies reported gains in knowledge and perceived confidence of school staff. Since 2006, more comprehensive interventions have been developed to promote better care coordination and create a safe school environment. These studies reported improved diabetes management and quality of life of students. Assessment tools varied and study design included randomized controlled trials, quantitative and qualitative methods. Although many of the studies reported a significant difference in the parameters measured, it was not possible to determine optimal ways to improve the health, quality of life and academic performance of children with diabetes, given the disparity in scope, assessment tools and measured outcomes. Experimental designs, longer follow-up studies, larger sample sizes, and a higher number of participating schools are critical issues to consider in future studies. Most of the research was conducted in North America and further research is needed in other parts of the world.

  2. A quasi-experimental evaluation of a school-based intervention for children experiencing family disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Eileen Mazur; Chung-Canine, Unju; Broussard, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that children are negatively impacted by family separation and divorce (Amato, 2001 ; Dreman & Shemi, 2004 ; Kelly, 2000 ) there is a paucity of information regarding evidence-based social work practice with children coping with family disruption. In order to address this gap, the authors describe the process and outcomes of a quasi-experimental evaluation (N = 79) designed to reduce the behavioral, emotional, and academic problems that children often face when experiencing divorce or parental separation. Results of data analysis (paired t-tests, independent t-tests, and analysis of variance) suggest (p < .05) that the intervention is effective in helping children cope with family disruption.

  3. Feasibility study of a family- and school-based intervention for child behavior problems in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh P; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Satinsky, Emily N; Burkey, Matthew D; Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of a combined school- and family-based intervention, delivered by psychosocial counselors, for children with behavior problems in rural Nepal. Forty-one children participated at baseline. Two students moved to another district, meaning 39 children, ages 6-15, participated at both baseline and follow-up. Pre-post evaluation was used to assess behavioral changes over a 4-month follow-up period (n = 39). The primary outcome measure was the Disruptive Behavior International Scale-Nepal version (DBIS-N). The secondary outcome scales included the Child Functional Impairment Scale and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI). Twelve key informant interviews were conducted with community stakeholders, including teachers, parents, and community members, to assess stakeholders' perceptions of the intervention. The study found that children's behavior problems as assessed on the DBIS-N were significantly lower at follow-up (M = 13.0, SD = 6.4) than at baseline (M = 20.5, SD = 3.8), p behaviors among children and the implementation of new behavior management techniques both at home and in the classroom. Significant change in child outcome measures in this uncontrolled evaluation, alongside qualitative findings suggesting feasibility and acceptability, support moving toward a controlled trial to determine effectiveness.

  4. Effectiveness of Motivational Incentives for Adolescent Marijuana Users in a School-Based Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David G; Felleman, Benjamin I; Arger, Christopher A

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether adolescents receiving Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention have different outcomes compared to those receiving Motivational Incentives (Motivational Interviewing combined with Contingency Management; MI+CM). A total of 136 adolescents (from a parent study of 220 adolescents) with problematic substance use were recruited from 8 high schools in Washington State, where they completed either 8-weeks of MI or MI+CM. Frequency of marijuana use was assessed at baseline, at the end-of-treatment, and at 16-week follow-up. A balanced and matched sample was created using propensity scores, then analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Multilevel regression analyses revealed that adolescents who received MI+CM exhibited a greater reduction in use across time (pmotivation and school attendance were not found. Use of coping strategies at the end-of-treatment had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between the intervention condition and marijuana use at the end-of-treatment (F3, 121=10.20, R2=.20, p<.01). These results suggest that the inclusion of contingencies into adolescent marijuana treatment decreases the end-of-treatment frequency of marijuana use and related consequences while increasing the use of coping strategies and the pursuit of additional treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of a school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in 7–11 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stensel David J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is recognised as a public health concern within children and interventions to increase physical activity are needed. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body composition, knowledge, and psychological variables. Method A non-randomised controlled study involving 8 primary schools (4 intervention, 4 control. Participants were 589 children aged 7–11 years. The intervention lasted 10 months and comprised a CD-rom learning and teaching resource for teachers; an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; two highlight physical activity events (1 mile school runs/walks; a local media campaign; and a summer activity wall planner and record. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers and fruit and vegetable consumption. Secondary outcomes included body mass index, waist circumference, estimated percent body fat, knowledge, psychological variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for the data analysis. Results Relative to children in control schools, those in intervention schools significantly increased their total time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA (by 9 minutes/day vs a decrease of 10 minutes/day, their time in MVPA bouts lasting at least one minute (10 minutes/day increase vs no change and increased daily steps (3059 steps per day increase vs 1527 steps per day increase. A similar pattern of results was seen in a subset of the least active participants at baseline. Older participants in intervention schools showed a significant slowing in the rate of increase in estimated percent body fat, BMI, and waist circumference. There were no differences between groups in fruit and vegetable intake. Extrinsic motivation decreased more in the intervention group. Conclusion The intervention produced positive

  6. The Effectiveness of A School-Based Nutrition Intervention on Children's Fruit, Vegetables, and Dairy Product Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Vicky; Savard, Mathieu; Gallant, Annette; Nadeau, Luc; Gagnon, Jocelyn

    2016-05-01

    Most Canadian children do not meet daily recommendations for consumption of vegetables and fruits (V/F) and dairy products (DP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Team Nutriathlon on V/F and DP consumption of children. Participants were 404 children from grades 5 and 6 (intervention group [IG] N = 242, control group [CG] N = 162). Teams of children were guided to increase their consumption and variety of V/F and DP over an 8-week period. Daily servings of V/F and DP were compared between groups at 4 time points: baseline (week 0), during (week 6), immediately after (week 9 or 10), and a follow-up 10 weeks after (week 20) the intervention. During and after the program and at follow-up, children in the IG consumed more servings of V/F and DP compared to the CG (group × time, p .05). Team Nutriathlon is an innovative school-based nutrition program that can help to increase the V/F and DP consumption of children. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  7. Improving the well-being of children and youths: a randomized multicomponent, school-based, physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Smedegaard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well‐being. Unfortunately many children and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being. The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4th to the 6th grade (10–13 years. Methods A four-phased intervention – design, pilot, RCT, evaluation - is carried out for the development, implementation and evaluation of the intervention which are guided by The Medical Research Council framework for the development of complex interventions. 24 schools have been randomized and the total study population consists of 3124 children (baseline, who are followed over a period of 9 months. Outcome measure data at the pupil level are collected using an online questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up, 9 months later with instruments for measuring primary (general physical self-worth and secondary outcomes (self-perceived sport competences, body attractiveness, scholastic competences, social competences and global self-worth; enjoyment of PA; self-efficacy; and general well-being that are both valid and manageable in setting-based research. The RE-AIM framework is applied as an overall instrument to guide the evaluation. Discussion The intervention focuses on the mental benefits of physical activity at school, which has been a rather neglected theme in health promotion research during recent decades. This is unfortunate as mental health has been proclaimed as one of the most important health concerns of the 21st century. Applying a cluster RCT study design, evaluating the real-world effectiveness of

  8. Improving the well-being of children and youths: a randomized multicomponent, school-based, physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedegaard, Søren; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Bredahl, Thomas; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2016-10-28

    The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well-being. Unfortunately many children and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being. The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4 th to the 6 th grade (10-13 years). A four-phased intervention - design, pilot, RCT, evaluation - is carried out for the development, implementation and evaluation of the intervention which are guided by The Medical Research Council framework for the development of complex interventions. 24 schools have been randomized and the total study population consists of 3124 children (baseline), who are followed over a period of 9 months. Outcome measure data at the pupil level are collected using an online questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up, 9 months later with instruments for measuring primary (general physical self-worth) and secondary outcomes (self-perceived sport competences, body attractiveness, scholastic competences, social competences and global self-worth; enjoyment of PA; self-efficacy; and general well-being) that are both valid and manageable in setting-based research. The RE-AIM framework is applied as an overall instrument to guide the evaluation. The intervention focuses on the mental benefits of physical activity at school, which has been a rather neglected theme in health promotion research during recent decades. This is unfortunate as mental health has been proclaimed as one of the most important health concerns of the 21 st century. Applying a cluster RCT study design, evaluating the real-world effectiveness of the intervention, this study is one of the largest

  9. Child characteristics associated with outcome for children with autism in a school-based behavioral intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E; Kerns, Connor M; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C; Mandell, David S

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child characteristics (including age, language ability, autism severity, social skills, adaptive behavior, co-occurring psychological symptoms, and restrictive and repetitive behavior) and outcome, as measured by changes in cognitive ability following one academic year of an intervention standardized across the sample were evaluated using linear regression with random effects for classroom. While several scales and subscales had statistically significant bivariate associations with outcome, in adjusted analysis, only age and the presence of symptoms associated with social anxiety, such as social avoidance and social fearfulness, as measured through the Child Symptom Inventory-4, were associated with differences in outcome. The findings regarding the role of social anxiety are new and have important implications for treatment. Disentangling the construct of social anxiety to differentiate between social fearfulness and social motivation has important implications for shifting the focus of early treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Physical activity and child health: Can school-based intervention make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Quinto Romani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractChildhood obesity and inactivity is a significant public health problem that also has economic consequences. Therefore, economists have a role to play in determining the causal impacts. The influences of childhood background on outcomes can, usefully, be broken down into the effect of family, school and peer. To combat the raising childhood obesity, schools have been advocated as a potential area. This paper analyses whether increasing physical activity in a school context can contribute to health improvement using multiple outcomes. We address the issue by using a unique longitudinal data set of, respectively, 1087 (BMI and 1047 (fitness schoolchildren attending 37 state schools in the Municipality of Aalborg, Denmark. The effect is identified by using a randomized experiment that creates an exogenous increase in physical activity. Surprisingly, we find that the intervention did not have the expected impact on schoolchildren’s health, and the scant evidence we have points towards a negative effect. A plausible explanation is that the results mask important heterogeneity. Another plausible explanation is that the results also capture any compensating behaviour that schoolchildren engage in by being less active out of school. From a public-policy perspective, increasing physical activity in a school context seems to increase the ‘gap’ in child health and ‘crowd-out’ outside-school physical activity. Consequently, a supportive cost-benefit case might exist if parental behaviour is assumed to be affected by school resources and endogenous.

  11. School-based intervention on healthy behaviour among Ecuadorian adolescents: effect of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on screen-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Susana; Verloigne, Maïté; Cardon, Greet; Kolsteren, Patrick; Ochoa-Avilés, Angelica; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Donoso, Silvana; Lachat, Carl

    2015-09-22

    Effective interventions on screen-time behaviours (television, video games and computer time) are needed to prevent non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. The present manuscript investigates the effect of a school-based health promotion intervention on screen-time behaviour among 12- to 15-year-old adolescents. We report the effect of the trial on screen-time after two stages of implementation. We performed a cluster-randomised pair matched trial in urban schools in Cuenca-Ecuador. Participants were adolescents of grade eight and nine (mean age 12.8 ± 0.8 years, n = 1370, control group n = 684) from 20 schools (control group n = 10). The intervention included an individual and environmental component tailored to the local context and resources. The first intervention stage focused on diet, physical activity and screen-time behaviour, while the second stage focused only on diet and physical activity. Screen-time behaviours, primary outcome, were assessed at baseline, after the first (18 months) and second stage (28 months). Mixed linear models were used to analyse the data. After the first stage (data from n = 1224 adolescents; control group n = 608), the intervention group had a lower increase in TV-time on a week day (β = -15.7 min; P = 0.003) and weekend day (β = -18.9 min; P = 0.005), in total screen-time on a weekday (β = -25.9 min; P = 0.03) and in the proportion of adolescents that did not meet the screen-time recommendation (β = -4 percentage point; P = 0.01), compared to the control group. After the second stage (data from n = 1078 adolescents; control group n = 531), the TV-time on a weekday (β = 13.1 min; P = 0.02), and total screen-time on a weekday (β = 21.4 min; P = 0.03) increased more in adolescents from the intervention group. No adverse effects were reported. A multicomponent school-based intervention was only able to mitigate the increase

  12. School-based intervention for childhood disruptive behavior in disadvantaged settings: A randomized controlled trial with and without active teacher support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liber, J.M.; de Boo, G.M.; Huizenga, H.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support

  13. A School Based Intervention for Combating Food Insecurity and Promoting Healthy Nutrition in a Developed Country Undergoing Economic Crisis: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalma, A.; Veloudaki, A.; Petralias, A.; Mitraka, K.; Zota, D.; Kastorini, C.-M.; Yannakoulia, M.; Linos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aiming at reducing the rates of food insecurity and promoting healthy diet for children and adolescents, we designed and implemented the Program on Food Aid and Promotion of Healthy Nutrition-DIATROFI, a school-based intervention program including the daily provision of a free healthy mid-day meal in disadvantaged areas across…

  14. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; van Mechelen, W.; Brug, J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials.

  15. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  16. School-Based Programs Aimed at the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity: Evidence-Based Interventions for Youth in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K.; Nagle, Brian J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Barquera, Simon; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be…

  17. Effects of a brief school-based media literacy intervention on digital media use in adolescents: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birte; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a four-session school-based media literacy curriculum on adolescent computer gaming and Internet use behavior. The study comprised a cluster randomized controlled trial with three assessments (baseline, posttest, and 12-month follow-up). At baseline, a total of 2,303 sixth and seventh grade adolescents from 27 secondary schools were assessed. Of these, 1,843 (80%) could be reached at all three assessments (Mage=12.0 years; SD=0.83). Students of the intervention group received the media literacy program Vernetzte www.Welten ("Connected www.Worlds ") implemented by trained teachers during class time. The control group attended regular class. Main outcome measures were adolescents' computer gaming and Internet use: days per month, hours per day, and addictive use patterns. Parental media monitoring and rules at home were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results of multilevel growth-curve models revealed a significant intervention effect in terms of a lower increase in self-reported gaming frequency (β = -1.10 [95% CI -2.06, -0.13]), gaming time (β = -0.27 [95% CI -0.40, -0.14]), and proportion of excessive gamers (AOR=0.21 [95% CI 0.08, 0.57]) in the intervention group. There were also significant group-time interactions for the addictive gaming scale (β=-0.08 [95% CI -0.12, -0.04]), and the Internet Addiction Scale (β = -0.06 [95% CI -0.10, -0.01]). No effect was found for days and hours of Internet use or parental media behavior. The study shows that the program Vernetzte www.Welten can influence adolescents' media use behavior. Future research should address mediating and moderating variables of program effects.

  18. A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR IMPROVING THE RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AT AGES 12 TO 16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Laparidis

    2010-06-01

    studies are needed to evaluate more precisely the effectiveness of school-based interventions.

  19. Implementation of a school-based social and emotional learning intervention: understanding diffusion processes within complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rhiannon; Murphy, Simon; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Sporadic and inconsistent implementation remains a significant challenge for social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. This may be partly explained by the dearth of flexible, causative models that capture the multifarious determinants of implementation practices within complex systems. This paper draws upon Rogers (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory to explain the adoption, implementation and discontinuance of a SEL intervention. A pragmatic, formative process evaluation was conducted in alignment with phase 1 of the UK Medical Research Council's framework for Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions. Employing case-study methodology, qualitative data were generated with four socio-economically and academically contrasting secondary schools in Wales implementing the Student Assistance Programme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 programme stakeholders. Data suggested that variation in implementation activity could be largely attributed to four key intervention reinvention points, which contributed to the transformation of the programme as it interacted with contextual features and individual needs. These reinvention points comprise the following: intervention training, which captures the process through which adopters acquire knowledge about a programme and delivery expertise; intervention assessment, which reflects adopters' evaluation of an intervention in relation to contextual needs; intervention clarification, which comprises the cascading of knowledge through an organisation in order to secure support in delivery; and intervention responsibility, which refers to the process of assigning accountability for sustainable delivery. Taken together, these points identify opportunities to predict and intervene with potential implementation problems. Further research would benefit from exploring additional reinvention activity.

  20. The Role of Ethnicity in School-Based Obesity Intervention for School-Aged Children: A Pilot Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Sabrina A.; Carter, Jocelyn S.; DeCator, Draycen D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of obesity have risen disproportionately for ethnic minority youth in the United States. School-based programs may be the most comprehensive and cost-effective way to implement primary prevention in children. In this study we evaluated the effect of a school-based obesity prevention on the outcome of body mass index percentile…

  1. Implementing an early childhood school-based mental health promotion intervention in low-resource Ugandan schools: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Nakigudde, Janet; Calzada, Esther; Boivin, Michael J; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2014-12-01

    Children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are burdened by significant unmet mental health needs, but this region has limited access to mental health workers and resources to address these needs. Despite the successes of numerous school-based interventions for promoting child mental health, most evidence-based interventions are not available in SSA. This study will investigate the transportability of an evidence-based program from a developed country (United States) to a SSA country (Uganda). The approach includes task-shifting to early childhood teachers and consists of professional development (five days) to introduce strategies for effective behavior management and positive teacher-student interactions, and group-based consultation (14 sessions) to support adoption of effective practices and tailoring to meet the needs of individual students. The design of this study is guided by two implementation frameworks, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the Teacher Training Implementation Model, that consider multidimensional aspects of intervention fidelity and contextual predictors that may influence implementation and teacher outcomes. Using a cluster randomized design, 10 schools in Uganda will be randomized to either the intervention group (five schools) or the waitlist control group (five schools). A total of 80 to 100 early childhood teachers will be enrolled in the study. Teacher utilization of evidence-based strategies and practices will be assessed at baseline, immediate post-intervention (six months after baseline), and at seven months post-intervention (during a new academic year). Fidelity measures will be assessed throughout the program implementation period (during professional development and consultation sessions). Individual teacher and contextual factors will be assessed at baseline. Data will be collected from multiple sources. Linear mixed-effect modeling, adjusting for school nesting, will be applied to address study questions. The

  2. The Impact of a School-Based Hygiene, Water Quality and Sanitation Intervention on Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Clasen, Thomas; Brooker, Simon J.; Akoko, Daniel O.; Rheingans, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cluster-randomized trial to assess the impact of a school-based water treatment, hygiene, and sanitation program on reducing infection with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) after school-based deworming. We assessed infection with STHs at baseline and then at two follow-up rounds 8 and 10 months after deworming. Forty government primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya were randomly selected and assigned to intervention or control arms. The intervention reduced reinfection prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31–1.00) and egg count (rate ratio [RR] 0.34, CI 0.15–0.75) of Ascaris lumbricoides. We found no evidence of significant intervention effects on the overall prevalence and intensity of Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, or Schistosoma mansoni reinfection. Provision of school-based sanitation, water quality, and hygiene improvements may reduce reinfection of STHs after school-based deworming, but the magnitude of the effects may be sex- and helminth species-specific. PMID:24019429

  3. Estimating the Economic Value of Information for Screening in Disseminating and Targeting Effective School-based Preventive Interventions: An Illustrative Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen S; Salkever, David S; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Slade, Eric P; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    When candidates for school-based preventive interventions are heterogeneous in their risk of poor outcomes, an intervention's expected economic net benefits may be maximized by targeting candidates for whom the intervention is most likely to yield benefits, such as those at high risk of poor outcomes. Although increasing amounts of information about candidates may facilitate more accurate targeting, collecting information can be costly. We present an illustrative example to show how cost-benefit analysis results from effective intervention demonstrations can help us to assess whether improved targeting accuracy justifies the cost of collecting additional information needed to make this improvement.

  4. Challenges to obtaining parental permission for child participation in a school-based waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention intervention in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, Rima T; Al Mulla, Ahmad; Torossian, Lena; Karhily, Roubina; Shuayb, Lama; Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Janahi, Ibrahim; Al Ansari, Al Anoud; Afifi, Rema A

    2014-09-30

    Involving children in research studies requires obtaining parental permission. A school-based intervention to delay/prevent waterpipe use for 7th and 8th graders in Qatar was developed, and parental permission requested. Fifty three percent (2308/4314) of the parents returned permission forms; of those 19.5% of the total (840/4314) granted permission. This paper describes the challenges to obtaining parental permission. No research to date has described such challenges in the Arab world. A random sample of 40 schools in Doha, Qatar was selected for inclusion in the original intervention. Permission forms were distributed to parents for approval of their child's participation. The permission forms requested that parents indicate their reasons for non-permission if they declined. These were categorized into themes. In order to understand reasons for non-permission, interviews with parents were conducted. Phone numbers of parents were requested from the school administration; 12 of the 40 schools (30%) agreed to provide the contact information. A random sample of 28 parents from 12 schools was interviewed to reach data saturation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze their responses. Reasons for non-permission documented in both the forms and interviews included: poor timing; lack of interest; the child not wanting to participate; and the child living in a smoke-free environment. Interviews provided information on important topics to include in the consent forms, parents' decision-making processes regarding their child's participation, and considerations for communicating with parents. Many parents also indicated that this was the first time they had been asked to give an informed consent for their child's participation in a study. Results indicate that more attention needs to be given to the informed parental consent process. Researchers should consider enhancing both the methods of communicating information as well the specific information provided. Before

  5. A randomized, controlled trial of a school-based intervention to reduce violence and substance use in predominantly Latino high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Kataoka, Sheryl; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have rigorously evaluated school-based interventions to reduce violence and substance use in high school students, especially Latinos. This study assessed the effects of a school-based program on reducing violence and substance use among primarily Latino high school students. Ninth-grade students at risk for violence and substance use were randomized to intervention or control groups. The intervention was based on an existing program developed for white and African American youth. Data on smoking, alcohol and drug use, fighting, and grades were collected at baseline and 4 and 8 months post enrollment. There were 55 students in the control and 53 in the intervention group; 74% of controls and 78% of intervention students were Latino. There were no significant changes in fighting, smoking, or alcohol or drug use, from baseline to 8-month follow-up, between the intervention and control group. Pre and post grade point average (GPA) decreased from 2.3 at baseline to 1.8 at follow-up (pschool-based program showed no reduction in violence or substance use. The findings suggest that a program targeting non-Latino youth may not be optimal for reducing violence and substance use in Latinos; greater attention to cultural appropriateness and racial/ethnic differences may be needed. There was a decrease in intervention-group GPA but no significant change compared with controls. Further studies of the impact of school-based substance use and violence prevention programs on academics, and the effectiveness of afterschool or community-based programs compared to school-based programs are needed.

  6. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. Methods and Findings A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children’s sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Conclusions Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and

  7. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and positively associated with the impairment of

  8. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  9. Characteristics of Teacher Training in School-Based Physical Education Interventions to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills and/or Physical Activity: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Natalie; Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill (FMS) competence is positively associated with physical activity (PA). However, levels of both FMS and PA are lower than expected. Current reviews of interventions to improve FMS and PA have shown that many school-based programs have achieved positive outcomes, yet the maintenance of these interventions is variable. Teachers play a central role in the success and longevity of school-based interventions. Despite the importance of teacher engagement, research into the nature and quality of teacher training in school-based PA and FMS interventions has received little attention. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the type and quantity of teacher training in school-based physical education PA and/or FMS interventions, and to identify what role teacher training had on the intervention outcome. A systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Publication date restrictions were not implemented in any database, and the last search was performed on 1 March 2015. School physical education-based interventions facilitated by a school teacher, and that included a quantitative assessment of FMS competence and/or PA levels were included in the review. The search identified 39 articles. Eleven of the studies measured FMS, 25 studies measured PA and three measured both FMS and PA. Nine of the studies did not report on any aspect of the teacher training conducted. Of the 30 studies that reported on teacher training, 25 reported statistically significant intervention results for FMS and/or PA. It appears that teacher training programs: are ≥ 1 day; provide comprehensive subject and pedagogy content; are framed by a theory or model; provide follow-up or ongoing support; and measure teacher satisfaction of the training, are more effective at improving student outcomes in FMS and/or PA. However, the provision of information regarding the characteristics of the teacher training was largely inadequate. Therefore, it was

  10. School-Based Fundamental-Motor-Skill Intervention for Children With Autism-Like Characteristics: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Emily; Lloyd, Meghann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to demonstrate the impact of a fundamental-motor-skill (FMS) intervention on the motor skills of 3- to 7-year-old children with autism-like characteristics in an early intervention classroom. A secondary purpose was to qualitatively assess the impact of the program as described by the classroom's special education teacher. All children in the classroom (N = 5) took part in an FMS intervention for two 6-wk blocks (fall 2013 and winter 2014). Motor-skill proficiency and social skills were assessed at 3 times: baseline, after Block 1 of the intervention, and after Block 2 of the intervention. In addition, an interview was conducted with the classroom teacher after Assessment 3 to draw further insights into the relative success and impact of the program. Results were analyzed through a visual analysis and presented individually. They indicated improvements in the participants' individual FMS and social-skill scores, possible improvements in declarative knowledge, and an increase in the special education teacher's readiness to teach FMS; further research with larger, controlled samples is warranted.

  11. School-based sexual health education interventions to prevent STI/HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A Sadiq; Abraham, Charles; Denford, Sarah; Ball, Susan

    2016-10-10

    School-based sexual health education has the potential to provide an inclusive and comprehensive approach to promoting sexual health among young people. We reviewed evaluations of school-based sexual health education interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to assess effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted infections and promoting condom use. We searched ten electronic databases, hand-searched key journals, and reference lists of included articles for potential studies. Data were extracted on outcomes, intervention characteristics, methods and study characteristics indicative of methodological quality. Where possible, data were synthesized using random effect meta-analysis. Intervention features found predominantly in effective interventions were noted. The initial search retrieved 21634 potentially relevant citations. Of these, 51 papers reporting on 31 interventions were included. No evaluation reported statistically significant effects on the incidence or prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus 2 infections. However, intervention participants reported statistically significant greater condom use in both randomised controlled trials and non-randomised trials for short (less than 6 months) follow-up periods (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.55 and OR = 2.88, 95 % CI = 1.41-5.90 respectively). For intermediate (6-10 months) and long-term (more than 10 months) follow-up periods, the effect was statistically significant (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI = 1.16-1.68) and marginally significant (OR = 1.22, 95 % CI = 0.99-1.50) among the randomised trials respectively. Only 12 of the 31 interventions reported implementation details, out of which seven reported on fidelity. School-based sexual health education has the potential to promote condom use among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. However, further work is needed to develop and evaluate interventions that have measurable effects on sexually transmitted infections.

  12. A systematic review of school-based eHealth interventions targeting alcohol use, smoking, physical inactivity, diet, sedentary behaviour and sleep among adolescents: a review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Katrina E; Newton, Nicola C; Spring, Bonnie; Wafford, Q Eileen; Parmenter, Belinda J; Teesson, Maree

    2017-12-06

    Six key behavioural risk factors (risky alcohol use, smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy sleep patterns) have been identified as strong determinants of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancers. School-based interventions targeting these multiple health risk behaviours among adolescents have the potential to halt the trajectory towards later disease, whilst online and mobile technology interventions offer advantages in terms of student engagement, reach and scalability. Despite this, the efficacy of eHealth school-based interventions targeting these six health risk behaviours among adolescents has not been evaluated. The proposed systematic review aims to address this by determining the nature and efficacy of existing eHealth school-based interventions targeting multiple health risk behaviours among adolescents. A systematic search of the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases will be conducted to identify eligible published papers. Eligible studies will be randomised controlled trials, including cluster randomised controlled trials, of interventions targeting two or more of the following lifestyle risk behaviours: alcohol use, smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and sleep. Eligible studies will be those evaluating interventions delivered in a secondary school setting among participants 11-18 years of age, via an eHealth platform (Internet, computers of mobile technology). Two reviewers will independently screen studies for eligibility, extract data and assess the risk of bias. Study outcomes will be summarised in a narrative synthesis, and meta-analyses will be conducted where it is appropriate to combine studies. It is anticipated that the results from this review will serve to inform the development of future eHealth multiple health behaviour interventions for adolescents by identifying common characteristics of effective programs and highlighting

  13. Universal School-Based Implementation of Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment to Reduce and Prevent Alcohol, Marijuana, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use: Process and Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Maslowsky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT is an evidence-based approach to reducing substance use in adolescents. An emerging literature shows the promise of school-based SBIRT. However, most school-based SBIRT has only targeted substance-using adolescents and used school-based health clinics, which most schools lack. This project aimed to describe the following: a model for implementing universal SBIRT in high schools without school-based clinics, reasons students most commonly endorsed for reducing or avoiding substance use, students’ perceptions of SBIRT, and students’ intentions to change substance use or remain abstinent following SBIRT. Participants were N = 2513, 9th to 10th grade students in 10 high schools. Students rated SBIRT positively and indicated substantial intentions to reduce or delay substance use following SBIRT. Results support SBIRT’s potential to delay substance use among current abstainers in addition to reducing substance use among current users. This project demonstrates SBIRT’s feasibility as a universal method in high schools without in-school clinics.

  14. Detecting and describing preventive intervention effects in a universal school-based randomized trial targeting delinquent and violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoolmiller, M; Eddy, J M; Reid, J B

    2000-04-01

    This study examined theoretical, methodological, and statistical problems involved in evaluating the outcome of aggression on the playground for a universal preventive intervention for conduct disorder. Moderately aggressive children were hypothesized most likely to benefit. Aggression was measured on the playground using observers blind to the group status of the children. Behavior was micro-coded in real time to minimize potential expectancy biases. The effectiveness of the intervention was strongly related to initial levels of aggressiveness. The most aggressive children improved the most. Models that incorporated corrections for low reliability (the ratio of variance due to true time-stable individual differences to total variance) and censoring (a floor effect in the rate data due to short periods of observation) obtained effect sizes 5 times larger than models without such corrections with respect to children who were initially 2 SDs above the mean on aggressiveness.

  15. The Psychology School Mental Health Initiative: An Innovative Approach to the Delivery of School-Based Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Golden M.; Lean, Debra; Sweet, Susan D.; Moraes, Sabrina C.; Nelson, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that schools have, by default, become the primary mental health system for students in Canada. The goal of the present study was to design, implement, and evaluate the Psychology School Mental Health Initiative (PSMHI). The PSMHI is an innovative attempt to increase the capacity of school-based psychology staff to deliver…

  16. Process evaluation of a school-based weight gain prevention program: the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.; Brug, J.; Mechelen, van W.

    2009-01-01

    Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the

  17. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Interventions Aimed to Prevent or Reduce Violence in Teen Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rue, Lisa; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of violence in dating relationships has a significant impact on young people, including decreased mental and physical health. This review is the first to provide a quantitative synthesis of empirical evaluations of school-based programs implemented in middle and high schools that sought to prevent or reduce incidents of dating…

  18. Indicator for success of obesity reduction programs in adolescents: Body composition or body mass index? evaluating a school-based health promotion project after 12 weeks of intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Kalantari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity in adolescence is the strongest risk factor for obesity in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on different anthropometric indices in 12–16-year-old boy adolescents after 12 Weeks of Intervention. Methods: A total of 96 male adolescents from two schools participated in this study. The schools were randomly assigned to intervention (53 students and control school (43 students. Height and weight of students were measured and their body mass index (BMI was calculated. Body fat percent (BF and body muscle percent (BM was assessed using a bioimpedance analyzer considering the age, gender, and height of students at baseline and after intervention. The obesity reduction intervention was implemented in the intervention school based on the Ottawa charter for health promotion. Results: Twelve weeks of intervention decreased BF percent in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (decreased by 1.81% in the intervention group and increased by 0.39% in the control group, P < 0.01. However, weight, BMI, and BM did not change significantly. Conclusions: The result of this study showed that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention decreased the body fat percent in obese adolescents, although these changes was not reflected in the BMI. It is possible that BMI is not a good indicator in assessment of the success of obesity management intervention.

  19. Effect of a school-based intervention on physical activity and quality of life through serial mediation of social support and exercise motivation: the PESSOA program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, A M; Palmeira, A L; Martins, S S; Minderico, C S; Sardinha, L B

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support and behavioral regulation of exercise on physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), in a Portuguese school-based intervention. We hypothesized that serial mediation effects would be present leading to greater levels of PA and QoL. The sample comprised 1042 students (549 boys), aged 10-16 years, BMI = 19.31 ± 3.51, allocated to two groups of schools: control (n = 207) and intervention (n = 835). This study will report the 24 months results of the program, which aimed to develop healthy lifestyles. Questionnaires were used to measure PA, QoL, motivation to exercise and social support. There was no direct impact of the intervention on QoL or PA. Serial mediation analyses were conducted. Social support (P motivation (P = 0.085) increased more on intervention group. Indirect effects were observed in all serial mediation models. The positive indirect effects on PA and QoL were explained by the increase on peer/parent support in serial with the increase in intrinsic motivation (P motivation (P school-based intervention promoted the development of social support and motivational mechanisms that explained higher levels of PA and QoL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Nutritional Knowledge and Habits of Low-Socioeconomic School Children in Israel: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Kaufman-Shriqui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA classes for children; the control (CArm received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6% completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p < 0.001 for all, habitual water drinking increased (p = 0.02, and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05. A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches.

  1. Effectiveness of a randomized school-based intervention involving families and teachers to prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana B Cunha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention involving the families and teachers that aimed to promote healthy eating habits in adolescents; the ultimate aim of the intervention was to reduce the increase in body mass index (BMI of the students.Paired cluster randomized school-based trial conducted with a sample of fifth graders.Twenty classes were randomly assigned into either an intervention group or a control group.From a total of 574 eligible students, 559 students participated in the study (intervention: 10 classes with 277 participants; control: 10 classes with 282 participants. The mean age of students was 11 years.Students attended 9 nutritional education sessions during the 2010 academic year. Parents/guardians and teachers received information on the same subjects.Changes in BMI and percentage of body fat.Intention-to-treat analysis showed that changes in BMI were not significantly different between the 2 groups (β = 0.003; p = 0.75. There was a major reduction in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and cookies in the intervention group; students in this group also consumed more fruits.Encouraging the adoption of healthy eating habits promoted important changes in the adolescent diet, but this did not lead to a reduction in BMI gain. Strategies based exclusively on the quality of diet may not reduce weight gain among adolescents.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01046474.

  2. What do parents think about parental participation in school-based interventions on energy balance-related behaviours? a qualitative study in 4 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Lippevelde Wendy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity in youth has increased dramatically. Therefore, overweight prevention initiatives should start early in life and target modifiable energy balance-related behaviours. Parental participation is often advocated as important for school-based interventions, however, getting parents involved in school-based interventions appears to be challenging based on earlier intervention experiences. The purpose of this study was to get insight into the determinants of and perspectives on parental participation in school-interventions on energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, healthy eating, sedentary behaviours in parents of ten- to twelve-year olds in order to develop an effective parental module for school-based interventions concerning energy balance-related behaviours. Methods Four countries (Belgium, Hungary, Norway and Spain conducted the focus group research based on a standardised protocol and a semi-structured questioning route. A variation in parental socio-economic status (SES and parental school involvement was taken into account when recruiting the parents. The audio taped interviews were transcribed, and a qualitative content analysis of the transcripts was conducted in each country. Results Seventeen focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 92 parents (12 men, 80 women. Physical activity was considered to be a joint responsibility of school and parents, nutrition as parent's responsibility but supported by the school, and prevention of sedentary behaviours as parent's sole responsibility. Parents proposed interactive and practical activities together with their child as the best way to involve them such as cooking, food tasting, nutrition workshops, walking or cycling tours, sport initiations together with their child. Activities should be cheap, on a convenient moment, focused on their children and not on themselves, not tutoring, not theoretical, and school-or home

  3. What do parents think about parental participation in school-based interventions on energy balance-related behaviours? a qualitative study in 4 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity in youth has increased dramatically. Therefore, overweight prevention initiatives should start early in life and target modifiable energy balance-related behaviours. Parental participation is often advocated as important for school-based interventions, however, getting parents involved in school-based interventions appears to be challenging based on earlier intervention experiences. The purpose of this study was to get insight into the determinants of and perspectives on parental participation in school-interventions on energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, healthy eating, sedentary behaviours) in parents of ten- to twelve-year olds in order to develop an effective parental module for school-based interventions concerning energy balance-related behaviours. Methods Four countries (Belgium, Hungary, Norway and Spain) conducted the focus group research based on a standardised protocol and a semi-structured questioning route. A variation in parental socio-economic status (SES) and parental school involvement was taken into account when recruiting the parents. The audio taped interviews were transcribed, and a qualitative content analysis of the transcripts was conducted in each country. Results Seventeen focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 92 parents (12 men, 80 women). Physical activity was considered to be a joint responsibility of school and parents, nutrition as parent's responsibility but supported by the school, and prevention of sedentary behaviours as parent's sole responsibility. Parents proposed interactive and practical activities together with their child as the best way to involve them such as cooking, food tasting, nutrition workshops, walking or cycling tours, sport initiations together with their child. Activities should be cheap, on a convenient moment, focused on their children and not on themselves, not tutoring, not theoretical, and school-or home-based. Conclusions Parents want to

  4. Limitations of studies on school-based nutrition education interventions for obesity in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kaimeng; Liu, Jie; Tao, Yexuan

    2016-01-01

    School-based nutrition education has been widely implemented in recent years to fight the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in China. A comprehensive literature search was performed using six databases to identify studies of school-based nutrition education interventions in China. The methodological quality and the risk of bias of selected literature were evaluated. Stratified analysis was performed to identify whether different methodologies influenced the estimated effect of the intervention. Seventeen articles were included in the analysis. Several of the included studies had inadequate intervention duration, inappropriate randomization methods, selection bias, unbalanced baseline characteristics between control and intervention groups, and absent sample size calculation. Overall, the studies showed no significant impact of nutrition education on obesity (OR=0.76; 95% CI=0.55-1.05; p=0.09). This can be compared with an OR of 0.68 for interventions aimed at preventing malnutrition and an OR of 0.49 for interventions aimed at preventing iron-deficiency anemia. When studies with unbalanced baseline characteristics between groups and selection bias in the study subjects were excluded, the impact of nutrition education on obesity was significant (OR=0.73; 95% CI=0.55-0.98; p=0.003). An analysis stratified according to the duration of intervention revealed that the intervention was effective only when it lasted for more than 2 years (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.42-0.58; pnutrition education programs in China have some important limitations that might affect the estimated effectiveness of the intervention.

