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Sample records for school-based hpv vaccine

  1. Effect of School-based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    assessed girls' knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine, and their acceptance of future vaccination of ... studies involve parents and young adults. The ... vaccine was delivered during the routine Child ... and attitudes about the vaccine.

  2. Print News Coverage of School-Based HPV Vaccine Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Dana; Smith, Katherine C.; Andon, Lindsay; Vernick, Jon; Tsui, Amy; Klassen, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2007, legislation was proposed in 24 states and the District of Columbia for school-based HPV vaccine mandates, and mandates were enacted in Texas, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Media coverage of these events was extensive, and media messages both reflected and contributed to controversy surrounding these legislative activities. Messages communicated through the media are an important influence on adolescent and parent understanding of school-based vaccine mandates. METHODS We conducted structured text analysis of newspaper coverage, including quantitative analysis of 169 articles published in mandate jurisdictions from 2005-2009, and qualitative analysis of 63 articles from 2007. Our structured analysis identified topics, key stakeholders and sources, tone, and the presence of conflict. Qualitative thematic analysis identified key messages and issues. RESULTS Media coverage was often incomplete, providing little context about cervical cancer or screening. Skepticism and autonomy concerns were common. Messages reflected conflict and distrust of government activities, which could negatively impact this and other youth-focused public health initiatives. CONCLUSIONS If school health professionals are aware of the potential issues raised in media coverage of school-based health mandates, they will be more able to convey appropriate health education messages, and promote informed decision-making by parents and students. PMID:25099421

  3. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M; Naus, Monika

    2010-05-04

    Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine in a

  4. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ogilvie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having

  5. Effect of School-based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... de comportement des pairs positifs. Des obstacles majeurs à l'acceptation du vaccin ont été: les rumeurs et les idées fausses au sujet des effets secondaires possibles, information inadéquate perçue sur le vaccin, et la peur des effets secondaires. Mots clés: adolescentes; connaissances; acceptabilité; vaccin; Ouganda ...

  6. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Low prevalence of vaccine-type HPV infections in young women following the implementation of a school-based and catch-up vaccination in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, P; Sauvageau, C; Gilca, V; Defay, F; Lambert, G; Mathieu-C, S; Guenoun, J; Comète, E; Coutlée, F

    2018-01-02

    In Quebec, Canada, a school-based HPV vaccination for girls has been offered since 2008. The vaccine used in the program targets HPV16/18, responsible for ∼70% of cervical cancers and HPV6/11, responsible for the majority of anogenital warts. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of HPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Women aged 17-29 years were eligible to participate. Participants' age, vaccination status and diverse risk factors were assessed by a computer-assisted questionnaire. Biological specimens were obtained by self-sampling. HPV genotyping was performed by Linear Array. A total of 2,118 women were recruited. 2,042 completed the questionnaire and 1,937 provided a vaginal sample. Vaccination coverage varied from 83.5% in women aged 17-19 to 19.1% in those aged 23-29. The overall prevalence of HPV in sexually active women was 39.4% (95%CI: 37.0-41.7) and 56.7% of infected women had multiple type infections. The prevalence of vaccine HPV types varied by age and vaccination status except for women aged 23-29 for whom similar results were observed. Vaccine HPV types were detected in 0.3%, 1.4% and 10.5% of vaccinated women aged 17-19, 20-23, and 23-29 (pHPV16 or HPV18 were detected in 10 women having received at least one dose of vaccine. Nine of these women were already sexually active at the time of vaccination. Infections with HPV types included in the vaccine are rare in women aged less than 23 years and are virtually absent in those who received at least one dose of vaccine before sexual debut.

  8. HPV.edu study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled evaluation of education, decisional support and logistical strategies in school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, S Rachel; Davies, Cristyn; Cooper, Spring; Stoney, Tanya; Marshall, Helen; Jones, Jane; Collins, Joanne; Hutton, Heidi; Parrella, Adriana; Zimet, Gregory; Regan, David G; Whyte, Patti; Brotherton, Julia M L; Richmond, Peter; McCaffrey, Kirsten; Garland, Suzanne M; Leask, Julie; Kang, Melissa; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Kaldor, John; McGeechan, Kevin

    2015-09-15

    The National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program in Australia commenced in 2007 for females and in 2013 for males, using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV 6,11,16,18). Thus far, we have demonstrated very substantial reductions in genital warts and in the prevalence of HPV among young Australian women, providing early evidence for the success of this public health initiative. Australia has a long history of school-based vaccination programs for adolescents, with comparatively high coverage. However, it is not clear what factors promote success in a school vaccination program. The HPV.edu study aims to examine: 1) student knowledge about HPV vaccination; 2) psycho-social outcomes and 3) vaccination uptake. HPV.edu is a cluster randomised trial of a complex intervention in schools aiming to recruit 40 schools with year-8 enrolments above 100 students (approximately 4400 students). The schools will be stratified by Government, Catholic, and Independent sectors and geographical location, with up to 20 schools recruited in each of two states, Western Australia (WA) and South Australia (SA), and randomly allocated to intervention or control (usual practice). Intervention schools will receive the complex intervention which includes an adolescent intervention (education and distraction); a decisional support tool for parents and adolescents and logistical strategies (consent form returns strategies, in-school mop-up vaccination and vaccination-day guidelines). Careful process evaluation including an embedded qualitative evaluation will be undertaken to explore in depth possible mechanisms for any observed effect of the intervention on primary and secondary outcomes. This study is the first to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various strategies to promote best practice in school-based vaccination against HPV. The study aims to improve vaccination-related psychosocial outcomes, including adolescent knowledge and attitudes, decision-making involvement, self

  9. Does the success of a school-based HPV vaccine programme depend on teachers' knowledge and religion? -- A survey in a multicultural society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Woo Yin; Razali, Sharina Mohd; Ren, Chong Kuoh; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2012-01-01

    Organized introduction of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination can reduce the burden of cervical cancer in developing countries. One of the most effective ways is through a national school-based program. Information on teachers is therefore important since this group may have a disproportionate influence in the success of any implementation. To assess teachers' knowledge and perception of HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine prior to commencing a school-based HPV vaccination program in a multiethnic, predominantly Muslim country. Factors associated with acceptability of the vaccine were identified. A bilingual questionnaire was applied to 1,500 secondary school teachers from 20 urban schools in Malaysia. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 17. 1,166 questionnaires were returned. From this group, 46.1% had never heard of HPV while 50.9% had never had a pap smear. However, 73.8% have heard of the HPV vaccine with 75% agreeing to have it. 96% considered themselves religious with 79.8% agreeing to have the vaccine. A national school-based HPV immunization program can be implemented effectively in a multiethnic, cultural and religious country despite limited knowledge of HPV-related pathology among teachers. In addition, the perception that religion has a negative influence on such a program is unwarranted.

  10. Implementation of a national school-based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine campaign in Fiji: knowledge, vaccine acceptability and information needs of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vincente, S F; Mielnik, D; Jenkins, K; Bingwor, F; Volavola, L; Marshall, H; Druavesi, P; Russell, F M; Lokuge, K; Mulholland, E K

    2015-12-18

    In 2008 Fiji implemented a nationwide Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine campaign targeting all girls aged 9-12 years through the existing school-based immunisation program. Parents of vaccine-eligible girls were asked to provide written consent for vaccination. The purpose of this study was to describe parents' knowledge, experiences and satisfaction with the campaign, the extent to which information needs for vaccine decision-making were met, and what factors were associated with vaccine consent. Following vaccine introduction, a cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with parents of vaccine-eligible girls from randomly selected schools, stratified by educational district. Factors related to vaccine consent were explored using Generalised Estimating Equations. There were 560 vaccine-eligible girls attending the participating 19 schools at the time of the campaign. Among these, 313 parents could be contacted, with 293 agreeing to participate (93.6%). Almost 80% of participants reported having consented to HPV vaccination (230/293, 78.5%). Reported knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV prior to the campaign was very low. Most respondents reported that they were satisfied with their access to information to make an informed decision about HPV vaccination (196/293, 66.9%). and this was very strongly associated with provision of consent. Despite their young age, the vaccine-eligible girls were often involved in the discussion and decision-making. Most consenting parents were satisfied with the campaign and their decision to vaccinate, with almost 90% indicating they would consent to future HPV vaccination. However, negative media reports about the vaccine campaign created confusion and concern. Local health staff were cited as a trusted source of information to guide decision-making. Just over half of the participants who withheld consent cited vaccine safety fears as the primary reason (23/44, 52.3%). This is the first reported experience of HPV introduction

  11. Expanding Free School-based Human Papilloma Virus (HPV Vaccination Programs to Include School-aged Males in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Krater-Melamed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bill 70 (HPV Vaccine Act was presented to the Nova Scotia House of Assembly with the aim of expanding the current Nova Scotia school-based HPV vaccination program to include males. In recent years, increased awareness of HPV and HPV-caused cancers has led to the implementation of school-based female HPV vaccination programs across Canada. Changing guidelines, based on recent evidence, suggest that males should also be included in these programs. Program expansion to include males aims to reduce the prevalence of HPV-causing cancers and their ensuing costs, to promote equal access to healthcare services, and to make Nova Scotia a leader in HPV prevention. Support from the Canadian public and high profile political actors along with pressure from other provinces and interest groups, including the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, influenced the passing of the HPV Vaccine Act. In order to implement this reform, the provincial financial commitment to the previous HPV program was expanded to cover the cost of male vaccination.

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  13. School nurses' attitudes towards and experiences of the Swedish school-based HPV vaccination programme - A repeated cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja; Stenhammar, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate school nurses' attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736) from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015). More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56%) strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (pHPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56%) reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90%) had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils.

  14. School nurses' attitudes towards and experiences of the Swedish school-based HPV vaccination programme - A repeated cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grandahl

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate school nurses' attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV, and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736 from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015. More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56% strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (p<0.001. There were no differences in school nurses' perceived knowledge about HPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56% reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90% had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils.

  15. Barriers and facilitators to uptake of the school-based HPV vaccination programme in an ethnically diverse group of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  16. HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Against HPV Print en español Vacuna contra el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) What Is HPV and Why Is It a Problem? Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . HPV is the virus that causes genital warts . Besides genital warts, an ...

  17. School nurses’ attitudes towards and experiences of the Swedish school-based HPV vaccination programme – A repeated cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja; Stenhammar, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate school nurses’ attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736) from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015). More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56%) strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (pHPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56%) reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90%) had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils. PMID:28419156

  18. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  19. School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to increase knowledge about cervical cancer and improve uptake of ... Poor knowledge about cervical cancer plays a role in limiting screening uptake. HPV ... Article Metrics.

  20. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  1. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  2. Investigating Stakeholder Attitudes and Opinions on School-Based Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodulman, Jessica A.; Starling, Randall; Kong, Alberta S.; Buller, David B.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Woodall, W. Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background: In several countries worldwide, school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs have been successful; however, little research has explored US stakeholders' acceptance toward school-based HPV vaccination programs. Methods: A total of 13 focus groups and 12 key informant interviews (N?=?117; 85% females; 66% racial/ethnic…

  3. HPV Vaccine PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.)

  4. Mothers' support for voluntary provision of HPV vaccine in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadis, Jessica A; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gottlieb, Sami L; Lee, Morgan R; Reiter, Paul L; Dittus, Patricia J; Brewer, Noel T

    2011-03-21

    HPV vaccination rates among adolescents in the United States lag behind some other developed countries, many of which routinely offer the vaccine in schools. We sought to assess mothers' willingness to have their adolescent daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. A national sample of mothers of adolescent females ages 11-14 completed our internet survey (response rate=66%). The final sample (n=496) excluded mothers who did not intend to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine in the next year. Overall, 67% of mothers who intended to vaccinate their daughters or had vaccinated their daughters reported being willing to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. Mothers were more willing to allow their daughters to receive HPV vaccine in schools if they had not yet initiated the vaccine series for their daughters or resided in the Midwest or West (all pconcerns about voluntary school-based provision of HPV vaccine that mothers most frequently cited were that their daughters' doctors should keep track of her shots (64%) and that they wished to be present when their daughters were vaccinated (40%). Our study suggests that most mothers who support adolescent vaccination for HPV find school-based HPV vaccination an acceptable option. Ensuring communication of immunization records with doctors and allowing parents to be present during immunization may increase parental support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... warts at any point in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended ...

  6. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  7. HPV Vaccine PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  8. Current Status of HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Barbara; Roden, Richard; Wu, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide, with ~500,000 diagnoses and 274,000 deaths annually. It remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality despite effective screening tools and treatments for its precursor high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Increased understanding of cervical pathogenesis has led to the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiological agent for cervical cancer and the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines targeting HPV antigens for the control of cervical cancer. Herein, we discuss the current status of HPV vaccines. PMID:20677402

  9. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and anus. If I have HPV, will that cause pregnancy problems? It is unclear. Even though HPV is ... HPV can be passed to a newborn during pregnancy or through the birth canal. Usually this causes no problems for the newborn. In rare cases, ...

  10. Attitudes, Knowledge and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Iris L. Y.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV vaccine in the Australian Program. Methods Between 2011 and 2014, females aged 18–25 years, living in Victoria, Australia who were offered HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2009 as part of the National HPV Vaccination Program, living in Victoria, Australia were recruited into a a young women’s study examining effectiveness of the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program. Overall, 668 participants completed the recruitment survey, which collected data of participants’ demographics and HPV knowledge. In 2015 these participants were invited to complete an additional supplementary survey on parental demographics and attitudes towards vaccinations. Results In 2015, 417 participants completed the supplementary survey (62% response rate). Overall, 19% of participants were unvaccinated. In multivariate analyses, HPV vaccination was significantly associated with their being born in Australia (pvaccinations (pparents being main decision-makers for participants’ HPV vaccination (pHPV non-vaccination was parental concern about vaccine safety (43%). Compared with HPV-vaccinated participants, those unvaccinated were significantly more likely to be opposed to all vaccines, including HPV vaccines (pvaccinating their own children with all vaccines (p = 0.033), including HPV vaccines (pHPV vaccine acceptance. Conclusions Attitudes towards general health, vaccinations in general, as well as HPV vaccines are important in HPV vaccine uptake. Long-term monitoring of the knowledge, attitude

  11. Perspectives for Preventive and Therapeutic HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ken; Doolan, Kimberley; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of female cancer death worldwide. Persistent infection with `high risk' HPV genotypes is the major etiological factor in cervical cancer and thus effective vaccination against HPV provides an opportunity to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HPV. The FDA has approved two preventive vaccines to limit the spread of HPV. However, these are unlikely to impact upon HPV prevalence and cervical cancer rates for many years. Furthermore, preventive vaccines do not exert therapeutic effects on pre-existing HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions. In order to further impact upon the burden of HPV infections worldwide, therapeutic vaccines are being developed. These vaccines aim to generate a cell-mediated immune response to infected cells. This review discusses current preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines and their future directions. PMID:20123582

  12. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.)

  13. HPV Vaccine (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.)

  14. From non school-based, co-payment to school-based, free Human Papillomavirus vaccination in Flanders (Belgium): A retrospective cohort study describing vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevere, Eva; Theeten, Heidi; Hens, Niel; De Smet, Frank; Top, Geert; Van Damme, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    School-based, free HPV vaccination for girls in the first year of secondary school was introduced in Flanders (Belgium) in 2010. Before that, non school-based, co-payment vaccination for girls aged 12-18 was in place. We compared vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities in coverage -3 important parameters contributing to the effectiveness of the vaccination programs - under both vaccination systems. We used retrospective administrative data from different so...

  15. Parent HPV vaccine perspectives and the likelihood of HPV vaccination of adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13-17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 parents of sons age 11-17 years, half were classified as Unlikely to Initiate HPV vaccination and 39% as Likely to Vaccinate. A higher proportion of the Likely to Vaccinate group felt their son's doctor was knowledgeable about HPV vaccine, did a good job explaining its purpose, and spent more time discussing HPV vaccine; in contrast, over half of the Unlikely to Initiate group had never discussed HPV vaccine with their child's doctor. The majority of parents in both groups showed favorable attitudes to adolescent vaccination in general, with lower levels of support for HPV vaccine-specific statements. Physician-parent communication around HPV vaccine for adolescent males should build on positive attitude toward vaccines in general, while addressing parents' HPV vaccine-specific concerns.

  16. Young adults awareness of HPV and vaccine acceptance after introduction of the HPV vaccine in the Dutch national vaccination program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Gosens, K.C.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of implementation of the HPV vaccine on HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptance. METHODS: From June until December 2009 in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 698 male and female students aged 18-25 years were recruited and interviewed about HPV, cervical carcinoma and HPV

  17. Variables associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance by men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer L; Miller, Jeremiah; Patel, Pratik; Price, George A; Jackson, Lanier; Wilson, Courtesia

    2009-01-01

    To determine correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance for men. A convenience sample of men aged 18 to 45 years read a one-page information sheet about HPV and the HPV vaccine, then completed a 29-item questionnaire. chi(2) tests were used to determine whether differences in demographic, sexual, and vaccine-related variables existed between levels of wanting the HPV vaccine. Positive correlates of HPV vaccine acceptance included higher education (P acceptance of the HPV vaccine by men.

  18. High HPV vaccination uptake rates for adolescent girls after regional governmental funding in Shiki City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y; Shimizu, Y; Netsu, S; Hanley, S; Konno, R

    2012-08-10

    In Japan, the bivalent HPV vaccine was approved in October, 2009 and became available as a non-routine vaccine from December, 2009. While routine vaccinations are free, the cost and responsibility for non-routine vaccinations are left to the individual. In exceptional circumstances regional governments fund non-routine vaccinations. This was the case in Shiki City, Saitama Prefecture, where a high uptake rate for individual (non-school based) HPV vaccination was obtained. On January 20, 2010, the mayor of Shiki City announced to the media his decision to vaccinate adolescent girls in Shiki City against HPV. A project team for HPV vaccination was set up in the city's Health Promotion Center. To gain mutual consent for HPV vaccination, senior health professionals, city officials, the head of the board of education, school principals and health-care teachers met several times. The cohort to be vaccinated was 1254 girls aged 12-15 years. Individual notifications were mailed to each girl on April 23, 2010, along with information about the HPV vaccine. As of April 10th, 2011, the uptake rate for girls aged 15 years old was 90.7% for the 1st dose. The vaccine registry is managed by the health care system of the city. The success of the HPV vaccination program and high uptake rates in Shiki City is a good model for the nationwide HPV vaccination program that started in February, 2011. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for developing them, such as taking oral contraceptives . A safety review of Gardasil in Denmark and ... and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark ...

  20. Access and Attitudes to HPV Vaccination amongst Hard-To-Reach Populations in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Watson-Jones

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa bears the greatest burden of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination programmes to prevent the disease will need to reach vulnerable girls who may not be able access health and screening services in the future. We conducted formative research on facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccination and potential acceptability of a future HPV vaccination programme amongst girls living in hard-to-reach populations in Kenya.Stakeholder interviews with Ministry of Health staff explored barriers to and support for the uptake of HPV vaccination. A situation assessment was conducted to assess community services in Maasai nomadic pastoralist communities in Kajiado County and in Korogocho informal settlement in Nairobi city, followed by focus group discussions (n=14 and semi-structured interviews (n=28 with health workers, parents, youth, and community and religious leaders. These covered marriage, knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV, factors that might inhibit or support HPV vaccine uptake and intention to accept HPV vaccine if a programme was in place.Reported challenges to an HPV vaccination programme included school absenteeism and drop-out, early age of sex and marriage, lack of parental support, population mobility and distance from services. Despite little prior knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV, communities were interested in receiving HPV vaccination. Adequate social mobilisation and school-based vaccination, supplemented by out-reach activities, were considered important facilitating factors to achieve high coverage. There was some support for a campaign approach to vaccine delivery.Given the high level of support for a vaccine against cervical cancer and the experience of reaching pastoralist and slum-dwellers for other immunizations, implementing an HPV vaccine programme should be feasible in such hard-to-reach communities. This may require additional delivery strategies in addition to the standard school-based

  1. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  2. Primary Care Physicians' Perspectives About HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mandy A; Hurley, Laura P; Markowitz, Lauri; Crane, Lori A; Brtnikova, Michaela; Beaty, Brenda L; Snow, Megan; Cory, Janine; Stokley, Shannon; Roark, Jill; Kempe, Allison

    2016-02-01

    Because physicians' practices could be modified to reduce missed opportunities for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, our goal was to: (1) describe self-reported practices regarding recommending the HPV vaccine; (2) estimate the frequency of parental deferral of HPV vaccination; and (3)identify characteristics associated with not discussing it. A national survey among pediatricians and family physicians (FP) was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Using multivariable analysis, characteristics associated with not discussing HPV vaccination were examined. Response rates were 82% for pediatricians (364 of 442) and 56% for FP (218 of 387). For 11-12 year-old girls, 60% of pediatricians and 59% of FP strongly recommend HPV vaccine; for boys,52% and 41% ostrongly recommen. More than one-half reported ≥25% of parents deferred HPV vaccination. At the 11-12 year well visit, 84% of pediatricians and 75% of FP frequently/always discuss HPV vaccination. Compared with physicians who frequently/always discuss , those who occasionally/rarely discuss(18%) were more likely to be FP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-3.5), be male (aOR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.1-3.1]), disagree that parents will accept HPV vaccine if discussed with other vaccines (aOR: 2.3 [95% CI: 1.3-4.2]), report that 25% to 49% (aOR: 2.8 [95% CI: 1.1-6.8]) or ≥50% (aOR: 7.8 [95% CI: 3.4-17.6]) of parents defer, and express concern about waning immunity (aOR: 3.4 [95% CI: 1.8-6.4]). Addressing physicians' perceptions about parental acceptance of HPV vaccine, the possible advantages of discussing HPV vaccination with other recommended vaccines, and concerns about waning immunity could lead to increased vaccination rates. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Early direct and indirect impact of quadrivalent HPV (4HPV) vaccine on genital warts: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luciano; Vici, Patrizia; Suligoi, Barbara; Checcucci-Lisi, Giovanni; Drury, Rosybel

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, many countries have implemented national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs with the quadrivalent HPV (4HPV) vaccine that has been shown to be efficacious in clinical trials involving 25,000 subjects. Two vaccine serotypes, HPV16 and 18, are responsible for cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers, but the impact of the 4HPV vaccine on these cancers cannot be seen immediately as there is a considerable lag between infection with HPV and cancer development. The other two serotypes, HPV6 and 11, are responsible for genital warts (GWs), which develop within a few months after infection, making GWs an early clinical endpoint for the assessment of the impact of 4HPV vaccination. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed to identify all published studies on 4HPV vaccination, including those that assessed the impact of 4HPV vaccination programs on the incidence of GWs at a population level around the world. A total of 354 records were identified in the PubMed search. After screening and obtaining full papers for 56 publications, 16 publications presenting data on the impact or effectiveness of 4HPV vaccination on GWs were identified. These reported data on the impact or effectiveness of 4HPV in six countries [Australia (n = 6), New Zealand (n = 2), United States (n = 3), Denmark (n = 2), Germany (n = 1), and Sweden (n = 2)]. In Australia, no GWs were diagnosed in women aged <21 years who reported being vaccinated. A 92.6% reduction in GWs incidence was reported for all women in this age group, where the vaccine uptake rate (VUR) was 70% for 3 doses. The highest reductions were reported in countries with high VURs, mostly through school-based vaccination programs, although high VURs were obtained with some non-school-based programs. The results are coherent with the GWs incidence reduction reported in clinical trials and are an early indicator of what can be expected for the long-term clinical impact on vaccine-type HPV

  4. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  5. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  6. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  7. Is HPV vaccination in pregnancy safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zwol, Ulla Bonde; Joergensen, J. S.; Lamont, R. F.

    2016-01-01

    the subject of HPV vaccine and pregnancy , the databases of PubMed and Embase were searched to find the relevant literature published in English within the last 10 y. Most of the evidence pertaining to fetal adverse events following HPV vaccination relates to spontaneous miscarriage. None of the relevant...

  8. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv.html . CDC review information for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) ...

  9. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  10. HPV Vaccine (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  11. A Multiple Streams analysis of the decisions to fund gender-neutral HPV vaccination in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K; Guichon, Juliet; Prue, Gillian; Perez, Samara; Rosberger, Zeev

    2017-07-01

    In Canada, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is licensed and recommended for females and males. Although all Canadian jurisdictions fund school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls, only six jurisdictions fund school-based HPV vaccination for boys. The research aimed to analyze the factors that underpin government decisions to fund HPV vaccine for boys using a theoretical policy model, Kingdon's Multiple Streams framework. This approach assesses policy development by examining three concurrent, but independent, streams that guide analysis: Problem Stream, Policy Stream, and Politics Stream. Analysis from the Problem Stream highlights that males are affected by HPV-related diseases and are involved in transmitting HPV infection to their sexual partners. Policy Stream analysis makes clear that while the inclusion of males in HPV vaccine programs is suitable, equitable, and acceptable; there is debate regarding cost-effectiveness. Politics Stream analysis identifies the perspectives of six different stakeholder groups and highlights the contribution of government officials at the provincial and territorial level. Kingdon's Multiple Streams framework helps clarify the opportunities and barriers for HPV vaccine policy change. This analysis identified that the interpretation of cost-effectiveness models and advocacy of stakeholders such as citizen-advocates and HPV-affected politicians have been particularly important in galvanizing policy change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge on HPV Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Facilitates Vaccine Acceptability among School Teachers in Kitui County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masika, Moses Muia; Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Chabeda, Sophie Vusha; Wamai, Richard G.; Mugo, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Background Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have the potential to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. School-based delivery of HPV vaccines is cost-effective and successful uptake depends on school teachers’ knowledge and acceptability of the vaccine. The aim of this study is to assess primary school teachers’ knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine and to explore facilitators and barriers of an ongoing Gavi Alliance-supported vaccination program in Kitui County, Kenya. Methods This was a cross-sectional, mixed methods study in Central Division of Kitui County where the Ministry of Health is offering the quadrivalent HPV vaccine to grade four girls. Data on primary school teachers’ awareness, knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine as well as facilitators and barriers to the project was collected through self-administered questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Results 339 teachers (60% female) completed the survey (62% response rate) and 13 participated in 2 focus group discussions. Vaccine awareness among teachers was high (90%), the level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer among teachers was moderate (48%, SD = 10.9) and females scored higher than males (50% vs. 46%, p = 0.002). Most teachers (89%) would recommend the vaccine to their daughter or close relatives. Those who would recommend the vaccine had more knowledge than those who would not (p = vaccine, poor accessibility of schools, absenteeism of girls on vaccine days, and fear of side effects. Conclusions Despite low to moderate levels of knowledge about HPV vaccine among school teachers, vaccine acceptability is high. Teachers with little knowledge on HPV vaccine are less likely to accept the vaccine than those who know more; this may affect uptake if not addressed. Empowering teachers to be vaccine champions in their community may be a feasible way of disseminating information about HPV vaccine and cervical cancer. PMID:26266949

  13. Knowledge on HPV Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Facilitates Vaccine Acceptability among School Teachers in Kitui County, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Muia Masika

    Full Text Available Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV infection have the potential to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. School-based delivery of HPV vaccines is cost-effective and successful uptake depends on school teachers' knowledge and acceptability of the vaccine. The aim of this study is to assess primary school teachers' knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine and to explore facilitators and barriers of an ongoing Gavi Alliance-supported vaccination program in Kitui County, Kenya.This was a cross-sectional, mixed methods study in Central Division of Kitui County where the Ministry of Health is offering the quadrivalent HPV vaccine to grade four girls. Data on primary school teachers' awareness, knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine as well as facilitators and barriers to the project was collected through self-administered questionnaires and two focus group discussions.339 teachers (60% female completed the survey (62% response rate and 13 participated in 2 focus group discussions. Vaccine awareness among teachers was high (90%, the level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer among teachers was moderate (48%, SD = 10.9 and females scored higher than males (50% vs. 46%, p = 0.002. Most teachers (89% would recommend the vaccine to their daughter or close relatives. Those who would recommend the vaccine had more knowledge than those who would not (p = <0.001. The main barriers were insufficient information about the vaccine, poor accessibility of schools, absenteeism of girls on vaccine days, and fear of side effects.Despite low to moderate levels of knowledge about HPV vaccine among school teachers, vaccine acceptability is high. Teachers with little knowledge on HPV vaccine are less likely to accept the vaccine than those who know more; this may affect uptake if not addressed. Empowering teachers to be vaccine champions in their community may be a feasible way of disseminating information about HPV vaccine and cervical cancer.

  14. Trust versus concerns-how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Grandahl, Maria; Höglund, Anna T; Larsson, Margareta; Stenhammar, Christina; Andrae, Bengt; Tydén, Tanja

    2013-11-01

    From spring of 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against cervical cancer is offered free of charge to all girls aged 10-12 years through a school-based vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter and also their views on HPV-related information. Individual interviews with parents (n = 27) of 11-12-year-old girls. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using thematic content analysis. Three themes emerged through the analysis: Trust versus concern, Responsibility to protect against severe disease, and Information about HPV and HPV vaccination is important. The parents expressed trust in recommendations from authorities and thought it was convenient with school-based vaccination. They believed that cervical cancer was a severe disease and felt a responsibility to protect their daughter from it. Some had certain concerns regarding side effects and vaccine safety, and wished for a dialogue with the school nurse to bridge the information gaps. Trust in the recommendations from authorities and a wish to protect their daughter from a severe disease outweighed concerns about side effects. A school-based vaccination programme is convenient for parents, and the school nurse has an important role in bridging information gaps. The findings from this qualitative study cannot be generalized; however, it can provide a better understanding of how parents might reason when they accept the HPV vaccination for their daughter.

  15. Trust versus concerns—how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Höglund, Anna T.; Larsson, Margareta; Stenhammar, Christina; Andrae, Bengt; Tydén, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background. From spring of 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against cervical cancer is offered free of charge to all girls aged 10–12 years through a school-based vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter and also their views on HPV-related information. Methods. Individual interviews with parents (n = 27) of 11–12-year-old girls. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using thematic content analysis. Results. Three themes emerged through the analysis: Trust versus concern, Responsibility to protect against severe disease, and Information about HPV and HPV vaccination is important. The parents expressed trust in recommendations from authorities and thought it was convenient with school-based vaccination. They believed that cervical cancer was a severe disease and felt a responsibility to protect their daughter from it. Some had certain concerns regarding side effects and vaccine safety, and wished for a dialogue with the school nurse to bridge the information gaps. Conclusions. Trust in the recommendations from authorities and a wish to protect their daughter from a severe disease outweighed concerns about side effects. A school-based vaccination programme is convenient for parents, and the school nurse has an important role in bridging information gaps. The findings from this qualitative study cannot be generalized; however, it can provide a better understanding of how parents might reason when they accept the HPV vaccination for their daughter. PMID:23777602

  16. Factors affecting HPV vaccine acceptance in west Austria: Do we need to revise the current immunization scheme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borena, Wegene; Luckner-Hornischer, Anita; Katzgraber, Franz; Holm-von Laer, Dorothee

    2016-12-01

    Austria introduced a school-based gender-neutral human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization program in February 2014. In order to assure high coverage, factors influencing acceptance of the vaccine need to be identified. In this study we aim to assess parents' attitude and related socio-demographic factors in relation to the newly implemented gender-neutral, school-based HPV Immunization program. Parents of 4th grade school children in 20 randomly selected primary schools were asked to fill out questionnaires on socio-demographic factors and on the level of information and attitude towards HPV infection and HPV vaccine. A total of 439 parents with 449 vaccine eligible children participated in the study. Fifty nine percent of vaccine eligible girls and 51.8% of eligible boys received the first dose of the vaccine. Fear of side effects and child being too young for the vaccine were the most commonly cited reasons by parents electing not to let child receive the vaccine. Children who had received other school-based vaccines have more than fifteen times higher probability of receiving HPV vaccine. To have received HPV-related information from physicians positively influenced vaccine acceptance (OR (95% CI)=1.60 (1.06-2.43)). Higher paternal (fathers') educational status significantly increased the chances of a male child to be HPV vaccinated (OR (95% CI)=2.45 (1.29-4.78)). Despite the efforts to provide HPV vaccine free-of-costs and as a school-based program, the study found that a significant proportion of vaccine eligible children failed to receive the vaccine. Involvement front line physicians and men with higher educational status may be utilised by public health policy makers in the effort to increase awareness. For a better acceptability of the vaccine, there is a need to consider lifting the age of "eligibility" for the school-based vaccination program. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. School-based HPV immunization of young adolescents: effects of two brief health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Vaughn I; Auslander, Beth A; Cox, Dena S; Rosenthal, Susan L; Rupp, Richard E; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent immunization rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) are low and interventions within school-based health centers (SBHCs) may increase HPV uptake and series completion. We examined the effect of a parent health message intervention on HPV vaccination intent, first dose uptake and series completion among adolescents who received care at SBHCs. Via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI), 445 parents of young adolescents were randomly assigned to 2 two-level interventions using a 2 × 2 design (rhetorical question (RQ) or no-RQ and one-sided or two-sided message). The RQ intervention involved asking the parent a question they were likely to endorse (e.g., "Do you want to protect your daughter from cervical cancer?") with the expectation that they would then behave in a manner consistent with their endorsement (i.e., agree to vaccinate). For the one-sided message, parents were given information that emphasized the safety and effectiveness of HPV vaccine, whereas the two-sided message acknowledged that some parents might have concerns about the vaccine, followed by reassurance regarding the safety and effectiveness. At CATI conclusion, parents indicated intentions to have their adolescents vaccinated. Parents who endorsed any intent were sent a consent form to return and all adolescents with signed returned consents were vaccinated at SBHCs. Medical records were reviewed for uptake/completion. Parents were 87% female; adolescents were 66% male and racially/ethnically diverse. 42.5% of parents indicated some intention to immunize, 51.4% were unsure, and 6.1% were not interested. 34% (n = 151) of adolescents received their first dose with series completion rates of 67% (n = 101). The RQ component of the intervention increased intention to vaccinate (RR = 1.45; 95%CI 1.16,1.81), but not first dose uptake or series completion. The 1-sided and 2-sided messages had no effect. This brief, RQ health intervention enhanced intent, but did not impact vaccination

  18. Parent HPV vaccine perspectives and the likelihood of HPV vaccination of adolescent males

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13–17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 paren...

  19. Trust versus concerns—how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter

    OpenAIRE

    Gottvall, Maria; Grandahl, Maria; Höglund, Anna T.; Larsson, Margareta; Stenhammar, Christina; Andrae, Bengt; Tydén, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background. From spring of 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against cervical cancer is offered free of charge to all girls aged 10–12 years through a school-based vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter and also their views on HPV-related information. Methods. Individual interviews with parents (n = 27) of 11–12-year-old girls. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, ...

  20. Cervical screening in HPV-vaccinated populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, K

    2018-06-01

    Cervical screening with cytology has been the basis for substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in most high-income countries over the last few decades. More recently, there have been two key, parallel developments which have prompted a major re-consideration of cervical screening. The first is the emergence of evidence on the improved sensitivity of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing compared to cytology, and the second is the large-scale deployment of prophylactic vaccination against HPV. A key challenge to be overcome before HPV screening could be introduced into national cervical screening programs was the specificity of an infection, for detection of precancerous lesions. This has been done in three ways: (1) by considering the appropriate age for starting HPV screening (30 years in unvaccinated populations and 25 years in populations with mature vaccination programs and high vaccine uptake) and the appropriate screening interval; (2) via development of clinical HPV tests, which are (by design) not as sensitive to low viral loads; and (3) by introducing effective triaging for HPV-positive women, which further risk-stratifies women before referral for diagnostic evaluation. This review discusses these major developments and describes how the benefits of HPV screening are being optimized in both unvaccinated and vaccinated populations.

  1. Young multiethnic women's attitudes toward the HPV vaccine and HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the acceptability of the HPV vaccine among a multiethnic sample of young women in Malaysia. A qualitative study of 40 young women aged between 13 and 27 years recruited into 7 focus groups to discuss their knowledge of HPV infection, and their attitudes toward and acceptance of the HPV vaccine. The women were divided into Malay, Chinese, and Indian groups to allow for comparison among ethnicities. Poor knowledge about HPV did not influence the HPV vaccine's acceptability. Although participants were in favor of the vaccine, the majority preferred to delay vaccination because it is newly introduced, they did not perceive themselves to be at risk of HPV infection, or because of cost factors. Concerns were raised regarding the vaccine's safety, the potential to be perceived as promiscuous and sexually active, and whether the vaccine was halal. Promotion of the HPV vaccine should take account of social and cultural acceptability. The findings will help develop strategies for effective vaccination initiatives in a multiethnic and multireligious Asian society.

  2. Acceptability of HPV vaccine implementation among parents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Proma; Tanner, Amanda E; Gravitt, Patti E; Vijayaraghavan, K; Shah, Keerti V; Zimet, Gregory D; Study Group, Catch

    2014-01-01

    Due to high cervical cancer rates and limited research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in India, the research team examined parental attitudes toward HPV vaccines. Thirty-six interviews with parents were conducted to assess sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge and HPV-specific vaccine awareness and acceptability. Despite limited knowledge, parents had positive views toward HPV vaccines. Common barriers included concerns about side effects, vaccine cost, and missing work to receive the vaccine. Parents were strongly influenced by health care providers' recommendations. Our findings suggest that addressing parental concerns, health worker training and polices, and efforts to minimize cost will be central to successful HPV vaccine implementation.

  3. 'It's a logistical nightmare!' Recommendations for optimising human papillomavirus school-based vaccination experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Spring Chenoa Cooper; Bernard, Diana; McCaffery, Kirsten; Skinner, S Rachel

    2010-09-01

    To date, no published studies examine procedural factors of the school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program from the perspective of those involved. This study examines the factors that were perceived to impact optimal vaccination experience. Schools across Sydney were selected to reflect a range of vaccination coverage at the school level and different school types to ensure a range of experiences. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with girls; and one-on-one interviews were undertaken with parents, teachers and nurses until saturation of data in all emergent themes was reached. Focus groups and interviews explored participants' experiences in school-based HPV vaccination. Transcripts were analysed, letting themes emerge. Themes related to participants' experience of the organisational, logistical and procedural aspects of the vaccination program and their perceptions of an optimal process were organised into two categories: (1) preparation for the vaccination program and (2) vaccination day strategies. In (1), themes emerged regarding commitment to the process from those involved, planning time and space for vaccinations, communication within and between agencies, and flexibility. In (2), themes included vaccinating the most anxious girls first, facilitating peer support, use of distraction techniques, minimising waiting time girls, and support staff. A range of views exists on what constitutes an optimal school-based program. Several findings were identified that should be considered in the development of guidelines for implementing school-based programs. Future research should evaluate how different approaches to acquiring parental consent, and the use of anxiety and fear reduction strategies impact experience and uptake in the school-based setting.

  4. HPV testing and vaccination in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leeson, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Current cytology-based screening has a moderate sensitivity to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and cervical cancer even in those states providing rigorous quality control of their cervical screening programs. The impact of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 as well as the incorporation of HPV testing on the detection of CIN 3 and cancer is discussed. HPV testing used as a triage for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, test of cure after treatment, and HPV-based primary screening may improve current cervical screening programs.HPV testing as a triage test for ASCUS seems to offer an improved sensitivity, with a similar specificity as compared to repeat cytology for diagnosing high-grade CIN and has been recommended throughout most EU states. HPV testing as a triage test for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions has a low specificity and is not recommended in most member states. HPV test of cure offers an improved sensitivity compared to cytology for women with persistent cervical precancer after treatment. HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than screening with cytology. The effects of HPV-based screening depend on the organization of the program and on adherence to algorithms for screening triage. Otherwise, it is likely that HPV-based screening will increase the referral rate to colposcopy including more women with no detectable cervical lesion. HPV vaccination will require many years to evaluate any beneficial effects on cervical cancer incidence and mortality.

  5. Determinants of acceptance and subsequent uptake of the HPV vaccine in a cohort in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermandere, Heleen; Naanyu, Violet; Mabeya, Hillary; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Michielsen, Kristien; Degomme, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The development of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provides new opportunities in the fight against cervical cancer. Many acceptability studies have revealed high interest in these vaccines, but acceptance is only a precursor of behavior, and many factors, at personal, community and provider level, may inhibit the translation of willingness to vaccinate into actual uptake. Through a longitudinal study in Eldoret, Kenya, HPV vaccine acceptability was measured before a vaccination program (n = 287) and vaccine uptake, as reported by mothers, once the program was finished (n = 256). In between baseline and follow-up, a pilot HPV vaccination program was implemented via the GARDASIL Access Program, in which parents could have their daughter vaccinated for free at the referral hospital. The program was promoted at schools: Health staff informed teachers who were then asked to inform students and parents. Even though baseline acceptance was very high (88.1%), only 31.1% of the women reported at follow-up that their daughter had been vaccinated. The vaccine was declined by 17.7%, while another 51.2% had wanted the vaccination but were obstructed by practical barriers. Being well-informed about the program and baseline awareness of cervical cancer were independently associated with vaccine uptake, while baseline acceptance was correlated in bivariate analysis. Side effects were of great concern, even among those whose daughter was vaccinated. Possible partner disapproval lowered acceptance at baseline, and women indeed reported at follow-up that they had encountered his opposition. In Kenya, women prove to be very willing to have their daughter vaccinated against cervical cancer. However, in this study, uptake was more determined by program awareness than by HPV vaccine acceptance. School-based vaccination might improve coverage since it reduces operational problems for parents. In addition, future HPV vaccination campaigns should address concerns about side

  6. Determinants of acceptance and subsequent uptake of the HPV vaccine in a cohort in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Vermandere

    Full Text Available The development of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines provides new opportunities in the fight against cervical cancer. Many acceptability studies have revealed high interest in these vaccines, but acceptance is only a precursor of behavior, and many factors, at personal, community and provider level, may inhibit the translation of willingness to vaccinate into actual uptake. Through a longitudinal study in Eldoret, Kenya, HPV vaccine acceptability was measured before a vaccination program (n = 287 and vaccine uptake, as reported by mothers, once the program was finished (n = 256. In between baseline and follow-up, a pilot HPV vaccination program was implemented via the GARDASIL Access Program, in which parents could have their daughter vaccinated for free at the referral hospital. The program was promoted at schools: Health staff informed teachers who were then asked to inform students and parents. Even though baseline acceptance was very high (88.1%, only 31.1% of the women reported at follow-up that their daughter had been vaccinated. The vaccine was declined by 17.7%, while another 51.2% had wanted the vaccination but were obstructed by practical barriers. Being well-informed about the program and baseline awareness of cervical cancer were independently associated with vaccine uptake, while baseline acceptance was correlated in bivariate analysis. Side effects were of great concern, even among those whose daughter was vaccinated. Possible partner disapproval lowered acceptance at baseline, and women indeed reported at follow-up that they had encountered his opposition. In Kenya, women prove to be very willing to have their daughter vaccinated against cervical cancer. However, in this study, uptake was more determined by program awareness than by HPV vaccine acceptance. School-based vaccination might improve coverage since it reduces operational problems for parents. In addition, future HPV vaccination campaigns should address concerns

  7. Awareness and Knowledge About HPV and HPV Vaccine Among Romanian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Mihaela; Teleman, Sergiu Iuliu; Pristavu, Anda; Matei, Mioara

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent gynecological malignancies worldwide. Romania has the highest incidence of this type of cancer in Europe. A successful prevention strategy has to consider the primary prevention measures (including health education on human papilloma virus (HPV) infection but also vaccination). The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Romanian women about HPV and HPV vaccine. We conducted a cross-sectional study survey of 454 women using an anonymously completed questionnaire covering the awareness and knowledge of HPV infection and attitudes to vaccination. We also analyzed the discussions and conclusion from a focus group of healthcare professionals regarding (1) HPV and HPV awareness and attitude, and (2) suggestions for improving HPV vaccine knowledge and acceptance. 69.2% of women were aware about HPV but their knowledge was minimal and incomplete. While 62.3% had heard about HPV vaccine, only 50.7% had a positive attitude toward it. The main barriers to vaccination were the fear of side effects, the perception that is risky, and the financial concerns. Deficiencies in knowledge were noted for vaccine, genital warts, or risks factors for HPV infection like the early onset of sexual life. The information regarding HPV and vaccine is not always accurate and complete, and only 50.7% of women have a positive attitude toward the vaccine. More educational programs and clearer communication are needed to raise awareness and knowledge regarding HPV and HPV vaccine.

  8. HPV vaccination acceptability in young boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Tisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comprehension and acceptance of HPV vaccination in parents of adolescent boys aged 11 to 15 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of questionnaires sent directly to the homes of all families with young males aged between 11 and 15, residents of three municipalities of the Province of Brescia, Italy. The documentation also contained an informative leaflet summarizing the HPV-related disease characteristics, the burden of disease and the available strategies for prevention and treatment, illustrating the rationale of vaccination and describing the project and its phases. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, acceptance and motivations for HPV vaccination. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. At the end of the study, parents who received the questionnaires were also offered the possibility of vaccinating their male sons for free. RESULTS: From a total of 1072 questionnaires sent, 161 where returned from the three selected municipalities (average response rate 15%; 97% of adolescent males involved in the study were Italian and 91% Catholic; 97% of parents declared themselves to be willing to vaccinate their sons: the principal motivation given (92% was prevention of the disease, cancerous or not, related to viral infection. Among the respondents not willing to vaccinate their sons, the motivation was lack of information about the vaccine and the disease. At the end of the study, around 71 boys were vaccinated. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first survey in Italy exclusively conducted on parents of adolescent males about the acceptability and feasibility of vaccination against HPV: a very high percentage of respondents was favorable to accept the vaccination for their sons, the main motivation being the fact that parents considered protecting their sons from HPV-related diseases highly important. Of the 161 boys

  9. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Lind

    Full Text Available School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns.We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program.Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone.Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process.Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal

  10. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of adolescents in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In SA, two vaccines (HPV quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Gardasil) and HPV bivalent (types 16 and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Cervarix)) are currently registered for the prevention of HPV-related disease. In the past, there have been significant challenges to achieving high coverage and uptake ...

  11. Parental attitudes to pre-pubertal HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane

    2007-03-01

    To determine the acceptability of childhood HPV vaccination and examine demographic, cultural, and psychosocial predictors of vaccine acceptance. School-based survey. Questionnaires sent to 1205 mothers of 8-14-year-old girls. Responses from 684 were included in the analyses. Ten schools (seven primary, three secondary) in four areas of England. Seventy-five percent of mothers would accept the vaccine for their daughter. Vaccine acceptance was higher in mothers who had experience of cancer in the family (OR=1.61, CI: 1.14-2.29), had older daughters (OR=1.15, CI: 1.04-1.27), perceived approval from husband/partner (OR=14.51, CI: 6.15-34.25) and believed vaccine acceptance would be more normative (OR=1.78, CI: 1.59-2.01). Having concerns about too many vaccinations (OR=0.22, CI: 0.15-0.31) or vaccine side effects (OR=0.37, CI: 0.28-0.50) and worry about increasing promiscuity (OR=0.47, CI: 0.36-0.62) emerged as deterrents. The modal preferred age was 12 years. Endorsing vaccination at earlier ages was predicted by feeling able to discuss related topics, including sex, at younger ages (OR=1.37, CI: 1.24-1.51) and concern about increasing promiscuity (OR=0.61, CI: 0.47-0.78). Overall, there was a favourable response to HPV vaccination. Emphasising the widespread acceptance of the vaccine might promote acceptance further, as would information on immunological and social benefits of earlier vaccination.

  12. Immunogenicity of HPV prophylactic vaccines: Serology assays and their use in HPV vaccine evaluation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A; Dillner, Joakim; Beddows, Simon; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2018-01-17

    When administered as standard three-dose schedules, the licensed HPV prophylactic vaccines have demonstrated extraordinary immunogenicity and efficacy. We summarize the immunogenicity of these licensed vaccines and the most commonly used serology assays, with a focus on key considerations for one-dose vaccine schedules. Although immune correlates of protection against infection are not entirely clear, both preclinical and clinical evidence point to neutralizing antibodies as the principal mechanism of protection. Thus, immunogenicity assessments in vaccine trials have focused on measurements of antibody responses to the vaccine. Non-inferiority of antibody responses after two doses of HPV vaccines separated by 6 months has been demonstrated and this evidence supported the recent WHO recommendations for two-dose vaccination schedules in both boys and girls 9-14 years of age. There is also some evidence suggesting that one dose of HPV vaccines may provide protection similar to the currently recommended two-dose regimens but robust data on efficacy and immunogenicity of one-dose vaccine schedules are lacking. In addition, immunogenicity has been assessed and reported using different methods, precluding direct comparison of results between different studies and vaccines. New head-to-head vaccine trials evaluating one-dose immunogenicity and efficacy have been initiated and an increase in the number of trials relying on immunobridging is anticipated. Therefore, standardized measurement and reporting of immunogenicity for the up to nine HPV types targeted by the current vaccines is now critical. Building on previous HPV serology assay standardization and harmonization efforts initiated by the WHO HPV LabNet in 2006, new secondary standards, critical reference reagents and testing guidelines will be generated as part of a new partnership to facilitate harmonization of the immunogenicity testing in new HPV vaccine trials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. From non school-based, co-payment to school-based, free Human Papillomavirus vaccination in Flanders (Belgium): a retrospective cohort study describing vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevere, Eva; Theeten, Heidi; Hens, Niel; De Smet, Frank; Top, Geert; Van Damme, Pierre

    2015-09-22

    School-based, free HPV vaccination for girls in the first year of secondary school was introduced in Flanders (Belgium) in 2010. Before that, non school-based, co-payment vaccination for girls aged 12-18 was in place. We compared vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities in coverage - 3 important parameters contributing to the effectiveness of the vaccination programs - under both vaccination systems. We used retrospective administrative data from different sources. Our sample consisted of all female members of the National Alliance of Christian Mutualities born in 1995, 1996, 1998 or 1999 (N=66,664). For each vaccination system we described the cumulative proportion HPV vaccination initiation and completion over time. We used life table analysis to calculate age-specific rates of HPV vaccination initiation and completion. Analyses were done separately for higher income and low income groups. Under non school-based, co-payment vaccination the proportions HPV vaccination initiation and completion slowly rose over time. By age 17, the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.75 (95% CI 0.74-076)/0.66 (95% CI 0.65-0.67). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 14.4 years (95% CI 14.4-14.5)/15.4 years (95% CI 15.3-15.4). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage widened over time and with age. Under school-based, free vaccination rates of HPV vaccination initiation were substantially higher. By age 14,the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.90 (95% CI 0.90-0.90)/0.87 (95% CI 0.87-0.88). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 12.7 years (95% CI 12.7-12.7)/13.3 years (95% CI 13.3-13.3). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage and in age-specific coverage were substantially smaller. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess HPV Knowledge and HPV Vaccine Acceptability in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Danielle N.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Levitz, Lauren; Rochas, Mali; Sangare, Kotou; Yekta, Shahla; Tounkara, Karamoko; Aboubacar, Ben; Koita, Ousmane; Lurie, Mark; De Groot, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccination is not currently available in Mali. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in Mali, and thereby vaccine readiness, may be limited. Research staff visited homes in a radial pattern from a central location to recruit adolescent females and males aged 12–17 years and men and women aged ≥18 years (N = 51) in a peri-urban village of Bamako, Mali. Participants took part in structured interviews assessing knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccination. We found low levels of HPV and cervical cancer knowledge. While only 2.0% of respondents knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI), 100% said they would be willing to receive HPV vaccination and would like the HPV vaccine to be available in Mali. Moreover, 74.5% said they would vaccinate their child(ren) against HPV. Men were found to have significantly greater autonomy in the decision to vaccinate themselves than women and adolescents (p = 0.005), a potential barrier to be addressed by immunization campaigns. HPV vaccination would be highly acceptable if the vaccine became widely available in Bamako, Mali. This study demonstrates the need for a significant investment in health education if truly informed consent is to be obtained for HPV vaccination. Potential HPV vaccination campaigns should provide more information about HPV and the vaccine. Barriers to vaccination, including the significantly lower ability of the majority of the target population to autonomously decide to get vaccinated, must also be addressed in future HPV vaccine campaigns. PMID:23431375

  15. A cross-sectional study to assess HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptability in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Poole

    Full Text Available Despite a high prevalence of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV infection and cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccination is not currently available in Mali. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in Mali, and thereby vaccine readiness, may be limited. Research staff visited homes in a radial pattern from a central location to recruit adolescent females and males aged 12-17 years and men and women aged ≥ 18 years (N = 51 in a peri-urban village of Bamako, Mali. Participants took part in structured interviews assessing knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccination. We found low levels of HPV and cervical cancer knowledge. While only 2.0% of respondents knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI, 100% said they would be willing to receive HPV vaccination and would like the HPV vaccine to be available in Mali. Moreover, 74.5% said they would vaccinate their child(ren against HPV. Men were found to have significantly greater autonomy in the decision to vaccinate themselves than women and adolescents (p = 0.005, a potential barrier to be addressed by immunization campaigns. HPV vaccination would be highly acceptable if the vaccine became widely available in Bamako, Mali. This study demonstrates the need for a significant investment in health education if truly informed consent is to be obtained for HPV vaccination. Potential HPV vaccination campaigns should provide more information about HPV and the vaccine. Barriers to vaccination, including the significantly lower ability of the majority of the target population to autonomously decide to get vaccinated, must also be addressed in future HPV vaccine campaigns.