  5. A school-based comprehensive lifestyle intervention among chinese kids against obesity (CLICK-Obesity: rationale, design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial in Nanjing city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Fei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity among adolescents has been rapidly rising in Mainland China in recent decades, especially in urban and rich areas. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Limited data regarding adolescent overweight prevention in China are available. Thus, we developed a school-based intervention with the aim of reducing excess body weight in children. This report described the study design. Methods/design We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 8 randomly selected urban primary schools between May 2010 and December 2013. Each school was randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group (four schools in each group. Participants were the 4th graders in each participating school. The multi-component program was implemented within the intervention group, while students in the control group followed their usual health and physical education curriculum with no additional intervention program. The intervention consisted of four components: a classroom curriculum, (including physical education and healthy diet education, b school environment support, c family involvement, and d fun programs/events. The primary study outcome was body composition, and secondary outcomes were behaviour and behavioural determinants. Discussion The intervention was designed with due consideration of Chinese cultural and familial tradition, social convention, and current primary education and exam system in Mainland China. We did our best to gain good support from educational authorities, school administrators, teachers and parents, and to integrate intervention components into schools’ regular academic programs. The results of and lesson learned from this study will help guide future school-based childhood obesity prevention programs in Mainland China. Trial registration Registration number: ChiCTR-ERC-11001819

  6. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published and 'grey' literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.

  7. The Effectiveness of a School-Based Intervention for Adolescents in Reducing Disparities in the Negative Consequences of Substance Use Among Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David G; Moise-Campbell, Claudine; Chapman, Meredith K; Varma, Malini; Lehinger, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    Ethnic minority youth are disproportionately affected by substance use-related consequences, which may be best understood through a social ecological lens. Differences in psychosocial consequences between ethnic majority and minority groups are likely due to underlying social and environmental factors. The current longitudinal study examined the outcomes of a school-based motivational enhancement treatment intervention in reducing disparities in substance use consequences experienced by some ethnic minority groups with both between and within-subjects differences. Students were referred to the intervention through school personnel and participated in a four-session intervention targeting alcohol and drug use. Participants included 122 youth aged 13-19 years. Participants were grouped by ethnicity and likelihood of disparate negative consequences of substance use. African American/Hispanic/Multiethnic youth formed one group, and youth identifying as White or Asian formed a second group. We hypothesized that (1) there would be significant disparities in psychosocial, serious problem behavior, and school-based consequences of substance use between White/Asian students compared to African American/Hispanic/Multiethnic students at baseline; (2) physical dependence consequences would not be disparate at baseline; and (3) overall disparities would be reduced at post-treatment follow-up. Results indicated that African American/Hispanic/Multiethnic adolescents demonstrated statistically significant disparate consequences at baseline, except for physical dependency consequences. Lastly, significant reductions in disparities were evidenced between groups over time. Our findings highlight the efficacy of utilizing school-based substance use interventions in decreasing ethnic health disparities in substance use consequences.

  8. School-Based Nutrition Education Intervention Using Social Cognitive Theory for Overweight and Obese Iranian Adolescent Girls: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi Darani, Firoozeh; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Safarian, Mohammad; Allipour Birgani, Ramesh; Bitarafan, Vida; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2017-10-01

    Background Nowadays childhood obesity has become one the most challenging issue which is considered as a principle public health problem all around the world. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the impact of a 7-month school-based nutrition education intervention using social cognitive theory (SCT) to prevent obesity among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Method In this cluster randomized community trial after choosing schools, a total of 172 overweight and obese girl students participated in the study (87 in the intervention and 85 in the control group). A 7-month intervention based on SCT for students, their parents, and teachers was conducted. At baseline and end of the study, body mass index (BMI), waist circumstances (WCs), dietary intake, and psychological questionnaires regarding the SCT constructs were obtained. Results After 7 months, the mean of BMI and WCs reduced in the intervention group from 29.47 (4.05) to 28.5 (4.35) and from 89.65 (8.15) to 86.54 (9.76), respectively, but in comparison to the control group, they were not statistically significant ( p values .127 and .504, respectively). In the intervention group, nutritional behaviors and most of the psychological variables (self-efficacy, social support, intention, and situation) were improved in favor of the study and they were significant in comparison to the control group ( p < .05). Conclusion Although school-based nutrition education intervention using SCT did not change significantly BMI and WCs among the targeted population in this study, dietary habits as well as psychological factors improved significantly in the intervention group. This trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, www.irct.ir (IRCT2013103115211N1).

  9. Innovatively Supporting Teachers' Implementation of School-Based Sex Education: Developing A Web-Based Coaching Intervention From Problem to Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Lisette; van den Borne, Marieke; Kok, Gerjo; Meijer, Suzanne; Mevissen, Fraukje Ef

    2016-07-12

    Full program implementation is crucial for effectiveness but is often overlooked or insufficiently considered during development of behavioral change interventions. For school-based health promotion programs, teachers are key players in program implementation, but teacher support in this phase is mostly limited to technical support and information. To ensure optimal implementation of the Dutch school-based sexual health program Long Live Love, a Web-based coaching website was developed to support teachers in completeness and fidelity of program implementation. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the process of systematic development of a Web-based coaching intervention to support teachers in their implementation of a school-based sexual health program. The intervention mapping (IM) protocol was applied for the development of a theory- and evidence-based intervention. The IM process begins with (1) a needs assessment, followed by (2) the formulation of change objectives, (3) the selection of theory-based intervention methods and practical applications that take the parameters for effectiveness into consideration, (4) integration of practical applications into an organized program, (5) planning for adoption, implementation, and sustainability of the program, and finally, (6) generating an evaluation plan to measure program effectiveness. Teacher's implementation behavior was characterized by inconsistently selecting parts of the program and not delivering (all) lessons as intended by program developers. Teachers, however, did not perceive this behavior as problematic, revealing the discrepancy between teacher's actual and perceived need for support in delivering Long Live Love lessons with completeness and fidelity. Teachers did, however, acknowledge different difficulties they encountered which could potentially negatively influence the quality of implementation. With the IM protocol, this Web-based coaching intervention was developed based on a concept

  10. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion—Learning, Cognition and Motion – A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten; Hillman, Charles H.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12–14 years old adolescents. Methods A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age: 12.9 (0.6) years) completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects). The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p’s>0.05) or mathematics skills (p>0.05). An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4–38.6) and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39–0.05). Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0–9). Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p’s>0.05). Conclusions No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing

  11. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion-Learning, Cognition and Motion - A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Tarp

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12-14 years old adolescents.A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD age: 12.9 (0.6 years completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects. The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness.No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p's>0.05 or mathematics skills (p>0.05. An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4-38.6 and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39-0.05. Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0-9. Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p's>0.05.No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing executive functioning or mathematics skills compared

  12. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion-Learning, Cognition and Motion - A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarp, Jakob; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten; Hillman, Charles H; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12-14 years old adolescents. A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age: 12.9 (0.6) years) completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects). The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p's>0.05) or mathematics skills (p>0.05). An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4-38.6) and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39-0.05). Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0-9). Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p's>0.05). No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing executive functioning or mathematics skills compared to a

  13. Innovatively Supporting Teachers’ Implementation of School-Based Sex Education: Developing A Web-Based Coaching Intervention From Problem to Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Meijer, Suzanne; Mevissen, Fraukje EF

    2016-01-01

    Background Full program implementation is crucial for effectiveness but is often overlooked or insufficiently considered during development of behavioral change interventions. For school-based health promotion programs, teachers are key players in program implementation, but teacher support in this phase is mostly limited to technical support and information. To ensure optimal implementation of the Dutch school-based sexual health program Long Live Love, a Web-based coaching website was developed to support teachers in completeness and fidelity of program implementation. Objective The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the process of systematic development of a Web-based coaching intervention to support teachers in their implementation of a school-based sexual health program. Methods The intervention mapping (IM) protocol was applied for the development of a theory- and evidence-based intervention. The IM process begins with (1) a needs assessment, followed by (2) the formulation of change objectives, (3) the selection of theory-based intervention methods and practical applications that take the parameters for effectiveness into consideration, (4) integration of practical applications into an organized program, (5) planning for adoption, implementation, and sustainability of the program, and finally, (6) generating an evaluation plan to measure program effectiveness. Results Teacher’s implementation behavior was characterized by inconsistently selecting parts of the program and not delivering (all) lessons as intended by program developers. Teachers, however, did not perceive this behavior as problematic, revealing the discrepancy between teacher’s actual and perceived need for support in delivering Long Live Love lessons with completeness and fidelity. Teachers did, however, acknowledge different difficulties they encountered which could potentially negatively influence the quality of implementation. With the IM protocol, this Web-based coaching

  14. School-based intervention to improve the mental health of low-income, secondary school students in Santiago, Chile (YPSA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cova Felix

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is common and can have devastating effects on the life of adolescents. Psychological interventions are the first-line for treating or preventing depression among adolescents. This proposal aims to evaluate a school-based, universal psychological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among student's aged 13-14 attending municipal state secondary schools in Santiago, Chile. Study design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the main clusters. We compared this intervention with a control group in a study involving 22 schools, 66 classes and approximately 2,600 students. Students in the active schools attended 11 weekly and 3 booster sessions of an intervention based on cognitive-behavioural models. The control schools received their usual but enhanced counselling sessions currently included in their curriculum. Mean depression scores and indicators of levels of functioning were assessed at 3 and 12 months after the completion of the intervention in order to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Direct and indirect costs were measured in both groups to assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. Discussion As far as we are aware this is the first cluster randomised controlled trial of a school intervention for depression among adolescents outside the Western world. Trial Registration ISRCTN19466209

  15. Adolescents' Communication with Parents, Other Adult Family Members and Teachers on Sexuality: Effects of School-Based Interventions in South Africa and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namisi, Francis; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Kaaya, Sylvia; Kajula, Lusajo J; Kilonzo, Gad P; Onya, Hans; Wubs, Annegreet; Mathews, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Cluster-randomized controlled trials were carried out to examine effects on sexual practices of school-based interventions among adolescents in three sites in sub-Saharan Africa. In this publication, effects on communication about sexuality with significant adults (including parents) and such communication as a mediator of other outcomes were examined. Belonging to the intervention group was significantly associated with fewer reported sexual debuts in Dar es Salaam only (OR 0.648). Effects on communication with adults about sexuality issues were stronger for Dar es Salaam than for the other sites. In Dar, increase in communication with adults proved to partially mediate associations between intervention and a number of social cognition outcomes. The hypothesized mediational effect of communication on sexual debut was not confirmed. Promoting intergenerational communication on sexuality issues is associated with several positive outcomes and therefore important. Future research should search for mediating factors influencing behavior beyond those examined in the present study.

  16. Raising awareness on cyber safety: adolescents' experience of a primary healthcare professional-led, school-based, multi-center intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Drosos, Evangelos; Drontsos, Anastasios; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Dantsi, Fotini; Sekeri, Zafiria; Dardavesis, Theodoros; Nanos, Panagiotis; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia

    2017-09-15

    Purpose Although safe Internet use is an emerging public health issue, there is a scarcity of published work describing relevant school-based interventions. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of a health professional-led, school-based intervention in raising awareness on cyber-safety in adolescents, Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate adolescents' evaluation of this school-based intervention, 6 months after its implementation, as well as the impact of adolescents' school class and gender on their evaluation. Methods A student sample was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling technique, according to the location and school grade level (middle, high school). The students - aged from 12 to 18 years old experienced an interactive presentation in their classrooms on the amount of time spent online, the use of social networks and the available support services. An evaluation tool was completed anonymously and voluntarily 6 months after the intervention. Results Four hundred and sixty-two students (response rate 90.7%, 246 middle, 216 high school) completed the evaluation tool. Younger students, especially the ones in the first year of middle school, scored significantly higher in all six parameters used in the evaluation of this intervention compared with all the older participants: (a) they had kept the presented information on Safeline and Saferinternet websites and the helpline Ypostirizo (70.2% vs. 33.7%, p < 0.001) (b) they had already used it (32.5% vs. 12.3%, p < 0.001), (c) they had learned new information on cyber safety (66.4% vs. 34%, p < 0.001), (d) they rated the intervention as more interesting (median 8 vs. 7, p < 0.05), (e) they had reconsidered the way they use Internet (median 7 vs. 6, p < 0.05) and (f) they had changed their cyber behavior (median 7 vs. 5, p < 0.05). Conclusion The active involvement of students in a discussion on cyber-safety based on their experiences was highly evaluated. The impact

  17. A Randomized-Controlled Trial of School-Based Active Videogame Intervention on Chinese Children's Aerobic Fitness, Physical Activity Level, and Psychological Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick Wing Chung; Wang, Jing Jing; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    Active videogames (AVGs) that require body movements to play offer a novel opportunity to turn a traditionally sedentary behavior into a physically active one. We sought to determine the effect of a school-based AVG intervention on Chinese children's aerobic fitness, physical activity (PA) level, and PA-related psychological correlates. Eighty 8-11-year-old Chinese children (55 males) were recruited from one Hong Kong primary school and were allocated at random to either an AVG intervention or control group. Children in the intervention group played an AVG, Xbox 360, twice per week during after-school hours, each for 60 minutes over 12 weeks in duration. The control group received no intervention. Children's body-mass index (BMI), objective PA, aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen consumption [VO 2max ]), PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were assessed. Compared with the control group, significant increases were found in the intervention group in VO 2max [mean and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58 (0.74, 2.42) mL/(kg·min)], objective moderate-to-vigorous PA [6.73 (1.70, 11.76) min/day], and total PA [27.19 (9.33, 45.04) min/day], but not for BMI. No significant differences in PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were observed. A 12-week (60 minutes × twice per week) school-based AVG intervention can improve Chinese children's aerobic fitness and PA level. These findings indicated that AVGs could be used as an alternative means to engage Chinese children in PA in school setting. However, the treatment effects of AVGs on PA-related psychological correlates and body composition need more investigation.

  18. Using a mixed-methods approach to measure impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention study on fruit and vegetable intake of Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Elena; Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Pria, Simona Dalla; Messina, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption to help prevent childhood obesity. The 10-week-long intervention included sessions on nutrition education and media literacy. It also included a health communication media-based campaign workshop during which the children created posters, newsletters and video commercials related to fruits and vegetables targeted to their parents. For evaluation purposes, the study utilized a mixed-methods approach, including a quasi-experimental study (with one intervention group and one control group) and a focus group study. Four different elementary schools in Treviso (Veneto Region of Italy) agreed to participate in the research. The target population for the study included 10-year-old Italian children and their parents. Data indicate that this intervention was effective for children but not for parents. Evaluation results show that the intervention was effective in significantly increasing children's fruit and vegetable intake (Pmedia education intervention to address the children's obesity issue and, in particular, to increase children's fruit and vegetable intake. The study also opens a new perspective on the theoretical constructs investigated, because the development of 'ability of expression' could be considered one of the most important factors to determine the efficacy of the intervention.

  19. Individual dosemeter with ionization chamber for intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, M.

    1982-01-01

    The altogether intervention ratemeter-dosemeter is a device for work condition control and for dosimetry of intervention gang in hostile medium. A portable irradiation marker with ionization chamber either carried by staff, either put at the work post, delivers an information function of the surrounding irradiation field in which moves the intervention staff. The information is processed so as the absorbed dose rate and the absorbed dose are given simultaneously. The connection between the marker and the process device is made by a cable (up to 100m) or by radio link [fr

  20. Effects of a school-based relaxation intervention on recovery in young elite athletes in high school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    group (n = 58) did not. A Danish version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes measured recovery levels in the participants, at baseline and at the end of intervention. Qualitative interviews were conducted with four of the participants. Quantitative results did not show an improvement...... in recovery and stress levels. Qualitative results showed that the intervention had an effect on the participants, and also revealed areas, in which the intervention could be improved. Suggestions for future interventions are given....

  1. Effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal intervention targeting student resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Hodder, Rebecca; Wolfenden, Luke; Richards, Jody; Leane, Catherine; Green, Sue; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, 10-20% of adolescents experience mental health problems. Strategies aimed at strengthening resilience protective factors provide a potential approach for reducing mental health problems in adolescents. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a universal, school-based intervention targeting resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 20 intervention and 12 control secondary schools located in socio-economically disadvantaged areas of NSW, Australia. Data were collected from 3115 students at baseline (Grade 7, 2011), of whom 2149 provided data at follow up (Grade 10, 2014; enrolments in Grades 7 to 10 typically aged 12-16 years; 50% male; 69.0% retention). There were no significant differences between groups at follow-up for three mental health outcomes: total SDQ, internalising problems, and prosocial behaviour. A small statistically significant difference in favour of the control group was found for externalising problems. Findings highlight the continued difficulties in developing effective, school-based prevention programs for mental health problems in adolescents. ANZCTR (Ref no: ACTRN12611000606987). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large

  3. School-based mindfulness intervention for stress reduction in adolescents: Design and methodology of an open-label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Johnstone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are in a high-risk period developmentally, in terms of susceptibility to stress. A mindfulness intervention represents a potentially useful strategy for developing cognitive and emotion regulation skills associated with successful stress coping. Mindfulness strategies have been used successfully for emotional coping in adults, but are not as well studied in youth. This article details a novel proposal for the design of an 8-week randomized study to evaluate a high school-based mindfulness curriculum delivered as part of a two semester health class. A wellness education intervention is proposed as an active control, along with a waitlist control condition. All students enrolled in a sophomore (10th grade health class at a private suburban high school will be invited to participate (n = 300. Pre-test assessments will be obtained by youth report, parent ratings, and on-site behavioral testing. The assessments will evaluate baseline stress, mood, emotional coping, controlled attention, and working memory. Participants, divided into 13 classrooms, will be randomized into one of three conditions, by classroom: A mindfulness intervention, an active control (wellness education, and a passive control (waitlist. Waitlisted participants will receive one of the interventions in the following term. Intervention groups will meet weekly for 8 weeks during regularly scheduled health classes. Immediate post-tests will be conducted, followed by a 60-day post-test. It is hypothesized that the mindfulness intervention will outperform the other conditions with regard to the adolescents' mood, attention and response to stress.

  4. Impact of a school-based peer sexual health intervention on normative beliefs, risk perceptions, and sexual behavior of Zambian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sohail; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2004-05-01

    To determine whether adolescents' normative beliefs about abstinence and condoms, their personal risk perception, and safer sex practices changed after the implementation of a peer sexual health education intervention implemented in Zambian secondary schools. The peer intervention was implemented during the first week of September 2000 in Lusaka, Zambia. A quasi-experimental, longitudinal panel design was used to evaluate its impact. Three schools were randomly assigned to the intervention condition and two to the control condition. Three rounds of data from male and female adolescents in grades 10 and 11 were collected at baseline in July 2000, at first follow-up in the second half of September 2000, and at second follow-up in early April 2001. A total of 416 respondents aged 14-23 (at baseline) were interviewed in all three survey rounds. A mixed-effects logistic regression growth curve analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios to compare intervention and control groups on the outcome variables. Student self-reports showed positive changes in normative beliefs about abstinence immediately after the intervention, and these improvements were largely sustained until 6 months after the intervention. Students became more likely to approve of condom use and to intend using condoms immediately after the intervention, but these positive outcomes could not be sustained during the 6 months that followed the intervention. Normative beliefs regarding condom use took longer to develop: these were only observed at 6 months follow-up. Students reported reductions in multiple regular partnerships. There was no change in condom use. A single session school-based peer sexual health intervention resulted in the development of normative beliefs about abstinence that were sustained over a 6-month period. Normative beliefs about condoms took longer to develop. More regular efforts may be required to sustain the approval of, and the intention to use, condoms. The intervention

  5. Schools-based interventions for reducing stigmatization of acquired brain injury: the role of interpersonal contact and visible impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Lynn G; Fortune, Dónal G

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of contact versus education interventions for adolescents in reducing stigmatizing attitudes toward people with acquired brain injury (ABI), and whether visibility of ABI affects the intervention outcome. 408 students (age range = 14-17 years) from 13 schools in the Mid-West of Ireland were randomly allocated to one of the three interventions: Education only, Contact (Visible Disability), or Contact ("Invisible" Disability). Stigmatizing attitudes were measured before and after intervention. Results suggest that a Contact intervention was more effective in reducing stigmatizing attitudes in terms of social restrictiveness, benevolence, and community mental health beliefs than education alone. Visibility of ABI impacted the effectiveness of the contact intervention on Community Mental Health beliefs only. Contact with a person with ABI is thus more effective in promoting positive attitudes than ABI education alone, while the presence of visible impairment was not found to increase this intervention effect.

  6. The impact of enhancing students' social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlak, Joseph A; Weissberg, Roger P; Dymnicki, Allison B; Taylor, Rebecca D; Schellinger, Kriston B

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programs involving 270,034 kindergarten through high school students. Compared to controls, SEL participants demonstrated significantly improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance that reflected an 11-percentile-point gain in achievement. School teaching staff successfully conducted SEL programs. The use of 4 recommended practices for developing skills and the presence of implementation problems moderated program outcomes. The findings add to the growing empirical evidence regarding the positive impact of SEL programs. Policy makers, educators, and the public can contribute to healthy development of children by supporting the incorporation of evidence-based SEL programming into standard educational practice. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Effectiveness of social marketing strategies to reduce youth obesity in European school-based interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Llauradó, Elisabet; Tarro, Lucia; Moreno-García, Carlos Francisco; Trujillo Escobar, Tamy Goretty; Solà, Rosa; Giralt, Montse

    2016-05-01

    The use of social marketing to modify lifestyle choices could be helpful in reducing youth obesity. Some or all of the 8 domains of the National Social Marketing Centre's social marketing benchmark criteria (SMBC) are often used but not always defined in intervention studies. The aim of this review is to assess the effectiveness of European school-based interventions to prevent obesity relative to the inclusion of SMBC domains in the intervention. The PubMed, Cochrane, and ERIC databases were used. Nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials conducted from 1990 to April 2014 in participants aged 5 to 17 years were included. After the study selection, the 8 domains of the SMBC were assessed in each included study. Thirty-eight publications were included in the systematic review. For the meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting body mass index or prevalence of overweight and obesity were considered. Eighteen RCTs with a total of 8681 participants included at least 5 SMBC. The meta-analysis showed a small standardized mean difference in body mass index of -0.25 (95%CI, -0.45 to -0.04) and a prevalence of overweight and obesity odds ratio of 0.72 (95%CI, 0.5-0.97). Current evidence indicates that the inclusion of at least 5 SMBC domains in school-based interventions could benefit efforts to prevent obesity in young people. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014007297. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  8. School-based brief psycho-educational intervention to raise adolescent cancer awareness and address barriers to medical help-seeking about cancer: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Gill; Stoddart, Iona; Forbat, Liz; Neal, Richard D; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Haw, Sally; Rauchhaus, Petra; Kyle, Richard G

    2016-07-01

    Raising cancer awareness and addressing barriers to help-seeking may improve early diagnosis. The aim was to assess whether a psycho-educational intervention increased adolescents' cancer awareness and addressed help-seeking barriers. This was a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 2173 adolescents in 20 schools. The intervention was a 50-min presentation delivered by a member of Teenage Cancer Trust's (UK charity) education team. Schools were stratified by deprivation and roll size and randomly allocated to intervention/control conditions within these strata. Outcome measures were the number of cancer warning signs and cancer risk factors recognised, help-seeking barriers endorsed and cancer communication. Communication self-efficacy and intervention fidelity were also assessed. Regression models showed significant differences in the number of cancer warning signs and risk factors recognised between intervention and control groups. In intervention schools, the greatest increases in recognition of cancer warning signs at 6-month follow-up were for unexplained weight loss (from 44.2% to 62.0%) and change in the appearance of a mole (from 46.3% to 70.7%), up by 17.8% and 24.4%, respectively. Greatest increases in recognition of cancer risk factors were for getting sunburnt more than once as a child (from 41.0% to 57.6%) and being overweight (from 42.7% to 55.5%), up by 16.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Regression models showed that adolescents in intervention schools were 2.7 times more likely to discuss cancer at 2-week follow-up compared with the control group. No differences in endorsement of barriers to help-seeking were observed. School-based brief psycho-educational interventions are easy to deliver, require little resource and improve cancer awareness. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of a school based intervention to promote healthy habits in children 8-11 years old, living in the lowland area of Bologna Local Health Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, R; Dallolio, L; Musti, M A; Guberti, E; Garulli, A; Beltrami, P; Castellazzi, F; Centis, E; Zenesini, C; Coppini, C; Rizzoli, C; Sardocardalano, M; Leoni, E

    2015-01-01

    A school based health promotion intervention was performed with the aim of increasing physical activity and improving the dietary habits of primary school pupils, using integrated educational strategies involving schools, families, public bodies, sports associations and public health operators. The intervention concerned 11 classes during 3 school years from 2009-10 (231 third-year school children) to 2011-12 (234 fifth-year school children). Information was collected both before and after the intervention about the dietary habits and the physical activities practised by the children, using the questionnaires of the project !OKkio alla Salute! which were administered to both children and parents. At the same time anthropometric measurements were taken (height, weight, BMI) and motor skills were assessed using standardized tests: Sit & Reach, medicine-ball forward throw, standing long jump, 20 m running speed, and forward roll. At the end of the intervention 12 different expected outcomes were assessed (5 about dietary habits, 5 about motor habits, 1 about anthropometric characteristics, 1 about motor skills). At baseline, 35.8% of the children show excess weight (23.4% overweight; 12.4% obese); this percentage falls to 29.3% (25.3% overweight; 4% obese) after the intervention (p habits improve from the pre- to the post-intervention: there is a rise in the percentage of children who receive an adequate mid-morning snack (p habits do not improve in the same way, since there is the increasing tendency with age to skip from a regular daily practice of physical exercise to favour of the occasional practice of a sport. The motor performances, compared after normalization for modifications due to the process of growth, improve between the third and fifth years of primary school, but with no significant differences. To achieve this objective more focused measures are necessary in the administration of moderate to intense physical exercise. The results point to a positive

  10. The Safety Tips for ATV Riders (STARs) programme: short-term impact of a school-based educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Charles A; Peck, Jeffrey; Wetjen, Kristel; Hoogerwerf, Pam; Harland, Karisa K; Denning, Gerene M

    2015-06-01

    Since 1985, one-third of all US all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries and one-quarter of deaths involved victims safety education of youth could help reduce these tragedies. To assess the efficacy of the Safety Tips for ATV Riders (STARs) school-based programme targeting adolescents. A survey was anonymously administered before and after the programme to determine demographics, knowledge and reported likelihood of using the information learned. Over 4600 students in 30 Iowa schools participated from November 2010 to April 2013. Initially, 52% knew most ATVs are designed for one rider, 25% knew the recommended vehicle size for their age range and 42% knew riding on Iowa's roads was legal only for agricultural purposes. After the programme, this increased to 92%, 82% and 76%, respectively (psafety information learned, respectively; younger students, females and infrequent riders reported higher likelihoods. STARs increased short-term ATV safety knowledge and almost half the participants reported they would use the safety information presented. Males and frequent riders seemed more resistant, but some groups that may be more vulnerable to potential ATV crash and injury appeared amenable to the training with higher increases in postprogramme scores and greater intention of improving safety behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. School-based intervention to reduce anxiety in children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (PACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stallard Paul

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional problems such as anxiety and low mood in children are common, impair everyday functioning and increase the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few children with emotional health problems are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate preventive approaches. Methods/Design The study is designed to be a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an efficacious school-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT prevention program (FRIENDS on symptoms of anxiety and low mood in children 9 to 10 years of age. The unit of allocation is schools which are assigned to one of three conditions: school-led FRIENDS, health-led FRIENDS or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcome measures assess changes in self-esteem, worries, bullying and life satisfaction. An economic evaluation will be undertaken. Discussion As of September 2011, 41 schools have been recruited and randomized. Final 12-month assessments are scheduled to be completed by May 2013. Trial Registration ISRCTN23563048

  12. Facilitators and barriers to the delivery of school-based smoking prevention interventions for children and young people: a protocol for a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, Fiona; Angus, Kathryn; Littlecott, Hannah; Allum, Karen; Wells, Valerie; Amos, Amanda; Haw, Sally; Bauld, Linda

    2018-04-06

    Despite a decline in child and adult smoking prevalence, young people who smoke (even occasionally) can rapidly become addicted to nicotine, with most adult smokers initiating smoking before they are 18. Schools have long been a popular setting to deliver youth smoking prevention interventions, but evidence of the effectiveness of school-based prevention programmes is mixed, and outcomes vary by the type of programme delivered. Existing systematic reviews that explore the factors contributing to the success or failure of school-based smoking prevention programmes often exclude qualitative studies, due to a focus on intervention effectiveness which qualitative research cannot answer. Instead, qualitative research is focussed on the experiences and perceptions of those involved in the programmes. This systematic review will address this gap by updating a 2009 review to examine qualitative studies. The aim is to generate deeper insight to help target resources which have the potential to save lives by preventing smoking initiation among children and young people. This systematic review will be searching the following databases: the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, HMIC, ERIC, ASSIA, Web of Science and CINAHL. In order to identify additional references, we will consult the reference lists of a sample of systematic reviews and search relevant organizational websites in order to identify appropriate grey literature. The search strategy will include key words and database-specific subject headings relating to smoking, children and young people, health promotion and school. Authors will independently screen, assess data quality and extract data for synthesis. Study findings will be synthesised thematically using 'best-fit framework syntheses'. This allows for an existing set of themes to be used as a starting point to map or code included studies. These themes are then adapted as coding takes place to accommodate new emerging themes. This review will focus on

  13. Developing Partnerships in the Provision of Youth Mental Health Services and Clinical Education: A School-Based Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Targeting Anxiety Symptoms in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Groth, Trisha A; Sanders, Mary; O'Brien, Rosanne; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical scientists are calling for strong partnerships in the provision of evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems in real-world contexts. In the present study, we describe the implementation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to address grade 5 children's anxiety symptoms. The CBI arose from a long-standing partnership between University and Education Department stakeholders. The partnership integrates school-based, evidence-informed treatment delivery with clinical education, and also supports a school-based psychology clinic to provide assessment and treatment services to children attending schools within the catchment area and clinical training for university graduate students. Children in the active condition (N=74) completed the CBI during regular class time, while children in the control condition (N=77) received the standard classroom curriculum. Children's anxiety and depressive symptoms, threat interpretation biases (perceived danger and coping ability), and perceptions of their social skills were assessed before and after condition. Children in the active condition reported significant improvements in self-reported anxiety symptoms, and perceptions of their social skills and coping ability, whereas no significant differences were observed for children in the control condition from pre- to post-assessment. For a subset of children assessed 12 months after the CBI (n=76), symptom improvement remained stable over time and estimates of danger and coping ability showed even greater improvement. Results demonstrate the value of strong stakeholder partnerships in innovative youth mental health services, positive child outcomes, and clinical education. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd. Taib, Mohd. Nasir; Mohd. Shariff, Zalilah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordere...

  15. Two-year impacts of a universal school-based social-emotional and literacy intervention: an experiment in translational developmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie M; Brown, Joshua L; Lawrence Aber, J

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to ongoing scholarship at the nexus of translational research, education reform, and the developmental and prevention sciences. It reports 2-year experimental impacts of a universal, integrated school-based intervention in social-emotional learning and literacy development on children's social-emotional, behavioral, and academic functioning. The study employed a school-randomized, experimental design with 1,184 children in 18 elementary schools. Children in the intervention schools showed improvements across several domains: self-reports of hostile attributional bias, aggressive interpersonal negotiation strategies, and depression, and teacher reports of attention skills, and aggressive and socially competent behavior. In addition, there were effects of the intervention on children's math and reading achievement for those identified by teachers at baseline at highest behavioral risk. These findings are interpreted in light of developmental cascades theory and lend support to the value of universal, integrated interventions in the elementary school period for promoting children's social-emotional and academic skills. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. School-based intervention with children. Peer-modeling, reward and repeated exposure reduce food neophobia and increase liking of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureati, Monica; Bergamaschi, Valentina; Pagliarini, Ella

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the 'Food Dudes' school-based intervention consisting of rewards, peer-modeling and food exposure on food neophobia and the liking of fruits and vegetables (FV) in a large cohort of children. Five-hundred sixty children recruited from three schools were assigned to the experimental or control group. For 16 days, children in the experimental group watched motivational videos, were read letters to encourage them to eat FV and received a small reward for eating one portion of both a fruit and a vegetable. The control group was only provided with FV for the same time period. Food neophobia and liking were measured in both groups of children before and after the intervention, and a follow-up measurement was carried out 6 months later. The intervention was effective in reducing food neophobia and, most importantly, a persistent effect was observed 6 months after the intervention as children of the experimental group showed significantly lower neophobia scores than the control group. Additionally, the program was effective in increasing liking for both FV; however, this effect was maintained only for fruit after 6 months. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL, a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13–14 years old. Methods/Design Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13–14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity, body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Discussion It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016

  18. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah

    2016-10-20

    Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely 'Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively' (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13-14 years old. Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13-14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity), body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016, retrospectively registered).

  19. Effect of an iPad-Based Intervention to Improve Sexual Health Knowledge and Intentions for Contraceptive Use Among Adolescent Females at School-Based Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesheriakova, Veronika V; Tebb, Kathleen P

    2017-11-01

    The use of effective contraception can decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an iPad-based application (app) on improving adolescent girls' sexual health knowledge and on its ability to influence their intentions to use effective contraception. This was a prospective study of girls aged 12 to 18 years recruited from 3 school-based health centers in California. A total of 120 racially/ethnically diverse participants used the iPad app; 54% were sexually active, with only 26% using effective contraception at baseline. The average score on baseline sexual health knowledge assessment was 58%. After using the app, 68% of the sexually active participants reported intention to use effective contraception in the future, and sexual health knowledge improved significantly to 79% ( P iPad-based app is a promising intervention to educate adolescents about sexual health and support them in selecting an effective contraception method.

  20. School-based intervention for childhood disruptive behavior in disadvantaged settings: a randomized controlled trial with and without active teacher support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Juliette M; De Boo, Gerly M; Huizenga, Hilde; Prins, Pier J M

    2013-12-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support (ATS) versus educational teacher support (ETS) (CBT + ATS vs. CBT + ETS). Screening (n = 1,929) and assessment (n = 224) led to the inclusion of 173 children ages 8-12 years from 17 elementary schools. Most of the children were boys (n = 136, 79%) of low or low-to-middle class socioeconomic status (87%); the sample was ethnically diverse (63% of non-Western origin). Children received CBT + ATS (n = 29) or CBT + ETS (n = 41) or were entered into a waitlist control condition (n = 103) to be treated afterward (CBT + ATS, n = 39, and CBT + ETS, n = 64). Effect sizes (ES), clinical significance (reliable change), and the results of multilevel modeling are reported. Ninety-seven percent of children completed treatment. Teachers and parents reported positive posttreatment effects (mean ES = .31) for CBT compared with the waitlist control condition on disruptive behavior. Multilevel modeling showed similar results. Clinical significance was modest. Changes had remained stable or had increased at 3-months follow-up (mean ES = .39). No consistent effect of teacher condition was found at posttreatment; however, at follow-up, children who received ETS fared significantly better. This study shows that a school-based CBT program is beneficial for difficult-to-reach children with disruptive behavior: The completion rate was remarkably high, ESs (mean ES = .31) matched those of previous studies with targeted intervention, and effects were maintained or had increased at follow-up.

  1. Economic evaluation of URMEL-ICE, a school-based overweight prevention programme comprising metabolism, exercise and lifestyle intervention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Schreiber, Anja; Wirt, Tamara; Wiedom, Martina; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Brandstetter, Susanne; Koch, Benjamin; Wartha, Olivia; Muche, Rainer; Wabitsch, Martin; Kilian, Reinhold; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2013-04-01

    Measuring the impact of the URMEL-ICE school-based overweight prevention programme on anthropometric measures in primary-school children, computing incremental cost-effectiveness relation (ICER) and net monetary benefit (NMB). This is an intervention study with historical control. Propensity score method is applied to account for group differences. One-year teacher-driven classroom implementation is used, which is based on especially developed teaching material including health education, physical activity breaks and parent involvement. 354 children in the control and 365 children in the intervention group at baseline and follow-up were analysed. Effectiveness is measured as cm waist circumference (WC) and unit (0.01) waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) increase prevented in intervention vs. control group using an adjusted two-level model. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, net benefit regression and a societal perspective for a 1-year time horizon are applied. WC gain was 1.61 cm and WHtR gain was 0.014 significantly less in intervention vs. control group. Intervention costs were euro24.09 per child. ICER was euro11.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) [8.78; 15.02]) per cm WC and euro18.55 (95% CI [14.04; 26.86]) per unit WHtR gain prevented. At a maximum willingness to pay (MWTP) of euro35, both values of the CIs for NMB regarding WC and WHtR are located in the positive range. The study gives new information about the cost-effectiveness of structured health promotion embedded in daily routine at primary schools. Assuming a MWTP of euro35 the intervention is cost-effective with a positive NMB. This result may help decision makers in implementing programmes to prevent childhood overweight in school settings.

  2. Addressing Escape-Maintained Behavior for Students with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review of School-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Evan H.; Radley, Keith C.; Mason, Benjamin A.; Allen, Justin P.

    2018-01-01

    Students with developmental disabilities have been found to exhibit higher rates of problem behavior in the classroom than their typically developing peers. Effectively addressing these students' behavior concerns requires the identification of interventions that can be implemented in an educational setting. Furthermore, matching intervention…

  3. School-Based Interventions to Reduce Dating and Sexual Violence: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2014:7

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rue, Lisa; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of psychological, physical, and sexual violence in intimate dating relationships has a significant impact on young people. These issues are of great concern to researchers, educators, and administrators who strive to help youth be happy and healthy. This review focused on prevention and intervention efforts implemented in…

  4. Examining the Changing Landscape of School Psychology Practice: A Survey of School-Based Practitioners regarding Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Long, Lori

    2010-01-01

    As Response to Intervention (RtI) approaches become more common in educational systems throughout the country, it is increasingly important to identify how practitioners perceive these changes and how they obtain the skills necessary to face emergent roles and responsibilities. In this exploratory study, a national sample of 557 school…

  5. Daily Report Cards as a School-Based Intervention for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Darren A.; Whittaker, Sarah; Ford, Tamsin J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes daily report cards and the evidence relating to their use in schools for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This intervention typically involves teachers evaluating a student's behaviour at school against pre-determined targets and parents subsequently providing reinforcement at home for positive…

  6. Public School-Based Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Catriona L.; Deppeler, Joanne M.; Moore, Dennis W.; Diamond, Neil T.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effectiveness of four categories of intervention when implemented in public schools with adolescents and young adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The study's inclusionary criteria include a setting of public schools, participants aged between 12 and 22 years, and the investigation of an…

  7. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  8. The Importance of Natural Change in Planning School-Based Intervention for Children with Developmental Language Impairment (DLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Gaynor, Marguerite; Tucker, Katie; Orchard-Lisle, Ginnie

    2016-01-01

    Some reports suggest that there is an increase in the number of children identified as having developmental language impairment (Bercow, 2008). yet resource issues have meant that many speech and language therapy services have compromised provision in some way. Thus, efficient ways of identifying need and prioritizing intervention are required.…

  9. Development of Long Live Love+, a school-based online sexual health programme for young adults. An intervention mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevissen, F.E.F.; Empelen, P. van; Watzeels, A.; Duin, G. van; Meijer, S.; Lieshout, S. van; Kok, G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Dutch online programme called Long Live Love+ focusing on positive, coercion-free relationships, contraception use, and the prevention of STIs, using the Intervention Mapping (IM) approach. All six steps of the approach were followed. Step 1 confirmed the

  10. A School-Based Group Intervention to Strengthen Personal and Social Competencies in Latency-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMar, James

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a primary preventive intervention that prevents future chemical dependency in children (N=57). Results indicate substantial increases in internal locus of control, frustration tolerance, and assertive social skills, along with decreases in acting-out behavior. Findings suggest that school social workers can provide effective…

  11. The Impact and Evaluation of Two School-Based Interventions on Intention to Register an Organ Donation Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubsaet, A.; Brug, J.; Kitslaar, J.; Van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the impact and evaluation of two intervention components--a video with group discussion and an interactive computer-tailored program--in order to encourage adolescents to register their organ donation preference. Studies were conducted in school during regular school hours. The video with group discussion in class had a…

  12. Development of "Long Live Love+," a School-Based Online Sexual Health Programme for Young Adults. An Intervention Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Fraukje E. F.; van Empelen, Pepijn; Watzeels, Anita; van Duin, Gee; Meijer, Suzanne; van Lieshout, Sanne; Kok, Gerjo

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Dutch online programme called "Long Live Love+" focusing on positive, coercion-free relationships, contraception use, and the prevention of STIs, using the Intervention Mapping (IM) approach. All six steps of the approach were followed. Step 1 confirmed the need for a sexual health programme…

  13. Gender differences on effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention for reducing cardiometabolic risk: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Salcedo-Aguilar, Fernando; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Franquelo-Morales, Pablo; López-Martínez, Sara; García-Prieto, Jorge C; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Torrijos-Niño, Coral; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2014-12-10

    Studies that have examined the impact of a physical activity intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors have yielded conflicting results. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a standardized physical activity program on adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors in schoolchildren. Cluster randomized trial study of 712 schoolchildren, 8-10 years, from 20 public schools in the Province of Cuenca, Spain. The intervention (MOVI-2) consisted of play-based and non-competitive activities. MOVI-2 was conducted during two 90-minute sessions on weekdays and one 150-minute session on Saturday mornings every week between September 2010 and May 2011. We measured changes in adiposity (overweight/obesity prevalence, body mass index [BMI], triceps skinfold thickness [TST], body fat %, fat-free mass, waist circumference) and other cardiometabolic risk factors (LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio, insulin, C-reactive protein and blood pressure). The analyses used mixed regression models to adjust for baseline covariates under cluster randomization. Among girls, we found a reduction of adiposity in intervention versus control schools, with a decrease in TST (-1.1 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.3 to -0.7), body fat % (-0.9%; 95% CI -1.3 to -0.4), waist circumference (-2.7 cm; 95% CI -4.5 to -0.9), and an increase in fat-free mass (0.3 kg; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.6). The intervention also led to lower serum LDL-cholesterol and insulin levels. Among boys, a reduction in waist circumference (-1.4 cm; 95% CI -2.6 to -0.1; P = 0.03), and an increase in fat-free mass (0.5 kg; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9; P = 0.003) was associated with the intervention versus control schools. The prevalence of overweight/obesity or underweight, BMI, and other cardiometabolic risk factors was not modified by the intervention. No important adverse events were registered. An extracurricular intervention of non-competitive physical activity during an academic year, targeting all

  14. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention - Project Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Meaghan S; Ransley, Joan K; Greenwood, Darren C; Clarke, Graham P; Conner, Mark T; Jupp, Jennifer; Cade, Janet E

    2009-06-16

    The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS) is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3) their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group), consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET), and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2) and 18 month follow-up (Year 4). The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato) to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297.

  15. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention – Project Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Meaghan S; Ransley, Joan K; Greenwood, Darren C; Clarke, Graham P; Conner, Mark T; Jupp, Jennifer; Cade, Janet E

    2009-01-01

    Background The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS) is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3) their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. Method This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group), consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET), and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2) and 18 month follow-up (Year 4). The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato) to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. Discussion A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Trial registration Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297 PMID:19531246

  16. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention – Project Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conner Mark T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3 their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. Method This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group, consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET, and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2 and 18 month follow-up (Year 4. The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. Discussion A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Trial registration Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297

  17. A mixed methods process evaluation of the implementation of JUMP-in, a multilevel school-based intervention aimed at physical activity promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meij, Judith S B; van der Wal, Marcel F; van Mechelen, Willem; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate factors influencing the adoption, implementation, and institutionalization process of JUMP-in-a multilevel school-based physical activity promotion program-to optimize the dissemination of the intervention and improve its effectiveness. The process evaluation concerned the constraints and success and failure factors at sociopolitical, organizational, user, and intervention levels. A mixed methods approach including qualitative and quantitative data was conducted during two school years (2006-2008). JUMP-in was successfully embedded in the Amsterdam municipal policy and in the organizational structure and daily practices of the sectors involved. A general impeding factor was the complexity of the multilevel programme requiring multidisciplinary collaboration between organizations. In addition, there was a discrepancy between the recommendation to standardize and simplify the innovation and the need to tailor the strategies to local environmental, social, and cultural aspects. This process evaluation provides challenges and remedies for managing discrepancies between prerequisites for an effective innovation and demands of daily implementation practice. The main recommendations are (a) standardized, simplified guidelines; (b) stepwise implementation; (c) formalized coalitions, integration of policy, and synchronization of tasks and protocols; and (d) smart planning and control by clear communication and feedback instruments. If these recommendations are incorporated into the JUMP-in intervention and organization, increased effectiveness and long-term effects can be expected.

  18. A pilot study of a school-based prevention and early intervention program to reduce oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Jo; Carlsson, Anthony; Vance, Alasdair

    2014-05-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) occurs when children's disruptive and antisocial behaviours start to interfere with their academic, emotional and/or social development. Recently, there has been a considerable investment to implement national school-based early intervention programs to help prevent the onset of ODD/CD. This paper describes the delivery of the Royal Children's Hospital, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service and Schools Early Action Program: a whole school, multi-level, multidisciplinary approach to address emerging ODD/CD and pre- versus post-delivery assessment in 40 schools over a 4-year period (2007-2010). All children from preparatory to grade 3 (ages 4-10 years) were screened for conduct problems (n = 8546) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Universal, targeted and indicated interventions were delivered in school settings. In total, 304 children participated in the targeted group program where the Child Behaviour Checklist was used as a pre- and post-intervention measure. Cohen's d effect sizes and a reliability change index were calculated to determine clinical significance. Significant reductions in both parent- and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms were noted. Parent, teacher and child feedback were very positive. A future randomized controlled trial of the program would address potential placebo and selection bias effects. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Effects of a School-Based Intervention on the Basis of Pender’s Health Promotion Model to Improve Physical Activity among High School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Teymouri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a variety of positive outcomes for young people. Physical activity (PA rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than among adolescent boys. In order to stop or diverse this negative trend, there are necessary interventions based on various theories and models to promote physical activity in girls. Materials & Methods: This randomized control study evaluated the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise education program based on Pender’s Health Promotion model to improve cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with physical activity and to promote physical activity in adolescent girls (n =106. The program included educational sessions and tailored counseling. Results: There was an increase of 45 minutes for daily physical activity in the experimental group compared to their baseline. After intervention, the training group had a positive significant progression in stages along with significant improvements in self efficacy, enjoyment of physical activity, interpersonal influences, planning for physical activity, and also a decrease in perceived barriers to physical activity and competing preferences (p ≤ .0001-0.04. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed the positive effect of program on stage of change and potential determinants of the behavior of physical activity. The high proportion of the people in action and maintenance in experimental group compared to the baseline and the attainment of recommend criteria for physical activity are promising findings of school-based intervention based on Pender’s health promotion model.

  20. School-based intervention to enable school children to act as change agents on weight, physical activity and diet of their mothers: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Nalika; Kurotani, Kayo; Indrawansa, Susantha; Nonaka, Daisuke; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Samarasinghe, Diyanath

    2016-04-06

    School health promotion has been shown to improve the lifestyle of students, but it remains unclear whether school-based programs can influence family health. We developed an innovative program that enables school children to act as change agents in promoting healthy lifestyles of their mothers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the child-initiated intervention on weight, physical activity and dietary habit of their mothers. A 12-month cluster randomized trial was conducted, with school as a cluster. Participants were mothers with grade 8 students, aged around 13 years, of 20 schools in Homagama, Sri Lanka. Students of the intervention group were trained by facilitators to acquire the ability to assess noncommunicable disease risk factors in their homes and take action to address them, whereas those of the comparison group received no intervention. Body weight, step count and lifestyle of their mothers were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Multi-level multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of intervention on continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Of 308 study participants, 261 completed the final assessment at 12 month. There was a significantly greater decrease of weight and increase of physical activity in the intervention group. The mean (95% confidence interval) difference comparing the intervention group with the control group was -2.49 (-3.38 to -1.60) kg for weight and -0.99 (-1.40 to -0.58) kg/m(2) for body mass index. The intervention group had a 3.25 (95% confidence interval 1.87-5.62) times higher odds of engaging in adequate physical activity than the control group, and the former showed a greater number of steps than the latter after intervention. The intervention group showed a greater reduction of household purchase of biscuits and ice cream. A program to motivate students to act as change agents of family's lifestyle was effective in decreasing weight and

  1. Assessing the impact of the primary school-based nutrition intervention Petits cuistots--parents en réseaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, Sherri L; Potvin, Louise; Daniel, Mark; Paquette, Manon

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to provide an intermediate impact assessment of the nutrition intervention Petits cuistots--parents en réseaux (Little Cooks--Parental Networks) on: 1) knowledge, attitude, capacity and experience with regard to nutrition, diet and cookery, and 2) parental and/or family participation in school. A total of 388 students from grades 5 (participants) and 6 (non-participants). The evaluation of the nutrition intervention took place in each of the seven participating elementary schools, all of which are located in Montreal's most disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The program component "Little Cooks" is a nutrition workshop run by community dieticians. Each of the eight annual workshops features a food item and nutrition theme with a recipe for a collective food preparation and tasting experience. Classroom teachers participate to provide classroom management and program support. The "Parental Networks" component of the program invites parents to assist with the nutrition workshop, and offers additional parent and family activities which link to nutrition workshop themes (e.g., dinners or visits to local food producers). The program had some impact on knowledge of the nutrient content of food, food produce and cooking; attitude and experience with tasting of new or less common foods; and perceived cooking capacity. Families with students participating in the program participated more in school activities than did families of students not in the program. Our assessment indicates a potential program impact upon several intermediate impact measures, and in so doing highlights a promising nutrition capacity-promoting intervention.

  2. Design and methods for "Commit to Get Fit" - a pilot study of a school-based mindfulness intervention to promote healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Sue; Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Crawford, Sybil; Pbert, Lori

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular prevention is more effective if started early in life, but available interventions to promote healthy lifestyle habits among youth have been ineffective. Impulsivity in particular has proven to be an important barrier to the adoption of healthy behaviors in youth. Observational evidence suggests that mindfulness interventions may reduce impulsivity and improve diet and physical activity. We hypothesize that mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education will improve dietary habits and physical activity among teenagers by reducing impulsive behavior and improving planning skills. The Commit to Get Fit study is a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial examining the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of school-based mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education for promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents. Two schools in central Massachusetts (30 students per school) will be randomized to receive mindfulness training plus standard health education (HE-M) or an attention-control intervention plus standard health education (HE-AC). Assessments will be conducted at baseline, intervention completion (2 months), and 8 months. Primary outcomes are feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, diet, impulsivity, mood, body mass index, and quality of life. This study will provide important information about feasibility and preliminary estimates of efficacy of a school-delivered mindfulness and health education intervention to promote healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors among adolescents. Our findings will provide important insights about the possible mechanisms by which mindfulness training may contribute to behavioral change and inform future research in this important area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Promoting physical activity with a school-based dance mat exergaming intervention: qualitative findings from a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges Watson, Duika; Adams, Jean; Azevedo, Liane B; Haighton, Catherine

    2016-07-20

    Physical activity is critical to improving health and well-being in children. Quantitative studies have found a decline in activity in the transition from primary to secondary education. Exergames (active video games) might increase physical activity in adolescents. In January 2011 exergame dance mat systems were introduced in to all secondary schools across two local authority districts in the UK. We performed a quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment using a mixed methods design. The quantitative findings from this work have been previously published. The aim of this linked qualitative study was to explore the implementation of the dance mat scheme and offer insights into its uptake as a physical activity intervention. Embedded qualitative interviews at baseline and 12 month follow-up with purposively selected physical education teachers (n = 20) and 25 focus groups with a convenience sample of pupils (n = 120) from five intervention schools were conducted. Analysis was informed by sociology of translation approach. At baseline, participants (both teachers and pupils) reported different expectations about the dance mats and how they could be employed. Variation in use was seen at follow-up. In some settings they were frequently used to engage hard to reach groups of pupils. Overall, the dance mats were not used routinely to increase physical activity. However there were other unanticipated benefits to pupils such as improved reaction time, co-ordination and mathematic skills. The use of dance mats was limited in routine physical education classes because of contextual issues (school/government policy) technological failures (batteries/updates) and because of expectations about how and where they could be used. Our linked quantitative study (previously published) suggested that the dance mats were not particularly effective in increasing physical activity, but the qualitative results (reported here) show that the dance mats were not used

  4. The Effectiveness of a New School-Based Media Literacy Intervention on Adolescents’ Doping Attitudes and Supplements Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lucidi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a media literacy intervention targeting, for the first time, the specific topic of Performance and Appearance Enhancing Substances (PAESs use in high-school students. Overall, 389 students (52% male aged between 13 and 19 years (mean = 16.56 year; SD = 1.26 participated to a media literacy intervention (i.e., “intervention group” while 103 students aged between 14 and 19 year (mean = 16.10 year; SD = 1.38 were considered as the control group (i.e., “control group”. In two separate occasions over the course of six consecutive months, students in both groups filled out a set of questionnaires which included measures of social-cognitive beliefs (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, intentions and a self-reported measure of retrospective use of doping (Yes/No and supplements (Yes/No. Compared to students in the control group (Mean(time1 = 1.96; SD(time1 = 0.85; and Mean(time2 = 2.09; SD(time2 = 0.94, intervention students on average expressed relatively stronger attitudes against doping use over time (Mean(time1 = 2.2; SD(time1 = 0.85; and Mean(time2 = 2.05; SD(time2 = 0.82. Students in the latter group also showed a statistically significant decrease in self-reported supplement use (Use(time1 = 6.7%; Use(time2 = 3.8%; p = 0.05, McNemar Test. Interestingly, albeit marginally significant, students in the control group showed a relative increment in the self-reported use of supplements over time (Use(time1 = 4.9%; Use(time2 = 8.7%; p = 0.22, McNemar Test. Overall, the media literacy intervention investigated in the present study was effective in decreasing adolescent student’s positive attitudes toward doping use and in reducing the use of legal PAES. These findings supported the generalizability and the usefulness of a media literacy approach in the specific field of PAES.

  5. Promoting physical activity with a school-based dance mat exergaming intervention: qualitative findings from a natural experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duika Burges Watson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is critical to improving health and well-being in children. Quantitative studies have found a decline in activity in the transition from primary to secondary education. Exergames (active video games might increase physical activity in adolescents. In January 2011 exergame dance mat systems were introduced in to all secondary schools across two local authority districts in the UK. We performed a quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment using a mixed methods design. The quantitative findings from this work have been previously published. The aim of this linked qualitative study was to explore the implementation of the dance mat scheme and offer insights into its uptake as a physical activity intervention. Methods Embedded qualitative interviews at baseline and 12 month follow-up with purposively selected physical education teachers (n = 20 and 25 focus groups with a convenience sample of pupils (n = 120 from five intervention schools were conducted. Analysis was informed by sociology of translation approach. Results At baseline, participants (both teachers and pupils reported different expectations about the dance mats and how they could be employed. Variation in use was seen at follow-up. In some settings they were frequently used to engage hard to reach groups of pupils. Overall, the dance mats were not used routinely to increase physical activity. However there were other unanticipated benefits to pupils such as improved reaction time, co-ordination and mathematic skills. The use of dance mats was limited in routine physical education classes because of contextual issues (school/government policy technological failures (batteries/updates and because of expectations about how and where they could be used. Conclusions Our linked quantitative study (previously published suggested that the dance mats were not particularly effective in increasing physical activity, but the qualitative

  6. Using formative research to develop the healthy eating component of the CHANGE! school-based curriculum intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boddy Lynne M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern. Many intervention studies have attempted to combat childhood obesity, often in the absence of formative or preparatory work. This study describes the healthy eating component of the formative phase of the Children’s Health Activity and Nutrition: Get Educated! (CHANGE! project. The aim of the present study was to gather qualitative focus group and interview data regarding healthy eating particularly in relation to enabling and influencing factors, barriers and knowledge in children and adults (parents and teachers from schools within the CHANGE! programme to provide population-specific evidence to inform the subsequent intervention design. Methods Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with children, parents and teachers across 11 primary schools in the Wigan borough of North West England. Sixty children (N = 24 boys, 33 parents (N = 4 male and 10 teachers (N = 4 male participated in the study. Interview questions were structured around the PRECEDE phases of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the pen-profiling technique. Results The pen-profiles revealed that children’s knowledge of healthy eating was generally good, specifically many children were aware that fruit and vegetable consumption was ‘healthy’ (N = 46. Adults’ knowledge was also good, including restricting fatty foods, promoting fruit and vegetable intake, and maintaining a balanced diet. The important role parents play in children’s eating behaviours and food intake was evident. The emerging themes relating to barriers to healthy eating showed that external drivers such as advertising, the preferred sensory experience of “unhealthy” foods, and food being used as a reward may play a role in preventing healthy eating. Conclusions Data suggest that; knowledge related to diet composition was not a barrier per se to

  7. The World Starts With Me: using intervention mapping for the systematic adaptation and transfer of school-based sexuality education from Uganda to Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Reinders, Jo; Darwisyah, Wati; Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2011-06-01

    Evidence-based health promotion programmes, including HIV/AIDS prevention and sexuality education programmes, are often transferred to other cultures, priority groups and implementation settings. Challenges in this process include the identification of retaining core elements that relate to the programme's effectiveness while making changes that enhances acceptance in the new context and for the new priority group. This paper describes the use of a systematic approach to programme adaptation using a case study as an example. Intervention Mapping, a protocol for the development of evidence-based behaviour change interventions, was used to adapt the comprehensive school-based sexuality education programme 'The World Starts With Me'. The programme was developed for a priority population in Uganda and adapted to a programme for Indonesian secondary school students. The approach helped to systematically address the complexity and challenges of programme adaptation and to find a balance between preservation of essential programme elements (i.e. logic models) that may be crucial to the programme's effectiveness, including key objectives and theoretical behaviour change methods, and the adaptation of the programme to be acceptable to the new priority group and the programme implementers.

  8. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal Kapil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16. The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28 which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023 had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628

  9. "Children at risk": development, implementation, and effectiveness of a school-based violence intervention and prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon L; Smith, Donald J

    2009-01-01

    Violence impacts the lives of children on a daily basis. In their communities, they witness drive-by shootings, drug deals, and violence in their schools while many endure abuse, neglect, and violent behavior in their homes. Because the traumatizing impact of such exposure disrupts a child's ability to concentrate and learn, the Dallas Independent School District (ISD) sought content expertise to develop a training vehicle for school district professionals. The program aimed to raise the awareness of educators to problems related to domestic violence and the myriad of circumstances at home and in the community that lead to exposure to violence. Approximately 15,000 faculty and staff of Dallas ISD were educated in the identification, intervention, and prevention of exposure to violence. Referrals and inquiries related to abuse have increased (approximately 70%) while the city of Dallas has witnessed a drop in the number of domestic violence and child abuse offenses.

  10. Assessing "First Mile" Supply Chain Factors Affecting Timeliness of School-Based Deworming Interventions: Supply and Logistics Performance Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koporc, Kimberly M; Strunz, Eric; Holloway, Cassandra; Addiss, David G; Lin, William

    2015-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2012, Children Without Worms (CWW) oversaw the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) donation of Vermox (mebendazole) for treatment of school-age children to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). To identify factors associated with on-time, delayed, or missed mass drug administration (MDA) interventions, and explore possible indicators for supply chain performance for drug donation programs, we reviewed program data for the 14 STH-endemic countries CWW supported during 2007-2012. Data from drug applications, shipping records, and annual treatment reports were tracked using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data from interviews with key personnel were used to provide additional context on the causes of delayed or missed MDAs. Four possible contributory factors to delayed or missed MDAs were considered: production, shipping, customs clearance, and miscellaneous in-country issues. Coverage rates were calculated by dividing the number of treatments administered by the number of children targeted during the MDA. Of the approved requests for 78 MDAs, 54 MDAs (69%) were successfully implemented during or before the scheduled month. Ten MDAs (13%) were classified as delayed; seven of these were delayed by one month or less. An additional 14 MDAs (18%) were classified as missed. For the 64 on-time or delayed MDAs, the mean coverage was approximately 88%. To continue to assess the supply chain processes and identify areas for improvement, we identified four indicators or metrics for supply chain performance that can be applied across all neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug donation programs: (1) donor having available inventory to satisfy the country request for donation; (2) donor shipping the approved number of doses; (3) shipment arriving at the Central Medical Stores one month in advance of the scheduled MDA date; and (4) country programs implementing the MDA as scheduled.

  11. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children aged 7-11 years from Poznań (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilińska, Inez; Kryst, Łukasz

    2017-07-01

    The epidemic of obesity, which is one of the most important public health problems, appeared paradoxically as a result of improving living conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effects on overweight/obesity prevalence of the primary-school-based intervention program. The group of 5,293 children (7-11 year-olds) from Poznań (Poland) was divided into two subgroups: experimental and control one. The research group was participating in extra physical activities. Measurements (height and weight) were taken twice: at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. The estimations of the prevalence of overweight/obesity were based on the cut-off points of the IOTF values. To estimate the risk the odds ratio (OR) were calculated. There were no differences in BMI for both boys and girls. Also there were no significant differences in prevalence of overweight and obesity, for both sexes. The risk of being overweight/obese was not reduced in children in the experimental group - OR for boys was 0.93 (0.80, 1.08), and for girls OR = 0.88 (0.76, 1.03). In conclusion, the risk of overweight/obesity has not changed after one year of extra physical activities and engagement in health-oriented education program. This study shows that in case of such programs it is necessary to apply more intense interventions, probably also during longer period of time. It is possible that other adverse factors have a stronger influence on the body mass, which would suggest that the theoretical part of intervention concerning pro-health-related behaviors was not implemented in practice.

  12. Impact of a school-based intervention on nutritional education and physical activity in primary public schools in Chile (KIND programme study protocol: cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Bustos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region one school will be selected for each of the three nutritional intervention modes and one school will be selected as the control group. The intervention modes consist of the following: Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN; Optimized physical activity (AFSO; Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN + optimized physical activity (AFSO; Control group. The effectiveness of each intervention will be evaluated by determining the nutritional condition of each child by measuring percentage of body fat, BMI and the z-score of the BMI. This study will also identify the eating behaviours, nutritional knowledge and fitness of each child, along with the effective time of moderate activity during physical education classes. Discussion A protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to control and/or reduce the rates of childhood obesity for children between 6 and 10 years of age was developed. The protocol was developed in line with the Declaration of Helsinski, the Nüremberg Code and the University of Chile Guidelines for ethical committees, and was approved by the INTA, Universidad de Chile ethical committee on Wednesday 12 March 2014. There is consensus among researchers and health and education personnel that schools are a favourable environment for actions to prevent and/or control childhood obesity. However a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to date has led some to question the wisdom of

  13. Impact of a school-based intervention on nutritional education and physical activity in primary public schools in Chile (KIND) programme study protocol: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, Sonia; Leyton, Bárbara; Cano, Marcelo; Albala, Cecilia

    2016-12-03

    Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region one school will be selected for each of the three nutritional intervention modes and one school will be selected as the control group. The intervention modes consist of the following: Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN); Optimized physical activity (AFSO); Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN) + optimized physical activity (AFSO); Control group. The effectiveness of each intervention will be evaluated by determining the nutritional condition of each child by measuring percentage of body fat, BMI and the z-score of the BMI. This study will also identify the eating behaviours, nutritional knowledge and fitness of each child, along with the effective time of moderate activity during physical education classes. A protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to control and/or reduce the rates of childhood obesity for children between 6 and 10 years of age was developed. The protocol was developed in line with the Declaration of Helsinski, the Nüremberg Code and the University of Chile Guidelines for ethical committees, and was approved by the INTA, Universidad de Chile ethical committee on Wednesday 12 March 2014. There is consensus among researchers and health and education personnel that schools are a favourable environment for actions to prevent and/or control childhood obesity. However a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to date has led some to question the wisdom of allocating resources to programmes. This is the first study

  14. Alternative Therapeutic Intervention for Individuals with Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Lotan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual with Rett syndrome (RS displays an array of challenging difficulties in all areas of daily living. Since there is no cure for the disorder at this moment, parents of the individual with Rett search for different interventional modalities that will improve the condition and quality of life for their child. During the last few years, many individuals with RS have experienced different kinds of interventions. This paper presents these methods with relevant case stories for others to share the possibilities. This paper reviews the following interventions: animal-assisted therapy, such as dolphin therapy and dog-assisted therapy; auditory integration training; hyperbaric chamber; manual therapy, such as acupuncture/acupressure, aromatherapy, craniosacral therapy, Mayo facial release, Treager massage, chiropractor, and Reiki; mental modification techniques, such as Lovas and cognitive rehabilitation; motoric interventions, such as advanced biomechanical rehabilitation, patterning/Doman-DeLacato approach, and yoga. The present paper is not a recommendation for any of the above-mentioned techniques, but merely a review of different interventions available for the inquisitive parent of the individual with RS.

  15. Effectiveness of reducing the risk of eating-related problems using the German school-based intervention program, "Torera", for preadolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, U; Schaefer, J-M; Wick, K; Brix, C; Bormann, B; Sowa, M; Schwartze, D; Strauss, B

    2014-08-01

    Representative surveys indicate that eating disorders are an increasing problem, especially among (pre)adolescents. We assessed the effects of a German school-based primary prevention program ("Torera") for seventh graders. Torera especially relates to pathological eating behavior in the realm of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. The program is built upon two previously evaluated modules for sixth graders with a gender-specific adaption. The coeducational intervention involves nine manual-guided lessons touching a wide range of eating-related problems. Twenty-two Thuringian secondary schools (n = 256 boys and 277 girls, aged 11-13 years at baseline) participated in a trial with 2 control groups (untreated and pretreated) with pre-post assessment. Primary outcomes were conspicuous eating behavior and body self-esteem, measured by standardized questionnaires (SCOFF, EAT-26D, and FBeK). Girls and students at risk showed significant improvement with small (d = 0.35) to medium (d = 0.66) effect sizes on eating behavior, significantly mediated by body self-esteem. Boys only improved with respect to eating attitudes, revealing a small effect size (d = 0.35). With relatively low implementation costs (about 2.50 per student), Torera provides an efficient model for reducing risky eating behavior and strengthening body self-esteem without negative side effects. To improve the effectiveness of the intervention, further research efforts focusing on at-risk groups (secondary prevention) and structural actions for prevention (e.g., offering healthy school catering) are needed.

  16. Cannabis use in children with individualized risk profiles: Predicting the effect of universal prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovský, Michal; Vonkova, Hana; Čablová, Lenka; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2015-11-01

    To study the effect of a universal prevention intervention targeting cannabis use in individual children with different risk profiles. A school-based randomized controlled prevention trial was conducted over a period of 33 months (n=1874 sixth-graders, baseline mean age 11.82). We used a two-level random intercept logistic model for panel data to predict the probabilities of cannabis use for each child. Specifically, we used eight risk/protective factors to characterize each child and then predicted two probabilities of cannabis use for each child if the child had the intervention or not. Using the two probabilities, we calculated the absolute and relative effect of the intervention for each child. According to the two probabilities, we also divided the sample into a low-risk group (the quarter of the children with the lowest probabilities), a moderate-risk group, and a high-risk group (the quarter of the children with the highest probabilities) and showed the average effect of the intervention on these groups. The differences between the intervention group and the control group were statistically significant in each risk group. The average predicted probabilities of cannabis use for a child from the low-risk group were 4.3% if the child had the intervention and 6.53% if no intervention was provided. The corresponding probabilities for a child from the moderate-risk group were 10.91% and 15.34% and for a child from the high-risk group 25.51% and 32.61%. School grades, thoughts of hurting oneself, and breaking the rules were the three most important factors distinguishing high-risk and low-risk children. We predicted the effect of the intervention on individual children, characterized by their risk/protective factors. The predicted absolute effect and relative effect of any intervention for any selected risk/protective profile of a given child may be utilized in both prevention practice and research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological interventions for individuals with cystic fibrosis and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Fidika, Astrid; Herle, Marion; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2014-06-18

    With increasing survival estimates for individuals with cystic fibrosis, long-term management has become an important focus. Psychological interventions are largely concerned with adherence to treatment, emotional and social adaptation and health-related quality of life. We are unaware of any relevant systematic reviews. To determine whether psychological interventions for people with cystic fibrosis provide significant psychosocial and physical benefits in addition to standard medical care. Studies were identified from two Cochrane trials registers (Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group; Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group), Ovid MEDLINE and PsychINFO; unpublished trials were located through professional networks and Listserves. Most recent search of the Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's register: 19 December 2013.Most recent search of the Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group's register: 12 November 2013. Randomised controlled studies of a broad range of psychological interventions evaluating subjective and objective health outcomes, such as quality of life or pulmonary function, in individuals of all ages with cystic fibrosis and their immediate family. We were interested in psychological interventions, including psychological methods within the scope of psychotherapeutic or psychosomatic mechanism of action (e.g. cognitive behavioural, cognitive, family systems or systemic, psycho-dynamic, or other, e.g. supportive, relaxation, or biofeedback), which were aimed at improving psychological and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. quality of life, levels of stress or distress, psychopathology, etc.), adaptation to disease management and physiological outcomes. Three authors were involved in selecting the eligible studies and two of these authors assessed their risk of bias. The review includes 16 studies (eight new studies included in this update) representing data from 556 participants. Studies are diverse in their design and their methods. They

  18. Design, Intervention Fidelity, and Behavioral Outcomes of a School-Based Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Cluster-Randomized Trial in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Chard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH in schools (WinS interventions on pupil absence and health is mixed. Few WinS evaluations rigorously report on output and outcome measures that allow for comparisons of effectiveness between interventions to be made, or for an understanding of why programs succeed. The Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Health and Education in Laotian Primary Schools (WASH HELPS study was a randomized controlled trial designed to measure the impact of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF Laos WinS project on child health and education. We also measured the sustainability of intervention outputs and outcomes, and analyzed the effectiveness of group hygiene activities on behavior change and habit formation. Here, we present the design and intermediate results from this study. We found the WinS project improved the WASH environment in intervention schools; 87.8% of schools received the intervention per design. School-level adherence to outputs was lower; on average, schools met 61.4% of adherence-related criteria. The WinS project produced positive changes in pupils’ school WASH behaviors, specifically increasing toilet use and daily group handwashing. Daily group hygiene activities are effective strategies to improve school WASH behaviors, but a complementary strategy needs to be concurrently promoted for effective and sustained individual handwashing practice at critical times.