  16. Parental decision making about the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D; Othus, Megan K D; Shelton, Rachel C; Li, Yi; Norman, Nancy; Tom, Laura; del Carmen, Marcela G

    2010-09-01

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are available, but uptake is suboptimal. Information on factors influencing parental decisions regarding vaccination will facilitate the development of successful interventions. Parents of girls ages 9 to 17 years (n = 476; cooperation rate = 67%) from a panel of U.S. households completed online surveys between September 2007 and January 2008, documenting vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and intentions. Among those aware of the vaccine, 19% had already vaccinated their daughter(s), 34% intended to, 24% were undecided, and 24% had decided against vaccination. Awareness of HPV was high but knowledge levels were suboptimal (mean 72%, SEM 0.8%). Black and Hispanic parents were significantly less likely to be aware of the vaccine compared with White parents. In multivariate analyses, compared with parents who opposed vaccination, those who had already vaccinated their daughter(s) or who intended to do so had more positive attitudes, reported fewer barriers, and were more likely to perceive that family and friends would endorse vaccination. They also reported higher levels of trust in pharmaceutical companies that produce the vaccine. Despite limited knowledge, most parents had decided to vaccinate their daughter(s). Given evidence of diminished access to information among Black and Hispanic parents, programs should focus on reaching these groups. Interventions should address parental concerns about behavioral consequences, reduce structural barriers, and promote the perception that vaccination is endorsed by significant others. Moreover, interventions may need to address mistrust of pharmaceutical companies. IMPACT STATEMENT: This study documents factors associated with parental decisions about HPV vaccination for their daughter(s) and provides direction for intervention development. (c)2010 AACR.

  17. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  18. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV-associated tumour vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, 1-2 (2006), s. 45-46 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7807; GA MZd(CZ) NR8004; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV * tumour vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.387, year: 2006

  19. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  20. Burden of HPV-caused cancers in Denmark and the potential effect of HPV-vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorstengaard, Malene; Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-01-01

    -caused cancers in women and men, and to evaluate the potential of HPV-vaccination in cancer control. Methods: Data were retrieved from the literature on population prevalence of high risk (HR) HPV, on HR HPV-prevalence and genotypes in HPV-related cancers, and on number of cytology samples in cervical screening...... were preventable with HPV vaccination. However, including screening prevented cervical cancers, the burden of cancers caused by HPV-infection would be 1300–2000 in women as compared to 234 in men. Conclusion: Taking screening prevented cervical cancers into account, the cancer control potential of HPV...

  1. Determinants of geographic inequalities in HPV vaccination in the most populated region of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héquet, Delphine; Rouzier, Roman

    2017-01-01

    In France, there are recommendations and reimbursements for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination but no HPV vaccination programs. Therefore, vaccination is largely determined by parents' initiative, which can lead to inequalities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with poorer vaccination coverage rates in the most populated region of France. The data of this study were obtained from the National Health Insurance between 2011 and 2013. Correlations between vaccination initiation rate (at least 1 dose reimbursed) and socio-demographic/cultural factors were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression. In total, 121,636 girls received at least one HPV vaccine dose. The vaccination rate for girls born from 1996 to 1999 was 18.7%. Disparities in vaccination coverage rates were observed between the 8 departments of the region, ranging from 12.9% to 22.6%. At the department level, unemployment, proportion of immigrants and foreigners, and coverage by CMU health insurance ("Couverture Maladie Universelle", a health insurance plan for those who are not otherwise covered through business or employment and who have a low income) were significantly inversely correlated with vaccination rates, whereas urban residence, medical density, income and use of medical services were not related to coverage. In the multivariate model, only the percentage of foreigners remained independently associated with lower vaccination coverage. At the individual level, the use of medical services was a strong driver of HPV vaccination initiation. We observed geographic disparities in HPV vaccination initiation coverage. Even if no clear factor was identified as a vaccination determinant, we observed a failure of vaccination only based on parents' initiative. Therefore, an organized policy on HPV vaccination, such as school-based programs, can help improve coverage rates.

  2. Determinants of geographic inequalities in HPV vaccination in the most populated region of France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Héquet

    Full Text Available In France, there are recommendations and reimbursements for human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination but no HPV vaccination programs. Therefore, vaccination is largely determined by parents' initiative, which can lead to inequalities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with poorer vaccination coverage rates in the most populated region of France.The data of this study were obtained from the National Health Insurance between 2011 and 2013. Correlations between vaccination initiation rate (at least 1 dose reimbursed and socio-demographic/cultural factors were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression.In total, 121,636 girls received at least one HPV vaccine dose. The vaccination rate for girls born from 1996 to 1999 was 18.7%. Disparities in vaccination coverage rates were observed between the 8 departments of the region, ranging from 12.9% to 22.6%. At the department level, unemployment, proportion of immigrants and foreigners, and coverage by CMU health insurance ("Couverture Maladie Universelle", a health insurance plan for those who are not otherwise covered through business or employment and who have a low income were significantly inversely correlated with vaccination rates, whereas urban residence, medical density, income and use of medical services were not related to coverage. In the multivariate model, only the percentage of foreigners remained independently associated with lower vaccination coverage. At the individual level, the use of medical services was a strong driver of HPV vaccination initiation.We observed geographic disparities in HPV vaccination initiation coverage. Even if no clear factor was identified as a vaccination determinant, we observed a failure of vaccination only based on parents' initiative. Therefore, an organized policy on HPV vaccination, such as school-based programs, can help improve coverage

  3. Predictors of Adults' Knowledge and Awareness of HPV, HPV-Associated Cancers, and the HPV Vaccine: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kimberly R; Singh, Shipra

    2018-02-01

    High human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and low HPV vaccine uptake are significant public health concerns. Disparities in HPV-associated cancers and HPV vaccine uptake rates suggest the need for additional research examining factors associated with vaccine acceptance. This study assessed HPV awareness and knowledge and identified sociodemographic characteristics associated with HPV knowledge at the population level. Data from adult men ( n = 1,197) and women ( n = 1,906) who participated in the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed. Multivariable regression was used to identify predictors of four HPV knowledge categories: (1) general knowledge, (2) cervical cancer knowledge, (3) "other" cancer knowledge (i.e., anal, oral, penile), and (4) vaccine knowledge. Significant gender differences in awareness and knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine were revealed. Most participants (>70%) knew that HPV could cause cervical cancer, but fewer (14.9% to 31.5%) knew of the association between HPV and "other" cancers. Women were more likely to report that a health care provider recommended vaccination. Significant predictors of general HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge included gender, education, income, race, and other sociodemographic characteristics. Age and income predicted cervical cancer knowledge. Knowledge of "other" HPV-associated cancers was predicted by having a child under 18 years in the household and relationship status. HPV knowledge appears to be socially patterned. Low HPV knowledge among men and some racial minorities suggests a need for further intervention. Health education should emphasize risks of noncervical HPV-associated cancers. Patient-provider communication that includes education, counseling, and clear recommendations favoring vaccination may improve uptake.

  4. Predictors of Adults' Knowledge and Awareness of HPV, HPV-Associated Cancers, and the HPV Vaccine: Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kimberly R.; Singh, Shipra

    2018-01-01

    High human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and low HPV vaccine uptake are significant public health concerns. Disparities in HPV-associated cancers and HPV vaccine uptake rates suggest the need for additional research examining factors associated with vaccine acceptance. This study assessed HPV awareness and knowledge and identified…

  5. Acceptability of HPV vaccines and associations with perceptions related to HPV and HPV vaccines among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T F Lau

    Full Text Available HPV vaccines are available to men but there are few studies investigating the acceptability of HPV vaccines among men who have sex with men (MSM, a high risk group. We assessed the intention to take up HPV vaccines among MSM in Hong Kong and the associated factors related to cognitions on HPV and HPV vaccines, basing on the Health Belief Model (n = 542. The acceptability of HPV vaccines was 20% (unconditional on efficacies and price, 29.2% (conditional on efficacies and market price, 51.7% (conditional on efficacies and discounted price and 79.1% (conditional on efficacies and free price. Adjusting for background variables, composite scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers and cue to actions were significantly associated with acceptability of HPV vaccines conditional on specific efficacies and the market price. Acceptability of HPV vaccines was highly price sensitive. Future studies need to use conditional measures. Implementation and translational researches are warranted.

  6. Acceptability of School-Based Health Centers for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Visits: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Caitlin E; Okoloko, Edirin; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; North, Anna; Niccolai, Linda M

    2017-09-01

    Countries with high human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates have achieved this success largely through school-based vaccination. Using school-based health centers (SBHCs) in the United States, where HPV vaccine remains underutilized, could improve uptake. In this mixed-methods study, we examined acceptability, facilitators, and barriers of HPV vaccination visits at SBHCs from the perspectives of adolescents and parents. We conducted qualitative interviews and structured surveys with adolescents and parents recruited from an urban, hospital-based clinic. Interviews with parents (N = 20) and adolescents (N = 20) were audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis using an iterative thematic approach. Quantitative measures for a survey administered to parents (N = 131) were derived from the qualitative findings. Survey results were analyzed by chi-square tests. Many participants expressed favorable opinions of HPV vaccination at SBHCs in qualitative interviews. Facilitators included convenience, ease of scheduling, and not missing work or school. However, barriers were noted including concerns about obtaining care outside the medical home, fragmentation of medical records, and negative perceptions about SBHCs. Quantitative findings revealed that a higher proportion of parents with experience using SBHCs were willing to use a middle school (59.5%) or high school (80.5%) SBHC for HPV vaccinations compared with those who had not used SBHCs (p HPV vaccination visits at SBHCs were acceptable, and SBHC users expressed more favorable attitudes. Barriers to HPV vaccination at SBHCs can be addressed through more education about SBHCs' role, and improvement of systems to coordinate care. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  7. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States currently has the safest, most effective vaccine supply in history. Years of testing are required by law to ensure the safety of vaccines before they are made available for use in ...

  8. 9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Velicer, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed.

  9. Barriers and Facilitators of HPV Vaccination in the VFC Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Wayne S; Sznajder, Kristin K; Nepps, Margaret; Boktor, Sameh W

    2018-06-01

    This study determined facilitators and barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination perceived by providers of healthcare in the federally funded Pennsylvania Vaccines for Children (PA VFC) program. The cross-sectional study gathered descriptive data through a survey research design. Providers of healthcare were recruited through an email containing a link to an 18-question online survey. The survey was divided into four main sections which assessed the perceived facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccination of PA VFC program-eligibles. Survey respondents represented 65 of 66 Pennsylvania counties covered by the PA VFC Program. The study recruited 772 PA VFC participating healthcare facilities for a response rate of 52%. Ninety eight percent of the responding facilities reported that they offered the HPV vaccine. The most common barriers to vaccine administration were the parental belief that HPV vaccination is associated with sexual activity and parent/patient refusal of the HPV vaccination which together accounted for (44%) of responses. The majority of respondents (75.6%) indicated counseling parents and adolescents on the benefits of HPV vaccination was a very important factor in HPV vaccination uptake. Healthcare provider facility based training (32%) and web-based training for healthcare providers (22%) were the most recommended avenues for HPV training. The most common barrier to HPV vaccination was identified as the parental misconception that HPV vaccination is associated with sexual activity. Providers believed that the best way to increase HPV vaccination is through counseling parents and adolescents on the benefits of HPV vaccination and to correct misconceptions and change attitudes. Providers are desirous of receiving HPV web-based or workplace training.

  10. Providers' perceptions of parental concerns about HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Rebecca B; Clark, Jack A

    2013-05-01

    Parental resistance is often posited to explain low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. We sought to describe providers' perceptions of parents' attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Thirty-four providers from four federally qualified community health centers participated in semi-structured interviews related to their experiences discussing HPV vaccination with low-income and minority parents. Providers found that parents were eager to prevent cancer in their daughters. Safety concerns and feeling that vaccination was unnecessary for virgins were reasons for declining vaccination. Providers found that immigrants from low-resource settings were more receptive to HPV vaccination than White middle-class parents due both to personal experience with vaccine-preventable diseases and cervical cancer and more realistic impressions of their children's sexual activity. Immigrants from low-resource settings may be particularly receptive to HPV vaccination, while White middle-class parents may be more likely to defer vaccination due to concerns about safety or sexual issues.

  11. Towards the eradication of HPV infection through universal specific vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Crosignani, Piergiorgio; De Stefani, Antonella; Fara, Gaetano Maria; Isidori, Andrea M; Lenzi, Andrea; Liverani, Carlo Antonio; Lombardi, Alberto; Mennini, Francesco Saverio; Palu?, Giorgio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Peracino, Andrea P; Signorelli, Carlo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is generally recognized to be the direct cause of cervical cancer. The development of effective anti-HPV vaccines, included in the portfolio of recommended vaccinations for any given community, led to the consolidation in many countries of immunization programs to prevent HPV-related cervical cancers. In recent years, increasing evidence in epidemiology and molecular biology have supported the oncogenic role of HPV in the development of other neoplasm...

  12. HPV Vaccine (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Nearly all sexually active men and women will get infected with the human papillomavirus, or HPV, at some point in their lives. HPV can lead to serious health problems later in life, including certain cancers in both men and women. Since 2006, a vaccine has been available that protects against the most frequent cancer-causing types of HPV. In this podcast, Shannon Stokley discusses the importance of getting the HPV vaccine.

  13. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccines in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Thana, Kanjana

    2018-06-01

    To identify variables associated with the acceptance of HPV vaccination among Thai parents/primary caregivers. The present prospective cross-sectional study recruited the parents/caregivers of female adolescents aged 12-18 years from schools in Chiang Mai, Thailand, between January 1 and February 29, 2016. A four-part questionnaire was distributed to assess demographics, HPV vaccine acceptance, knowledge, and beliefs toward HPV and cervical cancer. Predictors of HPV vaccine acceptance were determined by logistic regression analysis. The study enrolled 331 parents; more than half (195 [61.1%]) had heard of HPV vaccines. Their knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer was moderate. A majority of parents (266/313 [85.0%]) indicated they would accept HPV vaccination if the costs were subsidized by the government. Acceptance of HPV vaccines was associated with perceived benefits of HPV vaccination (odds ratio [OR] 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.88), perceived susceptibility to disease (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.11-1.81), and household income (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.02-1.78). Parental beliefs have an important role in their acceptance to vaccinate their daughters. These potentially modifiable beliefs offer strategies for future interventions designed to increase uptake for future HPV vaccination campaigns. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  14. HPV and HPV vaccination: knowledge and consciousness of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşar, E; Gencer, M; Hacivelioğlu, S O; Güngör, A C; Uysal, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the knowledge and the awareness of the young Turkish women regarding cervical cancer and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines. The authors analyze a probable relationship between the overall knowledge level and a few socio-demographic parameters. The authors interviewed with students from Canakkale 18 March University and young women that did not continue with school in the same city from January to September 2011. All the students answered the questionnaire voluntarily and independently. The participants had low level of knowledge about the risk factors for cervical cancer. Smoking is the major risk factor that was known by the participants (65%). Proportion of the participants that were aware of pap smear test and HPV were 65% and 17% respectively. A small proportion of young women had knowledge regarding protection from HPV. Educational stream, educational level, family income, and family size had significant association knowledge level (p level of knowledge so that general public can easily take preventative measures.

  15. Engaging parents and schools improves uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: examining the role of the public health nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Noella W; Steenbeek, Audrey; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Scott, Jeffrey; Smith, Bruce; D'Angelo-Scott, Holly

    2014-08-06

    Nova Scotia has the highest rate of cervical cancer in Canada, and most of these cases are attributed to the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). In 2007, Gardasil(®) was approved and implemented in a successful school-based HPV immunization program. Little is known, however, which strategies (if any) used within a school-based program help to improve vaccine uptake. A retrospective, exploratory correlation study was conducted to examine the relationship between school-based strategies and uptake of HPV vaccine. Data was analyzed through Logistic regression, using PASW Statistics 17 (formerly SPSS 17). HPV vaccine initiation was significantly associated with Public Health Nurses providing reminder calls for: consent return (p=0.017) and missed school clinic (p=0.004); HPV education to teachers (pNurse being assigned to a school (p=0.025). These findings can be used to help guide school-based immunization programs for optimal uptake of the HPV vaccine among the student population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil® Vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html . CDC review information for HPV Gardasil® ...

  17. Overview of Current Humman Papilloma Virus (HPV Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumhur Artuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent viral infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes causes virtually all cancer of the cervix. The same HPV genotypes (“types” also cause cases of anal cancer. Cervical cancer is the third most frequent cancer in women worldwide after breast and colorectal cancers. It ranks fourth of women’s cancers according to the mortality ratio. Two vaccines have been developed against HPV infection; one is a quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil™ and the other is a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix™. This topic will cover issues related to HPV infections, routine HPV immunization recommendations, vaccination in special patient populations, the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination, and vaccine safety. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 327-334

  18. Anticipated Regret and Omission Bias in HPV Vaccination Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated effects of anticipated regret on parents’ HPV vaccination intentions and effects of omission bias on HPV vaccination intentions and vaccine uptake. An online survey was completed by 851 parents of adolescent girls in Denmark, a country where HPV vaccine safety is currently...... heavily debated. Multivariate regression analyses revealed anticipated inaction regret as a significant positive predictor of vaccination intentions, and, anticipated action regret as a significant negative predictor of vaccination intentions. Multivariate analyses also revealed omission bias...... in a hypothetical vaccination vignette as a significant negative predictor of HPV vaccination intention as well as vaccine uptake. Finally, the study tested effects of anticipated regret and omission bias on evaluations of two extisting Danish pro-vaccine campaign videos. Here, the result revealed anticipated...

  19. Factors that Predict Parental Willingness to Have Their Children Vaccinated against HPV in a Country with Low HPV Vaccination Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Owsianka, Barbara; Korzeń, Marcin

    2018-03-31

    Background: Adolescent HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) vaccination is yet to be introduced as a mandatory program in Poland. Polish literature on factors associated with adolescent HPV vaccination is scant, despite the fact that uptake is one of the poorest in the European Union. Objectives: To assess HPV awareness and identify independent predictors for parental willingness to have their children vaccinated against HPV. Methods: All parents of first grade students from three selected high schools in Zgorzelec, Poland, who participated in parent-teacher meetings at the time the study was conducted, had their children unvaccinated regarding HPV, and who gave informed consent to participate were included. There were 600 first grade students; 9 were vaccinated against HPV. This left 591 parents who met the eligibility criteria; the response rate was 76.1%. Results: Awareness of HPV was reported by 55.3% of 450 parents (mean age 42 years, 70.9% females); 85.1% expressed their willingness to vaccinate their children against HPV; 31.3% identified HPV as a sexually transmitted pathogen, and 36.2% identified it as a risk factor of cervical cancer. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that being employed (OR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.10-3.86), having positive attitudes toward vaccines (OR 3.02; 95% CI: 1.34-6.49), previous information about HPV (OR 2.02; 95% CI: 1.17-3.51), and concerns about the side effects of the HPV vaccine (OR 0.60; 95% CI: 0.35-0.99) were independent predictors of parents' willingness to vaccinate. Conclusions: Attitudes regarding their child being vaccinated against HPV were positive among Polish parents, even though awareness and knowledge of HPV in this group were low. Most of the significant factors that influenced their willingness were modifiable, such as being informed about HPV and having positive attitudes toward vaccines. Future interventions should focus specifically on vulnerable subgroups, such as unemployed parents.

  20. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. No CDC tag at the end. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.)

  1. Assessment of eight HPV vaccination programs implemented in lowest income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Joël; Besson, Marie-Hélène; Hampshire, Rachel; Tapert, Lisa; Chirenje, Mike; Saba, Joseph

    2012-05-23

    Cervix cancer, preventable, continues to be the third most common cancer in women worldwide, especially in lowest income countries. Prophylactic HPV vaccination should help to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to describe the results of and key concerns in eight HPV vaccination programs conducted in seven lowest income countries through the Gardasil Access Program (GAP). The GAP provides free HPV vaccine to organizations and institutions in lowest income countries. The HPV vaccination programs were entirely developed, implemented and managed by local institutions. Institutions submitted application forms with institution characteristics, target population, communication delivery strategies. After completion of the vaccination campaign (3 doses), institutions provided a final project report with data on doses administered and vaccination models. Two indicators were calculated, the program vaccination coverage and adherence. Qualitative data were also collected in the following areas: government and community involvement; communication, and sensitization; training and logistics resources, and challenges. A total of eight programs were implemented in seven countries. The eight programs initially targeted a total of 87,580 girls, of which 76,983 received the full 3-dose vaccine course, with mean program vaccination coverage of 87.8%; the mean adherence between the first and third doses of vaccine was 90.9%. Three programs used school-based delivery models, 2 used health facility-based models, and 3 used mixed models that included schools and health facilities. Models that included school-based vaccination were most effective at reaching girls aged 9-13 years. Mixed models comprising school and health facility-based vaccination had better overall performance compared with models using just one of the methods. Increased rates of program coverage and adherence were positively correlated with the number of

  2. Assessment of eight HPV vaccination programs implemented in lowest income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladner Joël

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervix cancer, preventable, continues to be the third most common cancer in women worldwide, especially in lowest income countries. Prophylactic HPV vaccination should help to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to describe the results of and key concerns in eight HPV vaccination programs conducted in seven lowest income countries through the Gardasil Access Program (GAP. Methods The GAP provides free HPV vaccine to organizations and institutions in lowest income countries. The HPV vaccination programs were entirely developed, implemented and managed by local institutions. Institutions submitted application forms with institution characteristics, target population, communication delivery strategies. After completion of the vaccination campaign (3 doses, institutions provided a final project report with data on doses administered and vaccination models. Two indicators were calculated, the program vaccination coverage and adherence. Qualitative data were also collected in the following areas: government and community involvement; communication, and sensitization; training and logistics resources, and challenges. Results A total of eight programs were implemented in seven countries. The eight programs initially targeted a total of 87,580 girls, of which 76,983 received the full 3-dose vaccine course, with mean program vaccination coverage of 87.8%; the mean adherence between the first and third doses of vaccine was 90.9%. Three programs used school-based delivery models, 2 used health facility-based models, and 3 used mixed models that included schools and health facilities. Models that included school-based vaccination were most effective at reaching girls aged 9-13 years. Mixed models comprising school and health facility-based vaccination had better overall performance compared with models using just one of the methods. Increased rates of program coverage and

  3. African American Parents’ HPV Vaccination Intent and Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.; Arnold, Lauren D.; Notaro, Sheri R.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents’ intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vacc...

  4. Assessing mandatory HPV vaccination: who should call the shots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javitt, Gail; Berkowitz, Deena; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, many legislatures considered, and two enacted, bills mandating HPV vaccination for young girls as a condition of school attendance. Such mandates raise significant legal, ethical, and social concerns. This paper argues that mandating HPV vaccination for minor females is premature since long-term safety and effectiveness of the vaccine has not been established, HPV does not pose imminent and significant risk of harm to others, a sex specific mandate raises constitutional concerns, and a mandate will burden financially existing government health programs and private physicians. Absent careful consideration and public conversation, HPV mandates may undermine coverage rates for other vaccines.

  5. Immunogenicity of an HPV-16 L2 DNA vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzeroth, Inga I.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Shephard, Enid; Stewart, Debbie; Müller, Martin; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Rybicki, Edward P.; Kast, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    The ability to elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies makes human papillomavirus (HPV) L2 capsid protein a possible HPV vaccine. We examined and compared the humoral response of mice immunised with a HPV-16 L2 DNA vaccine or with HPV-16 L2 protein. The L2 DNA vaccine elicited a non-neutralising antibody response unlike the L2 protein. L2 DNA vaccination suppressed the growth of L2-expressing C3 tumor cells, which is a T cell mediated effect, demonstrating that the lack of non-neutralizing antibody induction by L2 DNA was not caused by lack of T cell immunogenicity of the construct. PMID:19559114

  6. HPV Vaccination: Attitude and Knowledge among German Gynecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolben, T M; Dannecker, C; Baltateanu, K; Goess, C; Starrach, T; Semmlinger, A; Ditsch, N; Gallwas, J; Mahner, S; Friese, K; Kolben, T

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: In order to achieve a higher vaccination rate, education on HPV as well as options for prophylaxis performed by doctors is of great importance. One opportunity to increase the protection against HPV would be vaccinating boys. This study evaluated attitude and knowledge among German gynecologists regarding HPV vaccination, especially in boys. Material and Methods: A questionnaire with 42 questions about demographics, attitude and knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccination was sent to members of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). Results: 998 out of 6567 addressed gynecologists participated. Knowledge about HPV, associated diseases and possible HPV vaccines was high among participants. The attitude towards vaccination in boys as well as girls was positive. Only 8.2 % refused to vaccinate their sons whereas 2.2 % refused to do this for their daughters. However, only few gynecologists vaccinated their daughters and sons against HPV. Main reason for girls was an age outside of vaccination guidelines; for boys it was the lack of cost coverage. Conclusion: The willingness of gynecologists to perform HPV vaccination in boys is as high as for girls. However, sons of gynecologists are only rarely vaccinated against HPV. Main reason is the lack of cost coverage. Vaccinating boys could decrease the disease burden in males, as well as protect women by interrupting ways of transmission. Since the main argument against vaccination of boys is only of financial nature, the necessity of a vaccination recommendation for boys needs to be re-evaluated taking into account the cost-reduced 2-dose vaccination scheme.

  7. Safety profile of the 9-valent HPV vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Edson D; Block, Stan L; Ferris, Daron G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The overall safety profile of the 9-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV) vaccine was evaluated across 7 Phase III studies, conducted in males and females (nonpregnant at entry), 9 to 26 years of age. METHODS: Vaccination was administered as a 3-dose regimen at day 1, and months 2 and 6....... More than 15 000 subjects received ≥1 dose of 9vHPV vaccine. In 2 of the studies, >7000 control subjects received ≥1 dose of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. Serious and nonserious adverse events (AEs) and new medical conditions were recorded throughout the study. Subjects testing positive...... for pregnancy at day 1 were not vaccinated; those who became pregnant after day 1 were discontinued from further vaccination until resolution of the pregnancy. Pregnancies detected after study start (n = 2950) were followed to outcome. RESULTS: The most common AEs (≥5%) experienced by 9vHPV vaccine recipients...

  8. Factors Related To HPV Vaccine Practice Among Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Perwita Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is one of most common diseases among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV is known as precursor of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be prevented effectively by practicing hpv vaccine. But the coverage of HPV vaccine is remain low. The objection of study was to analyze factors related to HPV vaccine pratice among adult women. This study used case control design with sample size 25 for each group. Sample case was women who took HPV vaccine in IBI Kota Kediri on 2013, while sample control was neighboor from the sample case who didn’t take HPV vaccine. The independent variabels were age, education level, marital status, income level, knowledge, family support, family history of cervical cancer and the dependent variable was HPV vaccine practice. Those variables was analyzed with chi square or Fisher’s exact with significancy level at 95%. The result showed that there were correlation between education level (p = 0.006; c = 0.346, knowledge (p = 0.001; c = 0.464, and family support (p = 0.000; c = 0.516 with HPV vaccination practice. While there were no correlation between age (p = 0.275, marital status (0.490 and income level (p = 0.098 and family history of cervical cancer (p = 1.000 with HPV vaccination practice. Based on data from this study can be concluded that family support and knowledge had average strenght correlation withHPV vaccine practice among adult women. So, the intervention should be focused in increasing knowledge among women and their family about the important of HPV vaccine as a cervical cancer prevention. Keywords: practice, preventive, HPV, vaccine, adult women

  9. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in HPV Vaccination Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanez, Staci; Torr, Berna M

    2017-12-20

    There are substantial racial and ethnic disparities in the vaccination rate for human papillomavirus (HPV), which helps protect against cervical cancer. Using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, we explore differences between Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in attitudes toward vaccinating adolescent girls for HPV. We use logistic regression models to explore whether racial/ethnic differences in attitudes toward HPV vaccinations are explained by HPV knowledge, demographic and socioeconomic status, and/or general distrust of the healthcare system. We include interactions to explore whether the effects of HPV knowledge and doctor distrust vary by racial/ethnic group. We find that greater HPV knowledge increases general willingness to vaccinate for all groups except Blacks. Our findings point to a need for additional research and design of culturally appropriate interventions that address barriers to vaccination.

  10. Urine testing to monitor the impact of HPV vaccination in Bhutan and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Silvia; Chantal Umulisa, M; Tshomo, Ugyen; Gheit, Tarik; Baussano, Iacopo; Tenet, Vanessa; Tshokey, Tshokey; Gatera, Maurice; Ngabo, Fidele; Van Damme, Pierre; Snijders, Peter J F; Tommasino, Massimo; Vorsters, Alex; Clifford, Gary M

    2016-08-01

    Bhutan (2010) and Rwanda (2011) were the first countries in Asia and Africa to introduce national, primarily school-based, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes. These target 12 year-old girls and initially included catch-up campaigns (13-18 year-olds in Bhutan and ninth school grade in Rwanda). In 2013, to obtain the earliest indicators of vaccine effectiveness, we performed two school-based HPV urine surveys; 973 female students (median age: 19 years, 5th-95th percentile: 18-22) were recruited in Bhutan and 912 (19 years, 17-20) in Rwanda. Participants self-collected a first-void urine sample using a validated protocol. HPV prevalence was obtained using two PCR assays that differ in sensitivity and type spectrum, namely GP5+/GP6+ and E7-MPG. 92% students in Bhutan and 43% in Rwanda reported to have been vaccinated (median vaccination age = 16, 5th-95th: 14-18). HPV positivity in urine was significantly associated with sexual activity measures. In Rwanda, HPV6/11/16/18 prevalence was lower in vaccinated than in unvaccinated students (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.12, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03-0.51 by GP5+/GP6+, and 0.45, CI: 0.23-0.90 by E7-MPG). For E7-MPG, cross-protection against 10 high-risk types phylogenetically related to HPV16 or 18 was of borderline significance (PR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.45-1.01). In Bhutan, HPV6/11/16/18 prevalence by GP5+/GP6+ was lower in vaccinated than in unvaccinated students but CIs were broad. In conclusion, our study supports the feasibility of urine surveys to monitor HPV vaccination and quantifies the effectiveness of the quadrivalent vaccine in women vaccinated after pre-adolescence. Future similar surveys should detect increases in vaccine effectiveness if vaccination of 12 year-olds continues. © 2016 UICC.

  11. Male Undergraduates' HPV Vaccination Behavior: Implications for Achieving HPV-Associated Cancer Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lust, Katherine; Vang, Suzanne; Desai, Jay

    2018-06-01

    Despite the availability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for males, uptake of the vaccine has been low, particularly among young adult males. This study aimed to investigate the levels of HPV vaccination and predictors of HPV vaccine completion in college men ages 18-26. We analyzed data from the 2015 College Student Health Survey, which was administered at 17 post-secondary institutions in Midwest areas. We included only responses from male participants who were ages 18-26 years old, resulting in a sample size of 2516. We used Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization to guide our study design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of HPV vaccine receipt. College-aged males in our sample had a HPV vaccine completion rate of 50.0%. Male students who were younger, had at least one parent who held a graduate degree, had initiated sex, and were enrolled at a private 4-year institution were more likely to have been vaccinated. These findings suggest that HPV vaccination in college-aged men are low. Efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccination in male students who are older, from lower socioeconomic statuses, have not initiated sex, and enrolled at public institutions. Findings also indicate important gender disparities in vaccine uptake that must be addressed in order to achieve optimal vaccine uptake in college-aged males.

  12. The impact of non-financial and financial encouragements on participation in non school-based human papillomavirus vaccination: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevere, Eva; Hens, Niel; De Smet, Frank; Beutels, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent vaccination coverage under a system of non school-based vaccination is likely to be suboptimal, but might be increased by targeted encouragement campaigns. We analysed the effect on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination initiation by girls aged 12-18 of two campaigns set up in Flanders (Belgium) in 2007 and 2009: a personal information campaign and a combined personal information and financial incentive campaign. We analysed (objective) data on HPV vaccination behaviour from the National Alliance of Christian Mutualities (NACM), Flanders' largest sickness fund. We used z-scores to compare the monthly proportion of girls initiating HPV vaccination over time between carefully selected intervention and control groups. Separate analyses were done for older and younger girls. Total sample sizes of the intervention (control) groups were 221 (243) for the personal information campaign and 629 (5,322) for the combined personal information and financial incentive campaign. The personal information campaign significantly increased vaccination initiation, with older girls reacting faster. One year after the campaign the percentages of vaccination initiation for the oldest girls were 64.6 and 42.8 % in the intervention and control group, respectively (z = 3.35, p = 0.0008); for the youngest girls the percentages were 78.4 and 68.1 % (z = 1.71, p = 0.09). The combined personal information and financial incentive campaign increased vaccination initiation among certain age groups. One year after the campaign the difference in percentage points for HPV vaccination initiation between intervention and control groups varied between 18.5 % (z = 3.65, p = 0.0002) and 5.1 % (z = 1.12, p = 0.26). Under a non school-based vaccination system, personal information and removing out-of-pocket costs had a significant positive effect on HPV vaccination initiation, although the effect substantially varied in magnitude. Overall, the obtained vaccination rates remained far below those

  13. HPV in minority populations : Epidemiology and vaccination acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation describes the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the social-psychological aspects of HPV vaccination acceptability in two different minority populations. Both populations are at higher risk of developing HPV induced disease (notably cervical, penile, anal, and head and

  14. Parents Who Decline HPV Vaccination: Who Later Accepts and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornides, Melanie L; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gilkey, Melissa B

    2018-03-01

    Parental declination contributes to low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage among US adolescents, resulting in missed opportunities for cancer prevention. We sought to characterize parents' acceptance of HPV vaccination after declination ("secondary acceptance"). In September 2016, we conducted an online survey with a national sample of parents of children ages 11 to 17 years. For those who reported having ever declined HPV vaccination for their children (n = 494), our survey assessed whether they accepted the vaccine at a subsequent visit. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess correlates of secondary acceptance. Overall, 45% of parents reported secondary acceptance of HPV vaccination, and an additional 24% intended to vaccinate in the next 12 months. In multivariable analyses, secondary acceptance was associated with receiving follow-up counseling about HPV vaccination from a health care provider (odds ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.28). However, only 53% of parents overall reported receiving such counseling. Secondary acceptance was also associated with receiving a higher quality HPV vaccine recommendation from a provider during the initial discussion and greater satisfaction with provider communication, as well as higher vaccination confidence. Among the reasons for secondary acceptance, parents most commonly reported the child getting older (45%), learning more about HPV vaccine (34%), and receiving a provider recommendation (33%). Our findings suggest secondary acceptance of HPV vaccination is common, with more than two-thirds of parents in this national sample accepting or intending to accept HPV vaccination after declination. Providers should seek to motivate secondary acceptance by delivering repeated, high-quality recommendations for HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R

    2012-02-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Formative research to shape HPV vaccine introduction strategies in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Rosario M; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Díaz-Otoya, Margarita M; Mosqueira-Lovón, Nelly Rocío; Penny, Mary E; Winkler, Jennifer L; LaMontagne, D Scott; Bingham, Allison

    2010-01-01

    To understand the sociocultural environment, health systems' capacities, and policy processes related to cervical cancer and HPV vaccines in order to inform HPV vaccine introduction. Mixed-method formative research using qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. Participants included girls, parents, community leaders, health and education officials, and policymakers. Respondents, including policymakers, generally supported HPV vaccine introduction, due partly to appreciation for the benefits of vaccination and the desire to prevent cancer. Community-level concerns regarding safety and quality of services will need to be addressed. The immunization system in Peru is strong and has capacity for including the HPV vaccine. Formative research provides key insights to help shape an effective program for HPV vaccine introduction.

  17. Adolescent Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Uptake in a School-Based Influenza Vaccination Intervention: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…

  18. Knowledge, practice and acceptability of HPV vaccine by mothers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted cause of carcinoma of the cervix. An important determinant of the success of a primary preventive strategy like HPV vaccination is the knowledge and willingness of parents to vaccinate adolescents before sexual debut. Materials and methods of study: A ...

  19. HPV Vaccine (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Since 2006, a vaccine has been available that protects against the most frequent cancer-causing types of HPV. This podcast discusses the importance of parents talking to their children’s health care providers about getting the HPV vaccine.

  20. Analyzing discussions on twitter: Case study on HPV vaccinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Boertjes, E.; Langley, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we analyze the discussions on Twitter around the Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations. We collect a dataset consisting of tweets related to the HPV vaccinations by searching for relevant keywords, by retrieving the conversations on Twitter, and by retrieving tweets from our user

  1. HPV Vaccine (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-25

    Since 2006, a vaccine has been available that protects against the most frequent cancer-causing types of HPV. This podcast discusses the importance of parents talking to their children’s health care providers about getting the HPV vaccine.  Created: 7/25/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/25/2013.

  2. Estimating effectiveness of HPV vaccination against HPV infection from post-vaccination data in the absence of baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vänskä, Simopekka; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Lehtinen, Matti; Dillner, Joakim

    2018-04-28

    HPV vaccination programs have been introduced in large parts of the world, but monitoring of effectiveness is not routinely performed. Many countries introduced vaccination programs without establishing the baseline of HPV prevalences. We developed and validated methods to estimate protective effectiveness (PE) of vaccination from the post-vaccination data alone using references, which are invariant under HPV vaccination. Type-specific HPV prevalence data for 15-39 year-old women were collected from the pre- and post-vaccination era in a region in southern Sweden. In a region in middle Sweden, where no baseline data had been collected, only post-vaccination data was collected. The age-specific baseline prevalence of vaccine HPV types (vtHPV, HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) were reconstructed as Beta distributions from post-vaccination data by applying the reference odds ratios between the target HPV type and non-vaccine-type HPV (nvtHPV) prevalences. Older non-vaccinated age cohorts and the southern Sweden region were used as the references. The methods for baseline reconstructions were validated by computing the Bhattacharyya coefficient (BC), a measure for divergence, between reconstructed and actual observed prevalences for vaccine HPV types in Southern Sweden, and in addition, for non-vaccine types in both regions. The PE estimates among 18-21 year-old women were validated by comparing the PE estimates that were based on the reconstructed baseline prevalences against the PE estimates based on the actual baseline prevalences. In Southern Sweden the PEs against vtHPV were 52.2% (95% CI: 44.9-58.5) using the reconstructed baseline and 49.6% (43.2-55.5) using the actual baseline, with high BC 82.7% between the reconstructed and actual baseline. In the middle Sweden region where baseline data was missing, the PE was estimated at 40.5% (31.6-48.5). Protective effectiveness of HPV vaccination can be estimated from post-vaccination data alone via reconstructing the baseline

  3. [Genital warts and HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilka, R; Dvorák, V; Fait, T

    2011-12-01

    To present and overview of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts. Review. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Palacky University and Faculty University, Olomouc; Office gynecology and primary care centre, Brno; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Charles university in Prague-First Faculty of Medicine and General Faculty Hospital, Prague. Literature review of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts in some european countries, North America and Australia. Genital warts exert a considerable impact on health services, a large proportion of which could be prevented through immunisation using the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine.

  4. HPV Vaccine Awareness, Barriers, Intentions, and Uptake in Latina Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Vera-Cala, Lina; Martinez-Donate, Ana

    2016-02-01

    Latina women are at heightened risk of cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of the majority of cervical cancer cases. A vaccine that protects against HPV was licensed in 2006. Eight years post-licensure, mixed research findings exist regarding the factors that predict vaccine uptake in Latinas. We conducted a population-based phone survey with a random sample of 296 Latinas living in a Midwestern U.S. City. Intention to vaccinate was significantly associated with health care provider recommendations, worry about side effects, knowing other parents have vaccinated, perceived severity of HPV, and worry that daughter may become sexually active following vaccination. Worry that daughter may become sexually active was the only factor related to vaccine uptake. Findings suggest that training providers to discuss the low risk of severe side effects, consequences of persistent HPV, and sexuality related concerns with Latino women may encourage vaccination.

  5. A history of adolescent school based vaccination in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-06-30

    As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General's Department, Robert Garran Offices, National Circuit, Barton ACT 2600 or posted at http://www.ag.gov.au/cca.

  6. Use of the nonavalent HPV vaccine in individuals previously fully or partially vaccinated with bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Damme, Pierre; Bonanni, Paolo; Bosch, F Xavier

    2016-01-01

    With the availability of the nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, vaccinees, parents and healthcare providers need guidance on how to complete an immunization course started with the bi- or quadrivalent vaccine and whether to revaccinate individuals who have completed a full immunization...

  7. HPV vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-cervarix.html . CDC review information for HPV Cervarix® ...

  8. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. No CDC tag at the end. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  9. Safety of the HPV Bivalent and Quadrivalent Vaccines During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forinash, Alicia B; Yancey, Abigail M; Pitlick, Jamie M; Myles, Thomas D

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines in pregnancy. PubMed (1966-August 2010) was searched using the terms human papillomavirus, human papillomavirus vaccine, and pregnancy. References were reviewed for relevant information. All studies including humans that were published in English with data describing HPV vaccine administration in pregnancy were evaluated. Two combined analyses of 7 Phase 3 efficacy trials have retrospectively evaluated the safety of unintentional administration of either the bivalent (n = 1786) or quadrivalent (n = 2085) HPV vaccine during pregnancy. In addition, postmarketing pregnancy registry surveillance data (prospective, n = 787; retrospective, n = 76) for the quadrivalent HPV vaccine have been published. However, only 279 pregnancies from the studies and 90 pregnancies from the registry occurred within 30 days of receiving the vaccination. Overall, the vaccine does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, fetal malformations, or adverse pregnancy outcomes beyond that found in the general population. Although the data are limited, neither HPV vaccine appears to be associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, limitations of the data include small patient populations, minimal to no adjustments for factors known to influence pregnancy outcomes or malformations, and the majority of the available pregnancy data are from retrospective analysis of Phase 3 efficacy trials. Neither HPV vaccine should be routinely administered during pregnancy. If a pregnancy occurs midseries, the remaining vaccines should be given after pregnancy completion. Further studies are required to determine actual risk. © 2011 SAGE Publications.

  10. Social media microblogs as an HPV vaccination forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chupei; Gotsis, Marientina; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice

    2013-11-01

    The 2006 US FDA approval of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine brought new hope for cancer prevention. Gardasil and Cervarix are widely available vaccines that can deter HPV infection, which causes 70% of cervical cancer. Acceptance of vaccination varies due to a lack of HPV awareness and HPV vaccine knowledge. Recent observations of the Chinese microblog "SinaWeibo" suggest a new approach to engage health professionals and consumer website bloggers. Websites that present the latest fashion, fitness or beauty news and ways to obtain "deals" have created informative blogs or online communities that appeal to female users. Some users raise health questions of their peers. Health professionals, as website bloggers, can introduce vaccine news or respond to conversations between bloggers and their followers. By transforming medical vocabulary into ordinary chat, microblogs may promote efficiency in vaccine education and communication. A web-based, interactive social media-microblog could offer an ideal platform to speed up information dissemination and increase targeted communication.

  11. Moderate Awareness and Limited Knowledge Relating to Cervical Cancer, HPV, and the HPV Vaccine Among Hispanics/Latinos in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Kepka, Deanna

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the demographic factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in an emerging (rather than established) Hispanic/Latino population. We surveyed 119 Spanish-speaking, mostly low-income and immigrant, Hispanic/Latino parents and guardians of adolescents 11 to 17 years old (i.e., eligible to receive the HPV vaccine) about their HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge. Data collection took place between August 2013 and October 2013 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Participants had moderately high awareness scores, with more than half the participants reporting having heard of cervical cancer (84.5%), HPV (76.4%), and the HPV vaccine (67.3%). HPV vaccine-related knowledge was low, with fewer than half the participants reporting they knew that most people are infected with HPV (32.7%), that HPV is asymptomatic among women (16.4%), that the HPV vaccine requires more than one dose (33.6%), and that the HPV vaccine is recommended for adolescent girls (47.3%) and boys (35.5%). Combined awareness and knowledge was significantly associated with educational attainment (p = .02) and country of origin (p = .03). Results demonstrate moderate to high HPV vaccine-related awareness and limited HPV vaccine-related knowledge among Hispanic/Latino parents living in Utah. These findings will inform educational interventions to improve the HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in this vulnerable population. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Impact and Cost-effectiveness of 3 Doses of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Among US Females Previously Vaccinated With 4-Valent HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Laprise, Jean-François; Brisson, Marc; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2016-06-01

    We estimated the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of providing 3-doses of nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) to females aged 13-18 years who had previously completed a series of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), a strategy we refer to as "additional 9vHPV vaccination." We used 2 distinct models: (1) the simplified model, which is among the most basic of the published dynamic HPV models, and (2) the US HPV-ADVISE model, a complex, stochastic, individual-based transmission-dynamic model. When assuming no 4vHPV cross-protection, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained by additional 9vHPV vaccination was $146 200 in the simplified model and $108 200 in the US HPV-ADVISE model ($191 800 when assuming 4vHPV cross-protection). In 1-way sensitivity analyses in the scenario of no 4vHPV cross-protection, the simplified model results ranged from $70 300 to $182 000, and the US HPV-ADVISE model results ranged from $97 600 to $118 900. The average cost per QALY gained by additional 9vHPV vaccination exceeded $100 000 in both models. However, the results varied considerably in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Additional 9vHPV vaccination is likely not as efficient as many other potential HPV vaccination strategies, such as increasing primary 9vHPV vaccine coverage. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. HPV vaccine acceptability in high-risk Greek men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Lea; Tsikis, Savas; Bethimoutis, George; Nicolaidou, Electra; Paparizos, Vassilios; Antoniou, Christina; Kanelleas, Antonios; Chardalias, Leonidas; Stavropoulos, Georgios-Emmanouil; Schneider, John; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella

    2018-01-02

    HPV is associated with malignancy in men, yet there is a lack of data on HPV knowledge, vaccine acceptability, and factors affecting vaccine acceptability in Greek men. This study aims to identify determinants of knowledge and willingness to vaccinate against HPV among high-risk Greek men. Men (n = 298) between the ages of 18 and 55 were enrolled from the STI and HIV clinics at "Andreas Syggros" Hospital in Athens, Greece from July-October 2015. Participants completed a survey on demographics, economic factors, sexual history, HPV knowledge, and vaccine acceptability. The majority of participants were younger than 40 (76.6%) and unmarried (84.6%). Our sample was 31.2% MSM (men who have sex with men), and 20.1% were HIV-positive. Most participants (>90%) were aware that HPV is highly prevalent in both men and women; however, fewer identified that HPV causes cancers in both sexes (68%) and that vaccination protects men and women (67%). Amongst participants, 76.7% were willing to vaccinate themselves against HPV, 71.4% an adolescent son, and 69.3% an adolescent daughter. HIV-positive men were more likely to be willing to vaccinate themselves (OR 2.83, p = .015), a son (OR 3.3, p = .015) or a daughter (3.01, p = .020). Higher income levels were associated with increased willingness to vaccinate oneself (OR 1.32, p = .027), a son (1.33, p = .032) or daughter (1.34, p = .027). Although there is a HPV knowledge gap, HPV vaccine acceptability is high despite lack of vaccine promotion to Greek men. Future studies should include lower-risk men to adequately inform public health efforts.

  14. HPV Vaccine (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-25

    Nearly all sexually active men and women will get infected with the human papillomavirus, or HPV, at some point in their lives. HPV can lead to serious health problems later in life, including certain cancers in both men and women. Since 2006, a vaccine has been available that protects against the most frequent cancer-causing types of HPV. In this podcast, Shannon Stokley discusses the importance of getting the HPV vaccine.  Created: 7/25/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/25/2013.