  19. [Individual, community, regulatory, and systemic approaches to tobacco control interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    During the 60s and the 70s strategies for decreasing initiation or quitting have been developed, in order to find those with high success rates. Unfortunately, interventions with an individual approach involved few smokers, so their impact in decreasing smoking prevalence was limited. The socio-ecological model offers a theoretical framework to community interventions for smoking cessation developed during the 80s, in which smoking was considered not only an individual, but also a social problem. In the 80s and the 90s smoking cessation community trials were developed, such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Afterwards, policy interventions (price policy; smoking bans in public places; advertising bans; bans of sales to minors) were developed, such as the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST). California has been the first State all over the world to develop a comprehensive Tobacco Control Program in 1988, becoming the place for an ever-conducted natural experiment. All policy interventions in tobacco control have been finally grouped together in the World Health Organization - Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), the first Public Health Treaty. Study designs have changed, according to the individual, community, or regulatory approaches: the classical randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which the sampling unit is the individual, have been carried out for the evaluation of smoking cessation treatments, whereas cluster RCTs, in which the sampling unit is the community, have been conducted for evaluating community interventions, such as COMMIT. Finally, quasi-experimental studies (before/after study; prospective cohorts, both with a control group), in which the observational unit is a State, have been used for evaluating tobacco control policies, such as ASSIST and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project. Although the successes of the last 20 years, tobacco

  20. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  1. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  2. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester A Mwidunda

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and

  3. Feasibility, Acceptability and Preliminary Treatment Outcomes in a School-Based CBT Intervention Program for Adolescents with ASD and Anxiety in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmic, Irene E.; Aljunied, Mariam; Reaven, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for anxiety difficulties and disorders. Clinic-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective; however, few published school-based CBT programs for youth with ASD exist. In this study, the Facing Your Fears CBT protocol was adapted for delivery and piloted within a school…

  4. Taking Evidence-Based Practices to School: Using Expert Opinion to Develop a Brief, Evidence-Informed School-Based Mental Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Bruns, Eric J.; Weathers, Ericka S.; Canavas, Nick; Ludwig, Kristy; Vander Stoep, Ann; Cheney, Douglas; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    School-based mental health services offer unparalleled opportunities for providing accessible care to children and adolescents. Research indicates that services available in schools are rarely based on evidence of effectiveness and are typically disconnected from the larger school context. To address these issues, the current paper presents…

  5. Feasibility and Impact of Implementing Motivational Enhancement Therapy--Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as a Substance Use Treatment Intervention in School-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belur, Vinetha; Dennis, Michael L.; Ives, Melissa L.; Vincent, Robert; Muck, Randolph

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of behavioral health services to school-based health centers under the Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148) presents an opportunity to improve access to substance use disorders treatment for youth and reduce their substance use, and emotional, health, and school problems. We explore the feasibility of implementing five to seven…

  6. Counselling in infertility: individual, couple and group interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Uschi; Emery, Marysa; Wischmann, Tewes; Thorn, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Infertility is considered a biopsychosocial crisis and infertility counselling is recommended as an integral part of a multidisciplinary approach. This article will outline the theoretical background and describe common interventions used in infertility counselling for individuals, couples and in a group setting. This article summarizes the proceedings of the first campus workshop of the Special interest group of Psychology and Counselling of the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Infertility counselling offers the opportunity to explore, discover and clarify ways of living more satisfyingly and resourcefully when fertility impairments have been diagnosed. The Heidelberg Fertility Consultation Service is presented as a framework for individual and couples counselling and highlights important issues in counselling patients. For group work a number of steps to set up a group within an infertility framework are discussed. In recent years, infertility counselling has become a specialist form of counselling requiring professional expertise and qualification. Key issues and common interventions are presented to raise awareness for the specific counselling needs of individuals and couples experiencing infertility and undergoing medical treatment. Mental health professionals new to the field of reproductive technologies as well as those in other areas of mental health counselling clients with fertility disorders can benefit from the topics addressed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developmental Learning Disorders: From Generic Interventions to Individualized Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMoreau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental learning disorders affect many children, impairing their experience in the classroom and hindering many aspects of their life. Once a bleak sentence associated with life-long difficulties, several learning disorders can now be successfully alleviated, directly benefiting from promising interventions. In this review, we focus on two of the most prevalent learning disorders, dyslexia and ADHD. Recent advances have refined our understanding of the specific neural networks that are altered in these disorders, yet questions remain regarding causal links between neural changes and behavioral improvements. After briefly reviewing the theoretical foundations of dyslexia and ADHD, we explore their distinct and shared characteristics, and discuss the comorbidity of the two disorders. We then examine current interventions, and consider the benefits of approaches that integrate remediation within other activities to encourage sustained motivation and improvements. Finally, we conclude with a reflection on the potential for remediation programs to be personalized by taking into account the specificities and demands of each individual. The effective remediation of learning disorders is critical to modern societies, especially considering the far-reaching ramifications of successful early interventions.

  8. Post-intervention effects on screen behaviours and mediating effect of parental regulation: the HEalth In Adolescents study - a multi-component school-based randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, I.H.; van Stralen, M.M.; Bjelland, M.; Grydeland, M.; Lien, N.; Klepp, K.I.; Anderssen, S.A.; Ommundsen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To improve effectiveness of future screen behaviour interventions, one needs to know whether an intervention works via the proposed mediating mechanisms and whether the intervention is equally effective among subgroups. Parental regulation is identified as a consistent correlate of

  9. An Initial Investigation of the Generalization of a School-Based Social Competence Intervention for Youth with High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of generalization of the Social Competence Intervention-Adolescent (SCI-A curriculum in a school setting for individuals with high-functioning autism or Asperger's Syndrome (=6. This study examined to what degree the generalization of the SCI-A curriculum could be measured when delivered in a school setting. Across the six participants preliminary results suggest improvement on teacher reports of social skills and executive functioning. Some improvements were also evident in direct measures of facial-expression recognition. Data collected in the nonintervention settings indicated that some generalization of social interaction skills may have occurred for all six participants. Future research directions are discussed.

  10. Multifactorial intervention in individuals with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crasto, W.; Jarvis, J.; Khunti, K.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether tighter cardiovascular risk factor control with structured education in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and microalbuminuria benefits cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Participants from a multiethnic population, recruited from primary care and specialist...... risk factor targets, modelled cardiovascular risk scores. Results: Mean (SD) age and diabetes duration of participants were 61.5 (10.5) and 11.5 (9.3) years, respectively. At 18. months, intensive intervention showed significant improvements in HbA1c (7.1(1.0) vs. 7.8(1.4)%, p... (129(16) vs. 139(17) mmHg, p2 vs. 29.0%; p= 0.001 and 0 vs. 6.3%; p= 0.07, respectively. More intensive participants achieved ≥3 risk factor...

  11. ‘Let’s Move It’ – a school-based multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among older adolescents in vocational secondary schools: a study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Hankonen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA has been shown to decline during adolescence, and those with lower education have lower levels of activity already at this age, calling for targeted efforts for them. No previous study has demonstrated lasting effects of school-based PA interventions among older adolescents. Furthermore, these interventions have rarely targeted sedentary behaviour (SB despite its relevance to health. The Let’s Move It trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of a school-based, multi-level intervention, on PA and SB, among vocational school students. We hypothesise that the intervention is effective in increasing moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, particularly among those with low or moderate baseline levels, and decreasing SB among all students. Methods The design is a cluster-randomised parallel group trial with an internal pilot study. The trial is conducted in six vocational schools in the Helsinki Metropolitan area, Finland. The intervention is carried out in 30 intervention classes, and 27 control classes retain the standard curriculum. The randomisation occurs at school-level to avoid contamination and to aid delivery. Three of the six schools, randomly allocated, receive the ‘Let’s Move It’ intervention which consists of 1 group sessions and poster campaign targeting students’ autonomous PA motivation and self-regulation skills, 2 sitting reduction in classrooms via alterations in choice architecture and teacher behaviour, and 3 enhancement of PA opportunities in school, home and community environments. At baseline, student participants are blind to group allocation. The trial is carried out in six batches in 2015–2017, with main measurements at pre-intervention baseline, and 2-month and 14-month follow-ups. Primary outcomes are for PA, MVPA measured by accelerometry and self-report, and for SB, sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time (accelerometry

  12. School Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Aid Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…

  13. Protocol for Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With or At-Risk of Academic Difficulties in Grade 7 to 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review will examine the effects of targeted interventions to students with or at-risk of academic difficulties in grades 7 to 12 on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. We will examine interventions such as for example tutoring, cooperative learning, computer-assisted in......This systematic review will examine the effects of targeted interventions to students with or at-risk of academic difficulties in grades 7 to 12 on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. We will examine interventions such as for example tutoring, cooperative learning, computer...

  14. The Effects of Working at Gaining Employment Skills on the Social and Vocational Skills of Adolescents with Disabilities: A School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Doren, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of the Working at Gaining Employment Skills (WAGES) curriculum on the social and occupational skills of adolescents with disabilities. Adolescents with disabilities were assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Youth in the intervention group were exposed to the WAGES…

  15. Protocol for Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With or At-Risk of Academic Difficulties in Grade K to 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Eiberg, Misja

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review will examine the effects of targeted interventions to students with or at-risk of academic difficulties in Kindergarten to grade 6 on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. We will examine interventions such as for example tutoring, cooperative learning, computer...

  16. Including Parents in the Continuum of School-Based Mental Health Services: A Review of Intervention Program Research from 1995 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Linda Raffaele; Ogg, Julia; Loker, Troy; Fefer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors reviewed journal articles published between 1995 and 2010 that described student mental health interventions involving parents delivered in school settings. Their review identified 100 articles describing 39 interventions. On the basis of participant selection criteria provided by the authors of the reviewed articles,…

  17. Impact and Acceptability of the Coach and Teacher Training within a School-Based Sport-for-Health Smoking Prevention Intervention: Smokefree Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnham-Lee, Katy; Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E.; Knowles, Zoe; Foweather, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact and acceptability of a three-hour bespoke training workshop for sports coaches and teachers to subsequently deliver a sport-for-health smoking prevention intervention in primary schools. Questionnaires were completed pre- and post-training by both teachers (N = 24) and coaches (N = 8), and post-intervention by…

  18. Assessment of individual doses and intervention planning at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, M.; Forkel-Wirth, D.; Gaborit, J.C.; Menzel, H.; Roesler, S.

    2006-01-01

    Founded in 1954, CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research, one of the world's largest international particle physics centres. It sits astride the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently being installed in a 27-kilometer ring tunnel, buried deep below the countryside on the outskirts of Geneva, Switzerland and the Pays de Gex, France. When its operation begins in 2007, the LHC will be the world's most power particle accelerator. The start-up and the operation of the LHC will mark a new era for CERN's operational radiation protection. The total surface of CERN's radiation areas will enlarge significantly and a large number of work places have to be regularly monitored by CERN's radiation protection group. The maintenance personnel will comprise CERN staff, outside contractors and a large number of physicists from all over the world. CERN meets this challenge by applying optimisation processes already in the design of accelerator and detector components and by an appropriate intervention and dose planning during operation. Detailed Monte Carlo calculations were performed during the design phase of the LHC and were used to identify the potential radiation hazards during future maintenance in areas with elevated beam losses (accelerator ejection and injection, beam dumps, target areas or beam cleaning insertions) and thus elevated dose rates. In an iterative way, the design of the accelerator components and the layout of these regions were optimised. The impact of the proposed modifications on the dose to personnel was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations. Calculated individual and collective doses were then compared to design constraints. (author)

  19. Assessment of Individual Doses and Intervention Planning at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, M.; Forkel-Wirth, D.; Gaborit, J.C.; Menzel, H.; Roesler, S.; Vincke, H.

    2006-01-01

    Founded in 1954, CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research, one of the world's largest international particle physics centres. It sits astride the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva. The Large Hadron Collider (Lhc) is currently being installed in a 27-kilometer ring tunnel, buried deep below the countryside on the outskirts of Geneva, Switzerland and the Pays de Gex, France. When its operation begins in 2007, the Lhc will be the world's most powerful particle accelerator. The start-up and the operation of the Lhc will mark a new era for CERN's operational radiation protection. The total surface of CERN's radiation areas will enlarge significantly and a large number of work places have to be regularly monitored by CERN's radiation protection group. The maintenance personnel will comprise CERN staff, outside contractors and a large number of physicists from all over the world. CERN meets this challenge by applying optimisation processes already in the design of accelerator and detector components and by an appropriate intervention and dose planning during operation. Detailed Monte Carlo calculations were performed during the design phase of the Lhc and were used to identify the potential radiation hazards during future maintenance in areas with elevated beam losses (accelerator ejection and injection, beam dumps, target areas or beam cleaning insertions) and thus elevated dose rates. In an iterative way, the design of the accelerator components and the layout of these regions were optimised. The impact of the proposed modifications on the dose to personnel was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations. Calculated individual and collective doses were then compared to design constraints. (authors)

  20. Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in Rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hetherington

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Methods Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged pastoralist high-school students and communities in the development and evaluation of culturally and contextually relevant strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Using a train-the-trainer approach, key activities included teacher workshops, school-based lessons, extra-curricular activities, community events and a One Health sanitation science fair which showcased projects related to water, sanitation and hygiene in relation to human and animal health. The process and outcome of the study were evaluated through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with diverse project participants, as well as pre- and post- questionnaires completed by students on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning sanitation and hygiene. Results The questionnaire results at baseline and follow-up showed statistically significant improvements on key measures including a decrease in unhygienic behaviors, an increase in the perceived importance of handwashing and intention to use the toilet, and increased communication in the social network about the importance of clean water and improved sanitation and hygiene practices, however there were no significant changes in sanitation related knowledge. Qualitative data highlighted strong leadership emerging from youth and enthusiasm from teachers and students concerning the overall approach in the project, including the use of participatory methods. There was a high degree of community engagement with hundreds of

  1. Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Erin; Eggers, Matthijs; Wamoyi, Joyce; Hatfield, Jennifer; Manyama, Mange; Kutz, Susan; Bastien, Sheri

    2017-02-07

    Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education) is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged pastoralist high-school students and communities in the development and evaluation of culturally and contextually relevant strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Using a train-the-trainer approach, key activities included teacher workshops, school-based lessons, extra-curricular activities, community events and a One Health sanitation science fair which showcased projects related to water, sanitation and hygiene in relation to human and animal health. The process and outcome of the study were evaluated through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with diverse project participants, as well as pre- and post- questionnaires completed by students on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning sanitation and hygiene. The questionnaire results at baseline and follow-up showed statistically significant improvements on key measures including a decrease in unhygienic behaviors, an increase in the perceived importance of handwashing and intention to use the toilet, and increased communication in the social network about the importance of clean water and improved sanitation and hygiene practices, however there were no significant changes in sanitation related knowledge. Qualitative data highlighted strong leadership emerging from youth and enthusiasm from teachers and students concerning the overall approach in the project, including the use of participatory methods. There was a high degree of community engagement with hundreds of community members participating in school-based events

  2. Do school-based interventions focusing on physical activity, fitness, or fundamental movement skill competency produce a sustained impact in these outcomes in children and adolescents? A systematic review of follow-up studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Samuel K; Costigan, Sarah A; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Stodden, David F; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) who have participated in school-based interventions have sustained outcomes in PA, fitness, and/or FMS. A systematic search of six electronic databases (CINAHL® Plus with Full Text, Ovid MEDLINE®, SPORTDiscus™, Scopus, PsycINFO® and ERIC) was conducted from 1995 to 26 July 2012. Included studies were school-based studies (including randomized controlled trials, longitudinal cohort, quasi-experimental, and experimental) that had a positive effect at post intervention in at least one variable and had a follow-up PA, fitness, or FMS assessment at least 6 months after the post-intervention assessment. Risk of bias assessment was guided by the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" statement. The search identified 14 articles, and some studies addressed multiple outcomes: 13 articles assessed PA; three assessed fitness; and two assessed FMS. No study in this review met four key methodological criteria that have been shown to influence results, i.e., clarity on the randomization process, assessor blinding, analyzing participants in their original groups, and retaining sufficient participants through the entire study. Three-quarters (ten of 13) of the studies addressing PA, reported PA behavior change maintenance. The length of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 20 years, and the degree of PA difference reported was between 3 and 14 min per day. Only one of the three studies assessing fitness reported a sustained impact, whilst both studies that assessed FMS reported maintenance of effects. It is likely that PA is a sustainable outcome from interventions in children and adolescents, and there is reasonable evidence that interventions of longer than 1 year and interventions that utilize a theoretical model or framework are effective in producing this sustained impact. It would seem probable that FMS are a sustainable

  3. Sibling Involvement in Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Carolyn M.; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers have studied various interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Occasionally, siblings will be included in intervention studies, participating in programs designed to address a number of challenges faced by individuals with ASD. Although sibling involvement in such interventions is not a new phenomenon,…

  4. Six year follow-up of students who participated in a school-based physical activity intervention: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Lyndon O

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the long-term impact of a childhood motor skill intervention on adolescent motor skills and physical activity. Methods In 2006, we undertook a follow-up of motor skill proficiency (catch, kick, throw, vertical jump, side gallop and physical activity in adolescents who had participated in a one-year primary school intervention Move It Groove It (MIGI in 2000. Logistic regression models were analysed for each skill to determine whether the probability of children in the intervention group achieving mastery or near mastery was either maintained or had increased in subsequent years, relative to controls. In these models the main predictor variable was intervention status, with adjustment for gender, grade, and skill level in 2000. A general linear model, controlling for gender and grade, examined whether former intervention students spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at follow-up than control students. Results Half (52%, n = 481 of the 928 MIGI participants were located in 28 schools, with 276 (57% assessed. 52% were female, 58% in Grade 10, 40% in Grade 11 and 54% were former intervention students. At follow-up, intervention students had improved their catch ability relative to controls and were five times more likely to be able to catch: ORcatch = 5.51, CI (1.95 – 15.55, but had lost their advantage in the throw and kick: ORthrow = .43, CI (.23 – .82, ORkick = .39, CI (.20 – .78. For the other skills, intervention students appeared to maintain their advantage: ORjump = 1.14, CI (.56 – 2.34, ORgallop = 1.24, CI (.55 – 2.79. Intervention students were no more active at follow-up. Conclusion Six years after the 12-month MIGI intervention, whilst intervention students had increased their advantage relative to controls in one skill, and appeared to maintain their advantage in two, they lost their advantage in two skills and were no more active than controls

  5. Mid-way and post-intervention effects on potential determinants of physical activity and sedentary behavior, results of the HEIA study - a multi-component school-based randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Grydeland, May; Lien, Nanna; Andersen, Lene F; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2012-05-29

    There is limited knowledge as to whether obesity prevention interventions are able to produce change in the determinants hypothesized to precede change in energy balance-related behaviors in young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on a wide range of theoretically informed determinants of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Moderation effects of gender, weight status and parental education level and whether the perceived intervention dose received influenced the effects were also explored. The HEIA study was a 20-month school-based, randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight development. In total, 1418 11-year-olds participated at baseline and post-intervention assessment. Enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends related to PA, perceived parental regulation of TV-viewing and computer/game-use and perceived social inclusion at schools were examined by covariance analyses to assess overall effects and moderation by gender, weight status and parental education, mid-way and post-intervention. Covariance analyses were also used to examine the role of intervention dose received on change in the determinants. At mid-way enjoyment (p = .03), perceived social support from teachers (p = .003) and self-efficacy (p = .05) were higher in the intervention group. Weight status moderated the effect on self-efficacy, with a positive effect observed among the normal weight only. At post-intervention results were sustained for social support from teachers (p = .001), while a negative effect was found for self-efficacy (p = .02). Weight status moderated the effect on enjoyment, with reduced enjoyment observed among the overweight. Moderation effects for parental education level were detected for perceived social support from parents and teachers. Finally, positive effects on several determinants were observed among those receiving a high

  6. Mid-way and post-intervention effects on potential determinants of physical activity and sedentary behavior, results of the HEIA study - a multi-component school-based randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Ingunn H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited knowledge as to whether obesity prevention interventions are able to produce change in the determinants hypothesized to precede change in energy balance-related behaviors in young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on a wide range of theoretically informed determinants of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB. Moderation effects of gender, weight status and parental education level and whether the perceived intervention dose received influenced the effects were also explored. Methods The HEIA study was a 20-month school-based, randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight development. In total, 1418 11-year-olds participated at baseline and post-intervention assessment. Enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends related to PA, perceived parental regulation of TV-viewing and computer/game-use and perceived social inclusion at schools were examined by covariance analyses to assess overall effects and moderation by gender, weight status and parental education, mid-way and post-intervention. Covariance analyses were also used to examine the role of intervention dose received on change in the determinants. Results At mid-way enjoyment (p = .03, perceived social support from teachers (p = .003 and self-efficacy (p = .05 were higher in the intervention group. Weight status moderated the effect on self-efficacy, with a positive effect observed among the normal weight only. At post-intervention results were sustained for social support from teachers (p = .001, while a negative effect was found for self-efficacy (p = .02. Weight status moderated the effect on enjoyment, with reduced enjoyment observed among the overweight. Moderation effects for parental education level were detected for perceived social support from parents and teachers. Finally, positive effects on several

  7. The effect of self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation on motivation : A longitudinal study on the effect of school-based interventions in secondary education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, Alexander; Prince, Arnout; Opdenakker, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Studies show a decrease in students’ motivation in secondary education. Hence, it was investigated whether training of teachers could stop this decline. Two interventions were implemented in prevocational secondary education, being self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation

  8. Assessing the impact of a school-based safe water intervention on household adoption of point-of-use water treatment practices in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We assessed a pilot project by UNICEF and Hindustan Unilever Limited to improve the quality of drinking water for children in schools through adoption of improved drinking water practices among households in southern India. The intervention consisted of providing classrooms of 200 schools a commercial water purifier, and providing basic hygiene and water treatment information to students, parents, and teachers. We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in improving awareness or uptake of effective water treatment practices at home. A similar proportion of household members in the intervention and control groups boiled their water (P = 0.60), used a ceramic filtration system (P = 0.33), and used a cloth filter (P = 0.89). One year after the launch of the campaign, household ownership of the commercial purifier promoted at schools was higher in the intervention group (26%) than the control group (19%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.53).

  9. Action Research in the Design, Development and Delivery of a Sustainable, School-based, Health Promotion Intervention for Children and Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Nobles, JD; Staniford, LJ; Gately, P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Interventions are often developed without the guidance of the target group to be worked with. Action research (programme development with the input of researchers and clients) has been highlighted as a useful method for increasing programme engagement and achieving programme outcomes [1]. Hearty Lives Renfrewshire (HLR), is a British Heart Foundation a community-based intervention aiming to increase knowledge and awareness of CVD risk factors in young people, adopted an action r...

  10. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  11. The impact of a school-based gardening intervention on intentions and behaviour related to fruit and vegetable consumption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma; Bryant, Elizabeth; Clarke, Neil; Birch, Samantha; Staples, Victoria; Sheffield, David

    2015-06-01

    A total of 77 children (34 boys, 43 girls, mean age ± standard deviation = 9 ± 1 years) participated in this study; 46 children (intervention) undertook a 12-week school gardening programme and 31 children acted as controls. Measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and fruit and vegetable consumption were taken pre- and post-intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the intervention group increased daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased intentions, attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Østergaard, Lars; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten

    2014-09-18

    The aim of the study; LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion was to develop, document, and evaluate a multi-component physical activity (PA) intervention in public schools in Denmark. The primary outcome was cognitive function. Secondary outcomes were academic skills, body composition, aerobic fitness and PA. The primary aim of the present paper was to describe the rationale, design and methods of the LCoMotion study. LCoMotion was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled study. Fourteen schools from all five regions in Denmark participated. All students from 6th and 7th grades were invited to participate (n = 869) and consent was obtained for 87% (n = 759). Baseline measurements were obtained in November/December 2013 and follow-up measurements in May/June 2014. The intervention lasted five months and consisted of a "package" of three main components: PA during academic lessons, PA during recess and PA homework. Furthermore a cycling campaign was conducted during the intervention period. Intervention schools should endeavor to ensure that students were physically active for at least 60 min every school day. Cognitive function was measured by a modified Eriksen flanker task and academic skills by a custom made mathematics test. PA was objectively measured by accelerometers (ActiGraph, GT3X and GT3X+) and aerobic fitness assessed by an intermittent shuttle-run test (the Andersen intermittent running test). Furthermore, compliance with the intervention was assessed by short message service (SMS)-tracking and questionnaires were delivered to students, parents and teachers. LCoMotion has ability to provide new insights on the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention on cognitive function and academic skills in 6th and 7th grade students. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02012881 (10/10/2013).

  13. Effect of nutrition changes on foods selected by students in a middle school-based diabetes prevention intervention program: the HEALTHY experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C; Stadler, Diane D; Staten, Myrlene A; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-02-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and à la carte venues are compared to the experience of control schools. The intervention was implemented in 21 middle schools from winter 2007 through spring 2009 (following a cohort of students from sixth through eighth grades); 21 schools acted as observed controls. The nutrition component targeted school food service environmental change. Data identifying foods and nutrients served (selected by students for consumption) were collected over a 20-day period at baseline and end of study. Analysis compared end of study values for intervention versus control schools. Intervention schools more successfully limited dessert and snack food portion size in NSLP and à la carte and lowered fat content of foods served. Servings of high-fiber grain-based foods and/or legumes were improved in SBP but not NSLP. Intervention and control schools eliminated >1% fat milk and added-sugar beverages in SBP, but intervention schools were more successful in NSLP and à la carte. The HEALTHY program demonstrated significant changes in the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served in the SBP, NSLP, and à la carte venues, as part of an effort to decrease childhood obesity and support beneficial effects in some secondary HEALTHY study outcomes. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. A school-based comprehensive lifestyle intervention among Chinese kids against Obesity (CLICK-Obesity) in Nanjing City, China: the baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Wang, Xiaorong; Ware, Robert S; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Hong, Xin; Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Li, Jiequan; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    urgent development of effective interventions to prevent rapidly rising childhood obesity in China is needed. Between May 2010 and December 2013, a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 4th graders in eight urban primary schools randomly assigned to intervention or control groups in Nanjing, China. A multi-component intervention program was implemented within the treatment group, while students in the control group followed their usual health education curriculum without additional intervention. At baseline, 638 and 544 students were enrolled in the intervention and control group, respectively. The prevalence of excess body weight was 26.8%, with 27.4% in the intervention group and 26.1% in the control group (p=0.61). The mean (SD) BMI and WC was 18.7 (3.0) and 63.0 (9.2) for participants in intervention schools, and 18.5 (2.9) and 63.6 (8.7) for students in control group, separately (p=0.24 and 0.41, respectively). Compared to those who were not aware of what lifestyle/behavior factors were unhealthy, students who were aware of the unhealthy lifestyle/ behavior factors consumed fewer fried snacks (0.46±0.76 serves/week vs 0.65±0.91 serves/week; p<0.01), soft drinks (160±194 ml/week vs 199±227 ml/week; p<0.01), but larger amount of meat (502±429 g/week vs 449±344 g/week; p=0.03), and reported less screen time (214±232 minutes/week vs 252±264 minutes/week; p<0.01). Moreover, there was no difference within physical activity time between these two groups (257±341 minutes/week vs 218±324 minutes/week; p=0.13). Main characteristics of participants were balanced at baseline within intervention and control schools, but a gap existed between healthy lifestyle knowledge and actual healthy behavior in students. ChiCTR-ERC-11001819.

  15. Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Fernandes Patriota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. Methods/study design The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438 consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] –for-age Z score, n = 138 received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353 participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n

  16. Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriota, Pollyanna Fernandes; Filgueiras, Andrea Rocha; de Almeida, Viviane Belucci Pires; Alexmovitz, Guilherme Aparecido Costa; da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; de Carvalho, Vivian Fortuna Feres; Carvalho, Natália; de Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Domene, Semiramis Martins Alvares; do Prado, Wagner Luiz; Torres, Gustavo Enrique Salazar; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Reis; Sesso, Ricardo; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2017-09-15

    Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN) in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438) consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] -for-age Z score, n = 138) received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353) participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n = 125) were invited to attend the routine outpatient

  17. A School-Based, Peer-Led, Social Marketing Intervention To Engage Spanish Adolescents in a Healthy Lifestyle ("We Are Cool"-Som la Pera Study): A Parallel-Cluster Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Llauradó, Elisabet; Tarro, Lucia; Moriña, David; Papell-Garcia, Ignasi; Prades-Tena, Jordi; Kettner-Høeberg, Helle; Puiggròs, Francesc; Arola, Lluís; Davies, Amy; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Encouraging adolescents to adopt healthy lifestyles can be challenging. The aim of the "Som la Pera" study was to engage adolescents by applying new strategies to increase both their fruit and vegetable consumption and their physical activity (PA) while reducing their sedentary behavior. In disadvantaged neighborhoods of Reus (Spain), two high schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 170 adolescents 13- to 16-year-olds) and two were assigned to the control group (n = 223 adolescents 13- to 16-year-olds). The intervention, which lasted 12 months and spanned 2 academic years (2013-2015), used social marketing (SM) to improve healthy choices. The peer-led strategy involved 5 adolescents who designed and implemented 10 activities as challenges for their 165 school-aged peers. The control group received no intervention. To assess self-reported lifestyles in both groups, the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey was used at baseline and end of study. After 12 months, intervention adolescents showed an increase of 28.9% in ≥1 fruit/day (p < 0.01) and of 18.5% in ≥6 hours/week of PA (p < 0.01) compared with controls. Additionally, intervention group males had an increase of 28.8% in ≥1 vegetable/day (p < 0.01) and of 15.6% in ≤2 hours/day of sedentary activity (p = 0.01) compared with controls. A school-based, peer-led, SM intervention developed by adolescents attending high schools in low-income neighborhoods effectively improved the healthy choices of their school-aged peers, leading to increased fruit consumption and PA in adolescents of both genders. Furthermore, adolescent males were more sensitive to improvements in healthy choices, showing increased vegetable consumption and decreased sedentary behavior.

  18. Impact Evaluation of a School-Based Counselling Intervention in Northern Ireland: Is It Effective for Pupils Who Have Been Bullied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElearney, Aisling; Adamson, Gary; Shevlin, Mark; Bunting, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    Bullying remains a significant issue in the lives of many children and young people at school and can have serious negative implications for emotional health and well-being in the short and longer term. This paper reports on an impact evaluation of the effectiveness of a school counselling intervention in promoting positive change in the peer…

  19. LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Ostergaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study; LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion was to develop, document, and evaluate a multi-component physical activity (PA) intervention in public schools in Denmark. The primary outcome was cognitive function. Secondary outcomes were academic skills, body composi...

  20. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-Based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program: The HEALTHY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A.; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program…

  1. Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led school-based intervention to increase the physical activity of adolescent girls (PLAN-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Kipping, Ruth; Banfield, Kathryn; Tomkinson, Keeley; Garfield, Kirsty; Lyons, Ronan A; Simon, Joanne; Blair, Peter S; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity levels are low amongst adolescent girls, and this population faces specific barriers to being active. Peer influences on health behaviours are important in adolescence and peer-led interventions might hold promise to change behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of Peer-Led physical Activity iNtervention for Adolescent girls (PLAN-A), a peer-led intervention aimed at increasing adolescent girls' physical activity levels. A two-arm cluster randomised feasibility trial will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention n  = 4; control n  = 2) with year 8 (12-13 years old) girls. The intervention will operate at a year group level and consist of year 8 girls nominating influential peers within their year group to become peer-supporters. Approximately 15 % of the cohort will receive 3 days of training about physical activity and interpersonal communication skills. Peer-supporters will then informally diffuse messages about physical activity amongst their friends for 10 weeks. Data will be collected at baseline (time 0 (T0)), immediately after the intervention (time 1 (T1)) and 12 months after baseline measures (time 2 (T2)). In this feasibility trial, the primary interest is in the recruitment of schools and participants (both year 8 girls and peer-supporters), delivery and receipt of the intervention, data provision rates and identifying the cost categories for future economic analysis. Physical activity will be assessed using 7-day accelerometry, with the likely primary outcome in a fully-powered trial being daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants will also complete psychosocial questionnaires at each time point: assessing motivation, self-esteem and peer physical activity norms. Data analysis will be largely descriptive and focus on recruitment, attendance and data provision rates. The findings will inform the sample size required for a

  2. TRAVELLERS: a school-based early intervention programme helping young people manage and process change, loss and transition. Pilot phase findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Pauline; Coggan, Carolyn; Bennett, Sara

    2003-06-01

    This paper outlines the conceptual background and findings from the pilot phase of TRAVELLERS--an early intervention programme designed to enhance protective factors for young people experiencing change, loss and transition events and early signs of emotional distress. The pilot study aimed to determine whether TRAVELLERS was a feasible, acceptable and promising intervention for young people within secondary schools in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The conceptual origins of the TRAVELLERS programme are described in terms of: adolescent mental health concerns; emerging mental health promotion theory and practice; and prevention and early intervention models. The key elements of the TRAVELLERS programme are described. The programme was piloted in two secondary schools, one rural and one urban with 34 participants (females n = 24, males n = 10). Evaluation methods included: review of programme materials; identification of potential selection tools appropriate to Year 9 students; analysis of selection questionnaire; and conduct of feedback from participants, facilitators and parents/caregivers. The TRAVELLERS programme provides a means of identifying and selecting young people who may benefit from participating in an early intervention programme. The programme has achieved a statistically significant reduction in participants' distress (p Young people were overwhelmingly enthusiastic about most aspects of TRAVELLERS. School personnel reported that TRAVELLERS was an appropriate and acceptable programme to the school. Targeted interventions provided within a supportive school environment can contribute to enhancing protective factors such as personal and interpersonal coping strategies, increased help-seeking behaviour, and young people feeling more positive about themselves and their lives. The pilot programme has been amended and prepared for a two year trial phase in 10 secondary schools during 2002-2003.

  3. Individual, social and environmental determinants of smokeless tobacco and betel quid use amongst adolescents of Karachi: a school-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azmina; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2017-11-28

    With 600 million people using betel quid (BQ) globally, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use being more wide-spread; the duo is an uphill public health concern in South Asian countries. SLT and/or BQ use increases the risk for morbidity and mortality from oral cancer. Because SLT and/or BQ use is initiated during adolescence, it renders this group more vulnerable; and particular attention is needed to curb SLT and/or BQ use to reduce related disease burden. We aimed to observe the differential individual, social and environmental features amongst SLT and/or BQ users to determine the key influencers of its use in adolescents. This study was a cross-sectional survey of 2140 adolescents from secondary schools of Karachi, Pakistan. The main outcome measure was SLT and/or BQ use based on their consumption in the past 30 days. Univariate and multivariate regression binary logistic analyses were employed while reporting results in both crude form and adjusted odds ratio (after adjusting for all remaining individual, social and environmental level variables) with 95% confidence level. A p-value of co-education schools. Students whose peers (OR = 6.79, 95% CI 4.67-9.87, p-value co-education, parents and peers use, lack of knowledge based sessions on harmful health effects of SLT and/or BQ, and easy availability of the product from hawkers outside school all contribute towards enhanced risk of SLT and/or BQ use in adolescents.

  4. Kentucky's Individualized Kindergartens: A State Network Design for Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, B.; Cansler, D. P.

    The KIK (Kentucky Individualized Kindergartens) project, a collaborative project between Kentucky's Department of Education and the Chapel Hill (NC) Training-Outreach project, is designed to serve high risk children. KIK provides early identification of high risk kindergarteners, development of individualized education programs, and implementation…

  5. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  6. A non-equivalent group pilot trial of a school-based physical activity and fitness intervention for 10-11 year old english children: born to move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stuart J; McGrane, Bronagh; Sanders, George; Taylor, Sarah; Owen, Michael; Curry, Whitney

    2016-08-24

    PE lessons are the formal opportunity in schools for promotion of physical activity and fitness. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot PE intervention on physical activity, fitness, and psychosocial outcomes. Participants were 139 children aged 10-11 years from four schools. For six weeks children in two schools received a twice-weekly pilot 'Born to Move' (BTM) physical activity (PA) and fitness intervention alongside one regular PE lesson. Children in the two comparison (COM) schools received their regular twice weekly PE lessons. Outcomes were lesson time and whole-day light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), and MVPA, and sedentary time, muscular fitness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lesson-specific perceived exertion, enjoyment, and perceived competence. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (T0), midway through the intervention (T1), and at the end (T2) using ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. Intervention fidelity was measured using child and teacher surveys at T2 and analysed using Chi-square tests. The BTM group engaged in moderate PA for significantly more lesson time (29.4 %) than the COM group (25.8 %; p = .009, d = .53). The amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) during the T1 BTM lesson contributed 14.0 % to total MVPA, which was significantly more than the COM group's T1 PE lesson (11.4 %; p competence increased in both groups (p fitness, and psychosocial outcomes. Further, BTM was enjoyed by the children, and valued by the teachers. This study can inform the design of a modified larger-scale cluster RCT evaluation.

  7. Kelston Beverages Pilot Study: Rationale, design and implementation of a community and school based intervention to reduce sugary drink consumption among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundborn, G; Ni Mhurchu, C; Ness, C; Latu, H; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The Kelston Beverages Study was designed to increase awareness of the sugar content of sugary drinks, the poor health consequences that high intake of these drinks have, and inform on ways to reduce intake of students. The aims of this pilot study were to refine interventions and processes designed to raise awareness of the harms that sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) have on health, and to reduce their consumption among the youth of a small West Auckland suburb. There were three arms to this interventional study, one in schools, another in community organisations (churches, sports clubs and community groups), and the final arm is in the local retail sector. The school arm was the most extensive component and initially involved a survey of children's knowledge and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) using a brief questionnaire. The study evaluated any SSB policies in schools and for schools that did not have policies, opportunities were scoped to develop and implement them; a canteen AUDIT focussed particularly on beverages was carried out; and finally a student partnered social marketing exercise was undertaken that comprised 2 competitions, one to design a poster, and another to write and perform a rap. Children were re-surveyed at the completion of the intervention (7 months later) to determine change in knowledge and self-reported consumption of SSBs. Both the community organisations and retail arms of this study focussed on raising awareness into the harmful effects of SSBs and establishing healthy beverage policy in the respective organisations. Promising results with regards to acceptability, feasibility, and recruitment as well as valuable learnings with regard to process support the development of a proposal to conduct a cluster randomised trial of the interventions successfully tested in this pilot study.

  8. Exploring the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based self-referral intervention for emotional difficulties in older adolescents: qualitative perspectives from students and school staff

    OpenAIRE

    McKeague, L.; Morant, N.; Blackshaw, E.; Brown, J. S. L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents with emotional difficulties need accessible, acceptable and evidence-based mental health interventions. Self-referral workshops (DISCOVER workshops) were offered to stressed 16- to 19-year olds in 10 Inner London schools. METHOD: Semistructured interviews were conducted with three groups of participants: students who attended a 1-day workshop (n = 15); students who initially showed interest in the DISCOVER workshop programme, but decided not to take part (n...

  9. Exploring the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based self-referral intervention for emotional difficulties in older adolescents: qualitative perspectives from students and school staff.

    OpenAIRE

    McKeague, Lynn; Morant, Nicola; Blackshaw, Emily; Brown, June

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with emotional difficulties need accessible, acceptable and evidence-based mental health interventions. Self-referral workshops (DISCOVER workshops) were offered to stressed 16- to 19-year olds in 10 Inner London schools. Method: Semistructured interviews were conducted with three groups of par- ticipants: students who attended a 1-day workshop (n = 15); students who initially showed interest in the DIS- COVER workshop programme, but decided not to take part (n = 9); a...

  10. Exploring the role of gender norms in nutrition and sexual health promotion in a piloted school-based intervention: The Philadelphia Ujima™ experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ana; Robertson-James, Candace; Reels, Serita; Jeter, Janay; Rivera, Hilda; Yusuf, Zena; Liu

    2015-08-01

    Perceptions of masculinity and femininity influence behaviors and can be identified in young children and adolescents (Brannon, 2004). Thus, adolescents' engagement in health risk or promoting behaviors is influenced by perceptions of masculinity and femininity and the differences in expectations, norms and responsibilities for girls and boys (WHO, 2007). Girls and boys have different needs, and gender-based interventions that consider similarities as well as differences are needed. A gender-based nutrition and sexual health promotion program was developed and piloted by the Philadelphia Ujima Coalition in a high school setting. To explore the gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of the influence of gender norms on weight, nutrition, physical activity, and sexual health and the implication of these differences in future gender-integrated health promotion programming for youth, a content analysis of student and facilitator debriefing forms were implemented for the participating schools. The content analysis was used to identify central themes, concepts gained, and overall impact of the intervention sessions. Overall, gender norms influence healthy eating practices and activity through influencing perceptions of body type in adolescents. Gender norms also influence sexual activity and decision making through influencing perceptions of beauty, masculinity, femininity, pressures and popular concepts related to sexual activity. Thus, interventions that address gender may more effectively promote health and wellness in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of family-related factors in the effects of the UP4FUN school-based family-focused intervention targeting screen time in 10- to 12-year-old children: the ENERGY project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Bere, Elling; Verloigne, Maïté; van Stralen, Maartje M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Vik, Frøydis Nordgård; Manios, Yannis; Grillenberger, Monika; Kovács, Eva; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2014-08-18

    Screen-related behaviours are highly prevalent in schoolchildren. Considering the adverse health effects and the relation of obesity and screen time in childhood, efforts to affect screen use in children are warranted. Parents have been identified as an important influence on children's screen time and therefore should be involved in prevention programmes. The aim was to examine the mediating role of family-related factors on the effects of the school-based family-focused UP4FUN intervention aimed at screen time in 10- to 12-year-old European children (n child-parent dyads = 1940). A randomised controlled trial was conducted to test the six-week UP4FUN intervention in 10- to 12-year-old children and one of their parents in five European countries in 2011 (n child-parent dyads = 1940). Self-reported data of children were used to assess their TV and computer/game console time per day, and parents reported their physical activity, screen time and family-related factors associated with screen behaviours (availability, permissiveness, monitoring, negotiation, rules, avoiding negative role modeling, and frequency of physically active family excursions). Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country). Almost all TV-specific and half of the computer-specific family-related factors were associated with children's screen time. However, the measured family-related factors did not mediate intervention effects on children's TV and computer/game console use, because the intervention was not successful in changing these family-related factors. Future screen-related interventions should aim to effectively target the home environment and parents' practices related to children's use of TV and computers to decrease children's screen time. The study is registered in the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (registration number: ISRCTN34562078).

  12. A non-equivalent group pilot trial of a school-based physical activity and fitness intervention for 10–11 year old english children: born to move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. Fairclough

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PE lessons are the formal opportunity in schools for promotion of physical activity and fitness. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot PE intervention on physical activity, fitness, and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Participants were 139 children aged 10–11 years from four schools. For six weeks children in two schools received a twice-weekly pilot ‘Born to Move’ (BTM physical activity (PA and fitness intervention alongside one regular PE lesson. Children in the two comparison (COM schools received their regular twice weekly PE lessons. Outcomes were lesson time and whole-day light (LPA, moderate (MPA, vigorous (VPA, and MVPA, and sedentary time, muscular fitness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, and lesson-specific perceived exertion, enjoyment, and perceived competence. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (T0, midway through the intervention (T1, and at the end (T2 using ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. Intervention fidelity was measured using child and teacher surveys at T2 and analysed using Chi-square tests. Results The BTM group engaged in moderate PA for significantly more lesson time (29.4 % than the COM group (25.8 %; p = .009, d = .53. The amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA during the T1 BTM lesson contributed 14.0 % to total MVPA, which was significantly more than the COM group’s T1 PE lesson (11.4 %; p < .001, d = .47. The BTM group were significantly more active during the whole-day (p < .05 and the school-day (p < .01. In both groups push-up test performance increased (p < .001 and CRF test performance decreased (p < .01. Perceived exertion, enjoyment, and perceived competence increased in both groups (p < .05, but the BTM group rated their enjoyment of the T1 BTM lesson higher than the COM group rated their PE lesson (p = .02, d = .56. The children’s and teachers’ responses to the intervention indicated that the delivery aims of enjoyment

  13. Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative

  14. The impact of active stakeholder involvement on recruitment, retention and engagement of schools, children and their families in the cluster randomised controlled trial of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP): a school-based intervention to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J; McHugh, C; Minton, J; Eke, H; Wyatt, K

    2017-08-14

    Recruitment and retention of participants is crucial for statistical power and internal and external validity and participant engagement is essential for behaviour change. However, many school-based interventions focus on programme content rather than the building of supportive relationships with all participants and tend to employ specific standalone strategies, such as incentives, to improve retention. We believe that actively involving stakeholders in both intervention and trial design improves recruitment and retention and increases the chances of creating an effective intervention. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme, HeLP (an obesity prevention programme for children 9-10 years old) was developed using intervention mapping and involved extensive stakeholder involvement in both the design of the trial and the intervention to ensure that: (i) delivery methods were suitably engaging, (ii) deliverers had the necessary skills and qualities to build relationships and (iii) the intervention dovetailed with the National Curriculum. HeLP was a year-long intervention consisting of 4 multi-component phases using a range of delivery methods. We recruited 1324 children from 32 schools from the South West of England to a cluster-randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of HeLP in preventing obesity. The primary outcome was change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) at 24 months post randomisation. Secondary outcomes included additional anthropometric and behavioural (physical activity and diet) measures at 18 and 24 months. Anthropometric and behavioural measures were taken in 99%, 96% and 94% of children at baseline, 18 and 24 months, respectively, with no differential follow up between the control and intervention groups at each time point. All children participated in the programme and 92% of children and 77% of parents across the socio-economic spectrum were considered to have actively engaged with HeLP. We attribute our excellent

  15. Formative evaluation of the STAR intervention: improving teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ronél; Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2011-04-01

    The article describes the pilot phase of a participatory reflection and action (PRA) study. The longitudinal investigation explores teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support within the context of HIV/AIDS following an asset-based intervention. The study ensued from our desire to understand and contribute to knowledge about the changed roles of teachers due to adversity in the community, specifically in relation to HIV/AIDS and education. The supportive teachers, assets and resilience (STAR) intervention was facilitated from November 2003 to October 2005 and consisted of the research team undertaking nine field visits and facilitating 20 intervention sessions (2-3 hours each), and 12 post-intervention research visits have been conducted to date. Ten female teachers were selected for participation through random purposeful sampling at a primary school in an informal settlement outside Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Data-generation included PRA activities, observation, informal interactive interviews, and focus group discussions. The data were analysed by means of inductive thematic analysis. We found that the teachers did not view vulnerability as being related to children or HIV/AIDS in isolation, but rather that their psychosocial support to children and the school community was inclusive across a spectrum of vulnerabilities and services. We argue that teachers who are inclined to provide such support will fulfil this role irrespective of understanding policy or receiving training. We contend that teachers are well-positioned to manage school-based psychosocial support in order to create relevant and caring spaces for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

  16. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  17. PRALIMAP: study protocol for a high school-based, factorial cluster randomised interventional trial of three overweight and obesity prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrinier Nelly

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increase in overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents in the last decade, effective prevention strategies for these conditions in adolescents are urgently needed. The PRALIMAP (Promotion de l'ALImentation et de l'Activité Physique trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness for these conditions of 3 health promotion strategies -- educational, screening and environmental -- applied singly or in combination in high schools over a 2-year intervention period. Methods PRALIMAP is a stratified 2 × 2 × 2 factorial cluster randomised controlled trial including 24 state high schools in Lorraine, northeastern France, in 2 waves: 8 schools in 2006 (wave 1 and 16 in 2007 (wave 2. Students entering the selected high schools in the 4 academic years from 2006 to 2009 are eligible for data collection. Interventional strategies are organized over 2 academic years. The follow-up consists of 3 visits: at the entry of grade 10 (T0, grade 11 (T1 and grade 12 (T2. At T0, 5,458 (85.7% adolescents participated. The educational strategy consists of nutritional lessons, working groups and a final party. The screening strategy consists in detecting overweight/obesity and eating disorders in adolescents and proposing, if necessary, an adapted care management program of 7 group educational sessions. The environmental strategy consists in improving dietary and physical activity offerings in high schools and facilities, especially catering. The main outcomes are body size evolution over time, nutritional behaviour and knowledge, health and quality of life. An evaluation process documents how each intervention strategy is implemented in the schools and estimates the dose of the intervention, allowing for a per protocol analysis after the main intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion PRALIMAP aims at improving the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in adolescents by translating current evidence into public health practice

  18. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion-Learning, Cognition and Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Jakob; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. RESULTS....../m2 (95% CI: -0.39-0.05). Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0-9). Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between...

  19. Structural and functional cardiac adaptations to a 10-week school-based football intervention for 9-10-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, Peter Riis; Nielsen, Claus Malta

    2014-01-01

    -randomized into a control group that maintained their usual activities (CON; two classes, n = 51, 21 boys and 30 girls) and a football training group that performed an additional 3 × 40 min of small-sided football training per week (FT; two classes, n = 46, 23 boys and 23 girls). No baseline differences were observed......The present study investigated the cardiac effects of a 10-week football training intervention for school children aged 9-10 years using comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography as a part of a larger ongoing study. A total of 97 pupils from four school classes were cluster...

  20. EdAl-2 (Educació en Alimentació) programme: reproducibility of a cluster randomised, interventional, primary-school-based study to induce healthier lifestyle activities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauradó, Elisabet; Tarro, Lucia; Moriña, David; Queral, Rosa; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa

    2014-11-20

    To assess the reproducibility of an educational intervention EdAl-2 (Educació en Alimentació) programme in 'Terres de l'Ebre' (Spain), over 22 months, to improve lifestyles, including diet and physical activity (PA). Reproduction of a cluster randomised controlled trial. Two semi-rural town-group primary-school clusters were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Pupils (n=690) of whom 320 constituted the intervention group (1 cluster) and 370 constituted the control group (1 cluster). Ethnicity was 78% Western European. The mean age (±SD) was 8.04±0.6 years (47.7% females) at baseline. Inclusion criteria for clusters were towns from the southern part of Catalonia having a minimum of 500 children aged 7-8 year; complete data for participants, including name, gender, date and place of birth, and written informed consent from parents or guardians. The intervention focused on eight lifestyle topics covered in 12 activities (1 h/activity/session) implemented by health promoting agents in the primary school over three academic years. The primary outcome was obesity (OB) prevalence and the secondary outcomes were body mass index (BMI) collected every year and dietary habits and lifestyles collected by questionnaires filled in by parents at baseline and end-of-study. At 22 months, the OB prevalence and BMI values were similar in intervention and control groups. Relative to children in control schools, the percentage of boys in the intervention group who performed ≥4 after-school PA h/week was 15% higher (p=0.027), whereas the percentage of girls in both groups remained similar. Also, 16.6% more boys in the intervention group watched ≤2 television (TV) h/day (p=0.009), compared to controls; and no changes were observed in girls in both groups. Our school-based intervention is feasible and reproducible by increasing after-school PA (to ≥4 h/week) in boys. Despite this improvement, there was no change in BMI and prevalence of OB. Clinical Trials

  1. Intervention Mapping to develop a Social Cognitive Theory-based intervention for chronic pain tailored to individuals with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S; Young, Sarah R; Johnson, Mallory O; Saag, Michael; Demonte, William; Kerns, Robert; Bair, Matthew J; Kertesz, Stefan; Turan, Janet M; Kilgore, Meredith; Clay, Olivio J; Pekmezi, Dorothy; Davies, Susan

    2018-06-01

    Chronic pain is an important comorbidity among individuals with HIV. Behavioral interventions are widely regarded as evidence-based, efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions for chronic pain in the general population. An accepted principle in behavioral science is that theory-based, systematically-developed behavioral interventions tailored to the unique needs of a target population are most likely to be efficacious. Our aim was to use Intervention Mapping to systematically develop a Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based intervention for chronic pain tailored to individuals with HIV that will improve pain intensity and pain-related functional impairment. Our Intervention Mapping process was informed by qualitative inquiry of 24 patients and seven providers in an HIV primary care clinic. The resulting intervention includes group and one-on-one sessions and peer and staff interventionists. We also developed a conceptual framework that integrates our qualitative findings with SCT-based theoretical constructs. Using this conceptual framework as a guide, our future work will investigate the intervention's impact on chronic pain outcomes, as well as our hypothesized proximal mediators of the intervention's effect.

  2. Process evaluation for a school-based physical activity intervention for 6th- and 7th-grade boys: reach, dose, and fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lorraine B; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Wesolek, Stacey M; Lo, Yun-Jia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the reach, dose, and fidelity of Guys Only Activity for Life (G.O.A.L.), a 7-week pilot intervention conducted from February to March 2011 to increase 6th and 7th grade boys' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). One middle school was randomly assigned to the G.O.A.L. intervention and another from the same urban school district in the Midwestern U.S. to a comparison condition. Thirty boys, ages 10-14 years, participated in each school. The intervention, guided by the Health Promotion Model (HPM) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT), consisted of a 90-min after-school physical activity club 4 days/week and one motivational interviewing session with a registered (school) nurse. Data were gathered via attendance records, club observations, heart rate monitors, audio-taping of motivational interviewing sessions, and surveys. On average boys attended the club 2.11 days/week (SD=.86). A trained independent process evaluator reported that the physical activity club instructors provided the boys with the opportunity for a mean of 25.8 min/day of MVPA. Using a four-point Likert scale (1=disagree a lot; 4=agree a lot), the process evaluator perceived that the club was delivered with high fidelity and adherence to the underlying theories (M=3.48; SD=0.39). Sessions with the nurse lasted an average of 13 min, 29 s. All boys attended. Two trained independent coders indicated that the nurse demonstrated at least beginning proficiency for all tasks associated with motivational interviewing, with the exception of using sufficient open- as opposed to closed-ended questions and reflections compared to questions. Fidelity related to session delivery and adherence to the theories was high (M=3.83; SD=0.19). The process evaluation data indicated that strategies are needed to increase attendance and boys' MVPA during the club time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Sydney playground project--levelling the playing field: a cluster trial of a primary school-based intervention aiming to promote manageable risk-taking in children with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Anita C; Wyver, Shirley; Beetham, Kassia S; Ragen, Jo; Naughton, Geraldine; Tranter, Paul; Norman, Richard; Villeneuve, Michelle; Spencer, Grace; Honey, Anne; Simpson, Judith; Baur, Louise; Sterman, Julia

    2015-11-14

    Providing children and adults with opportunities to engage in manageable risk taking may be a stepping stone toward closing the gap in life conditions currently experienced by young people with disabilities. We aim to demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple, innovative program for 1) changing the way parents and teachers view manageable risk-taking for children with disabilities and 2) increasing the level of responsibility that children take for their own actions, as seen on the school playground. We will employ a cluster repeated measures trial with six Sydney-area primary-school-based programs for children with disabilities. The intervention comprises two arms. 1) Risk-reframing--teachers and parents will participate together in small group intervention sessions focusing on the benefits of manageable risk-taking; 2) Introduction of play materials--materials without a defined purpose and facilitative of social cooperation will be introduced to the school playground for children to use at all break times. A control period will be undertaken first for two school terms, followed by two terms of the intervention period. Outcome measures will include playground observations, The Coping Inventory, qualitative field notes, and The Tolerance of Risk in Play Scale. New national programs, such as Australia's National Disability Insurance Scheme, will place increasing demands on young people with disabilities to assume responsibility for difficult decisions regarding procuring services. Innovative approaches, commencing early in life, are required to prepare young people and their carers for this level of responsibility. This research offers innovative intervention strategies for promoting autonomy in children with disabilities and their carers. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registration Number ACTRN12614000549628 (registered 22/5/2014).

  4. Interventions to prevent burnout in high risk individuals: evidence review

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnall, A-M; Jones, R; Akter, H; Woodall, J

    2016-01-01

    Although there is existing evidence on what works to treat burnout and work-related stress, there is less on what works to prevent it from occurring in the first place.\\ud \\ud This report provides an overview of literature covering how to prevent burnout and work-related stress in individuals and within organisations.

  5. A school-based programme for tobacco and alcohol prevention in special education: effectiveness of the modified 'healthy school and drugs' intervention and moderation by school subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Abdullah; Onrust, Simone A; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Pieterse, Marcel E

    2017-03-01

    To test the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) programme on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends upon subtypes of SE schools and the level of implementation. In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-treatment follow-up, 363 students were allocated arbitrarily or depending on teacher motivation to either intervention condition (n = 205) or usual curriculum (n = 158). Thirteen secondary SE schools spread throughout the Netherlands. Participants were recruited during the autumn of 2013 from three school subtypes: SE for adolescents with intellectual/physical disabilities (SEI; n = 13), behavioural/emotional difficulties (SEB; n = 136) and learning disabilities/developmental disorders (SEL; n = 214). Self-reported life-time smoking prevalence and life-time drinking frequency as outcomes, and school subtype (SEL/SEB) and implementation fidelity (high/low) as moderators. No significant differences were found at follow-up in life-time smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-3.12] and drinking frequency (d = 0.01; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.18). Interaction analyses revealed adverse effects in SEB students for alcohol use (d = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.16-0.69). Effect on tobacco refusal self-efficacy was moderated positively by implementation fidelity (d = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.07-0.63). The Healthy School and Drugs programme adapted for secondary special education in the Netherlands lacked clear evidence for effects on all outcomes. This pilot study suggests further that, within special education, substance use interventions may need to be targeted at school subtypes, as these may have harmful effects among students with behavioural difficulties. Finally, limited evidence was found that programme effectiveness may depend upon implementation fidelity. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachel M; Meyer, Adria; Kay, Christi; Allensworth, Diane; Gazmararian, Julie A

    2014-06-26

    Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 - 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 - 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument "Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool" or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p grades and gender, with the most significant decreases for students overweight or obese at baseline (p Students also showed significant increases in performance on the PACER test across grades and cohorts (p improve their practices over time, as measured via the CITT instrument. The present report

  7. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2013-04-30

    Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some

  8. [Effectiveness of a school-based program to prevent obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Solís, D; Díaz Martín, J J; Álvarez Caro, F; Suárez Tomás, I; Suárez Menéndez, E; Riaño Galán, I

    2015-07-01

    Intervention for childhood obesity is a public health priority. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an elementary school-based intervention against obesity in children. Non-randomised controlled trial was conducted on children from first to fifth grade from two public schools of Avilés (Spain). The intervention lasted for 2 school years comprising healthy diet workshops, educational chats, educational meetings, informative written material, and promotion of physical activities. Primary outcome measure was body mass index z-score. Secondary outcomes included: obesity and overweight prevalence, waist circumference, dietary habits, and physical activity. A total of 382 (177 girls, 205 boys) out of 526 pupils of both schools were included in the study. Complete anthropometric data were obtained in 340 of the 382 individuals. Compared to children in control group, those in intervention group decreased body mass index z-score from 1.14 to 1.02 (P=.017), and improved KIDMED score from 7.33 to 7.71 points (P=.045). The percentage of students who carried on an optimal diet increased from 42.6% to 52.3% (P=.021). There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, or in waist circumference between the intervention and control groups. This school-based program resulted in modest beneficial changes in body mass index and diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing “First Mile” Supply Chain Factors Affecting Timeliness of School-Based Deworming Interventions: Supply and Logistics Performance Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koporc, Kimberly M.; Strunz, Eric; Holloway, Cassandra; Addiss, David G.; Lin, William

    2015-01-01

    Background Between 2007 and 2012, Children Without Worms (CWW) oversaw the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) donation of Vermox (mebendazole) for treatment of school-age children to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). To identify factors associated with on-time, delayed, or missed mass drug administration (MDA) interventions, and explore possible indicators for supply chain performance for drug donation programs, we reviewed program data for the 14 STH-endemic countries CWW supported during 2007–2012. Methodology Data from drug applications, shipping records, and annual treatment reports were tracked using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data from interviews with key personnel were used to provide additional context on the causes of delayed or missed MDAs. Four possible contributory factors to delayed or missed MDAs were considered: production, shipping, customs clearance, and miscellaneous in-country issues. Coverage rates were calculated by dividing the number of treatments administered by the number of children targeted during the MDA. Principal Findings Of the approved requests for 78 MDAs, 54 MDAs (69%) were successfully implemented during or before the scheduled month. Ten MDAs (13%) were classified as delayed; seven of these were delayed by one month or less. An additional 14 MDAs (18%) were classified as missed. For the 64 on-time or delayed MDAs, the mean coverage was approximately 88%. Conclusions and Significance To continue to assess the supply chain processes and identify areas for improvement, we identified four indicators or metrics for supply chain performance that can be applied across all neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug donation programs: (1) donor having available inventory to satisfy the country request for donation; (2) donor shipping the approved number of doses; (3) shipment arriving at the Central Medical Stores one month in advance of the scheduled MDA date; and (4) country programs implementing the MDA as scheduled. PMID:26657842

  10. Outcomes of a pilates-based intervention for individuals with lateral epicondylosis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lucinda M; Mikuski, Connie; Miller, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Core stability and flexibility, features of Pilates exercise, can reduce loads to the upper extremities. Reducing loads is essential to improve symptoms for individuals with lateral epicondylosis. Although Pilates exercise has gained popularity in healthy populations, it has not been studied for individuals with lateral epicondylosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if adding Pilates-based intervention to standard occupational therapy intervention improved outcomes as measured by the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) more than standard intervention for individuals with lateral epicondylosis. Participants (N= 17) were randomized to the standard intervention group or Pilates-based intervention group. All participants received standard intervention. The Pilates-based intervention group additionally completed abdominal strengthening, postural correction, and flexibility. For both groups, paired t-tests showed significantly improved PRTEE scores, 38.1 for the Pilates-based intervention group, and 22.9 for the standard intervention group. Paired t-test showed significantly improved provocative grip strength and pain for both groups. Independent t-tests showed no significant difference between groups in improved scores of PRTEE, pain, and provocative grip. Although the Pilates-based intervention group showed greater improvement in PRTEE outcome, provocative grip, and pain, scores were not significantly better than those of the standard intervention group, warranting further research.

  11. An Exploration of the Role of Occupation in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jeryl DiSanti

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…

  12. The effects of an individual, multistep intervention on adherence to treatment in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee Vardanjani, Leila; Parvin, Neda; Mahmoodi Shan, Gholamreza

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of individual, multistep intervention on adherence to treatment in hemodialysis patients referred to a hemodialysis center in Shahrekord, Iran. In this interventional study, hemodialysis patients referring the center of the study were randomly assigned into two control and intervention groups (each 33). The control group received routine treatment, recommended dietary and fluid restrictions. The intervention group participated in eight individual interventional sessions accompanied routine treatment. At the beginning and the end of the study, routine laboratory tests and end-stage renal disease-adherence questionnaire were filled out for patients in both groups. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. At the end of the study, the two groups showed a significant difference in all domains of adherence except adherence to diet and adherence was better in the intervention group (p adherence to dialysis program (p = 0.04, r = 0.254). After intervention, serum phosphorus decreased significantly in the intervention group (p Adherence to treatment is one of the major problems in hemodialysis patients; however, comprehensive interventions are required in view of individual condition. Implications for Rehabilitation Adherence to treatment means that all patients' behaviors (diet, fluids and drugs intake) should be in line with the recommendations given by healthcare professionals. There is evidence on the association between adherence to treatment and decreased risk of hospitalization in dialysis patients. Individual structured programs are most likely to be successful in encouraging adherence to treatment.

  13. Children's perceptions of school-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, T P; Meadan, H

    2000-09-01

    An important first step in understanding school-based violence is understanding children's subjective perceptions of the phenomena. Understanding these perceptions is likely to be a major factor in determining the integrity of both prevalence and intervention studies. We investigated how elementary and secondary aged children perceived school-based violence. A sample of 979 children from a nested random sample of elementary (grades 3-6) and middle school (grades 7-8) classrooms in Jerusalem participated in this study. To understand children's perception of school violence, we used an instrument composed of 19 dichotomous items, each presenting a one-line description of a behaviour, which the respondent would define as either 'intentionally harmful' or not. Eighth graders were significantly less likely to label the behaviours described as violent compared to all other grades; and seventh graders were less likely as compared to third, fourth and fifth graders; also, some between-gender differences were found. The respondents often view the behaviours described as intentional and aggressive; this finding should serve as an impetus to widen the scope of school-based violence interventions to include these behaviours, especially for younger children.

  14. Evolution of Research on Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Behavior Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary success of behavior-analytic interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has fueled the rapid growth of behavior analysis as a profession. One reason for this success is that for many years behavior analysts were virtually alone in conducting programmatic ASD intervention research. However, that era has…

  15. Train the Trainer Effectiveness Trials of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals with Autism: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…

  16. Individual Motivations and Characteristics Associated with Bystander Intervention during Bullying Episodes among Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Pepler, Debra; Cummings, Joanne G.; Craig, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore bystander experiences during bullying episodes among children and youth attending a residential summer camp by investigating rates of witnessing and intervention, as well as individual motivations and characteristics associated with bystander intervention. The majority of children had witnessed bullying…

  17. Antecedent Social Skills Interventions for Individuals with ASD: What Works, for Whom, and under What Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; King, Seth; Harbin, Emilee R.; Zimmerman, Kathleen N.

    2018-01-01

    Social skills interventions designed to increase pro-social interactions for individuals with autism spectrum disorders are critical, but the relative effectiveness of these interventions is not well understood. More than 250 single-case design studies in 113 articles were reviewed and described in terms of participants, settings, arrangements,…

  18. Functional Technology for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: Meta-Analysis of Mobile Device-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jemma; Kimm, Christina H.

    2017-01-01

    This study employs a meta-analysis of single-subject design research to investigate the efficacy of mobile device-based interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to further examine possible variables that may moderate the intervention outcomes. A total of 23 studies, 78 participants, and 140 observed cases that met the…

  19. Self-care management strategies among individuals living with type 2 diabetes mellitus: nursing interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt CW

    2013-01-01

    Caralise W HuntAuburn University School of Nursing, Auburn, AL, USAAbstract: Nurses provide care for individuals living with diabetes in a variety of areas. Nursing interventions assist individuals living with diabetes to manage diabetes and can positively affect outcomes. This article describes an integrated literature review conducted to evaluate and summarize nursing interventions and research in self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane databa...

  20. The Responsive Leadership Intervention: Improving leadership and individualized care in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Sienna; Le, Anne; McGilton, Katherine S

    The Responsive Leadership Intervention (RLI) is a multi-faceted intervention. We evaluated the influence of the RLI on i) responsive leadership practices by team leaders; ii) health care aides' (HCAs) self-determination; iii) HCAs' perceived ability to provide individualized care. A quasi-experimental repeated measures non-equivalent control group design was used to assess participant outcomes in four long-term care facilities (two control, two intervention) across four time periods. Change from baseline to 1-month post-intervention was greater in the intervention group than control group for Individualized Care (IC) (p = 0.001), but not for Self Determination (p = 0.26). Perceived levels of responsive leadership was greater following the intervention among participants with baseline measures that were less than the median (p = 0.007), but not if greater. At 3-months post-intervention, the intervention group retained 32% of the difference from control in IC, and 49% of the difference from control in responsive leadership; at 6-months post-intervention, 35% and 28%, respectively. The RLI is a feasible method for improving responsive leadership practices and individualized care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of individual resilience intervention on indigenous people who experienced Typhoon Morkot in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Fen Cheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan and caused serious harm to the indigenous peoples living in the southern mountainous regions. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of and the factors involved in individual resilience intervention of typhoon victims. Quantitative research was performed from October 2009 through September 2010. Purposive sampling yielded 77 indigenous persons who were willing to serve as participants in this study. These participants all maintained legal or actual residence in the areas of Kaohsiung that were affected by the typhoon. An individual resilience intervention program was implemented. The findings show the following: (1 after completing the individual resilience intervention program, the participants had higher individual resilience scores than before participating in the intervention program; and (2 individual resilience scores were significantly affected by residency after the typhoon. These findings suggest that an individual resilience intervention program is a useful approach that can be used to enhance the individual resilience of a victim and that professionals should pay more attention to victims who have to leave their hometowns after disasters.

  2. The use of instrumented gait analysis for individually tailored interdisciplinary interventions in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    in gait following individually tailored interventions when IGA is used are superior to those following ‘care as usual’. Methods/Design A prospective, single blind, randomised, parallel group study will be conducted. Children aged 5 to 8 years with spastic CP, classified at Gross Motor Function...... Classification System levels I or II, will be included. The interventions under investigation are: 1) individually tailored interdisciplinary interventions based on the use of IGA, and 2) ‘care as usual’. The primary outcome is gait measured by the Gait Deviation Index. Secondary outcome measures are: walking......Abstract Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often have an altered gait. Orthopaedic surgery, spasticity management, physical therapy and orthotics are used to improve the gait. Interventions are individually tailored and are planned on the basis of clinical examinations and standardised...

  3. Video Self-Modeling as an Intervention Strategy for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Anderson, Candace; McCarthy, Scott; Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video self-modeling demonstrates promise as an intervention strategy to improve outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. This article summarizes the empirical evidence supporting the use of video self-modeling with individuals with autism spectrum disorders to increase language and communication, increase social skills, modify…

  4. A school-based intervention incorporating smartphone technology to improve health-related fitness among adolescents: rationale and study protocol for the NEAT and ATLAS 2.0 cluster randomised controlled trial and dissemination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Peralta, Louisa R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Eather, Narelle; Dewar, Deborah L; Kennedy, Sarah; Lonsdale, Chris; Hilland, Toni A; Estabrooks, Paul; Finn, Tara L; Pollock, Emma; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-06-27

    Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic. Interventions aimed at developing skills in lifelong physical activities may provide the foundation for an active lifestyle into adulthood. In general, school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have produced modest results and few have been designed to be 'scaled-up' and disseminated. This study aims to: (1) assess the effectiveness of two physical activity promotion programmes (ie, NEAT and ATLAS) that have been modified for scalability; and (2) evaluate the dissemination of these programmes throughout government funded secondary schools. The study will be conducted in two phases. In the first phase (cluster randomised controlled trial), 16 schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention or a usual care control condition. In the second phase, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (Re-AIM) framework will be used to guide the design and evaluation of programme dissemination throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In both phases, teachers will be trained to deliver the NEAT and ATLAS programmes, which will include: (1) interactive student seminars; (2) structured physical activity programmes; (3) lunch-time fitness sessions; and (4) web-based smartphone apps. In the cluster RCT, study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end point) and 12-months. Muscular fitness will be the primary outcome and secondary outcomes will include: objectively measured body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, resistance training skill competency, physical activity, self-reported recreational screen-time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverage and junk food snack consumption, self-esteem and well-being. This study has received approval from the University of Newcastle (H-2014-0312) and the NSW Department of Education (SERAP: 2012121) human research ethics committees. This study is funded by the Australian Research Council (FT

  5. Additional Interventions to Enhance the Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support: A Rapid Evidence Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Boycott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic. Additional interventions used to enhance the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS. Aim. To establish whether additional interventions improve the vocational outcomes of IPS alone for people with severe mental illness. Method. A rapid evidence assessment of the literature was conducted for studies where behavioural or psychological interventions have been used to supplement standard IPS. Published and unpublished empirical studies of IPS with additional interventions were considered for inclusion. Conclusions. Six published studies were found which compared IPS alone to IPS plus a supplementary intervention. Of these, three used skills training and three used cognitive remediation. The contribution of each discrete intervention is difficult to establish. Some evidence suggests that work-related social skills and cognitive training are effective adjuncts, but this is an area where large RCTs are required to yield conclusive evidence.

  6. A mixed methods study of individual and organizational factors that affect implementation of interventions for children with autism in public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Beidas, Rinad S; Marcus, Steven; Stahmer, Aubyn; Aarons, Gregory A; Lyon, Aaron R; Cannuscio, Carolyn; Barg, Frances; Dorsey, Shannon; Mandell, David S

    2016-10-10

    The significant lifelong impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), combined with the growing number of children diagnosed with ASD, have created urgency in improving school-based quality of care. Although many interventions have shown efficacy in university-based research, few have been effectively implemented and sustained in schools, the primary setting in which children with ASD receive services. Individual- and organizational-level factors have been shown to predict the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for the prevention and treatment of other mental disorders in schools, and may be potential targets for implementation strategies in the successful use of autism EBIs in schools. The purpose of this study is to examine the individual- and organizational-level factors associated with the implementation of EBIs for children with ASD in public schools. We will apply the Domitrovich and colleagues (2008) framework that examines the influence of contextual factors (i.e., individual- and organizational-level factors) on intervention implementation in schools. We utilize mixed methods to quantitatively test whether the factors identified in the Domitrovich and colleagues (2008) framework are associated with the implementation of autism EBIs, and use qualitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors associated with successful implementation and sustainment of these interventions with the goal of tailoring implementation strategies. The results of this study will provide an in-depth understanding of individual- and organizational-level factors that influence the successful implementation of EBIs for children with ASD in public schools. These data will inform potential implementation targets and tailoring of strategies that will help schools overcome barriers to implementation and ultimately improve the services and outcomes for children with ASD.