  15. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV Vaccine Among HPV-Infected Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yasmeen, Nafeesa; Li, Yuanyue; Zhang, Wenhui; Lu, Hongyu; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan; Yang, Shihua

    2017-09-04

    BACKGROUND It is important to understand the knowledge that various groups of a population have about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and their attitudes toward HPV vaccination, as it will ultimately influence their decision-making for or against the acceptability of vaccines and other preventive methods. This study was designed to determine the level of knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine among Chinese women in Yunnan province. MATERIAL AND METHODS A survey was conducted in Yunnan province by the Laboratory of Molecular Virology in collaboration with the Yunnan First People's Hospital in Feb 2015. A total of 388 women were recruited and asked to participate in a questionnaire-based interview that collected information related to their awareness and knowledge about: (1) cervical cancer, (2) HPV and HPV vaccine and willingness to have their children receive vaccination, and (3) demographic characteristics. RESULTS A total of 388 HPV-positive women were included; 300/388 (73.3%) were Han, and 88/388 (22.7%) were other ethnicities. Overall, 204/388 (52.6%) of the women were aware of cervical cancer, with a significant difference between Han women and women of other ethnic groups (168/388, 56.0% and 36/88, 40.9%; P=0.015). Overall, 26.5% of the women were aware of the role of HPV in cervical cancer; 29.0% of the Han women and 18.2% of women of other ethnic groups were aware of this role of HPV (P=0.05). The knowledge that HPV infection leads to cervical cancer was higher among Han women (29.0%) compared to women of other ethnicities (18.2%). Knowledge about the HPV vaccine was very low in all ethnic groups, but the Han women were more willing to allow their children to be vaccinated before they become sexually active. A similar difference has also been found in women from various regions. CONCLUSIONS Although level of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer was moderate, knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV

  16. Managing uncertainty: healthcare professionals' meanings regarding the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina; Alexandrova-Karamanova, Anna; Panayotova, Yulia; Dimitrova, Elitsa; Kotzeva, Tatyana

    2014-02-01

    New preventive technologies such as vaccines offer insight into psychological, social, and cultural landscapes. Providers have a key role in parents' decisions for vaccinating their children. Yet, perspectives from providers regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, or vaccination in general, are rarely sought Our objective in this paper is to understand how the HPV vaccine is perceived by health care providers and the multiple contextual meanings it elicits. We conducted interviews with 20 health care professionals in Bulgaria about their attitudes and practices related to HPV vaccination and their recommendations for policies. The verbatim-transcribed interviews were analyzed through narrative analysis, with a special focus on language. We illustrate providers' contradictory and contextualized constructions of the vaccine and the narrative strategies they use to manage any uncertainty it elicits. These include being advocates and missionaries for preventive health, confirming their trust in the medical profession and professional organizations, challenging patients' concerns with rational explanations, normalizing the risk of medical innovations, and avoiding the sexual nature of HPV transmission. The introduction of a vaccine to prevent HPV infection, and by implication, possibly cervical and other cancers, created hope, and at the same time, intensified confusion and uncertainty. Providers have been frustrated for years with the rising mortality from cervical cancer in Bulgaria, and their perceived powerlessness in affecting this. HPV vaccination, on the other hand, seems relatively simple and "taming uncertainty" positions them as instrumental in limiting (or even eliminating) morbidity and mortality in future generations.

  17. [HPV Vaccination Program - The History and Recent Progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    Four years have passed since HPV vaccination "crisis" occurred in June 2013. In Japan,a publicly funded HPV vaccination program for adolescent females aged 12-16 years began in December 2010. However,the Japanese government withdrew its recommendation for HPV vaccination in June, 2013 because news reports on potential adverse effects of HPV vaccines without any medical evidence appeared repeatedly. The vaccination coverage among adolescent females decreased quickly from around 70%in females born between 1994 and 1999 to only 1%in females born since 2001 over the country. The suspension of recommendation for vaccination has continued to the present,though there is no scientific or epidemiologic evidence to demonstrate the causal linkage between post-vaccination symptoms and the HPV vaccines. Very recently,an ecological investigation reported that similar symptoms also occur in unvaccinated adolescents in Japan. Medical organizations in Japan are also calling for a resumption of the HPV vaccination program. Now,the resumption of the recommendation needs a political judgment.

  18. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Perceived Barriers to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, Tessa J.; Hohmann, Lindsey A.; McFarland, Stuart J.; Teeter, Benjamin S.; Westrick, Salisa C.

    2017-01-01

    Use of non-traditional settings such as community pharmacies has been suggested to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and completion rates. The objectives of this study were to explore HPV vaccination services and strategies employed by pharmacies to increase HPV vaccine uptake, pharmacists’ attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and pharmacists’ perceived barriers to providing HPV vaccination services in community pharmacies. A pre-piloted mail survey was sent to 350 randomly...

  19. Parent perceptions of dentists' role in HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazalde, Gabriela E; Gilkey, Melissa B; Kornides, Melanie L; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2018-01-25

    Offering HPV vaccine in settings beyond the traditional medical home holds promise for increasing the currently low levels of coverage. As adolescents frequently visit dentists, dental practices may be one such alternative vaccination setting. This study assessed parent attitudes about the roles dental providers could play in HPV prevention, including vaccine provision. In September 2016, we conducted an online survey using a national sample (n = 1209) of U.S. parents of adolescent children aged 11-17. Adolescents' mean age was 14; 53% were male and 62% were non-Hispanic white. We identified correlates of parents' comfort with dentists as HPV vaccinators using multivariable logistic regression. Overall, 23% of parents reported that they would feel comfortable with their child receiving HPV vaccine from a dentist. In multivariable analyses, parents had greater odds of being comfortable if they had higher trust in their child's primary care provider (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.96-1.68) and lower odds if their child was female (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50-0.86). Convenience (20%) and oral health expertise (20%) were the most commonly cited benefits of dentists administering the vaccine. Wanting their child's regular provider to administer and track vaccinations (61% and 58%, respectively), and lack of insurance coverage (30%) were the most commonly cited concerns. Parents expressed somewhat greater comfort with roles dentists might play in promoting HPV vaccination other than vaccine delivery, such as providing education. Parents in this sample had low comfort with dentists as HPV vaccinators. Findings from this study highlight potential concerns to be addressed before dental practices consider offering HPV vaccination in the future. Further research should assess dentists' perspectives and explore alternative roles for dental providers in HPV prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HPV vaccination coverage of teen girls: the influence of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip J; Stokley, Shannon; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B

    2016-03-18

    Between 2010 and 2014, the percentage of 13-17 year-old girls administered ≥3 doses of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine ("fully vaccinated") increased by 7.7 percentage points to 39.7%, and the percentage not administered any doses of the HPV vaccine ("not immunized") decreased by 11.3 percentage points to 40.0%. To evaluate the complex interactions between parents' vaccine-related beliefs, demographic factors, and HPV immunization status. Vaccine-related parental beliefs and sociodemographic data collected by the 2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen among teen girls (n=8490) were analyzed. HPV vaccination status was determined from teens' health care provider (HCP) records. Among teen girls either unvaccinated or fully vaccinated against HPV, teen girls whose parent was positively influenced to vaccinate their teen daughter against HPV were 48.2 percentage points more likely to be fully vaccinated. Parents who reported being positively influenced to vaccinate against HPV were 28.9 percentage points more likely to report that their daughter's HCP talked about the HPV vaccine, 27.2 percentage points more likely to report that their daughter's HCP gave enough time to discuss the HPV shot, and 43.4 percentage points more likely to report that their daughter's HCP recommended the HPV vaccine (pteen girls administered 1-2 doses of the HPV vaccine, 87.0% had missed opportunities for HPV vaccine administration. Results suggest that an important pathway to achieving higher ≥3 dose HPV vaccine coverage is by increasing HPV vaccination series initiation though HCP talking to parents about the HPV vaccine, giving parents time to discuss the vaccine, and by making a strong recommendation for the HPV. Also, HPV vaccination series completion rates may be increased by eliminating missed opportunities to vaccinate against HPV and scheduling additional follow-up visits to administer missing HPV vaccine doses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Factors that Predict Parental Willingness to Have Their Children Vaccinated against HPV in a Country with Low HPV Vaccination Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ganczak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent HPV (Human Papilloma Virus vaccination is yet to be introduced as a mandatory program in Poland. Polish literature on factors associated with adolescent HPV vaccination is scant, despite the fact that uptake is one of the poorest in the European Union. Objectives: To assess HPV awareness and identify independent predictors for parental willingness to have their children vaccinated against HPV. Methods: All parents of first grade students from three selected high schools in Zgorzelec, Poland, who participated in parent–teacher meetings at the time the study was conducted, had their children unvaccinated regarding HPV, and who gave informed consent to participate were included. There were 600 first grade students; 9 were vaccinated against HPV. This left 591 parents who met the eligibility criteria; the response rate was 76.1%. Results: Awareness of HPV was reported by 55.3% of 450 parents (mean age 42 years, 70.9% females; 85.1% expressed their willingness to vaccinate their children against HPV; 31.3% identified HPV as a sexually transmitted pathogen, and 36.2% identified it as a risk factor of cervical cancer. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that being employed (OR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.10–3.86, having positive attitudes toward vaccines (OR 3.02; 95% CI: 1.34–6.49, previous information about HPV (OR 2.02; 95% CI: 1.17–3.51, and concerns about the side effects of the HPV vaccine (OR 0.60; 95% CI: 0.35–0.99 were independent predictors of parents’ willingness to vaccinate. Conclusions: Attitudes regarding their child being vaccinated against HPV were positive among Polish parents, even though awareness and knowledge of HPV in this group were low. Most of the significant factors that influenced their willingness were modifiable, such as being informed about HPV and having positive attitudes toward vaccines. Future interventions should focus specifically on vulnerable subgroups, such as unemployed

  2. [HPV vaccination: active offer in an Italian region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Elisa; D'Alò, Gian Loreto; Aquilani, Silvia; Aversa, Anna Maria; Bartolomei, Giuseppina; Calenda, Maria Gabriella; Catapano, Raffaele; Compagno, Silvio; Della Rovere, Piera; Fraioli, Angelo; Ieraci, Roberto; Reggiani, Daniela; Sgricia, Stefano; Spadea, Antonietta; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus is responsible for 4.8% of cancers, and is the main cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be reduced by mean of secondary prevention (PAP-test, HPV-DNA test), while through primary prevention (anti-HPV vaccine) the incidence of other HPV-attributable cancers can also be reduced. In Italy, anti-HPV vaccination is part of the immunization schedule in girls since 2008, and in 2017 it was extended to boys. However, vaccine coverage is decreasing nationwide. This study aims to examine anti-HPV vaccination practices in Health care services of Lazio Region, Italy. Questionnaires were sent or administered directly to those in charge of vaccinations. Data, collected from 11/12 (92%) Lazio Local Health Units and from 116 vaccination centers, show a remarkable diversity in the offer: 41% of the centers open only 1-2 days/week, 42% only in the morning, and only 7% are open on Saturday. Vaccination is available by reservation only in 62% of the centers, while vaccines are not administered to ≥18 years subjects in 33%; 93% of the centers call actively the girls in the target cohort, while 70% and 94% recall the patients who had not received the first or the second dose of vaccine, respectively. Collaboration with family physicians and/or pediatricians was declared by 80% of the centers. Vaccine coverage could probably be improved by addressing the highlighted critical issues and applying best practices widely.

  3. Public knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Charlotte Devereaux; Gera, Aradhana; Shah, Meeraj; Sharma, Amit; Powell, Judy E; Wilson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Methods Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination. The setting was three different areas of Birmingham, to target a mix of social class and ethnicity. The sample population was composed of 16–54 year olds. Results A total of 420 participants were recruited. Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed. 81% had a knowledge score of zero. Knowledge about HPV was associated with different ethnic group and socio-economic group. The majority (88%) of participants were in favour of vaccination, with 83.6% indicating that they would allow a child under their care to be vaccinated. Conclusion Initial responses to the proposed HPV vaccination within the UK public are favourable. However, knowledge levels are poor and media and health professional promotion are required to raise awareness. PMID:18947430

  4. Knowledge of HPV, Perception of Risk, and Intent to Obtain HPV Vaccination among Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus in the world, is associated with almost all cases of cervical cancer. It is also related to vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer. HPV vaccination is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for both boys and girls. Unfortunately,…

  5. Knowledge, Practice and Acceptability of HPV Vaccine by Mothers of Adolescent Girls in Ilorin, Nigeria

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    Kikelomo T. Adesina

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: There is poor knowledge of HPV and practice of vaccination among mothers in llorin. Willingness of mothers to vaccinate their daughters is suboptimal. Mother's knowledge is an important determinant of HPV vaccination of adolescents.

  6. A school-based human papillomavirus vaccination program in barretos, Brazil: final results of a demonstrative study.

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    José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro Fregnani

    Full Text Available The implementation of a public HPV vaccination program in several developing countries, especially in Latin America, is a great challenge for health care specialists.To evaluate the uptake and the three-dose completion rates of a school-based HPV vaccination program in Barretos (Brazil.THE STUDY INCLUDED GIRLS WHO WERE ENROLLED IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND WHO REGULARLY ATTENDED THE SIXTH AND SEVENTH GRADES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (MEAN AGE: 11.9 years. A meeting with the parents or guardians occurred approximately one week before the vaccination in order to explain the project and clarify the doubts. The quadrivalent vaccine was administered using the same schedule as in the product package (0-2-6 months. The school visits for regular vaccination occurred on previously scheduled dates. The vaccine was also made available at Barretos Cancer Hospital for the girls who could not be vaccinated on the day when the team visited the school.Among the potential candidates for vaccination (n = 1,574, the parents or guardians of 1,513 girls (96.1% responded to the invitation to participate in the study. A total of 1,389 parents or guardians agreed to participate in the program (acceptance rate = 91.8%. The main reason for refusing to participate in the vaccination program was fear of adverse events. The vaccine uptake rates for the first, second, and third doses were 87.5%, 86.3% and 85.0%, respectively. The three-dose completion rate was 97.2%.This demonstrative study achieved high rates of vaccination uptake and completion of three vaccine doses in children 10-16 years old from Brazil. The feasibility and success of an HPV vaccination program for adolescents in a developing country may depend on the integration between the public health and schooling systems.

  7. Improving skills and institutional capacity to strengthen adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in African countries through HPV vaccine introduction

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    Carine Dochez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several African countries have recently introduced or are currently introducing the HPV vaccine, either nationwide or through demonstration projects, while some countries are planning for introduction. A collaborative project was developed to strengthen country adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in the African Region, addressing unique public health considerations of HPV vaccination: adolescents as the primary target group, delivery platforms (e.g. school-based and facility based, socio-behavioural issues, and the opportunity to deliver other health interventions alongside HPV vaccination.Following a successful “taking-stock” meeting, a training programme was drafted to assist countries to strengthen the integration of adolescent health interventions using HPV vaccination as an entry point. Two workshops were conducted in the Eastern and Southern African Regions. All countries reported on progress made during a final joint symposium.Of the 20 countries invited to participate in either of the workshops and/or final symposium, 17 countries participated: Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Countries that are currently implementing HPV vaccination programmes, either nationally or through demonstration projects, reported varying degrees of integration with other adolescent health interventions. The most commonly reported adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination include health education (including sexually transmitted infections, deworming and delivering of other vaccines like tetanus toxoid (TT or tetanus diphtheria (Td.The project has successfully (a established an African-based network that will advocate for incorporating the HPV vaccine into national immunisation programmes; (b created a platform for experience exchange and thereby contributed to novel ideas of

  8. Integrating epidemiology, psychology, and economics to achieve HPV vaccination targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Chapman, Gretchen B; Galvani, Alison P

    2008-12-02

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide an opportunity to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Optimization of cervical cancer prevention programs requires anticipation of the degree to which the public will adhere to vaccination recommendations. To compare vaccination levels driven by public perceptions with levels that are optimal for maximizing the community's overall utility, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of HPV vaccination. The model is parameterized with survey data on actual perceptions regarding cervical cancer, genital warts, and HPV vaccination collected from parents of vaccine-eligible children in the United States. The results suggest that perceptions of survey respondents generate vaccination levels far lower than those that maximize overall health-related utility for the population. Vaccination goals may be achieved by addressing concerns about vaccine risk, particularly those related to sexual activity among adolescent vaccine recipients. In addition, cost subsidizations and shifts in federal coverage plans may compensate for perceived and real costs of HPV vaccination to achieve public health vaccination targets.

  9. HPV vaccination and sexual behavior in a community college sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Erica; Glenn, Beth A; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-12-01

    Many US parents are concerned that vaccinating daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) will communicate implicit approval for sexual activity and be associated with early or risky sexual behavior (Scarinci et al. in J Womens Health 16(8):1224-1233, 2007; Schuler et al. in Sex Transm Infect 87:349-353, 2011). The aims of this study were to understand (a) whether the HPV vaccine was associated with risky sexual behavior among a diverse sample of female adolescents and young adults, and (b) to better understand the chronology of HPV vaccination and sexual behavior. An anonymous web-based survey was used to collect data from 114 female community college students. T test and Chi square analyses were used to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated groups on age at first intercourse and proportion who had ever had sexual intercourse. Linear multiple regression was used to predict frequency of condom use and number of sexual partners in the past year, using vaccination status and demographic factors as predictors. About 38% reported receiving at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Many of those vaccinated (45%) received the vaccine after having initiated sexual activity. The proportion of women who were sexually experienced did not differ by HPV vaccine status, nor did age at first intercourse, number of partners in the past year, or frequency of condom use. Current findings suggest that HPV vaccination is not associated with riskier sexual activity for the young women in this sample. Adolescents and their parents may benefit from education about the need to receive the HPV vaccine before onset of sexual activity.

  10. Teenagers' knowledge about HPV infection and HPV vaccination in the first year of the public vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, F; Cigolot, F; Gardonio, V; Di Giuseppe, J; Boselli, F; Ciavattini, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess teens' knowledge of HPV infection and vaccination one year after the initiation of the public vaccination programme and information campaign on the disease and the opportunity of vaccination. Between 15 May and 15 June 2009, a survey was carried out on 1,105 teenagers attending high schools in a town in the northeast of Italy by means of an anonymous and unannounced questionnaire covering the knowledge of HPV infection, transmission, prevention, vaccination and post-vaccination behaviours. Only 75% of teens knew what HPV infection is (92% of girls vs 51% of boys, p teens aware of HPV vaccination, 7.6% of girls and 21.8% of boys believe that it can prevent AIDS (p Teens' knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination remains insufficient, despite a broad information campaign. Erroneous information may increase risky sexual behaviours. Without complete information about HPV infection and vaccination and information about other sexually-transmitted diseases, the latter might become difficult to control among teenagers, while some misunderstandings about the usefulness of secondary prevention might linger.

  11. HPV Vaccine: Access and Use in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25 Adolescent girls whose families live below the poverty line and girls living in urban areas were more likely to be HPV UTD compared to adolescent girls whose families live above the poverty line or live in rural areas. HPV vaccination ...

  12. Perceptions of HPV Vaccine amongst UK University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ellen; Senior, Naomi; Abdullah, Ammar; Brown, Janine; Collings, Suzanne; Racktoo, Sophie; Walpole, Sarah; Zeiton, Moez; Heffernan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the…

  13. Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL((R))/SILGARD((R))) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical...

  14. Barriers, facilitators, and potential strategies for increasing HPV vaccination: A statewide assessment to inform action

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    Kathleen B. Cartmell

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to investigate how state level strategies in South Carolina could maximize HPV vaccine uptake. Design: An environmental scan identified barriers, facilitators, and strategies for improving HPV vaccination in South Carolina. Interviews were conducted with state leaders from relevant organizations such as public health agencies, medical associations, K-12 schools, universities, insurers, and cancer advocacy organizations. A thematic content analysis design was used. Digital interview files were transcribed, a data dictionary was created and data were coded using the data dictionary. Results: Thirty four interviews were conducted with state leaders. Barriers to HPV vaccination included lack of HPV awareness, lack of provider recommendation, HPV vaccine concerns, lack of access and practice-level barriers. Facilitators included momentum for improving HPV vaccination, school-entry Tdap requirement, pharmacy-based HPV vaccination, state immunization registry, HEDIS measures and HPV vaccine funding. Strategies for improving HPV vaccination fell into three categories: 1 addressing lack of awareness about the importance of HPV vaccination among the public and providers; 2 advocating for policy changes around HPV vaccine coverage, vaccine education, and pharmacy-based vaccination; and 3 coordination of efforts. Discussion: A statewide environmental scan generated a blueprint for action to be used to improve HPV vaccination in the state. Keywords: HPV, HPV vaccines, Cervical cancer, Prevention, Health systems, Barriers, Facilitators, Strategies, South Carolina

  15. Sex, drugs, and politics: the HPV vaccine for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Monica J; Carpenter, Laura M

    2008-09-01

    HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. While most strains are relatively harmless, some increase a woman's risk of developing cervical cancer. This article explores the intimate, contested relationships among etiologies of cervical cancer, development and use of the new HPV vaccine, and contested notions of sexuality. We particularly focus on shifts in US health care and sexual politics, where the vaccine has animated longstanding concerns about vaccination (e.g. parental rights, cost, specialisation) and young women's bodies and behaviour. We conclude that vaccines are a distinctive kind of pharmaceutical, invoking notions of contagion and containment, and that politics shape every aspect of the pharmaceutical life course.

  16. HPV vaccination to prevent oropharyngeal carcinoma : What can be learned from anogenital vaccination programs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takes, Robert P.; Wierzbicka, Malgorzata; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Jackowska, Joanna; Silver, Carl E.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Olsen, Kerry D.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Brakenhoff, Ruud H.; Ferlito, Alfio

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are well known causes of anogenital cancers. Recent studies show that HPV also plays a role in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). A review on the role of HPV vaccination in the prevention of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with special emphasis on OPC was

  17. Factors associated with HPV vaccination among adult women in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Marilou; Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Deceuninck, Genevieve; De Wals, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in North America and are associated with cervical cancer. A publicly-funded HPV immunization program was launched in the province of Quebec, Canada, in the fall of 2008. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with HPV immunization among young adult women not targeted by this program. A questionnaire was mailed to 2400 24-y-old women randomly selected from the Quebec provincial health insurance database and 56% responded. Factors associated with vaccination status were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Few women had received at least one dose of HPV vaccine among the 1347 respondents. Age at first sexual intercourse ≥ 20 y, participating in cervical cancer screening, higher education level, being born in Quebec and some positive beliefs about HPV were associated with vaccination. The rate of immunization in women who had to pay for the HPV vaccine was very low and was associated with characteristics that are generally associated with a lower risk for HPV infection and cervical cancer. Efforts are needed to reach at-risk adult women.

  18. Influence of evidence type and narrative type on HPV risk perception and intention to obtain the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Dahlstrom, Michael F; Richards, Adam; Rangarajan, Sarani

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the influence of evidence type (statistical, narrative, or hybrid) and narrative type (first-person or third-person) on risk perception about human papillomavirus (HPV) and behavioral intention to get the HPV vaccine. In total, 174 college students who had not received the HPV vaccine participated in a controlled experiment. Results show that the hybrid message containing both statistical and narrative descriptions of HPV resulted in greater perceived risk of getting HPV than either of the messages containing just one type of evidence--statistical or narrative. Moreover, the first-person narrative message led to greater risk perception about HPV than the third-person narrative message. Both evidence type and narrative type had an indirect effect on intention to get the HPV vaccine free of cost through HPV risk perception. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  19. Value for money from HPV vaccination and cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Toni; Sopina, Elizaveta (Liza)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs raises some important questions about the future organization of cervical screening programs. Two studies - from NZ and Canada - have addressed the question of what combination of vaccination and screening strategies might be most cost......-effective in preventing cervical cancer. Both studies indicate that some modifications to existing screening programs may be desirable as immunized females enter these programs. Variables in HPV vaccination that are likely to be particularly important for determining the future cost-effectiveness of cervical screening...... programs include: vaccine uptake rate, compliance with full doses, timely completion of doses, duration of protection, male vaccination and HPV infection rate. If value for money is to be achieved, it is important that the appropriate data are collected so that policy makers can consider the combined...

  20. Psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college males: A cross-sectional exploratory study

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    Ovidiu Tatar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most college males are not immunized against the human papillomavirus (HPV and are at high risk of HPV infection. Most research of correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college males has assessed vaccine acceptability as a binary outcome, e.g., vaccinated or not vaccinated, without considering that some students may not even be aware that the HPV vaccine can be given to males. Our objective was to evaluate the psychosocial correlates of HPV acceptability in college males, based on multiple stages of HPV decision-making. Methods: We used an online questionnaire to collect data from college men aged 18–26 enrolled at three Canadian universities between September 2013 and April 2014. Vaccine acceptability assessment was informed by the six-stage decision-making Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM. We sought information on socio-demographics, health behaviors, HPV vaccine benefits and barriers, worry, susceptibility, severity related to HPV infection and social norms. HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge was measured with validated scales. Psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability were assessed with bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Actual and perceived HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge scores were calculated. Results: The final sample size was 428. Most male college students were unaware that the HPV vaccine could be given to males, unengaged or undecided about getting the HPV vaccine. Significant correlates of higher HPV vaccine acceptability were: increased HPV knowledge, having discussed the HPV vaccine with a healthcare provider, and social norms. Being in an exclusive sexual relationship was significantly associated with lower HPV vaccine acceptability. Students' actual HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge was low and positively correlated to their perception about their HPV knowledge. Conclusions: We provided a fine-tuned analysis of psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college

  1. Catch-up HPV vaccination status of adolescents in relation to socioeconomic factors, individual beliefs and sexual behaviour.

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    Maria Grandahl

    Full Text Available In 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination was introduced free of charge in the Swedish national school-based vaccination programme for 10-12-year-old girls, and as catch-up vaccination for young women. In Sweden, there is an ongoing discussion about including boys in the national vaccination programme. Few studies are undertaken about adolescents' knowledge, beliefs and HPV vaccination status in relation to socioeconomic status and sexual experience. Thus, the aim was to examine HPV catch-up vaccination status in adolescents in relation to 1 socioeconomic factors, 2 beliefs and knowledge about HPV prevention, and 3 sexual behaviour. The Health Belief Model was used as a theoretical framework. Upper secondary school students (n = 832 aged 16, randomly chosen from a larger sample, were invited to participate in conjunction with the general health interview with the school nurse. A total of 751/832 (90.3%, girls (n = 391, 52% and boys (n = 360, 48% completed the questionnaire. HPV vaccination was associated with ethnicity and the mothers' education level; i.e. girls with a non-European background and girls with a less educated mother were less likely to have received the vaccine (p<0.01 and p = 0.04 respectively. Vaccinated girls perceived HPV infection as more severe (p = 0.01, had more insight into women's susceptibility to the infection (p = 0.02, perceived more benefits of the vaccine as protection against cervical cancer (p<0.01 and had a higher intention to engage in HPV-preventive behaviour (p = 0.01. Furthermore, boys and girls were almost equally sexually experienced, although fewer girls had used condom during first intercourse with their latest partner (p = 0.03. Finally, HPV vaccinated girls were less likely to have unprotected sex (p<0.01. In summary, catch-up HPV vaccination among young girls was associated with a European background and high maternal education level, as well as more favourable beliefs towards HPV prevention and

  2. Prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 and attitudes toward HPV vaccination trials in patients with cervical cancer in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téguété, Ibrahima; Dolo, Amadou; Sangare, Kotou; Sissoko, Abdoulaye; Rochas, Mali; Beseme, Sarah; Tounkara, Karamoko; Yekta, Shahla; De Groot, Anne S.; Koita, Ousmane A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers in West Africa. Even though vaccines that protect against the most common Human papillomavirus (HPV) strains, 16 and 18, are currently in use in developed countries, the implementation of these vaccines in developing countries has been painfully slow, considering the pre-eminence of HPV-associated cervical cancer among women in those countries. Aim We performed serological and PCR-based assessment of blood and tissue specimens obtained from women undergoing cervical cancer-related surgery at a major urban hospital in Bamako. Since several therapeutic HPV vaccines are currently in clinical trials, we also assessed willingness to participate in HPV cancer vaccine trials. Methods Blood and biopsy samples of 240 women were evaluated for HPV types 16 and 18 by serology and PCR. Knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine and autonomy to decide to vaccinate their own child was assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Results HPV 16 and 18 were identified in 137/166 (82.5%) cervical cancer biopsy samples by PCR. Co-infection with both HPV 16 and 18 was significantly more frequent in women over 50 years of age than in younger women (63.0% vs. 37.0%). 44% of study participants said they would be willing to vaccinate their child with HPV vaccine. Only 39% of women participating in this study reported that they would be able to make an autonomous decision to receive HPV vaccination. Permission from a male spouse or head of household was identified as important for participation by 59% of the women. Conclusion This study provides strong support for the introduction of currently available HPV vaccines in Mali, and also provides key information about conditions for obtaining informed consent for HPV vaccine trials and HPV vaccination in Mali. PMID:28231334

  3. Substantial Decline in Vaccine-Type Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Among Vaccinated Young Women During the First 8 Years After HPV Vaccine Introduction in a Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jessica A.; Widdice, Lea E.; Ding, Lili; Huang, Bin; Brown, Darron R.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Bernstein, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness and herd protection are not well established in community settings. Our objective was to determine trends in vaccine-type HPV in young women during the 8 years after vaccine introduction, to assess changes in HPV prevalence and characterize herd protection in a community. Methods. We recruited 3 samples of sexually experienced, 13–26-year-old adolescent girls and young women (hereafter women; N = 1180) from 2006–2014: before widespread vaccine introduction (wave 1) and 3 (wave 2) and 7 (wave 3) years after vaccine introduction. We determined the prevalence of vaccine-type HPV (HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18) among all, vaccinated, and unvaccinated women at waves 1, 2, and 3, adjusted for differences in participant characteristics, then examined whether changes in HPV prevalence were significant using inverse propensity score–weighted logistic regression. Results. Vaccination rates increased from 0% to 71.3% across the 3 waves. Adjusted vaccine-type HPV prevalence changed from 34.8% to 8.7% (75.0% decline) in all women, from 34.9% to 3.2% (90.8% decline) in vaccinated women, and from 32.5% to 22.0% (32.3% decline) in unvaccinated women. Among vaccinated participants, vaccine-type HPV prevalence decreased significantly from wave 1 to wave 2 (adjusted odds ratio, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, .13–.34) and from wave 1 to wave 3 (0.06; .03–.13). The same decreases were also significant among unvaccinated participants (adjusted odds ratios, 0.44; [95% confidence interval, .27–.71] and 0.59; [.35–.98], respectively). Conclusions. The prevalence of vaccine-type HPV decreased >90% in vaccinated women, demonstrating high effectiveness in a community setting, and >30% in unvaccinated women, providing evidence of herd protection. PMID:27655996

  4. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the

  5. Ethics and reproductive health: The issue of HPV vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejić Bojana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years, attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years

  6. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and the risk of autoimmune disorders: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV Vaccine Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Erin Y.; Smith, Leah M.; Ellis, Anne K.; Whitaker, Heather; Law, Barbara; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Farrington, Paddy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite demonstrated effectiveness in real-world settings, concerns persist regarding the safety of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. We sought to assess the risk of autoimmune disorders following HPV4 vaccination among grade 8 girls eligible for Ontario’s school-based HPV vaccination program. METHODS: We undertook a population-based retrospective cohort study using Ontario’s administrative health and vaccination databases from 2007 to 2013. The self-controlled case series method was used to compare the rate of a composite end point of autoimmune disorders diagnosed during days 7–60 post-vaccination (“exposed” follow-up) to that at any other time (“unexposed”). The analysis was repeated to assess the effect of a history of immune-mediated diseases and time since vaccination. We also conducted an exploratory analysis of individual autoimmune disorders. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional Poisson regression, adjusted for age, seasonality, concomitant vaccinations and infections. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 290 939 girls aged 12–17 years who were eligible for vaccination between 2007 and 2013. There was no significant risk for developing an autoimmune disorder following HPV4 vaccination (n = 681; rate ratio 1.12, 95% CI 0.85–1.47), and the association was unchanged by a history of immune-mediated disorders and time since vaccination. Exploratory analyses of individual autoimmune disorders found no significant risks, including for Bell palsy (n = 65; rate ratio 1.73, 95% CI 0.77–3.89), optic neuritis (n = 67; rate ratio 1.57, 95% CI 0.74–3.33) and Graves disease (n = 47; rate ratio 1.55, 95% CI 0.92–2.63). INTERPRETATION: We did not observe an increased risk of autoimmune disorders following HPV4 vaccination among teenaged girls. These findings should reassure parents and health care providers. PMID:29807937

  7. The impact and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent HPV vaccination in the United States: Estimates from a simplified transmission model

    OpenAIRE

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Hariri, Susan; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the incremental costs and benefits of the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) compared with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV). Like 4vHPV, 9vHPV protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. 9vHPV also protects against 5 additional HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. Methods: We adapted a previously published model of the impact and cost-effectiveness of 4vHPV to include the 5 additional HPV types in 9vHPV. The vaccine strategies we examined w...

  8. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccine in Peru: a decision framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario M Bartolini

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008 Peru's Ministry of Health implemented a demonstration project involving 5(th grade girls in primary schools in the Piura region. We designed and conducted a qualitative study of the decision-making process among parents of girls, and developed a conceptual model describing the process of HPV vaccine acceptance.We found a nonlinear HPV decision-making process that evolved over time. Initially, the vaccine's newness, the requirement of written consent, and provision of information were important. If information was sufficient and provided by credible sources, many parents accepted the vaccine. Later, after obtaining additional information from teachers, health personnel, and other trusted sources, more parents accepted vaccination. An understanding of the issues surrounding the vaccine developed, parents overcome fears and rumors, and engaged in family negotiations-including hearing the girl's voice in the decision-making process. The concept of prevention (cancer as danger, future health, and trust in vaccines combined with pragmatic factors (no cost, available at school and the credibility of the offer (information in the media, recommendation of respected authority figure were central to motivations that led parents to decide to vaccinate their daughters. A lack of confidence in the health system was the primary inhibitor of vaccine acceptance.Health personnel and teachers are credible sources of information and can provide important support to HPV vaccination campaigns.

  9. The HPV Vaccine - What the Family Practitioner Needs to Know ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the impact of human papilloma virus infection on the development of cervical cancer and the efficacy of newly developed HPV vaccines. These vaccines may have a major impact on the reduction of these common malignancies. South African Journal of Family Practice Vol. 50 (4) 2008: pp. 22-24 ...

  10. HPV vaccine awareness and the association of trust in cancer information from physicians among males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Dexter L; Hernandez, Natalie D; Rollins, Latrice; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; McAllister, Calvin

    2017-05-09

    Black and Hispanic men are diagnosed with more HPV-related cancers and at later stages compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Physician communication with men about HPV vaccination may be beneficial to increasing HPV vaccinations and decreasing HPV transmission. The purpose of this study was to examine HPV and HPV vaccine awareness among men by race, and the association between trust in cancer information from physicians and ever hearing about HPV and the HPV vaccine. U.S. adult males (age 18+) were identified from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) (n=1203). Binomial logistic regression models assessed the influences of race/ethnicity and trust of cancer information from physicians on men having heard of HPV and the HPV vaccination. Approximately 50% of the sample had never heard of HPV and 53% had never heard of the vaccine. Black men were less likely to know that HPV is sexually transmitted compared to White and Hispanic men (pcancer information compared to White and Black men (pawareness about HPV among men. Furthermore, statistically significant racial/ethnic differences were found in HPV vaccine knowledge and trust in receiving cancer information from physicians. Future interventions should include community-based approaches and improved physicians' HPV-related communication to increase knowledge and uptake of the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge and Awareness of HPV Vaccine and Acceptability to Vaccinate in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Stacey; Wamai, Richard G.; Bain, Paul A.; Welty, Thomas; Welty, Edith; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. We further identified countries that fulfill the two GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria to support nationwide HPV vaccination. Methods We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies on the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate. Trends in Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine coverage in SSA countries from 1990–2011 were extracted from the World Health Organization database. Findings The review revealed high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine but low levels of knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV or HPV vaccine. We identified only six countries to have met the two GAVI Alliance requirements for supporting introduction of HPV vaccine: 1) the ability to deliver multi-dose vaccines for no less than 50% of the target vaccination cohort in an average size district, and 2) achieving over 70% coverage of DTP3 vaccine nationally. From 2008 through 2011 all SSA countries, with the exception of Mauritania and Nigeria, have reached or maintained DTP3 coverage at 70% or above. Conclusion There is an urgent need for more education to inform the public about HPV, HPV vaccine, and cervical cancer, particularly to key demographics, (adolescents, parents and healthcare professionals), to leverage high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine towards successful implementation of HPV vaccination programs. There is unpreparedness in most SSA countries to roll out national HPV vaccination as per the GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria for supporting introduction of the vaccine. In countries that have met 70% DTP3 coverage, pilot programs need to be rolled out to identify the best practice and strategies for delivering HPV vaccines to adolescents and also to qualify for GAVI

  12. HPV vaccination prevalence, parental barriers and motivators to vaccinating children in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, May Rose Isnec; Braun, Kathryn L; Tsark, Jo Ann Umilani; Albright, Cheryl Lynn; Chen, John J

    2018-05-10

    To determine the prevalence and barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among 11-18 year olds in the Hawai'i's four major ethnic groups-Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, Japanese, and Caucasians. A telephone survey assessed parents' knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine, status of their child's HPV vaccine uptake, variables operationalizing the Health Belief Model, and barriers and motivators to uptake. Across the groups, 799 parents completed the survey. About 35% of daughters and 19% of sons had received all three shots. Although ethnic differences in vaccine uptake were seen in bivariate analysis (with significantly lower uptake in Filipino youth), in multivariable logistic regression analysis, only Caucasian parents were significantly less likely to start their sons on the HPV vaccine series compared with Japanese parents (reference group). Having heard about the vaccine, believing in its effectiveness, and older age of the child were also associated with vaccine uptake. Motivators for HPV vaccination were physician's recommendation and wanting to protect one's child. The primary barrier to uptake was lack of knowledge about the vaccine. Findings reinforce the fact that a physician's recommendation and receipt of information about the vaccine are strong motivators for parents to vaccinate their children, regardless of ethnicity.

  13. HPV Vaccination: Preventing More with Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas Lowy is acting director of the National Cancer Institute and Chief of the intramural Laboratory of Cellular Oncology in the Center for Cancer Research at the NCI. He received his medical degree from New York University School of Medicine, and trained in internal medicine at Stanford University and dermatology at Yale University. His research includes papillomaviruses and the regulation of normal and neoplastic growth. The papillomavirus research is carried out in close collaboration with John Schiller, with whom he has co-authored more than 100 papers over the past 25 years. In the 1980s, he studied the genetic organization of papillomaviruses and identified the oncogenes encoded by the virus. More recently, he has worked on papillomavirus vaccines and the papillomavirus life cycle. Their laboratory was involved in the initial development, characterization, and clinical testing of the preventive virus-like particle-based HPV vaccines that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and many other countries. It is for this body of work that Drs. Lowy and Schiller received the 2007 Federal Employee of the Year Award from the Partnership for Public Service, the 2007 Dorothy P. Landon-American Association for Cancer Research Prize for Translational Cancer Research, the Sabin Gold Medal in 2011, and the National Medal of Technology and Innovation from President Obama in 2014. Dr. Lowy also received the 2007 Medal of Honor for basic research from the American Cancer Society. He is listed by the Institute for Scientific Information as one of the most highly cited authors in microbiology, and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine of the NAS.

  14. Overcoming barriers in HPV vaccination and screening programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vorsters

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus Prevention and Control Board brought together experts to discuss optimizing HPV vaccination and screening programs.Board members reviewed the safety profile of licensed HPV vaccines based on clinical and post-marketing data, reaching a consensus that current safety data is reassuring.Successful vaccination programs used well-coordinated communication campaigns, integrating (social media to spread awareness. Communication of evidence supporting vaccine effectiveness had beneficial effects on the perception of the vaccine. However, anti-vaccination campaigns have threatened existing programs in many countries.Measurement and monitoring of HPV vaccine confidence over time could help understand the nature and scale of waning confidence, define issues and intervene appropriately using context-specific evidence-based strategies. Finally, a broad group of stakeholders, such as teachers, health care providers and the media should also be provided with accurate information and training to help support prevention efforts through enhanced understanding of the risks and benefits of vaccination.Similarly, while cervical cancer screening through population-based programs is highly effective, barriers to screening exist: awareness in countries with population-based screening programs, access for vulnerable populations, and access and affordability in low- and middle-income countries. Integration of primary and secondary prevention has the potential to accelerate the decrease in cervical cancer incidence. Keywords: (max 6 Human papillomavirus, Vaccine, Screening, Barriers, Vaccine confidence

  15. The feminization of HPV: How science, politics, economics and gender norms shaped U.S. HPV vaccine implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Daley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV can cause a number of anogenital cancers (i.e., cervical, penile, anal, vaginal, vulvar and genital warts. A decade ago, the HPV vaccine was approved, and has been shown to be a public health achievement that can reduce the morbidity and mortality for HPV-associated diseases. Yet, the mistaken over-identification of HPV as a female-specific disease has resulted in the feminization of HPV and HPV vaccines. In this critical review, we trace the evolution of the intersection of science, politics, economics and gender norms during the original HPV vaccine approval, marketing era, and implementation. Given the focus on cervical cancer screening, women were identified as bearing the burden of HPV infection and its related illnesses, and the group responsible for prevention. We also describe the consequences of the feminization of HPV, which has resulted primarily in reduced protection from HPV-related illnesses for males. We propose a multilevel approach to normalizing HPV vaccines as an important aspect of overall health for both genders. This process must engage multiple stakeholders, including providers, parents, patients, professional organizations, public health agencies, policymakers, researchers, and community-based organizations. Keywords: HPV vaccination, Feminization, Critical review

  16. Parental Acceptance of HPV Vaccine in Peru: A Decision Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Rosario M.; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Penny, Mary E.; LaMontagne, D. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Objective and Method Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008 Peru’s Ministry of Health implemented a demonstration project involving 5th grade girls in primary schools in the Piura region. We designed and conducted a qualitative study of the decision-making process among parents of girls, and developed a conceptual model describing the process of HPV vaccine acceptance. Results We found a nonlinear HPV decision-making process that evolved over time. Initially, the vaccine’s newness, the requirement of written consent, and provision of information were important. If information was sufficient and provided by credible sources, many parents accepted the vaccine. Later, after obtaining additional information from teachers, health personnel, and other trusted sources, more parents accepted vaccination. An understanding of the issues surrounding the vaccine developed, parents overcome fears and rumors, and engaged in family negotiations–including hearing the girl’s voice in the decision-making process. The concept of prevention (cancer as danger, future health, and trust in vaccines) combined with pragmatic factors (no cost, available at school) and the credibility of the offer (information in the media, recommendation of respected authority figure) were central to motivations that led parents to decide to vaccinate their daughters. A lack of confidence in the health system was the primary inhibitor of vaccine acceptance. Conclusions Health personnel and teachers are credible sources of information and can provide important support to HPV vaccination campaigns. PMID:23144719

  17. Young Hungarian Students’ Knowledge about HPV and Their Attitude Toward HPV Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Claudia Balla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Hungarys’s estimated cervical cancer mortality was 6.9/100,000 in 2012, above the average of the EU27 countries (3.7/100,000 in the same year. Since 2014, the bivalent HPV vaccine has been offered to schoolgirls aged 12–13. (2 Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1022 high school seniors (492 girls, 530 boys in 19 randomly selected schools in Budapest. Our anonymous questionnaire contained 54 items: basic socio-demographic data, knowledge about HPV infection/cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. (3 Results: 54.9% knew that HPV caused cervical cancer, and 52.1% identified HPV as an STD. Knowledge of risk factors such as promiscuity (46.9% and early sexual activity (15.6% was low, but higher than that of further HPV-induced diseases: genital warts (in females 9.9%, in males 9%, anal cancer (in females 2.2%, in males 1.9%, penile cancer (9.4%, and vulvar cancer (7.8%. A percentage of 14.6% feared getting infected, and 35.7% supported compulsory HPV vaccination. A percentage of 51.2% would have their future children vaccinated—significantly more girls than boys. (4 Conclusion: Our results support the findings of previous studies about young adults’ HPV-related knowledge, which was poor, especially regarding pathologies in men. Despite the low level of awareness, the students’ attitude was mostly positive when asked about vaccinating their future children.

  18. The impact of HPV vaccination on future cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Lynge, Elsebeth; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2+ and 3+ as cut-off values. RESULTS: The proportion of positive screening tests was reduced from 8.7% before vaccination to 6.5% after vaccination, and the proportion of false-positive screening tests using CIN2+ as a cut-off was reduced from 5.5% pre-vaccination to 4......OBJECTIVES: To explore the interplay between primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer by estimating future screening outcomes in women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination when they were sexually naïve. DESIGN: Estimation of outcome of liquid-based cytology screening for a post...... vaccinated for HPV before sexual debut. All identified studies were reviewed by two authors, and weighted pooled estimates of vaccine efficacies were used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of positive and false-positive cervical cytologies and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated using cervical...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in the context of high cervical cancer incidence and low screening coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võrno, Triin; Lutsar, Katrin; Uusküla, Anneli; Padrik, Lee; Raud, Terje; Reile, Rainer; Nahkur, Oliver; Kiivet, Raul-Allan

    2017-11-01

    Estonia has high cervical cancer incidence and low screening coverage. We modelled the impact of population-based bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent HPV vaccination alongside cervical cancer screening. A Markov cohort model of the natural history of HPV infection was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of 12-year-old girls with bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent vaccine in two doses in a national, school-based vaccination programme. The model followed the natural progression of HPV infection into subsequent genital warts (GW); premalignant lesions (CIN1-3); cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer. Vaccine coverage was assumed to be 70%. A time horizon of 88years (up to 100years of age) was used to capture all lifetime vaccination costs and benefits. Costs and utilities were discounted using an annual discount rate of 5%. Vaccination of 12-year-old girls alongside screening compared to screening alone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €14,007 (bivalent), €14,067 (quadrivalent) and €11,633 (nonavalent) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) in the base-case scenario and ranged between €5367-21,711, €5142-21,800 and €4563-18,142, respectively, in sensitivity analysis. The results were most sensitive to changes in discount rate, vaccination regimen, vaccine prices and cervical cancer screening coverage. Vaccination of 12-year-old girls alongside current cervical cancer screening can be considered a cost-effective intervention in Estonia. Adding HPV vaccination to the national immunisation schedule is expected to prevent a considerable number of HPV infections, genital warts, premalignant lesions, HPV related cancers and deaths. Although in our model ICERs varied slightly depending on the vaccine used, they generally fell within the same range. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination was found to be most dependent on vaccine cost and duration of vaccine immunity, but not on the type of vaccine

  20. Impact of HPV vaccination with Gardasil® in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot-Guillarmod, Martine; Pasquier, Jérôme; Greub, Gilbert; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Achtari, Chahin; Sahli, Roland

    2017-12-22

    Gardasil®, a quadrivalent vaccine targeting low-risk (6, 11) and high-risk (16, 18) human papillomaviruses (HPV), has been offered to 11-14 year-old schoolgirls in Switzerland since 2008. To evaluate its success and its potential impact on cervical cancer screening, HPV genotypes were examined in 18-year-old girls five years later (sub-study 1) and in outpatients participating to cervical cancer screening before and after vaccine implementation (sub-study 2). For sub-study 1, 3726 females aged 18 in 2013 were invited to fill a questionnaire on personal demographics and HPV risk factors and to provide a self-collected cervicovaginal sample for HPV genotyping and Chlamydia trachomatis PCR. Personal data were evaluated by univariable and multivariable statistics. In sub-study 2, the proportion of the vaccine-type HPV among anogenital HPV was examined with archived genotyping data of 8039 outpatients participating to cervical cancer screening from 1999 till 2015. The yearly evolution of this proportion was evaluated by segmented logistic regression. 690 (18.5%) women participated to sub-study 1 and 327 (8.8%) provided a self-collected sample. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (4.6%) and demographics confirmed that the subjects were representative of sexually-active Swiss young women. Vaccine (five-year coverage: 77.5%) was preferentially accepted by contraceptive-pill users (P = 0.001) and samples were mainly provided by sexually-active subjects (P Switzerland. Our data suggest that cervical cancer screening is now entering a stage of reduced proportion of HPV16 and/or 18 in samples reported positive by cytology. In view of the high likelihood of reduced clinical specificity of cytology, primary screening modalities involving HPV testing and cytology should now be re-evaluated in Switzerland.

  1. School Nurses' Professional Practice in the HPV Vaccine Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L.; Ashwood, Daniel; Richardson, George B.

    2016-01-01

    Because U.S. human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates remain low, we evaluated school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, self-efficacy, intention, and professional practice regarding the HPV vaccine and determined if these variables influenced their professional practice concerning the HPV vaccine. We…

  2. Sexual behaviour and HPV in young women. The pre-vaccine era.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenselink, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide mass vaccination with HPV vaccines will most certainly change HPV epidemiology. Monitoring these changes on a population level may prove crucial in assessing overall HPV vaccine efficacy. To provide a basis for understanding possible future shifts in genotypes, as well as to provide

  3. Identifying Health Beliefs Influencing Hispanic College Men's Willingness to Vaccinate against HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Dionne P.; Thomas, Tami L.; Eaton, Asia

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies health beliefs influencing Hispanic college men's human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake decision making processes. Hispanic college men were interviewed about their HPV vaccine knowledge, and information seeking behaviors. Overall, participants did not view HPV infection or vaccination as an immediate concern or priority;…

  4. Change in knowledge of women about cervix cancer, human papilloma virus (HPV) and HPV vaccination due to introduction of HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Bellen, Gert; Declerq, Ann; Berger, Judith; Van Den Bosch, Thierry; Riphagen, Ine; Verjans, Marcel

    2009-07-01

    Test knowledge of HPV, cervix cancer awareness and acceptance of HPV vaccination of women now and a year ago. Questionnaires were filled out by 305 women visiting four gynaecologists of the Regional Hospital Heilig Hart, Tienen, Belgium during two subsequent weeks. Fisher T or Chi(2) were used as statistical methods to compare the data with the survey of 381 women exactly one year before. Knowledge about HPV as a cause of cervix cancer and the presence of a vaccine rose from roughly 50% in 2007 to over 80% in 2008 (pwomen below 26 years had now acquired almost equivalent knowledge to older women about the virus, cervix cancer and the vaccine, but they were far less likely to accept the vaccine due to its cost, unless it would be reimbursed (OR 4.2 (1.6-11) p=0.0055). One year after introduction of the first two HPV vaccines, over 75% of women attending an ambulatory gynaecology clinic know HPV causes cervix cancer and that you can get vaccinated against it. Compared with a year earlier, young and lower educated women had dramatically improved their knowledge. However, women below 26 years are less prepared to pay the cost for vaccination if it is not reimbursed.

  5. The Role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Stigma on HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georden; Perez, Samara; Huta, Veronika; Rosberger, Zeev; Lebel, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the present study are (1) to identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related stigma and (2) to examine the relationship between HPV-related stigma in predicting HPV vaccine decision-making among college males. Participants: Six hundred and eighty college males aged 18--26 from 3…

  6. Beliefs about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and acceptability of HPV vaccination among Chinese women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter W H; Kwan, Tracy T C; Tam, Kar Fai; Chan, Karen K L; Young, Phyllis M C; Lo, Sue S T; Cheung, Annie N Y; Ngan, Hextan Y S

    2007-01-01

    To assess the knowledge and beliefs on cervical cancer and HPV infection and to evaluate the acceptability of HPV vaccination among Chinese women. Seven focus groups were conducted with ethnic Chinese women aged 18-25 (n=20), 26-35 (n=13), and 36 and above (n=16) in a community women's health clinic in Hong Kong in 2006. The discussions were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed. Recurrent themes related to cervical cancer, HPV infection and vaccination were highlighted. Diverse conceptions on likely causes of cervical cancer were noted, covering biological, psychological, environmental, lifestyle and sexual factors. Most women had not heard of HPV and its mode of transmission. The participants had difficulties understanding and accepting the linkage between cervical cancer and the sexually transmitted HPV infection. HPV infection was seen as personally stigmatizing with significant adverse impact on self-esteem and significant relationships. Participants favored HPV vaccination both for themselves and their teenage daughters if authoritative endorsement was provided. Inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on cervical cancer and HPV were common. Most participants welcomed and favored having HPV vaccination. Apart from promoting HPV vaccination, cervical cancer prevention should also include strategies to promote knowledge and minimize the stigmatizing effect of a sexually transmitted HPV infection.