  7. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Perera, R

    2006-07-19

    Smoking rates in adolescents are rising in some countries. Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed goal of public health, but there is uncertainty about how to do this. Schools provide a route for communicating with a large proportion of young people, and school-based programmes for smoking prevention have been widely developed and evaluated. To review all randomized controlled trials of behavioural interventions in schools to prevent children (aged 5 to12) and adolescents (aged 13 to18) starting smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyclNFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts and studies identified in the bibliographies of articles. Individual MEDLINE searches were made for 133 authors who had undertaken randomized controlled trials in this area. Types of studies: those in which individual students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomized to the intervention or control groups and followed for at least six months. Children (aged 5 to12) or adolescents (aged 13 to18) in school settings. Types of interventions: Classroom programmes or curricula, including those with associated family and community interventions, intended to deter use of tobacco. We included programmes or curricula that provided information, those that used social influences approaches, those that taught generic social competence, and those that included interventions beyond the school into the community. We included programmes with a drug or alcohol focus if outcomes for tobacco use were reported. Types of outcome measures: Prevalence of non-smoking at follow up among those not smoking at baseline. We did not require biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use for study inclusion. We assessed whether identified citations were randomized controlled trials. We assessed the quality of design and execution, and

  8. The Case for Individualized Goal Attainment Scaling Measurement in Elder Abuse Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David; Lachs, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Research available to inform the development of effective community-based elder abuse protective response interventions is severely limited. Elder abuse intervention research is constrained by a lack of research capacity, including sensitive and responsive outcome measures that can assess change in case status over the course of intervention. Given the heterogeneous nature of elder abuse, standard scales can lack the flexibility necessary to capture the diverse range of individually relevant issues across cases. In this paper, we seek to address this gap by proposing the adaptation and use of an innovative measurement strategy-goal attainment scaling-in the context of elder protection. Goal attainment scaling is an individualized, client-centered outcome measurement approach that has the potential to address existing measurement challenges constraining progress in elder abuse intervention research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT): systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods: Applying the

  10. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT) : Systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Singh (Amika); M.J.M. Chin A Paw (Marijke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); T.L.S. Visscher (Tommy); J. Brug (Hans); W. van Mechelen (Willem)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods:

  11. Online-based interventions for sexual health among individuals with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Sun; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Seong Man; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2018-03-07

    Online interventions have the advantages of being widely available, accessible, comfortable, cost effective, and they can provide tailored information and support. Despite these benefits, the effects of specifically devised online intervention programs for cancer patients' sexual problems are somewhat unclear. The aim of this review is to describe online-based interventions and to assess their effects on sexual health among cancer survivors and/or their partners. We investigated the effects of online sexual interventions among individuals with cancer or their partners. Among these, we considered 4 eligible articles. Despite the diversity of contents of the interventions, the identified modes of delivery among most of the interventions were as follows: education, interactive methods, cognitive behavior therapy, tailored information, and self-monitoring. Methods of monitoring the interventions, including the utilization of the web site and post-treatment program rating, were reported. All the online intervention programs incorporated a focus on physical, psychological, cognitive, and social aspects of sexual health. Significant effects on patient sexual function and interest and the psychological aspect of sexual problems were reported. This study provides evidence that online-based interventions would be effective in improving the psycho-sexual problems of cancer survivors and their partners.

  12. Intervention modalities for targeting cognitive-motor interference in individuals with neurodegenerative disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Douglas A; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with neurodegenerative disease (NDD) commonly have elevated cognitive-motor interference, change in either cognitive or motor performance (or both) when tasks are performed simultaneously, compared to healthy controls. Given that cognitive-motor interference is related to reduced community ambulation and elevated fall risk, it is a target of rehabilitation interventions. Areas covered: This review details the collective findings of previous dual task interventions in individuals with NDD. A total of 21 investigations focusing on 4 different neurodegenerative diseases and one NDD precursor (Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia other than AD, and mild cognitive impairment) consisting of 721 participants were reviewed. Expert commentary: Preliminary evidence from interventions targeting cognitive-motor interference, both directly and indirectly, show promising results for improving CMI in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases. Methodological limitations, common to pilot investigations preclude firm conclusions. Well-designed randomized control trials targeting cognitive motor interference are warranted.

  13. Developing Internet interventions to target the individual impact of stigma in health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of health problems are associated with significant stigma, a social phenomenon in which individuals become the object of negative stereotypes. In addition to experiencing negative reactions from others, stigmatised individuals and groups can experience harmful consequences when they internalise these negative prevailing attitudes. The objective of this paper was to consider the potential to develop Internet-based health-related interventions explicitly targeting the effects of stigma on the individual. A review of the literature was conducted to synthesise current conceptualisations of stigma and self-stigma across a number of groups, and to identify current intervention developments. Self-stigma reduction strategies developed for in-person services include cognitive reframing, myth busting, contact with other members of the stigmatised group, and disclosure promotion. The development and provision of interventions targeting self-stigma within an online environment is in its infancy. Our review considers there to be particular potential of online interventions for this target, associated with the capacity of the Internet to promote having contact with peers within one’s stigmatised group, and for user interaction and empowerment. We conclude that self-stigma is a domain in which there is significant potential for innovation with health-related interventions, and provide a number of recommendations for online intervention development.

  14. Impact of Individualized Diet Intervention on Body Composition and Respiratory Variables in Children With Respiratory Insufficiency: A Pilot Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Enid E; Bechard, Lori J; Smallwood, Craig D; Duggan, Christopher P; Graham, Robert J; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2015-07-01

    Diet modification may improve body composition and respiratory variables in children with respiratory insufficiency. Our objective was to examine the effect of an individualized diet intervention on changes in weight, lean body mass, minute ventilation, and volumetric CO2 production in children dependent on long-term mechanical ventilatory support. Prospective, open-labeled interventional study. Study subjects' homes. Children, 1 month to 17 years old, dependent on at least 12 hr/d of transtracheal mechanical ventilatory support. Twelve weeks of an individualized diet modified to deliver energy at 90-110% of measured energy expenditure and protein intake per age-based guidelines. During a multidisciplinary home visit, we obtained baseline values of height and weight, lean body mass percent by bioelectrical impedance analysis, actual energy and protein intake by food record, and measured energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. An individualized diet was then prescribed to optimize energy and protein intake. After 12 weeks on this interventional diet, we evaluated changes in weight, height, lean body mass percent, minute ventilation, and volumetric CO2 production. Sixteen subjects, mean age 9.3 years (SD, 4.9), eight male, completed the study. For the diet intervention, a majority of subjects required a change in energy and protein prescription. The mean percentage of energy delivered as carbohydrate was significantly decreased, 51.7% at baseline versus 48.2% at follow-up, p = 0.009. Mean height and weight increased on the modified diet. Mean lean body mass percent increased from 58.3% to 61.8%. Minute ventilation was significantly lower (0.18 L/min/kg vs 0.15 L/min/kg; p = 0.04), and we observed a trend toward lower volumetric CO2 production (5.4 mL/min/kg vs 5.3 mL/min/kg; p = 0.06) after 12 weeks on the interventional diet. Individualized diet modification is feasible and associated with a significant decrease in minute ventilation, a trend toward significant

  15. Group versus individual stress management intervention in breast cancer patients for fatigue and emotional reactivity: a randomised intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Ritva; Arving, Cecilia; Ahlgren, Johan; Nordin, Karin

    2014-09-01

    Fatigue and emotional reactivity are common among women suffering from breast cancer and might detrimentally affect these women's quality of life. This study evaluates if the stress management delivered either in a group or individual setting would improve fatigue and emotional reactivity among women with a newly diagnosed breast cancer. Participants (n = 304) who reported elevated levels of distress at three-month post-inclusion were randomised between stress management in a group (GSM) (n = 77) or individual (ISM) (n = 78) setting. Participation was declined by 149 women. Participants completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and the Everyday Life Stress Scale (ELSS) at the time of inclusion, 3- and 12-month post-inclusion. Analyses were made according to intention to treat and per-protocol principles. Mann-Whitney tests were used to examine differences between the two intervention groups. No significant differences were detected between the GSM and ISM groups on fatigue or emotional reactivity. In addition, there were no changes over time for these outcomes. There were no differences between the two intervention arms with reference to fatigue or emotional reactivity; however, a clinically interesting finding was the low number of women who were interested in participating in a psychosocial intervention. This finding may have clinical implications when psychosocial support is offered to women with a newly diagnosed breast cancer and also in the planning of future studies.

  16. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena; Tabor, Ann; Damm, Peter; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2014-12-01

    Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done. To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis was used. Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise to perform during pregnancy. The intervention was experienced to have benefits on both their physical health and their mental well-being. Crowded swimming pools were perceived as the greatest barrier. It is feasible to perform a RCT using the described intervention. The intervention was accepted by the participants because it supported their desire to be physically active during pregnancy. The main barrier was crowded swimming pools and this issue must be addressed in a future RCT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vantage sensitivity: a framework for individual differences in response to psychological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Bernadette; Lionetti, Francesca; Pluess, Michael

    2018-06-01

    People differ significantly in their response to psychological intervention, with some benefitting more from treatment than others. According to the recently proposed theoretical framework of vantage sensitivity, some of this variability may be due to individual differences in environmental sensitivity, the inherent ability to register, and process external stimuli. In this paper, we apply the vantage sensitivity framework to the field of psychiatry and clinical psychology, proposing that some people are more responsive to the positive effects of psychological intervention due to heightened sensitivity. After presenting theoretical frameworks related to environmental sensitivity, we review a selection of recent studies reporting individual differences in the positive response to psychological intervention. A growing number of studies report that some people benefit more from psychological intervention than others as a function of genetic, physiological, and psychological characteristics. These studies support the vantage sensitivity proposition that treatment response is influenced by factors associated with heightened sensitivity to environmental influences. More recently, studies have also shown that sensitivity can be measured with a short questionnaire which appears to predict the response to psychological intervention. Vantage sensitivity is a framework with significant relevance for our understanding of widely observed heterogeneity in treatment response. It suggests that variability in response to treatment is partly influenced by people's differing capacity for environmental sensitivity, which can be measured with a short questionnaire. Application of the vantage sensitivity framework to psychiatry and clinical psychology may improve our knowledge regarding when, how, and for whom interventions work.

  18. A Systematic Review of Effects of Social Stories Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Barton, Erin E.; Collier, Margo; Lin, Yi-Ling; Montoya, Charisse

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize 22 single-case research design (SCRD) studies on social stories intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) SCRD standards to analyze study rigor and evidence of a causal relation. We calculated four nonoverlap indices to…

  19. Developing Social Interaction and Understanding in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Groupwork Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Tommy; Knott, Fiona; Dunlop, Aline-Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Difficulties with social interaction and understanding lie at the heart of the communication disorder that characterises the autism spectrum. This study sought to improve social communication for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by means of a groupwork intervention focusing on social and emotional perspective-taking,…

  20. Incorporating Vocabulary Instruction in Individual Reading Fluency Interventions with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lauren E.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Geres-Smith, Rhonda

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine whether incorporating vocabulary instruction in individual reading fluency interventions for English Language Learners (ELLs) would improve reading comprehension. Two vocabulary instructional procedures were contrasted with a fluency-building only condition in an alternating-treatments design…

  1. The significance of duration and amount of sodium reduction intervention in normotensive and hypertensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to establish the time for achievement of maximal blood pressure (BP) efficacy of a sodium reduction (SR) intervention and the relation between the amount of SR and the BP response in individuals with hypertension and normal BP. Relevant studies were retrieved.......12, P policy of sodium reduction....

  2. Personal and clinical recovery with the individual placement and support intervention in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Iben Gammelgaard; Stenager, Elsebeth; Eplov, Lene

    on outcomes often referred to as recovery measures i.e. symptoms and self-esteem is ambiguous. One branch of the recovery literature distinguishes between two kinds of recovery. The one, personal recovery is defined by: what helps the individual move beyond the role of being a patient with a mental illness......Introduction: Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is an evidence-based recovery-oriented intervention where employment specialists (ES) support persons with severe mental illness in achieving competitive employment. IPS is labelled a recovery-oriented intervention; although, the influence of IPS....... The other, clinical recovery is defined as symptom reduction and increased level of functioning. Aim: To investigate how an IPS-intervention influences the personal and clinical recovery in persons with severe mental illness. Method: A qualitative phenomenological study including interview of 12...

  3. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done....... OBJECTIVE: To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis...... was used. RESULTS: Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise...

  4. Who benefits? Outcome following a coping skills group intervention for traumatically brain injured individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Katie; Ponsford, Jennie

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the variables associated with positive psychological outcome following a group intervention for 33 individuals with traumatic brain injury. Evaluation study which used multiple regression analysis to examine the variables associated with change in psychological adjustment following a 10-session cognitive behaviour therapy-based group. The predictor variables were age at injury, time since injury, injury severity, self-awareness, pre-morbid intellectual function, memory function, executive function and level of depression and anxiety prior to intervention. The predictor variables contributed a significant proportion of the variance in percentage change in depression. The major finding was that better outcomes following intervention were associated with greater self-awareness of injury-related deficits. The present study identified a number of variables that were associated with improvement in depression following psychological intervention and may assist future treatment resources to be directed most effectively.

  5. Focal hand dystonia: individualized intervention with repeated application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson; Borich, Michael R; Schmidt, Rebekah L; Carey, James R; Gillick, Bernadette

    2015-04-01

    To examine for individual factors that may predict response to inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in focal hand dystonia (FHD); to present the method for determining optimal stimulation to increase inhibition in a given patient; and to examine individual responses to prolonged intervention. Single-subject design to determine optimal parameters to increase inhibition for a given subject and to use the selected parameters once per week for 6 weeks, with 1-week follow-up, to determine response. Clinical research laboratory. A volunteer sample of subjects with FHD (N = 2). One participant had transcranial magnetic stimulation responses indicating impaired inhibition, and the other had responses within normative limits. There were 1200 pulses of 1-Hz rTMS delivered using 4 different stimulation sites/intensity combinations: primary motor cortex at 90% or 110% of resting motor threshold (RMT) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) at 90% or 110% of RMT. The parameters producing the greatest within-session increase in cortical silent period (CSP) duration were then used as the intervention. Response variables included handwriting pressure and velocity, subjective symptom rating, CSP, and short latency intracortical inhibition and facilitation. The individual with baseline transcranial magnetic stimulation responses indicating impaired inhibition responded favorably to the repeated intervention, with reduced handwriting force, an increase in the CSP, and subjective report of moderate symptom improvement at 1-week follow-up. The individual with normative baseline responses failed to respond to the intervention. In both subjects, 90% of RMT to the PMd produced the greatest lengthening of the CSP and was used as the intervention. An individualized understanding of neurophysiological measures can be an indicator of responsiveness to inhibitory rTMS in focal dystonia, with further work needed to determine likely responders versus nonresponders. Copyright

  6. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions.1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged <30 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations of individual (age, ethnic group, educational qualifications, number of children <16 and car ownership, employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues with commuter walking.Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49% were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged <30 years, did not have a car, had no free car parking at work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers.A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within

  7. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Method: Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available…

  8. School-Based Adolescent Groups: The Sail Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John L.; And Others

    The manual outlines the processes, policies, and actual program implementation of one component of a Minnesota program for emotionally disturbed adolescents (Project SAIL): the development of school-based therapy/intervention groups. The characteristics of SAIL students are described, and some considerations involved in providing group services…

  9. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Esliger, Dale W; Taylor, Ian M; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking) is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions. 1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation) and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues) with commuter walking. Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49%) were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers. A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within the workplace and organisational level travel policies may be required in order to promote commuter walking.

  10. Individualized Comprehensive Lifestyle Intervention in Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy with Curative or Palliative Intent: Who Participates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karianne Vassbakk-Brovold

    Full Text Available Knowledge about determinants of participation in lifestyle interventions in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, particularly with palliative intent, remains poor. The objective of the present study was to identify determinants of participating in a 12 month individualized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention, focusing on diet, physical activity, mental stress and smoking cessation, in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with curative or palliative intent. The secondary objective was to identify participation determinants 4 months into the study.Newly diagnosed cancer patients starting chemotherapy at the cancer center in Kristiansand/Norway (during a 16 month inclusion period were screened. Demographic and medical data (age, sex, body mass index, education level, marital status, smoking status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG, diagnosis, tumor stage and treatment intention was analyzed for screened patients.100 of 161 invited patients participated. There were more females (69 vs. 48%; P = 0.004, breast cancer patients (46 vs. 25%; P = 0.007, non-smokers (87 vs. 74%; P = 0.041, younger (mean age 60 vs. 67 yrs; P 70 years were less likely to participate at baseline and 4 months.Individualized lifestyle interventions in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy appear to facilitate a high participation rate that declines with increasing age; both during the enrollment process and completing the intervention. Neither oncologic nor socioeconomic variables deterred participation.

  11. Molecular biomarkers for weight control in obese individuals subjected to a multi-phase dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Montastier, Emilie; Carayol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Context: While calorie restriction has proven beneficial for weight loss, long-term weight control is variable between individuals. Objective: To identify biomarkers of successful weight control during a dietary intervention (DI). Design, Setting, and Participants: Adipose tissue (AT) transcripto......-controllers. Interestingly, ASPN is a TGFβ1 inhibitor. Conclusions: We found circulating biomarkers associated with weight control, which could influence weight management strategies, and genes that may be prognostic for successful weight control....

  12. The Social Living Complex: A New, All Day, Yearlong Intervention Model for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doenyas, Ceymi

    2016-01-01

    We propose an unprecedented intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents: the social living complex. Unlike existing social skills interventions, peer-mediated interventions here are not limited to the school/experiment duration and setting. Whereas other supported living services house adults with ASD only,…

  13. Parent Interest in a School-Based, School Nurse-Led Weight Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo

    2014-01-01

    Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…

  14. Integrating School-Based and Therapeutic Conflict Management Models at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oosterlinck, Franky; Broekaert, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Explores the possibility of integrating school-based and therapeutic conflict management models, comparing two management models: a school-based conflict management program, "Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers"; and a therapeutic conflict management program, "Life Space Crisis Intervention." The paper concludes that integration might be possible…

  15. Recruitment and retention of homeless individuals with mental illness in a housing first intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Strehlau, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homeless individuals with mental illness are challenging to recruit and retain in longitudinal research studies. The present study uses information from the Vancouver site of a Canadian multi-city longitudinal randomized controlled trial on housing first interventions for homeless individuals. We were able to recruit 500 participants and retain large number of homeless individuals with mental illness; 92% of the participants completed the 6-month follow up interview, 84% the 24-month follow up, while 80% completed all follow-up visits of the study. Purpose: In this article, we describe the strategies and practices that we considered as critical for successful recruitment and retention or participants in the study. Methods: We discuss issues pertaining to research staff hiring and training, involvement of peers, relationship building with research participants, and the use of technology and social media, and managing challenging situations in the context of recruitment and retention of marginalized individuals. Conclusions: Recruitment and retention of homeless participant with mental illness in longitudinal studies is feasible. It requires flexible, unconventional and culturally competent strategies. Longitudinal research projects with vulnerable and hidden populations may benefit from extensive outreach work and collaborative approaches that are based on attitudes of mutual respect, contextual knowledge and trust. Keywords: Housing first intervention, Homelessness, Mental illness, Recruitment, Retention, Longitudinal study

  16. Using Videoconferencing to Deliver Individual Therapy and Pediatric Psychology Interventions with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eve-Lynn; Patton, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Because of the widening access gap between need for individual and pediatric psychology services and child specialist availability, secure videoconferencing options are more needed than ever to address access challenges across underserved settings. The authors summarize real-time videoconferencing evidence to date across individual therapy with children and pediatric psychology interventions using videoconferencing. The authors summarize emerging guidelines that inform best practices for individual child therapy over videoconferencing. The authors present three case examples to illustrate best practices. The first behavioral pediatrics case summarizes evidence-based approaches in treating a rural young adolescent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and hearing impairment. The second pediatric psychology case describes similarities and difference between on-site and videoconferencing services in treating a rural child with toileting concerns. The third adolescent case describes treatment of an urban honors student with depression. Videoconferencing is an effective approach to improving access to individual and pediatric psychology interventions for children and adolescents. Videoconferencing approaches are well accepted by families and show promise for disseminating evidence-based treatments to underserved communities.

  17. Psychosis screening practices in schools: A survey of school-based mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Emily R; Chokran, Cole; Rodenhiser-Hill, Janine; Seidman, Larry J; Woodberry, Kristen A

    2018-05-04

    Many school districts in the United States employ mental health professionals to provide assessment, counselling and crisis interventions within the school setting; however, little is known about actual clinical practices of psychosis screening in schools. The aim of the present study is to examine attitudes and practices regarding psychosis screening among school mental health providers in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. School-based mental health clinicians (N = 100) completed an anonymous survey assessing familiarity, screening, and involvement with psychosis and psychosis risk prior to attending trainings on psychosis. Providers reported screening for psychosis less often than other mental health problems and rated themselves as less confident treating psychosis relative to other mental health concerns. Frequency of screening for psychosis was significantly associated with familiarity with psychosis assessment and case management, confidence providing treatment for individuals experiencing psychosis, and the number of students with or at risk for psychosis with whom providers had been involved. Frequency of screening for psychosis was not associated with years of practice, suggesting that both novice and experienced school-based providers may benefit from training on this issue. Community outreach via school-based provider training on assessment and management of psychosis may help to increase providers' understanding of psychosis and increase the practice of verbal or written screening for psychosis and psychosis risk within schools. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Construction of HMI Network System for Individualized Maternity Intervention Service against Birth Defects in Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-huai HU

    2007-01-01

    The paper expounds the community maternity service system against birth defects,from the viewpoint of individualized service in family planning. We have utilized modern information technology to develop health management information (HMI) network with individualized maternity, and to establish the community service system for intervention of birth defects. The service system applied the concept of modern health management information to implementing informational management for screening,treatment, following up, outcome monitoring, so as to provide a base for promotion of health, diagnosis, treatment as well as scientific research, with the prenatal screening of Down's syndrome as a model. The introduction to informational network during the processes of service has been carried out with regards to its composition, function and application, while introducing the effects of computerized case record individualized in prevention, management and research of Down's syndrome.

  19. A pilot study combining individual-based smoking cessation counseling, pharmacotherapy, and dental hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrid Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentists are in a unique position to advise smokers to quit by providing effective counseling on the various aspects of tobacco-induced diseases. The present study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of integrating dentists in a medical smoking cessation intervention. Methods Smokers willing to quit underwent an 8-week smoking cessation intervention combining individual-based counseling and nicotine replacement therapy and/or bupropion, provided by a general internist. In addition, a dentist performed a dental exam, followed by an oral hygiene treatment and gave information about chronic effects of smoking on oral health. Outcomes were acceptability, global satisfaction of the dentist's intervention, and smoking abstinence at 6-month. Results 39 adult smokers were included, and 27 (69% completed the study. Global acceptability of the dental intervention was very high (94% yes, 6% mostly yes. Annoyances at the dental exam were described as acceptable by participants (61% yes, 23% mostly yes, 6%, mostly no, 10% no. Participants provided very positive qualitative comments about the dentist counseling, the oral exam, and the resulting motivational effect, emphasizing the feeling of oral cleanliness and health that encouraged smoking abstinence. At the end of the intervention (week 8, 17 (44% participants reported smoking abstinence. After 6 months, 6 (15%, 95% CI 3.5 to 27.2 reported a confirmed continuous smoking abstinence. Discussion We explored a new multi-disciplinary approach to smoking cessation, which included medical and dental interventions. Despite the small sample size and non-controlled study design, the observed rate was similar to that found in standard medical care. In terms of acceptability and feasibility, our results support further investigations in this field. Trial Registration number ISRCTN67470159

  20. Program Use and Outcome Change in a Web-Based Trauma Intervention: Individual and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyun; Wang, Jianping; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-09-09

    Insight into user adherence to Web-based intervention programs and into its relationship to intervention effect is needed. The objective of this study was to examine use of a Web-based self-help intervention program, the Chinese version of My Trauma Recovery (CMTR), among Chinese traumatized individuals, and to investigate the relationship between program use and user characteristics before the intervention and change in outcomes after the intervention and at 3-months' follow-up. The sample consisted of 56 urban survivors of different trauma types and 90 rural survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, who used the CMTR in 1 month on their own or guided by volunteers in a counseling center. Predictors were demographics (sex, age, highest education, marital status, and annual family income), health problems (trauma duration, posttraumatic symptoms, and depression), psychological factors (coping self-efficacy), and social factors (social functioning impairment and social support). Program use was assessed by general program usage (eg, number of visiting days) and program adherence (eg, webpages completed in modules). Outcome measures were the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS), Symptom Checklist 90-Depression (SCL-D), Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy scale (CSE), Crisis Support Scale (CSS), and Social Functioning Impairment questionnaire (SFI) adopted from the CMTR. (1) Program use: rural participants had a larger total number of visiting days (F1,144=40.50, Psocial factors at pretest. (3) Program use and outcomes change: in general, use of the triggers and self-talk modules showed a consistent positive association with improvement in PDS, SCL-D, SFI, and CSE. The relaxation module was associated with positive change in PDS, but with negative change in CSS and SFI. The professional help module was associated with positive change in SCL-D, but its use on the first day was associated with negative change in CSS and CSE. The unhelpful coping module was associated with

  1. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals with Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy C.; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T.; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People with Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities. PMID:26914467

  2. Gender confirming medical interventions and eating disorder symptoms among transgender individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Rylan J; Rider, G Nicole; Haug, Nancy A; Balsam, Kimberly F

    2017-10-01

    Studies indicate that transgender individuals may be at risk of developing eating disorder symptoms (EDS). Elevated risk may be attributed to body dissatisfaction and/or societal reactions to nonconforming gender expression, such as nonaffirmation of a person's gender identity (e.g., using incorrect pronouns). Limited research suggests that gender-confirming medical interventions (GCMIs) may prevent or reduce EDS among transgender people. Participants included 154 transfeminine spectrum (TFS) and 288 transmasculine spectrum (TMS) individuals who completed the Trans Health Survey. Serial multiple mediation analyses controlling for age, education, and income were used to examine whether body satisfaction and nonaffirmation mediate any found relationships between various GCMIs (genital surgery, chest surgery, hormone use, hysterectomy, and hair removal) and EDS. For TFS individuals, the nonaffirmation to body satisfaction path mediated relationships between all GCMIs and EDS, although body satisfaction alone accounted for more of the indirect effects than this path for chest surgery. For TMS individuals, relationships between all GCMIs and EDS were mediated by the nonaffirmation to body satisfaction path. Findings support the hypothesis that GCMIs reduce experiences of nonaffirmation, which increases body satisfaction and thus decreases EDS. Among TFS participants, the relationship between chest surgery and lower levels of EDS was mediated most strongly by body satisfaction alone, suggesting that satisfaction with one's body may result in lower EDS even if affirmation from the external world is unchanged. Implications of these findings for intervention, policy, and legal efforts are discussed, and future research recommendations are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. School-Based Programs to Prevent and Reduce Alcohol Use among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Melissa H.; Neusel, Emily; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Schools are an important setting for interventions aimed at preventing alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. A range of school-based interventions have been developed to prevent or delay the onset of alcohol use, most of which are targeted to middle-school students. Most of these interventions seek to reduce risk factors for alcohol use at the individual level, whereas other interventions also address social and/or environmental risk factors. Not all interventions that have been developed and implemented have been found to be effective. In-depth analyses have indicated that to be most effective, interventions should be theory driven, address social norms around alcohol use, build personal and social skills helping students resist pressure to use alcohol, involve interactive teaching approaches, use peer leaders, integrate other segments of the population into the program, be delivered over several sessions and years, provide training and support to facilitators, and be culturally and developmentally appropriate. Additional research is needed to develop interventions for elementary-school and high-school students and for special populations. PMID:22330213

  4. A novel bilateral lower extremity mirror therapy intervention for individuals with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas D. Crosby

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements made in stroke rehabilitation, motor impairment and gait deficits persist at discharge. New interventions are needed. Mirror therapy has promise as one element of a rehabilitation program. The primary objectives were to 1 describe a bilateral, lower extremity mirror therapy (LE-MT device and training protocol and 2 investigate the feasibility of LE-MT. A LE-MT device was constructed to train bilateral LE movements for 30 min, 3 times/week for 4 weeks, as an adjunct to physiotherapy in three individuals post-stroke. Sessions were digitally recorded and reviewed to extract feasibility measures; repetitions, rests and session duration. Pre and post measures of gait and motor impairment were taken. Two participants completed 100% of the sessions and a third completed 83% due to a recurrence of pre-existing back pain. Repetitions increased and session duration was maintained. Number of rests decreased for two participants and increased for one participant. Participants reported fatigue and mild muscle soreness but also that the intervention was tolerable. Positive gait changes included increased velocity and decreased variability. LE motor impairment also improved. A bilateral LE-MT adjunct intervention for stroke is feasible and may have positive effects. A history of low back pain should be a precaution.

  5. Benefits of Individualized Feedback in Internet-Based Interventions for Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorscak, Pavle; Heinrich, Manuel; Sommer, Daniel; Wagner, Birgit; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Even though there is an increasing number of studies on the efficacy of Internet-based interventions (IBI) for depression, experimental trials on the benefits of added guidance by clinicians are scarce and inconsistent. This study compared the efficacy of semistandardized feedback provided by psychologists with fully standardized feedback in IBI. Participants with mild-to-moderate depression (n = 1,089, 66% female) from the client pool of a health insurance company participated in a cognitive-behavioral IBI targeting depression over 6 weeks. Individuals were randomized to weekly semistandardized e-mail feedback from psychologists (individual counseling; IC) or to automated, standardized feedback where a psychologist could be contacted on demand (CoD). The contents and tasks were identical across conditions. The primary outcome was depression; secondary outcomes included anxiety, rumination, and well-being. Outcomes were assessed before and after the intervention and 3, 6, and 12 months later. Changes in outcomes were evaluated using latent change score modeling. Both interventions yielded large pre-post effects on depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II: dIC = 1.53, dCoD = 1.37; Patient Health Questionnaire-9: dIC = 1.20, dCoD = 1.04), as well as significant improvements of all other outcome measures. The effects remained significant after 3, 6, and 12 months. The groups differed with regard to attrition (IC: 17.3%, CoD: 25.8%, p = 0.001). Between-group effects were statistically nonsignificant across outcomes and measurement occasions. Adding semistandardized guidance in IBI for depression did not prove to be more effective than fully standardized feedback on primary and secondary outcomes, but it had positive effects on attrition. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Gut Microbiota Signatures Predict Host and Microbiota Responses to Dietary Interventions in Obese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Flint, Harry J.; Johnstone, Alexandra M.; Lappi, Jenni; Poutanen, Kaisa; Dewulf, Evelyne; Delzenne, Nathalie; de Vos, Willem M.; Salonen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Interactions between the diet and intestinal microbiota play a role in health and disease, including obesity and related metabolic complications. There is great interest to use dietary means to manipulate the microbiota to promote health. Currently, the impact of dietary change on the microbiota and the host metabolism is poorly predictable and highly individual. We propose that the responsiveness of the gut microbiota may depend on its composition, and associate with metabolic changes in the host. Methodology Our study involved three independent cohorts of obese adults (n = 78) from Belgium, Finland, and Britain, participating in different dietary interventions aiming to improve metabolic health. We used a phylogenetic microarray for comprehensive fecal microbiota analysis at baseline and after the intervention. Blood cholesterol, insulin and inflammation markers were analyzed as indicators of host response. The data were divided into four training set – test set pairs; each intervention acted both as a part of a training set and as an independent test set. We used linear models to predict the responsiveness of the microbiota and the host, and logistic regression to predict responder vs. non-responder status, or increase vs. decrease of the health parameters. Principal Findings Our models, based on the abundance of several, mainly Firmicute species at baseline, predicted the responsiveness of the microbiota (AUC  =  0.77–1; predicted vs. observed correlation  =  0.67–0.88). Many of the predictive taxa showed a non-linear relationship with the responsiveness. The microbiota response associated with the change in serum cholesterol levels with an AUC of 0.96, highlighting the involvement of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic health. Conclusion This proof-of-principle study introduces the first potential microbial biomarkers for dietary responsiveness in obese individuals with impaired metabolic health, and reveals the potential of

  7. High impact of implementation on school-based smoking prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    prevention trial-the X:IT study. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic...... into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking...... questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). INTERVENTION: The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school...

  8. Study of dose and relative risk of occupationally exposed individuals in interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Filho, Jose A.M.; Reis, Charlene O.; Taniguti, Lana T.; Pacifico, Leonardo C.; SaintYves, Thalis L.A.; Mecca, Fernando A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the occupational effective dose and the relative risk of leukemia and cancers of the digestive tract mortality through dose study of the most radiosensitive anatomical regions (lens, thyroid, chest and gonads) of the professionals involved in interventional gonad procedures. It was considered a cumulative exposure time of 10,000 hours, which is the occupational exposure time of an IOE in throughout his professional life. It was also considered that they always use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Mathematical models derived from epidemiological data contained in the BEIR V and in the IAEA’s TECDOC 870 are used to estimate the relative risk. The results show a significant increase in mortality risk for these types of cancer for individuals occupationally exposed to three different distances from the x-ray beam, and reinforces that radiation protection measures are essential. (author)

  9. An individually-tailored smoking cessation intervention for rural Veterans: a pilot randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Vander Weg

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use remains prevalent among Veterans of military service and those residing in rural areas. Smokers frequently experience tobacco-related issues including risky alcohol use, post-cessation weight gain, and depressive symptoms that may adversely impact their likelihood of quitting and maintaining abstinence. Telephone-based interventions that simultaneously address these issues may help to increase treatment access and improve outcomes. Methods This study was a two-group randomized controlled pilot trial. Participants were randomly assigned to an individually-tailored telephone tobacco intervention combining counseling for tobacco use and related issues including depressive symptoms, risky alcohol use, and weight concerns or to treatment provided through their state tobacco quitline. Selection of pharmacotherapy was based on medical history and a shared decision interview in both groups. Participants included 63 rural Veteran smokers (mean age = 56.8 years; 87 % male; mean number of cigarettes/day = 24.7. The primary outcome was self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 12 weeks and 6 months. Results Twelve-week quit rates based on an intention-to-treat analysis did not differ significantly by group (Tailored = 39 %; Quitline Referral = 25 %; odds ratio [OR]; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.90; 0.56, 5.57. Six-month quit rates for the Tailored and Quitline Referral conditions were 29 and 28 %, respectively (OR; 95 % CI = 1.05; 0.35, 3.12. Satisfaction with the Tailored tobacco intervention was high. Conclusions Telephone-based treatment that concomitantly addresses other health-related factors that may adversely affect quitting appears to be a promising strategy. Larger studies are needed to determine whether this approach improves cessation outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number NCT01592695 registered 11 April 2012.

  10. Impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on violent delinquency: distinctive benefits for youth with maltreatment histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A

    2011-06-01

    Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency due to child maltreatment history. In this study we conducted a follow-up to determine if participation in a school-based violence prevention program in grade 9 continued to provide a buffering effect on engaging in acts of violent delinquency for maltreated youth, 2 years post-intervention. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive school-based violence prevention program. Students (N=1,722; 52.8% female) from 20 schools participated in 21 75-min lessons in grade 9 health classes. Individual data (i.e., gender, child maltreatment experiences, and violent delinquency in grade 9) and school-level data (i.e., student perception of safety averaged across students in each school) were entered in a multilevel model to predict violent delinquency at the end of grade 11. Individual- and school-level factors predicting violent delinquency in grade 11 replicated previous findings from grade 9: being male, experiencing child maltreatment, being violent in grade 9, and attending a school with a lower perceived sense of safety among the entire student body increased violent delinquency. The cross-level interaction of individual maltreatment history and school-level intervention was also replicated: in non-intervention schools, youth with more maltreatment in their background were increasingly likely to engage in violent delinquency. The strength of this relationship was significantly attenuated in intervention schools. Follow-up findings are consistent with the buffering effect of the prevention program previously found post-intervention for the subsample of youth with maltreatment

  11. Interventions Highlighting Hypocrisy Reduce Collective Blame of Muslims for Individual Acts of Violence and Assuage Anti-Muslim Hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile; Kteily, Nour; Falk, Emily

    2018-03-01

    Collectively blaming groups for the actions of individuals can license vicarious retribution. Acts of terrorism by Muslim extremists against innocents, and the spikes in anti-Muslim hate crimes against innocent Muslims that follow, suggest that reciprocal bouts of collective blame can spark cycles of violence. How can this cycle be short-circuited? After establishing a link between collective blame of Muslims and anti-Muslim attitudes and behavior, we used an "interventions tournament" to identify a successful intervention (among many that failed). The "winning" intervention reduced collective blame of Muslims by highlighting hypocrisy in the ways individuals collectively blame Muslims-but not other groups (White Americans, Christians)-for individual group members' actions. After replicating the effect in an independent sample, we demonstrate that a novel interactive activity that isolates the psychological mechanism amplifies the effectiveness of the collective blame hypocrisy intervention and results in downstream reductions in anti-Muslim attitudes and anti-Muslim behavior.

  12. Multiple procedures and cumulative individual radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: A long-term retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltermann, Birgitta M.; Rock, Thomas; Berndt, Peter; Viehmann, Anja; Reinders, Sabrina; Gesenhues, Stefan [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for General Medicine, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Brix, Gunnar; Schegerer, Alexander [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Various studies address discrepancies between guideline recommendations for coronary angiographies and clinical practice. While the issue of the appropriateness of recurrent angiographies was studied focusing on the role of the cardiologist, little is known about individual patients' histories and the associated radiation exposures. We analyzed all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in an academic teaching practice who underwent at least one angiography with or without intervention between 2004 and 2009. All performed angiographies in these patients were analyzed and rated by three physicians for appropriateness levels according to cardiology guidelines. Typical exposure data from the medical literature were used to estimate individual radiation exposure. In the cohort of 147 patients, a total of 441 procedures were analyzed: between 1981 and 2009, three procedures were performed per patient (range 1-19) on average. Appropriateness ratings were 'high/intermediate' in 71 %, 'low/no' in 27.6 % and data were insufficient for ratings in 1.4 %. Procedures with 'low/no' ratings were associated with potentially avoidable exposures of up to 186 mSv for single patients. Using retrospective data, we exemplify the potential benefit of guideline adherence to decrease patients' radiation exposures. (orig.)

  13. Employment Interventions for Individuals with ASD: The Relative Efficacy of Supported Employment With or Without Prior Project SEARCH Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Carol M; Wehman, Paul; Brooke, Valerie; Graham, Carolyn; McDonough, Jennifer; Brooke, Alissa; Ham, Whitney; Rounds, Rachael; Lau, Stephanie; Allen, Jaclyn

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents findings from a retrospective observational records review study that compares the outcomes associated with implementation of supported employment (SE) with and without prior Project SEARCH with ASD Supports (PS-ASD) on wages earned, time spent in intervention, and job retention. Results suggest that SE resulted in competitive employment for 45 adults with ASD. Twenty-five individuals received prior intervention through PS-ASD while the other 20 individuals received SE only. Individuals in this sample who received PS-ASD required fewer hours of intervention. Additionally, individuals in the PS-ASD group achieved a mean higher wage and had higher retention rates than their peers who received SE only. Further research with a larger sample is needed to confirm these findings.

  14. On counter-stereotypes and creative cognition: When interventions for reducing prejudice can boost divergent thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    School-based psychological interventions which require students and pupils to think of counter-stereotypic individuals (e.g., a female mechanic, a Black President) have been shown to reduce stereotyping and prejudice. But while these interventions are increasingly popular, no one has tested whether

  15. Impact and change of attitudes toward Internet interventions within a randomized controlled trial on individuals with depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Meyer, Björn; Lutz, Wolfgang; Späth, Christina; Michel, Pia; Rose, Matthias; Hautzinger, Martin; Hohagen, Fritz; Klein, Jan Philipp; Moritz, Steffen

    2018-05-01

    Most individuals with depression do not receive adequate treatment. Internet interventions may help to bridge this gap. Research on attitudes toward Internet interventions might facilitate the dissemination of such interventions by identifying factors that help or hinder uptake and implementation, and by clarifying who is likely to benefit. This study examined whether attitudes toward Internet interventions moderate the effects of a depression-focused Internet intervention, and how attitudes change over the course of treatment among those who do or do not benefit. We recruited 1,004 adults with mild-to-moderate depression symptoms and investigated how attitudes toward Internet interventions are associated with the efficacy of the program deprexis, and how attitudes in the intervention group change from pre to post over a 3 months intervention period, compared to a control group (care as usual). This study consists of a subgroup analysis of the randomized controlled EVIDENT trial. Positive initial attitudes toward Internet interventions were associated with greater efficacy (η 2 p  = .014) independent of usage time, whereas a negative attitude (perceived lack of personal contact) was associated with reduced efficacy (η 2 p  = .012). Users' attitudes changed during the trial, and both the magnitude and direction of attitude change were associated with the efficacy of the program over time (η 2 p  = .030). Internet interventions may be the most beneficial for individuals with positive attitudes toward them. Informing potential users about evidence-based Internet interventions might instill positive attitudes and thereby optimize the benefits such interventions can provide. Assessing attitudes prior to treatment might help identify suitable users. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. "Together at school"--a school-based intervention program to promote socio-emotional skills and mental health in children: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Katja; Liski, Antti; Samposalo, Hanna; Lindblom, Jallu; Hella, Juho; Huhtinen, Heini; Ojala, Tiina; Alasuvanto, Paula; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Kiviruusu, Olli; Hemminki, Elina; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Solantaus, Tytti; Santalahti, Päivi

    2014-10-07

    Schools provide a natural context to promote children's mental health. However, there is a need for more evidence-based, high quality school intervention programs combined with an accurate evaluation of their general effectiveness and effectiveness of specific intervention methods. The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the "Together at School" intervention program. The intervention program is designed to promote social-emotional skills and mental health by utilizing whole-school approach and focuses on classroom curriculum, work environment of school staff, and parent-teacher collaboration methods. The evaluation study examines the effects of the intervention on children's socio-emotional skills and mental health in a cluster randomized controlled trial design with 1) an intervention group and 2) an active control group. Altogether 79 primary school participated at baseline. A multi-informant setting involves the children themselves, their parents, and teachers. The primary outcomes are measured using parent and teacher ratings of children's socio-emotional skills and psychological problems measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Multisource Assessment of Social Competence Scale. Secondary outcomes for the children include emotional understanding, altruistic behavior, and executive functions (e.g. working memory, planning, and inhibition). Secondary outcomes for the teachers include ratings of e.g. school environment, teaching style and well-being. Secondary outcomes for both teachers and parents include e.g. emotional self-efficacy, child rearing practices, and teacher-parent collaboration. The data was collected at baseline (autumn 2013), 6 months after baseline, and will be collected also 18 months after baseline from the same participants. This study protocol outlines a trial which aims to add to the current state of intervention programs by presenting and studying a

  17. AMPLITION IN THE WORKPLACE: BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE WORKFORCE THROUGH INDIVIDUAL POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale M. Le Blanc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Workforce sustainability is of vital utmost importance for the viability and competitive advantage of contemporary organizations. Therefore, and in parallel with the rise of positive organizational psychology, organizations have become increasingly interested in how to enhance their employees’ positive psychological well being. In this paper, amplition interventions – i.e. interventions aimed at enhancing positive work-related well being - are presented as a valuable tool to increase workforce sustainability. In the past decade, some work-related interventions focused on amplition have been developed and tested for their effectiveness. In this paper, we will first outline some important preconditions for successful interventions and briefly discuss the intervention process itself. Next, we will give an overview of empirical work on amplition interventions, focusing on interventions that are aimed at enhancing employee work engagement. Future research should focus on testing the effects of these type of interventions on outcomes at the team and organizational level.

  18. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Misra, A; Shah, P; Gulati, S

    2010-04-01

    To study the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention model of nutrition and lifestyle education on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian-Indian adolescents in North India. Two schools matched for student strength and middle socioeconomic strata were randomly allocated to intervention and control group. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, lifestyle practices, food frequency and body image of eleventh-grade students (15-17 years) in both schools were tested using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made using standard methods. Segmental body composition analysis was carried out using an 8-electrode multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method of body fat estimation. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in several domains of knowledge was observed in intervention children (n=99; males=60; females=39) as compared with control school children (n=102; males=61; females=41). In the intervention group, significantly lower proportion of children consumed aerated drinks (15.1%; Phabits and lifestyle practices, and resulted in beneficial changes in anthropometric and biochemical profiles of the Asian Indian adolescents. This model should be applied on countrywide basis to prevent obesity and diabetes.

  19. Update to a protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led school-based intervention to increase the physical activity of adolescent girls (PLAN-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Kipping, Ruth; Banfield, Kathryn; Kadir, Bryar; Garfield, Kirsty; Lyons, Ronan A; Blair, Peter S; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity levels are low amongst adolescent girls, and this population faces specific barriers to being active. Peer influences on health behaviours are important in adolescence, and peer-led interventions might hold promise to change behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of Peer-Led physical Activity iNtervention for Adolescent girls (PLAN-A), a peer-led intervention aimed at increasing adolescent girls' physical activity levels. In addition, this paper describes an update that has been made to the protocol for the PLAN-A feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial. A two-arm cluster randomised feasibility trial will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention n  = 4; control n  = 2) with year 8 (12-13 years old) girls. The intervention will operate at a year group level and consist of year 8 girls nominating influential peers within their year group to become peer supporters. Approximately 15% of the cohort will receive 3 days of training about physical activity and interpersonal communication skills. Peer supporters will then informally diffuse messages about physical activity amongst their friends for 10 weeks. Data will be collected at baseline (time 0 (T0)), immediately after the intervention (time 1 (T1)) and 12 months after baseline measures (time 2 (T2)). In this feasibility trial, the primary interest is in the recruitment of schools and participants (both year 8 girls and peer supporters), delivery and receipt of the intervention, data provision rates and identifying the cost categories for future economic analysis. Physical activity will be assessed using 7-day accelerometry, with the likely primary outcome in a fully powered trial being daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants will also complete psychosocial questionnaires at each time point: assessing motivation, self-esteem and peer physical activity norms. Data analysis will be

  20. An individually-tailored multifactorial intervention program for older fallers in a middle-income developing country: Malaysian Falls Assessment and Intervention Trial (MyFAIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In line with a rapidly ageing global population, the rise in the frequency of falls will lead to increased healthcare and social care costs. This study will be one of the few randomized controlled trials evaluating a multifaceted falls intervention in a low-middle income, culturally-diverse older Asian community. The primary objective of our paper is to evaluate whether individually tailored multifactorial interventions will successfully reduce the number of falls among older adults. Methods Three hundred community-dwelling older Malaysian adults with a history of (i) two or more falls, or (ii) one injurious fall in the past 12 months will be recruited. Baseline assessment will include cardiovascular, frailty, fracture risk, psychological factors, gait and balance, activities of daily living and visual assessments. Fallers will be randomized into 2 groups: to receive tailored multifactorial interventions (intervention group); or given lifestyle advice with continued conventional care (control group). Multifactorial interventions will target 6 specific risk factors. All participants will be re-assessed after 12 months. The primary outcome measure will be fall recurrence, measured with monthly falls diaries. Secondary outcomes include falls risk factors; and psychological measures including fear of falling, and quality of life. Discussion Previous studies evaluating multifactorial interventions in falls have reported variable outcomes. Given likely cultural, personal, lifestyle and health service differences in Asian countries, it is vital that individually-tailored multifaceted interventions are evaluated in an Asian population to determine applicability of these interventions in our setting. If successful, these approaches have the potential for widespread application in geriatric healthcare services, will reduce the projected escalation of falls and fall-related injuries, and improve the quality of life of our older community. Trial registration

  1. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  2. Towards dynamic and interdisciplinary frameworks for school-based mental health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Toole, Catriona

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to scrutinise two ostensibly disparate approaches to school-based mental health promotion and offer a conceptual foundation for considering possible synergies between them. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines current conceptualisations of child and youth mental health and explores how these inform school-based prevention and intervention approaches. The dominance of discrete, “expert-driven” psychosocial programmes as well as the...

  3. School-Based Mental Health Programs in the United States: Present Status and a Blueprint for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Reddy, Linda A.

    1998-01-01

    Provides overview of sociocultural and political factors in the United States that have influenced recent interest in school-based health and mental health programs. Describes four well-known programs and presents a new framework, the Tripartite Model of School-Based Mental Health Interventions, to stimulate thinking on future programs. Addresses…

  4. Scaling-up an efficacious school-based physical activity intervention: Study protocol for the ?Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth? (iPLAY) cluster randomized controlled trial and scale-up implementation evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Lonsdale, Chris; Sanders, Taren; Cohen, Kristen E.; Parker, Philip; Noetel, Michael; Hartwig, Tim; Vasoncellos, Diego; Kirwan, Morwenna; Morgan, Philip; Salmon, Jo; Moodie, Marj; McKay, Heather; Bennie, Andrew; Plotnikoff, Ron; Cinelli, Renata L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children’s physic...

  5. Adolescent Student Use of School-Based Salad Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lori; Myers, Leann; O'Malley, Keelia; Mundorf, Adrienne R; Harris, Diane M; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be a public health problem in the United States. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) is one strategy for decreasing high consumption of energy-dense, high-fat foods, thereby improving weight status. Many Orleans Parish public schools were provided with salad bars (SBs) to augment school lunch with increased access to F/V. This study identified factors associated with student use of SBs. Surveys examining SB use, demographics, food preference, nutrition knowledge, and social support were administered to students in the 7th to 12th grades (N = 702) in Orleans Parish (New Orleans, Louisiana). Generalized estimating equations, which incorporate clustering at the school level, helped to determine associations between independent variables and SB use. Sixty percent of participants were SB users. Non-African-American students were more likely to be SB users than African-American students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.35, confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-4.07) and students who had high preference for healthy food were more likely to use the SB than those who had low preference (OR = 2.41, CI: 1.44-4.01). Students who encouraged others to consume F/V were more likely to use the SB than those who did not (p = .015). Individual and interpersonal factors related to SB use can provide guidance in the development of school-based interventions to increase SB use and F/V consumption. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  6. Impact of a School-Based Pediatric Obesity Prevention Program Facilitated by Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; El-Mubasher, Abeer; Gallagher, Martina; Tyler, Chermaine; Woehler, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated a school-based obesity intervention for elementary school children (N = 835) where health professionals assisted teachers with the integration of healthy messages into the school curriculum. Methods: Schools were randomized into a professional-facilitated intervention (PFI; N = 4) or a self-help (SH; N = 3)…

  7. Impact of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program faciliated by health professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated a school-based obesity intervention for elementary school children (N=835) where health professionals assisted teachers with the integration of healthy messages into the school curriculum. Schools were randomized into a professional-facilitated intervention (PFI; N=4) or a self-...

  8. Assessing the Impact of a School-Based Group Approach with Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, T. Michael; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a school-based group intervention, "The Council for Boys and Young Men," specifically designed for adolescent males. The participants who attended an alternative school in a metropolitan area were randomly assigned to the intervention or to waitlist control groups. Measures assessed self-esteem, future…

  9. The Norwegian healthy body image programme: study protocol for a randomized controlled school-based intervention to promote positive body image and prevent disordered eating among Norwegian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Engen, Kethe M E; Pettersen, Gunn; Friborg, Oddgeir; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Kolle, Elin; Piran, Niva; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2018-03-06

    Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating raise the risk for eating disorders. In the prevention of eating disorders, many programmes have proved partly successful in using cognitive techniques to combat such risk factors. However, specific strategies to actively promote a positive body image are rarely used. The present paper outlines a protocol for a programme integrating the promotion of a positive body image and the prevention of disordered eating. Using a cluster randomized controlled mixed methods design, 30 high schools and 2481 12th grade students were allocated to the Healthy Body Image programme or to a control condition. The intervention comprised three workshops, each of 90 min with the main themes body image, media literacy, and lifestyle. The intervention was interactive in nature, and were led by trained scientists. The outcome measures include standardized instruments administered pre-post intervention, and at 3 and 12 months follow-ups, respectively. Survey data cover feasibility and implementation issues. Qualitative interviews covers experiential data about students' benefits and satisfaction with the programme. The present study is one of the first in the body image and disordered eating literature that integrates a health promotion and a disease prevention approach, as well as integrating standardized outcome measures and experiential findings. Along with mediator and moderator analyses it is expected that the Healthy Body Image programme may prove its efficacy. If so, plans are made with respect to further dissemination as well as communicating the findings to regional and national decision makers in the education and health care services. The study was registered and released at ClinicalTrials.gov 21th August 2016 with the Clinical Trial.gov ID: PRSNCT02901457 . In addition, the study is approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics.

  10. Intervention in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis: a review and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Over the last 15 years, a focus on early intervention in psychotic disorders has emerged. Initially, the early psychosis movement focused on timely recognition and phase-specific treatment of first-episode psychosis. However, early psychosis researchers suspected that pushing the point...... of intervention even further back to the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders may result in even better outcomes. This article reviews intervention research in the ultra-high-risk phase of psychotic disorders. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of intervention trials with ultra-high-risk cohorts published after...

  11. Web-based health interventions for family caregivers of elderly individuals: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, Marina B; Stinson, Jennifer N; Cameron, Jill I

    2017-07-01

    For the growing proportion of elders globally, aging-related illnesses are primary causes of morbidity causing reliance on family members for support in the community. Family caregivers experience poorer physical and mental health than their non-caregiving counterparts. Web-based interventions can provide accessible support to family caregivers to offset declines in their health and well-being. Existing reviews focused on web-based interventions for caregivers have been limited to single illness populations and have mostly focused on the efficacy of the interventions. We therefore have limited insight into how web-based interventions for family caregiver have been developed, implemented and evaluated across aging-related illness. To describe: a) theoretical underpinnings of the literature; b) development, content and delivery of web-based interventions; c) caregiver usage of web-based interventions; d) caregiver experience with web-based interventions and e) impact of web-based interventions on caregivers' health outcomes. We followed Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews which entails setting research questions, selecting relevant studies, charting the data and synthesizing the results in a report. Fifty-three publications representing 32 unique web-based interventions were included. Over half of the interventions were targeted at dementia caregivers, with the rest targeting caregivers to the stroke, cancer, diabetes and general frailty populations. Studies used theory across the intervention trajectory. Interventions aimed to improve a range of health outcomes for caregivers through static and interactive delivery methods Caregivers were satisfied with the usability and accessibility of the websites but usage was generally low and declined over time. Depression and caregiver burden were the most common outcomes evaluated. The interventions ranged in their impact on health and social outcomes but reductions in perception of

  12. Psychosocial Interventions for Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela C. Pascoe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Depressive and anxiety symptoms are common amongst individuals with chronic kidney disease and are known to affect quality of life adversely. Psychosocial interventions have been shown to decrease depressive and anxiety symptoms in various chronic diseases, but few studies have examined their efficacy in people with chronic kidney disease and no meta-analysis has been published. Thus, the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial interventions on depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as quality of life in individuals diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and/or their carers.Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we included published randomized controlled trials comparing psychosocial interventions versus usual care for impacting depressive and anxiety symptoms and quality of life.Results: Eight studies were included in the systematic review and six of these were subjected to meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were associated with a medium effect size for reduction in depressive symptoms and a small effect size for improved quality of life in the in individuals with chronic-kidney-disease and their carers. Some evidence suggested a reduction in anxiety.Conclusion: Psychosocial interventions appear to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with chronic-kidney-disease and their carers and to have some beneficial impact on anxiety. However, the small number of identified studies indicates a need for further research in this field.

  13. Developing and testing an intervention to prevent homelessness among individuals discharged from psychiatric wards to shelters and 'No Fixed Address'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forchuk, C; MacClure, S K; Van Beers, M; Smith, C; Csiernik, R; Hoch, J; Jensen, E

    2008-09-01

    Shelter data in a recent study revealed discharges from psychiatric facilities to shelters or the street occurred at least 194 times in 2002 in London, Ontario, Canada. This problem must be addressed to reduce the disastrous effects of such discharge, including re-hospitalization and prolonged homelessness. An intervention was developed and tested to prevent homelessness associated with discharge directly to no fixed address. A total of 14 participants at-risk of being discharged without housing were enrolled, with half randomized into the intervention group. The intervention group was provided with immediate assistance in accessing housing and assistance in paying their first and last month's rent. The control group received usual care. Data was collected from participants prior to discharge, at 31 and 6-months post-discharge. All the individuals in the intervention group maintained housing after 3 and 6 months. All but one individual in the control group remained homeless after 3 and 6 months. The exception joined the sex trade to avoid homelessness. The results of this pilot were so dramatic that randomizing to the control group was discontinued. Discussions are underway to routinely implement the intervention. Systemic improvements can prevent homelessness for individuals being discharged from psychiatric wards.

  14. The effect of theory-based interventions on physical activity participation among overweight/obese individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Gravel, A; Godin, G; Vézina-Im, L-A; Amireault, S; Poirier, P

    2011-06-01

    Little attention has been paid to the evaluation of the long-term impact of theory-based interventions on physical activity participation among overweight/obese individuals after the interventions have ended. The primary aim of this systematic review was to investigate the long-term effectiveness of theory-based interventions increasing physical activity and identify the most effective techniques for behaviour change among overweight/obese individuals. The secondary aim was to investigate the effect of these interventions on theoretical variables. Eighteen studies were reviewed. Among these studies, three reported significant short-term and two long-term effects of interventions on physical activity participation. Most of the studies observed a significant short- or long-term effect of time on this behaviour. Theoretical frameworks most often applied included the Behavioural Model and the Social Learning/Cognitive Theory. However, few of the studies reported any impact on theoretical variables. The most prevalent techniques consisted of providing opportunities for social comparison and instruction as well as self-monitoring. Leading techniques differentiating the experimental group from the control group included prompting practice and intentions formation and barriers identification. Although the combination of these three techniques appears successful, the long-term impact of theory-based interventions remains ambiguous. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. A telephonic intervention for promoting occupational re-integration in work-disabled individuals with musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael J L; Simon, Gregory

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine the feasibility of a telephonic occupational rehabilitation program. A sample of 23 individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain was enrolled in the telephonic version of the Progressive Goal Attainment Program (PGAP-Tel). The PGAP-Tel is a risk-targeted intervention designed to reduce pain-related disability consequent to musculoskeletal injury. Treatment outcomes of PGAP-Tel were compared to a group of individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain, who participated in the face-to-face format of the PGAP. Results showed that PGAP-Tel was acceptable to the majority of participants (76%) to whom it was offered. There were indications that engagement and adherence issues were more problematic in PGAP-Tel than in the face-to-face intervention. Both groups showed comparable reductions in pain, depression, fear of symptom exacerbation, and self-reported disability. Participants in the face-to-face intervention showed greater reduction in catastrophic thinking than participants in PGAP-Tel. Finally, 26% of participants in PGAP-Tel had resumed some form of employment at treatment termination compared to 56% of the participants in the face-to-face intervention. Given the low cost of the PGAP-Tel intervention and the accessibility advantages of a telephonic delivery, this type of intervention might be an important resource for targeting occupational disability in rural or remote communities when face-to-face services are not available.

  16. Perfectionism in Relation to Stress and Cardiovascular Disease among Gifted Individuals and the Need for Affective Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Ansley T.; Loveless, James P.; Mochrie, Kirk D.; Whited, Matthew C.

    2018-01-01

    Maladaptive perfectionism has the potential to put gifted individuals at an increased risk for cardiac events via the reduced heart rate variability that results from chronic negative affect and physiological stress reactions. As a result, implementing affective interventions into gifted programs may play a critical role in teaching gifted…

  17. A Statistical Framework to Interpret Individual Response to Intervention: Paving the Way for Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Swinton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of personalized nutrition and exercise prescription represents a topical and exciting progression for the discipline given the large inter-individual variability that exists in response to virtually all performance and health related interventions. Appropriate interpretation of intervention-based data from an individual or group of individuals requires practitioners and researchers to consider a range of concepts including the confounding influence of measurement error and biological variability. In addition, the means to quantify likely statistical and practical improvements are facilitated by concepts such as confidence intervals (CIs and smallest worthwhile change (SWC. The purpose of this review is to provide accessible and applicable recommendations for practitioners and researchers that interpret, and report personalized data. To achieve this, the review is structured in three sections that progressively develop a statistical framework. Section 1 explores fundamental concepts related to measurement error and describes how typical error and CIs can be used to express uncertainty in baseline measurements. Section 2 builds upon these concepts and demonstrates how CIs can be combined with the concept of SWC to assess whether meaningful improvements occur post-intervention. Finally, section 3 introduces the concept of biological variability and discusses the subsequent challenges in identifying individual response and non-response to an intervention. Worked numerical examples and interactive Supplementary Material are incorporated to solidify concepts and assist with implementation in practice.

  18. Using Data to Individualize a Multicomponent, Technology-Based Self-Monitoring Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Vogelgesang, Kari; Fernando, Josephine; Lugo, Wilbeth

    2016-01-01

    Technology in schools is abundant as is the call for evidence-based interventions for students who need additional support to be successful. One promising use of technology is for self-monitoring interventions aimed at improving classroom behavior. In this study, two middle school students with disabilities used a multicomponent, self-monitoring…

  19. Direct interventions for improving the performance of individuals with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, N

    2001-11-01

    Direct interventions are being used increasingly to maintain and improve the communicative and cognitive functioning of patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Speech-language pathologists can play an integral role in maximizing the functioning of dementia patients by selecting appropriate direct interventions that capitalize on spared neuropsychological abilities to compensate for impaired abilities. Successful direct interventions use techniques that facilitate learning and retention of information and skills. In this article, direct intervention techniques-repeated exposure via spaced retrieval training and quizzes; errorless learning; multisensory stimulation using music, toys, pets, and memory wallets; and other approaches to cognitive-linguistic stimulation such as the use of personal computers; the Montessori method; and activity programming-are reviewed. The rationale for use of these direct interventions and available efficacy data with Alzheimer's patients also are presented.

  20. Classroom Promotion of Oral Language (CPOL): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-based intervention to improve children’s literacy outcomes at grade 3, oral language and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Sharon; Snow, Pamela; Eadie, Patricia; Munro, John; Gold, Lisa; Le, Ha N D; Orsini, Francesca; Shingles, Beth; Lee, Katherine; Connell, Judy; Watts, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oral language and literacy competence are major influences on children’s developmental pathways and life success. Children who do not develop the necessary language and literacy skills in the early years of school then go on to face long-term difficulties. Improving teacher effectiveness may be a critical step in lifting oral language and literacy outcomes. The Classroom Promotion of Oral Language trial aims to determine whether a specifically designed teacher professional learning programme focusing on promoting oral language can lead to improved teacher knowledge and practice, and advance outcomes in oral language and literacy for early years school children, compared with usual practice. Methods and analysis This is a two-arm cluster multisite randomised controlled trial conducted within Catholic and Government primary schools across Victoria, Australia. The intervention comprises 4 days of face-to-face professional learning for teachers and ongoing implementation support via a specific worker. The primary outcome is reading ability of the students at grade 3, and the secondary outcomes are teacher knowledge and practice, student mental health, reading comprehension and language ability at grade 1; and literacy, writing and numeracy at grade 3. Economic evaluation will compare the incremental costs of the intervention to the measured primary and secondary outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This trial was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee #CF13/2634-2013001403 and later transferred to the University of Melbourne #1545540. The investigators (including Government and Catholic partners) will communicate trial results to stakeholders, collaborators and participating schools and teachers via appropriate presentations and publications. Trial registration number ISRCTN77681972; Pre-results. PMID:29162571

  1. Classroom Promotion of Oral Language (CPOL): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-based intervention to improve children's literacy outcomes at grade 3, oral language and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Sharon; Snow, Pamela; Eadie, Patricia; Munro, John; Gold, Lisa; Le, Ha N D; Orsini, Francesca; Shingles, Beth; Lee, Katherine; Connell, Judy; Watts, Amy

    2017-11-20

    Oral language and literacy competence are major influences on children's developmental pathways and life success. Children who do not develop the necessary language and literacy skills in the early years of school then go on to face long-term difficulties. Improving teacher effectiveness may be a critical step in lifting oral language and literacy outcomes. The Classroom Promotion of Oral Language trial aims to determine whether a specifically designed teacher professional learning programme focusing on promoting oral language can lead to improved teacher knowledge and practice, and advance outcomes in oral language and literacy for early years school children, compared with usual practice. This is a two-arm cluster multisite randomised controlled trial conducted within Catholic and Government primary schools across Victoria, Australia. The intervention comprises 4 days of face-to-face professional learning for teachers and ongoing implementation support via a specific worker. The primary outcome is reading ability of the students at grade 3, and the secondary outcomes are teacher knowledge and practice, student mental health, reading comprehension and language ability at grade 1; and literacy, writing and numeracy at grade 3. Economic evaluation will compare the incremental costs of the intervention to the measured primary and secondary outcomes. This trial was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee #CF13/2634-2013001403 and later transferred to the University of Melbourne #1545540. The investigators (including Government and Catholic partners) will communicate trial results to stakeholders, collaborators and participating schools and teachers via appropriate presentations and publications. ISRCTN77681972; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Effects of a school-based stroke education program on stroke-related knowledge and behaviour modification-school class based intervention study for elementary school students and parental guardians in a Japanese rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Suzuka; Okamura, Tomonori; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Takekawa, Hidehiro; Nagao, Masanori; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Hino, Tenyu; Wada, Shinichi; Arimizu, Takuro; Takebayashi, Toru; Kobashi, Gen; Hirata, Koichi; Yokota, Chiaki; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2017-12-21

    This study aimed to determine the effect of a stroke education programme on elementary school students and their parental guardians in a rural area in Japan that has high stroke mortality. School class based intervention study. Eleven public elementary schools in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. 268 students aged 11-12 years and 267 parental guardians. Students received lessons about stroke featuring animated cartoons and were instructed to communicate their knowledge about stroke to their parental guardians using material (comic books) distributed in the lessons. Stroke knowledge (symptoms, risk factors and attitude towards stroke) and behavioural change for risk factors were assessed at baseline, immediately after the programme and at 3 months. We also evaluated behavioural change for risk factors among parental guardians. The percentage of students with all correct answers for stroke symptoms, risk factors and the recommended response to stroke was significantly increased at 3 months Pbehavioural response to improving risk factors was significantly increased at 3 months compared with baseline (P<0.001). In a rural population with high stroke mortality, stroke education can improve knowledge about stroke in elementary school students and their parental guardians. We conducted the intervention as a part of compulsory education; this study was not a clinical trial. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center (M27-026). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Juridical-Criminal Paternalism, Autonomy and Vulnerability: Legitimation Criteria of Paternalistic Interventions on Individual Autonomy in Criminal Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heráclito Mota Barreto Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper has as objective questioning the legitimacy of state's paternalistic interventions on individual autonomy by using institutional-criminal instruments. In this path, the paper aims to understand in which cases the State is allowed to interfere in private individual lives under the justification of being promoting a well or avoiding a harm and, as well, in which cases such interference is abusive of individuals self-determination. Into this analysis, the work will study the current concepts of paternalism, the theoretical classifications on paternalistic interventions which will be useful to demonstrate admissible and inadmissible species of paternalism and Joel Feinberg and Gerald Dworkin's anti- paternalistic theories. Following, this subject will be analyzed in association with the implications of juridical-criminal goods involved in conflicts between autonomy, human vulnerabilities and paternalism, specially regarding to the (unavailability of those goods. In the end, the work intends to define legitimation criteria for paternalistic interventions inserted in criminal laws, which superimpose themselves on the individual autonomy, in order to harmonize constitutional values of respect for autonomy, protection of vulnerable individuals and the Criminal Law functions of exclusive protection of juridical goods.

  4. A Review of Marital Intimacy-Enhancing Interventions among Married Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardan-Souraki, Maryam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Asadpour, Ismail; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Khani, Soghra

    2016-08-01

    Lack of intimacy is currently the main concern rather than main concern of the experts in psychology and counseling. It is considered as one of the most important causes for divorce and as such to improve marital intimacy a great number of interventions have been proposed in the literature. Intimacy training and counseling make the couples take effective and successful steps to increase marital intimacy. No study has reviewed the interventions promoting marital intimacy after marriage. Thus, this review study aimed to classify the articles investigating the impact of interventional programs on marital intimacy after marriage. In April 2015, we performed a general search in Google Scholar search engines, and then we did an advanced search the databases of Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Also, lists of the references of the relevant articles were reviewed for additional citations. Using Medical Subject Headings (MESH) keywords: Intervention (Clinical Trials, Non-Randomized Controlled Trials, Randomized Controlled Trials, Education), intimacy, marital (Marriage) and selected related articles to the study objective were from 1995 to April 2015. Clinical trials that evaluated one or more behavioral interventions to improve marital intimacy were reviewed in the study. 39 trials met the inclusion criteria. Eleven interventions had follow-up, and 28 interventions lacked follow-up. The quality evidence for 22 interventions was low, for 15 interventions moderate, and for one intervention was considered high. Findings from studies were categorized in 11 categories as the intimacy promoting interventions in dimensions of emotional, psychological, physical, sexual, temporal, communicational, social and recreational, aesthetic, spiritual, intellectual intimacy, and total intimacy. Improving and promoting communication, problem solving, self

  5. A Review of Marital Intimacy-Enhancing Interventions among Married Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardan-Souraki, Maryam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Asadpour, Ismail; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Khani, Soghra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lack of intimacy is currently the main concern rather than main concern of the experts in psychology and counseling. It is considered as one of the most important causes for divorce and as such to improve marital intimacy a great number of interventions have been proposed in the literature. Intimacy training and counseling make the couples take effective and successful steps to increase marital intimacy. No study has reviewed the interventions promoting marital intimacy after marriage. Thus, this review study aimed to classify the articles investigating the impact of interventional programs on marital intimacy after marriage. Search Methods: In April 2015, we performed a general search in Google Scholar search engines, and then we did an advanced search the databases of Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Also, lists of the references of the relevant articles were reviewed for additional citations. Using Medical Subject Headings (MESH) keywords: Intervention (Clinical Trials, Non-Randomized Controlled Trials, Randomized Controlled Trials, Education), intimacy, marital (Marriage) and selected related articles to the study objective were from 1995 to April 2015. Clinical trials that evaluated one or more behavioral interventions to improve marital intimacy were reviewed in the study. Main Results: 39 trials met the inclusion criteria. Eleven interventions had follow-up, and 28 interventions lacked follow-up. The quality evidence for 22 interventions was low, for 15 interventions moderate, and for one intervention was considered high. Findings from studies were categorized in 11 categories as the intimacy promoting interventions in dimensions of emotional, psychological, physical, sexual, temporal, communicational, social and recreational, aesthetic, spiritual, intellectual intimacy, and total intimacy. Authors’ Conclusions

  6. A Review of Marital Intimacy-Enhancing Interventions among Married Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kardan-Souraki, Maryam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Asadpour, Ismail; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Khani, Soghra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of intimacy is currently the main concern rather than main concern of the experts in psychology and counseling. It is considered as one of the most important causes for divorce and as such to improve marital intimacy a great number of interventions have been proposed in the literature. Intimacy training and counseling make the couples take effective and successful steps to increase marital intimacy. No study has reviewed the interventions promoting marital intimacy after marr...

  7. The Effectiveness of Interventions based on Positive Psychotherapy on Improving Coping Styles, Relapse Prevention in Individuals with Substance Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam kadivar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions based on positive psychotherapy on improving coping styles, relapse prevention in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder. The research design was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest, a month Follow-up and control group. Thirty-one individuals with substance use disorder, who were admitted to addiction treatment centers in Zahedan city, were selected through purposeful sampling method and were randomly assigned to an experimental (14 persons and control (17 persons groups. Both groups were asked to respond to Coping Styles Questionnaire by Billings and Mouse, at the pretest stage. In later stages of research, the experimental group received an intervention based on positive psychotherapy for ten sessions each session60 minutes. Data was analyzed using covariance and chi-square test. The results showed that intervention based on positive psychotherapy improved the coping styles and relapse prevention in the experimental group and the effect of the intervention was significant in post-test and follow-up stages. The result also showed that interventions based on positive psychotherapy could be used as an efficient technique to improve coping skills and relapse prevention in patients with substance use disorder.

  8. Establishing an individual dosing system for patients undergoing interventional transcatheter arterial embolization: Radiochromic film and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Li, Yang-Ying; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Less invasive imaging-guided vascular interventions with fluoroscopy and digital subtraction angiography have recently become widespread and have been successfully used for treating various diseases. However, interventional fluoroscopy procedures may present deterministic and stochastic radiation risks. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Food and Drug Administration have requested identifying procedures that may involve patient doses greater than the recommended thresholds. In this study, radiochromic dosimetric media, known as self-developing films, and measurement-based Monte Carlo simulations were used to establish an interventional radiology dosing system for individual patients undergoing interventional transcatheter arterial embolization. The peak skin dose, evaluated from the entrance surface dose distribution, was 21% less than the cumulated dose reported from the console. A 3D dose map incorporated into CT images was established. The organ doses and effective doses for individual patients were evaluated using this dosing system. This system could be applied very well to other fluoroscopic or interventional procedures for patient dose management.