  7. Local HPV Recombinant Vaccinia Boost Following Priming with an HPV DNA Vaccine Enhances Local HPV-Specific CD8+ T Cell Mediated Tumor Control in the Genital Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun-Yan; Peng, Shiwen; Han, Liping; Qiu, Jin; Song, Liwen; Tsai, Yachea; Yang, Benjamin; Roden, Richard B.S.; Trimble, Cornelia L.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are expressed in all human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells, from initial infection in the genital tract to metastatic cervical cancer. Intramuscular vaccination of women with high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) twice with a naked DNA vaccine, pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70, and a single boost with HPVE6/E7 recombinant vaccinia vaccine (TA-HPV) elicited systemic HPV-specific CD8 T cell responses that could traffic to the lesion and was associated with regression in some patients (NCT00788164). Experimental Design Here we examine whether alteration of this vaccination regimen by administration of TA-HPV vaccination in the cervicovaginal tract, rather than IM delivery, can more effectively recruit antigen-specific T cells in an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model of HPV16+ cervical cancer (TC-1 luc). Results We found that pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 vaccination followed by cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV increased accumulation of total and E7-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervicovaginal tract and better controlled E7-expressing cervicovaginal TC-1 luc tumor than IM administration of TA-HPV. Furthermore, the E7-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervicovaginal tract generated through the cervicovaginal route of vaccination expressed the α4β7 integrin and CCR9, which are necessary for the homing of the E7-specific CD8+ T cells to the cervicovaginal tract. Finally, we show that cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV can induce potent local HPV-16 E7 antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses regardless of whether an HPV DNA vaccine priming vaccination was administered IM or within the cervicovaginal tract. Conclusions Our results support future clinical translation using cervicovaginal TA-HPV vaccination. PMID:26420854

  8. Lessons learnt from human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 45 low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Natasha; Kabakama, Severin; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Griffiths, Ulla K.; Feletto, Marta; Burchett, Helen E. D.; LaMontagne, D. Scott; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Objective To synthesise lessons learnt and determinants of success from human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine demonstration projects and national programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). Methods Interviews were conducted with 56 key informants. A systematic literature review identified 2936 abstracts from five databases; after screening 61 full texts were included. Unpublished literature, including evaluation reports, was solicited from country representatives; 188 documents were received. A data extraction tool and interview topic guide outlining key areas of inquiry were informed by World Health Organization guidelines for new vaccine introduction. Results were synthesised thematically. Results Data were analysed from 12 national programmes and 66 demonstration projects in 46 countries. Among demonstration projects, 30 were supported by the GARDASIL® Access Program, 20 by Gavi, four by PATH and 12 by other means. School-based vaccine delivery supplemented with health facility-based delivery for out-of-school girls attained high coverage. There were limited data on facility-only strategies and little evaluation of strategies to reach out-of-school girls. Early engagement of teachers as partners in social mobilisation, consent, vaccination day coordination, follow-up of non-completers and adverse events was considered invaluable. Micro-planning using school/ facility registers most effectively enumerated target populations; other estimates proved inaccurate, leading to vaccine under- or over-estimation. Refresher training on adverse events and safe injection procedures was usually necessary. Conclusion Considerable experience in HPV vaccine delivery in LAMICs is available. Lessons are generally consistent across countries and dissemination of these could improve HPV vaccine introduction. PMID:28575074

  9. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.; Adema, D.; Buist-Arkema, R.; Beerens, A.; Luijt, D.; Meijer, S.; Schirm, J.; Buiting, A.; Peeters, M.; Rossen, J.; Verbakel, H.; van Esch, P.; Verweij, J.; van der Eijk, A.; Huisman, R.; Kerkhof, C.; Korff, H.; Schutten, M.; Velzing, J.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.; Lakbiach, S.; van Rosmalen, P.; Schuurman, R.; Abma, D.; Adams, K.; Bruisten, S.; Linde, I.; Oostvogel, P.; Touwen, C.; Vermeulen, W.; Brink, A.; Nelissen, J.; Wolffs, P.; Duijvendijk, N.; Schneeberger, P.; Dinnissen-van Poppel, M.; Melchers, W.; Poort, Y.; Hooghiemstra, M.; Huisman, H.; Weel, J.; Stam, J.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11 positivity

  10. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Benthem, Birgit H B

    OBJECTIVES: Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11

  11. Pharmacists' Attitudes and Perceived Barriers to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Tessa J; Hohmann, Lindsey A; McFarland, Stuart J; Teeter, Benjamin S; Westrick, Salisa C

    2017-08-07

    Use of non-traditional settings such as community pharmacies has been suggested to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and completion rates. The objectives of this study were to explore HPV vaccination services and strategies employed by pharmacies to increase HPV vaccine uptake, pharmacists' attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and pharmacists' perceived barriers to providing HPV vaccination services in community pharmacies. A pre-piloted mail survey was sent to 350 randomly selected community pharmacies in Alabama in 2014. Measures included types of vaccines administered and marketing/recommendation strategies, pharmacists' attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and perceived system and parental barriers. Data analysis largely took the form of descriptive statistics. 154 pharmacists completed the survey (response rate = 44%). The majority believed vaccination is the best protection against cervical cancer (85.3%), HPV is a serious threat to health for girls (78.8%) and boys (55.6%), and children should not wait until they are sexually active to be vaccinated (80.1%). Perceived system barriers included insufficient patient demand (56.5%), insurance plans not covering vaccination cost (54.8%), and vaccine expiration before use (54.1%). Respondents also perceived parents to have inadequate education and understanding about HPV infection (86.6%) and vaccine safety (78.7%). Pharmacists have positive perceptions regarding the HPV vaccine. Barriers related to system factors and perceived parental concerns must be overcome to increase pharmacist involvement in HPV vaccinations.

  12. Introduction and sustained high coverage of the HPV bivalent vaccine leads to a reduction in prevalence of HPV 16/18 and closely related HPV types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K; Pollock, K G J; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M

    2014-05-27

    In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme began in Scotland for 12-13 year old females with a three-year catch-up campaign for those under the age of 18. Since 2008, three-dose uptake of bivalent vaccine in the routine cohort aged 12-13 has exceeded 90% annually, while in the catch-up cohort overall uptake is 66%. To monitor the impact of HPV immunisation, a programme of national surveillance was established (pre and post introduction) which included yearly sampling and HPV genotyping of women attending for cervical screening at age 20. By linking individual vaccination, screening and HPV testing records, we aim to determine the impact of the immunisation programme on circulating type-specific HPV infection particularly for four outcomes: (i) the vaccine types HPV 16 or 18 (ii) types considered to be associated with cross-protection: HPV 31, 33 or 45; (iii) all other high-risk types and (iv) any HPV. From a total of 4679 samples tested, we demonstrate that three doses (n=1100) of bivalent vaccine are associated with a significant reduction in prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 from 29.8% (95% confidence interval 28.3, 31.3%) to 13.6% (95% confidence interval 11.7, 15.8%). The data also suggest cross-protection against HPV 31, 33 and 45. HPV 51 and 56 emerged as the most prevalent (10.5% and 9.6%, respectively) non-vaccine high-risk types in those vaccinated, but at lower rates than HPV 16 (25.9%) in those unvaccinated. This data demonstrate the positive impact of bivalent vaccination on the prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 in the target population and is encouraging for countries which have achieved high-vaccine uptake.

  13. Individual- and regional-level determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine refusal: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV vaccine cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Olivia; Smith, Leah M; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz E; Colley, Lindsey; Lévesque, Linda E

    2014-10-08

    Studies on the determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use have generally focused on individual-level characteristics, despite the potentially important influence of regional-level characteristics. Therefore, we undertook a population-based, retrospective cohort study to identify individual- and regional-level determinants of HPV vaccine refusal (non-receipt) in Ontario's (Canada) Grade 8 HPV Immunization Program. Ontario's administrative health and immunization databases were used to identify girls eligible for free HPV vaccination in 2007-2011 and to ascertain individual-level characteristics of cohort members (socio-demographics, vaccination history, health care utilization, medical history). The social and material characteristics of the girl's region (health unit) were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census. Generalized estimating equations (binomial distribution, logit link) were used to estimate the population-average effects of individual- and regional-level characteristics on HPV vaccine refusal. Our cohort consisted of 144,047 girls, 49.3% of whom refused HPV vaccination. Factors associated with refusal included a previous diagnosis of Down's syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.63) or autism (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.34-1.90), few physician visits (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.35-1.55), and previous refusal of mandatory (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 2.07-2.40) and optional (OR = 3.96, 95% CI 3.87-4.05) vaccines. Refusal was highest among the lowest and highest income levels. Finally, a previous diagnosis of obesity and living in an area of high deprivation were associated with lower refusal (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.92 and OR = 0.82 95%, CI 0.79-0.86, respectively). Studies on HPV vaccine determinants should consider regional-level factors. Efforts to increase HPV vaccine acceptance should include vulnerable populations (such as girls of low income) and girls with limited contact with the healthcare system.

  14. Clinical cancer chemoprevention: From the hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccine to the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Jyh Tsai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2 million new cancer cases are attributed to infectious agents each year worldwide. Vaccines for the hepatitis B virus (HBV, a risk factor of hepatocellular cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV, a risk factor of cervical cancer, are considered major successes in clinical chemoprevention of cancer. In Taiwan, the first evidence of cancer prevention through vaccinations was provided by HBV vaccination data in infants. The Taiwanese HBV vaccination program has since become a model immunization schedule for newborns worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is generally accepted as prerequisite for cervical cancer diagnosis; however, cervical cancer is a rare complication of HPV infections. This is due to the fact that such infections tend to be transient. The safety and efficacy of both available HPV quadrivalent vaccine and bivalent vaccine are not in doubt at the present time. Until a human cytomegalovirus (CMV vaccine becomes available, simple hygienic practices, such as hand washing, can prevent CMV infection both before and during pregnancy. Each country should establish her official guidelines regarding which vaccines should be used to treat various conditions, the target population (i.e., universal or limited to a selected population, and the immunization schedules. After a vaccine is recommended, decisions regarding reimbursement by the public health care fund are evaluated. The guidelines become part of the immunization schedule, which is updated annually and published in the official bulletin. In conclusion, both HBV and HPV vaccines are considered major successes in the chemoprevention of cancer.

  15. Clinical effectiveness and cost effect analysis of quadrivalent HPV vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Lekić, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    1 ABSTRACT Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine- Evaluation of clinical effectiveness and national vaccine programs Author: Nataša Lekić Research Advisor: PharmDr. Lenka Práznovcová, Ph.D. Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague. SUMMARY QUADRIVALENT HPV VACCINE- EVALUATION OF CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS AND NATIONAL VACCINE PROGRAMS Background: Human papillomavirus types 6, 11,16 and 18 cause majority of genital warts an...

  16. Uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Hong Kong: Facilitators and barriers among adolescent girls and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Winnie Wing Yan; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K S; Tran, Lynn; Sayko, Erica

    2018-01-01

    The present study is aimed at assessing the feasibility of delivering the HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine to girls through a school-based program in Hong Kong, as well as to examine the facilitators and barriers associated with their participation. We approached 1,229 eligible girls aged 9 to 14 at eight schools in Hong Kong to join the program and then delivered the bivalent HPV vaccine at 0 and 6 months over the course of one school year. The students and their parents completed separate questionnaires to indicate their decision on whether or not to participate, and to assess their knowledge of cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine. The overall vaccine uptake was 81.4% (1,000/1,229) for the first dose and 80.8% (993/1,229) for the second dose. Parents and students were given separate questionnaires and asked whether or not they would like to participate in the vaccination program. 87.1% (1,010/1,160) of parents and 84.9% (974/1,147) of students indicated that they would join the program. The reasons associated with parents' decision not to vaccinate their daughters primarily included concerns around side effects and safety. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parents who thought that the vaccine would protect their daughter from getting cervical cancer (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.39-7.15, p parents who had never heard of the vaccine (OR = .15, 95% CI = .03-.71, p vaccine (OR = .39, 95% CI = .19-.81, p HPV vaccine with high uptake rate in a school setting is feasible in Hong Kong. Engaging key stakeholders including school administrators, teachers and community physicians, and providing relevant information on safety and vaccine effectiveness to parents were important to the success of the program.

  17. HPV Vaccination of College Males: Strategizing against HPV Infection in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Erves, Jennifer; Talbott, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    The disease burden of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among females and its associated sequelae have been widely studied by social and behavioral science researchers and medical professionals. Approved for administration to males as young as nine years old, the vaccination of males continues to spark much debate when older age groups are brought…

  18. Awareness of human papillomavirus after introduction of HPV vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Nygård, Mari; Stensen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    -2005 (prevaccination survey, n=54 079, response rate 71.3%). Correlates of HPV awareness in the postvaccination survey were assessed by logistic regression. In all countries and age groups, awareness of HPV increased from the prevaccination to the postvaccination survey. In the postvaccination survey, HPV awareness......: odds ratio (OR)=0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.48], being a virgin (vs. nonvirgins: OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.66-0.83), never having used condoms (vs. ever: OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.56-0.67), nonuse of contraception at first intercourse (vs. use: OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.79-0.88) and daily smoking (vs. never......: OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92). HPV awareness in Scandinavia has increased since the introduction of HPV vaccination. However, 24-38% of Scandinavian women still have never heard of HPV. Future information efforts should target groups with low HPV awareness....

  19. Discussions of Adolescent Sexuality in News Media Coverage of the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Dana M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Tsui, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Given the sexually transmitted nature of human papillomavirus (HPV), some worry the HPV vaccine will create a false sense of security and promote adolescent sexual activity. Media coverage of vaccines can influence social norms, parental attitudes, and vaccine acceptance; in this paper we examine U.S. news media messages related to sexuality and HPV vaccination. Drawing on a structured analysis of 447 articles published during 2005-2009, we qualitatively analyzed a purposive sample of 49 articles discussing adolescent health behaviors related to HPV vaccination. Commonly, articles discussed vaccination in the context of abstinence-only versus comprehensive sexual health education; cited research findings to support vaccination or sex education; argued against connecting vaccination to promiscuous behavior; but included fear-inducing messages. Media messages concerning health behaviors related to HPV vaccination tended to support government and parental involvement in sex education, and dismiss concerns linking vaccination to sexual activity, while also presenting the vaccine as lifesaving. PMID:24439619

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and barriers for human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines among Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Al-Jashamy, Karim; Baobaid, Mohammed Faez; Tuang, Chua Pie; Abd Kadir, Samiah Yasmin

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 Malaysian women in the obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinic in a selected hospital in Bangi, Selangor to determine the level of knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccines, attitudes toward HPV vaccination and barriers of being vaccinated. Factors associated with knowledge and attitudes were also addressed with a questionnaire. Seventy eight women (26%) had heard about the HPV virus and 65 about HPV vaccines (21.7%). Marital status was associated significantly with awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine (p=0.002, p=0.002; respectively), in addition to level of education (p=0.042). The percentages of women who reported correct answers for the questions on knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine ranged from 12% to 25%. One hundred fifty nine respondents (53%) had a positive attitude toward HPV vaccination. Age, marital status, and level of education were associated significantly with attitude (plevel of knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine. Education of population is highly recommended and barriers to being vaccinated should be dealt with seriously.

  1. HPV vaccine acceptance among African-American mothers and their daughters: an inquiry grounded in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith-Gyan, Kayoll V; Lechuga, Julia; Jenerette, Coretta M; Palmer, Mary H; Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B

    2017-05-29

    Much of the research on African-Americans' HPV vaccine acceptance has largely focused on racial/ethnic differences related to cognitive, socio-economical, and structural factors that contribute to differences in HPV vaccine acceptance and completion. A growing body of literature suggest that cultural factors, such as mistrust of healthcare providers (HCPs) and the healthcare system, religion, and social norms related to appropriate sexual behaviors, also plays a prominent role in their HPV vaccine acceptance. However, these studies were limited in their use of theoretical approaches necessary to conceptualize and operationalize culture. To explore the influence of culture on African-American mothers' and daughters' HPV vaccine acceptance using the PEN-3, a culturally-centered conceptual framework. Grounded theory techniques were used to explore cultural factors that influenced the acceptance of the HPV vaccine among African-American mothers (n = 28) and their daughters (n = 34). Positive attitudes towards vaccination stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine has cancer prevention benefits and that vaccinations in general protected against infectious diseases. Negative attitudes stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine was too new, not effective, daughters were too young, and that vaccines were not a one-size-fits-all intervention. Majority of mothers and daughters indicated that their religious doctrine did not impede their HPV vaccination decisions. For a few mothers, religious beliefs could not be separated from their HPV vaccination decisions and ultimately deterred HPV vaccine acceptance. HCP recommendations were valued however mothers were often dissatisfied with the detail of information communicated. Support networks provided both positive and negative types of social support to mothers and daughters. The media highlighted the cancer prevention benefits of the HPV vaccine and unintentionally communicated negative information of the HPV vaccine

  2. Estimation of the epidemiological burden of HPV-related anogenital cancers, precancerous lesions, and genital warts in women and men in Europe: Potential additional benefit of a nine-valent second generation HPV vaccine compared to first generation HPV vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hartwig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A second generation HPV vaccine has been developed for the prevention of anogenital cancers and precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus and of genital warts due to nine HPV types.We estimated the annual burden of these diseases attributable to the nine HPV types compared to HPV types from first generation vaccines in women and men in Europe. Material and methods: Incidence rates from the IARC database, cancer registries, the literature and Eurostat population data were used.The burden attributable to the HPV types targeted by both vaccines was estimated by applying the relative contribution of the respective HPV types from epidemiological studies. Results: In 2013, the number of new anogenital HPV-attributable cancers was 44,480 with 39,494 of these cases related to second vs. 33,285 to first generation vaccine types.Among the 284,373 to 541,621 new HPV-attributable anogenital precancerous lesions 235,364–448,423 and 135,025–256,830 were estimated to be related to second and first generation vaccine types, respectively.The annual number of new genital warts was 753,608–935,318, with 90% related to HPV6/11. Conclusions: These data demonstrate how the large public health impact that was achieved by the first generation HPV vaccines could be further increased by second generation vaccines. Keywords: HPV, Burden of disease, Cancer, Precancerous lesions, Genital warts, HPV vaccine

  3. HPV Knowledge and Vaccine Acceptability among Hispanic Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, Julie; Byrne, Margaret M.; Vanderpool, Robin; Shin, Sarah; Kobetz, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and vaccine acceptability in a convenience sample of immigrant Hispanic men, many of whom are parents of adolescents. Data on 189 male callers were collected from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service Spanish-language call center. Most participants…

  4. What Drives Health Professionals to Tweet About the HPV Vaccine?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Philip Massey, PhD, MPH, an assistant professor at Drexel University and one of the authors of a recent study that looks at what motivates health professionals to tweet about the HPV vaccine. Philip answers questions about his research and what impact social media can have on public health and health care communication.

  5. Technology evaluation: HPV vaccine (quadrivalent), Aventis Pasteur MSD/CSL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinis, Milan

    2004-04-01

    CSL, licensee of UniQuest's HPV technology, and Aventis Pasteur MSD (a joint venture between Merck & Co and Aventis) are jointly developing a vaccine for the potential prophylaxis of genital warts and cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus infection. Enrollment for a phase III trial has been completed.

  6. Comparison of the immunogenicity of Cervarix(®) and Gardasil(®) human papillomavirus vaccines for oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Müller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    (®) (HPV-16/18, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, GSK) and Gardasil(®) (HPV-6/11/16/18, Merck) have demonstrated partial cross-protection against certain oncogenic non-vaccine HPV-types. Currently, there are no available data on vaccine-induced cross-protection in men and little is known about cross......-reactive immunity after HPV-vaccination of HIV-infected individuals. In an investigator-initiated trial, we randomized 91 HIV-positive men and women to receive vaccination with Cervarix(®) or Gardasil(®). The HPV-DNA status of the participants was determined with pcr before and after immunization. Cross...

  7. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjon Pian Gi, Robin E A; San Giorgi, Michel R M; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; van Hemel, Bettien M; Schuuring, Ed M D; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2016-10-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil(®)) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was measured were included. Multiplex HPV Serology was used to determine HPV-specific antibodies pre- and post-vaccination. Surgical interventions and patient records were analyzed. Five HPV6 and 1 HPV11 infected patient were included. Mean antibody reactivity against the associated HPV type rose from 1125 median fluorescence intensity (MFI) pre-vaccination to 4690 MFI post-vaccination (p immunological increase can cause decrease in number of surgeries.

  8. How does HPV vaccination status relate to risk perceptions and intention to participate in cervical screening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    will not attend screening because they falsely think that the vaccine has eliminated their cervical cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPV vaccination status and perceptions of cervical cancer risk; perceptions of vaccine effect; and intention to participate in cervical...... and intentions to participate in cervical screening. Main outcomes were: perceived lifetime-risk of cervical cancer; perceived HPV vaccine effect; and intention to participate in cervical screening. Results: HPV vaccinated women more often than unvaccinated women intended to participate in screening: adjusted...... odds ratio (OR) for being HPV vaccinated when intending to participate in screening of 3.89 (95 % CI: 2.50–6.06). HPV vaccinated women perceived cervical cancer risk to be higher than unvaccinated women did: adjusted OR of 0.11 (95 % CI: 0.03–0.39) and 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.33–0.78) for being HPV vaccinated...

  9. Biopower, Normalization, and HPV: A Foucauldian Analysis of the HPV Vaccine Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Kimberly S

    2016-09-01

    This article utilizes the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization to give an analysis of the debate surrounding the controversial administration of the HPV vaccine to adolescents. My intention is not to solve the problem, rather to utilize a Foucauldian framework to bring various facets of the issue to light, specifically the way the vaccine contributes to strategies of power in reference to how young adults develop within relationships of power. To begin, the article provides an overview of the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization, including how these two strategies of power were present in the administration of the smallpox vaccine in the 19th century. Next, information about HPV and the history of the current controversy in the United States is presented. Lastly, the article presents an analysis of the strategies of biopower and normalization present in the debate on HPV, including an emphasis on how the vaccination is similar to, and different from, 19th century smallpox vaccination. It also explores the way that mechanisms of disease control affect and are affected by individual subjects, in this case, adolescents.

  10. HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

  11. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon Pian Gi, Robin E. A.; San Giorgi, Michel R. M.; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; van Hemel, Bettien M.; Schuuring, Ed M. D.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil(A (R))) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was

  12. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon Pian Gi, R.E.A.; San Giorgi, M.R.M.; Pawlita, M.; Michel, A.; van Hemel, B.M.; Schuuring, E.M.D.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; Dikkers, F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil®) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was

  13. Factors associated with school nurses' HPV vaccine attitudes for school-aged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L; DiClemente, Ralph; Shepard, Allie L; Wilson, Kelly L; Fehr, Sara K

    2017-06-01

    School nurses are at the intersection of the healthcare and school communities, thus, they can be considered opinion leaders in providing health advice - including information about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine - to parents and students. This study examined school nurses' attitudes toward the HPV vaccine based on age, years as a school nurse, geographic location, urban vs. rural work setting, HPV and vaccine knowledge, perception of role as opinion leaders, and school district support in providing health education. Participants (n = 413) were systematically sampled from the National Association of School Nurses' membership and completed a web-based survey. Multiple regression was used to predict positive HPV vaccine attitudes. The model was statistically significant accounting for 50.8% of the variance (F [9, 400] = 45.96, p school nurses' positive attitudes towards HPV vaccine. Despite school nurses being seen as champions for adolescent vaccines, they need additional professional development to increase their HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes to encourage parents and adolescents to consider the uptake of HPV vaccination. To engage school nurses' in promoting HPV vaccine uptake, interventions need to focus on increasing school nurses' perception of their role as opinion leaders for HPV vaccine and knowledge to increase positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination for youth.

  14. Women have a preference for their male partner to be HPV vaccinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Diane Medved; Alexander, Natalie Marya; Ahern, Debra Ann; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin

    2014-01-01

    Peer influence and social networking can change female adolescent and young adult behavior. Peer influence on preferences for male human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has not been documented. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women had preferences about male sexual partner HPV vaccination receipt. A prospective survey of women 18-26 years of age was conducted at an urban university student health clinic. Education about the two HPV vaccines, cervical cancer and genital warts was provided. Women self-reported their demographic and medical history data, as well as their own preferences for HPV vaccine and their preferences for their male partner HPV vaccine using a 5 point Likert scale. 601 women, mean age of 21.5 years (SD 2.4), participated between 2011 and 2012. Nearly 95% of respondents were heterosexual; condoms and contraceptives were used in over half of the population. Regardless of the woman's vaccination status, women had significantly higher (strongly agree/agree) preferences for the male partner being vaccinated with HPV4 than not caring if he was vaccinated (63.6% vs. 13.1%, ppreference was repeated for sexual risk factors and past reproductive medical history. Women who received HPV4 compared to those choosing HPV2 had a significantly lower proportion of preferences for not caring if the male partner was vaccinated (13% vs. 22%, p = 0.015). Women preferred a HPV vaccinated male partner. Peer messaging might change the male HPV vaccination uptake.

  15. Beliefs, behaviors and HPV vaccine: correcting the myths and the misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimet, Gregory D; Rosberger, Zeev; Fisher, William A; Perez, Samara; Stupiansky, Nathan W

    2013-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in many countries has been sub-optimal. We examine several issues associated with non-vaccination that have received particular attention, including fears about sexual risk compensation, concerns about vaccine safety, inadequate vaccination recommendations by health care providers (HCPs), and distrust due to the perceived "newness" of HPV vaccines. Selective review of behavioral and social science literature on HPV vaccine attitudes and uptake. There is no evidence of post-vaccination sexual risk compensation, HPV vaccines are quite safe, and they can no longer be considered "new". Nonetheless, research findings point to these issues and, most importantly, to the failure of HCPs to adequately recommend HPV vaccine as major drivers of non-vaccination. Most fears related to HPV vaccine are more related to myth than reality. In the absence of major health policy initiatives, such as those implemented in Canada, the U.K., and Australia, a multi-level, multi-faceted approach will be required to achieve high rates of HPV vaccination. It will be essential to focus on the education of HCPs regarding indications for HPV vaccination and approaches to communicating most effectively with parents and patients about the safety and benefits of vaccination and the risks associated with non-vaccination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and willingness to vaccinate in preparation for the introduction of HPV vaccines in Bamako, Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounkara, Karamoko; Rochas, Mali; Beseme, Sarah; Yekta, Shahla; Diallo, Fanta Siby; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Teguete, Ibrahima; Koita, Ousmane A.

    2017-01-01

    Although screening for pre-cancerous cervical lesions and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination are accepted and effective means to prevent cervical cancer, women in Mali have limited access to these interventions. In addition, cervical cancer prevention by HPV vaccination has been controversial in some settings. To reduce cervical cancer prevalence and increase HPV vaccine uptake, it is important to understand the level of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and practices related to vaccination in at-risk populations. In this study, the level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer and attitudes towards vaccination were assessed among 301 participants (male and female, adults and adolescents) in a house-to-house survey in two urban neighborhoods in Bamako, Mali. The survey was combined with a brief educational session on HPV. Prior to the education session, overall knowledge of HPV infection and cervical cancer was very low: only 8% knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Less than 20% of women had ever consulted a gynecologist and less than 3% had ever had cervical cancer screening. After hearing a description of HPV vaccine, more than 80% would accept HPV vaccination; fathers and husbands were identified as primary decisions makers and local clinics or the home as preferred sites for vaccination. This study provides information on STI knowledge and vaccine acceptance in Bamako, Mali in 2012, prior to the introduction of HPV vaccination. PMID:28192460

  17. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and willingness to vaccinate in preparation for the introduction of HPV vaccines in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Anne S; Tounkara, Karamoko; Rochas, Mali; Beseme, Sarah; Yekta, Shahla; Diallo, Fanta Siby; Tracy, J Kathleen; Teguete, Ibrahima; Koita, Ousmane A

    2017-01-01

    Although screening for pre-cancerous cervical lesions and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination are accepted and effective means to prevent cervical cancer, women in Mali have limited access to these interventions. In addition, cervical cancer prevention by HPV vaccination has been controversial in some settings. To reduce cervical cancer prevalence and increase HPV vaccine uptake, it is important to understand the level of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and practices related to vaccination in at-risk populations. In this study, the level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer and attitudes towards vaccination were assessed among 301 participants (male and female, adults and adolescents) in a house-to-house survey in two urban neighborhoods in Bamako, Mali. The survey was combined with a brief educational session on HPV. Prior to the education session, overall knowledge of HPV infection and cervical cancer was very low: only 8% knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Less than 20% of women had ever consulted a gynecologist and less than 3% had ever had cervical cancer screening. After hearing a description of HPV vaccine, more than 80% would accept HPV vaccination; fathers and husbands were identified as primary decisions makers and local clinics or the home as preferred sites for vaccination. This study provides information on STI knowledge and vaccine acceptance in Bamako, Mali in 2012, prior to the introduction of HPV vaccination.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and willingness to vaccinate in preparation for the introduction of HPV vaccines in Bamako, Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S De Groot

    Full Text Available Although screening for pre-cancerous cervical lesions and human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination are accepted and effective means to prevent cervical cancer, women in Mali have limited access to these interventions. In addition, cervical cancer prevention by HPV vaccination has been controversial in some settings. To reduce cervical cancer prevalence and increase HPV vaccine uptake, it is important to understand the level of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and practices related to vaccination in at-risk populations. In this study, the level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer and attitudes towards vaccination were assessed among 301 participants (male and female, adults and adolescents in a house-to-house survey in two urban neighborhoods in Bamako, Mali. The survey was combined with a brief educational session on HPV. Prior to the education session, overall knowledge of HPV infection and cervical cancer was very low: only 8% knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Less than 20% of women had ever consulted a gynecologist and less than 3% had ever had cervical cancer screening. After hearing a description of HPV vaccine, more than 80% would accept HPV vaccination; fathers and husbands were identified as primary decisions makers and local clinics or the home as preferred sites for vaccination. This study provides information on STI knowledge and vaccine acceptance in Bamako, Mali in 2012, prior to the introduction of HPV vaccination.

  19. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Huygen

    2015-09-01

    There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination.

  20. Do correlates of HPV vaccine initiation differ between adolescent boys and girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Moss, Jennifer L; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Brewer, Noel T

    2012-09-07

    Guidelines now recommend that adolescents routinely receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Because little is known about uptake among boys, we assessed HPV vaccine initiation in a population-based sample of adolescent boys and girls. We analyzed weighted data from 751 parents who reported on an 11- to 17-year-old son or daughter for the 2010 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program survey. Stratified multivariate logistic regression analyses identified correlates of HPV vaccine initiation separately for boys and girls. Only 14% of sons had received one or more doses of HPV vaccine compared to 44% of daughters (pvaccine initiation correlated with age and having received meningococcal vaccine. Among sons, initiation of HPV vaccine was lower for those living in high income households (odds ratio [OR]=0.22, 95% CI, 0.09-0.53) and higher for those whose race was neither white nor black (OR=3.26, 95% CI, 1.06-10.04). When asked to give the main reason for not vaccinating their child against HPV, parents of unvaccinated sons were more likely than those of daughters to report not getting a provider's recommendation or not being aware that the vaccine was available for their child, but less likely to report concern about safety (pHPV vaccine. HPV vaccine correlates and concerns varied for parents of boys and girls. To improve very low levels of uptake among boys, providers should recommend HPV vaccine concomitant with other adolescent vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influential factors in HPV vaccination uptake among providers in four states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCave, Emily L

    2010-12-01

    To examine health providers' perceived barriers, supports, and vaccination actions in delivering the HPV vaccine to females ages 9-17 in four states. Differences in providers' HPV vaccination of pre-adolescents compared with older adolescents were explored. A random sample of 1,500 pediatricians, family physicians, gynecologists, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants from four states were asked to complete a mail survey. Providers were recruited through state medical and nursing boards. The final sample included 227 respondents. Among those participants, health providers vaccinated older females (ages 13-17) at significantly higher rates than pre-adolescents (ages 9-12) in all four states. Providers who reported increased barriers to HPV vaccination were significantly less likely to vaccinate girls in either age group. The most frequent barriers reported by providers included the financial burden of the HPV vaccine and encountering patients (more often patients' parents) who have negative perceptions of vaccine. Most common supports included a personal belief in the positive impact of the HPV vaccine, followed by providers feeling comfortable talking with parents about the sexual nature of the vaccine, and the importance of adhering to the CDC's recommendations on HPV vaccination. Age of patient will likely influence providers' HPV vaccination behaviors, particularly if parents have concerns about vaccinating their pre-adolescents. Providers can best serve their patients when they are aware of the potential barriers and supports that may influence their HPV vaccination behaviors.

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes About Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    1- Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda Authors...vaccination among parents/guardians of the vaccinated girls and to assess the attitudes to HPV vaccination among parents/guardians of the vaccinated girls...general attitude towards HPV vaccination was positive among mothers though there is still need for the populations to appreciate HPV and cervical

  3. Awareness, knowledge and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccines among nurses in Cameroon: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamai, Richard G; Ayissi, Claudine Akono; Oduwo, Geofrey O; Perlman, Stacey; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Manga, Simon; Onyango, Monica A; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2013-10-01

    While it is known that sub-Saharan African countries face multiple obstacles such as cost in adopting vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the crucial role nurses can play in implementing such programs has not been adequately examined. To investigate the knowledge and awareness of HPV, primary cause of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among nurses working at four Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services facilities, and to explore what factors influence nurses' willingness to inform and recommend HPV vaccine to adolescents and parents attending clinics. A structured questionnaire survey was administered to a convenience sample of nursing staff working at the four health facilities. Of 192 eligible nurses 76 (39.6%) participated in the study. There were moderately low levels of knowledge about HPV infection and prevention of cervical cancer, but a moderately high level of knowledge about HPV vaccine. Although 90.8% acknowledged that cervical cancer is directly linked to HPV infection, nearly 32% failed to identify it as a sexually transmitted infection (STI), while 43.4% believed it is an uncommon infection. Willingness to recommend the HPV vaccine was moderate, with 69.7% intentionally initiating discussions with patients about the subject. The most important factors considered when deciding to recommend the vaccine included effectiveness (56.6%) and side effects/safety (11.8%). Cost was less of a concern (6.6%), likely due to the availability of donated vaccine. Despite high awareness about HPV, more education about the virus, cervical cancer and the vaccine are required to further increase nurses' willingness to recommend the vaccine and strengthen strategies for reaching adolescents through nurses in Cameroon. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Motivational and contextual determinants of HPV-vaccination uptake: A longitudinal study among mothers of girls invited for the HPV-vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, M.; Keulen, H.M. van; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Eekhout, I.; Mollema, L.; Paulussen, T.W.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, HPV-vaccination uptake among 12-year-old girls remains to be lower (61% in 2016) than expected. The present study is about 1) replicating the extent to which social-psychological determinants found in earlier cross-sectional studies explain HPV-vaccination intention,

  5. Cervical cancer and HPV: Awareness and vaccine acceptability among parents in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouallif, Mustapha; Bowyer, Harriet L; Festali, Soukaina; Albert, Adelin; Filali-Zegzouti, Younes; Guenin, Samuel; Delvenne, Philippe; Waller, Jo; Ennaji, Moulay Mustapha

    2014-01-09

    Cervical cancer is a major public health concern in Morocco where it represents the second most common and lethal cancer in women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been licensed in Morocco since 2008 but there are no available data on their acceptability. This study aimed to assess awareness of HPV and the vaccine, and to identify factors associated with acceptability of the vaccine among parents in Morocco. We carried out a questionnaire-based survey using face-to-face interviews in a sample of 852 parents (670 mothers and 182 fathers) with at least one unmarried daughter ≤26 years. We collected data within public and private health centres and clinics in four regions in Morocco between July and August 2012. The main outcome measure was parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine for their daughter(s). Responses revealed very low awareness of HPV infection (4.7%) and the HPV vaccine (14.3%). None of the participants had vaccinated their daughter(s) against HPV and vaccine acceptability was low among mothers (32%) and fathers (45%). Higher education and income, previous awareness of the HPV vaccine and endorsement of the belief that a recommendation from the Ministry of Health or a doctor to have the vaccine would be encouraging, were associated with mothers' HPV vaccine acceptability. Non-acceptability among mothers was associated with having more than two daughters, believing the vaccine was expensive, lack of information and believing that whatever happens to an individual's health is God's will. The only factor associated with the fathers' acceptability of the vaccine was the cost of the vaccine. Increasing HPV and HPV vaccine awareness through educational campaigns, along with active recommendation by physicians and a publically funded vaccination programme could increase parental acceptability of the HPV vaccine in Morocco. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The cost-effectiveness of male HPV vaccination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Saraiya, Mona; Dunne, Eileen F; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2011-10-26

    The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of adding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 12-year-old males to a female-only vaccination program for ages 12-26 years in the United States. We used a simplified model of HPV transmission to estimate the reduction in the health and economic burden of HPV-associated diseases in males and females as a result of HPV vaccination. Estimates of the incidence, cost-per-case, and quality-of-life impact of HPV-associated health outcomes were based on the literature. The HPV-associated outcomes included were: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN); genital warts; juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP); and cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, oropharyngeal, and penile cancers. The cost-effectiveness of male vaccination depended on vaccine coverage of females. When including all HPV-associated outcomes in the analysis, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by adding male vaccination to a female-only vaccination program was $23,600 in the lower female coverage scenario (20% coverage at age 12 years) and $184,300 in the higher female coverage scenario (75% coverage at age 12 years). The cost-effectiveness of male vaccination appeared less favorable when compared to a strategy of increased female vaccination coverage. For example, we found that increasing coverage of 12-year-old girls would be more cost-effective than adding male vaccination even if the increased female vaccination strategy incurred program costs of $350 per additional girl vaccinated. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old males might potentially be cost-effective, particularly if female HPV vaccination coverage is low and if all potential health benefits of HPV vaccination are included in the analysis. However, increasing female coverage could be a more efficient strategy than male vaccination for reducing the overall health burden of HPV in the population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Parent perceptions important for HPV vaccine initiation among low income adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staras, Stephanie A S; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Patel, Roshni P; Shenkman, Elizabeth A

    2014-10-21

    The study aims were to assess the influence of provider recommendations on parental vaccine perceptions and identify the most potent parent vaccine perceptions for HPV vaccine series initiation considering provider recommendation strength. We administered a questionnaire and assessed HPV vaccine claims among a stratified-random sample of parents of 9-17 year old girls enrolled in Florida's Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program. Using multivariate analyses, we evaluated the associations between: (1) parent vaccine perceptions and provider recommendation strength, and (2) parent vaccine perceptions and HPV vaccine series initiation (≥1 vaccine claim or positive parental report) controlling for provider recommendation strength. The majority of the 2422 participating parents agreed that the HPV vaccine was safe (61%), would not make girls more likely to have sex (69%), and prevented cervical cancer (71%). About half (44%) reported receiving a strong provider recommendation. Compared to parents without recommendations, parents with strong recommendations had 2 to 7 times higher odds of agreeing that: vaccines are safe, the HPV vaccine is safe, not concerned about side effects, and the vaccine prevents cervical cancer. Even when considering provider recommendation strength, HPV vaccine series initiation was more likely among girls of parents who agreed rather than disagreed that the HPV vaccine was safe [odds ratio (OR)=5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.1, 11.1], does not cause sex (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.2, 3.4), prevents cervical cancer (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.0, 3.4), and prevents HPV infections (OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.0, 3.0). Parent concerns about HPV vaccine are similar to their concerns about other vaccines. Providers should focus HPV vaccine discussions with parents on vaccine safety and illness prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix® or Gardasil® Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Godi

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain.We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12-15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix® or Gardasil® HPV vaccine.The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix® were generally higher than those following Gardasil® immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses.These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the preferred humoral immune

  9. Monitoring vaccine and non-vaccine HPV type prevalence in the post-vaccination era in women living in the Basilicata region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; Puliti, Donella; Ocello, Cristina; Anastasio, Pasquale Silvio; Moliterni, Espedito Antonio; Perinetti, Emilia; Serradell, Laurence; Burroni, Elena; Confortini, Massimo; Mantellini, Paola; Zappa, Marco; Dominiak-Felden, Géraldine

    2018-01-15

    A large free-of-charge quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination program, covering four cohorts annually (women 11, 14, 17 and 24 years), has been implemented in Basilicata since 2007. This study evaluated vaccine and non-vaccine HPV prevalence 5-7 years post-vaccination program implementation in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the public screening centers of the Local Health Unit in Matera between 2012 and 2014. Cervical samples were obtained for Pap and HPV testing (HC2, LiPA Extra® assay) and participants completed a sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire. Detailed HPV vaccination status was retrieved from the official HPV vaccine registry. HPV prevalence was described overall, by type and vaccination status. The association between HPV type-detection and risk/protective factors was studied. Direct vaccine protection (qHPV vaccine effectiveness [VE]), cross-protection, and type-replacement were evaluated in cohorts eligible for vaccination, by analyzing HPV prevalence of vaccine and non-vaccine types according to vaccination status. Overall, 2793 women (18-50 years) were included, 1314 of them having been in birth cohorts eligible for the HPV vaccination program (18- to 30-year-old women at enrolment). Among the latter, qHPV vaccine uptake was 59% (at least one dose), with 94% completing the schedule; standardized qHPV type prevalence was 0.6% in vaccinated versus 5.5% in unvaccinated women (P HPV, high-risk non-vaccine HPV, or any single non-vaccine type prevalence was observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. These results, conducted in a post-vaccine era, suggest a high qHPV VE and that a well-implemented catch-up vaccination program may be efficient in reducing vaccine-type infections in a real-world setting. No cross-protective effect or evidence of type-replacement was observed a few years after HPV vaccine introduction.

  10. The impact and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent HPV vaccination in the United States: Estimates from a simplified transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Markowitz, Lauri E; Hariri, Susan; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-06-02

    The objective of this study was to assess the incremental costs and benefits of the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) compared with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV). Like 4vHPV, 9vHPV protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. 9vHPV also protects against 5 additional HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. We adapted a previously published model of the impact and cost-effectiveness of 4vHPV to include the 5 additional HPV types in 9vHPV. The vaccine strategies we examined were (1) 4vHPV for males and females; (2) 9vHPV for females and 4vHPV for males; and (3) 9vHPV for males and females. In the base case, 9vHPV cost $13 more per dose than 4vHPV, based on available vaccine price information. Providing 9vHPV to females compared with 4vHPV for females (assuming 4vHPV for males in both scenarios) was cost-saving regardless of whether or not cross-protection for 4vHPV was assumed. The cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by 9vHPV for both sexes (compared with 4vHPV for both sexes) was < $0 (cost-saving) when assuming no cross-protection for 4vHPV and $8,600 when assuming cross-protection for 4vHPV. Compared with a vaccination program of 4vHPV for both sexes, a vaccination program of 9vHPV for both sexes can improve health outcomes and can be cost-saving.

  11. HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheldon, Christopher W.; Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA until the age of 26 years. Despite this recommendation, vaccine uptake remains low. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe salient beliefs related to HPV vaccination among young MSM; (2) determine factors that underlie these…

  12. HPV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among Cambodian American parents and community leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hoai; Seng, Paularita; Talbot, Jocelyn; Acorda, Elizabeth; Coronado, Gloria D; Taylor, Victoria M

    2009-01-01

    The cervical cancer incidence rate among Cambodian American women is 15.0 per 100,000, compared to 7.7 per 100,000 among non-Latina white women. HPV infection has been identified as a universal risk factor for cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine was recently approved in the United States for females aged 9-26 years. There is little information about HPV vaccination knowledge and beliefs in Southeast Asian communities. We conducted 13 key informant interviews with Cambodian community leaders, as well as four focus groups with Cambodian parents (37 participants). Two of the focus groups included fathers and two of the focus groups included mothers. Interview and focus group questions addressed HPV vaccine barriers and facilitators. Participants had limited knowledge about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine. Barriers to HPV vaccination included a lack of information about the vaccine, as well as concerns about vaccine safety, effectiveness, and financial costs. The most important facilitators were a health care provider recommendation for vaccination and believing in the importance of disease prevention. Future cervical cancer control educational programs for Cambodians should promote use of the HPV vaccine for age-eligible individuals. Health care providers who serve Cambodian communities should be encouraged to recommend HPV vaccination.

  13. Clinician and Parent Perspectives on Educational Needs for Increasing Adolescent HPV Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Christy A; Rodriguez, Elisa M; Saad-Harfouche, Frances; Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Erwin, Deborah O; Mahoney, Martin C

    2018-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related morbidity and mortality remain a significant public health burden despite the availability of HPV vaccines for cancer prevention. We engaged clinicians and parents to identify barriers and opportunities related to adolescent HPV vaccination within a focused geographic region. This mixed-method study design used an interviewer-administered semi-structured interview with clinicians (n = 52) and a written self-administered survey with similar items completed by parents (n = 54). Items focused on experiences, opinions, and ideas about HPV vaccine utilization in the clinical setting, family, and patient perceptions about HPV vaccination and potential future efforts to increase vaccine utilization. Quantitative items were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while qualitative content was analyzed thematically. Suggested solutions for achieving higher rates of HPV vaccination noted by clinicians included public health education, the removal of stigma associated with vaccines, media endorsements, and targeting parents as the primary focus of educational messages. Parents expressed the need for more information about HPV-related disease, HPV vaccines, vaccine safety, sexual concerns, and countering misinformation on social media. Results from this mixed-method study affirm that educational campaigns targeting both health care professionals and parents represent a key facilitator for promoting HPV vaccination; disease burden and cancer prevention emerged as key themes for this messaging.

  14. Human Papilloma Virus and HPV vaccine knowledge among Mustafa Kemal University Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziye Keskin Kurt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV is regarded as the main cause in the etiology of cervical cancer. The purpose of our study is to assess the knowledge of medical students about HPV vaccine and to evaluate their opinion on this subject.   Material and Method: The study population consisted of 488 medical students. The survey was composed of questions intended   to obtain information about transmission route of HPV, types of HPV, role of HPV in cervical cancer, whether HPV is treatable or not, which types of HPV the HPV vaccine prevents, the age groups HPV vaccine is administered, the opinions on HPV vaccine and sufficiency of public health, whether female students have underwent vaccination and if not what their drawbacks are.   Results: Mean age of the students participating in the study was 21±4 and 58 % of the patients were female. Out of 448 medical students, 60% of them did not know that HPV was a sexually transmitted disease. Only 55% students knew about the association of HPV with cervical cancer and 52% participants stated that HPV vaccine could not be preventive against cervical cancer. None of female students had been immunized and 67% of female students did not consider getting immunized. Among those who did not consider getting immunized, 70% said they had worries about the safety of the vaccine. Conclusion: Our study results revealed that the knowledge of medical students about HPV is satisfactory, however their knowledge about HPV vaccine, immunization status and desire to be immunized were little.

  15. Assessment of eight HPV vaccination programs implemented in lowest income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ladner, Joël; Besson, Marie-Hélène; Hampshire, Rachel; Tapert, Lisa; Chirenje, Mike; Saba, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cervix cancer, preventable, continues to be the third most common cancer in women worldwide, especially in lowest income countries. Prophylactic HPV vaccination should help to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to describe the results of and key concerns in eight HPV vaccination programs conducted in seven lowest income countries through the Gardasil Access Program (GAP). Methods The GAP provides free HPV vaccin...

  16. Understanding Public Perceptions of the HPV Vaccination Based on Online Comments to Canadian News Articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Feinberg

    Full Text Available Given the variation in human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine coverage across Canada, and debate regarding delivery of HPV vaccines in Catholic schools, we studied online comments on Canadian news websites to understand public perceptions of HPV and HPV vaccine.We searched English- and French-language Canadian news websites for 2012 articles that contained the terms "HPV" or "human papillomavirus." Articles about HPV vaccinations that contained at least one comment were included. Two researchers independently coded comments, analyzing them for emerging themes.We identified 3073 comments from 1198 individuals in response to 71 news articles; 630 (52.6% individuals expressed positive sentiments about HPV vaccination (2.5 comments/individual, 404 (33.7% were negative (3.0 comments/individual, 34 (2.8% were mixed (1.5 comments/individual and 130 (10.8% were neutral (1.6 comments/individual. Vaccine-supportive commenters believed the vaccine is safe and effective. Common themes in negative comments included concerns regarding HPV vaccine safety and efficacy, distrust of pharmaceutical companies and government, and belief that school-age children are too young for HPV vaccine. Many comments focused on whether the Catholic Church has the right to inform health policy for students, and discussion often evolved into debates regarding HPV and sexual behaviour. We noted that many individuals doubted the credibility of vaccine safety information.The majority of commenters do not appear to be against HPV vaccination, but public health messaging that focuses on both the vaccine's safety profile, and its use as a means to prevent cancer rather than sexually transmitted HPV infection may facilitate its acceptance.

  17. Provider perceptions of barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination in a high-risk community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Marjan; Stahlman, Shauna; Walker, Susan; Gottlieb, Sami; Markowitz, Lauri; Liddon, Nicole; Plant, Aaron; Guerry, Sarah

    2012-06-22

    Maximizing HPV vaccine uptake among those at highest risk for cervical cancer is critical. We explored healthcare provider perspectives on factors influencing HPV vaccination among adolescent girls in a community with high cervical cancer rates. From March to May 2009, we conducted in-depth interviews with 21 medical staff providing care to adolescent girls at two clinics in Los Angeles, CA, serving a predominantly Hispanic population with high cervical cancer rates. Interviews were recorded and transcribed data were reviewed for coding and thematic content related to potential barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination. Providers and medical staff overwhelmingly focused on parental beliefs as barriers to HPV vaccination. Perceived parental misconceptions acting as barriers included the belief that adolescents do not need vaccinations and that no-cost vaccine programs like Vaccines for Children are only available for younger children. Perceived parental concerns that the vaccine will promote sexual activity were prevalent, which prompted providers to frame HPV vaccine as a "routine" vaccine. However, the medical staff felt mothers with a friend or relative supportive of HPV vaccination were more likely to request the vaccine. The staff also noted that for Hispanic parents the "preferred" source of information is peers; if the "right people" in the community were supportive of HPV vaccine, parents were more willing to vaccinate. Other barriers included lack of immunization records among immigrant parents and a difficult-to-reach, mobile clientele. Providers noted a number of barriers to HPV vaccination, including some perceived parental misconceptions that could be addressed with education about the need for adolescent vaccines and available free vaccine programs. Because community support appears particularly important to Hispanic parents, the use of promotoras - peer liaisons between health organizations and the community - may increase HPV vaccine uptake in

  18. Learning from Successful School-based Vaccination Clinics during 2009 pH1N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiman, Tamar; O'Connell, Katherine; Stoto, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2009 H1N1 vaccination campaign was the largest in US history. State health departments received vaccines from the federal government and sent them to local health departments (LHDs) who were responsible for getting vaccines to the public. Many LHD's used school-based clinics to ensure children were the first to receive limited…

  19. Sexual behavior and factors associated with young age at first intercourse and HPV vaccine uptake among young women in Germany: implications for HPV vaccination policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remschmidt, Cornelius; Fesenfeld, Michaela; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Deleré, Yvonne

    2014-12-05

    In Germany, immunization against human papillomaviruses (HPV) is free of charge for all females aged 12 to 17 years. Since HPV infection rates rise soon after first intercourse, immunization against HPV should be completed before sexual debut. Knowledge of country-specific data on age at first intercourse and related risk factors is important to optimize prevention of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to describe sexual behavior in young women in Germany. Secondary aims were to identify factors that are (i) associated with younger age at first intercourse and (ii) with HPV vaccine uptake. Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study among randomly selected women aged 20 to 25 years in Germany. We used a structured, self-administered questionnaire to collect sociodemographic data, information on sexual habits such as age at first intercourse, and information on HPV vaccine uptake. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with younger age at first intercourse and with HPV vaccine uptake. A total of 823 women (response rate: 14.2%) participated, 785 (95.4%) of which reported having had intercourse already. 70% of these women experienced first intercourse before the age of 18 years. However, less than 5% were younger than 14 years at sexual debut. Younger age at first intercourse was independently associated with a higher number of sexual partners, smoking, and past pregnancies. HPV vaccine uptake was associated with higher education, whereas smoking and a migrant background reduced the chance of being vaccinated. In Germany, only a small proportion of women experienced first intercourse before the age of 14 years. Younger age at first intercourse was associated with behavior that might increase the risk of HPV infections or other sexually transmitted infections. Therefore, to optimize the HPV vaccination strategy, HPV vaccination series

  20. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine on all HPV-associated genital diseases in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV6/11/16/18) on all HPV-associated genital disease was investigated in a population that approximates sexually naive women in that they were "negative to 14 HPV types" and in a mixed population of...

  1. Experiences of operational costs of HPV vaccine delivery strategies in Gavi-supported demonstration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Taylor; Nanda, Shreya; Bloem, Paul; Griffiths, Ulla K.; Sidibe, Anissa; Hutubessy, Raymond C. W.

    2017-01-01

    From 2012 to 2016, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, provided support for countries to conduct small-scale demonstration projects for the introduction of the human papillomavirus vaccine, with the aim of determining which human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies might be effective and sustainable upon national scale-up. This study reports on the operational costs and cost determinants of different vaccination delivery strategies within these projects across twelve countries using a standardized micro-costing tool. The World Health Organization Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool was used to collect costing data, which were then aggregated and analyzed to assess the costs and cost determinants of vaccination. Across the one-year demonstration projects, the average economic and financial costs per dose amounted to US$19.98 (standard deviation ±12.5) and US$8.74 (standard deviation ±5.8), respectively. The greatest activities representing the greatest share of financial costs were social mobilization at approximately 30% (range, 6–67%) and service delivery at about 25% (range, 3–46%). Districts implemented varying combinations of school-based, facility-based, or outreach delivery strategies and experienced wide variation in vaccine coverage, drop-out rates, and service delivery costs, including transportation costs and per diems. Size of target population, number of students per school, and average length of time to reach an outreach post influenced cost per dose. Although the operational costs from demonstration projects are much higher than those of other routine vaccine immunization programs, findings from our analysis suggest that HPV vaccination operational costs will decrease substantially for national introduction. Vaccination costs may be decreased further by annual vaccination, high initial investment in social mobilization, or introducing/strengthening school health programs. Our analysis shows that drivers of cost are dependent on

  2. To vaccinate or not to vaccinate? Perspectives on HPV vaccination among girls, boys, and parents in the Netherlands: A Q-methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patty, N.J.S. (Nathalie J. S.); H.M. van Dijk (Hanna); I. Wallenburg (Iris); R.A. Bal (Roland); T.J.M. Helmerhorst (Theo); Van Exel, J. (Job); J.M. Cramm (Jane)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Despite the introduction of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in national immunization programs (NIPs), vaccination rates in most countries remain relatively low. An understanding of the reasons underlying decisions about whether to vaccinate is essential in order to

  3. Communication and US-Somali Immigrant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Phokeng M; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-09-01

    The current study uses a multiple goal theoretical perspective to explore how Somali immigrant families living in Ohio, USA, make decisions regarding whether to vaccinate their children against human papillomavirus (HPV)-a leading cause of cervical cancer. A focus was placed on the communication goals of parents in HPV vaccine discussions with their child and health care provider. Semi-structured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Key themes are the implications of the vaccine for early sexual activity, confusion between HPV and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the perception that the HPV vaccine is unnecessary, uncertainty about the vaccine's efficacy and side effects, avoidance of parent-child communication about the vaccine, and a preference for framing the vaccine as a health promotion behavior. Framing the threat of HPV in the context of initiation of sexual activity, uncertainty regarding vaccine efficacy, and anticipated regret account for the inconsistency in HPV vaccine uptake among Somali parents. Clinicians should consider talking about HPV as a distal versus an immediate threat and HPV vaccine uptake as a health-promotion behavior rather than a sexually transmitted infection prevention behavior.

  4. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: evidence from a large survey of Nordic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bo T; Kjær, Susanne K; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Liaw, Kai-Li; Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Munk, Christian; Nygård, Mari

    2014-09-03

    To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age at response. A random selection of women aged 18-46 years living in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2011-2012, eligible for opportunistic or organized catch-up HPV vaccination. A total of 3805 women reported to have received the HPV vaccine and 40,247 reported not to have received it. Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut versus women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccination did not result in younger age at first intercourse. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not have more sexual partners than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not subsequently engage more in sexual risk taking behaviour than women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of HPV Vaccine in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

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    Saleh JA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer which affects relatively young women of child bearing age is considered to be the second most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developing countries, a reflection of global health inequity. There are more than 450,000 newly diagnosed cases annually with over a quarter of million deaths recorded out of which over 80 percent are from the developing countries especially Africa, South Asia, South and Central America, and the Caribbean, with an exponential rise expected from this figure by 2020. The preventive measures available (Pap smear and HPV vaccine aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, has been shown to be very effective but difficult to implement especially in the developing countries partly due to lack of resources and mainly lack of government commitment amongst other things. This forms the basis of this review to look at the position of HPV vaccine in the prevention of cancer of the cervix. Method: In the course of this write-up, relevant literatures were reviewed using manual library search, relevant websites and internet articles. The key words employed were: cervical cancer, human papilloma virus, pap smear and vaccination. Results: It has been shown that, where resources permits, combining HPV vaccine in combination with pap smear screening methods especially to high risk group would greatly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cancer of the cervix. Conclusion: Although there are so many essential questions still unanswered, considering the havoc caused by this preventable gynaecological malignancy and coupled with the ever increasing costs of its treatment, the advantages of using HPV vaccine in addition to routine Pap smear as a means of preventing cancer of the cervix greatly outweighs the disadvantages. However, there is the need for caution to be adhered to when it comes to large scale vaccination programs in view of

  6. Prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and 18 in Vietnam: implications for vaccine campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Lan TH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Expanded Program on Immunization currently considers offering Human Papilomavirus vaccine on a routine basis in Vietnam. However, as the current available vaccine can prevent only two types HPV 16 and 18, before implementing a large-scale vaccine campaign we need information about the prevalence of infection with only HPV 16 and 18 in Viet Nam. This study was done in 5 large cities in Vietnam to estimate the prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 infections and to explore the distribution of other high risk types of HPV among married women in these provinces. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. The sample size included 4500 married women in two rounds (aged ranged from 18-69 years old, median age: 40 year old. Participant were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status (by real-time PCR kit using TaqMan probe and HPV genotyping test (by Reverse dot blot were done for all participants. Results The prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and/or 18 among married women in this study ranged from 3.1% to 7.4%. Many positive HPV cases (ranged from 24.5% to 56.8% were infected with other type of high risk HPV which can lead to cervical cancer and cannot prevented by currently available vaccines. In addition to HPV 16 and/or 18, most common types of high risk HPV were types 58, 52, 35 and 45. Awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines was still low in the study samples. Discussion While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protected against all type of high risk HPV types. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines. Conclusion High prevalence of infection with HPV high risk types was observed in this study. As HPV infection has a high correlation with cervical cancer, this

  7. Cervical, anal and oral HPV in an adolescent inner-city health clinic providing free vaccinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas F Schlecht

    Full Text Available Published human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine trials indicate efficacy is strongest for those naive to the vaccine-types. However, few high-risk young women have been followed and cervical HPV has been the predominant outcome measure.We collected cervical and anal swabs, as well as oral rinse specimens from 645 sexually active inner-city young females attending a large adolescent health-clinic in New York City that offers free care and HPV vaccination. Specimens were tested for HPV-DNA using a MY09/MY11-PCR system. Type-specific prevalence of HPV at each anatomic site was compared for individuals by vaccination dose using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models.The majority of subjects reported being of non-Caucasian (92% and/or Hispanic ethnicity (61%. Median age was 18 years (range:14-20. All had practiced vaginal sex, a third (33% practiced anal sex, and most (77% had also engaged in oral sex. At enrollment, 21% had not received the vaccine and 51% had received three doses. Prevalent HPV infection at enrollment was detected in 54% of cervical, 42% of anal and 20% of oral specimens, with vaccine types present in 7%, 6% and 1% of specimens, respectively. Comparing prevalence for vaccine types, the detection of HPV in the cervix of vaccinated compared to unvaccinated adolescents was significantly reduced: HPV6/11 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.19, 95%CI:0.06-0.75, HPV16 (OR = 0.31, 95%CI:0.11-0.88 and HPV18 (OR = 0.14, 95%CI:0.03-0.75. For anal HPV, the risk of detecting vaccine types HPV6/11 (OR = 0.27, 95%CI:0.10-0.72 and HPV18(OR = 0.12, 95%CI:0.01-1.16 were significantly reduced for vaccinated adolescents however, the risk for HPV16 was not significantly decreased (OR = 0.63, 95%CI:0.18-2.20.HPV Prevalence is extremely high in inner-city female adolescents. Administration of the HPV vaccine reduced the risk for cervical HPV; however continued follow-up is required to assess the protection for HPV at all sites

  8. Knowledge, Awareness and Attitude on HPV, HPV Vaccine and Cervical Cancer among the College Students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Shazia; Labani, Satyanarayana; Das, Bhudev C

    2016-01-01

    Infection of specific high risk Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is known to cause cervical cancer and two prophylactic vaccines have been developed against two major high risk HPV types 16 and 18 for prevention of cervical cancer. Because of societal, religious and ethical issues associated with the vaccination of adolescent girls in India together with lack of awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines, no successful HPV immunization program has been employed in India. To determine knowledge, awareness and attitude of college students on HPV, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in a total of 1580 undergraduate students between the age group 16-26 years comprising 684 girls and 876 boys. Out of a total of 1580 students, girls had more knowledge about cervical cancer (82.45%, pawareness about cervical cancer (81.89%, pawareness compared to boys. Analysis of odds ratio (ORs) along with 95% CI showed older girls with 1.2 to 3 fold (pawareness campaigns to augment HPV immunization program for control of cervical cancer in India.

  9. School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cational drive to improve knowledge and screening of mothers can be successful ... invited to sign consent and assent for the girl child to be vaccinated, and all mothers were .... view of the positive attitudes towards vaccines in general, vaccine.

  10. Provider Communication, Prompts, and Feedback to Improve HPV Vaccination Rates in Resident Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Cynthia M; Schaffer, Stanley J; Dhepyasuwan, Nui; Blumkin, Aaron; Albertin, Christina; Serwint, Janet R; Darden, Paul M; Humiston, Sharon G; Mann, Keith J; Stratbucker, William; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2018-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates lag behind vaccination rates for other adolescent vaccines; a bundled intervention may improve HPV vaccination rates. Our objective is to evaluate the impact of quality improvement (QI) training plus a bundled practice-based intervention (provider prompts plus communication skills training plus performance feedback) on improving HPV vaccinations in pediatric resident continuity clinics. Staff and providers in 8 resident clinics participated in a 12-month QI study. The intervention included training to strengthen provider communication about the HPV vaccine. Clinics also implemented provider prompts, received monthly performance feedback, and participated in learning collaborative calls. The primary outcome measure was eligible visits with vaccination divided by vaccine-eligible visits (captured HPV vaccination opportunities). Practices performed chart audits that were fed into monthly performance feedback on captured HPV vaccination opportunities. We used conditional logistic regression (conditioning on practice) to assess captured vaccination opportunities, with the time period of the study (before and after the QI intervention) as the independent variable. Overall, captured opportunities for HPV vaccination increased by 16.4 percentage points, from 46.9% to 63.3%. Special cause was demonstrated by centerline shift, with 8 consecutive points above the preintervention mean. On adjusted analyses, patients were more likely to receive a vaccine during, versus before, the intervention (odds ratio: 1.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.54-2.28). Captured HPV vaccination rates improved at both well-child and other visits (by 11.7 and 13.0 percentage points, respectively). A bundled intervention of provider prompts and training in communication skills plus performance feedback increased captured opportunities for HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Human Papillomavirus neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies induced in HIV-positive subjects after vaccination with quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Helena; Nielsen, Lars Toft; Sehr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-one HIV-infected individuals (61 men and 30 women) were randomized to vaccination either with quadrivalent (Gardasil™) or bivalent (Cervarix™) HPV vaccine. Neutralizing and specific HPV-binding serum antibodies were measured at baseline and 12 months after the first vaccine dose. Presence...... of neutralizing and binding antibodies had good agreement (average Kappa for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 was 0.65). At baseline, 88% of subjects had antibodies against at least one genital HPV. Following vaccination with Cervarix™, all subjects became seropositive for HPV16 and 18. After Gardasil......™ vaccination, 96% of subjects seroconverted for HPV16 and 73% for HPV18. Levels of HPV16-specific antibodies were 10IU in 85% of study subjects after vaccination. Antibodies against non-vaccine HPV types appeared after Gardasil...

  12. Revisiting the cost-effectiveness of universal HPV-vaccination in Denmark accounting for all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-related diseases in males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens; Jørgensen, Tine Rikke

    2015-01-01

    are taken into account. Vaccination of girls & boys vs. vaccination of girls only an ICER of 28,031 /QALY (2-dose regime) and 41,636 /QALY (3-dose regime) is estimated. Conclusions: Extension of the current HPV programme in Denmark to include boys and girls is a cost effective preventive intervention......, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer) were included in the analyses. In general, the analysis was performed in two phases. First, an agent-based transmission model that described the HPV transmission without and with HPV vaccination was applied. Second, an analysis of the incremental costs and effects...

  13. Debate Revives Old Arguments on HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a Republican presidential debate which revives the contention over requiring middle school girls to be vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. At the September 12 debate, U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann, of Minnesota, and Rick Santorum, a former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, attacked Texas Governor…

  14. Community Awareness of HPV Screening and Vaccination in Odisha

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    Niharika Khanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A number of new technologies including cervical cancer screening and vaccination have introduced new tools in the fight against cervical cancer. Methods. This study was set in Odisha, India, at the Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Center and study research infrastructure at the Asian Institute of Public Health. IRB approvals were obtained and a research assistant recruited 286 women aged 18–49 years, who provided informed consent and completed a survey tool. Data were entered into EpiData software and statistical analysis was conducted. Results. 76.3% women participants were married, 45.5% had sexual debut at age 21 or greater, 60.5% used contraception, 12.2% reported having a Pap smear in the past, and 4.9% reported having prior genital warts. Most, 68.8% had never heard of HPV and 11.9% were aware that HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer. 82.9% women thought that vaccinations prevent disease, and 74.8% said they make the decision to vaccinate their children. Conclusion. The Odisha community demonstrated a low level of knowledge about cervical cancer prevention, accepted vaccinations in the prevention of disease and screening, and identified mothers/guardians as the key family contacts.

  15. Who Is to Blame? Framing HPV to Influence Vaccination Intentions among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorpahl, McKenzie M; Yang, Janet Z

    2018-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI) among college students. Although previous research has studied HPV-related health communication strategies using various framing techniques, the goal of this study is to test how two unique message frames-whether mentioning HPV as an STI and whether to attribute the cause of infection as external or internal-would influence young adults' intentions to receive the recommended HPV vaccine. Results indicate that gender and causal attribution framing influenced participants' intentions to receive the HPV vaccine.

  16. A 9-valent HPV vaccine against infection and intraepithelial neoplasia in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joura, Elmar A; Giuliano, Anna R; Iversen, Ole-Erik

    2015-01-01

    obtained by means of biopsy or as part of definitive therapy (including a loop electrosurgical excision procedure and conization) was tested for HPV. RESULTS: The rate of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal disease irrespective of HPV type (i.e., disease caused by HPV types included in the 9v......HPV vaccine and those not included) in the modified intention-to-treat population (which included participants with and those without prevalent infection or disease) was 14.0 per 1000 person-years in both vaccine groups. The rate of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal disease related to HPV-31, 33, 45, 52...

  17. Modifiable influences on female HPV vaccine uptake at the clinic encounter level: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Stephanie L; Sampselle, Carolyn M; Martyn, Kristy K; Dempsey, Amanda F

    2014-09-01

    A review of the literature to identify modifiable influences on female human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake relevant to clinical practice in order to support nurse practitioners (NPs) in the prevention of cervical cancer. PubMed, CINAHL, reference lists of publications that surfaced in the electronic search. Six influences are modifiable and potentially amenable to being addressed at the clinic encounter level: (a) cost and insurance coverage, (b) provider recommendation, (c) vaccination opportunity, (d) HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge, (e) vaccine safety concerns, and (f) HPV risk. NPs have an important role in improving HPV vaccine uptake and research suggests several areas they can address to increase vaccination during clinic visits. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Winstons Muhwezi

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003, believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006, thought their son(s couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010, didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002, knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000 and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000. Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital.

  19. HPV vaccines: their pathology-based discovery, benefits, and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alcina F; de Andrade, Cecilia V; Russomano, Fabio B; Rodrigues, Luana S L; Oliveira, Nathalia S; Provance, David William; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine illustrates the power of in situ-based pathologic analysis in better understanding and curing diseases. The 2 available HPV vaccines have markedly reduced the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, genital warts, and cervical cancer throughout the world. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, health care officials, and parents to refuse providing the recommended vaccination to the target population. The aims of the study were to discuss the discovery of HPV vaccine and review scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines. The strong type-specific immunity against HPV in humans has been known for more than 25 years. Multiple studies confirm the positive risk benefit of HPV vaccination with minimal documented adverse effects. The most common adverse effect, injection site pain, occurred in about 10% of girls and was less than the rate reported for other vaccines. Use of HPV vaccine should be expanded into more diverse populations, mainly in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Attitudes Regarding HPV Vaccinations of Children among Mothers with Adolescent Daughters in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong No; Chang, Kylie Hae Jin; Cho, Seong Sik; Park, Sung Ho; Park, Sung Taek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out before the beginning of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations as a National Immunization Program (NIP) in Korea in 2016, is to assess the ranges of perceptions and personal experience and their influences on attitudes regarding HPV vaccinations of children, among mothers of adolescent (9-14 years of age) daughters in Korea. From November 2015 to February 2016, we distributed a written questionnaire to mothers who had daughters aged 9-14 years. The questionnaire consisted of several questions, related to knowledge of HPV, personal experiences of HPV vaccination, and attitudes toward HPV vaccinations of their adolescent daughters. Of the 260 questionnaires distributed, 140 participants returned answered ones. And although only 51% of participants were aware that cervical cancer is highly related with HPV infection, 70% said they were willing to vaccinate their daughters, showing that awareness does not coincide with intention to vaccinate. Among the participants showing negative attitudes, 50% were concerned about the vaccination side effects. The more the participants' pre-knowledge about HPV infection, and about the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, the more positive their attitudes (P = 0.002, P mothers with negative attitudes toward vaccinating their adolescent daughters rose as well. Thus, the provision of correct education by health care providers and accurate information through active advertising may play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate among adolescent girls in Korea.

  1. Attitudes Regarding HPV Vaccinations of Children among Mothers with Adolescent Daughters in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out before the beginning of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations as a National Immunization Program (NIP) in Korea in 2016, is to assess the ranges of perceptions and personal experience and their influences on attitudes regarding HPV vaccinations of children, among mothers of adolescent (9–14 years of age) daughters in Korea. From November 2015 to February 2016, we distributed a written questionnaire to mothers who had daughters aged 9–14 years. The questionnaire consisted of several questions, related to knowledge of HPV, personal experiences of HPV vaccination, and attitudes toward HPV vaccinations of their adolescent daughters. Of the 260 questionnaires distributed, 140 participants returned answered ones. And although only 51% of participants were aware that cervical cancer is highly related with HPV infection, 70% said they were willing to vaccinate their daughters, showing that awareness does not coincide with intention to vaccinate. Among the participants showing negative attitudes, 50% were concerned about the vaccination side effects. The more the participants’ pre-knowledge about HPV infection, and about the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, the more positive their attitudes (P = 0.002, P vaccinating their adolescent daughters rose as well. Thus, the provision of correct education by health care providers and accurate information through active advertising may play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate among adolescent girls in Korea. PMID:27914142

  2. Approaches to monitoring biological outcomes for HPV vaccination: challenges of early adopter countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Charlene A; Saraiya, Mona; Hariri, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we describe plans to monitor the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on biologic outcomes in selected international areas (Australia, Canada, Mexico, the Nordic countries, Scotland, and the United States) that have adopted this vaccine. This summary of monitoring plans...... provides a background for discussing the challenges of vaccine monitoring in settings where resources and capacity may vary. A variety of approaches that depend on existing infrastructure and resources are planned or underway for monitoring HPV vaccine impact. Monitoring HPV vaccine impact on biologic...

  3. “Saving lives”: Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Katharina T.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from “lagging behind” in 2008 into “Europe's frontrunner” by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made “good enough” over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential. PMID:26921834

  4. Outsmart HPV: Acceptability and short-term effects of a web-based HPV vaccination intervention for young adult gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Shoben, Abigail; Bauermeister, Jose A; Katz, Mira L; Paskett, Electra D; Reiter, Paul L

    2018-01-10

    Effective interventions to promote human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination are needed, particularly among populations at increased risk of HPV-related disease. We developed and pilot tested a web-based intervention, Outsmart HPV, to promote HPV vaccination among young gay and bisexual men (YGBM). In 2016, we recruited a national sample (n = 150) of YGBM ages 18-25 in the United States who had not received any doses of HPV vaccine. Participants were randomized to receive either standard HPV vaccination information (control) or population-targeted, individually-tailored content (Outsmart HPV intervention). We assessed between group differences in HPV vaccination attitudes and beliefs immediately following the intervention using multiple linear regression. There were no differences in HPV vaccination attitudes, beliefs and intentions between groups at baseline. Compared to participants in the control group, intervention participants reported: greater perception that men who have sex with men are at higher risk for anal cancer relative to other men (b = 0.34); greater HPV vaccination self-efficacy (b = 0.15); and fewer perceived harms of HPV vaccine (b = -0.34) on posttest surveys (all p HPV intervention (all > 4.4 on a 5-point scale). Findings from this study provide preliminary support for a brief, tailored web-based intervention in improving HPV vaccination attitudes and beliefs among YGBM. An important next step is to determine the effects of Outsmart HPV on HPV vaccine uptake. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02835755. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and initial feedback about a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine comic book for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Goodwin, Jennifer; Reiter, Paul L; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates do not meet the Healthy People 2020 objective of 80% coverage among adolescent females. We describe the development and initial feedback about an HPV vaccine comic book for young adolescents. The comic book is one component of a multilevel intervention to improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents. Parents suggested and provided input into the development of a HPV vaccine comic book. Following the development of the comic book, we conducted a pilot study to obtain initial feedback about the comic book among parents (n = 20) and their adolescents ages 9 to 14 (n = 17) recruited from a community-based organization. Parents completed a pre-post test including items addressing HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine attitudes, and about the content of the comic book. Adolescents completed a brief interview after reading the comic book. After reading the comic book, HPV knowledge improved (2.7 to 4.6 correct answers on a 0-5 scale; p book's content was acceptable and adolescents liked the story, found it easy to read, and thought the comic book was a good way to learn about being healthy. Parents provided valuable information in the development of a theoretically-based comic book and the comic book appears to be an acceptable format for providing HPV vaccine information to adolescents. Future research will include the comic book in an intervention study to improve HPV vaccination rates.

  6. Modeling the impact of the difference in cross-protection data between a human papillomavirus (HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and a human papillomavirus (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohli Michele

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV types −16 and −18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. Methods A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection among women, cervical cancer (CC and GW was used to estimate the impact of vaccinating a cohort of 100,000 12-year-old females on lifetime outcomes and healthcare system costs (no indirect benefit in males included. A budget impact model was used to estimate the impact of each vaccine by province. Results In the base case, vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 48 additional CC cases, and 16 additional CC deaths, while vaccination with the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 6,933 additional GW cases. Vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was estimated to save 1 additional discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY at an overall lower lifetime cost to the healthcare system compared to the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (assuming vaccine price parity. In sensitivity analyses, the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was associated with greater QALYs saved when the cross-protection efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was reduced, or the burden of GW due to HPV-6/11 was increased. In most scenarios with price parity, the lifetime healthcare cost of the strategy with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to be lower than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the HPV-16/18 vaccine provided more QALY benefit than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in 49.2% of scenarios, with lower relative lifetime costs in 83.5% of scenarios. Conclusions Overall, the predicted lifetime healthcare costs and QALYs saved by

  7. 4-Valent Human Papillomavirus (4vHPV) Vaccine in Preadolescents and Adolescents After 10 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Daron G; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stanley L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We describe the final 10-year data for the long-term follow-up study of the 4-valent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine in preadolescents and adolescents. METHODS: In the base study (V501-018), 1661 sexually inactive boys and girls received the 4vHPV vaccine (early vaccination group...... assessed. Effectiveness was estimated by calculating the incidence rate of the primary endpoints (HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18-related disease or persistent infection). RESULTS: For HPV types 6, 11, and 16, 89% to 96% of subjects remained seropositive through 10-years postvaccination. The preadolescents had...... 38% to 65% higher geometric mean titers at month 7, which remained 16% to 42% higher at 10 years compared with adolescents. No cases of HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18-related diseases were observed. Ten subjects had a persistent infection of ≥6 months duration with vaccine-type HPV and 2 subjects had...

  8. Eurogin Roadmap 2015: How has HPV knowledge changed our practice: Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Julia M L; Jit, Mark; Gravitt, Patti E; Brisson, Marc; Kreimer, Aimée R; Pai, Sara I; Fakhry, Carole; Monsonego, Joseph; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    This review is one of two complementary reviews that have been prepared in the framework of the Eurogin Roadmap 2015 to evaluate how knowledge about HPV is changing practices in HPV infection and disease control through vaccination and screening. In this review of HPV vaccine knowledge, we present the most significant findings of the past year which have contributed to our knowledge of the two HPV prophylactic vaccines currently in widespread use and about the recently licensed nonavalent HPV vaccine. Whereas anal cancer is dealt with in the companion mini-review on screening, we also review here the rapidly evolving evidence regarding HPV-associated head and neck cancer and priority research areas. © 2016 UICC.

  9. Message Framing, Perceived Susceptibility, and Intentions to Vaccinate Children against HPV among African American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly; Richards, Adam; Holt, Cheryl; Wang, Min Qi; Tracy, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This research examines the interaction effect of message framing (gain vs. loss) and perceived susceptibility (i.e., perceived likelihood that one’s child is at risk of contracting HPV) on African American parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children against HPV. Results of an experiment (N = 193), in which parents were exposed to either a gain-framed or loss-framed message about HPV vaccination, revealed a significant interaction between message framing and perceived susceptibility when parents were required to pay for the vaccine. The specific pattern of interaction suggested that parents who perceived their children to be at high risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the gain-framed message, whereas those who believed their children to be at low risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the loss-framed message. Implications of the findings for HPV vaccination messaging are discussed. PMID:26646190

  10. [What should be known for the introduction of an HPV vaccine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Jacquard, Anne-Carole

    2008-10-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Two HPV vaccines are now available in many countries: (i) the first vaccine is quadrivalent and indicated in the prevention of CIN 2/3, cervical cancers, VIN 2/3, VaIN 2/3 and genital warts associated with the HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, (ii) the second vaccine is bivalent and indicated in the prevention of CIN 2+ and cervical cancers associated with the HPV types 16 and 18. To critically review all epidemiological aspects of the HPV infection and its relation with preneoplasic lesions of the cervix and cervical cancer to assist the relevant public health authorities to make plans for the introduction of HPV vaccines that have been recently commercialized. Only articles published in English in peer reviewed journals have been selected in Date base PubMed (National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health) with Keywords HPV, risk factor, cervical cancer, CIN2/3, incidence, prevalence, transmission, prevention, genital cancer, HPV vaccines, screening. A critical review of most papers published during the last 10 years was made. The topics covered included: diseases caused by HPV, prevalence, incidence and transmission of HPV, risk factors for the acquisition of HPV, natural history of HPV infection, risk factors determining the progression from HPV to cancer, protective factors blocking the progression from infection to cancer (screening) and primary prevention of HPV by vaccines and other methods. The information was interpreted and summarized. It was concluded that HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, that it is the necessary cause of cervical cancer and the cause of other genital cancers and cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. Fortunately most infections regress, but those infections that persist are the ones leading to cancer. Primary prevention by the introduction of prophylactic vaccines is the

  11. The Evidence for Efficacy of HPV Vaccines: Investigations in Categorical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Alison L.; Goossens, Emery T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent approval of HPV vaccines and their widespread provision to young women provide an interesting context to gain experience with the application of statistical methods in current research. We demonstrate how we have used data extracted from a meta-analysis examining the efficacy of HPV vaccines in clinical trials with students in applied…

  12. An assessment of the readiness for introduction of the HPV vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formative research assessing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine readiness in Uganda was conducted in 2007. The objective was to generate evidence for government decision-making and operational planning for HPV vaccine introduction. Qualitative research methods with children, parents, teachers, community ...

  13. Using a Reasoned Action Approach to Examine US College Women's Intention to Get the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although at high risk of contracting the human papillomavirus (HPV), less than one-half of US college women have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to identify underlying factors influencing college women's intention to get the HPV vaccine via developing an instrument using the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA). Setting: Data…

  14. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Mothers' Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters against HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John B.; Smith, Sandi; Dennis, Leslie K.; Andsager, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed mothers' intentions to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Experience with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), beliefs about the vaccine encouraging sexual activity, and perception of daughters' risk for HPV were also examined for a relationship with…

  15. Mothers' knowledge and attitudes about HPV vaccination to prevent cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Dilek; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Cinar, Nursan; Altinkaynak, Sevin

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer which is one of the most preventable cancers is an important public health problem worldwide, and especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes about the HPV vaccination of mothers with 0- to 18-year old children. Written approval was taken from the local authorities. The study subjects consisted of 799 mothers who agreed to participate. The data were collected via a "Personal Information Form" which included 30 questions that were prepared by the researchers themselves in line with the literature. The data were collected by face to face interviews with the mothers. Analyses were performed using commercial software. The mean age of the mothers who participated in the study was 32.0 ± 6.52, and 88.1% reported no information about HPV, and 83.5% no information about HPV vaccination. Only 0.7% of the mothers had daughters who had HPV vaccination, and 44.3% of the mothers who had sons were found out to be indecisive about having HPV vaccination. There was a significant corelation between the educational status of the mothers and their knowledge about HPV vaccination (p0.05). This study suggested that mothers had very little information on HPV and HPV vaccination. Knowledge of the disease and its vaccination is an essential factor for the success of the vaccination program. It is of great importance that mothers are trained in this subject by health professionals.

  16. Influences on parental acceptance of HPV vaccination in demonstration projects in Uganda and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Sean R; Paul, Proma; Menezes, Lysander; LaMontagne, D Scott

    2013-06-26

    This study investigates the effect of communication strategies on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in HPV vaccine demonstration projects in Uganda and Vietnam. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from surveys of a representative sample of parents and guardians of girls eligible for HPV vaccine, measuring three-dose coverage achieved in demonstration projects in 2008-2010. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis calculated the unadjusted and adjusted odds of receiving at least one dose of HPV vaccine depending on exposure to community influencers; information, education, and communication (IEC) channels; and demographic factors. This study found that exposure to community influencers was associated with HPV vaccine uptake in a multivariate model controlling for other factors. Exposure to non-interactive IEC channels was only marginally associated with HPV vaccine uptake. These results underscore the need of HPV vaccine programs in low- and middle-income countries to involve and utilize key community influencers and stakeholders to maximize HPV vaccine uptake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parental decisional strategies regarding HPV vaccination before media debates: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Empelen, P. van; Vogel, I.; Raat, H.; Ballegooijen, M. van; Korfage, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Before the introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, decisional strategies and factors that could guide HPV vaccination intentions were explored. The authors conducted 4 focus group discussions with 36 parents of children 8-15 years of age. Three groups consisted primarily of Dutch

  18. The HPV Vaccination Strategy: Could Male Vaccination Have a Significant Impact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brown

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the potential success of the human papilloma virus (HPV vaccine, taking into consideration possible waning immunity and the influence of behavioural parameters. We use a compartmental, population-level ordinary differential equation (ODE model. We find the effective reproductive value for HPV, R0e, which measures the threshold for infection outbreak in a population that is not entirely susceptible, together with infection prevalence. We study the effects of different parameters on both of these quantities. Results show that waning immunity plays a large part in allowing infection to persist. The proportion of the population not sexually active when vaccination occurs affects R0e, as does the rate at which individuals become sexually active. In several cases, infection persists as a result of an infection reservoir in the male cohort. To explore this further, we introduce male vaccination and find the conditions for which vaccination of males could be considered appropriate.

  19. Correlates of HPV vaccine initiation and provider recommendation among male adolescents, 2014 NIS-Teen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Kathryn; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Gaydos, Laura M

    2018-05-08

    Vaccination is a safe and effective way to prevent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related cancers; however, HPV vaccine uptake remains low in the US. After the 2011 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendation for routine HPV vaccination of adolescent males, several studies have examined predictors for initiating the vaccine series in this population of interest, particularly with regard to provider recommendations. This study examined racial and ethnic differences for HPV vaccine initiation and provider recommendation in male adolescents. Based on prior HPV vaccine uptake estimates and healthcare utilization data, we hypothesized that minority adolescents would be more likely to initiate HPV vaccines, but less likely to receive a provider recommendation compared to white counterparts. We analyzed the 2014 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen), which included 10,753 male adolescents with provider-verified vaccination data in 50 US states, using multivariate logistic regression models to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in HPV vaccine initiation and provider recommendation. The odds of HPV vaccine initiation were 76 percent higher for Hispanic adolescents and 43 percent higher for non-Hispanic Other or Multiple race adolescents compared to white adolescents. Approximately half of parents reported receiving a provider recommendation for vaccination, with no significant difference in the odds of receiving a provider recommendation across racial/ethnic groups. Despite similar frequency of recommendations across racial and ethnic groups, male adolescents who are racial/ethnic minorities are more likely to initiate vaccination. Future research should focus on developing tailored interventions to increase HPV vaccine receipt among males of all racial/ethnic groups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination among Young Women Surviving Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L.; Favaro, Brianne; Peck, Kelly R.; Simmons, Jessica L.; Russell, Kathryn M.; Green, Daniel M.; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection and the cause of cervical and other cancers. Vaccination is available to protect against genital HPV and is recommended for individuals aged 9-26 years. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HPV vaccination among childhood cancer survivors and to identify factors associated with vaccine outcomes. Methods Young adult females with (n = 114; M age =21.18 years, SD =2.48) and without (n = 98; M age = 20.65 years, SD = 2.29) a childhood cancer history completed surveys querying HPV vaccination initiation/completion, as well as sociodemographic, medical, and health belief factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vaccine outcomes. Results Among survivors, 38.6% (44/114) and 26.3% (30/114) initiated or completed vaccination compared to 44.9% (44/98) and 28.6% (28/98) among controls, respectively. In the combined survivor/control group, physician recommendation (OR = 11.24, 95% CI, 3.15 – 40.14), and familial HPV communication (OR = 7.28, 95% CI, 1.89 – 28.05) associated with vaccine initiation. Perceptions of vaccine benefit associated with vaccine completion (OR = 10.55, 95% CI, 1.59 – 69.92), whereas perceptions of HPV-related severity associated with non-completion (OR = 0.14, 95% CI, 0.03 – 0.71). Conclusion Despite their increased risk for HPV-related complication, a minority of childhood cancer survivors have initiated or completed HPV vaccination. Modifiable factors associating with vaccine outcomes were identified. Implications HPV vaccination is a useful tool for cancer prevention in survivorship, and interventions to increase vaccine uptake are warranted. PMID:26572902

  1. A cross-sectional study of HPV vaccine acceptability in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Taylor DiAngi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Botswana and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to examine whether HPV vaccine is acceptable among parents in Botswana, which recently licensed the vaccine to prevent cervical cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2009, around the time the vaccine was first licensed, with adults recruited in general medicine and HIV clinics in Gaborone, the capital of Botswana. Although only 9% (32/376 of respondents had heard of HPV vaccine prior to the survey, 88% (329/376 said they definitely will have their adolescent daughters receive HPV vaccine. Most respondents would get the vaccine for their daughters at a public or community clinic (42% or a gynecology or obstetrician's office (39%, and 74% would get it for a daughter if it were available at her school. Respondents were more likely to say that they definitely will get HPV vaccine for their daughters if they had less education (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.07-0.58 or lived more than 30 kilometers from the capital, Gaborone (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.06-4.93. Other correlates of acceptability were expecting to be involved in the decision to get HPV vaccine, thinking the vaccine would be hard to obtain, and perceiving greater severity of HPV-related diseases. CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccination of adolescent girls would be highly acceptable if the vaccine became widely available to the daughters of healthcare seeking parents in Gaborone, Botswana. Potential HPV vaccination campaigns should provide more information about HPV and the vaccine as well as work to minimize barriers.

  2. Explaining variation in the uptake of HPV vaccination in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England, two national programmes of HPV vaccination for girls have been instituted, a routine programme for 12- and 13-year-olds and a catch-up programme for 17- and 18-year-olds. Uptake rates across the country have been far from uniform, and this research sought to identify factors explaining the variation in uptake by locality. Methods An association between uptake, deprivation and ethnic background had been established in pilot research. The present analysis was conducted at an aggregate, Primary Care Trust (PCT, level for the first year of the programmes. Published measures of HPV vaccination uptake, material deprivation, ethnic composition of PCT populations, primary care quality, and uptake of cervical screening and of other childhood immunisations were collated. Strong evidence of collinearity amongst the explanatory variables required a factor analysis to be undertaken. This provided four independent factors, used thereafter in regression models to explain uptake by PCT. Results The factor analysis revealed that ethnic composition was associated with attitudes towards cervical screening and other childhood vaccinations, whilst material deprivation and quality of primary care were orthogonal. Ethnic composition, early childhood vaccination, cervical screening and primary care quality were found to be influential in predicting uptake in both the routine and the catch-up cohorts, although with a lower degree of confidence in the case of the last two independent variables. Lower primary care quality was significant in explaining a greater fall in vaccination uptake between the first two doses in the catch-up cohort. Greater deprivation was a significant explanatory factor for both uptake and the fall in uptake between doses for the catch-up cohort but not for uptake in the routine cohort. Conclusion These results for uptake of the first year of the national programme using aggregate data corroborate findings from

  3. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and uptake in college students: Implications from the Precaution Adoption Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and uptake in college students and to identify factors associated with vaccination status utilizing the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM). The sample included 383 undergraduates from a public university who participated in February and March 2015. Students were emailed an anonymous online survey assessing knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions related to HPV and HPV vaccination, as well as their stage in the PAPM regarding vaccination completion. Significantly more females (47.3%) than males (15.8%) were vaccinated. While most students had basic knowledge of HPV, they had low perceptions of their susceptibility to contract HPV. Most unvaccinated students were in the early stages of decision-making related to vaccination. Campus health centers have an opportunity to increase HPV vaccination rates. This study indicates that students need prompts from providers, as well as education regarding susceptibility to HPV. PMID:28786994

  4. Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens-Why such controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark Donald

    2014-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections in both females and males. HPV viruses are associated with several manifestations including genital warts, but more importantly for urology practitioners, cervical and penile carcinomas and recurrent genital condylomata in both sexes. The incidence of HPV-related carcinomas has increased in cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers. Effective vaccines have been available for almost a decade, but widespread adoption of vaccine administration has been problematic for multiple reasons. Many countries (over 100) have adopted vaccine programs for females and an increasing number of countries are extending the indications to include males between the ages of 9-26. There still seems to be controversy surrounding these universal vaccination programs as well as some ethical and practical concerns regarding the administration of a vaccine for diseases that are associated with sexual contact in both sexes, especially during the early adolescent years. The objective was to provide a review of the available literature so pediatric and adult urologists may be more aware of the issues related to HPV vaccination in order to more effectively counsel patients and parents regarding the risks, benefits, and public health issues regarding HPV vaccination. This topic is especially relevant to pediatric urologists who see patients in the target age group for the HPV vaccine. There has been an explosion of literature regarding HPV vaccination programs and the relative difficulty in adopting the vaccine series with a completion rate of under 50% of patients in the recommended age ranges for vaccination. Articles were obtained from an extensive Medline literature search (1998-present) to evaluate the current HPV vaccination regimens for teenagers with special emphasis on the urologically focused disease burden. The adoption of universal HPV vaccination has been difficult

  5. Intervention effects from a social marketing campaign to promote HPV vaccination in preteen boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Diehl, Sandra J; Crandell, Jamie L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2014-07-16

    Adoption of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the US has been slow. In 2011, HPV vaccination of boys was recommended by CDC for routine use at ages 11-12. We conducted and evaluated a social marketing intervention with parents and providers to stimulate HPV vaccination among preteen boys. We targeted parents and providers of 9-13 year old boys in a 13 county NC region. The 3-month intervention included distribution of HPV vaccination posters and brochures to all county health departments plus 194 enrolled providers; two radio PSAs; and an online CME training. A Cox proportional hazards model was fit using NC immunization registry data to examine whether vaccination rates in 9-13 year old boys increased during the intervention period in targeted counties compared to control counties (n=15) with similar demographics. To compare with other adolescent vaccines, similar models were fit for HPV vaccination in girls and meningococcal and Tdap vaccination of boys in the same age range. Moderating effects of age, race, and Vaccines for Children (VFC) eligibility on the intervention were considered. The Cox model showed an intervention effect (β=0.29, HR=1.34, p=.0024), indicating that during the intervention the probability of vaccination increased by 34% in the intervention counties relative to the control counties. Comparisons with HPV vaccination in girls and Tdap and meningococcal vaccination in boys suggest a unique boost for HPV vaccination in boys during the intervention. Model covariates of age, race and VFC eligibility were all significantly associated with vaccination rates (pmarketing techniques can encourage parents and health care providers to vaccinate preteen boys against HPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HPV vaccine acceptability by Latino parents: a comparison of U.S. and Salvadoran populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolsky, Rebecca; Cremer, Miriam; Atrio, Jessica; Hochman, Tsivia; Arslan, Alan A

    2009-08-01

    To characterize and compare acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination by Latino parents at an urban medical center in the United States and a community hospital in El Salvador. After reading an information sheet on HPV, 148 subjects at Bellevue Hospital in New York City and 160 subjects at Hospital Nacional de Santa Gertrudis in San Vicente, El Salvador, completed a survey. Results were analyzed using chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-tests. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccination was higher in a sample of Salvadoran subjects than in a sample of U.S. Latinas (P<0.001 for daughters and sons). Reasons for objecting to HPV vaccination differ in the two locations. There are important differences between Salvadoran and U.S. subjects. Salvadorans are more accepting of HPV vaccination, and parental acceptance is unlikely to be a barrier to widespread vaccination in El Salvador. Targeted educational materials are needed in both locations.

  7. Estimating the clinical benefits of vaccinating boys and girls against HPV-related diseases in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, Rémi; Roze, Stéphane; Bresse, Xavier; Largeron, Nathalie; Smith-Palmer, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts) were assessed. The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both). Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls-only vaccination. The incremental benefits of adding boys vaccination are

  8. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2–3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18–59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16–22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the qHPV

  9. Attitudes to HPV vaccination among ethnic minority mothers in the UK: an exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Waller, Jo

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore attitudes to HPV vaccination among black and Asian mothers living in Britain. Five major themes emerged from the data: (1) Experience of vaccination, (2) Awareness of HPV vaccination and reactions to the information, (3) reasons for giving vaccination, (4) concerns about vaccination and (5) social influences. Visits to family abroad meant additional experience with vaccinations. There were concerns about how vaccine effects could vary by ethnicity as a result of physical differences (e.g., sickle-cell anaemia), and mothers wanted to know whether the HPV vaccine had been tested fully in their ethnic group. Most mothers struggled to understand why their daughter could not have the vaccination when she was older and some felt that 12/13 years was too young. Religious beliefs meant that mothers thought the vaccine would be less acceptable to other family members or would be perceived as unnecessary because of their low risk of HPV. This study used qualitative methodology. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with Black/Black British (n = 10) and Asian/Asian British mothers (n = 10). Interviews lasted approximately 40 minutes, were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Framework Analysis. It is important to include ethnic minority parents in psychosocial research surrounding HPV vaccination to ensure that culturally specific barriers are identified and targeted, limiting ethnic inequalities in cancer risk. Ethnically dense areas of Britain may benefit from tailoring HPV information to the local population, reflecting differences in cultural beliefs.

  10. What Drives Health Professionals to Tweet About the HPV Vaccine?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-20

    This podcast features Philip Massey, PhD, MPH, an assistant professor at Drexel University and one of the authors of a recent study that looks at what motivates health professionals to tweet about the HPV vaccine. Philip answers questions about his research and what impact social media can have on public health and health care communication.  Created: 2/20/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/20/2018.

  11. Potential overestimation of HPV vaccine impact due to unmasking of non-vaccine types: quantification using a multi-type mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Hong; Chapman, Ruth; Gay, Nigel; Jit, Mark

    2012-05-14

    Estimates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine impact in clinical trials and modelling studies rely on DNA tests of cytology or biopsy specimens to determine the HPV type responsible for a cervical lesion. DNA of several oncogenic HPV types may be detectable in a specimen. However, only one type may be responsible for a particular cervical lesion. Misattribution of the causal HPV type for a particular abnormality may give rise to an apparent increase in disease due to non-vaccine HPV types following vaccination ("unmasking"). To investigate the existence and magnitude of unmasking, we analysed data from residual cytology and biopsy specimens in English women aged 20-64 years old using a stochastic type-specific individual-based model of HPV infection, progression and disease. The model parameters were calibrated to data on the prevalence of HPV DNA and cytological lesion of different grades, and used to assign causal HPV types to cervical lesions. The difference between the prevalence of all disease due to non-vaccine HPV types, and disease due to non-vaccine HPV types in the absence of vaccine HPV types, was then estimated. There could be an apparent maximum increase of 3-10% in long-term cervical cancer incidence due to non-vaccine HPV types following vaccination. Unmasking may be an important phenomenon in HPV post-vaccination epidemiology, in the same way that has been observed following pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association Between Parental HPV Knowledge and Intentions to Have Their Daughters Vaccinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Lisa N; Onsomu, Elijah O; Merwin, Elizabeth; Hall, Naomi M; Harper-Harrison, Alfreda

    2018-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 causes 66% of cervical cancers (Dunne et al., 2014). Vaccination during adolescence can prevent HPV-associated cervical cancers, yet less than half of adolescent girls are vaccinated. This study examined the association between HPV knowledge and parental intentions to vaccinate daughters against HPV. A retrospective, cross-sectional, national data set from the 2006-2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was used. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between intent to vaccinate and HPV knowledge. After controlling for other covariates, parents who were knowledgeable were more likely to intend to have their daughters vaccinated compared with those who were not knowledgeable (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] = 3.96, p = .004). Having HPV knowledge would significantly increase parents' intent for vaccination against the disease for their daughters. Health care providers should integrate HPV-related education for parents within their services, and policymakers should consider requiring HPV vaccination for school attendance.

  13. Facebook for Health Promotion: Female College Students' Perspectives on Sharing HPV Vaccine Information Through Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Tsark, JoAnn; Campo, Shelly; Teti, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Facebook, a social network site, has been widely used among young adults. However, its potential to be used as a health promotion medium has not been fully examined. This study explored Facebook's potential for sharing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine information among female college students in Hawai'i. Culturally tailored flyers and handouts were developed and distributed at one large university in Hawai'i to recruit female college students between the age of 18 and 26 having an active Facebook account. Three focus group meetings were conducted to gather student perspectives about how information about HPV vaccine may be best shared via Facebook. We found that students believed Facebook is a good awareness tool but they needed more knowledge about the HPV vaccine to feel comfortable sharing the information. Participants preferred forwarding information to chatting about HPV. Some participants expressed concern that their Facebook friends would think the HPV vaccine information they forwarded on Facebook is spam. Participants suggested prefacing the posted HPV vaccine information with a personal note in their own words to make the message more interesting and relevant to their Facebook friends. Future interventions using Facebook to promote HPV vaccine could provide students with HPV vaccine information from credible sources and ask students to attach personal testimonials or endorsements while forwarding the information on Facebook.

  14. HPV Vaccination among Adolescent Males: Results from the National Immunization Survey-Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    US guidelines provided a permissive recommendation forHPV vaccine for males in 2009, with an updated recommendation for routine vaccination in 2011. Dataon vaccine uptake among males, however, remain sparse. We analyzed 2010–2011 data (collected mostlyprior to the recommendation for routine vaccination) from the National Immunization Survey-Teen for a nationally representative sample of adolescent males ages 13–17 (n=22,365). We examined HPV vaccine initiation( receipt of at least one doseba sed on healthcare provider records) as the primary outcome. Analyses used weighted logistic regression. HPV vaccine initiation increased from 1.4% in 2010 to 8.3% in 2011. Parents who reported receiving a healthcare provider recommendation to get their sons HPV vaccine were much more likely to have vaccinated sons (OR=19.02, 95% CI: 14.36–25.19). Initiation was also higher among sons who were Hispanic (OR=1.83, 95% CI: 1.24–2.71) or who were eligible for the Vaccines for Children program (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.01–2.31). Only31.0% of parents with unvaccinated sons indicatedtheir sons were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to receive HPV vaccine in the next year. The most common main reasons for parents not intending to vaccinate were believing vaccination is not needed or not necessary (24.5%), not having received a provider recommendation (22.1%), and lack of knowledge (15.9%). HPV vaccination is low among adolescent males in the US, and provider recommendation for vaccination is likely keyto improv ingvaccine uptake. Given the updated recommendation for routine vaccination and the changes in health insurance coverage that are likely to follow, continued efforts are needed to monitor HPV vaccination among males. PMID:23602667

  15. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Huber

    Full Text Available Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas, but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa 17-36 on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross- protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76, while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target

  16. School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Health and Economic Impact of Maine's 2009 Influenza Vaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Meltzer, Martin I; Mills, Dora A; Beeler Asay, Garrett R; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Graitcer, Samuel B; Dube, Nancy L; Thompson, Mark G; Patel, Suchita A; Peasah, Samuel K; Ferdinands, Jill M; Gargiullo, Paul; Messonnier, Mark; Shay, David K

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the societal economic and health impacts of Maine's school-based influenza vaccination (SIV) program during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. Primary and secondary data covering the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons. We estimated weekly monovalent influenza vaccine uptake in Maine and 15 other states, using difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis to assess the program's impact on immunization among six age groups. We also developed a health and economic Markov microsimulation model and conducted Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis. We used national survey data to estimate the impact of the SIV program on vaccine coverage. We used primary data and published studies to develop the microsimulation model. The program was associated with higher immunization among children and lower immunization among adults aged 18-49 years and 65 and older. The program prevented 4,600 influenza infections and generated $4.9 million in net economic benefits. Cost savings from lower adult vaccination accounted for 54 percent of the economic gain. Economic benefits were positive in 98 percent of Monte Carlo simulations. SIV may be a cost-beneficial approach to increase immunization during pandemics, but programs should be designed to prevent lower immunization among nontargeted groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Using Community Engagement to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for Latinos about the HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Julie A; Jimenez-Zambrano, Andrea M; Albright, Karen; Dempsey, Amanda F

    2017-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is pervasive among sexually active women and men, and Hispanic women are at particularly high risk as they have higher rates of invasive cervical cancer compared to other racial or ethnic groups in the United States. There is a need for interventions to increase HPV vaccination among this high-risk population. This study investigated how to modify a previously developed web-based intervention that provided individually tailored information about HPV to improve its use among the Latino population. A community-oriented modification approach incorporated feedback from a community advisory committee, and focus groups among the Latino population, to modify the intervention. Several themes emerged including a need for basic information about HPV and HPV vaccination, changes to make the intervention appear less clinical, and incorporation of information addressing barriers specific to the Latino community. This work was done in preparation for a randomized trial to assess the impact of this modified intervention on HPV vaccination attitudes and uptake among Latino young adults and parents of adolescents. If effective, our intervention could be a resource for reducing HPV vaccination concerns, improving immunization rates, and educating Latinos about HPV and the HPV vaccine outside of the time boundaries of the traditional clinical encounter.

  18. A school based community randomized trial of the effect of peer health education on primary prevention knowledge, attitude and behaviours towards HPV among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferrara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: this study in the prospect of promoting adherence to the primary and secondary preven- tion programmes will research knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the student population attending high schools regarding HPV infections and will also promote health education sessions based on peer education.
    Methods: we carried out a cross-sectional kaP survey regarding HPV infection, HPV vaccination, and sexual health, of students and a peer educational intervention. To verify the effectiveness of peer educators in changing opinions and beliefs about HPV a self-com- pletion questionnaire was made and distributed pre (T1 and post (T2 peer educator intervention. The same questionnaires were assigned to the control group.
    Results: the sample consisted of 900 students, mean age was 16.6±1.4, having relationship 34.4%. at T1, 64.6% of students in experimental group said that they knew HPV, 83.4% how it is transmitted and 71.1% HPV vaccination, 54.7% perceived dangerousness with significant gender-related difference. at T2 the percentages increased. at T1, 14.1% of females were vaccinated at T2 they were 17.5%. The main factors associated with the students’ propensity to vaccination were: having at least one sister; being in favour of vaccinations in general; knowing that the vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer; and being aware that they could be infected by HPV.
    Conclusion: both the HPV test and HPV vaccine need effective communication and monitoring of the spread of knowledge, especially among women identified as most in need of information and included in the age group at risk, in wich it is crucial to encourage informed choices. This underlines the need to plan adequate educational programmes....

  19. Prevention of HPV-related cancers in Norway: cost-effectiveness of expanding the HPV vaccination program to include pre-adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Kim, Jane J

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered 'good value for money.' For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY), it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is uniformly more effective and cost-effective than expanding

  20. Communication technologies to improve HPV vaccination initiation and completion: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Diane B; Cates, Joan R; Wagner, Kyla P Garrett; Zola, Tracey; Fitter, Jenny E; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2017-07-01

    This systematic review examines the effectiveness of communication technology interventions on HPV vaccination initiation and completion. A comprehensive search strategy was used to identify existing randomized controlled trials testing the impact of computer-, mobile- or internet-based interventions on receipt of any dose of the HPV vaccine. Twelve relevant studies were identified with a total of 38,945 participants. The interventions were delivered using several different methods, including electronic health record (i.e. recall/reminder) prompts, text messaging, automated phone calls, interactive computer videos, and email. Vaccine initiation and completion was greater for technology-based studies relative to their control conditions. There is evidence that interventions utilizing communication technologies as their sole or primary mode for HPV vaccination intervention delivery may increase vaccination coverage. Communication technologies hold much promise for the future of HPV vaccination efforts, especially initiatives in practice-based settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. HPV vaccination rate in French adolescent girls: an example of vaccine distrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Hervé; Schrimpf, Cécile; Moro, Marie Rose; Lachal, Jonathan

    2017-12-08

    To explore the clinical issues of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to develop explanatory hypotheses for the low level of vaccination among adolescent girls in France where the full course coverage is low (take responsibility for defending the benefits of vaccination. They nonetheless remain citizens whose opinions may implicitly echo the general reluctance, promoted by disinformation. In delaying or avoiding the subject of vaccination, they involuntarily become an instrument of anti-vaccination discourse. It is imperative to improve the distribution of credible information about vaccination, unbiased and scientifically supported by a strong institutional position and to rethink the place of the clinician in the system of adolescent health and disease prevention in France. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Applying a gender lens on human papillomavirus infection: cervical cancer screening, HPV DNA testing, and HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branković, Ivan; Verdonk, Petra; Klinge, Ineke

    2013-02-08

    Our aim is to provide a state-of-the-art overview of knowledge on sex (biological) and gender (sociocultural) aspects of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer for educational purposes. Considerable disparities exist in cervical cancer incidences between different subgroups of women. We provide an outline on the crucial issues and debates based on the recent literature published in leading gender medicine journals. Intersectionality was applied in order to help categorise the knowledge. Key terms (HPV, cervical cancer) were screened in Gender Medicine, Journal of Women's Health and Women & Health from January 2005-June 2012. Additional searches were conducted for topics insufficiently mentioned, such as HPV vaccination of boys. In total, 71 publications were included (56 original papers, four reviews, six reports, three commentaries, one editorial and one policy statement). Research reveals complexity in the way various subgroups of women adhere to cervical screening. Less educated women, older women, uninsured women, homeless women, migrant women facing language barriers, women who have sex with women and obese women participate in Pap smears less frequently. A series of barriers can act to impede decisions to vaccinate against HPV. Both male and female controlled preventive methods and treatment measures should be developed in order to tackle HPV infection and different strategies are needed for different subgroups. A substantial discussion and research on alternative methods of prevention was and is lacking. In future research, sex and gender aspects of HPV-related diseases of boys and men as well as subgroup differences in HPV risk need to be addressed.

  3. A qualitative study of HPV vaccine acceptability among health workers, teachers, parents, female pupils, and religious leaders in northwest Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Remes, Pieter; Selestine, Veronica; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A.; Wight, Daniel; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Background As human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines become available in developing countries, acceptability studies can help to better understand potential barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination and guide immunisation programs. Methods Prior to a cluster-randomised phase IV trial of HPV vaccination delivery strategies in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, qualitative research was conducted to assess attitudes and knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV, and acceptability of and potential barriers t...

  4. HPV vaccination syndrome: A clinical mirage, or a new tragic fibromyalgia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lavín, Manuel

    2018-03-13

    Independent investigators have described the onset of a chronic painful dysautonomic syndrome soon after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The veracity of this syndrome is hotly debated. Many of the reported post-HPV vaccination cases fullfill fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria. This article discusses the arguments favoring the existence of a syndrome associated to HPV vaccination. We propose that fibromyalgia dysautonomic-neuropathic model could help in the diagnostic and therapeutic process in those patients in whom the onset of a painful chronic illness began after HPV immunization. On the other hand, if its veracity is corroborated, HPV vaccination syndrome may become a new tragic fibromyalgia model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV Vaccine Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leah M; Kaufman, Jay S; Strumpf, Erin C; Lévesque, Linda E

    2015-02-03

    Suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in some jurisdictions is partly attributed to fears that vaccination may increase risky sexual behaviour. We assessed the effect of HPV vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Ontario. Using Ontario's administrative health databases, we identified a population-based cohort of girls in grade 8 in the 2 years before (2005/06 and 2006/07) and after (2007/08 and 2008/09) implementation of Ontario's grade 8 HPV vaccination program. For each girl, we then obtained data on vaccine receipt in grades 8 and 9 and data on indicators of sexual behaviour (pregnancy and non-HPV-related sexually transmitted infections) in grades 10-12. Using a quasi-experimental method known as regression discontinuity, we estimated, for each outcome, the risk difference (RD) and relative risk (RR) attributable to vaccination and to program eligibility. The cohort comprised 260 493 girls, of whom 131 781 were ineligible for the program and 128 712 were eligible. We identified 15 441 (5.9%) cases of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection and found no evidence that vaccination increased the risk of this composite outcome: RD per 1000 girls -0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] -10.71 to 9.49) and RR 0.96 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.14). Similarly, we found no discernible effect of program eligibility: RD per 1000 girls -0.25 (95% CI -4.35 to 3.85) and RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.06). The findings were similar when outcomes were assessed separately. We present strong evidence that HPV vaccination does not have any significant effect on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls. These results suggest that concerns over increased promiscuity following HPV vaccination are unwarranted and should not deter from vaccinating at a young age. © 2015 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  6. Evidence for single-dose protection by the bivalent HPV vaccine-Review of the Costa Rica HPV vaccine trial and future research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Aimée R; Herrero, Rolando; Sampson, Joshua N; Porras, Carolina; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Chanock, Stephen; Jimenez, Silvia; Schussler, John; Gail, Mitchell H; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Kemp, Troy J; Cortes, Bernal; Pinto, Ligia A; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula

    2018-01-20

    The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT), a phase III randomized clinical trial, provided the initial data that one dose of the HPV vaccine could provide durable protection against HPV infection. Although the study design was to administer all participants three doses of HPV or control vaccine, 20% of women did not receive the three-dose regimens, mostly due to involuntary reasons unrelated to vaccination. In 2011, we reported that a single dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine could be as efficacious as three doses of the vaccine using the endpoint of persistent HPV infection accumulated over the first four years of the trial; findings independently confirmed in the GSK-sponsored PATRICIA trial. Antibody levels after one dose, although lower than levels elicited by three doses, were 9-times higher than levels elicited by natural infection. Importantly, levels remained essentially constant over at least seven years, suggesting that the observed protection provided by a single dose might be durable. Much work has been done to assure these non-randomized findings are valid. Yet, the group of recipients who received one dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine in the CVT and PATRICIA trials was small and not randomly selected nor blinded to the number of doses received. The next phase of research is to conduct a formal randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the protection afforded by a single dose of HPV vaccine. Complementary studies are in progress to bridge our findings to other populations, and to further document the long-term durability of antibody response following a single dose. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Development of a Cost-Effective Educational Tool to Promote Acceptance of the HPV Vaccination by Hispanic Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggmann, Doerthe; Opper, Neisha; Felix, Juan; Groneberg, David A; Mishell, Daniel R; Jaque, Jenny M

    2016-06-01

    Although vaccination against the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) reduces the risk of related morbidities, the vaccine uptake remains low in adolescents. This has been attributed to limited parental knowledge and misconceptions. In this cross sectional study, we assessed the (1) clarity of educational material informing Hispanic mothers about HPV, cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine, (2) determined vaccination acceptability and (3) identified predictors of vaccine acceptance in an underserved health setting. 418 Hispanic mothers received the educational material and completed an anonymous survey. 91 % of participants understood most or all of the information provided. 77 % of participants reported vaccine acceptance for their children; this increased to 84 % when only those with children eligible to receive vaccination were included. Significant positive predictors of maternal acceptance of the HPV vaccine for their children were understanding most or all of the provided information, older age and acceptance of the HPV vaccine for themselves. Concerns about safety and general dislike of vaccines were negatively associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. Prior knowledge, level of education, previous relevant gynecologic history, general willingness to vaccinate and other general beliefs about vaccines were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. The majority of participants reported understanding of the provided educational material. Vaccine acceptability was fairly high, but was even higher among those who understood the information. This study documents a cost-effective way to provide Hispanic mothers with easy-to-understand HPV-related information that could increase parental vaccine acceptability and future vaccine uptake among their children.

  8. Monitoring the impact of HPV vaccine in males—Considerations and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M.L. Brotherton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we examine the issues involved if national or sub-national programs are considering extending post HPV vaccine introduction monitoring to include males. Vaccination programs are now being extended to include males in some countries, in order to improve population level HPV infection control and to directly prevent HPV-related disease in males such as anogenital warts and anal cancers. Coverage and adverse events surveillance are essential components of post-vaccination monitoring. Monitoring the impact of vaccination on HPV infection and disease in men raises some similar challenges to monitoring in females, such as the long time frame until cancer outcomes, and also different ones given that genital specimens suitable for monitoring HPV prevalence are not routinely collected for other diagnostic or screening purposes in males. Thus, dedicated surveillance strategies must be designed; the framework of these may be country-specific, dependent upon the male population that is offered vaccination, the health care infrastructure and existing models of disease surveillance such as STI networks. The primary objective of any male HPV surveillance program will be to document changes in the prevalence of HPV infection and disease due to vaccine targeted HPV types occurring post vaccination. The full spectrum of outcomes to be considered for inclusion in any surveillance plan includes HPV prevalence monitoring, anogenital warts, potentially pre-cancerous lesions such as anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL, and cancers. Ideally, a combination of short term and long term outcome measures would be included. Surveillance over time in specific targeted populations of men who have sex with men and HIV-infected men (populations at high risk for HPV infection and associated disease could be an efficient use of resources to demonstrate impact. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Males, Disease surveillance, Vaccine effectiveness

  9. 4-Valent Human Papillomavirus (4vHPV) Vaccine in Preadolescents and Adolescents After 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stanley L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Restrepo, Jaime Alberto; Mehlsen, Jesper; Chatterjee, Archana; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Joshi, Amita; Chu, Jian-Li; Krick, Andrea Likos; Saah, Alfred; Das, Rituparna

    2017-12-01

    We describe the final 10-year data for the long-term follow-up study of the 4-valent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine in preadolescents and adolescents. In the base study (V501-018), 1661 sexually inactive boys and girls received the 4vHPV vaccine (early vaccination group [EVG], managed for 9.9 years) or a placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6. Thereafter, at month 30, the placebo group (catch-up vaccination group [CVG], managed for 7.4 years) received the 4vHPV vaccine by using the same dosing schedule. Long-term anti-HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18 immune responses were assessed. Effectiveness was estimated by calculating the incidence rate of the primary endpoints (HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18-related disease or persistent infection). For HPV types 6, 11, and 16, 89% to 96% of subjects remained seropositive through 10-years postvaccination. The preadolescents had 38% to 65% higher geometric mean titers at month 7, which remained 16% to 42% higher at 10 years compared with adolescents. No cases of HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18-related diseases were observed. Ten subjects had a persistent infection of ≥6 months duration with vaccine-type HPV and 2 subjects had persistent infection for ≥12 months. No new serious adverse events were reported through 10 years. A 3-dose regimen of the 4vHPV vaccine was immunogenic, clinically effective, and generally well tolerated in preadolescents and adolescents during 10 years of follow-up. These long-term findings support efforts to vaccinate this population against HPV before exposure. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Passport to promiscuity or lifesaver: press coverage of HPV vaccination and risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Alice; Wardle, Jane; Stephenson, Judith; Waller, Jo

    2010-03-01

    A significant minority of parents are concerned about adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The way the HPV vaccine is reported in the media has the potential to influence public understanding and vaccination decisions. The present study examined the content of articles published between 2003 and 2008 in British national newspapers that addressed the issue of adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination. We used mixed methods to analyze 92 articles in which the issue was mentioned. Qualitative framework analysis highlighted three main types of discussion: news stories proposing that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination, counterarguments insisting that adolescents will not engage in risky sexual behavior after HPV vaccination, and parents' views of the issue of risky sexual behavior. The results indicated that newspapers provide parents with broadly positive descriptive norms about vaccination; however, the issue that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behaviors following HPV vaccination is regularly discussed in the national press and has the potential to increase parents' concerns about vaccination.

  11. Knowledge about Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer: Predictors of HPV Vaccination among Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Fang Num, Kelly Sze; How Koh, Raymond Chee

    2017-06-25

    Background: The objective of this study is to determine the influence of dental students’ knowledge and attitude regarding human papillomavirus infection of cervical cancer on willingness to pay for vaccination. Basic research design: A convenience sampling method was used. The minimal sample size of 136 was calculated using the Raosoft calculator with a 5 % margin of error and 95% confidence level. Participants: The study population were all final year dental students from the School of Dentistry. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure knowledge levels and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus vaccination. Contingent valuation was conducted for willingness to pay for vaccination. Main outcome measures: The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that human papillomavirus are associated with oropharynx cancer and the American Dental Association insist on expanding public awareness of the oncogenic potential of some HPV infections. Thus, as future dental practitioners, dental students should be aware of human papillomavirus and their links with cancer and the benefits of vaccination. Results: Knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer did not impact on attitudes towards vaccines. However, significant correlation existed between knowledge and willingness to pay for vaccination. Conclusions: Dental students’ knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer has no influence on their attitude towards HPV vaccines. However, their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination is influenced by their knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. Creative Commons Attribution License

  12. Factors associated with parents' attitudes to the HPV vaccination of their adolescent sons : A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Gorjana; Chapman, Janine; Flight, Ingrid; Wilson, Carlene

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in parents of adolescent boys. This information is critical to the development of approaches to optimise HPV vaccine uptake among this population group. We performed a systematic search of the literature in addressing factors influencing parental attitudes to and beliefs about HPV vaccine and its acceptability for use. The findings were organised within the framework of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and summarised using a semi quantitative method. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Parental decisions were predominantly shaped by the perceived benefits of the vaccine; perceived risk of sons contracting the HPV infection, and having recommendations from health care providers. Fear of side effects and uncertainty about vaccine effectiveness, as well as cost and lack of healthcare, were barriers to HPV vaccination. Other factors such as knowledge, family characteristics, parent-child dialogue and egalitarian values appeared to be important when deciding whether to vaccinate boys. HPV vaccine uptake among male adolescents is suboptimal. Future programs need to address the predictors of uptake by educating parents about the boys' high susceptibility to infection, the benefits of vaccination, and reduce concerns regarding perceived barriers. Additionally, uptake may be facilitated by encouraging health care provider endorsement, particularly in countries without government-funded immunisation programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HPV vaccination initiation after the routine-recommended ages of 11–12 in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Beachler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 2006, routine HPV vaccination has been recommended for females aged 11–12 in the US. However not much is known about the extent of and factors associated with HPV vaccination after the ages of 11–12. Methods: Provider-verified data on 8710 females aged 13–17 were analyzed from the 2013 NIS-Teen survey. 2013 Data was utilized since it was the first year one can fully evaluate the age at vaccination through age 17 for females who could receive the HPV vaccine at age 11. Results: Among HPV vaccinated females who were 17 in 2013, 47% (95% CI=43–50% received their first dose after age 12, and 24% (95% CI=21–26% received their first dose after age 14. The HPV vaccine was more likely to be initiated later than the meningococcal and Tdap vaccines (p<0.05, and later HPV vaccine initiation was more common among those having a more highly educated mother and those not receiving a check-up/well visit between the ages of 11 and 12 in adjusted analyses (p-values<0.05. Females initiating the HPV vaccine late were more likely to not receive three doses (RR=1.90, 95% CI=1.76–2.04. Conclusions: HPV vaccination is commonly initiated after the age of 12 in the US, which could limit the vaccine׳s population-level effectiveness. Keywords: HPV vaccines, Late initiation, Vaccination, NIS-Teen

  14. HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a group of related viruses. They can cause warts on different parts of your body. There are ... cancer. There are two categories of sexually-transmitted HPV. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High- ...

  15. Compensation programs after withdrawal of the recommendation for HPV vaccine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuji, Koichiro; Nakada, Haruka

    2016-05-03

    HPV vaccinations were recommended with the backing of a Japanese government subsidy program in 2010, and were included in the National Immunization Program in April 2013. However, the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare withdrew the recommendation for the HPV vaccination in June 2013. We investigated HPV vaccine injury compensation programs for both the national and local governments. Approximately 3.38 million girls were vaccinated, and 2,584 complained of health problems. The majority of these received the vaccine shot as a non-routine vaccination. In total, 98 people developed health problems and applied for assistance from 2011 to 2014, but no cases have been processed since October 2014. Several local governments are providing their own compensation program for cases of vaccine adverse reactions, but the number is extremely low (16 of 1,741 municipalities and 1 of 47 prefectures). The local governments that are providing compensation are largely those where HPV vaccine victim support groups are prominent. The confusion regarding the national program for HPV vaccine injury was caused by the discrepancy between the compensation programs for those vaccinated under the immunization law and for those who received voluntary vaccinations. The establishment of a new compensation program might be key to finding a lasting resolution.

  16. Discussions of adolescent sexuality in news media coverage of the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Dana M; Smith, Katherine C; Tsui, Amy; Klassen, Ann C

    2014-02-01

    Given the sexually transmitted nature of human papillomavirus (HPV), some worry the HPV vaccine will create a false sense of security and promote adolescent sexual activity. Media coverage of vaccines can influence social norms, parental attitudes, and vaccine acceptance; in this paper we examine U.S. news media messages related to sexuality and HPV vaccination. Drawing on a structured analysis of 447 articles published during 2005-2009, we qualitatively analyzed a purposive sample of 49 articles discussing adolescent health behaviors related to HPV vaccination. Commonly, articles discussed vaccination in the context of abstinence-only versus comprehensive sexual health education; cited research findings to support vaccination or sex education; argued against connecting vaccination to promiscuous behavior; but included fear-inducing messages. Media messages concerning health behaviors related to HPV vaccination tended to support government and parental involvement in sex education, and dismiss concerns linking vaccination to sexual activity, while also presenting the vaccine as lifesaving. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  17. Community-based interventions to improve HPV vaccination coverage among 13- to 15-year-old females: measures implemented by local governments in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Fujiwara

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various community-based interventions in support of HPV vaccination implemented by cities and towns within Tochigi prefecture, Japan with a view to identifying useful indicators which might guide future interventions to improve HPV vaccination coverage in the prefecture. A postal questionnaire survey of all 27 local governments in Tochigi Prefecture was conducted in December 2010. All 27 responded, and 22 provided the exact numbers of the targeted and vaccinated populations of 13- to 15-year-old girls from April to December 2010. The local governments also answered questions on the type of interventions implemented including public subsidies, school-based programs, direct mail, free tickets and recalls. Local governments that conducted a school-based vaccination program reported 96.8% coverage for the 1(st dose, 96.2% for the 2(nd dose, and 91.2% for the 3(rd dose. Those that provided subsidies without school-based programs reported a wide range of vaccination rates: 45.7%-95.0% for the 1(st dose, 41.1%-93.7% for the 2(nd dose and 3.1%-90.1% for the 3(rd dose. Among this group, the combination of a free ticket, direct mail and recall was most effective, with 95.0% coverage for the 1(st dose, 93.7% for the 2(nd dose, and 90.1% for the 3(rd dose. The governments that did not offer a subsidy had the lowest vaccination coverage, with 0.8%-1.4% for the 1(st dose, 0.0%-0.8% for the 2(nd dose, and 0.1%-0.1% for the 3(rd dose. The results of this survey indicate that school-based vaccinations and public subsidies are the most effective method to improve HPV vaccination coverage; however, the combination of a free ticket, direct mail, and recalls with public subsidies are also important measures in increasing the vaccination rate. These data may afford important indicators for the successful implementation of future HPV vaccination programs.

  18. HPV Prevalence in Colombian Women with Cervical Cancer: Implications for Vaccination in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Murillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been considered potentially cost-effective for the reduction of cervical cancer burden in developing countries; their effectiveness in a public health setting continues to be researched. We conducted an HPV prevalence survey among Colombian women with invasive cancer. Paraffin-embedded biopsies were obtained from one high-risk and one low-middle-risk regions. GP5+/GP6+ L1 primers, RLB assays, and E7 type specific PCR were used for HPV-DNA detection. 217 cases were analyzed with 97.7% HPV detection rate. HPV-16/18 prevalence was 63.1%; HPV-18 had lower occurrence in the high-risk population (13.8% versus 9.6% allowing for the participation of less common HPV types; HPV-45 was present mainly in women under 50 and age-specific HPV type prevalence revealed significant differences. Multiple high-risk infections appeared in 16.6% of cases and represent a chance of replacement. Age-specific HPV prevalence and multiple high-risk infections might influence vaccine impact. Both factors highlight the role of HPVs other than 16/18, which should be considered in cost-effectiveness analyses for potential vaccine impact.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination: comparing the general population with socially vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    After the WHO recommended HPV vaccination of the general population in 2009, government support of HPV vaccination programs was increased in many countries. However, this policy was not implemented in Korea due to perceived low cost-effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of HPV vaccination programs targeted to high risk populations as compared to vaccination programs for the general population. Each study population was set to 100,000 people in a simulation study to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), then standard prevalence rates, cost, vaccination rates, vaccine efficacy, and the Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) were applied to the analysis. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming discounted vaccination cost. In the socially vulnerable population, QALYs gained through HPV vaccination were higher than that of the general population (General population: 1,019, Socially vulnerable population: 5,582). The results of ICUR showed that the cost of HPV vaccination was higher for the general population than the socially vulnerable population. (General population: 52,279,255 KRW, Socially vulnerable population: 9,547,347 KRW). Compared with 24 million KRW/QALYs as the social threshold, vaccination of the general population was not cost-effective. In contrast, vaccination of the socially vulnerable population was strongly cost-effective. The results suggest the importance and necessity of government support of HPV vaccination programs targeted to socially vulnerable populations because a targeted approach is much more cost-effective. The implementation of government support for such vaccination programs is a critical strategy for decreasing the burden of HPV infection in Korea.

  20. Estimation of HPV prevalence in young women in Scotland; monitoring of future vaccine impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kimberley; Sinka, Katy; Cuschieri, Kate; Love, John; Potts, Alison; Pollock, Kevin G J; Cubie, Heather; Donaghy, Martin; Robertson, Chris

    2013-11-05

    Estimation of pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV and distribution of HPV types is fundamental to understanding the subsequent impact of HPV vaccination. We describe the type specific prevalence of HPV in females aged 20-21 in Scotland who attended or defaulted from cervical screening using three specimen types; from attenders liquid based cytology and from defaulters urine or self-taken swabs. Residual liquid based cytology samples (n = 2148), collected from women aged 20-21 attending for their first smear were genotyped for HPV. A sample (n = 709) from women who had defaulted from screening was also made available for HPV testing through the use of postal testing kits (either urine samples (n = 378) or self-taken swabs (n = 331)). Estimates of prevalence weighted by deprivation, and for the postal testing kit, also by reminder status and specimen type were calculated for each HPV type. The distribution of HPV types were compared between specimen types and the occurrence of multiple high-risk infections examined. The influence of demographic factors on high-risk HPV positivity and multiple infections was examined via logistic regression. The prevalence of any HPV in young women aged 20-21 was 32.2% for urine, 39.5% for self-taken swab, and 49.4% for LBC specimens. Infection with vaccine specific types (HPV 16, 18) or those associated with cross-protection (HPV 31, 33, 45, 51) was common. Individuals were more likely to test positive for high-risk HPV if they resided in an area of high deprivation or in a rural area. The overall distribution of HPV types did not vary between defaulters and attenders. Multiple infections occurred in 48.1% of high-risk HPV positive individuals. Excluding vaccine types the most common pairing was HPV 56 and 66. Understanding of the pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV in young women puts Scotland in a prime position to assess the early effect of vaccination as the first highly vaccinated cohorts of individuals enter the screening

  1. Content of web-based continuing medical education about HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornides, Melanie L; Garrell, Jacob M; Gilkey, Melissa B

    2017-08-16

    Addressing low HPV vaccination coverage will require U.S. health care providers to improve their recommendation practices and vaccine delivery systems. Because readily available continuing medical education (CME) could be an important tool for supporting providers in this process, we sought to assess the content of web-based CME activities related to HPV vaccination. We conducted a content analysis of web-based CME activities about HPV vaccination available to U.S. primary care providers in May-September 2016. Using search engines, educational clearinghouses, and our professional networks, we identified 15 activities eligible for study inclusion. Through a process of open coding, we identified 45 commonly occurring messages in the CME activities, which we organized into five topic areas: delivering recommendations for HPV vaccination, addressing common parent concerns, implementing office-based strategies to increase HPV vaccination coverage, HPV epidemiology, and guidelines for HPV vaccine administration and safety. Using a standardized abstraction form, two coders then independently assessed which of the 45 messages each CME activity included. CME activities varied in the amount of content they delivered, with inclusion of the 45 messages ranging from 17% to 86%. Across activities, the most commonly included messages were related to guidelines for HPV vaccine administration and safety. For example, all activities (100%) specified that routine administration is recommended for ages 11 and 12. Most activities (73%) also noted that provider recommendations are highly influential. Fewer activities modeled examples of effective recommendations (47%), gave specific approaches to addressing common parent concerns (47%), or included guidance on office-based strategies to increase coverage (40%). Given that many existing CME activities lack substantive content on how to change provider practice, future activities should focus on the practical application of interpersonal

  2. HPV vaccine hesitancy: findings from a statewide survey of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gilkey, Melissa B; Dempsey, Amanda F

    2014-01-01

    Health care provider recommendations are critical for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. We sought to describe providers' HPV vaccine recommendation practices and explore their perceptions of parental hesitancy. A statewide sample (n = 575) of Minnesota health care providers (20% pediatricians, 47% family medicine physicians, and 33% nurse practitioners) completed our online survey in April 2013. Only 76% of health care providers reported routinely recommending HPV vaccine for girls ages 11 to 12 years, and far fewer (46%) did so for boys (p parents' concerns (74%), but many lacked time to probe reasons (47%) or believed that they could not change parents' minds (55%). Higher levels of self-efficacy and outcome expectations were associated with routine recommendations (p HPV vaccine. Improving providers' self-efficacy to address hesitancy may be important for improving vaccination rates. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. HPV vaccine use among African American girls: qualitative formative research using a participatory social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Pamela C; Williams, Elizabeth A; Khabele, Dineo; Dean, Candace; Bond, Brea; Sanderson, Maureen

    2014-03-01

    To generate recommendations for framing messages to promote HPV vaccination, specifically for African American adolescents and their parents who have not yet made a decision about the vaccine (the "Undecided" market segment). Focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American girls ages 11-18 (N=34) and their mothers (N=31), broken into market segments based on daughter's vaccination status and mother's intent to vaccinate. Findings suggested that the HPV vaccine should be presented to "Undecided" mothers and adolescents as a routine vaccine (just like other vaccines) that helps prevent cancer. Within the "Undecided" segment, we identified two sub-segments based on barriers to HPV vaccination and degree of reluctance. The "Undecided/Ready If Offered" segment would easily accept HPV vaccine if given the opportunity, with basic information and a healthcare provider recommendation. The "Undecided/Skeptical" segment would need more in-depth information to allay concerns about vaccine safety, mistrust of drug companies, and recommended age. Some mothers and girls had the erroneous perception that girls do not need the vaccine until they become sexually active. African American adolescents and their mothers overwhelmingly thought campaigns should target both girls and boys for HPV vaccination. In addition, campaigns and messages may need to be tailored for pre-teens (ages 9-12) versus teens (ages 13-18) and their parents. Findings pointed to the need to "normalize" the perception of HPV vaccine as just another routine vaccine (e.g., part of pre-teen vaccine package). Findings can inform social marketing campaigns targeting Undecided or ethnically diverse families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceptions of human papillomavirus vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in western Uganda and their implications for acceptability of HPV vaccination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Okello, Elialilia Sarikieli; Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza

    2017-08-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been perceived in diverse ways some of which encourage its uptake while others could potentially deter its acceptability. This study explored community member's perceptions about HPV vaccination in Ibanda district and the implications of the perceptions for acceptability of HPV vaccination. The study was conducted following initial vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in the district between 2008 and 2011. This qualitative study employed focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs). FGDs were conducted with schoolgirls and parents/guardians and KIIs were conducted with school teachers, health workers and community leaders. Transcripts from the FGDs and KIIs were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti (v. 6). The HPV vaccination was understood to safely prevent cervical cancer, which was perceived to be a severe incurable disease. Vaccinations were perceived as protection against diseases like measles and polio that were known to kill children. These were major motivations for girls' and parents' acceptance of HPV vaccination. Parents' increased awareness that HPV is sexually transmitted encouraged their support for vaccination of their adolescent daughters against HPV. There were reports however of some initial fears and misconceptions about HPV vaccination especially during its introduction. These initially discouraged some parents and girls but over the years with no major side effects reported, girls reported that they were willing to recommend the vaccination to others and parents also reported their willingness to get their daughters vaccinated without fear. Health workers and teachers interviewed however explained that, some concerns stilled lingered in the communities. The perceived benefits and safety of HPV vaccination enhanced girls' and parents' acceptability of HPV vaccination. The initial rumors, fears and concerns about HPV vaccination that reportedly discouraged some girls and

  5. A novel trivalent HPV 16/18/58 vaccine with anti-HPV 16 and 18 neutralizing antibody responses comparable to those induced by the Gardasil quadrivalent vaccine in rhesus macaque model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is a key factor in the development of precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer. Prophylactic vaccines to immunize against HPV are an effective approach to reducing HPV related disease burden. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and dosage effect of a trivalent HPV 16/18/58 vaccine (3vHPV produced in Escherichia coli (E.coli, with Gardasil quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV, Merck & Co. as a positive control. Sera collected from rhesus macaques vaccinated with three dosage formulations of 3vHPV (termed low-, mid-, and high-dosage formulations, respectively, and the 4vHPV vaccine were analyzed by both Pseudovirus-Based Neutralization Assay (PBNA and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Strong immune responses against HPV 16/18/58 were successfully elicited, and dosage-dependence was observed, with likely occurrence of immune interference between different L1-VLP antigens. HPV 16/18 specific neutralizing antibody (nAb and total immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody responses in rhesus macaques receiving 3vHPV at the three dosages tested were generally non-inferior to those observed in rhesus macaques receiving 4vHPV throughout the study period. Particularly, HPV 18 nAb titers induced by the mid-dosage formulation that contained the same amounts of HPV 16/18 L1-VLPs as Gardasil 4vHPV were between 7.3 to 12.7-fold higher compared to the positive control arm from weeks 24–64. The durability of antibody responses specific to HPV 16/18 elicited by 3vHPV vaccines was also shown to be non-inferior to that associated with Gardasil 4vHPV. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, HPV 16/18/58, GMTs, Trivalent, Immunogenicity

  6. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Risk Factors, Vaccination Patterns, and Vaccine Perceptions among a Sample of Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B.; Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Charyk, Anna; Sutherland, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates, including initiation and completion of the vaccine series, and barriers to vaccination in a sample of male college students. Participants: Male students between the ages of 18 and 25 who reported being currently or previously sexually active (N = 735). Methods: A cross-sectional…

  7. Midwives at youth clinics attitude to HPV vaccination and their role in cervical cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscarsson, Marie G; Dahlberg, Annica; Tydén, Tanja

    2011-11-01

    To explore youth clinic midwives role in cervical cancer prevention and their attitude to HPV vaccination. Individual interviews with 13 midwives working at youth clinics in Sweden. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Three themes were identified in the qualitative content analysis: "Cervical cancer prevention not a prioritised area", "Ambivalence to the HPV vaccine", and "Gender and socioeconomic controversies". Few midwives talked spontaneously about cervical cancer prevention. The responsibility for providing information about HPV vaccination was considered as primarily that of school health nurses and parents. Midwives were positive about the HPV vaccination, but recognised certain risks, such as its potential negative impact on cervical cancer screening and increased sexual risk taking. The midwives expressed concerns with medical risks, such as side effects and unknown long-term effects of the HPV vaccine. The midwives in the study had ethical concerns that boys were not included in the program and not all families had the financial resources to vaccinate their children. Thus, weak socioeconomic groups might be excluded. The midwives considered cervical cancer prevention as important, but did not integrate information on the HPV vaccine into their routine work, mainly because young people visiting youth clinics had had their sexual debut and they were concerned about the medical risks and that the vaccine was too expensive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The attitudes of Australian gynaecologists to HPV vaccination: an ASCCP survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jeffrey; Farrell, Louise; Allen, David G

    2010-10-01

    With human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines now approved for women up to 45 years of age, gynaecologists in Australia will be approached increasingly for advice on whether to have the HPV vaccine. We seek to establish the attitudes of gynaecologists to HPV vaccination when advising women in various age groups. Fellows, members and trainees of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists were approached in early 2009 to complete an Australian Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology survey, which they could return by post or internet on-line. There were 836 (49.0%) responses, with 35.6% of responders using 'Tuna' on-line. 836 RANZCOG fellows, members and trainees responded to the survey. The gender of responders are 261 (43%) females and 470 (56%) males. Of the responders, 391 (46.8%) usually initiated discussion regarding the role of HPV vaccination with their patients. More than 93% encourage when recommending the HPV vaccines for female responders aged 12-26 years. This proportion decreased to 66% for women aged 27-45 years, with 15% strongly encouraging vaccination for this age group. The attitudes to HPV vaccination for the different age groups of females were similar for trainees, fellows and members, as well as for gender and age groups of the responders. However, those with lower level of knowledge are less likely to encourage HPV vaccination in all vaccination age groups and the association is statistically significant after adjusting for role, gender and age. The results show a strong support from gynaecologists in Australia for HPV vaccination. © 2010 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2010 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Anticipated acceptance of HPV vaccination at the baseline of implementation: a survey of parental and adolescent knowledge and attitudes in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhall, Sarah C; Lehtinen, Matti; Verho, Tiina; Huhtala, Heini; Hokkanen, Mari; Kosunen, Elise

    2007-05-01

    We evaluated acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination by adolescents and their parents, 83% and 86% of whom accepted vaccination. Improving knowledge and awareness of HPV, and addressing parental concerns about vaccinating adolescents, most notably on vaccinating against a sexually transmitted disease, should help tackle factors associated with being resistant to accepting HPV vaccination.

  10. HPV vaccine for teen boys: Dyadic analysis of parents' and sons' beliefs and willingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L; Reiter, Paul L; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-09-01

    Parents and adolescents often decide together whether the child should receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, few studies have investigated the dyadic nature of beliefs that affect this process. Data came from the 2010 HPV Immunization in Sons (HIS) Study, a national sample of 412 parents and their adolescent sons. We conducted dyadic multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationships between parents' and sons' HPV vaccine beliefs and their willingness to have the son receive the vaccine. Less than half of parents and sons were willing to have the sons receive HPV vaccine (43% and 29%, respectively). Willing parents and sons anticipated greater regret if the son did not receive HPV vaccine but later contracted an HPV infection (parent odds ratio [OR]=1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.24-2.40; son OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.04-2.19) (both pCommunication campaigns may be able to target these beliefs to increase parents' and sons' willingness to seek HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing university students' sexual risk behaviors as predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Rebecca L; Adjei Boakye, Eric; Christopher, Kara M; Geneus, Christian J; Walker, Ronald J; Varvares, Mark A; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba

    2018-05-09

    There exists a significant gap in vaccine coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged students. This study assessed sexual risk-taking behavior among university students and analyzed predictors of HPV vaccine initiation and completion in this population. Data (n = 746) were from an anonymous online, cross-sectional survey distributed to university students, between the ages of 19-26 years, at a private Midwestern university. Both chi-square and multivariable logistics regression models estimated the association between sociodemographic characteristics and sexual risk factors (including number of vaginal sexual partners, number of oral sexual partners, initiation of oral sex, and initiation of vaginal sex), with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. A significant number of participants (40%) had not received a single dose of the HPV vaccine series. Of those who initiated the series, more than half (51%) did not achieve completion. Additionally, a greater number of participants have had multiple (4 or more) oral sexual partners than vaginal sexual partners (25.7% vs. 20.3%). After adjusting for covariates, it was found that sexual risk factors were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine initiation or completion. HPV vaccine initiation and completion rates are suboptimal among university students. High levels of sexual-risk taking behaviors associated with HPV infection persist, yet are not significant predictors of HPV vaccine behaviors in this age group. To increase uptake among 18-26-year-old students, future public health interventions should focus on HPV vaccine education and uptake across the entire population, irrespective of sexual risk profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection and HPV Vaccination: Assessing the Level of Knowledge among Students of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tirgu Mures, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Septimiu Voidazan; Silviu-Horia Morariu; Monica Tarcea; Horațiu Moldovan; Minodora Dobreanu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection, a cause in the development of cervical cancer, remains a topic of great interest. About 80% of sexually active women are at risk of acquiring an HPV infection at some point in life, the peak incidence of infection having been identified in young women. The aim of the study was to assess medical students’ knowledge and attitudes about sexually transmitted diseases, HPV infection, HPV vaccinations, and the students’ sexual behaviour. Material...

  13. Associations between parents' satisfaction with provider communication and HPV vaccination behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornides, Melanie L; Fontenot, Holly B; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Panozzo, Catherine A; Gilkey, Melissa B

    2018-05-03

    Despite increasing awareness of the importance of a provider recommendation for HPV vaccine, the U.S. has yet to achieve the Healthy people 2020 goal of 80% series completion among adolescents. This failure indicates a need for further examination of the modifiable influences on parents' decision-making. Healthcare providers can influence parents' HPV vaccination decision-making, but little is known about parents' perspectives on the counseling they receive. We sought to assess U.S. parents' satisfaction with provider communication about HPV vaccine and associations with vaccination behaviors. Parents of 11-to-17-year-old adolescents who discussed HPV vaccination with a healthcare provider at least once (n = 795) completed our online survey in Fall 2016. We assessed their satisfaction with the discussion using the HPV Vaccine Communication Satisfaction Scale (α = 0.94). We examined associations between satisfaction (categorized as low, moderate, or high), and three vaccination behaviors: refusal/delay, series initiation (≥1 dose), and continuation (≥2 doses among initiators) using multivariable logistic regression. Most parents reported high (36%) or moderate (38%) satisfaction with provider communication about HPV vaccination; fewer reported low (26%) satisfaction. Moderately satisfied parents (vs. low) had lower odds of refusal/delay (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.89), and higher odds of initiation (aOR = 1.71, 95% CI:1.15-2.55) and continuation (aOR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.24-3.40). The associations were stronger for highly satisfied parents (refusal/delay aOR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.29-0.70, initiation aOR = 3.59, 95% CI: 2.23-5.78, and continuation aOR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.38-7.01). Our study suggests that parent satisfaction with provider communication may play an important role in HPV vaccination decision-making. Yet, communication satisfaction has been largely unexamined in the HPV-vaccine literature to date. We introduce a brief, 7-item

  14. Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens?Why such controversy?

    OpenAIRE

    White, Mark Donald

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections in both females and males. HPV viruses are associated with several manifestations including genital warts, but more importantly for urology practitioners, cervical and penile carcinomas and recurrent genital condylomata in both sexes. The incidence of HPV-related carcinomas has increased in cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers. Effective vaccines have been av...

  15. A Phase I Trial of a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA Vaccine for HPV16+ Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 2/3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Cornelia L.; Peng, Shiwen; Kos, Ferdynand; Gravitt, Patti; Viscidi, Raphael; Sugar, Elizabeth; Pardoll, Drew; Wu, TC

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a therapeutic HPV16 DNA vaccine administered to women with HPV16+CIN2/3. Experimental Design: This phase I trial incorporated the standard ‘3+3” dose escalation design with an additional 6 patients allocated to the maximally tolerated dose (MTD). Healthy adult women with colposcopically-directed biopsy-proven HPV16+ CIN2/3 received three intramuscular (IM) vaccinations (0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 3mg) of a plasmid expressing a Sig-E7(detox)-HSP70 fusion protein on days 0, 28 and 56, and underwent standard therapeutic resection of the cervical squamocolumnar junction at day 105 (week 15). Safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine and histologic outcome based on resection at week 15 were assessed. Results: Fifteen patients were evaluable (3 each at 0.5 mg and 1mg, 9 at 3mg). The vaccine was well tolerated: most adverse events were mild transient injection-site discomfort; no dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Although HPVE7-specific T-cell responses to E7 detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assays (IFNγ) were of low frequency and magnitude, detectable increases in response subsequent to vaccination were identified in subjects in the second and third cohorts. Complete histologic regression occurred in 3/9 (33%, CI: 7%-70%)) individuals in the highest dose cohort, Although the difference is not significant, it is slightly higher than would be expected in an unvaccinated cohort (25%). Conclusions: This HPV16 DNA vaccine was safe and well tolerated. While it appears possible to elicit HPV-specific T cell responses in patients with established dysplastic lesions, other factors are likely to play a role in lesion regression. PMID:19118066

  16. Focal epithelial hyperplasia by human papillomavirus (HPV)-32 misdiagnosed as HPV-16 and treated with combination of retinoids, imiquimod and quadrivalent HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemigniani, Franco; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Ferrer, Berta; García-Patos, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare, benign and asymptomatic mucosal proliferation associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, mainly with genotypes 13 and 32. We report a florid case of FEH in an 11-year-old Haitian girl with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Cryotherapy was previously performed on numerous occasions with no results. We decided to prescribe a non-invasive and more comfortable treatment. A combination of topical retinoid and imiquimod cream was well tolerated and led to an important improvement. The evidence of infection by HPV-16 detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, prompted us to prescribe the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (types 6, 11,16 and 18). Subsequent PCR sequencing with generic primers GP5-GP6 and further BLAST comparative analysis confirmed that genomic viral sequence in our case truly corresponded with HPV-32. This molecular misdiagnosis can be explained by the similarity between genomic sequences of both HPV-16 and -32 genotypes. At the 1-year follow up, we observed total clinical improvement and no recurrences of the disease. Complete healing in this case may correspond to a potential action of topical retinoid, imiquimod and the cross-protection mechanism of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse in Galicia, Spain: HPV 16 prevalence and vaccination impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Lorenzo-Mahía, Yolanda; Iñarrea Fernández, Amparo; Lamas-González, María José; Sarán-Díez, María Teresa; Rubio-Alarcón, Joaquín; Reboredo-Reboredo, María Consuelo; Mosteiro-Lobato, Sonia; López-Miragaya, Isabel; Torres-Piñón, Julio; Melón-García, Santiago

    2014-10-01

    The etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) can influence the efficacy of Public Health preventive strategies. This study aimed to determine the high-risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) prevalence in CIN2+ cases in unvaccinated women in Galicia (Spain), the expected impact of bivalent vaccination, and the distribution of HPV 16 in squamous lesions. Ninety-four histologically confirmed cases of CIN2+ (2009-2010) were retrospectively studied: 23 CIN2, 58 CIN3- squamous carcinoma in situ (CIN3-CIS), 5 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and 8 invasive squamous cervical cancer (SCC). Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) was performed on the cervical specimens. Bivalent vaccination impact was calculated, based on regional vaccination coverage data, local HR-HPV prevalence, and reported efficacy (direct and cross-protection) of the vaccine. HR-HPV prevalence was 96.8%. The most frequent genotypes were HPV 16 (48.8-58.2%) and HPV 31 (9.3%-12.1%), considering single infections or single-multiple infections, respectively (hierarchical attribution). In squamous lesions, HPV 16 prevalence in women younger than 45 years of age increased in severe lesions (CIN3-CIS/SCC, OR 4.2), and was higher than in older women (OR 5.5). The vaccine could reduce the cumulative incidence of CIN2+ by 50.6% (direct protection), or by 62.7% (direct and cross-protection). HPV vaccination could have a great impact in women younger than 45 years of age due to the high prevalence of HPV 16 in their lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Using actor-partner interdependence modeling to understand HPV vaccine acceptance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E VanderDrift

    Full Text Available A wealth of scientific literature has been devoted to understanding what factors influence parents and their adolescent children to obtain the HPV vaccine. This literature is relatively uniform in its methodological approach of sampling individuals (i.e., either parents or adolescents and examining the predictors of uptake for that individual. To improve understanding of HPV vaccination uptake, we sampled low-income, African American parent-child dyads with either a female (n = 93 or a male (n = 116 adolescent who had not been vaccinated. Both parents and children completed self-report measures that tapped intent to receive the vaccine and hypothesized predictors of intent (i.e., self-efficacy, beliefs about the vaccine, beliefs about HPV, knowledge of HPV. Using a dyadic analytic approach (i.e., the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model or APIM [1], we found that parents and their adolescents have different structures of beliefs regarding HPV vaccination (i.e., they are empirically distinguishable. Consistent with prior research, the majority of predictors of an individual's own intention to vaccinate were individual-level variables; uniquely though, some predictors endorsed by one member of the dyad influenced the intentions held by the other member. Specifically, parents' reports of HPV severity and their self-efficacy were both associated with adolescents' intent to obtain the vaccine. Further, adolescents' beliefs that the vaccine will lead to greater promiscuity or be stigmatizing were associated with parents holding an increased intent to vaccinate. Use APIM improves understanding of HPV vaccination uptake and can be used to guide intervention efforts.

  19. Human papilloma virus (HPV) prophylactic vaccination: challenges for public health and implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Jasani, B; Fiander, A

    2007-04-20

    Prophylactic vaccination against high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 and 18 represents an exciting means of protection against HPV related malignancy. However, this strategy alone, even if there is a level of cross protection against other oncogenic viruses, cannot completely prevent cervical cancer. In some developed countries cervical screening programmes have reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by up to 80% although this decline has now reached a plateau with current cancers occurring in patients who have failed to attend for screening or where the sensitivity of the tests have proved inadequate. Cervical screening is inevitably associated with significant anxiety for the many women who require investigation and treatment following abnormal cervical cytology. However, it is vitally important to stress the need for continued cervical screening to complement vaccination in order to optimise prevention in vaccinees and prevent cervical cancer in older women where the value of vaccination is currently unclear. It is likely that vaccination will ultimately change the natural history of HPV disease by reducing the influence of the highly oncogenic types HPV 16 and 18. In the long term this is likely to lead to an increase in recommended screening intervals. HPV vaccination may also reduce the positive predictive value of cervical cytology by reducing the number of truly positive abnormal smears. Careful consideration is required to ensure vaccination occurs at an age when the vaccine is most effective immunologically and when uptake is likely to be high. Antibody titres following vaccination in girls 12-16 years have been shown to be significantly higher than in older women, favouring vaccination in early adolescence prior contact with the virus. Highest prevalence rates for HPV infection are seen following the onset of sexual activity and therefore vaccination would need to be given prior to sexual debut. Since 20% of adolescents are sexually

  20. Perceptions of human papillomavirus vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in western Uganda and their implications for acceptability of HPV vaccination: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Okello, Elialilia Sarikieli; Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza

    2017-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been perceived in diverse ways some of which encourage its uptake while others could potentially deter its acceptability. This study explored community member?s perceptions about HPV vaccination in Ibanda district and the implications of the perceptions for acceptability of HPV vaccination. The study was conducted following initial vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in the district between 2008 and 2011. Methods This qualitative study e...

  1. Search engine ranking, quality, and content of webpages that are critical vs noncritical of HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linda Y.; Zook, Kathleen; Spoehr-Labutta, Zachary; Hu, Pamela; Joseph, Jill G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Online information can influence attitudes toward vaccination. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic evaluation of the search engine ranking, quality, and content of webpages that are critical versus noncritical of HPV vaccination. Methods We identified HPV vaccine-related webpages with the Google search engine by entering 20 terms. We then assessed each webpage for critical versus noncritical bias as well as for the following quality indicators: authorship disclosure, source disclosure, attribution of at least one reference, currency, exclusion of testimonial accounts, and readability level less than 9th grade. We also determined webpage comprehensiveness in terms of mention of 14 HPV vaccine relevant topics. Results Twenty searches yielded 116 unique webpages. HPV vaccine-critical webpages comprised roughly a third of the top, top 5 and top 10-ranking webpages. The prevalence of HPV vaccine-critical webpages was higher for queries that included term modifiers in addition to root terms. Compared with noncritical webpages, webpages critical of HPV vaccine overall had a lower quality score than those with a noncritical bias (psearch engine queries despite being of lower quality and less comprehensive than noncritical webpages. PMID:26559742

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: Evidence from a large survey of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo T.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Arnheim-Dahlstrom, Lisen

    2014-01-01

    than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. CONCLUSION: Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut...

  3. The cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in addition to screening : a Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Westra, Tjalke Arend; Wilschut, Jan C.; Suwantika, Auliya A.; Daemen, Toos; Atthobari, Jarir; Wilffert, Bob; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Addition of the HPV vaccine to available cytological screening has been proposed to increase HPV-related cancer prevention. A comprehensive review on this combined strategy implemented in the Netherlands is lacking. For this review, we therefore analyzed all relevant studies on cost-effectiveness of

  4. Could Poor Parental Recall of HPV Vaccination Contribute to Low Vaccination Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Gauri; Pierre-Joseph, Natalie; Vercruysse, Jessica L; Perkins, Rebecca B

    2015-09-01

    Rates of initiation and completion of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series remain below national goals. Because parents are responsible for ensuring vaccination of their children, we examined the accuracy of parental recall of the number of shots their daughters received. Parents/guardians of girls aged 11 to 17 years were asked to recall the number of HPV doses received by their daughters. Dose number was confirmed using provider-verified medical records. Logistic regression assessed variables associated with correct recall. A total of 79 (63%) parents/guardians correctly identified the number of shots their daughters received. Ninety-one (73%) were aware of whether their daughter started the series at all. The only factor significantly associated with accurate recall in logistic regression models was female gender of parent/guardian. Nearly 40% of parents/guardians inaccurately recalled the number of HPV shots their children received, which may contribute to low rates of vaccine initiation and completion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Local HPV Recombinant Vaccinia Boost Following Priming with an HPV DNA Vaccine Enhances Local HPV-Specific CD8+ T-cell-Mediated Tumor Control in the Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun-Yan; Peng, Shiwen; Han, Liping; Qiu, Jin; Song, Liwen; Tsai, Yachea; Yang, Benjamin; Roden, Richard B S; Trimble, Cornelia L; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2016-02-01

    Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are expressed in all human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells, from initial infection in the genital tract to metastatic cervical cancer. Intramuscular vaccination of women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) twice with a naked DNA vaccine, pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70, and a single boost with HPVE6/E7 recombinant vaccinia vaccine (TA-HPV) elicited systemic HPV-specific CD8 T-cell responses that could traffic to the lesion and was associated with regression in some patients (NCT00788164). Here, we examine whether alteration of this vaccination regimen by administration of TA-HPV vaccination in the cervicovaginal tract, rather than intramuscular (IM) delivery, can more effectively recruit antigen-specific T cells in an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model of HPV16(+) cervical cancer (TC-1 luc). We found that pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 vaccination followed by cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV increased accumulation of total and E7-specific CD8(+) T cells in the cervicovaginal tract and better controlled E7-expressing cervicovaginal TC-1 luc tumor than IM administration of TA-HPV. Furthermore, the E7-specific CD8(+) T cells in the cervicovaginal tract generated through the cervicovaginal route of vaccination expressed the α4β7 integrin and CCR9, which are necessary for the homing of the E7-specific CD8(+) T cells to the cervicovaginal tract. Finally, we show that cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV can induce potent local HPV-16 E7 antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell immune responses regardless of whether an HPV DNA vaccine priming vaccination was administered IM or within the cervicovaginal tract. Our results support future clinical translation using cervicovaginal TA-HPV vaccination. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination for the prevention of HPV 16/18 induced cervical cancer and its precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential precondition for the development of cervical cancer is a persistent human papillomavirus (HPV infection. The majority - approximately 70% - of cervical carcinomas is caused by two high-risk HPV types (16 and 18. Recently, two vaccines have been approved to the German market with the potential to induce protection against HPV 16 and HPV 18 among additional low-risk virus types. Objectives: To analyse whether HPV vaccination is effective with regard to the reduction of cervical cancer and precursors of cervical carcinoma (CIN, respectively? Does HPV vaccination represent a cost-effective alternative or supplement to present screening practice? Are there any differences concerning cost-effectiveness between the two available vaccines? Should HPV vaccination be recommended from a health economic point of view? If so, which recommendations can be conveyed with respect to a (reorganization of the German vaccination strategy? Which ethical, social and legal implications have to be considered? Methods: Based on a systematic literature review, randomized controlled trials (RCT looking at the effectiveness of HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical carcinoma and its precursors - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - have been identified. In addition, health economic models were identified to address the health economic research questions. Quality assessment of medical and economic literature was assured by application of general assessment standards for the systematic and critical appraisal of scientific studies. Results: Vaccine efficacy in prevention of CIN 2 or higher lesions in HPV 16 or HPV 18 negative women, who received all vaccination doses, ranges between 98% and 100%. Side effects of the vaccination are mainly associated with injection site reactions (redness, turgor, pain. No significant differences concerning serious complications between the vaccination- and the placebo-groups were reported. Results of base case

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellsagué, X; Giuliano, A R; Goldstone, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and tolerability of a prophylactic 9-valent HPV (types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) VLP (9vHPV) vaccine in young men 16-26 years of age in comparison to young women 16-26 years of age (the population that was used to establish 9v......HPV vaccine efficacy). Safety and immunogenicity data from this study will be used to bridge 9vHPV vaccine efficacy findings in 16-26 year old women to 16-26 year old men. METHODS: This study enrolled 1106 heterosexual men (HM) and 1101 women who had not yet received HPV vaccination. In addition, 313 men...... having sex with men (MSM) were enrolled and were evaluated separately for immunogenicity because previous results showed that antibody responses to quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) VLP (qHPV) vaccine were lower in MSM than in HM. All subjects were administered a 3-dose regimen (Day 1, Month 2, Month 6...

  8. Determination of freeze damage on HPV vaccines by use of flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Erik; Frandsen, Peer Lyng; Sandberg, Eva

    2015-07-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines Gardasil, Silgard and Cervarix were labeled with antibodies against HPV strain 6 or 16/FITC conjugated secondary antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry. The vaccines showed distinct peaks of fluorescent particles, and a shift towards decreased fluorescent particles was observed after incubation of the vaccines over night at -20 °C. Since parallel distributed vaccines could have longer route of transportation there is an increased risk of freeze damage for these types of vaccine. Shift in fluorescence of labeled vaccine particles was used to indicate whether parallel distributed Silgard, which is a vaccine type identical to Gardasil, was exposed to freeze damage during transportation, but no shift was observed. Additional experiments showed that the HPV vaccines could be degraded to smaller particles by citric acid/phosphate buffer treatment. The majority of particles detected in degraded Gardasil were very small indicating that the particles are HPV virus like particle (VLPs) labeled with antibodies, but Cervarix could only be degraded partially due to the presence of another type adjuvant in this vaccine. The described method may be useful in characterization of adjuvanted vaccines with respect to freeze damage, and to characterize vaccines containing particles corresponding to VLPs in size. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of School-Based Influenza Vaccination Clinics and School Absenteeism--Arkansas, 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquelais, Rachel E.; Safi, Haytham; Butler, Sandra; Smith, Nathaniel; Haselow, Dirk T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a major cause of seasonal viral respiratory illness among school-aged children. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) coordinates >800 school-based influenza immunization clinics before each influenza season. We quantified the relationship between student influenza vaccination in Arkansas public schools…

  10. Political and news media factors shaping public awareness of the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Attanasio, Laura; Dempsey, Amanda; Benson, Allison M; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration licensed a vaccine for the human papillomavirus (HPV) that prevents the strains of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancers. Within months, many states introduced legislation requiring the vaccine for girls, prompting controversy and heightened political and media attention to the issue. Previous research has shown differences in HPV vaccine awareness by individual-level characteristics such as race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. We examined how individual political orientation and exposure to media coverage can also shape awareness of the vaccine. Using data from a 2009 Internet survey of 1,216 nationally representative adult respondents linked to data on state-specific news coverage, we assessed how political orientation, media exposure, and state political context predicted HPV vaccine awareness. Younger people, women, and those with more education were significantly more likely to be aware of the vaccine. Even after controlling for these characteristics, we found that exposure to news media was associated with higher HPV vaccine awareness. Whereas liberals and conservatives were both more aware of the vaccine compared with moderates, the data are suggestive that liberals were more sensitive to news coverage. These findings suggest that individual-level political identities and their interaction with the informational environment may be important factors to consider in evaluating the determinants of individuals' attitudes and behaviors related to politically charged women's health issues. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of HPV vaccination intentions among Dutch girls and their mothers: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dutch government recently added universal Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination for 12-year-old girls to the existing national immunization program. The participation rate for the initial catch-up campaign for girls aged 13 to 16 years in 2009 was lower (47%) than expected (70%). To inform future HPV information campaigns, this paper examines the social and psychological determinants of the HPV vaccination intentions of girls aged 13 to 16 years and their mothers who were targeted by the Dutch catch-up campaign of 2009. Methods A random sample of girls and their mothers was chosen from the Dutch vaccination register and received a letter inviting them to participate (n = 5,998 mothers and daughters). In addition, a random sample was recruited via an online panel by a marketing research company (n = 650 mothers; n = 350 daughters). Both groups were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire with questions on social demographic characteristics, social-psychological factors and HPV vaccination intention. Backward linear regression analyses were conducted to examine which social-psychological factors were most dominantly associated with vaccination intention. Results Data from 952 mothers (14%) and 642 daughters (10%) were available for the intended analyses. The contribution of social demographic variables to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intention was small but significant for mothers (ΔR2 = .01; p = .007), but not significant for daughters (ΔR2 = .02; p = .17) after controlling for HPV vaccination uptake and the sample. In addition, social-psychological determinants largely contributed to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intention of mothers (ΔR2 = .35; p vaccination intentions. Conclusions Because of the large contribution of social-psychological variables to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intentions among the mothers and daughters, future communication strategies targeting HPV vaccination uptake should address

  12. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank); K. Verschueren (Kristin); C. McCabe (Candida); J.-U. Stegmann (Jens-Ulrich); J. Zima (Julia); O. Mahaux (Olivia); L. Van Holle (Lionel); M.-G. Angelo (Maria-Genalin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractComplex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We

  13. Association of prior HPV vaccination with reduced preterm birth: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Beverley; Howe, Anna S; Turner, Nikki; Filoche, Sara; Slatter, Tania; Devenish, Celia; Hung, Noelyn Anne

    2018-01-02

    Emerging evidence suggests that HPV infection is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB), and pre-eclampsia. We aimed to determine if prior HPV vaccination reduced adverse pregnancy outcomes. A New Zealand population-based retrospective study linking first pregnancy outcome data (2008-2014 n = 35,646) with prior quadrivalent HPV vaccination status. Primary outcomes were likelihood (odds ratios, ORs) of PTB, pre-eclampsia, and stillbirth. Exposure groups were based on HPV vaccination. Adjusted ORs were calculated for each outcome, controlling for mother's age at delivery, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health board region at time of delivery, and body mass index and smoking status at time of registration with maternity care provider. Mother's mean age at delivery was 19 (SD 2.1) years. Of 34,994 the pregnancies included in the final study analyses 62.3% of women were unvaccinated, 11.0% vaccinated with one or two doses and 27.7% vaccinated with three doses prior to pregnancy. PTB (OR: 0.87; CI 0.78, 0.96)) was significantly lower for women who previously received the HPV vaccine. A dose response effect was found with each successive dose received decreasing the likelihood of PTB. No associations between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups were shown for pre-eclampsia or stillbirth. Prior receipt of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was associated with a significant reduction in PTB (13%); suggesting that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing PTB. The potential global public health impact is considerable and there is urgency to undertake further research to replicate and explore these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Attitudes to HPV Vaccination among Parents of Children Aged 10 to 13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Memnun; Güvenç, Gülten; Şahin, Eda; Akyüz, Aygül

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the willingness of parents to allow their sons and/or daughters aged 10-13 years to be vaccinated for human papillomavirus (HPV). This was a descriptive study conducted in an elementary school to recruit students' parents into the study. The sample consisted of 368 (69.1%) parents of children aged 10-13 years who were willing to participate in the study as a couple. Questionnaire-based data were collected from the couples. Prior information regarding HPV and vaccination and the opinions of parents of children aged 10-13 about HPV vaccination for their daughter or son. Only 26.9% of mothers and 25.0% of fathers claimed to be aware of HPV, and only 24.5% of mothers and 21.2% of fathers claimed to be aware of its vaccine. If the vaccine were available in Turkey, 21.6% of mothers and 22.4% of fathers would be willing to vaccinate their sons; although the vaccine for girls is available in Turkey, only 14.4% of mothers and 15.5% of fathers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. Few participants reported knowing about the HPV vaccine, while far fewer intended to vaccinate their daughters and sons against the infection. Both males and females should be informed about HPV and its vaccine, and initiatives to increase both awareness and the information of health care professionals should be encouraged. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health and Economic Implications of HPV Vaccination in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane J.; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cost-effectiveness of prophylactic vaccination against human papillomavirus types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) is an important consideration for guidelines for immunization in the United States. METHODS We synthesized epidemiologic and demographic data using models of HPV-16 and HPV-18 transmission and cervical carcinogenesis to compare the health and economic outcomes of vaccinating preadolescent girls (at 12 years of age) and vaccinating older girls and women in catch-up programs (to 18, 21, or 26 years of age). We examined the health benefits of averting other HPV-16–related and HPV-18–related cancers, the prevention of HPV-6–related and HPV-11–related genital warts and juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis by means of the quadrivalent vaccine, the duration of immunity, and future screening practices. RESULTS On the assumption that the vaccine provided lifelong immunity, the cost-effectiveness ratio of vaccination of 12-year-old girls was $43,600 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, as compared with the current screening practice. Under baseline assumptions, the cost-effectiveness ratio for extending a temporary catch-up program for girls to 18 years of age was $97,300 per QALY; the cost of extending vaccination of girls and women to the age of 21 years was $120,400 per QALY, and the cost for extension to the age of 26 years was $152,700 per QALY. The results were sensitive to the duration of vaccine-induced immunity; if immunity waned after 10 years, the cost of vaccination of preadolescent girls exceeded $140,000 per QALY, and catch-up strategies were less cost-effective than screening alone. The cost-effectiveness ratios for vaccination strategies were more favorable if the benefits of averting other health conditions were included or if screening was delayed and performed at less frequent intervals and with more sensitive tests; they were less favorable if vaccinated girls were preferentially screened more

  16. Determinants of HPV vaccination intentions among Dutch girls and their mothers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Keulen Hilde M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dutch government recently added universal Human Papilloma Virus (HPV vaccination for 12-year-old girls to the existing national immunization program. The participation rate for the initial catch-up campaign for girls aged 13 to 16 years in 2009 was lower (47% than expected (70%. To inform future HPV information campaigns, this paper examines the social and psychological determinants of the HPV vaccination intentions of girls aged 13 to 16 years and their mothers who were targeted by the Dutch catch-up campaign of 2009. Methods A random sample of girls and their mothers was chosen from the Dutch vaccination register and received a letter inviting them to participate (n = 5,998 mothers and daughters. In addition, a random sample was recruited via an online panel by a marketing research company (n = 650 mothers; n = 350 daughters. Both groups were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire with questions on social demographic characteristics, social-psychological factors and HPV vaccination intention. Backward linear regression analyses were conducted to examine which social-psychological factors were most dominantly associated with vaccination intention. Results Data from 952 mothers (14% and 642 daughters (10% were available for the intended analyses. The contribution of social demographic variables to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intention was small but significant for mothers (ΔR2 = .01; p = .007, but not significant for daughters (ΔR2 = .02; p = .17 after controlling for HPV vaccination uptake and the sample. In addition, social-psychological determinants largely contributed to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intention of mothers (ΔR2 = .35; p 2 = .34; p Conclusions Because of the large contribution of social-psychological variables to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intentions among the mothers and daughters, future communication strategies targeting HPV vaccination uptake should

  17. The Silver Lining of Shame: Framing HPV to Influence Vaccination Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Janet Z; Pittman, McKenzie M

    2017-08-01

    College students suffer disproportionately from human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that could result in genital warts or cancers in both males and females. Research contends that stigma and shame may serve as barriers to disclosure intentions, as well as vaccination intentions. The goal of this study was to examine whether two framing strategies-whether to mention that HPV is sexually transmitted and whether to highlight the cause of infection as internal or external-would influence young adults' intentions to disclose a potential diagnosis and their intentions to get the recommended HPV vaccine. Results indicate that STI framing and gender had consistent impacts on disclosure and vaccination intentions. Further, causal attribution framing also influenced participants' intention to get the vaccine at no cost immediately and their intention to get the vaccine at the retail price of $375 in the future. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  18. "Saving lives": Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Katharina T

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from "lagging behind" in 2008 into "Europe's frontrunner" by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made "good enough" over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge and Awareness about Cervical Cancer Vaccine (HPV) Among Parents in Sharjah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqer, Ahmad; Ghazal, Shaymaa; Barqawi, Hiba; Babi, Juman Adnan; AlKhafaji, Ranya; Elmekresh, Mohamed Mohsen

    2017-05-01

    Background and aim: Cervical cancer (CC) is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. It is the 4th most common cancer in females causing 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of CC and other diseases worldwide. Despite several measures taken to reduce the risk of infection with HPV, the most effective method remains the HPV vaccine. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of parents in Sharjah towards HPV and whether or not they would vaccinate their daughters. Methods and Material: A quantitative, observational cross-sectional study of 400 subjects was conducted in public venues in Sharjah. Probability sampling method was used for selection of subjects (parents who have daughters). A self-administered 32- question questionnaire was distributed. SPSS 21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was used for entry and analysis of data. Frequency was calculated, Chi square test was used to conduct bivariate analysis and bar charts and tables were used to present the results. Results: 78.3% of the population had heard of CC, 41.3 % of HPV, and 36.5% of the HPV vaccine. Among them, the percentages of the correctly answered knowledge-related questions were found to be 66.2%, 50.9% and 52.1% for CC, HPV and HPV vaccine, respectively. 76.6% of parents were willing to vaccinate their daughters. The percentage increased to 92.9%, if the ministry of health (MOH) recommended the vaccine. A significant correlation was found between the spouse’s level of education, HPV (Pearson-chi square value: 5.049 and p: 0.025) and HPV vaccine (Pearson-chi square value: 4.057 and p:0.044). Conclusions: Despite the public’s lack of knowledge, the study showed a noticeable increase in parent’s willingness to vaccinate their daughters if the government recommends and provides the HPV vaccine. However, proper evaluation of the vaccine’s efficacy from a socioeconomic point of view is needed before recommending

  20. To vaccinate or not to vaccinate? Perspectives on HPV vaccination among girls, boys, and parents in the Netherlands: a Q-methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patty, Nathalie J S; van Dijk, Hanna Maria; Wallenburg, Iris; Bal, Roland; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; van Exel, Job; Cramm, Jane Murray

    2017-11-07

    Despite the introduction of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in national immunization programs (NIPs), vaccination rates in most countries remain relatively low. An understanding of the reasons underlying decisions about whether to vaccinate is essential in order to promote wider spread of HPV vaccination. This is particularly important in relation to policies seeking to address shortfalls in current HPV campaigns. The aim of this study was to explore prevailing perspectives concerning HPV vaccination among girls, boys, and parents, and so to identify potential determinants of HPV vaccination decisions in these groups. Perspectives were explored using Q-methodology. Forty-seven girls, 39 boys, and 107 parents in the Netherlands were asked to rank a comprehensive set of 35 statements, assembled based on the health belief model (HBM), according to their agreement with them. By-person factor analysis was used to identify common patterns in these rankings, which were interpreted as perspectives on HPV vaccination. These perspectives were further interpreted and described using data collected with interviews and open-ended questions. The analysis revealed four perspectives: "prevention is better than cure," "fear of unknown side effects," "lack of information and awareness," and "my body, my choice." The first two perspectives and corresponding determinants of HPV vaccination decisions were coherent and distinct; the third and fourth perspectives were more ambiguous and, to some extent, incoherent, involving doubt and lack of awareness and information (perspective 3), and overconfidence (perspective 4). Given the aim of publically funded vaccination programs to minimize the spread of HPV infection and HPV-related disease and the concerns about current uptake levels, our results indicate that focus should be placed on increasing awareness and knowledge, in particular among those in a modifiable phase.

  1. To vaccinate or not to vaccinate? Perspectives on HPV vaccination among girls, boys, and parents in the Netherlands: a Q-methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie J. S. Patty

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the introduction of Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination in national immunization programs (NIPs, vaccination rates in most countries remain relatively low. An understanding of the reasons underlying decisions about whether to vaccinate is essential in order to promote wider spread of HPV vaccination. This is particularly important in relation to policies seeking to address shortfalls in current HPV campaigns. The aim of this study was to explore prevailing perspectives concerning HPV vaccination among girls, boys, and parents, and so to identify potential determinants of HPV vaccination decisions in these groups. Method Perspectives were explored using Q-methodology. Forty-seven girls, 39 boys, and 107 parents in the Netherlands were asked to rank a comprehensive set of 35 statements, assembled based on the health belief model (HBM, according to their agreement with them. By-person factor analysis was used to identify common patterns in these rankings, which were interpreted as perspectives on HPV vaccination. These perspectives were further interpreted and described using data collected with interviews and open-ended questions. Results The analysis revealed four perspectives: “prevention is better than cure,” “fear of unknown side effects,” “lack of information and awareness,” and “my body, my choice.” The first two perspectives and corresponding determinants of HPV vaccination decisions were coherent and distinct; the third and fourth perspectives were more ambiguous and, to some extent, incoherent, involving doubt and lack of awareness and information (perspective 3, and overconfidence (perspective 4. Conclusions Given the aim of publically funded vaccination programs to minimize the spread of HPV infection and HPV-related disease and the concerns about current uptake levels, our results indicate that focus should be placed on increasing awareness and knowledge, in particular among those in a

  2. Serious adverse events after HPV vaccination: a critical review of randomized trials and post-marketing case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lavín, Manuel; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis

    2017-10-01

    This article critically reviews HPV vaccine serious adverse events described in pre-licensure randomized trials and in post-marketing case series. HPV vaccine randomized trials were identified in PubMed. Safety data were extracted. Post-marketing case series describing HPV immunization adverse events were reviewed. Most HPV vaccine randomized trials did not use inert placebo in the control group. Two of the largest randomized trials found significantly more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Compared to 2871 women receiving aluminum placebo, the group of 2881 women injected with the bivalent HPV vaccine had more deaths on follow-up (14 vs. 3, p = 0.012). Compared to 7078 girls injected with the 4-valent HPV vaccine, 7071 girls receiving the 9-valent dose had more serious systemic adverse events (3.3 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.01). For the 9-valent dose, our calculated number needed to seriously harm is 140 (95% CI, 79–653) [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] . The number needed to vaccinate is 1757 (95% CI, 131 to infinity). Practically, none of the serious adverse events occurring in any arm of both studies were judged to be vaccine-related. Pre-clinical trials, post-marketing case series, and the global drug adverse reaction database (VigiBase) describe similar post-HPV immunization symptom clusters. Two of the largest randomized HPV vaccine trials unveiled more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Nine-valent HPV vaccine has a worrisome number needed to vaccinate/number needed to harm quotient. Pre-clinical trials and post-marketing case series describe similar post-HPV immunization symptoms.

  3. A cost-utility analysis of adding a bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine to the Irish cervical screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, Anne

    2010-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and in Ireland it is the ninth most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Almost 100% of these cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Two newly developed vaccines against HPV infection have become available. This study is a cost-utility analysis of the HPV vaccine in Ireland, and it compares the cost-effectiveness profiles of the two vaccines.

  4. Low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine knowledge among Latino parents in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepka, Deanna; Warner, Echo L; Kinney, Anita Y; Spigarelli, Michael G; Mooney, Kathi

    2015-02-01

    Latinas have the highest incidence of cervical cancer, yet Latino parents/guardians' knowledge about and willingness to have their children receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is unknown. Latino parents/guardians (N = 67) of children aged 11-17 were recruited from two community organizations to complete a survey, including HPV vaccine knowledge, child's uptake, demographic characteristics, and acculturation. Descriptive statistics and correlates of parents' HPV knowledge and uptake were calculated using Chi square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Receipt of at least one dose of the HPV vaccine was moderate for daughters (49.1%) and low for sons (23.4%). Parents/guardians reported limited knowledge as the main barrier to vaccine receipt. Among parents/guardians with vaccinated daughters, 92.6% did not know the vaccine requires three doses. Adjusting for income, low-acculturated parents were more likely than high-acculturated parents to report inadequate information (OR 8.59, 95% CI 2.11-34.92). Interventions addressing low knowledge and children's uptake of the HPV vaccine are needed among Latino parents/guardians.

  5. Human papillomavirus infection in Rwanda at the moment of implementation of a national HPV vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabo, Fidele; Franceschi, Silvia; Baussano, Iacopo; Umulisa, M Chantal; Snijders, Peter J F; Uyterlinde, Anne M; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Tenet, Vanessa; Gatera, Maurice; Binagwaho, Agnes; Clifford, Gary M

    2016-05-24

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Rwanda that, in 2011, became the first African country to implement a national vaccination programme against human papillomavirus (HPV). To provide a robust baseline for future evaluations of vaccine effectiveness, cervical cell specimens were obtained from 2508 women aged 18-69 years from the general population in Kigali, Rwanda, during 2013/14. 20 % of women were HIV-positive. Samples were used for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing (44 types) with GP5+/6+ PCR. HPV prevalence was 34 %, being highest (54 %) in women ≤19 years and decreasing to 20 % at age ≥50. Prevalence of high risk (HR) HPV and cytological abnormalities was 22 and 11 % respectively (including 2 % with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSIL) decreasing with age. Age-standardised prevalence of HR HPV was 22 % (or 19 % among HIV-negative women), and HPV16 was the most common type. Prevalence of HPV and cytological abnormalities were significantly higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women, and the difference increased with age. Other significant risk factors for HPV positivity in multivariate analyses were high lifetime number of sexual partners, receiving cash for sex, and being a farmer. 40 % of women with HSIL were infected with HPV16/18 and there was no significant difference between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. This study confirms Rwanda to be a setting of high prevalence of HPV and cervical disease that is worsened by HIV. These data will serve as a robust baseline for future evaluations of HPV vaccine programme effectiveness.

  6. Collateral Damage and Critical Turning Points: Public Health Implications of HPV Vaccine News Coverage for Boys and Men in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda; Rogers, Brian

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially expanded approval of the Gardasil vaccine to include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for boys and men, and in 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a formal recommendation for routine vaccination for this population. Despite these efforts, HPV vaccination rates for boys and men continue to fall short of public health targets. While news was breaking about the benefits of the HPV vaccine for boys and men, public attention shifted as a result of political debates concerning the vaccine. This study examines a pivotal time period for public health in which the vaccine became officially recommended for boys and men and at the same time became the center of political controversies in the lead-up to the 2012 presidential campaign. The current study extends previous research and presents a content analysis of newspaper articles (N = 154) about the HPV vaccine for the year 2011. Results indicate that the lack of comprehensive coverage of HPV and the HPV vaccine found in previous studies continued in this year. Results shed light on key political events that may have functioned to overshadow the recommendation of the HPV vaccine for boys and men. The implications of this pattern of news coverage can inform public health efforts to address low rates of HPV vaccination uptake among boys and men in present day.

  7. Danish method study on cervical screening in women offered HPV vaccination as girls (Trial23)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Andersen, Berit; Larsen, Lise Grupe

    2018-01-01

    arm) or present screening plus an HPV test (HPV arm). The study started 1 February 2017 and will run over three screening rounds corresponding to 7-8 years. ANALYSES: The primary endpoint is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or above. The trial is undertaken as a non-inferiority study......INTRODUCTION: The first birth cohorts of women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination as girls are now entering cervical screening. However, there is no international consensus on how to screen HPV vaccinated women. These women are better protected against cervical cancer and could...... vaccination as girls. METHODS: Trial23 is a method study embedded in the existing cervical screening programme in four out of five Danish regions. Without affecting the screening programme, women born in 1994 are randomised to present screening with liquid-based cytology every third year (present programme...

  8. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage achievements in low and middle-income countries 2007-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Katherine E; Howard, Natasha; Kabakama, Severin; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Burchett, Helen E D; LaMontagne, D Scott; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    Since 2007, HPV vaccine has been available to low and middle income countries (LAMIC) for small-scale 'demonstration projects', or national programmes. We analysed coverage achieved in HPV vaccine demonstration projects and national programmes that had completed at least 6 months of implementation between January 2007-2016. A mapping exercise identified 45 LAMICs with HPV vaccine delivery experience. Estimates of coverage and factors influencing coverage were obtained from 56 key informant interviews, a systematic published literature search of 5 databases that identified 61 relevant full texts and 188 solicited unpublished documents, including coverage surveys. Coverage achievements were analysed descriptively against country or project/programme characteristics. Heterogeneity in data, funder requirements, and project/programme design precluded multivariate analysis. Estimates of uptake, schedule completion rates and/or final dose coverage were available from 41 of 45 LAMICs included in the study. Only 17 estimates from 13 countries were from coverage surveys, most were administrative data. Final dose coverage estimates were all over 50% with most between 70% and 90%, and showed no trend over time. The majority of delivery strategies included schools as a vaccination venue. In countries with school enrolment rates below 90%, inclusion of strategies to reach out-of-school girls contributed to obtaining high coverage compared to school-only strategies. There was no correlation between final dose coverage and estimated recurrent financial costs of delivery from cost analyses. Coverage achieved during joint delivery of HPV vaccine combined with another intervention was variable with little/no evaluation of the correlates of success. This is the most comprehensive descriptive analysis of HPV vaccine coverage in LAMICs to date. It is possible to deliver HPV vaccine with excellent coverage in LAMICs. Further good quality data are needed from health facility based

  9. Sorting through search results: a content analysis of HPV vaccine information online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kelly; Nan, Xiaoli; Briones, Rowena; Waks, Leah

    2012-05-28

    Surveys have shown that many people now turn to the Internet for health information when making health-related decisions. This study systematically analyzed the HPV vaccine information returned by online search engines. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease and is the leading cause of cervical cancers. We conducted a content analysis of 89 top search results from Google, Yahoo, Bing, and Ask.com. The websites were analyzed with respect to source, tone, information related to specific content analyzed through the lens of the Health Belief Model, and in terms of two content themes (i.e., conspiracy theories and civil liberties). The relations among these aspects of the websites were also explored. Most websites were published by nonprofit or academic sources (34.8%) and governmental agencies (27.4%) and were neutral in tone (57.3%), neither promoting nor opposing the HPV vaccine. Overall, the websites presented suboptimal or inaccurate information related to the five behavioral predictors stipulated in the Health Belief Model. Questions related to civil liberties were present on some websites. Health professionals designing online communication with the intent of increasing HPV vaccine uptake should take care to include information about the risks of HPV, including susceptibility and severity. Additionally, websites should include information about the benefits of the vaccine (i.e., effective against HPV), low side effects as a barrier that can be overcome, and ways in which to receive the vaccine to raise individual self-efficacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HPV vaccine knowledge and acceptability among Peruvian men who have sex with men and transgender women: A pilot, qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsour, Emmi; Nureña, César R.; Blas, Magaly M.; Brown, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection globally and is responsible for a variety of cancers in men and women. An effective HPV vaccine licensed for use in girls and boys has been indicated for—but is not widely implemented in—men who have sex with men (MSM). Limited data are available for transgender women (TW). We explored the social and behavioral aspects related to HPV vaccine uptake and participation in HPV vaccine studies among Peruvian MSM and TW. Methods Focus groups and individual in-depth interviews were conducted to obtain the knowledge, thoughts, and opinions from Peruvian MSM and TW regarding HPV vaccination. Data were analyzed using systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis. Results Three focus groups and fifteen individual in-depth interviews were conducted among 36 MSM and TW. Participant mean age was 26 years (range 18–40). Though many participants were unfamiliar with HPV vaccination, most expressed positive attitudes. Participants expressed concerns about the potential for stigma when disclosing HPV vaccination. Conclusion Peruvian MSM and TW felt that HPV vaccination would be acceptable to themselves and their peers. Nonetheless, vaccine intake may be impeded by potential stigma. Findings from this study may guide HPV vaccine implementation in similar populations. PMID:28245234

  11. The effects of message framing and risk perceptions for HPV vaccine campaigns: focus on the role of regulatory fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of framing and risk perception, and their interaction effects on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Based on a 2 (message frames) × 2 (perceived risk) experimental design, the interaction effects reveal the effectiveness of loss- (vs. gain-) framed messages would be maximized for high (vs. low) perceived risk condition. Based on regulatory fit principles the synergy effects are shown in terms of attitudes toward advertising and HPV vaccination, HPV vaccination intention, and ad-promoted behavioral intention. The findings indicate right message appeals should be selected for the right target audiences in the setting of HPV vaccine promotions.

  12. HPV vaccine knowledge and acceptability among Peruvian men who have sex with men and transgender women: A pilot, qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome T Galea

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection globally and is responsible for a variety of cancers in men and women. An effective HPV vaccine licensed for use in girls and boys has been indicated for-but is not widely implemented in-men who have sex with men (MSM. Limited data are available for transgender women (TW. We explored the social and behavioral aspects related to HPV vaccine uptake and participation in HPV vaccine studies among Peruvian MSM and TW.Focus groups and individual in-depth interviews were conducted to obtain the knowledge, thoughts, and opinions from Peruvian MSM and TW regarding HPV vaccination. Data were analyzed using systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis.Three focus groups and fifteen individual in-depth interviews were conducted among 36 MSM and TW. Participant mean age was 26 years (range 18-40. Though many participants were unfamiliar with HPV vaccination, most expressed positive attitudes. Participants expressed concerns about the potential for stigma when disclosing HPV vaccination.Peruvian MSM and TW felt that HPV vaccination would be acceptable to themselves and their peers. Nonetheless, vaccine intake may be impeded by potential stigma. Findings from this study may guide HPV vaccine implementation in similar populations.

  13. A qualitative study of HPV vaccine acceptability among health workers, teachers, parents, female pupils, and religious leaders in northwest Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Pieter; Selestine, Veronica; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A; Wight, Daniel; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard J; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2012-08-03

    As human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines become available in developing countries, acceptability studies can help to better understand potential barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination and guide immunisation programs. Prior to a cluster-randomised phase IV trial of HPV vaccination delivery strategies in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, qualitative research was conducted to assess attitudes and knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV, and acceptability of and potential barriers to HPV vaccination of Tanzanian primary schoolgirls. Semi-structured interviews (n=31) and group discussions (n=12) were conducted with a total of 169 respondents (parents, female pupils, teachers, health workers and religious leaders). While participants had heard of cancer in general, most respondents had no knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV, or HPV vaccines. Only health workers had heard of cervical cancer but very few knew its cause or had any awareness about HPV vaccines. After participants were provided with information about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, the majority stated that they would support HPV vaccination of their daughter to protect them against cervical cancer. Opt-out consent for vaccination was considered acceptable. Most preferred age-based vaccination, saying this would target more girls before sexual debut than class-based vaccination. Potential side effects and infertility concerns were raised by 5/14 of participating male teachers. Reported acceptability of HPV vaccination amongst parents, teachers and other community members was high in this population. Respondents stressed the need to provide adequate information about the vaccine to parents, that also addresses side effects and infertility concerns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychiatric conditions and general practitioner attendance prior to HPV vaccination and the risk of referral to a specialized hospital setting because of suspected adverse events following HPV vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Tina Hovgaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    centers, and health data for cases and controls were obtained from national registries. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were defined as women referred to an HPV center between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015 (n=1,496). Each case was matched with five controls on age, region and time of first vaccine......AIM: No association between human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and numerous diseases has been found. Still, a large number of Danish women are reporting suspected adverse events. Other factors may play a role, and the aim of this study is to examine the association between psychiatric...... registration. The total study population consisted of 8,976 women. RESULTS: Overall, women above 18 years who had been referred to an HPV center were more likely to have used psychiatric medication (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88 [95% CI 1.48-2.40]) or to have been hospitalized because of a psychiatric disorder within...

  15. Effective or ineffective: attribute framing and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Cabral A; Cappella, Joseph N; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-12-01

    To experimentally test whether presenting logically equivalent, but differently valenced effectiveness information (i.e. attribute framing) affects perceived effectiveness of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, vaccine-related intentions and policy opinions. A survey-based experiment (N=334) was fielded in August and September 2007 as part of a larger ongoing web-enabled monthly survey, the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey. Participants were randomly assigned to read a short passage about the HPV vaccine that framed vaccine effectiveness information in one of five ways. Afterward, they rated the vaccine and related opinion questions. Main statistical methods included ANOVA and t-tests. On average, respondents exposed to positive framing (70% effective) rated the HPV vaccine as more effective and were more supportive of vaccine mandate policy than those exposed to the negative frame (30% ineffective) or the control frame. Mixed valence frames showed some evidence for order effects; phrasing that ended by emphasizing vaccine ineffectiveness showed similar vaccine ratings to the negative frame. The experiment finds that logically equivalent information about vaccine effectiveness not only influences perceived effectiveness, but can in some cases influence support for policies mandating vaccine use. These framing effects should be considered when designing messages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective or ineffective: Attribute framing and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Cabral A.; Cappella, Joseph N.; Hornik, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To experimentally test whether presenting logically equivalent, but differently valenced effectiveness information (i.e. attribute framing) affects perceived effectiveness of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, vaccine related intentions and policy opinions. Method A survey-based experiment (N= 334) was fielded in August and September 2007 as part of a larger ongoing web-enabled monthly survey, the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey. Participants were randomly assigned to read a short passage about the HPV vaccine that framed vaccine effectiveness information in one of five ways. Afterward, they rated the vaccine and related opinion questions. Main statistical methods included ANOVA and t-tests. Results On average, respondents exposed to positive framing (70% effective) rated the HPV vaccine as more effective and were more supportive of vaccine mandate policy than those exposed to the negative frame (30% ineffective) or the control frame. Mixed valence frames showed some evidence for order effects; phrasing that ended by emphasizing vaccine ineffectiveness showed similar vaccine ratings to the negative frame. Conclusions The experiment finds that logically equivalent information about vaccine effectiveness not only influences perceived effectiveness, but can in some cases influence support for policies mandating vaccine use. Practice implications These framing effects should be considered when designing messages. PMID:20851560

  17. Disparities in collaborative patient-provider communication about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L; Gilkey, Melissa B; Rimer, Barbara K; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-06-02

    Healthcare providers may vary their communications with different patients, which could give rise to differences in vaccination coverage. We examined demographic disparities in parental report of collaborative provider communication and implications for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Participants were 4,124 parents who completed the National Immunization Survey-Teen about daughters ages 13-17. We analyzed disparities in collaborative communication (mutual information exchange, deliberation, and decision) and whether they mediated the relationship between demographic characteristics and HPV vaccine initiation. Half of parents (53%) in the survey reported collaborative communication. Poor, less educated, Spanish-speaking, Southern, and rural parents, and parents of non-privately insured and Hispanic adolescents, were least likely to report collaborative communication (all pcommunication accounted for geographic variation in HPV vaccination, specifically, the higher rates of uptake in the Northeast versus the South (mediation z=2.31, pcommunication showed widespread disparities, being least common among underserved groups. Collaborative communication helped account for differences-and lack of differences-in HPV vaccination among some subgroups of adolescent girls. Leveraging patient-provider communication, especially for underserved demographic groups, could improve HPV vaccination coverage.

  18. Bioethical issues on the role of contemporary gynecologists concerning HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumousidis, A D; Sofoudis, C I; Paltoglou, G A; Iavazzo, C R; Kalampokas, T E; Tzoumas, N; Salakos, N V

    2013-01-01

    Debate is heating up whether or not to require girls to be vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV), a leading cause of cervical cancer (CC). Prolepsis against this plague is mainly focused on early detection with Pap test (screening) and recently with administrating HPV vaccines in youths. To discuss the increased bioethical role of contemporary gynecologist in the young population, with the aim to contribute to the decrease of this malignancy. The authors searched the web (data-warehouse: articles, forums, etc., and data-mining: sequence analysis and classification) for HPV vaccination and related bioethical issues. HPV vaccines have already caused debates on whether they must be mandatory and on whether they cause a pseudo-safeness mental state, making youths "forget" necessary annual Pap tests or even worse, urging them in promiscuity, resulting in an increased occurrence of CC. Greece, in order to appropriately apply the Constitutional Law 5 Section 5 (All persons have the right to the protection of their health...), needs to train contemporary gynecologists in adequate youth consultation and proper family approaches regarding HPV vaccination issues. Enhancing the gynecologist's role, vaccination's effectiveness (sensitivity and specificity) will be increased and on the other hand, a rule of social law will be established in the country.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination regime: comparing twice versus thrice vaccinations dose regime among adolescent girls in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljunid, Syed; Maimaiti, Namaitijiang; Nur, Amrizal M; Noor, Mohd Rushdan Md; Wan Puteh, Sharifa Ezat

    2016-01-23

    The HPV vaccine was introduced to Malaysian national immunization programme in 2010. The current implementation age of HPV vaccination in Malaysian is at the age of 13 years school girls, given according to a 3 doses protocol which may complicate implementation and compliance. Aim of the study is to determine the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination regime comparing twice versus thrice HPV vaccinations dose regime among adolescent girls in Malaysia. A Markov cohort model reflecting the natural history of HPV infection accounting for oncogenic and low-risk HPV was adapted for 13 year old Malaysian girls cohort (n = 274,050). Transition probabilities, utilities values, epidemiological and cost data were sourced from published literature and local data. Vaccine effectiveness was based on overall efficacy reported from 3-doses clinical trials, with the assumption that the 2-doses is non-inferior to the 3-doses allowing overall efficacy to be inferred from the 3-doses immunogenicity data. Price parity and life-long protection were assumed. The payer perspective was adopted, with appropriate discounting for costs (3 %) and outcomes (3 %). One way sensitivity analysis was conducted. The sensitivity analysis on cost of vaccine, vaccine coverage and discount rate with a 2-doses protocol was performed. The 3-doses and 2-doses regimes showed same number of Cervical Cancers averted (361 cases); QALYs saved at 7,732,266. However, the lifetime protection under the 2-doses regime, showed a significant cost-savings of RM 36, 722,700 compared to the 3-doses scheme. The MOH Malaysia could vaccinate 137,025 more girls in this country using saving 2-doses regime vaccination programme. The model predicted that 2-doses HPV vaccination schemes can avoid additional 180 Cervical Cancers and 63 deaths compare to 3-doses. A 2-doses HPV vaccination scheme may enable Malaysian women to be protected at a lower cost than that achievable under a 3-doses scheme, while avoiding the same number of

  20. Sexually Related Behaviors as Predictors of HPV Vaccination Among Young Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Laurel A.; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Crosby, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore whether sexually related behaviors predict refusal of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among a sample of women aged 18–26 in Appalachian Kentucky. Methods Using a convenience sample, young women attending health clinics and a community college in southeastern Kentucky were recruited to participate in a Women’s Health Study. After completing a questionnaire, women received a free voucher for the three-dose HPV vaccine series. Completion of dose one served as the outcome variable. Results Women with a history of an abnormal Pap test were almost two times more likely to decline the HPV vaccine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–3.20, p = 0.015), and women who reported they had never had a Pap test were four times more likely to decline the vaccine (AOR 4.02, 95% CI 1.13–14.32, p = 0.032). Women engaging in mutual masturbation were nearly two times more likely to decline the free vaccine (AOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.17–3.10, p = 0.009). Use of hormonal birth control showed a protective effect against refusal of the free HPV vaccine (AOR 0.593, 95% CI 0.44–0.80, p = 0.001). Conclusions Among this sample of Appalachian women, those engaging in behaviors that increase their risk for HPV infection were more likely to refuse the vaccine. Conversely, those women engaging in protective health behaviors were more likely to accept the vaccine. These findings suggest that those women not being vaccinated may be the very group most likely to benefit from vaccination. Cervical cancer prevention programs need to be creative in efforts to reach young women most in need of the vaccine based on a higher profile of sexually related behaviors and the proxy measure of this risk (having an abnormal Pap test result). PMID:22136319

  1. Hispanic Mothers' Beliefs Regarding HPV Vaccine Series Completion in Their Adolescent Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, A. M.; Ward, K. K.; Carmack, C. C.; Muñoz, B. T.; Cribbs, F. L.

    2017-01-01

    Rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among adolescent Hispanic females in Texas in 2014 (~39%) lag behind the Healthy People 2020 goal (80%). This qualitative study identifies Hispanic mothers' salient behavioral, normative and control beliefs regarding having their adolescent daughters complete the vaccine series.…

  2. Getting Vaccinated against HPV: Attitudes, Intentions and Perceived Barriers of Female Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Vail-Smith, Karen; White, David M.; Baker, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Terri

    2010-01-01

    This study examines college women's intention to receive the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine and their perceived barriers to being vaccinated. The study reports findings from an online questionnaire completed by 856 undergraduate women enrolled in a required personal health course at a large (27,000 plus) southeastern university. The majority…

  3. Risk perception and sexual behavior in HPV-vaccinated and unvaccinated young Colombian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela M; Pinzón-Rondón, Ángela M

    2014-09-01

    To compare sexual behaviors and risk perception between young women vaccinated for HPV and unvaccinated Colombian women. In a cross-sectional design study, 1436 women (231 adolescents, Sexual risk behaviors were not associated with vaccination after adjustment for risk perception, age, educational level, and HPV knowledge. By contrast, vaccination was associated with higher routine Pap smear screening (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-3.28), use of modern contraceptives (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.26-3.22), and consistent use of condoms (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.11-2.01). Vaccinated young women were more likely to have had sex (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.56-2.78), but sexual debut among adolescents was not associated with vaccination. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, vaccination status was negatively associated with perceived risk of HPV infection, warts, and cervical cancer. There was no association between vaccination and perceived risk of sexually transmitted infections in any model. No association was found between changes in risk perception after HPV vaccination and sexual risk behaviors. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict HPV Vaccination Intentions of College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Hannah Priest; Knowlden, Adam P.; Birch, David A.; Leeper, James D.; Paschal, Angelia M.; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs in predicting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination behavioral intentions of vaccine-eligible college men. Participants: Participants were unvaccinated college men aged 18-26 years attending a large public university in the southeastern United States…

  5. HPV SEROSTATUS PRE- AND POST-VACCINATION IN A RANDOMIZED PHASE II PREPAREDNESS TRIAL AMONG YOUNG WESTERN CAPE, SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN: THE EVRI TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Botha, Matthys H; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Glashoff, Richard H; Engelbrecht, Susan; Schim Van der Loeff, Maarten F; Van der Laan, Louvina E; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-06-01

    HPV antibodies are a marker of past exposure to the virus. Our objective was to assess HPV serostatus pre- and post-vaccination among HIV-negative women. Women aged 16-24 years old were randomized in a placebo controlled trial utilizing the 4-valent HPV (4vHPV) vaccine (NCT01489527, clinicaltrials.gov). Participants (n=389) received the 4vHPV vaccine or placebo following a three dose schedule. Sera were collected at Day 1 and Month 7 for assessment of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 neutralizing antibody levels using a multiplex competitive Luminex immunoassay (Merck) based on detecting the L1 capsid antigen for each HPV type. Seroprevalence was 73% for HPV6, 47% for HPV11, 33% for HPV16, and 44% for HPV18. Seroprevalence for any HPV type did not significantly differ by age or lifetime number of partners. The majority of participants (64%) had two or more 4vHPV antibodies present at enrollment and 12% had antibodies to all four. Among women in the vaccine arm, those that were seropositive for HPV16 at enrollment had higher titers at month 7 compared to women that were seronegative for HPV16 at enrollment; this trend holds for the other HPV types as well. Seroconversion among baseline seronegative participants in the placebo group ranged from 5% for HPV16 to 23% for HPV6. HPV seroprevalence was high in this population, emphasizing the need to vaccinate prior to sexual debut.

  6. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  7. Reasons for receiving or not receiving HPV vaccination in primary schoolgirls in Tanzania: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Deborah; Tomlin, Keith; Remes, Pieter; Baisley, Kathy; Ponsiano, Riziki; Soteli, Selephina; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Changalucha, John; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    There are few data on factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the characteristics of receivers and non-receivers of HPV vaccination in Tanzania and identified reasons for not receiving the vaccine. We conducted a case control study of HPV vaccine receivers and non-receivers within a phase IV cluster-randomised trial of HPV vaccination in 134 primary schools in Tanzania. Girls who failed to receive vaccine (pupil cases) and their parents/guardians (adult cases) and girls who received dose 1 (pupil controls) of the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil™) and their parents/guardians (adult controls) were enrolled from 39 schools in a 1∶1 ratio and interviewed about cervical cancer, HPV vaccine knowledge and reasons why they might have received or not received the vaccine. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with not receiving HPV vaccine. We interviewed 159 pupil/adult cases and 245 pupil/adult controls. Adult-factors independently associated with a daughter being a case were older age, owning fewer household items, not attending a school meeting about HPV vaccine, and not knowing anyone with cancer. Pupil-factors for being a case included having a non-positive opinion about the school de-worming programme, poor knowledge about the location of the cervix, and not knowing that a vaccine could prevent cervical cancer. Reasons for actively refusing vaccination included concerns about side effects and infertility. Most adult and pupil cases reported that they would accept the HPV vaccine if it were offered again (97% and 93% respectively). Sensitisation messages, especially targeted at older and poorer parents, knowledge retention and parent meetings are critical for vaccine acceptance in Tanzania. Vaccine side effects and fertility concerns should be addressed prior to a national vaccination program. Parents and pupils who initially decline vaccination should be

  8. Reasons for receiving or not receiving HPV vaccination in primary schoolgirls in Tanzania: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Watson-Jones

    Full Text Available There are few data on factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination uptake in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the characteristics of receivers and non-receivers of HPV vaccination in Tanzania and identified reasons for not receiving the vaccine.We conducted a case control study of HPV vaccine receivers and non-receivers within a phase IV cluster-randomised trial of HPV vaccination in 134 primary schools in Tanzania. Girls who failed to receive vaccine (pupil cases and their parents/guardians (adult cases and girls who received dose 1 (pupil controls of the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil™ and their parents/guardians (adult controls were enrolled from 39 schools in a 1∶1 ratio and interviewed about cervical cancer, HPV vaccine knowledge and reasons why they might have received or not received the vaccine. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with not receiving HPV vaccine.We interviewed 159 pupil/adult cases and 245 pupil/adult controls. Adult-factors independently associated with a daughter being a case were older age, owning fewer household items, not attending a school meeting about HPV vaccine, and not knowing anyone with cancer. Pupil-factors for being a case included having a non-positive opinion about the school de-worming programme, poor knowledge about the location of the cervix, and not knowing that a vaccine could prevent cervical cancer. Reasons for actively refusing vaccination included concerns about side effects and infertility. Most adult and pupil cases reported that they would accept the HPV vaccine if it were offered again (97% and 93% respectively.Sensitisation messages, especially targeted at older and poorer parents, knowledge retention and parent meetings are critical for vaccine acceptance in Tanzania. Vaccine side effects and fertility concerns should be addressed prior to a national vaccination program. Parents and pupils who initially decline vaccination

  9. Influencers and preference predictors of HPV vaccine uptake among US male and female young adult college students

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    A. Scott LaJoie

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of male and female college students in Kentucky about HPV associated diseases and vaccines, and to determine which parameters predicted self-reported uptake of HPV vaccination. Materials and methods: A self-selected cross-sectional sample of college students completed an evidence-based online survey. Results: Of approximately 1200 potential respondents, 585 completed the survey. The average age was 20.6 (SD 3.15 and 78% were female; 84% of the population had had one or more sexual partners. Concern for HPV vaccine safety and potential need for boosters did not significantly deter vaccine uptake. Likewise, knowledge about HPV associated cancers was not predictive of vaccine uptake. On the other hand, parental influence for vaccination was a strong predictor for vaccine uptake (aOR = 5.32, 2.71–13.03, and free vaccine nearly doubled the likelihood of being vaccinated (aOR 1.90, 1.05–3.41. In addition, the strong preference for the respondent's partner to be HPV vaccinated predicted vaccine uptake (aOR = 4.04, 95% CI: 2.31–7.05, but the lack of preference for partner vaccination predicted an unvaccinated self (aOR = 0.50, 0.27–0.93. Conclusions: HPV vaccination has been successful in young adult college students in Kentucky. Young adults prefer their partners to be HPV vaccinated regardless of whether they themselves are vaccinated. Parental influence and free vaccine were positive predictors for vaccine uptake in this population. Keywords: Knowledge, HPV vaccine, Young adults, Preferences, Safety

  10. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine as an Anti-cancer Vaccine: Collaborative Efforts to Promote HPV Vaccine in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Julie S.; Steele, C. Brooke; Hayes, Nikki; Bhatt, Achal; Moore, Angela R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Widespread use of the HPV vaccine has the potential to reduce incidence from HPV-associated cancers. However, vaccine uptake among adolescents remains well below the Healthy People 2020 targets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program awardees (NCCCP) are well positioned to work with immunization programs to increase vaccine uptake. Methods CDC’s chronic disease management information system was queried for objectives and activities associated with HPV vaccine that were reported by NCCCP awardees from 2013 – 2016 as part of program reporting requirements. A content analysis was conducted on the query results to categorize interventions according to strategies outlined in The Guide to Community Preventive Services and the 2014 President’s Cancer Panel report. Results Sixty-two percent of NCCCP awardees had planned or implemented at least one activity since 2013 to address low HPV vaccination coverage in their jurisdictions. Most NCCCP awardees (86%) reported community education activities, while 65% reported activities associated with provider education. Systems-based strategies such as client reminders or provider assessment and feedback were each reported by less than 25% of NCCCP awardees. Conclusion Many NCCCP awardees report planning or implementing activities to address low HPV vaccination coverage, often in conjunction with state immunization programs. NCCCP awardees can play a role in increasing HPV vaccination coverage through their cancer prevention and control expertise and access to partners in the health care community. PMID:28263672

  11. [HPV DNA vaccines expressing recombinant CRT/HPV6bE7 fusion protein inhibit tumor growth and angiogenic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Cheng, Hao; Zhao, Ke-Jia; Zhu, Ke-Jian; Zhang, Xing

    2007-11-01

    This paper was to study the angiogenic inhibitory effect and the potential antitumor effect of the constructed recombinant DNA vaccine CRT/HPV6bE7 in vivo. The C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated respectively with recombinant CRT/HPV6bE7 DNA plamids. The inhibitory effects on angiogenesis of generated vaccines in vivo were evaluated by a bFGF-induced angiogenesis assay using the Matrigel kit. To investigate the potential antitumor effect, the mean tumor weights, sizes and tumor appearing times were measured in C57BL/6 mice treated with HPV6bE7-expressing B16 cells. The results indicated that the recombinants CRT180/HPV6bE7 and CRT180 showed strong anti-angiogenic effects in bFGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, CRT180/HPV6bE7 and CRT180 DNA vaccines could significantly inhibit the tumor growth in tumor challenge experiment, and CRT180/HPV6bE7 was superior to other vaccines in delaying tumor formation time, limiting tumor size and weight in tumor protection experiment. In conclusion, recombinant CRT180/HPV6bE7 DNA could elicit a most efficient anti-angiogenic effect and inhibit tumor growth in mice inoculated with DNA vaccines. The antiangiogenic activity of CRT were suggested residing in a domain between CRT 120-180 aa.

  12. Current therapeutic vaccination and immunotherapy strategies for HPV-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeate, Joseph G; Woodham, Andrew W; Einstein, Mark H; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2016-06-02

    Carcinomas of the anogenital tract, in particular cervical cancer, remains one of the most common cancers in women, and represent the most frequent gynecological malignancies and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions are immunologically distinct in that they express viral antigens, which are necessary to maintain the cancerous phenotype. The causal relationship between HPV infection and anogenital cancer has prompted substantial interest in the development of therapeutic vaccines against high-risk HPV types targeting the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. This review will focus on the most recent clinical trials for immunotherapies for mucosal HPV-induced lesions as well as emerging therapeutic strategies that have been tested in pre-clinical models for HPV-induced diseases. Progress in peptide- and protein-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, viral/bacterial vector-based vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibition, immune response modifiers, and adoptive cell therapy for HPV will be discussed.

  13. Prevention of HPV-related cancers in Norway: cost-effectiveness of expanding the HPV vaccination program to include pre-adolescent boys.

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    Emily A Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV, causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. METHODS: A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. RESULTS: Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered 'good value for money.' For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY, it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. CONCLUSIONS: At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is

  14. Prevention of HPV-Related Cancers in Norway: Cost-Effectiveness of Expanding the HPV Vaccination Program to Include Pre-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A.; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S.; Kim, Jane J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. Methods A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. Results Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered ‘good value for money.’ For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY), it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. Conclusions At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is uniformly more

  15. Evaluation of the Long-Term Anti-Human Papillomavirus 6 (HPV6), 11, 16, and 18 Immune Responses Generated by the Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Mari; Saah, Alfred; Munk, Christian

    2015-01-01

    of the qHPV vaccine (Gardasil) for at least 10 years following completion of the base study. The current report presents immunogenicity data from testing samples of the year 5 LTFU visit (approximately 9 years after vaccination). FUTURE II vaccination arm subjects, who consented to being followed...

  16. The Relationship of Health Beliefs with Information Sources and HPV Vaccine Acceptance among Young Adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jarim

    2018-04-04

    Despite the HPV vaccine’s efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, its coverage rates among Asians are very low. To increase immunization coverage among these populations, understanding the psychological factors that affect HPV acceptability is critical. To this end, this study examined the relationships between multidimensional health beliefs and HPV vaccine acceptance, and what information sources effectively foster HPV vaccination-related health beliefs. Data were collected using a survey of 323 undergraduate students in Korea. Results showed that perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived vaccine safety concerns predicted vaccine acceptance. Multiple dimensions of perceived barriers showed differing impacts on vaccine acceptance. In addition, interpersonal information sources were effective in boosting various health beliefs for HPV vaccination. The Internet also was effective in reducing social barriers, but the effects were opposite to those of social media. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  17. The Relationship of Health Beliefs with Information Sources and HPV Vaccine Acceptance among Young Adults in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarim Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the HPV vaccine’s efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, its coverage rates among Asians are very low. To increase immunization coverage among these populations, understanding the psychological factors that affect HPV acceptability is critical. To this end, this study examined the relationships between multidimensional health beliefs and HPV vaccine acceptance, and what information sources effectively foster HPV vaccination-related health beliefs. Data were collected using a survey of 323 undergraduate students in Korea. Results showed that perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived vaccine safety concerns predicted vaccine acceptance. Multiple dimensions of perceived barriers showed differing impacts on vaccine acceptance. In addition, interpersonal information sources were effective in boosting various health beliefs for HPV vaccination. The Internet also was effective in reducing social barriers, but the effects were opposite to those of social media. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Factors associated With Medicaid providers' recommendation of the HPV vaccine to low-income adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Staras, Stephanie A S; Malo, Teri L; Giuliano, Anna R; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2014-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the United States remains a public health challenge with vaccine rates of 50%. Although health care providers can facilitate HPV vaccination, several factors may impede their ability to universally recommend the vaccine. To maximize the potential of HPV vaccines, it is important to understand challenges providers face in the clinical environment. The study sought to identify factors associated with recommendation of the HPV vaccine for low-income adolescents in the early (9-10), target (11-12), early adolescent catch-up (13-14), and late adolescent catch-up (15-17) vaccination groups. Surveys were mailed between October 2009 and April 2010 to a random sample of Florida-based physicians serving Medicaid-enrolled adolescents. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among early adolescents, discomfort discussing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with teens (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75), difficulty ensuring vaccine completion (OR = .73), and discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .44) were associated with recommendation. For target adolescents, discomfort discussing STIs with teens (OR = 2.45), time constraints (OR = .70), vaccine efficacy concerns (OR = .65), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .33), obstetrics/gynecology (OR = .25) and family medicine (OR = .24) specialty, and non-Hispanic black patient (OR = .15) were associated with recommendation. In early catch-up adolescents, concerns that teens will practice riskier behaviors (OR = .57), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .47), and family medicine specialty (OR = .20) were associated with recommendation. For late catch-up adolescents, family medicine specialty (OR = .13) was associated with recommendation. Modifiable factors that impede or influence provider recommendations of HPV vaccines can be addressed through intervention. Overall, findings suggest that efforts should focus on sexuality communication and family medicine specialty

  19. Estimating the cost-effectiveness profile of a universal vaccination programme with a nine-valent HPV vaccine in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiron, L; Joura, E; Largeron, N; Prager, B; Uhart, M

    2016-04-16

    HPV is a major cancer-causing factor in both sexes in the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, oropharynx as well as the causal factor in other diseases such as genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatis. In the context of the arrival of a nonavalent HPV vaccine (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58), this analysis aims to estimate the public health impact and the incremental cost-effectiveness of a universal (girls and boys) vaccination program with a nonavalent HPV vaccine as compared to the current universal vaccination program with a quadrivalent HPV vaccine (6/11/16/18), in Austria. A dynamic transmission model including a wide range of health and cost outcomes related to cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal diseases and genital warts was calibrated to Austrian epidemiological data. The clinical impact due to the 5 new types was included for cervical and anal diseases outcomes only. In the base case, a two-dose schedule, lifelong vaccine type-specific protection and a vaccination coverage rate of 60% and 40% for girls and boys respectively for the 9-year old cohorts were assumed. A cost-effectiveness threshold of €30,000/QALY-gained was considered. Universal vaccination with the nonavalent vaccine was shown to reduce the incidence of HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 -related cervical cancer by 92%, the related CIN2/3 cases by 96% and anal cancer by 83% and 76% respectively in females and males after 100 years, relative to 75%, 76%, 80% and 74% with the quadrivalent vaccine, respectively. Furthermore, the nonavalent vaccine was projected to prevent an additional 14,893 cases of CIN2/3 and 2544 cases of cervical cancer, over 100 years. Depending on the vaccine price, the strategy was shown to be from cost-saving to cost-effective. The present evaluation showed that vaccinating 60% of girls and 40% of boys aged 9 in Austria with a 9-valent vaccine will substantially reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, CIN and anal cancer compared to the existing strategy. The vaccination

  20. Impact of an HPV Education and Vaccination Campaign among Canadian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedimonte, Sabrina; Leung, Annie; Zakhari, Andrew; Giordano, Céline; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Lau, Susie

    2018-04-01

    Uptake of HPV vaccination among university students remains low despite risky sexual practices and increased prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The study objective was to determine the level of knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer among university students and to subsequently develop a targeted education and vaccination campaign to increase uptake. Phase I was a pilot project in which participants were recruited as part of Cervical Cancer Awareness Week 2015 at two universities, one site immediately offering vaccination and the other not. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect demographic information from participants and evaluate their baseline knowledge related to HPV and the risks of cervical cancer, in addition to determining barriers to vaccination and future willingness to be vaccinated. Data was compiled and analyzed using descriptive statistics of means and percentages. In phase II, which followed 1 year after, a targeted education and vaccination campaign was designed based on lessons learned from phase I, and vaccination uptake was reevaluated after 1 year. In phase I, 56 participants responded to a questionnaire related to HPV knowledge and cervical cancer. Among these, 29 students were vaccinated in a 2-day resident-run clinic. Overall, 63% felt they were not at risk of cervical cancer, though 88% knew HPV was the cause of cervical cancer. The three barriers identified to previous vaccination were lack of access to a doctor or a nurse (25%), financial reasons (25%), and low self-perceived risk (7%). There was a 50% three-dose completion rate in phase I. Based on this information, the education campaign in phase II was expanded in the subsequent year through social media, email communication, information booths, and individual solicitation. A total of 151 students were approached for individual solicitation and education. Among these, 64 students were vaccinated on site, including five men. Most importantly, there were 18 walk

  1. Vacinas contra rotavírus e papilomavírus humano (HPV Vaccines against rotavirus and human papillomavirus (HPV

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    Alexandre C. Linhares

    2006-07-01

    -se que a implementação de vacinas de elevada eficácia na prevenção de tumores benignos e malignos causados por alguns tipos de HPV leve a uma queda acentuada das taxas desses tumores, os quais afetam milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo.OBJECTIVE: To briefly review strategies aimed at the development of rotavirus and HPV vaccines, with emphasis on the current status of studies assessing the safety, reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy of recently developed vaccines. SOURCES OF DATA: This review focuses on articles published from 1996 to 2006, mainly those from the last five years, with special emphasis on data obtained from recently completed studies involving a new live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and a virus-like particle (HPV vaccine. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Strategies for developing rotavirus vaccines ranged from Jennerian approaches to the new human-derived rotavirus vaccine. Currently, two rotavirus vaccines are recognized as both efficacious and safe: a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant vaccine and a vaccine derived from an attenuated rotavirus of human origin. The second of these has been evaluated in more than 70,000 infants all over the world. Prophylactic vaccines against HPV have been tested in more than 25,000 young individuals around the world. Results from phase II and III clinical studies indicate that such vaccines against the most common types of HPV, those linked to both genital warts and 70% of cervical cancers, are safe and highly efficacious. CONCLUSIONS: A future rotavirus immunization program covering 60 to 80% of infants worldwide is likely to reduce by at least 50% the number of rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and deaths. It is also reasonable to expect that implementation of HPV prophylactic vaccines will reduce the burden of the HPV-related diseases that presently impact millions of people around the world.

  2. Protecting our Khmer daughters: Ghosts of the past, uncertain futures, and the HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nancy J.; Do, Huyen H.; Talbot, Jocelyn; Sos, Channdara; Ros, Srey; Taylor, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The FDA approved the first HPV vaccine in 2006. Research into parental decision-making and concerns about HPV vaccination highlight questions about parenting and parents’ role in the crafting of their daughters’ future sexuality. In contrast to much of this literature, we explore narratives from interviews with Cambodian mothers of HPV vaccine age-eligible daughters who experienced genocide and came to the United States as refugees. Design We conducted in-depth, in-person interviews with 25 Cambodian mothers of HPV vaccine-age eligible daughters. Interviews were conducted in Khmer and translated into English for analysis. We followed standard qualitative analysis techniques including iterative data review, multiple coders, and ‘member checking’. Five members of the research team reviewed all transcripts and two members independently coded each transcript for concepts and themes. Results Interview narratives highlight the presence of the past alongside desires for protection from uncertain futures. We turn to Quesada and colleagues’ (2011) concept structural vulnerability to outline the constraints posed by these women’s positionalities as genocide survivors when faced with making decisions in a area with which they have little direct knowledge or background: cervical cancer prevention. Conclusion Our study sheds light on the prioritization of various protective health practices, including but not exclusive to HPV vaccination, for Khmer mothers, as well as the rationalities informing decision-making regarding their daughters’ health. PMID:24905057

  3. National Trends in Parental HPV Vaccination Intentions and Reasons for Hesitancy, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kayla E; Koch, Brandon; Bonner, Kimberly; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Basta, Nicole E

    2018-03-27

    HPV vaccination uptake remains lower than other recommended adolescent vaccines in the United States. Parental attitudes are important predictors of vaccine uptake, yet little is known about how they have changed over time. Participants included U.S. residents aged 13-17 years with documented vaccination status who were unvaccinated (had not initiated) or undervaccinated (initiated, but had not completed) with the HPV vaccination series whose parents responded to the National Immunization Surveys-Teen, 2010-2015. Of the 76,971 participants, 63.0% were male, 58.8% were non-Hispanic white, and 14.4 years was the median age. The percentage of unvaccinated teens decreased 2010-2015, yet, annually, parents of unvaccinated teens of both sexes most often reported that they were "not likely at all" to vaccinate their teen. The percentage decreased significantly from 41.5% to 31.2% (Pparents of unvaccinated females from 2010-2015 but did not change among parents of males from 2012-2015. Conversely, parents of undervaccinated teens of both sexes reported higher and increasing vaccination intent over time. In 2015, nearly one third of parents of unvaccinated teens reported that their low intent stemmed from the belief that the vaccine was "not needed/necessary." Concerns about vaccine safety and side effects declined over time among parents of unvaccinated females but increased among parents of males (7.3% to 14.8%; Pparental intent and knowledge increased over time, lack of perceived importance of HPV vaccination and parental concerns about vaccine safety remain barriers to both HPV vaccination series initiation and completion in the U.S.

  4. Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    www.iiste.org ISSN 2422-8419 An International Peer-reviewed Journal Vol.25, 2016 97 Knowledge and attitudes ...parents/guardians of the vaccinated girls and to assess the attitudes to HPV vaccination among parents/guardians of the vaccinated girls. Methods: A...better knowledge. The general attitude towards HPV vaccination was positive among mothers though there is still need for the populations to

  5. In a safety net population HPV4 vaccine adherence worsens as BMI increases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Harper

    Full Text Available Obesity adversely inhibits antibody response to vaccination. Three doses of HPV4 may or may not provide adequate long term protection against HPV 16/18 in obese females. The aim of this study was to determine whether adherence to HPV4 vaccination in a safety net population was reduced with increasing body mass index (BMI.We designed a historical prospective study evaluating the number and dates of HPV4 dosing that occurred from July 1, 2006 through October 1, 2009 by the demographic characteristics of the 10-26 year old recipient females. The defined dosing intervals were adapted from the literature and obesity categories were defined by the WHO.1240 females with BMI measurements received at least one dose of HPV4; 38% were obese (class I, II and III and 25% were overweight. Females with normal BMI received on-time triplet dosing significantly more often than did the obese class II and III females (30% vs. 18%, p<0.001. Obese class II/III females have a significant 45% less chance of completing the on-time triplet HPV4 series than normal women (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.83. Pregnancy history has a significant influence on BMI and HPV4 dosing compliance in this safety net population where 71% had been gravid. Hispanic females were less likely to complete HPV4 dosing regardless of BMI (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.95.Obesity, as well as gravidity and Hispanic race, are risk factors for lack of HPV4 vaccine adherence among young females in a safety net population.

  6. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, D; Nardone, M; Melone, P; Cardelli, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2015-01-01

    The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%-90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before "sexual puberty". The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer.

  7. Examining a possible association between human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and migraine: results of a cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M.S.-V. Klooster (T. M. Schurink-van’t); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria); J.M. Kemmeren (Jeanet); J. van der Lei (Johan); F.W. Dekker (Friedo); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); H.E. de Melker (Hester)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSince the introduction of the bivalent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine in the Netherlands, migraine has been reported as a notable event in the passive safety surveillance system. Research on the association between HPV vaccination and migraine is needed. Therefore, potential

  8. Women show mixed intentions regarding the uptake of HPV vaccinations in pre-adolescents: a questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, Ida J.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Daamen, Ruth; Mols, Floortje; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The general introduction of HPV vaccination, as the primary prevention of cervical cancer, is the subject of debate in the Netherlands. METHODS: We explored intentions towards HPV vaccinations for pre-adolescents in 1367 women; screen invitees, women with abnormal smears, cervical cancer

  9. Vaccines for Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahomed, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of two prophylactic Human Papilloma Virus HPV vaccines and ethical issues related to HPV vaccination are reviewed in this paper. These vaccines have the potential of substantially reducing HPV-related morbidity and mortality, and in particular cervical cancer. The vaccines cannot treat women with current HPV infection or HPV related disease. They should be administered before the commencement of sexual activity. The ideal age group is adolescent girls between the ages 9-13. Both vaccines are highly efficacious and immunogenic and induce high levels of serum antibodies after three doses for all vaccine-related HPV types. School-based vaccination is considered as a costeffective method for its delivery. Adequate education of both clinicians and patients is an essential to ensure effective implementation when considering a national vaccination program. (author)

  10. Differences in incidence and co-occurrence of vaccine and nonvaccine human papillomavirus types in Finnish population before human papillomavirus mass vaccination suggest competitive advantage for HPV33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikukka, Marko; Kaasila, Marjo; Namujju, Proscovia B; Palmroth, Johanna; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Paavonen, Jorma; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Lehtinen, Matti

    2011-03-01

    To understand likelihood of type replacement after vaccination against the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, we evaluated competition of the seven most common genital HPV types in a population sample of unvaccinated, fertile-aged Finnish women. First trimester sera from two consecutive pregnancies were retrieved from 3,183 Finnish women (mean age, 23.1 years) of whom 42.3% had antibodies to at least one HPV type (6/11/16/18/31/33/45) at the baseline. Antibody positivity to more than one HPV types by the second pregnancy was common among the baseline HPV seropositives. However, compared to baseline HPV-seronegative women, significantly increased incidence rate ratios (IRRs), indicating an increased risk to seroconvert for another HPV type, were consistently noted only for HPV33 among baseline HPV16 or HPV18 antibody (ab)-positive women: HPV(16ab only) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.4] and HPV(18ab only) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-6.0), irrespectively of the presence of antibodies to other HPV types at baseline: HPV(16ab) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.2) and HPV(18ab) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 3.6 (95% CI 2.1-5.9). Our findings suggest a possible competitive advantage for HPV33 over other genital HPV types in the unvaccinated population. HPV33 should be monitored for type replacement after HPV mass vaccination. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  11. Population-based prevalence, type- and age-specific distribution of HPV in women before introduction of an HPV-vaccination program in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Susanne K.; Breugelmans, Gabrielle; Munk, Christian

    2008-01-01

    /11. Prevalence of high-risk HPV types increased from 19.2% in women with normal cytology to 100% in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/cervical cancer. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (6.0% of all women), and was also the most prevalent in women with HSIL (35.1%) and CIN3 (53......-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and 1.6% had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). The HPV prevalence was 26.4% with a peak in women 20-24 years (50.2%) and then decreased without a second peak in older women. Among the youngest women (15-19 years), 14% had HPV 16/18 and 16% had HPV 6.......2%). Other common HPV types in women with CIN3 included HPV 52, 51, 31, 33 and 18. HPV 16/18 alone was present in 23% of CIN3 lesions and 67% of cervical cancers, and HPV 16/18 together with other high-risk HPV types was present in 41% of CIN3 lesions. This suggests that an efficacious HPV 16/18 vaccine...

  12. Potential impact of a 9-valent HPV vaccine in HPV-related cervical disease in 4 emerging countries (Brazil, Mexico, India and China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Beatriz; Alemany, Laia; Ruiz, Patricia Alonso de; Tous, Sara; Lima, Marcus Aurelho; Bruni, Laia; Jain, Asha; Clifford, Gary M; Qiao, You Lin; Weiss, Thomas; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    We estimated the potential impact of an investigational 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (HPVs 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) in HPV-related cervical disease in Brazil, Mexico, India and China, to help to formulate recommendations on cervical cancer prevention and control. Estimations for invasive cervical cancer (ICC) were based on an international study including 1356 HPV-positive cases for the four countries altogether, and estimations for precancerous cervical lesions were extracted from a published meta-analysis including 6 025 HPV-positive women from the four mentioned countries. Globocan 2012 and 2012 World Population Prospects were used to estimate current and future projections of new ICC cases. Combined proportions of the 9 HPV types in ICC were 88.6% (95%CI: 85.2-91.3) in Brazil, 85.7% (82.3-88.8) in Mexico, 92.2% (87.9-95.3) in India and 97.3% (93.9-99.1) in China. The additional HPV 31/33/45/52/58 proportions were 18.8% (15.3-22.7) in Brazil, 17.6% (14.2-21.2) in Mexico, 11.3% (7.5-16.1) in India and 11.9% (7.5-17.2) in China. HPV6 and 11 single types were not identified in any of the samples. Proportion of the individual 7 high risk HPV types included in the vaccine varied by cytological and histological grades of HPV-positive precancerous cervical lesions. HPV 16 was the dominant type in all lesions, with contributions in low grade lesions ranging from 16.6%(14.3-19.2) in Mexico to 39.8% (30.0-50.2) in India, and contributions in high grade lesions ranging from 43.8% (36.3-51.4) in Mexico to 64.1% (60.6-67.5) in Brazil. After HPV 16, variations in other majors HPV types were observed by country, with an under representation of HPV 18 and 45 compared to ICC. The addition of HPVs 31/33/45/52/58 to HPV types included in current vaccines could increase the ICC preventable fraction in a range of 12 to 19% across the four countries, accounting the 9-types altogether 90% of ICC cases. Assuming the same degree of efficacy of current vaccines, the

  13. Impact of framing on intentions to vaccinate daughters against HPV: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey R; Weinhardt, Lance S

    2011-10-01

    Effective promotion of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine across ethnic/racial groups may help curtail disparities in cervical cancer rates. This study aims to investigate mothers' intentions to vaccinate daughters against HPV as a function of message framing (gain versus loss) across three cultural groups: Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic African-American. One hundred fifty mothers were recruited from city department of health clinics and asked to respond to information about the HPV vaccine for their daughters. In a repeated-measures experiment, two different frames (gain and loss) were used to present the information. The results indicated that both frames are equally effective in promoting vaccination intentions in non-Hispanic white mothers. Conversely, a loss frame message was more effective in non-Hispanic African-American and Hispanic mothers. Information sharing campaigns, aimed at promoting the HPV vaccine among ethnic minority groups should be modified to not focus exclusively on the benefits of vaccination.

  14. Perceived Need for a Parental Decision Aid for the HPV Vaccine: Content and Format Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey; Weinhardt, Lance S.

    2014-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a precursor of cervical cancer. In 2006, the Federal Drug Administration licensed a vaccine to protect against four types of HPV. Three years postlicensure of the vaccine, HPV vaccination is still fraught with controversy. To date, research suggests that contrary to popular notions, parents are less concerned with controversies on moral issues and more with uncertainty regarding because long-term safety of a drug is resolved after licensure. This study was designed to understand whether mothers from diverse ethnicities perceive a need for a decision support tool. Results suggest that the design of a culturally tailored decision support tool may help guide parents through the decision-making process. PMID:21444922

  15. Perceived need of a parental decision aid for the HPV vaccine: content and format preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey; Weinhardt, Lance S

    2012-03-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a precursor of cervical cancer. In 2006, the Federal Drug Administration licensed a vaccine to protect against four types of HPV. Three years postlicensure of the vaccine, HPV vaccination is still fraught with controversy. To date, research suggests that contrary to popular notions, parents are less concerned with controversies on moral issues and more with uncertainty regarding because long-term safety of a drug is resolved after licensure. This study was designed to understand whether mothers from diverse ethnicities perceive a need for a decision support tool. Results suggest that the design of a culturally tailored decision support tool may help guide parents through the decision-making process.

  16. Influencers and preference predictors of HPV vaccine uptake among US male and female young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJoie, A Scott; Kerr, Jelani C; Clover, Richard D; Harper, Diane M

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of male and female college students in Kentucky about HPV associated diseases and vaccines, and to determine which parameters predicted self-reported uptake of HPV vaccination. A self-selected cross-sectional sample of college students completed an evidence-based online survey. Of approximately 1200 potential respondents, 585 completed the survey. The average age was 20.6 (SD 3.15) and 78% were female; 84% of the population had had one or more sexual partners. Concern for HPV vaccine safety and potential need for boosters did not significantly deter vaccine uptake. Likewise, knowledge about HPV associated cancers was not predictive of vaccine uptake. On the other hand, parental influence for vaccination was a strong predictor for vaccine uptake (aOR = 5.32, 2.71-13.03), and free vaccine nearly doubled the likelihood of being vaccinated (aOR 1.90, 1.05-3.41). In addition, the strong preference for the respondent's partner to be HPV vaccinated predicted vaccine uptake (aOR = 4.04, 95% CI: 2.31-7.05), but the lack of preference for partner vaccination predicted an unvaccinated self (aOR = 0.50, 0.27-0.93). HPV vaccination has been successful in young adult college students in Kentucky. Young adults prefer their partners to be HPV vaccinated regardless of whether they themselves are vaccinated. Parental influence and free vaccine were positive predictors for vaccine uptake in this population. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies for continuous evaluation of the benefit-risk profile of HPV-16/18-AS04-adjuvanted vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Maria-Genalin; Taylor, Sylvia; Struyf, Frank; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Arellano, Felix; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    The HPV types 16/18-AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine, Cervarix(®) (HPV-16/18-vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) was first approved in 2007 and is licensed in 134 countries for the prevention of persistent infection, premalignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer caused by oncogenic HPV. Benefit-risk status requires continual re-evaluation as vaccine uptake increases, as the epidemiology of the disease evolves and as new information becomes available. This paper provides an example of benefit-risk considerations and risk-management planning. Evaluation of the benefit-risk of HPV-16/18-vaccine post-licensure includes studies with a range of designs in many countries and in collaboration with national public agencies and regulatory authorities. The strategy to assess benefit versus risk will continue to evolve and adapt to the changing HPV-16/18-vaccine market.

  18. Persuasive texts for prompting action: Agency assignment in HPV vaccination reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Matthew S; Stephens, Keri K; Rodriguez, Serena A; Fernandez, Maria E

    2017-08-03

    Vaccination reminders must both inform and persuade, and text messages designed for this purpose must do so in 160 characters or less. We tested a strategy for improving the impact of HPV vaccination text message reminders through strategic wording. In an experiment conducted in community settings, 167 Spanish-speaking Latina mothers reviewed text message reminders that assigned the cause or "agency" for HPV transmission to their daughters or the virus, and assigned protection agency to the mothers or the vaccine. Reminder messages framing transmission as an action of the virus prompted mothers to perceive the threat as more severe than messages describing their daughters as the cause. Assigning transmission agency to the virus also held a persuasive advantage in boosting mothers' intentions to seek vaccination, particularly when the message cast mothers as agents of protection rather than the vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. HPV vaccine decision making in pediatric primary care: a semi-structured interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feemster Kristen A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite national recommendations, as of 2009 human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination rates were low with Methods Between March and June, 2010, we conducted qualitative interviews with 20 adolescent-mother-clinician triads (60 individual interviews directly after a preventive visit with the initial HPV vaccine due. Interviews followed a guide based on published HPV literature, involved 9 practices, and continued until saturation of the primary themes was achieved. Purposive sampling balanced adolescent ages and practice type (urban resident teaching versus non-teaching. Using a modified grounded theory approach, we analyzed data with NVivo8 software both within and across triads to generate primary themes. Results The study population was comprised of 20 mothers (12 Black, 9 Conclusions Programs to improve HPV vaccine delivery in primary care should focus on promoting effective parent-clinician communication. Research is needed to evaluate strategies to help clinicians engage reluctant parents and passive teens in discussion and measure the impact of distinct clinician decision making approaches on HPV vaccine delivery.

  20. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Frank; Verschueren, Kristin; McCabe, Candida; Stegmann, Jens-Ulrich; Zima, Julia; Mahaux, Olivia; Van Holle, Lionel; Angelo, Maria-Genalin

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We investigated the potential CRPS signal in relation to HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®) by database review of CRPS cases with independent expert confirmation; a disproportionality analysis and analyses of temporality; an observed versus expected analysis using published background incidence rates; systematic reviews of aggregate safety data, and a literature review. The analysis included 17 case reports of CRPS: 10 from Japan (0.14/100,000 doses distributed) and seven from the United Kingdom (0.08/100,000). Five cases were considered by independent experts to be confirmed CRPS. Quantitative analyses did not suggest an association between CRPS and HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Observed CRPS incidence after HPV-16/18 vaccination was statistically significantly below expected rates. Systematic database reviews using search terms varying in specificity and sensitivity did not identify new cases. No CRPS was reported during clinical development and no unexpected results found in the literature. There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination. PMID:26501109

  1. Long-term modeling on HPV vaccination: do we really need any more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Livio; Curto, Alessandro; van de Vooren, Katelijne

    2015-04-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely related to cervical cancer. In 2007, the EMA approved two vaccines, a bivalent and a quadrivalent one, launched at three-dose schedules and very high prices worldwide. We describe what happened in the EU and what might change in the near future from an economic perspective. HPV vaccination is now established in most EU countries. The main target group of the programs is girls aged 10-14 years. Many western countries used competitive tendering to purchase the two vaccines, achieving considerable savings. The extension to males has been a hotly debated issue. The sex limitation implies that this vaccination cannot by definition achieve a 'herd immunity' effect. EMA recently approved a two-dose schedule for both vaccines that should lead to savings, although it is hard to predict how the forthcoming nonavalent vaccine will affect the market situation. Several economic evaluations based on long-term models have been published on the HPV vaccination in the recent years, using official list prices as a baseline. Most of these models can be considered mere exercises in long-term forecasting. Recently, further long-term models have been published with two- and three-dose schedules as alternatives, and the nonavalent vaccine. We wonder what added value they give for public policy purposes.

  2. Evaluation of HPV type-replacement in unvaccinated and vaccinated adolescent females-Post-hoc analysis of a community-randomized clinical trial (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Penelope; Palmroth, Johanna; Luostarinen, Tapio; Apter, Dan; Dubin, Gary; Garnett, Geoff; Eriksson, Tiina; Natunen, Kari; Merikukka, Marko; Pimenoff, Ville; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Vänskä, Simopekka; Paavonen, Jorma; Pukkala, Eero; Dillner, Joakim; Lehtinen, Matti

    2018-06-15

    Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines promises to control HPV infections. However, HPV vaccination programs may lay bare an ecological niche for non-vaccine HPV types. We evaluated type-replacement by HPV type and vaccination strategy in a community-randomized trial executed in HPV vaccination naïve population. Thirty-three communities were randomized to gender-neutral vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine (Arm A), HPV vaccination of girls and hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccination of boys (Arm B) and gender-neutral HBV vaccination (Arm C). Resident 1992-95 born boys (40,852) and girls (39,420) were invited. 11,662 boys and 20,513 girls were vaccinated with 20-30% and 45-48% coverage, respectively. HPV typing of 11,396 cervicovaginal samples was performed by high throughput PCR. Prevalence ratios (PR) between arms and ranked order of HPV types and odds ratio (OR) for having multiple HPV types in HPV16 or 18/45 positive individuals were calculated. The ranked order of HPV types did not significantly differ between arms or birth cohorts. For the non-HPV vaccinated 1992-1993 birth cohorts increased PR, between the gender-neutral intervention versus control arms for HPV39 (PR A 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-3.02) and HPV51 (PR A 1.56, 95% CI 1.11-2.19) were observed. In the gender-neutral arm, increased clustering between HPV39 and the vaccine-covered HPV types 16 or 18/45 (OR A16  = 5.1, OR A18/45  = 11.4) was observed in the non-HPV vaccinated 1994-1995 birth cohorts. Comparable clustering was seen between HPV51 and HPV16 or HPV18/45 (OR B16  = 4.7, OR B18/45  = 4.3), in the girls-only arm. In conclusion, definitively consistent postvaccination patterns of HPV type-replacement were not observed. Future occurrence of HPV39 and HPV51 warrant investigation. © 2018 UICC.

  3. HPV vaccination: Pilot study assessing characteristics of high and low performing primary care offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Lollier

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study was undertaken to identify characteristics and approaches (e.g., social, behavioral, and/or systems factors which differentiate primary care medical offices achieving higher rates of HPV vaccination.Eligible primary care practice sites providing care to adolescent patients were recruited within an eight county region of western New York State between June 2016 and July 2016. Practice sites were categorized as higher (n = 3 or lower performing (n = 2 based on three dose series completion rates for HPV vaccinations among females aged 13–17 years. Interviewer administered surveys were completed with office staff (n = 37 and focused on understanding approaches to adolescent vaccination. Results were summarized using basic descriptive statistics.Higher performing offices reported more full-time clinical staff (median = 25 vs. 9.5 in lower performing clinics, larger panels of patients ages 11–17 years (median = 3541 vs. 925 and completion of NYSIIS data entry within two weeks of vaccination. (less than a month vs. two. Staff in higher performing offices reviewed medical charts prior to scheduled visits (100% vs. 50 and identified their office vaccine champion as a physician and/or a nurse manager (75% vs. 22%. Also, staffs from higher performing offices were more likely to report the combination of having an office vaccine champion, previewing charts and using standing orders. These preliminary findings support future research examining implementation of organizational processes including identifying a vaccine champion, using standing orders and previewing medical charts prior to office visits as strategies to increase rates of HPV vaccination in primary care offices. Keywords: HPV vaccination, Adolescents, Primary care, Standing orders, Implementation, Vaccine champion

  4. Cross sectional study investigating the differences in knowledge and behaviors about HPV between vaccinated and non-vaccinated girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualano, M R; Stillo, M; Mussa, M V; Zotti, C M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the presents study was to compare the level of knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in vaccinated and non-vaccinated girls and to highlight the reasons why non-vaccinated girls refuse vaccination. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to June 2013 in Turin (Piemonte Region, Italy). Questionnaires were administered to girls attending secondary and high schools randomly selected. A total of 576 were compiled. The principle sources of information were parents and health workers. The main reported reasons for non-adherence to vaccination were the disagreement of the parents among the 11-12 years group (45.3%) and the lack of evidence on efficacy among the 18 years group (26.8%). By comparing the level of knowledge there was a statistically significant difference between groups: vaccinated girls reported higher score than the unvaccinated group in several questions (p ≤ 0.05). Our findings show a lack of information about HPV infection. Parents, school and health care workers have a central role in girl's education and choices about HPV vaccination. The communication campaign for the prevention of cervical cancer must therefore be characterised by messages able to clarify and consolidate messages that may have been partially received or misunderstood.

  5. Seropositivity to non-vaccine incorporated genotypes induced by the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Sara L; Godi, Anna; Jit, Mark; Beddows, Simon

    2017-07-13

    Human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated remarkable efficacy against persistent infection and disease associated with vaccine-incorporated genotypes and a degree of efficacy against some genetically related, non-vaccine-incorporated genotypes. The vaccines differ in the extent of cross-protection against these non-vaccine genotypes. Data supporting the role for neutralizing antibodies as a correlate or surrogate of cross-protection are lacking, as is a robust assessment of the seroconversion rates against these non-vaccine genotypes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available data on vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody seropositivity to non-vaccine incorporated HPV genotypes. Of 304 articles screened, 9 were included in the analysis representing ca. 700 individuals. The pooled estimate for seropositivity against HPV31 for the bivalent vaccine (86%; 95%CI 78-91%) was higher than that for the quadrivalent vaccine (61%; 39-79%; p=0.011). The pooled estimate for seropositivity against HPV45 for the bivalent vaccine (50%; 37-64%) was also higher than that for the quadrivalent vaccine (16%; 6-36%; p=0.007). Seropositivity against HPV33, HPV52 and HPV58 were similar between the vaccines. Mean seropositivity rates across non-vaccine genotypes were positively associated with the corresponding vaccine efficacy data reported from vaccine trials. These data improve our understanding of vaccine-induced functional antibody specificity against non-vaccine incorporated genotypes and may help to parameterize vaccine-impact models and improve patient management in a post-vaccine setting. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge, Perception, and Acceptance of HPV Vaccination and Screening for Cervical Cancer among Women in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endarti, Dwi; Satibi, Satibi; Kristina, Susi Ari; Farida, Muhaya Almira; Rahmawanti, Yuni; Andriani, Tika

    2018-04-27

    Objective: To determine knowledge, perception, and acceptance related to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer among Indonesian women, particularly in Yogyakarta province. Methods: A convenience sample of 392 women consists of 192 young women, 100 mothers of girls aged 12 – 15 years, and 100 adult women in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia was participated in this study. A self-administered paper-based questionnaire was used to determine demographics characteristics of respondents, as well as their knowledge – perception – acceptance related to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination, and screening for cervical cancer. Data collection were conducted during December 2013 to March 2014. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze description of demographics characteristics, knowledge, perception, and acceptance; while crosstab analysis using Chi-Square was used to analyze the relationship between demographics characteristics versus knowledge, perception, and acceptance. Results: This study found that knowledge and perception regarding cervical cancer, HPV vaccination, and screening for cervical cancer among women in Indonesia, particularly in Yogyakarta Province were still insufficient, however the acceptance was good. Among female young women, 64% had good knowledge, 62% had positive perception of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, and 92% tended to accept HPV vaccination. Among mothers of girls aged 12 – 15 years, 44% had good knowledge, 46% had positive perception of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, and 91% tended to accept HPV vaccination for their daughters. Among adult women, 68% had good knowledge, 57% had positive perception of cervical cancer and screening for cervical cancer, and 90% tended to accept cervical cancer screening. In general, demographics characteristics of having experience and exposure to information had significant relationship with knowledge, perception, and acceptance of HPV vaccination and screening for

  7. The levels of anti-HPV16/18 and anti-HPV31/33/35/45/52/58 antibodies among AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccinated and non-vaccinated Ugandan girls aged 10-16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, Miriam; Banura, Cecily; Namujju, Proscovia B; Mirembe, Florence M

    2014-01-01

    Data on Human Papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine immune response in sub-Saharan Africa is still sparse yet such knowledge is critical for optimal implementation and monitoring of HPV vaccines. Our primary objective was to evaluate levels of anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies and six other 'high risk' HPV (hrHPV) types among the vaccinated and unvaccinated Ugandan girls. We conducted a cross sectional study among AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccinated and unvaccinated school girls aged 10-16 years in Western Uganda using purposive sampling. The vaccinated girls were at 18 months post vaccination. After consenting and assenting, data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaires for demographics and sexual history. Blood was drawn from which serum samples were analysed by the multiplex HPV serology technology to determine anti-HPV antibody levels to HPV-16/18 and six other hrHPV types (31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58). The antibody levels were expressed as Median Fluorescent Intensity (MFI). A total of 207 vaccinated [mean age 13.1 years (SD 1.5); range 10-16 years] and 197 unvaccinated girls [mean age 13.6 years (SD 1.3); range 10-16 years] participated in the study. Sexual activity was self reported among 14/207 (6.8%) vaccinated and 5/197 (2.5%) unvaccinated girls. The MFI levels for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were 15 and 20 times higher respectively in the vaccinated girls than in the unvaccinated girls. HPV-16 mean MFI level was 4691(SD 1812; 95% CI: 4438-4958) among the vaccinated compared to 218 (SD 685; 95% CI: 190-252) among the unvaccinated girls. For HPV-18 the mean MFI level was 1615 (SD 1326; 95% CI: 1470-1776) among the vaccinated compared to MFI 103 (SD 506; 95% CI: 88 -121) among unvaccinated girls. In addition antibody levels to non vaccine hrHPV types (31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58) were all significantly higher in the vaccinated group than in the unvaccinated group (plevel of antibodies to HPV-16/18 and other non-vaccine hrHPV types compared to the unvaccinated girls

  8. Burden of disease associated with cervical cancer in malaysia and potential costs and consequences of HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljunid, S; Zafar, A; Saperi, S; Amrizal, M

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 70% of cervical cancers worldwide are attributable to persistent infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 and 18. Vaccination against HPV 16/18 has been shown to dramatically reduce the incidence of associated precancerous and cancerous lesions. The aims of the present analyses were, firstly, to estimate the clinical and economic burden of disease attributable to HPV in Malaysia and secondly, to estimate long-term outcomes associated with HPV vaccination using a prevalence-based modeling approach. In the first part of the analysis costs attributable to cervical cancer and precancerous lesions were estimated; epidemiologic data were sourced from the WHO GLOBOCAN database and Malaysian national data sources. In the second part, a prevalence-based model was used to estimate the potential annual number of cases of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions that could be prevented and subsequent HPV-related treatment costs averted with the bivalent (HPV 16/18) and the quadrivalent (HPV 16/18/6/11) vaccines, at the population level, at steady state. A vaccine efficacy of 98% was assumed against HPV types included in both vaccines. Effectiveness against other oncogenic HPV types was based on the latest results from each vaccine's respective clinical trials. In Malaysia there are an estimated 4,696 prevalent cases of cervical cancer annually and 1,372 prevalent cases of precancerous lesions, which are associated with a total direct cost of RM 39.2 million with a further RM 12.4 million in indirect costs owing to lost productivity. At steady state, vaccination with the bivalent vaccine was estimated to prevent 4,199 cervical cancer cases per year versus 3,804 cases for the quadrivalent vaccine. Vaccination with the quadrivalent vaccine was projected to prevent 1,721 cases of genital warts annually, whereas the annual number of cases remained unchanged with the bivalent vaccine. Furthermore, vaccination with the bivalent vaccine was estimated to avert RM 45

  9. Ohio Appalachia public health department personnel: human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, and acceptance and concerns among parents of male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldach, Benjamin R; Katz, Mira L

    2012-12-01

    Public health departments (n = 48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8 %) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported most frequently were lack of knowledge about the vaccines, concerns about potential side effects, the newness of the HPV vaccines, and parents believing their children were not sexually active or were too young to receive an HPV vaccine. Provider reports of the primary differences in the acceptability of an HPV vaccine among parents of males compared to the parents of females were lack of awareness that an HPV vaccine was available for males, not understanding why the vaccine should be given to males, and fear of vaccination increasing sexual promiscuity among female adolescents. Half of the health departments (n = 24) reported that parents of females were more receptive toward HPV vaccination, 16 health departments reported no difference in acceptability based on gender of the child, and 5 health departments reported that parents of males were more receptive. This study suggests that there are different informational needs of males and females and parents of male and female children when making an informed decision about HPV vaccination. Findings highlight content to include in strategies to increase HPV vaccination rates among Appalachia Ohio residents.

  10. Attitudes and perceptions of the HPV vaccine in Caribbean and African-American adolescent girls and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Dalan S; Joseph, Michael A; Polishchuk, Veronika; Suss, Amy L

    2010-08-01

    To describe attitudes and perceptions toward acceptability of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination among inner city Caribbean (CA) and African American (AA) adolescents and their parents, and discuss correlates that may be associated with these factors. Questionnaire survey. An adolescent medicine clinic. A convenience sample was recruited of 175 adolescent girls aged 13 to 19 years and 74 parents attending adolescent clinic. Participants completed an anonymous confidential 10-minute questionnaire. Data on knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer (CC), attitudes and acceptance of the HPV vaccine. Responses of 175 adolescent girls and 74 parents were analyzed. Overall, 48.9% of the teens were sexually active (SA) and had a 2.2-fold greater odds (OR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.13-4.36) of being interested in HPV vaccination versus girls who were not SA. While only 55.8% of girls knew what HPV is, this knowledge was significantly associated with knowing that most CC is caused by HPV (P level, insurance, and living situation.The majority of parents wanted the vaccine for its role in preventing CC. Although controversy surrounds HPV vaccine in regard to its supposed role in promoting SA, only a minority of our parents showed concern for that association. The level of acceptance of the HPV vaccine was overall lower than what has been reported among other racial/ethnic populations. Knowledge about HPV and its association with CC were significantly associated with interest in getting the HPV vaccine and both parents and teens seem to accept the HPV vaccine more for its role in CC prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The Effect of History of Abnormal Pap Smear or Preceding HPV infection on the Humoral Immune Response to Quadrivalent Human Papilloma virus (qHPV) Vaccine in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, J Patricia; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Dhar, Renee; Magee, Ardella; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2018-04-30

    To determine if natural human papillomavirus (HPV) infection would induce an anamnestic response to quadrivalent (qHPV) vaccine in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Thirty four women (19-50 years) with mild to moderate and minimally active or inactive SLE received standard qHPV vaccine. Neutralizing antibody titers to HPV 6, 11, 16 and18 were evaluated pre- and post- vaccine using HPV competitive Luminex Immunoassay. For each HPV type, logistic regressions were performed to explore the relationship between a positive titer at baseline with their final geometric mean titer and with the rise in titer. Fisher's Exact Test was used to assess the association of at least one positive HPV antibody test at baseline and history of abnormal pap. History of abnormal pap smear/cervical neoplasia occurred in 52.9%. Baseline anti HPV antibody titers: 21% = negative for all 4 HPV types, 79% = positive for ≥1 of the HPV types. Statistical analysis showed: those with a history of abnormal pap smear/cervical neoplasia were likely to have a positive anti-HPV antibody result pre-vaccine to ≥ 1 of the 4 types, p = 0.035 Fisher's Exact Test. In general, HPV exposed women showed higher post vaccine GMTs than HPV unexposed women with higher point estimates. However, when examining the rise in titers using logistic regression, there was no evidence of an anamnestic response. Prior HPV infection and cervical neoplasia in SLE are linked with no anamnestic response to HPV vaccine. This supports not checking HPV-antibodies pre-vaccine. Women with SLE should be vaccinated for HPV.

  12. Cost and effectiveness evaluation of prophylactic HPV vaccine in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termrungruanglert, Wichai; Havanond, Piyalamporn; Khemapech, Nipon; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn; Khorprasert, Chonlakiet; Taneepanichskul, Surasak