  9. Effects of Individual and Group Contingency Interventions on Attendance in Adolescent Part-Time Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Shira Melody; Sturmey, Peter; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual and group monetary contingencies on the attendance of adolescent part-time employees. Attendance increased in both individual and group contingency phases; however staff questionnaire responses indicated a preference for the individual contingencies. Future research should consider staff acceptability…

  10. Comparison of three physical therapy interventions with an emphasis on the gait of individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Brandão Bueno

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Gait impairments are one of the earliest signs reported by patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and cause an increased number of falls and decreased quality of life among these patients. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three physical therapy interventions using Rhythmic Cues (RC, Swiss Ball (SB and Dual Task (DT, with an emphasis on gait treatment (step and stride length, duration and velocity, in individuals with PD. Methods: Quasi-randomized clinical trial addressing a sample composed of 45 individuals assigned to three groups. The individuals were assessed before and after the intervention protocol using the following: Modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, Footprint analysis, Video Gait analysis, and Timed Up and Go Test (TUG. The groups were homogeneous concerning age, HY and UPDRS. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 20.0. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in all the variables analyzed in the RC and SB groups when compared in the pre- and post-intervention. With the exception of the TUG variable, the DT group presented statistically significant differences in all the remaining variables. Conclusion: The three interventions were effective for the outcomes under study, but the SB group presented the greatest magnitude of change (effect size, while the RC group presented the greatest improvement in the temporal gait variables (duration and velocity and TUG.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of a transdiagnostic Internet intervention for individuals with panic and phobias - One size fits all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Johanna; Jelinek, Lena; Moritz, Steffen

    2017-03-01

    Many individuals with anxiety disorders do not receive professional treatment. Internet interventions have shown to be effective in the treatment of anxiety. The present randomized controlled trial was designed to examine the effectiveness of a short-term (4-week) Internet intervention in treating panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias ('ConfID'). We addressed the questions of whether this transdiagnostic program would affect these disorders to varying degrees and whether there would be moderators of effectiveness. Adults who were recruited in online forums for anxiety underwent an online baseline assessment (N = 179) and were randomized either to the intervention group (ConfID) or the control group (care as usual). Online post-assessment took place 4 weeks later. The primary outcome was assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI); the secondary outcomes targeted the disorder-specific symptoms, depression, and somatization. Participants in the intervention group showed a significantly stronger anxiety reduction compared to participants receiving care as usual (small-to-medium effect size between groups in intention-to-treat analysis). The treatment effect was similar for the different disorders and was moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Secondary outcomes yielded effect sizes in the medium range. Moderate treatment adherence, lack of measures beyond online self-reports, and unavailability of long-term results. The study provides further evidence that transdiagnostic Internet interventions are promising in reducing the existing treatment gap in individuals with panic disorder and phobias. Results extend previous findings by showing that significant effects can also be reached by comprehensive short-term programs and that the effects might be moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of school-based vegetable garden and physical activity coordinated health interventions on weight status and weight-related behaviors of ethnically diverse, low-income students: Study design and baseline data of the Texas, Grow! Eat! Go! (TGEG cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Evans

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinated, multi-component school-based interventions can improve health behaviors in children, as well as parents, and impact the weight status of students. By leveraging a unique collaboration between Texas AgriLife Extension (a federal, state and county funded educational outreach organization and the University of Texas School of Public Health, the Texas Grow! Eat! Go! Study (TGEG modeled the effectiveness of utilizing existing programs and volunteer infrastructure to disseminate an enhanced Coordinated School Health program. The five-year TGEG study was developed to assess the independent and combined impact of gardening, nutrition and physical activity intervention(s on the prevalence of healthy eating, physical activity and weight status among low-income elementary students. The purpose of this paper is to report on study design, baseline characteristics, intervention approaches, data collection and baseline data. Methods The study design for the TGEG study consisted of a factorial group randomized controlled trial (RCT in which 28 schools were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: (1 Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH only (Comparison, (2 CATCH plus school garden intervention [Learn, Grow, Eat & Go! (LGEG], (3 CATCH plus physical activity intervention [Walk Across Texas (WAT], and (4 CATCH plus LGEG plus WAT (Combined. The outcome variables include student’s weight status, vegetable and sugar sweetened beverage consumption, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Parents were assessed for home environmental variables including availability of certain foods, social support of student health behaviors, parent engagement and behavior modeling. Results Descriptive data are presented for students (n = 1369 and parents (n = 1206 at baseline. The sample consisted primarily of Hispanic and African American (53 % and 18 %, respectively and low-income (i.e., 78 % eligible for Free and

  13. The Effectiveness of Psychosocial Intervention for Individuals With Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Alyson; Persson, Martin; Stock, Nicola; Rumsey, Nichola; Sandy, Jonathan; Waylen, Andrea; Edwards, Zoe; Hammond, Vanessa; Partridge, Lucy; Ness, Andy

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of different psychological interventions for children and adults with cleft lip and/or palate and their parents. We searched six databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE to June 2013 and checked bibliographies. We included research that evaluated any psychological intervention in studies in which at least 90% of the participants had cleft lip and/or palate or were parents of those with cleft lip and/or palate. Studies containing less than 90% were excluded unless they reported results separately for those with cleft lip and/or palate, or raw data were available upon request from the authors. Inclusion assessment, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were carried out independently by two reviewers. Seven studies were identified as inclusions, with only two studies being included in the full data analysis (one of which failed to meet the full inclusion criteria). The five remaining studies were included only in a narrative synthesis because data were available for people or parents of those with cleft lip and/or palate only. This highlights a distinct dearth of research into psychological intervention within the field of cleft lip and/or palate. The review found no evidence to support any specific intervention. Key uncertainties need to be identified and addressed. Adequately powered, methodologically rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to provide a secure evidence base for psychological intervention techniques in participants with cleft lip and/or palate and their parents.

  14. Mindfulness-based prevention for eating disorders: A school-based cluster randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Melissa J; Wade, Tracey D

    2015-11-01

    Successful prevention of eating disorders represents an important goal due to damaging long-term impacts on health and well-being, modest treatment outcomes, and low treatment seeking among individuals at risk. Mindfulness-based approaches have received early support in the treatment of eating disorders, but have not been evaluated as a prevention strategy. This study aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a novel mindfulness-based intervention for reducing the risk of eating disorders among adolescent females, under both optimal (trained facilitator) and task-shifted (non-expert facilitator) conditions. A school-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 19 classes of adolescent girls (N = 347) were allocated to a three-session mindfulness-based intervention, dissonance-based intervention, or classes as usual control. A subset of classes (N = 156) receiving expert facilitation were analyzed separately as a proxy for delivery under optimal conditions. Task-shifted facilitation showed no significant intervention effects across outcomes. Under optimal facilitation, students receiving mindfulness demonstrated significant reductions in weight and shape concern, dietary restraint, thin-ideal internalization, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment relative to control by 6-month follow-up. Students receiving dissonance showed significant reductions in socio-cultural pressures. There were no statistically significant differences between the two interventions. Moderate intervention acceptability was reported by both students and teaching staff. Findings show promise for the application of mindfulness in the prevention of eating disorders; however, further work is required to increase both impact and acceptability, and to enable successful outcomes when delivered by less expert providers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of individualized worksite exercise training on aerobic capacity and muscle strength among construction workers - a randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The combination of high physical work demands and low physical capacity has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the physical capacity of construction workers and evaluate the effect of individually...... tailored exercise programs on their physical fitness and muscular capacity. METHOD: The study was a randomized controlled trial of male constructions workers allocated to either an exercise or control group. The intervention lasted 12 weeks, and the exercise group trained 3 x 20 minutes a week....... The participants completed health checks before and after the intervention period. Data from the first health check were used to tailor the exercise in the interventions. RESULTS: At baseline, participants had maximal oxygen consumption (VO (2max)) of 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) 0.7L/min] and body mass index (BMI...

  16. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-07-01

    Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  17. Comment on Technology-Based Intervention Research for Individuals on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this letter to the editor is to comment on several review papers recently published in the current "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Special Issue on Technology: Software, Robotics, and Translational Science." These reviews address a variety of aspects relating to technology-aided intervention and instruction…

  18. Broadening the Scope of Peer-Mediated Intervention for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platos, Mateusz; Wojaczek, Kinga

    2018-01-01

    Peer-mediated intervention (PMI) is most commonly defined as a treatment approach that engages typically developing peers to teach children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) social skills and increase their social interactions, mainly in a school setting. In this letter, we address the limitations of such understanding of PMI and review the…

  19. Promoting Later Planned Retirement : The Differential Impact of Construal Level Interventions for Younger and Older Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.G. van Schie (Ron); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIndividuals’ planned retirement age is affected by a trade-off between financial costs (a feasibility oriented consideration) and the number of years in retirement (a desirability oriented consideration). Previous research shows that construal level interventions (i.e., activating a

  20. Intervention in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis: a review and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Over the last 15 years, a focus on early intervention in psychotic disorders has emerged. Initially, the early psychosis movement focused on timely recognition and phase-specific treatment of first-episode psychosis. However, early psychosis researchers suspected that pushing the point...

  1. Partners in Dementia Care: A Care Coordination Intervention for Individuals with Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Katherine S.; Bass, David M.; Snow, A. Lynn; Wilson, Nancy L.; Morgan, Robert; Looman, Wendy J.; McCarthy, Catherine; Kunik, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides a detailed description of a telephone-based care coordination intervention, Partners in Dementia Care (PDC), for veterans with dementia and their family caregivers. Essential features of PDC included (a) formal partnerships between Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers and Alzheimer's Association Chapters; (b) a…

  2. Interventions for Adolescent Substance Abuse: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Arshad, Ahmed; Finkelstein, Yaron; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-10-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors often begin during adolescence and represent major public health challenges. Substance abuse has a major impact on individuals, families, and communities, as its effects are cumulative, contributing to costly social, physical, and mental health problems. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent substance abuse among adolescents. We report findings from a total of 46 systematic reviews focusing on interventions for smoking/tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use, and combined substance abuse. Our overview findings suggest that among smoking/tobacco interventions, school-based prevention programs and family-based intensive interventions typically addressing family functioning are effective in reducing smoking. Mass media campaigns are also effective given that these were of reasonable intensity over extensive periods of time. Among interventions for alcohol use, school-based alcohol prevention interventions have been associated with reduced frequency of drinking, while family-based interventions have a small but persistent effect on alcohol misuse among adolescents. For drug abuse, school-based interventions based on a combination of social competence and social influence approaches have shown protective effects against drugs and cannabis use. Among the interventions targeting combined substance abuse, school-based primary prevention programs are effective. Evidence from Internet-based interventions, policy initiatives, and incentives appears to be mixed and needs further research. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific interventions components with standardized intervention and outcome measures. Various delivery platforms, including digital platforms and policy initiative, have the potential to improve substance abuse outcomes among adolescents; however, these require further research. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

  3. Systematic review of peer education intervention programmes among individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Tricia K; Serafica, Reimund; Johnson, Michael

    2017-12-01

    To systematically review published randomised controlled trials of peer education interventions among adults with type 2 diabetes. Systematic reviews have shown mixed results for peer support interventions to improve diabetes self-management. Given the effectiveness of diabetes education by healthcare professionals, peer education interventions may be a useful alternative approach. This review addressed that gap. Systematic review. A systematic search of published randomised controlled trials between 2006-2016 was conducted using the keywords diabetes, type 2 diabetes, randomised controlled trials, self-management, peer education and peer support. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Jadad scale. Seven studies were included in the final review, and the Jadad scores ranged from 8-10 of a possible 13 points. There was no consistent design, setting, or outcome measurement among the studies. There were two types of peer education interventions compared to traditional diabetes education: face-to-face or a combination of face-to-face and telephone/texting. The most common clinical outcome measure was HbA1c. Two of six studies showed statistically significant improvement in HbA1c between intervention and control groups. An increase in diabetes knowledge was also statistically significant in two of five studies. Peer education could be successful in improving clinical outcomes. No evidence was found indicating that healthcare provider education was superior in regard to clinical knowledge or behavioural or psychological outcome measures than peer education. HbA1c was statistically significantly lower in some peer education groups compared to control groups. There is evidence that peer education can be useful in achieving positive clinical outcomes such as decreasing HbA1c levels and increasing diabetes knowledge. A certified diabetes educator or a trained healthcare professional should not be overlooked though when using peer educators. © 2017

  4. Student Voices in School-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Siu Yin Annie; Adamson, Bob

    2015-01-01

    The value of student voices in dialogues about learning improvement is acknowledged in the literature. This paper examines how the views of students regarding School-based Assessment (SBA), a significant shift in examination policy and practice in secondary schools in Hong Kong, have largely been ignored. The study captures student voices through…

  5. Understanding Ethics in School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Hazel; Burstow, Bob

    2018-01-01

    The notion of the "teacher as researcher" has been in the education lexicon since the mid-1970s. School-based research, we suggest, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance, flourishing within the emerging, complex school landscape. This empirical research engages with 25 school leaders to explore the ways in which…

  6. Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…

  7. School-Based Management: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Patricia, Ed.; Potter, Eugenia Cooper, Ed.

    School-based management (SBM), sometimes called site-based management, is fast becoming the hottest restructuring item in the arsenal of reformers, teachers' unions, governors, and legislators who want to change the traditional ways in which schools and school districts do business. This document comprises three main sections with contributions…

  8. Information and Communication Technology and School Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communication technology and school based assessment (SBA) is practice that broadens the form mode, means and scope of assessment in the school using modern technologies in order to facilitate and enhance learning. This study sought to ascertain the efficacy of Information and Communication ...

  9. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  10. Innovative interventions to promote behavioral change in overweight or obese individuals: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-05-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.

  11. The effects of an individualized exercise intervention on body composition in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglini,Claudio; Bottaro,Martim; Dennehy,Carolyn; Rae,Logan; Shields,Edgar; Kirk,David; Hackney,Anthony

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Changes in metabolism have been reported in the majority of patients undergoing cancer treatment, and these are usually characterized by progressive change in body composition. The effects of aerobic exercise programs to combat the cancer and cancer treatment-related side effects, which include the negative changes in body composition, have been extensively reported in the literature. However, few resistance exercise intervention studies have hypothesized that breast ca...

  12. Individual and School Organizational Factors that Influence Implementation of the PAX Good Behavior Game Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrovich, Celene E; Pas, Elise T; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Becker, Kimberly D; Keperling, Jennifer P; Embry, Dennis D; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Evidence-based interventions are being disseminated broadly in schools across the USA, but the implementation levels achieved in community settings vary considerably. The current study examined the extent to which teacher and school factors were associated with implementation dosage and quality of the PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention designed to improve student social-emotional competence and behavior. Specifically, dosage (i.e., number of games and duration of games) across the school year and quality (i.e., how well the game is delivered) of PAX GBG implementation across four time points in a school year were examined. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the association between teacher-level factors (e.g., demographics, self-reports of personal resources, attitudes toward the intervention, and workplace perceptions) and longitudinal implementation data. We also accounted for school-level factors, including demographic characteristics of the students and ratings of the schools' organizational health. Findings indicated that only a few teacher-level factors were significantly related to variation in implementation. Teacher perceptions (e.g., fit with teaching style, emotional exhaustion) were generally related to dosage, whereas demographic factors (e.g., teachers' age) were related to quality. These findings highlight the importance of school contextual and proximal teacher factors on the implementation of classroom-based programs.

  13. Understanding The Individual Impacts Of Human Interventions And Climate Change On Hydrologic Variables In India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, T.; Chhabra, S., Jr.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have quantified the historical climate change and Land Use Land Cover (LULC) change impacts on the hydrologic variables of Indian subcontinent by using Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) mesoscale model at 0.5° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The results indicate that the climate change in India has predominating effects on the basic water balance components such as water yield, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. This analysis is with the assumption of naturalised hydrologic cycle, i.e., the impacts of human interventions like construction of controlled (primarily dams, diversions and reservoirs) and water withdrawals structures are not taken into account. The assumption is unrealistic since there are numerous anthropogenic disturbances which result in large changes on vegetation composition and distribution patterns. These activities can directly or indirectly influence the dynamics of water cycle; subsequently affecting the hydrologic processes like plant transpiration, infiltration, evaporation, runoff and sublimation. Here, we have quantified the human interventions by using the reservoir and irrigation module of VIC model which incorporates the irrigation schemes, reservoir characteristics and water withdrawals. The impact of human interventions on hydrologic variables in many grids are found more predominant than climate change and might be detrimental to water resources at regional level. This spatial pattern of impacts will facilitate water manager and planners to design and station hydrologic structures for a sustainable water resources management.

  14. Yoga as a School-Based Mental Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Research has estimated that the percentage of children and adolescents experiencing significant mental health difficulties is as high as 20% of all youth, and that only one-fourth of these students receive therapeutic services outside of school. Given this gap between the need and availability of mental health services, schools often become the…

  15. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  16. Effect of individually tailored biopsychosocial workplace interventions on chronic musculoskeletal pain and stress among laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Hansen, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among laboratory technicians and work-related stress may aggravate the problem. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of a multifaceted worksite intervention on pain and stress among laboratory technicians with chronic musculoskeletal......: neck, shoulder, lower and upper back, elbow, and hand at 10 week follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was stress assessed by Cohen´s perceived stress questionnaire. In addition, an explorative dose-response analysis was performed on the adherence to PCMT with pain and stress, respectively......, as outcome measures. RESULTS: A significant (P stress was observed (treatment by time P = 0.16). Exploratory analyses for each body...

  17. Decision modelling of non-pharmacological interventions for individuals with dementia: a systematic review of methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sopina, Liza; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    alongside an RCT without additional modelling. Results: Two primary, five secondary and three tertiary prevention intervention studies were identified and reviewed. Five studies utilised Markov models, with others using discrete event, regression-based simulation, and decision tree approaches. A number...... of challenging methodological issues were identified, including the use of MMSE-score as the main outcome measure, limited number of strategies compared, restricted time horizons, and limited or dated data on dementia onset, progression and mortality. Only one of the three tertiary prevention studies explicitly...

  18. A School-Based Program for Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pbert, Lori; Druker, Susan; Barton, Bruce; Schneider, Kristin L.; Olendzki, Barbara; Gapinski, Mary A.; Kurtz, Stephen; Osganian, Stavroula

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the dramatic increase in adolescent overweight and obesity, models are needed for implementing weight management treatment through readily accessible venues. We evaluated the acceptability and efficacy of a school-based intervention consisting of school nurse-delivered counseling and an afterschool exercise program in improving…

  19. Promoting Self-Regulation through School-Based Martial Arts Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of school-based Tae Kwon Do training on self-regulatory abilities was examined. A self-regulation framework including three domains (cognitive, affective, and physical) was presented. Children (N = 207) from kindergarten through Grade 5 were randomly assigned by homeroom class to either the intervention (martial arts) group or a…

  20. Practice Patterns of School-Based Occupational Therapists Targeting Handwriting: A Knowledge-to-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Heidi; Egan, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Poor handwriting is a common reason for referral to school-based occupational therapy. A survey was used to explore the extent to which current practice patterns in Ontario, Canada, align with evidence on effective intervention for handwriting. Knowledge-to-practice gaps were identified related to focus on performance components versus…

  1. Evaluating a School-Based Day Treatment Program for Students with Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Antoine Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Jade County Public Schools has provided school-based therapeutic day treatment in its public schools for more than 10 years. This program was adopted by the school system to provide an intervention in the school and classroom to address the challenging behaviors of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Currently, three human services…

  2. Integrating Expressive Therapies in School-Based Counseling: A Handbook for School Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiotto, Kimberley

    2013-01-01

    Research demonstrates that addressing mental health issues in children can yield both increased academic performance and better social-emotional skills. In the past, school-based mental health services for students have been implemented inconsistently and usually in combination with community partners. When school mental health interventions are…

  3. FOCUS School-Based Skill-Building Groups: Training and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ediza; De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Astor, Ron Avi; Lester, Patricia; Benbenishty, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Military children encounter unique stressors that can affect their social and emotional well-being. These challenges can serve as a risk to the military child's successful academic performance. This study fills a much-needed research gap by examining the training and implementation of a public school-based intervention, Families OverComing Under…

  4. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  5. Fostering Protective Factors in At-Risk Youth Using Individual and Group Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-Cunningham, Kamal Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a time when individuals are forced to deal with the stress of moving from being a teenager to an adult (Spear, 2000). As a result, this difficult developmental period is often characterized by adolescents engaging in risky behavior and potentially dangerous experimentation (Golden & Turner, 2005). The importance of understanding how…

  6. Sexual Behavior of Gender-Dysphoric Individuals Before Gender-Confirming Interventions: A European Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerwenka, S.; Nieder, T.O.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; De Cuypere, G.; Haraldsen, I.R.H.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Richter-Appelt, H.

    2014-01-01

    A transsexual course of development that starts before puberty (early onset) or during or after puberty, respectively (late onset), may lead to diverse challenges in coping with sexual activity. The authors explored the sexual behavior of 380 adult male-to-female and female-to-male individuals

  7. Anxiety in individuals with ASD: Prevalence, phenomenology, etiology, assessment, and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Magiati, I.; Perrin, S.; Patel, V.B.; Preedy, V.R.; Martin, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    ndividuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience high levels of anxiety symptomatology with an estimated prevalence rate of anxiety disorders as high as 40 %. It is likely that anxiety is prominent in individuals with ASD throughout the life-span and that factors such as age, IQ, and ASD

  8. Predictors of Response to Intervention of Word Reading Fluency in Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltinga, Femke; van der Leij, Aryan; Struiksma, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of rapid digit naming, phonological memory, letter sound naming, and orthographic knowledge to the prediction of responsiveness to a school-based, individual intervention of word reading fluency problems of 122 Dutch second and third graders whose reading scores were below the 10th…

  9. The embodied and relational nature of the mind: implications for clinical interventions in aging individuals and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W Jack; Gauvin, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Considerable research over the past decade has garnered support for the notion that the mind is both embodied and relational. Jointly, these terms imply that the brain, physical attributes of the self, and features of our interpersonal relationships and of the environments in which we live jointly regulate energy and information flow; they codetermine how we think, feel, and behave both individually and collectively. In addition to direct experience, evidence supports the view that stimuli embedded within past memories trigger multimodal simulations throughout the body and brain to literally recreate lived experience. In this paper, we review empirical support for the concept of an embodied and relational mind and then reflect on the implications of this perspective for clinical interventions in aging individuals and populations. Data suggest that environmental influences literally "get under the skin" with aging; that musculoskeletal and visceral sensations become more prominent in activities of the mind due to aging biological systems and chronic disease. We argue that conceiving the mind as embodied and relational will grow scientific inquiry in aging, transform how we think about the self-system and well-being, and lead us to rethink health promotion interventions aimed at aging individuals and populations.

  10. [Between individual therapy and political intervention: campaigns against "diseases of civilization" between 1920 and 1960].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelcke, V

    1995-01-01

    The concept of "disease of civilization" is commonly used for a variety of conditions. It implies a criticism of the "modern" way of life. This criticism and the strategies put forward to prevent diseases of civilization are correlated to the specific historical context in which they are formulated. The paper analyses three positions characterising different periods in 20th century German history: In the Weimar Republic, representatives of paediatrics and social hygiene asked for the expansion of public health care programmes according to the principles laid down by the Weimar constitution. During the time of National Socialism, more radical measures were propagated by exponents of hygiene and psychotherapy, aiming at a fundamental restructuration of society in accordance with the Nazi ideology. After 1945, strategies focused on the individual: Physical exercise, abstinence, and individual psychotherapy were propagated to prevent or treat the consequences of life in modern society.

  11. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Individuals with Binge Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Claudine; Mathieu, Marie-Ève; St-Laurent, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; St-Amour, Nathalie; Drapeau, Vicky

    2018-03-01

    Our systematic review aims to assess the overall evidence available in the literature regarding the role of physical activity (PA) in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) and better understand the potential underlying mechanisms of action. Currently, the most effective and well-established psychological treatment for BED is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with a remission rate around 80%. CBT is sometimes combined with pharmacotherapy targeting comorbidities associated with BED, such as obesity and depression. Another avenue of treatment that has been less studied is PA. It has been suggested that PA addresses the underlying mechanisms of BED and, thus, increases treatment efficiency. This systematic review provides additional knowledge concerning the benefits of PA in the treatment of individuals with BED including reduction of binge eating (BE) episodes and improvement in other associated comorbidities. Potential mechanisms of action of PA include neurochemical alterations affecting the reward system, reduction of negative affect, and its anorexigenic effects.

  12. Effect of individually tailored biopsychosocial workplace interventions on chronic musculoskeletal pain and stress among laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Brandt, Mikkel; Hansen, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    pain using individually tailored physical and cognitive elements. STUDY DESIGN: This trial uses a single-blind randomized controlled design with allocation concealment in a 2-armed parallel group format among laboratory technicians. The trial "Implementation of physical exercise at the Workplace (IRMA...... 2014 (follow-up). METHODS: Participants (n = 112) were allocated to receive either physical, cognitive, and mindfulness group-based training (PCMT group) or a reference group (REF) for 10 weeks at the worksite. PCMT consisted of 4 major elements: 1) resistance training individually tailored to the pain...... affected area, 2) motor control training, 3) mindfulness, and 4) cognitive and behavioral therapy/education. Participants of the REF group were encouraged to follow ongoing company health initiatives. The predefined primary outcome measure was pain intensity (VAS scale 0 - 10) in average of the regions...

  13. Individual risk evaluation and interventions for mitigation in the transportation of hazardous goods: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Elena Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of hazardous substances is an economic activity essential for goods’ transference chain. However, the risk in transporting hazardous materials is related to the occur of accidents causing environmental damages and public health dangerous consequences. A quite recent Italian example is the Viareggio accident (2010, which involved a train with tank cars containing liquefied petroleum gas (LPG which caused more than thirty deaths. This paper describes the safety state in the Varese district (an area of northern Italy with a very high population density and industrial activities, with the aim at comparing the current situation (considering the risks due to the transportation of hazardous materials on the main motorways and main national roads with a potential scenario that introduces a few mitigating interventions, such as a partial conversion from road haulage to rail transport. This comparison can be accomplished by developing the existing intermodal platforms and implementing new ones in strategic areas.

  14. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available as at August 2014. A total of 20 journal articles were relevant to the review. Research supported programs with longer durations (3 hours or more). Most programs taught resuscitation alone and few included content that was context-specific and relevant to the target group. The training experience of the facilitator did not appear to impact on student outcomes. Incorporating both practical and didactic components was found to be an important factor in delivering material and facilitating the retention of knowledge. Educational resources and facilitator training were found to be common features of effective programs. The review supports first aid in school curriculum and provides details of key components pertinent to design of school-based first aid programs. The findings suggest that first aid training may have benefits wider than the uptake and retention of knowledge and skills. There is a need for future research, particularly randomized controlled trials to aid in identifying best practice approaches. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  15. Perceptions on healthy eating, physical activity and lifestyle advice: opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions to individuals with low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukman, Andrea J; Teuscher, Dorit; Feskens, Edith J M; van Baak, Marleen A; Meershoek, Agnes; Renes, Reint Jan

    2014-10-04

    Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) are generally less well reached through lifestyle interventions than individuals with higher SES. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions in such a way that they are more appealing for individuals with low SES. To this end, the study provides insight into perspectives of groups with different socioeconomic positions regarding their current eating and physical activity behaviour; triggers for lifestyle change; and ways to support lifestyle change. Data were gathered in semi-structured focus group interviews among low SES (four groups) and high SES (five groups) adults. The group size varied between four and nine participants. The main themes discussed were perceptions and experiences of healthy eating, physical activity and lifestyle advice. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic approach was used to analyse the data. In general, three key topics were identified, namely: current lifestyle is logical for participants given their personal situation; lifestyle change is prompted by feedback from their body; and support for lifestyle change should include individually tailored advice and could profit from involving others. The perceptions of the low SES participants were generally comparable to the perceptions shared by the high SES participants. Some perceptions were, however, especially shared in the low SES groups. Low SES participants indicated that their current eating behaviour was sometimes affected by cost concerns. They seemed to be especially motivated to change their lifestyle when they experienced health complaints, but were rather hesitant to change their lifestyle for preventive purposes. Regarding support for lifestyle change, low SES participants preferred to receive advice in a group rather than on their own. For physical activities, groups should preferably consist of persons of the same age, gender or physical condition. To motivate

  16. Pragmatism rules: the intervention and prevention strategies used by psychiatric nurses working with non-suicidal self-harming individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, A

    2007-02-01

    Self harm in the absence of expressed suicidal intent is an under explored area in psychiatric nursing research. This paper reports on findings of a study undertaken in two acute psychiatric inpatient units in Ireland. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the practices of psychiatric nurses in relation to people who self harm, but who are not considered suicidal. Semi structured interviews were held with eight psychiatric nurses. Content analysis revealed several themes. For the purpose of this paper the prevention and intervention strategies psychiatric nurses engage in when working with non-suicidal self harming individuals are presented. Recommendations for further research are offered.

  17. The Effectiveness of School-Based Nutritional Education Program among Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    In-Iw, Supinya; Saetae, Tridsanun; Manaboriboon, Boonying

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI), as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutri...

  18. School based assessment module for invasion games category in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School based assessment module for invasion games category in physical education. ... This study identify the level of basic skills of invasion games category when using School Based Assessment Module. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Reduced risk of heart failure with intensified multifactorial intervention in individuals with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oellgaard, Jens; Gæde, Peter; Rossing, Peter

    2018-01-01

    of hospitalisation for heart failure. METHODS: One hundred and sixty individuals were randomised to conventional or intensified multifactorial intervention, using sealed envelopes. The trial was conducted using the Prospective, Randomised, Open, Blinded Endpoints (PROBE) design. After 7.8 years, all individuals were......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, heart failure is a frequent, potentially fatal and often forgotten complication. Glucose-lowering agents and adjuvant therapies modify the risk of heart failure. We recently reported that 7.8 years of intensified compared with conventional...... offered intensified therapy and the study continued as an observational follow-up study for an additional 13.4 years. Heart-failure hospitalisations were adjudicated from patient records by an external expert committee blinded for treatment allocation. Event rates were compared using a Cox regression...

  20. Individual monitoring of medical staff working in interventional radiology in Switzerland using double dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damet, J.; Bailat, C.; Bize, P.; Buchillier, Th.; Tosic, M.; Verdun, F.R.; Baechler, S.

    2011-01-01

    Physicians who frequently perform fluoroscopic examinations are exposed to high intensity radiation fields. The exposure monitoring is performed with a regular personal dosimeter under the apron in order to estimate the effective dose. However, large parts of the body are not protected by the apron (e.g. arms, head). Therefore, it is recommended to wear a supplemental dosimeter over the apron to obtain a better representative estimate of the effective dose. The over-apron dosimeter can also be used to estimate the eye lens dose. The goal of this study was to investigate the relevance of double dosimetry in interventional radiology. First the calibration procedure of the dosimeters placed over the apron was tested. Then, results of double dosimetry during the last five years were analyzed. We found that the personal dose equivalent measured over a lead apron was underestimated by ∼20% to ∼40% for X-ray beam qualities used in radiology. Measurements made over five-year period confirm that the use of a single under-apron dosimeter is inadequate for personnel monitoring. Relatively high skin dose (>10 mSv/month) would have remained undetected without a second dosimeter placed on the apron.

  1. Individualized dry-land intervention program for an élite Paralympic swimmer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaggioni, Luca; Trecroci, Athos; Tosin, Massimiliano; Iaia, F Marcello; Alberti, Giampietro

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective case study is the longitudinal description of the physical and functional parameters of a top-level Paralympic swimmer class S9-SB8-SM9 during four swimming seasons of training, from the Paralympic games in London 2012 to the Paralympic games in Rio 2016. A 22-year-old male swimmer underwent a specific preventive dry-land training based on diaphragmatic breathing, postural alignment, and slow-velocity resistance training aimed to improve his muscle strength. He was tested by using the Functional Movement ScreenTM, photographic postural assessment and vertical jump. The swimmer improved his functional, postural and strength parameters indicating a better functional movement and muscular power. These results shows that a four-year specific dry-land intervention could be capable of enhancing the functional and physical requirements of a top-level Paralympic swimmer. This approach might be a suitable novel alternative for physical therapists and athletic trainers to integrate their training protocols for athletes with similar impairments.

  2. Evaluation of Changes in Individual Community-Related Empowerment in Community Health Promotion Interventions in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed changes in community members’ ratings of the dimensions of individual community related empowerment (ICRE before and two years after the implementation of an empowerment expansion framework in three community health promotion initiatives within the Estonian context. We employed a self-administered questionnaire, the adapted mobilisation scale–individual. As the first step, we investigated the multidimensional nature of the ICRE construct and explored the validity and reliability (internal consistency of the ICRE scale. Two datasets were used. The first dataset comprised a cross-sectional random sample of 1,000 inhabitants of Rapla County selected in 2003 from the National Population Register, which was used to confirm the composition of the dimensions of the scale and to examine the reliability of the dimensions. The second dataset comprised two waves of data: 120 participants from three health promotion programs in 2003 (pre-test and 115 participants in 2005 (post-test, and the dataset was used to compare participants’ pre-test and post-test ratings of their levels of empowerment. The content validity ratio, determined using Lawshe’s formula, was high (0.98. Five dimensions of ICRE, self-efficacy, intention, participation, motivation and critical awareness, emerged from the factor analysis. The internal consistency (α of the total empowerment scale was 0.86 (subscales self-efficacy α = 0.88, intention α = 0.83, participation α = 0.81 and motivation α = 0.69; critical awareness comprised only one item. The levels of ICRE dimensions measured after the application of the empowerment expansion framework were significantly more favourable for the dimensions self-efficacy, participation, intention and motivation to participate. We conclude that for Rapla community workgroups and networks, their ICRE was rendered more favourable after the implementation of the empowerment expansion framework.

  3. 78 FR 42788 - School-Based Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration School-Based... Gadsden County. SUMMARY: HRSA will be transferring a School-Based Health Center Capital (SBHCC) Program... support the expansion of services at school-based health centers will continue. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  4. Living well: an intervention to improve self-management of medical illness for individuals with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard W; Dickerson, Faith; Lucksted, Alicia; Brown, Clayton H; Weber, Elyssa; Tenhula, Wendy N; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Dixon, Lisa B

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness have elevated rates of comorbid chronic general medical conditions and may benefit from interventions designed to support illness self-management. This study examined the effectiveness of a modified version of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program called Living Well for individuals with serious mental illness. A total of 63 mental health consumers with serious mental illness and at least one concurrent chronic general medical condition were randomly assigned to receive the 13-session peer-cofacilitated Living Well intervention or usual care. Participants were evaluated on attitudinal, behavioral, and functional outcomes at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at a two-month follow-up. Living Well participants showed significant postintervention improvements across a range of attitudinal (self-efficacy and patient activation), behavioral (illness self-management techniques), and functional (physical and emotional well-being and general health functioning) outcomes. Although attenuation of effect was observed for most outcomes at two months postintervention, evidence was found of continued improvement in general self-management behaviors (use of action planning, brainstorming, and problem-solving). Continued advantage was found for the Living Well group in other areas, such as health-related locus of control and reports of healthy eating and physical activity. Receipt of Living Well was associated with a notable decrease in use of the emergency room for medical care, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. Living Well shows promise in helping mental health consumers more effectively manage chronic general medical conditions and experience improved functioning and well-being.

  5. Effect of “add-on” interventions on exercise training in individuals with COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Camillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus “add-on” therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V′O2peak, work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the stability of effect estimates across studies employing patient-centred designs and those deemed to be of “high” quality (PEDro score >5 out of 10. 74 studies (2506 subjects met review inclusion criteria. Interventions spanned a broad scope of clinical practice and were most commonly evaluated via the 6-min walking distance and V′O2peak. Meta-analysis revealed few clinically relevant and statistically significant benefits of “add-on” therapies on exercise performance compared with exercise training. Benefits favouring “add-on” therapies were observed across six different interventions (additional exercise training, noninvasive ventilation, bronchodilator therapy, growth hormone, vitamin D and nutritional supplementation. The sensitivity analyses included considerably fewer studies, but revealed minimal differences to the primary analysis. The lack of systematic benefits of “add-on” interventions is a probable reflection of methodological limitations, such as “one size fits all” eligibility criteria, that are inherent in many of the included studies of “add-on” therapies. Future clarification regarding the exact value of such therapies may only arise from adequately powered, multicentre clinical trials of tailored interventions for carefully selected COPD patient subgroups defined according to distinct

  6. The Effectiveness of a School-Based Mindfulness Training as a Program to Prevent Stress in Elementary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834335; Langenberg, George; Brandsma, Rob; Oort, Frans J.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the effects of mindfulness interventions on mental health and behavioral problems in children show promising results, but are primarily conducted with selected samples of children. The few studies investigating school-based interventions used self-selected samples, provided training

  7. The effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness training as a program to prevent stress in elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherl