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Sample records for school-based coping intervention

  1. Feasibility and Acceptability of a School-Based Coping Intervention for Latina Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolyn; Pintor, Jessie Kemmick; Lindgren, Sandi

    2010-01-01

    Latino girls (Latinas) experience disproportionate rates of emotional distress, including suicidal ideation, which may be indicative of inadequate coping abilities. Prevention of mental health problems, a U.S. public health priority, is particularly critical for Latina adolescents due to lack of access to mental health treatments. The purpose of…

  2. Effects on Coping Skills and Anxiety of a Universal School-Based Mental Health Intervention Delivered in Scottish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sabrina; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Durkin, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in children and may signal risk of depression, social, or academic difficulties. This study evaluated the effects of a universal mental health promotion intervention delivered in primary schools. Three hundred and seventeen 9- to 10-year-olds were randomly allocated by class group to intervention conditions…

  3. Responsibility, Authority, and Accountability in School-Based and Non-School-Based Management: Principals' Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshtain, Yael; Gibton, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how primary school principals in Israel cope with the gaps between authority and responsibility in their work, deriving from partially implemented decentralization processes, and how this relates to school-based management (SBM) and accountability principles. Design/methodology/approach: Using…

  4. School-Based Crisis Intervention. A Center Quick Training Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    As used here, the term school-based crisis intervention refers to a range of responses schools can plan and implement in response to crisis events and reactions. All school-based and school-linked staff can play an important role in crisis intervention. This quick training aid presents a brief set of resources to guide those providing an…

  5. School-based interventions to address bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.

  6. School-Based Intervention for Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lay See; Goh, Valerie Grace; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: With children today being tested at younger ages, test anxiety has an earlier onset age. There is relatively limited research on test anxiety management programs with elementary school children. The theoretical basis for this nonrandomized pre-post intervention study is grounded in cognitive and behavioral interventions for test…

  7. Assessing the Outcomes of School-Based Partnership Resilience Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampane, Ruth; Huddle, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the outcomes of educational psychology school-based intervention. The aim was to determine whether the intervention served as an educational pathway to resilience. Through a concurrent mixed-methods research design interpreted through a pragmatic lens, academic school performance of students in a rural school was used as an…

  8. School-based interventions to address bullying

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter K Smith

    2016-01-01

    Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years...

  9. Global school-based childhood obesity interventions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-08-28

    The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  10. Global School-Based Childhood Obesity Interventions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Ickes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1 primary research; (2 overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3 school-based; (4 studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5 published in the English language; (6 child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7 studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  11. An Innovative School-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Natalia; Ranucci, Claudia; Buratta, Livia; Foglia, Elena; Fabi, Marta; Novelli, Francesca; Casucci, Simone; Reginato, Elisa; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Leonardi, Alessia; Romani, Giannermete; De Feo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles. To evaluate its effects on children's food habits and to highlight the key components which contribute most to the beneficial effects obtained from children's, teachers' and parents' perspectives. Design: An educational tool to improve personal awareness,…

  12. A Synthesis of International School-Based Bullying Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jennifer; Medaris, Jessica; Verity, Kimberley; Hott, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a prevalent problem in school systems in the United States and abroad. This literature review focuses on elementary school-based bullying interventions for students published between 2005-2012. Ten studies reviewed included students from the first grade through the eighth grade from five countries. There were many common themes among…

  13. Implementation of school based physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Race, Douglas; Hoy, Christa; Ashe, Maureen C; Wharf Higgins, Joan; McKay, Heather A

    2015-03-01

    Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated with implementation. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n=15 interventions). Most (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A school-based intervention for diabetes risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gary D; Linder, Barbara; Baranowski, Tom; Cooper, Dan M; Goldberg, Linn; Harrell, Joanne S; Kaufman, Francine; Marcus, Marsha D; Treviño, Roberto P; Hirst, Kathryn

    2010-07-29

    We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a multicomponent school-based intervention (21 schools) or assessment only (control, 21 schools). A total of 4603 students participated (mean [+/- SD] age, 11.3 [+/- 0.6 years; 54.2% Hispanic and 18.0% black; 52.7% girls). At the beginning of 6th grade and the end of 8th grade, students underwent measurements of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. There was a decrease in the primary outcome--the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity--in both the intervention and control schools, with no significant difference between the school groups. The intervention schools had greater reductions in the secondary outcomes of BMI z score, percentage of students with waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, fasting insulin levels (P=0.04 for all comparisons), and prevalence of obesity (P=0.05). Similar findings were observed among students who were at or above the 85th percentile for BMI at baseline. Less than 3% of the students who were screened had an adverse event; the proportions were nearly equivalent in the intervention and control schools. Our comprehensive school-based program did not result in greater decreases in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity than those that occurred in control schools. However, the intervention did result in significantly greater reductions in various indexes of adiposity. These changes may reduce the risk of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029.)

  15. A school-based post-Katrina therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Eliot E; Bauer, Daliah; Newman, Denise L; Kalka, Elaine; Lochman, John E; Silverman, Wendy K; Jensen, Peter S; Curry, John; Stark, Kevin; Wells, Karen C; Bannon, William M

    2015-05-01

    The current study presents the implementation of a set of school based interventions in a greater New Orleans school district one year following Hurricane Katrina. The interventions included adaptation and implementation of evidence based treatments in a crisis situation with at-risk youth which involved training and clinical challenges. 386 students found to have significant depressive and/or disruptive disorder symptoms received treatment from the School Therapeutic Enhancement Program (STEP). Further, a district-wide mental health needs assessment of middle and high school students (N = 11,861) screened for behavioral and emotional difficulties at the beginning and end of the school year provided a benchmark for community youth's emotional and behavioral distress. High-need intervention students demonstrated clinically significant lower levels of emotional and behavioral problems, depression and inattention in comparison to pre-treatment levels as indicated by multiple informants (i.e., self, parent, teacher). Self-reported distress levels were also lower than screening group students at post-test. These findings support the efficacy of a school-based intervention for youth struggling with the aftereffects of a highly disruptive natural disaster. Implications for utilizing a flexible adaptation of an evidence-based training model involving coaching and consultation are discussed.

  16. Practitioner Review: School-based interventions in child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Frank W; Ohmann, Susanne; Popow, Christian

    2016-12-01

    School-based interventions (SBIs) are well-established and effective treatments for improving child mental health. Specific school-based topics include prevention (Tier I-III) and interventions (e.g. cognitive-behavioural programmes and daily report cards). We performed a systematic literature search in five commonly used online databases (ERIC, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO and PSYNDEX) for English-language articles published between 1993 and 2015. Additional sources included reference lists of relevant articles and book chapters. We identified a number of successful behavioural or cognitive-behavioural programmes yielding moderate to strong effects for a range of emotional and behavioural problems. The implementation of these programmes and the collaboration of the involved settings (school and home) and persons are important factors for their effectiveness under real-life conditions. Effective SBIs are valuable tools for students with mental health problems if evidence-based cognitive-behavioural interventions are applied and rules of translational algorithms and implementation science are respected. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. A School-Based Mindfulness Intervention for Urban Youth: Exploring Moderators of Intervention Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark. T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines gender, grade-level, and baseline depressive symptoms as potential moderators of a school-based mindfulness intervention's impact on the self-regulatory outcomes of urban youth. Ninety-seven participants from four urban public schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list control condition. Fourth and fifth…

  18. A school-based intervention to promote dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Hillevi C; Berg, M Christina; Jonsson, Lena M; Lissner, Lauren

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the effect of 2 school-based interventions on adolescents' consumption and knowledge of fish with the hypothesis that home economics education would enhance the effect of modifications in the school canteen. The school lunch intervention (SL) focused on changes in the school canteen, and the school lunch + home economics intervention (SL + HE) in addition consisted of changes in the home economics syllabus. Pupils in the 8th grade (n = 228) from 3 schools in Göteborg, Sweden, participated (control, n = 83; SL group, n = 58; SL + HE group, n = 87). A controlled design was used in which behavior and knowledge were assessed before and after the intervention. In contrast to much previous research of this type, measurement of behavior was based primarily on direct observation as opposed to self-reported intakes. Behavior (fish consumption) was measured individually by structured observations in the school canteen 5 times (once a week) when fish was served. Nutritional knowledge was measured by means of 10 items in a questionnaire. To analyze changes in behavior, a nonparametric statistical method assessing systematic change in paired ordered categoric variables was used. At follow-up evaluation, consumption had increased significantly in the SL + HE group, a change that also differed from the control group. In addition, significant positive changes in knowledge were observed in both intervention groups, but not in controls. The results suggest that dietary change was achieved by modifying conditions in the school canteen together with changing the home economics syllabus. This study shows the importance of the school in the promotion of dietary change among adolescents.

  19. Results of a Rural School-Based Peer-Led Intervention for Youth: Goals for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Tanya; Fries, Elizabeth; Meyer, Aleta; Buzzard, Marilyn; Uguy, Samy; Ramakrishnan, Ramesh; Lewis, Carol; Danish, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Background: School-based interventions are critical for enhancing the health of youth. The "Goals for Health (GFH)" school-based project was a goal-setting and life-skills intervention conducted in rural areas to increase self-efficacy, knowledge, and positive behaviors related to healthy eating. The intervention was peer-led with high…

  20. Primary school-based behavioural interventions for preventing caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Anna M; O'Malley, Lucy A; Elison, Sarah N; Armstrong, Rosemary; Burnside, Girvan; Adair, Pauline; Dugdill, Lindsey; Pine, Cynthia

    2013-05-31

    Dental caries is one of the most common global childhood diseases and is, for the most part, entirely preventable. Good oral health is dependent on the establishment of the key behaviours of toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste and controlling sugar snacking. Primary schools provide a potential setting in which these behavioural interventions can support children to develop independent and habitual healthy behaviours. To assess the clinical effects of school-based interventions aimed at changing behaviour related to toothbrushing habits and the frequency of consumption of cariogenic food and drink in children (4 to 12 year olds) for caries prevention. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 18 October 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE via OVID (1948 to 18 October 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 18 October 2012), CINAHL via EBSCO (1981 to 18 October 2012) and PsycINFO via OVID (1950 to 18 October 2012). Ongoing trials were searched for using Current Controlled Trials (to 18 October 2012) and ClinicalTrials.gov (to 18 October 2012). Conference proceedings were searched for using ZETOC (1993 to 18 October 2012) and Web of Science (1990 to 18 October 2012). We searched for thesis abstracts using the Proquest Dissertations and Theses database (1950 to 18 October 2012). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. Non-English language papers were included and translated in full by native speakers. Randomised controlled trials of behavioural interventions in primary schools (children aged 4 to 12 years at baseline) were selected. Included studies had to include behavioural interventions addressing both toothbrushing and consumption of cariogenic foods or drinks and have a primary school as a focus for delivery of the intervention. Two pairs of review authors independently extracted data related to methods

  1. Coping Power Dissemination Study: Intervention and Special Education Effects on Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Powell, Nicole P.; Qu, Lixin; Wells, Karen; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a school-based preventive intervention for children with aggressive behavior affects children's academic outcomes when it is implemented by school counselors in a dissemination field trial. The Coping Power program targets empirical risk factors for aggressive behavior and focuses primarily on teaching social and…

  2. Systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent smoking for girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among

  3. School-based interventions on physical inactivity as a risk factor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School -based health education programmes are important in focussing on risk factors for chronic disease of lifestyle (CDL) among young people. The school as a setting can be used to assist learners to make informed decisions regarding health risk behaviours. In this article, research relating to school based interventions ...

  4. Consultation: Creating School-Based Interventions. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.; Carlson, Jon

    Decades after consultation has become a mandated function of school counselors, consultants still seek effective ways to deliver this essential role. This book, geared towards mental health professionals, provides a set of skills for working with the school-based population. The ideas, based on Adlerian psychology, present a theory of consultation…

  5. Emotional Regulation: Considerations for School-Based Group Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Kristine M.; Brooks, Morgan; Rinaldo, Vincent J.; Bogner, Roselind; Hodges, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    School-based professionals have entered the 21st century with a heightened call to address the emotional and behavioral concerns of youth. While cognitive-behavioral therapies and psychoeducational groups have demonstrated moderate effects with children and adolescents, there is little available research to assist clinicians in refining treatments…

  6. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  7. A Content Analysis of Kindergarten-12th Grade School-Based Nutrition Interventions: Taking Advantage of Past Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G.; Riddell, Martha C.; Haynes, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Design: Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content…

  8. Rethinking School-Based HIV/AIDS Interventions In South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rethinking School-Based HIV/AIDS Interventions In South Africa. ... Changing behaviour, even that of adolescents who are just beginning to experience and ... and preventive behaviour such as condom use is lax amongst this age group.

  9. Using Intervention Mapping for Systematic Development of Two School-Based Interventions Aimed at Increasing Children's Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinaerts, E.; De Nooijer, J.; De Vries, N. K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how the intervention mapping (IM) protocol could be applied to the development of two school-based interventions. It provides an extensive description of the development, implementation and evaluation of two interventions which aimed to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among primary…

  10. Effectiveness of School-Based Bullying Intervention Programs in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogini, Eric U.

    2012-01-01

    Bullying behavior has reached pandemic proportions and is a growing concern in primary school. Most intervention programs in primary school are focused on bullying prevention or principally on the behavior of the bully. The purpose of this study was to explore whether a school-based bullying intervention program is an effective method for reducing…

  11. Positive Effects of Promoting Prosocial Behavior in Early Adolescence: Evidence from a School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Kanacri, Bernadette Paula Luengo; Gerbino, Maria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni; Caprara, Eva; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bridglall, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pilot school-based intervention called CEPIDEA, designed to promote prosocial behavior in early adolescence. The study took place in a middle school located in a small city near Rome. The intervention group included 151 students (52.3% males; M[subscript age] = 12.4), and the control group…

  12. School-Based Interventions for Obesity: Current Approaches and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M. Chris; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examines three major types of intervention strategies that have been utilized in school-based weight-reduction programs. Discusses behavior modification, dietary control/nutrition education, and physical activities which have been successfully combined in multifaceted obesity interventions to produce modest weight loss. (Author/NRB)

  13. Results of an Italian school-based expressive writing intervention trial focused on peer problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Settanni, Michele; Kliewer, Wendy; Ciairano, Silvia

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an expressive writing intervention in a sample of Italian early adolescents on internalizing and post-traumatic stress symptoms and coping strategies. Participants were 153 Italian adolescents (48% male), attending 7th grade (M=12.24 yrs, SD=0.47). Youth were randomly assigned either to write about personal emotional events related to problems they recently experienced with peers, or trivial topics. Data were collected before and 2 months following the intervention. Analyses revealed no overall intervention effects on symptoms. However, level of peer victimization moderated the effects of the intervention on coping strategies, such that victimized youth in the intervention showed increases in cognitive restructuring and avoidance coping, relative to other groups. Thus, expressive writing affected coping strategies but not internalizing problems in our early adolescent sample.

  14. Coping Successfully with Dyslexia: An Initial Study of an Inclusive School-Based Resilience Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Nola; Frydenberg, Erica; Steeg, Charlotte; Bond, Lyndal

    2013-01-01

    A dyslexia coping programme entitled "Success and Dyslexia" was implemented in two primary schools within a whole-class coping programme and whole-school dyslexia professional development context. One hundred and two year 6 students, 23 of whom had dyslexia, undertook surveys pretest, post-test and at 1-year follow-up. Effectiveness of…

  15. Sleep Disorders in Children: Collaboration for School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, D. Erik

    2011-01-01

    The effects of sleep disturbance on children are wide ranging and include alterations in behavior, mood, cognition, and academic performance. Screening and intervention for pediatric sleep disorders within the schools are not widely implemented, and the concept of integrating school personnel into the multidisciplinary sleep team has yet to be…

  16. Evaluation of a school-based intervention programme for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Parental divorce affects approximately 30 000 South African children annually. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Children of Divorce Intervention Programme (CODIP) at two South African schools. CODIP is a preventively oriented group programme which was developed to foster resilience ...

  17. School-based social work interventions: a cross-national systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Meares, Paula; Montgomery, Katherine L; Kim, Johnny S

    2013-07-01

    Across the globe, social workers serve schools in a variety of capacities, providing services such as skills training; individual, group, and family counseling; crisis intervention; home visits; parent support and education; and advocacy for students, families, and school systems. To date, no synthesis of the literature exists examining tier 1 and tier 2 cross-national school-based social work interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was twofold: (1) to identify tier 1 and tier 2 school-based interventions that involve social workers and (2) to examine the extent to which the interventions are efficacious with school-based youths. A computerized search with inclusion and exclusion criteria was conducted using several databases. Eighteen studies were included for the final sample in this review. Effect sizes were calculated for all outcomes to determine magnitude of treatment effect. Results indicated that most of the studies were conducted in the United States (n = 14) and half (n = 9) of the included interventions were tier 1. Many positive effect sizes were found. Interventions aimed to treat a variety of outcomes such as sexual health, aggression, self-esteem, school attendance, identity, and depression. More research is needed to determine the effectiveness of school-based social work worldwide.

  18. Evidence-based interventions for adolescents with disruptive behaviors in school-based settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Tarah M; Ebert, Jon S; Gracey, Kathy A; Chapman, Gabrielle L; Epstein, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Disruptive behaviors in the school setting can threaten the maintenance of optimal learning environments in schools. Challenging behaviors, such as defiance, hostility, and aggression, often define disruptive classroom behaviors. This article presents a clinical review of existing literature on interventions for adolescent disruptive behavior problems in school-based settings and in outpatient mental health settings and makes recommendations around working with adolescents with disruptive behaviors in school-based settings. Many types of interventions are effective; effective implementation is key to good results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic review and meta-analysis of school-based obesity interventions in mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng

    Full Text Available Numerous school-based interventions for childhood obesity have been emerging in mainland China in recent decades, but little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of school-based interventions for childhood obesity conducted in mainland China.A systematic search was undertaken in eight databases to identify both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials from January 1990 to December 2015 examining the effectiveness of school-based obesity interventions. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted assessing the impact of included interventions on (body mass index BMI. The quality of each included studies were assessed using Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. A P value <0.05 (two-sided was considered statistically significant.Of the seventy-six included studies, we found physical activity and health education were the two most common components of interventions. More treatment studies were effective compared with prevention studies (85.0% vs. 58.3%. Comprehensive interventions involving physical activity and health education appeared more effective than the physical activity only interventions in both obesity treatment and prevention studies. The meta-analyses showed comprehensive interventions involving physical activity and health education had larger effect on the change of BMI than physical activity only interventions (treatment studies: -1.80 kg/m2 (95% CI: -2.15,-1.44 vs. -0.91 kg/m2 (95% CI: -1.15,-0.67; prevention studies: -0.19 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.27, -0.11 vs. +0.05 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.04, +0.15.Comprehensive school-based interventions may assist in tackling the rising prevalence of childhood obesity in mainland China.

  20. Effects of School-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames.

  1. Coping successfully with dyslexia: an initial study of an inclusive school-based resilience programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Nola; Frydenberg, Erica; Steeg, Charlotte; Bond, Lyndal

    2013-05-01

    A dyslexia coping programme entitled Success and Dyslexia was implemented in two primary schools within a whole-class coping programme and whole-school dyslexia professional development context. One hundred and two year 6 students, 23 of whom had dyslexia, undertook surveys pretest, post-test and at 1-year follow-up. Effectiveness of the coping programme and maintenance of effects for the students after transition to secondary school were investigated. Inclusion of contrast group data in the follow-up year suggested significant positive changes at first and second follow-ups in locus of control and nonproductive coping may also be associated with increase in age. Most trends were in the expected direction, especially for students with dyslexia. At follow-up, students with dyslexia reported similar perceived control and adaptive coping to students without dyslexia rather than a decrease in these areas as is usually the case. A larger sample and an ongoing control group are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Incorporating Video Modeling into a School-Based Intervention for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Wilson, Kaitlyn P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Video modeling is an intervention strategy that has been shown to be effective in improving the social and communication skills of students with autism spectrum disorders, or ASDs. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline empirically supported, step-by-step instructions for the use of video modeling by school-based speech-language…

  3. Collaborative School-Based Obesity Interventions: Lessons Learned from 6 Southern Districts

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    Jain, Anjali; Langwith, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although studies have shown that school-based obesity interventions can be effective, little is known about how to translate and implement programs into real-world school settings. Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted in spring 2012 with 19 key informants who participated in a multifaceted childhood obesity intervention…

  4. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior

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    Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

  5. Body Talk: A School-based Group Intervention for Working with Disordered Eating Behaviors.

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    Daigneault, Susan Dahlgren

    2000-01-01

    Describes a school-based group intervention designed to address issues of body image, self-esteem, weight, and eating disturbances. This 10-session group provides female high school students with opportunities to explore their concerns about relationships, appearance, and what it means to be female. Provides descriptions of narrative techniques…

  6. School-Based Interventions for Overweight and Obesity in Minority School Children

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    Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L. Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric…

  7. School-Based Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Research Implications and Prospects

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    Vitiello, Benedetto; Sherrill, Joel

    2007-01-01

    In this issue of "School Psychology Review," various authors devoted their articles to school-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD has been one of the most extensively investigated mental conditions of childhood. Still, important questions regarding the extent of treatment effectiveness remain…

  8. School-based Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behaviour in Children: A Systematic Review

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    Elaine Murtagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolonged, uninterrupted periods of sedentary time may be associated with increased risk of Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality even if the minimum recommended levels of daily physical activity are achieved. It is reported that children spend approximately 80% of their day engaged in sedentary behaviours. Since children spend a large portion of their waking time at school, school-based interventions targeting excessive or interrupted periods of sedentary time have been investigated in a number of studies. However, results of the effectiveness of studies to-date have been inconsistent. Aim: To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviour on objectively measured sedentary time in children. Methods: Five electronic databases were searched to retrieve peer-reviewed studies published in English up to and including August 2015. Studies that reported objectively measured sedentary time before and after a school-based intervention to reduce sedentary time were included in the review.  Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration method. Results: Our search identified eleven papers reporting eight interventions. Studies focused on the physical environment, the curriculum, individual in-class activities, homework activities or a combination of these strategies. Three studies reported decreases in sedentary time following intervention. Study follow-up periods ranged from immediately post-intervention to 12 months. None of the studies were judged to have a low risk of bias. Conclusions: Multicomponent interventions which also include the use of standing desks may be an effective method for reducing children’s sedentary time in a school-based intervention. However, longer term trials are needed to determine the sustained effectiveness of such interventions on children’s sedentary time.

  9. School-based physical education programs: evidence-based physical activity interventions for youth in Latin America

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    Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M.; Soares,Jesus; Torres, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Legetic, Branka; Malta, Deborah C.; Matsudo, Victor; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Simoes, Eduardo J; Brownson, Ross C

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on results of the systematic review from the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Latin America project related to school-based physical education ( PE) programs in Latin America. the aims of the article are to describe five school-based PE programs from Latin America, discuss implications for effective school-based PE recommendations, propose approaches for implementing these interventions, and identify gaps in the research literature related to physical activi...

  10. Efficacy of a School-Based Primary Prevention Program for Coping with Exposure to Political Violence

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    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2008-01-01

    A paradigm conceptualizing resilience as factors moderating between political violence exposure and psychological distress administered in a 7-year research project yielded a profile of factors promoting Israeli children's coping in conflict conditions. Three factors--social support mobilization, self-efficacy, and meaning attribution--were…

  11. Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school-based intervention.

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    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. School-Based Educational Interventions Can Significantly Improve Health Outcomes in Children with Asthma.

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    Suwannakeeree, Pussayaban; Deerojanawong, Jitladda; Prapphal, Nuanchan

    2016-02-01

    Lack of asthma knowledge among the pediatric patients and their caregivers contribute to poor asthma control in children. There is no data from Thailand on the health outcomes of school-based educational interventions for asthmatic children. To assess the effectiveness of school-based asthma educational interventions on health outcomes, asthma control, and management in asthmatic children. Forty-seven asthmatic students (6-15 years old), 14 caregivers, and five teachers from the Homkred School participated in the study. Asthma knowledge, workshops on pMDI (pressurized metered dose inhaler) techniques, use of asthma diaries, and self-management plans were provided Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess the asthma knowledge of the asthmatic students, their caregivers, and teachers. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were used to assess the health outcomes. The controls of asthma and self-management behaviors were assessed at three and six months post-intervention. There were significant improvements of asthma knowledge in all groups (p management behaviors in the asthmatic children improved. The teachers' management of asthmatic attacks during the classes also improved. As a result of this, there were fewer emergency room (ER) visits. School-based educational interventions can significantly improve asthma outcomes in children with asthma. Therefore, the authors highly recommend the use of this intervention.

  13. School-based mindfulness intervention for stress reduction in adolescents: Design and methodology of an open-label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial

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    Jeanette M. Johnstone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are in a high-risk period developmentally, in terms of susceptibility to stress. A mindfulness intervention represents a potentially useful strategy for developing cognitive and emotion regulation skills associated with successful stress coping. Mindfulness strategies have been used successfully for emotional coping in adults, but are not as well studied in youth. This article details a novel proposal for the design of an 8-week randomized study to evaluate a high school-based mindfulness curriculum delivered as part of a two semester health class. A wellness education intervention is proposed as an active control, along with a waitlist control condition. All students enrolled in a sophomore (10th grade health class at a private suburban high school will be invited to participate (n = 300. Pre-test assessments will be obtained by youth report, parent ratings, and on-site behavioral testing. The assessments will evaluate baseline stress, mood, emotional coping, controlled attention, and working memory. Participants, divided into 13 classrooms, will be randomized into one of three conditions, by classroom: A mindfulness intervention, an active control (wellness education, and a passive control (waitlist. Waitlisted participants will receive one of the interventions in the following term. Intervention groups will meet weekly for 8 weeks during regularly scheduled health classes. Immediate post-tests will be conducted, followed by a 60-day post-test. It is hypothesized that the mindfulness intervention will outperform the other conditions with regard to the adolescents' mood, attention and response to stress.

  14. Evaluation of a school-based HIV prevention intervention among Yemeni adolescents

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    Crutzen Rik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes an evaluation of a school-based peer education intervention for HIV prevention among students in twenty seven high schools in Aden, Yemen. The intervention was developed after a survey among the same population in 2005, which revealed a high level of stigma towards people living with HIV (PLWH and a low level of HIV knowledge. Methods In a quasi-experimental design students who received the peer education intervention (78.6% were compared with students who did not receive the intervention (21.4%. No systematic procedure was applied in selecting students for the intervention condition. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of 2510 students from all 27 high-schools in Aden governorate. To increase internal validity, students were also compared with a cohort control sample surveyed in 2005, which was a random sample of 2274 students from the same schools. Results Sixty eight percent of students targeted by peer education had good knowledge scores, compared with 43.3% of students not targeted by peer education (χ2 = (df = 1 = 111.15, p Conclusion The school-based peer education intervention has succeeded in improving levels of knowledge on modes of transmission and prevention, and in decreasing levels of stigma and discrimination in a culturally conservative setting.

  15. School-Based Gay-Affirmative Interventions: First Amendment and Ethical Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Public health professionals and educators have developed effective school-based interventions to reduce prejudice and stigma against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. Such interventions can reduce the harm caused to sexual minority youths by stigma and can improve health outcomes. However, critics have warned that these interventions attempt to control speech and religious beliefs protected by the First Amendment. We review this critique and assess the legal and ethical arguments. We conclude that, both legally and ethically, there is great leeway for schools to implement LGBT-affirmative interventions. Still, we recommend that interventionists attend critics’ concerns using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Using CBPR approaches, interventionists can achieve better community acceptance and cooperation and more successful interventions. PMID:23948002

  16. Adolescent Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Uptake in a School-Based Influenza Vaccination Intervention: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…

  17. Assessing Fidelity of Implementation (FOI) for School-Based Mindfulness and Yoga Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Greenberg, Mark T; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    As school-based mindfulness and yoga programs gain popularity, the systematic study of fidelity of program implementation ( FOI ) is critical to provide a more robust understanding of the core components of mindfulness and yoga interventions, their potential to improve specified teacher and student outcomes, and our ability to implement these programs consistently and effectively. This paper reviews the current state of the science with respect to inclusion and reporting of FOI in peer-reviewed studies examining the effects of school-based mindfulness and/or yoga programs targeting students and/or teachers implemented in grades kindergarten through twelve (K-12) in North America. Electronic searches in PsychInfo and Web of Science from their inception through May 2014, in addition to hand searches of relevant review articles, identified 312 publications, 48 of which met inclusion criteria. Findings indicated a relative paucity of rigorous FOI. Fewer than 10% of studies outlined potential core program components or referenced a formal theory of action, and fewer than 20% assessed any aspect of FOI beyond participant dosage. The emerging nature of the evidence base provides a critical window of opportunity to grapple with key issues relevant to FOI of mindfulness-based and yoga programs, including identifying essential elements of these programs that should be faithfully implemented and how we might develop rigorous measures to accurately capture them. Consideration of these questions and suggested next steps are intended to help advance the emerging field of school-based mindfulness and yoga interventions.

  18. Preliminary assessment of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention among rural elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; King, Kristi M; Speck, Barbara J; Kim, Seongho; Wu, Dongfeng

    2014-04-01

    Childhood obesity has become a national public health crisis in America. Physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviors may contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic. School-based healthy lifestyle interventions play a promising role in preventing and controlling childhood obesity. A comprehensive school-based healthy lifestyle intervention was implemented in 4 rural elementary schools in Kentucky. The intervention included 4 goals: improving physical education, health education, family/community involvement, and school wellness policies. Children's physical activity was assessed by pedometer, and nutrition was assessed by a previous day recall survey in January (baseline), February (t1), March (t2), April (t3), and May (t4) of 2011. The intervention had significant effects on increasing the percentages of children meeting physical activity (1% vs 5%, p school, grade, and age of the children. There was an increasing linear trend of physical activity and an increasing quadratic trend of nutrition over time among children. The intervention had beneficial effects in improving healthy behaviors among children. Further studies are needed to assess its long-term effects and cost-effectiveness. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  19. The health Oriented pedagogical project (HOPP - a controlled longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention program

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    Per Morten Fredriksen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD’s is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. Methods The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545 with two control schools (n = 752; all aged 6–11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c. In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL, mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. Discussion HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. Trial registration The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 as of June 20th – 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.

  20. A quasi-experimental evaluation of a school-based intervention for children experiencing family disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Eileen Mazur; Chung-Canine, Unju; Broussard, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that children are negatively impacted by family separation and divorce (Amato, 2001 ; Dreman & Shemi, 2004 ; Kelly, 2000 ) there is a paucity of information regarding evidence-based social work practice with children coping with family disruption. In order to address this gap, the authors describe the process and outcomes of a quasi-experimental evaluation (N = 79) designed to reduce the behavioral, emotional, and academic problems that children often face when experiencing divorce or parental separation. Results of data analysis (paired t-tests, independent t-tests, and analysis of variance) suggest (p < .05) that the intervention is effective in helping children cope with family disruption.

  1. Effects of the X:IT smoking intervention: a school-based cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikker; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Due, Pernille

    2015-12-01

    Uptake of smoking in adolescence is still of major public health concern. Evaluations of school-based programmes for smoking prevention show mixed results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of X:IT, a multi-component school-based programme to prevent adolescent smoking. Data from a Danish cluster randomized trial included 4041 year-7 students (mean age: 12.5) from 51 intervention and 43 control schools. Outcome measure 'current smoking' was dichotomized into smoking daily, weekly, monthly or more seldom vs do not smoke. Analyses were adjusted for baseline covariates: sex, family socioeconomic position (SEP), best friend's smoking and parental smoking. We performed multilevel, logistic regression analyses of available cases and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses, replacing missing outcome values by multiple imputation. At baseline, 4.7% and 6.8% of the students at the intervention and the control schools smoked, respectively. After 1 year of the intervention, the prevalence was 7.9% and 10.7%, respectively. At follow-up, 553 students (13.7%) did not answer the question on smoking. Available case analyses: crude odds ratios (OR) for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.65 (0.48-0.88) and adjusted: 0.70 (0.47-1.04). ITT analyses: crude OR for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.67 (0.50-0.89) and adjusted: 0.61 (0.45-0.82). Students at intervention schools had a lower risk of smoking after a year of intervention in year 7. This multi-component intervention involving educational, parental and context-related intervention components seems to be efficient in lowering or postponing smoking uptake in Danish adolescents. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. School-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in Sousse, Tunisia

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    Harrabi Imed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated actions against selected risk factors (i.e. smoking, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet can lead to the reduction of major chronic diseases. Objective: To implement and evaluate a school-based intervention program to prevent cardiovascular risk factors among children. Materials and Methods: Design: Pre- test post-test quasi experimental design with a control group. Setting: Four secondary schools in Sousse, Tunisia. Intervention: The overall intervention program lasted for a school year and incorporated educative actions concerning tobacco use, physical activity, and healthy diet. Results: Globally, knowledge, behaviors, and intentions concerning smoking improved in both groups between baseline and the end of the study, particularly in the intervention group. Nutrition knowledge, behaviors, and intentions improved in both groups between baseline and final stage, particularly in the intervention group. At the final stage, there was an increase in the proportion of children walking to and from school in the intervention group. There was also an increase in the percentage of children with intention of practicing sport in the future particularly in the intervention group. There were no significant differences in BMI after the intervention neither in intervention nor in control groups. At the end of the study, the incidence of overweight and obesity was similar to that at baseline. Conclusions: This pilot study has demonstrated the potential of school as a suitable setting for the promotion of healthy lifestyles in children. The study resulted in substantial improvements concerning knowledge, behaviors, and intentions in the intervention group.

  3. School-Based Interventions Going Beyond Health Education to Promote Adolescent Health: Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, Nichola; Jamal, Farah; Viner, Russell M; Dickson, Kelly; Patton, George; Bonell, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Health education in school classrooms can be effective in promoting sexual health and preventing violence and substance use but effects are patchy and often short term. Classroom education is also challenging because of schools' increasing focus on academic-performance metrics. Other school-based approaches are possible, such as healthy school policies, improving how schools respond to bullying, and parent outreach, which go beyond health education to address broader health determinants. Existing systematic reviews include such interventions but often alongside traditional health education. There is scope for a systematic review of reviews to assess and synthesize evidence across existing reviews to develop an overview of the potential of alternative school-based approaches. We searched 12 databases to identify reviews published after 1980. Data were reviewed by two researchers. Quality was assessed using a modified Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews checklist and results were synthesized narratively. We screened 7,544 unique references and included 22 reviews. Our syntheses suggest that multicomponent school-based interventions, for example, including school policy changes, parent involvement, and work with local communities, are effective for promoting sexual health and preventing bullying and smoking. There is less evidence that such intervention can reduce alcohol and drug use. Economic incentives to keep girls in school can reduce teenage pregnancies. School clinics can promote smoking cessation. There is little evidence that, on their own, sexual-health clinics, antismoking policies, and various approaches targeting at-risk students are effective. There is good evidence that various whole-school health interventions are effective in preventing teenage pregnancy, smoking, and bullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing Partnerships in the Provision of Youth Mental Health Services and Clinical Education: A School-Based Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Targeting Anxiety Symptoms in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Groth, Trisha A; Sanders, Mary; O'Brien, Rosanne; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical scientists are calling for strong partnerships in the provision of evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems in real-world contexts. In the present study, we describe the implementation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to address grade 5 children's anxiety symptoms. The CBI arose from a long-standing partnership between University and Education Department stakeholders. The partnership integrates school-based, evidence-informed treatment delivery with clinical education, and also supports a school-based psychology clinic to provide assessment and treatment services to children attending schools within the catchment area and clinical training for university graduate students. Children in the active condition (N=74) completed the CBI during regular class time, while children in the control condition (N=77) received the standard classroom curriculum. Children's anxiety and depressive symptoms, threat interpretation biases (perceived danger and coping ability), and perceptions of their social skills were assessed before and after condition. Children in the active condition reported significant improvements in self-reported anxiety symptoms, and perceptions of their social skills and coping ability, whereas no significant differences were observed for children in the control condition from pre- to post-assessment. For a subset of children assessed 12 months after the CBI (n=76), symptom improvement remained stable over time and estimates of danger and coping ability showed even greater improvement. Results demonstrate the value of strong stakeholder partnerships in innovative youth mental health services, positive child outcomes, and clinical education. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S

    2014-01-01

    Given that lifestyleshave similar determinants and that school-based interventions are usually targeted at all the risks that affect adolescents, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics and effects of school-based interventions acting on different behavioral domains of adolescent health promotion. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers who searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for experimental or observational studies with at least two measures of results published from 2007 to 2011, given that the research information available doubles every 5 years. Methodological quality was assessed with a standardized tool. Information was extracted from 35 studies aiming to prevent risk behaviors and promote healthy nutrition, physical activity, and mental and holistic health. Activities were based on theoretical models and were classified into interactive lessons, peer mediation, environmental changes, parents' and community activities, and tailored messages by computer-assisted training or other resources, usually including multiple components. In some cases, we identified some moderate to large, short- and long-term effects on behavioral and intermediate variable. This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of regular physical activity on exercise tolerance: a school-based intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi; Esmat Davoudi-Monfared; Batool Tayefi; Zahra Hajihashemi; Elaheh Sajjadi

    2013-01-01

    Please cite this article as: Sohrabi MR, Davoudi-Monfared E, Tayefi B, Hajihashemi Z, Sajjadi E. The effect of regular physical activity on exercise tolerance: a school-based intervention. Novel Biomed 2013;1(2):34-38.Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to assess the effects of daily physical activity on exercise tolerance ability using the six minute walk test in healthy female students.Methods: The participants in this field study were 252 healthy girls, 9-12 years old, studying ...

  7. Childhood obesity: prevention and strategies of intervention. A systematic review of school-based interventions in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrotti, A; Penta, L; Zenzeri, L; Agostinelli, S; De Feo, P

    2014-12-01

    Two crucial aspects of obesity prevention are early childhood and school-based interventions. The main purpose of this systematic review wass to evaluate the efficacy and the feasibility of school-based interventions performed in primary schools. All pertinent data from the literature have been critically examined and reviewed to evaluate the efficacy and the feasibility of different strategies of interventions. In particular, many studies have been performed in school-aged children. Data from literature suggest that educational interventions toward healthy eating habits and physical activity at school could be a key strategy in the prevention of obesity, because it has been shown that is difficult to treat obesity in adults through changes in the lifestyle rather than during childhood. Recent advances in technology, especially web-based interventions, have been used to provide a specific content addressing healthy lifestyle with regard diet and exercise. These data suggest the opportunity to use web-interactive programs as a new challenging technique of communication in order to promote healthy behaviors. The early detection and treatment of obesity in children may be the best approach to prevent future increases in morbidity, as well as healthcare costs that will likely occur as overweight and obese children age.

  8. Successful school-based intervention for inner-city children with persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark E; Freas, Michelle R; Wallace, Andrea S; Kempe, Allison; Gelfand, Erwin W; Liu, Andrew H

    2004-06-01

    Because children attend school daily, school-based interventions for children with persistent asthma could provide effective disease management for inner-city asthmatic children. The Kunsberg School in Denver, Colorado, enrolls children with chronic diseases, including asthma, into a daily program of school-based disease management. This study sought to determine the impact of the Kunsberg program on asthma utilization. Children attending Kunsberg (n=18) who received primary care at Denver Health were compared with a group of matched control children who also received primary care at Denver Health, but did not attend Kunsberg (n=36). Asthma-related utilization for an average of 2.9 years before and after Kunsberg enrollment was assessed. The 18 Kunsberg and 36 control subjects were mostly minority children in low-income families, without significant demographic differences between groups. Compared with controls, the Kunsberg cohort experienced fewer hospitalizations (0.5 vs. 0.9 hospitalizations/subject/ year, p=0.05), fewer emergency department (ED) visits (1.4 vs. 2.8 ED visits/ subject/year, p=0.04), and fewer follow-up visits for asthma (3.7 vs. 5.0 visits/subject/ year, p=0.01) in the time period (mean 2.9 years; range 1-6 years) following the intervention. Hospital- and clinic-based asthma utilization costs decreased 80% following enrollment in the school (8122 dollars/year to 1588 dollars/year per child), compared to a 19% decrease in the control group. Among the Kunsberg children with hospitalizations prior to school enrollment (n=8), hospital days decreased from 3.5 days to 0.1 days annually (pmanagement. Directly observed controller therapy at school can be an important component of a school-based program for children with chronic conditions.

  9. Coping effectively with heart failure (COPE-HF): design and rationale of a telephone-based coping skills intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Andrew; O'Connor, Christopher M; Routledge, Faye S; Hinderliter, Alan L; Watkins, Lana L; Babyak, Michael A; Koch, Gary G; Adams, Kirkwood F; Dupree, Carla Sueta; Chang, Patricia P; Hoffman, Benson M; Johnson, Julie; Bowers, Margaret; Johnson, Kristy S; Blumenthal, James A

    2011-03-01

    Coping Effectively with Heart Failure (COPE-HF) is an ongoing randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health to evaluate if a coping skills training (CST) intervention will result in improved health status and quality of life as well as reduced mortality and hospitalizations compared with a heart failure education (HFE) intervention. Two hundred heart failure (HF) patients recruited from the Duke University Medical Center and the University of North Carolina Hospital system will be randomized to a CST intervention (16 weekly 30-minute telephone counseling sessions including motivational interviewing and individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy) or to an HFE intervention (16 weekly 30-minute telephone sessions including education and symptom monitoring). Primary outcomes will include postintervention effects on HF biomarkers (B-type natriuretic peptide, ejection fraction) and quality of life, as well as long-term clinical outcomes (hospitalizations and death). Secondary analyses will include an evaluation of treatment effects across subpopulations, and potential mechanisms by which CST may improve clinical outcomes. COPE-HF is a proof-of-concept study that should provide important insights into the health benefits of a CST intervention designed to enhance HF self-management, improve health behaviors, and reduce psychologic distress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Child’s Voice in Determining Program Acceptability for a School-Based Mindfulness Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan McCabe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available School-based mindfulness interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing mental health symptoms. However, comparatively little research has investigated the acceptability of these programs from the perspective of the children. Program acceptability underpins engagement, and more engaging programs are also more efficacious (Cowan & Sheridan, 2003; Mautone et al., 2009 yet there is little literature which has considered the acceptability of school-based mindfulness programs. To address this gap, semi-structured interviews were conducted with upper primary aged children (N = 30 who had participated in a six week mindfulness program in four Australian primary schools. Thematic analysis of interviews revealed children found the program to be acceptable. Children reported that they enjoyed doing the mindfulness program, would recommend it to others, and learned about relaxing as well as felt relaxed while doing the program. Children also highlighted the use of culturally appropriate teaching materials and possible stigmatisation as threats to the acceptability of the program. The results of the study support the acceptability of mindfulness programs in school settings, grounded in the unique perspective of the child.

  11. Gender’s Effect on a School-Based Intervention in the Prepubertal Growth Spurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Children aged 10-11 years pass through a dynamic developmental period marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, all of which are sexually dimorphic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of gender on a school-based intervention in the prepubertal growth spurt. One hundred twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls, fifth and sixth grade students from an urban public elementary school in Portugal (10.8 ± 0.4 years, were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: a strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls, and an endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls; and a control group (18 boys, 21 girls; no training program. Training program for the two experimental groups was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. Compared with the values at the beginning of the protocol, both strength and endurance training programs produced significant improvements (p 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.16, Power= 0.29 and aerobic (p> 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.05, Power= 0.28 capacity. The results of the present study should be taken into consideration in order to optimize strength training school-based programs.

  12. Effect of a School-Based Test Anxiety Intervention in Ethnic Minority Youth Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Costa, Natalie M.; Marks, Allison B.; Romano, Dawn M.; Verrett, Shannon L.; Brown, Darlene M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a school-based test anxiety intervention among ethnic minority youth. The study used a prospective intervention design with a sample of (N = 94) ninth graders from New Orleans exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath. Thirty youth with elevated test anxiety completed a primarily behavioral (e.g., relaxation…

  13. The Effect of Functional Behavior Assessment on School-Based Interventions: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Teryn P.; Drevon, Daniel; Hixson, Michael; Wyse, Robert; Corcoran, Samantha; Fursa, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavior reduction strategies is likely affected by any number of ancillary variables. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative review of school-based behavior reduction interventions and some ancillary variables that may modulate the effectiveness of those interventions. Tau-U, an effect size statistic for…

  14. Evidence, theory and context--using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer J; Logan, Stuart; Greaves, Colin J; Wyatt, Katrina M

    2011-07-13

    Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives--establish motivation, take action and stay motivated--in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity behaviours. Although the process was time

  15. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity

  16. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greaves Colin J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP, a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM. The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their

  17. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention regarding screen time in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Menêses Hardman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p25 Few interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in youth have been successful and have had only subtle effects. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based intervention to promote physical activity and healthy eating habits on screen time indicators in students. This was a randomized controlled intervention study of  high school students (15–24 years of age who attended evening classes in the public schools of 2 Brazilian capital cities, Florianópolis and Recife. Data collection was performed via a questionnaire at the beginning (March and end (December of the 2006 school year. Students who reported spending 2 or more hours per day watching television or playing videogames/using the computer on weekdays or weekend days were considered exposed to screen time. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Among the 2,155 students included in the baseline sample, 989 were evaluated during the post-intervention period. The intervention group showed significantly reduced exposure to videogame/computer time on weekend days compared with the control group (29.8% vs. 35.6%; p=0.004. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the results showed that the intervention had no significant effect on reducing the exposure to screen time in the surveyed students. The intervention model adopted in the Saúde na Boa project was not effective in reducing the screen time exposure of high school students.

  18. Coping and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with a Chronic Medical Condition: A Search for Intervention Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were…

  19. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of four school-based sexual violence interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Gibbs, Deborah; Hawkins, Stephanie R; Hart, Laurie; Ball, Barbara; Irvin, Neil; Littler, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study extends past research by examining factors associated with changes in attitudes, knowledge, and intended behaviors related to sexual assault. This study included 1,182 participants from four unique multiple-session school-based sexual violence interventions. Implementation and participant factors examined include single- versus mixed-gender groups, group setting versus classroom lecture setting, and participant gender. Participants completed self-administered, paper-and-pencil pre- and postsurveys. A significant desired overall effect was found on participants' reports of positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior regarding sexual harassment and personal boundaries and positive dating relationship norms (from pretest to posttest). There were steeper increases over time in both measures, with larger mixed-gender/single-gender differences among boys than among girls. Differences in the impact of participating in mixed- versus single-gender groups depended on classroom versus small group settings. The implications of these findings are discussed for sexual assault prevention programs.

  20. The effect of regular physical activity on exercise tolerance: a school-based intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Sohrabi MR, Davoudi-Monfared E, Tayefi B, Hajihashemi Z, Sajjadi E. The effect of regular physical activity on exercise tolerance: a school-based intervention. Novel Biomed 2013;1(2:34-38.Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to assess the effects of daily physical activity on exercise tolerance ability using the six minute walk test in healthy female students.Methods: The participants in this field study were 252 healthy girls, 9-12 years old, studying in an elementary school in Tehran from March to June 2011. A three months daily physical activity protocol, with 15 minutes exercise per day, was designed as a curricular-based exercise intervention program. The six minute walk test was used as a tool to measure exercise tolerance ability before and after the intervention. Paired t-test, ANOVA and correlation tests were used when appropriate.Results: The participants, with mean age of 10.6 (SD = 1.1, formed different body mass index groups known as underweight, normal, at risk and overweight with 8.3, 60.7, 18.7, and 12.3% respectively. The mean of the distances moved along in a six minute walk test, before and after the intervention, increased from 833.4 meter to 923.3 meter , indicating 10% increase and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001. However, analysis of mean differences of the walked distances, before and after the intervention, showed no statistically significant difference for the body mass index groups (P> 0.05.Conclusion: A 15-minutes daily physical activity could enhance the exercise tolerance of school-age girls; the activity, as an easy and inexpensive form of intervention, is recommended to students.

  1. Effectiveness of Motivational Incentives for Adolescent Marijuana Users in a School-Based Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David G; Felleman, Benjamin I; Arger, Christopher A

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether adolescents receiving Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention have different outcomes compared to those receiving Motivational Incentives (Motivational Interviewing combined with Contingency Management; MI+CM). A total of 136 adolescents (from a parent study of 220 adolescents) with problematic substance use were recruited from 8 high schools in Washington State, where they completed either 8-weeks of MI or MI+CM. Frequency of marijuana use was assessed at baseline, at the end-of-treatment, and at 16-week follow-up. A balanced and matched sample was created using propensity scores, then analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Multilevel regression analyses revealed that adolescents who received MI+CM exhibited a greater reduction in use across time (pmarijuana use at the end-of-treatment (t1, 124=2.26, pattend additional treatment for substance use (χ2 1, 124=4.12 pattendance were not found. Use of coping strategies at the end-of-treatment had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between the intervention condition and marijuana use at the end-of-treatment (F3, 121=10.20, R2=.20, pmarijuana treatment decreases the end-of-treatment frequency of marijuana use and related consequences while increasing the use of coping strategies and the pursuit of additional treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining school-based bullying interventions using multilevel discrete time hazard modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Stephanie L; Wagaman, M Alex; Geiger, Jennifer Mullins; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica; Hedberg, E C

    2012-10-01

    Although schools have been trying to address bullying by utilizing different approaches that stop or reduce the incidence of bullying, little remains known about what specific intervention strategies are most successful in reducing bullying in the school setting. Using the social-ecological framework, this paper examines school-based disciplinary interventions often used to deliver consequences to deter the reoccurrence of bullying and aggressive behaviors among school-aged children. Data for this study are drawn from the School-Wide Information System (SWIS) with the final analytic sample consisting of 1,221 students in grades K - 12 who received an office disciplinary referral for bullying during the first semester. Using Kaplan-Meier Failure Functions and Multi-level discrete time hazard models, determinants of the probability of a student receiving a second referral over time were examined. Of the seven interventions tested, only Parent-Teacher Conference (AOR = 0.65, p bullying and aggressive behaviors. By using a social-ecological framework, schools can develop strategies that deter the reoccurrence of bullying by identifying key factors that enhance a sense of connection between the students' mesosystems as well as utilizing disciplinary strategies that take into consideration student's microsystem roles.

  3. Examining School-Based Bullying Interventions Using Multilevel Discrete Time Hazard Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaman, M. Alex; Geiger, Jennifer Mullins; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica; Hedberg, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Although schools have been trying to address bulling by utilizing different approaches that stop or reduce the incidence of bullying, little remains known about what specific intervention strategies are most successful in reducing bullying in the school setting. Using the social-ecological framework, this paper examines school-based disciplinary interventions often used to deliver consequences to deter the reoccurrence of bullying and aggressive behaviors among school-aged children. Data for this study are drawn from the School-Wide Information System (SWIS) with the final analytic sample consisting of 1,221 students in grades K – 12 who received an office disciplinary referral for bullying during the first semester. Using Kaplan-Meier Failure Functions and Multi-level discrete time hazard models, determinants of the probability of a student receiving a second referral over time were examined. Of the seven interventions tested, only Parent-Teacher Conference (AOR=0.65, pbullying and aggressive behaviors. By using a social-ecological framework, schools can develop strategies that deter the reoccurrence of bullying by identifying key factors that enhance a sense of connection between the students’ mesosystems as well as utilizing disciplinary strategies that take into consideration student’s microsystem roles. PMID:22878779

  4. EFFECTS OF A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION ON BMI AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Graf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children's Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS and control schools (CS either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05. The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001. For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020. All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p < 0.001, adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified

  5. Systematic review of universal school-based resilience interventions targeting adolescent tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug use: review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Wolfenden, Luke; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use contribute significantly to global rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite evidence suggesting interventions designed to increase adolescent resilience may represent a means of reducing adolescent substance use, and schools providing a key opportunity to implement such interventions, existing systematic reviews assessing the effectiveness of school-based interventions targeting adolescent substance use have not examined this potential. Meth...

  6. School-based physical education programs: evidence-based physical activity interventions for youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Soares, Jesus; Torres, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Legetic, Branka; Malta, Deborah C; Matsudo, Victor; Ramos, Luiz R; Simoes, Eduardo J; Brownson, Ross C

    2010-06-01

    This article focuses on results of the systematic review from the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Latin America project related to school-based physical education (PE) programs in Latin America. The aims of the article are to describe five school-based PE programs from Latin America, discuss implications for effective school-based PE recommendations, propose approaches for implementing these interventions, and identify gaps in the research literature related to physical activity promotion in Latin American youth. Following the US Community Guide systematic review process, five school-based PE intervention studies with sufficient quality of design, execution and detail of intervention and outcomes were selected for full abstraction. One study was conducted in Brazil, two studies were conducted in Chile and two studies were conducted on the US/Mexico border. While studies presented assorted outcomes, methods and duration of interventions, there were consistent positive increases in physical activity levels for all outcomes measured during PE classes, endurance and active transportation to school in all three randomized studies. Except for one cohort from one study, the non-randomized studies showed positive intervention effects for moderate and vigorous physical activity levels during PE classes. The core elements of these five interventions included capacity building and staff training (PE specialists and/or classroom teachers); changes in the PE curricula; provision of equipment and materials; and adjustment of the interventions to specific target populations. In order to translate the strong evidence for school-based PE into practice, systematic attention to policy and implementation issues is required.

  7. School-Based Crisis Intervention: Its Effectiveness and Role in Broader Crisis Intervention Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…

  8. Evaluation of a school-based intervention programme for South African children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Cornelius J; Wild, Lauren G

    2013-01-01

    Parental divorce affects approximately 30 000 South African children annually. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Children of Divorce Intervention Programme (CODIP) at two South African schools. CODIP is a preventively oriented group programme which was developed to foster resilience by helping children cope more effectively with possible academic, behavioural, and emotional problems brought about by their parents' divorce. Twenty-five 10- to 14-year-old boys from two primary schools were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups and 1 delayed intervention control group. The experimental groups attended 12 one-hour weekly sessions; the control group received no intervention until after the study was completed. Children's understanding of divorce related events and social, emotional and behavioural adjustment was assessed one week before the intervention and three months thereafter using a battery of self-rated, teacher-rated and parent-rated questionnaires. One-way ANOVAs indicated no statistically significant decline in children's self-reported problematic beliefs about divorce or total difficulties. However, teachers' and parents' ratings indicated that compared to the control group, the combined experimental groups showed significant improvement in their general behavioural, emotional and social adjustment after programme participation. The results suggest that South African children who experience parental divorce may benefit from participation in CODIP.

  9. Do school-based physical activity interventions increase or reduce inequalities in health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Ploeg, Kerry A; Maximova, Katerina; McGavock, Jonathan; Davis, Wendy; Veugelers, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of school-based health promotion on physical activity inequalities among children from low-income areas. This study compared the two-year change in physical activity among 10-11 year-old children attending schools with and without health promotion programs by activity level, body weight status, and socioeconomic backgrounds to assess whether health promotion programs reduce or exacerbate health inequalities. This was a quasi-experimental trial of a Comprehensive School Health (CSH) program implemented in schools located in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. In the spring of 2009 and 2011, pedometer (7 full days) and demographic data were collected from cross-sectional samples of grade five children from 10 intervention and 20 comparison schools. Socioeconomic status was determined from parent self-report. Low-active, active, and high-active children were defined according to step-count tertiles. Multilevel linear regression methods adjusted for potential confounders were used to assess the relative inequity in physical activity and were compared between groups and over-time. In 2009, a greater proportion of students in the intervention schools were overweight (38% vs. 31% p = 0.03) and were less active (10,827 vs. 12,265 steps/day p schools reduced from -15.5% to 0% among low-active students, from -13.4% to 0% among active students, and from -15.1% to -2.7% among high-active students. The relative difference between intervention and comparison schools reduced from -11.1% to -1.6% among normal weight students, from -16.8% to -1.4% among overweight students, and was balanced across socioeconomic subgroups. These findings demonstrate that CSH programs implemented in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods reduced inequalities in physical activity. Investments in school-based health promotion are a viable, promising, and important approach to improve physical activity

  10. School-based HPV immunization of young adolescents: effects of two brief health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Vaughn I; Auslander, Beth A; Cox, Dena S; Rosenthal, Susan L; Rupp, Richard E; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent immunization rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) are low and interventions within school-based health centers (SBHCs) may increase HPV uptake and series completion. We examined the effect of a parent health message intervention on HPV vaccination intent, first dose uptake and series completion among adolescents who received care at SBHCs. Via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI), 445 parents of young adolescents were randomly assigned to 2 two-level interventions using a 2 × 2 design (rhetorical question (RQ) or no-RQ and one-sided or two-sided message). The RQ intervention involved asking the parent a question they were likely to endorse (e.g., "Do you want to protect your daughter from cervical cancer?") with the expectation that they would then behave in a manner consistent with their endorsement (i.e., agree to vaccinate). For the one-sided message, parents were given information that emphasized the safety and effectiveness of HPV vaccine, whereas the two-sided message acknowledged that some parents might have concerns about the vaccine, followed by reassurance regarding the safety and effectiveness. At CATI conclusion, parents indicated intentions to have their adolescents vaccinated. Parents who endorsed any intent were sent a consent form to return and all adolescents with signed returned consents were vaccinated at SBHCs. Medical records were reviewed for uptake/completion. Parents were 87% female; adolescents were 66% male and racially/ethnically diverse. 42.5% of parents indicated some intention to immunize, 51.4% were unsure, and 6.1% were not interested. 34% (n = 151) of adolescents received their first dose with series completion rates of 67% (n = 101). The RQ component of the intervention increased intention to vaccinate (RR = 1.45; 95%CI 1.16,1.81), but not first dose uptake or series completion. The 1-sided and 2-sided messages had no effect. This brief, RQ health intervention enhanced intent, but did not impact vaccination

  11. Enhancing treatment gains in a school-based intervention for children of divorce through skill training, parental involvement, and transfer procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, A L; Mahler, J

    1994-02-01

    The school-based Children's Support Group procedure teaches skills to cope with divorce-related events and provides strategies for mastering disrupted developmental tasks. Ss were 103 3rd-through 5th-grade children of separated or divorced parents who were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: support; support and skill building; support, skill building, transfer, and parent training procedures; or no-treatment control. Twenty-six children from intact homes served as nonstressed controls. The two skill-building conditions yielded durable improvements in adjustive behaviors in the home. Transfer components yielded additional improvements in affect, but the absence of substantial increments in benefits suggests the need for a closer look at the format and expectations of the transfer vehicle. The benefits of the support-alone condition were experienced most by children who entered the intervention with significant problems, with the greatest reductions in clinical symptomatology at follow-up being found in this group.

  12. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi: a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I.H.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Ndayisaba, A.; Ntamatumba, P.; Sipsma, H.; Smallegange, E.S.; Macy, R.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving

  13. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi : A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S.; Macy, Robert D.; de Jong, Joop T V M; Komproe, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/142349321

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving

  14. The Effects of School-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Vilardo, Brigid

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis evaluating the effects of school-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted by examining 60 outcome studies between 1996 and 2010 that yielded 85 effect sizes. Separate analyses were performed for studies employing between-subjects, within- subjects, and single-subject experimental…

  15. School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence: A Pilot of a Parent Intervention Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Freres, Derek R.; Lascher, Marisa; Litzinger, Samantha; Shatte, Andrew; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that school-based cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent depressive symptoms in youth. This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program for Children and Adolescents (the PRP-CA), when combined with a parent intervention…

  16. Exploring subgroup effects by socioeconomic position of three effective school-based dietary interventions: the European TEENAGE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lien, N.; Haerens, L.; te Velde, S.J.; Mercken, L.; Klepp, K.I.; Moore, L.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Faggiano, F.; Lenthe, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore subgroup effects by high and low socioeconomic position (SEP) of three previously conducted, effective European interventions. Methods: Reanalyses stratified by SEP were conducted by the research groups of each study. All studies were school-based:

  17. A School-Based Intervention Associated with Improvements in Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles in Young People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallén, Eva Flygare; Müllersdorf, Maria; Christensson, Kyllike; Marcus, Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates a multifactorial school-based intervention with the aim of decreasing cardiometabolic risk factors by means of a healthy lifestyle, primarily with daily physical activity and healthy food during school hours, at an upper secondary school for students with intellectual disabilities. The outcome is measured in terms of…

  18. How Family Socioeconomic Status, Peer Behaviors, and School-Based Intervention on Healthy Habits Influence Adolescent Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Maldonado, Concepción; Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Psychologists in schools can play an important role in developing policies and programs to promote healthy eating habits. This study analyses the contributions of family socioeconomic status, peer influence (schoolmates' food consumption), and school-based nutrition interventions to explain adolescent eating behaviors. Data were obtained from the…

  19. Computer-Related Posture and Discomfort in Primary School Children: The Effects of a School-Based Ergonomic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Sara; Earle, Deirdre; Galvin, Rose

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a school-based ergonomic intervention on childrens' posture and discomfort while using computers using a pre/post test study design. The sample comprised 23 children age 9 and 10 years. Posture was assessed with Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and a workstation assessment was completed using a Visual…

  20. Increasing Elementary School Based Interventions for Children of Divorce by Utilizing Faculty and Parent Workshops and Developmental Student Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, John Paul

    The goal of this practicum was to increase school-based interventions for children of divorce in an elementary school. The school psychologist implemented two faculty workshops with 13 faculty members attending the first and 7 attending the second workshop, and 6-week developmental groups for grades one and two, three and four, and five and six,…

  1. Development of a Measurement for Transformational and Transactional Leadership in Schools Taking on a School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterkiil, Constance; Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a measure for transformational and transactional leadership that may be used as part of a more comprehensive instrument to measure a school's capacity to implement school-based interventions. Data used for this study were gathered from the reports of 1144 teachers from 45 Norwegian schools…

  2. School-Based Meditation Practices for Adolescents: A Resource for Strengthening Self Regulation, Emotional Coping, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Betsy L.; Jones, Barbara; Gwin, David

    2010-01-01

    Schools are searching for innovative ways to meet the unique academic, social-emotional, and behavioral needs of adolescents, many of whom face serious personal and family challenges. An innovative practice that is currently being introduced into school settings is meditation. Types of meditation offered in school-based settings include…

  3. Effect of Visual Art School-Based Stroke Intervention for Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ashleigh B; Montgomery, Chelsea M; Dillard, Wesley A; Morrill, Kenneth; Hoesli, Coral; Gillette, Wesley M; Johnson, Brandon K; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2017-08-01

    Community stroke awareness initiatives have traditionally been used to expand knowledge of stroke signs and risk factors to high-risk adult populations. Here, we use a novel unfettered, visual art-based approach for an elementary school initiative to raise stroke awareness. Seventh graders in a middle school art class received stroke awareness training during the course of the 2015 to 2016 school year through their teacher in the visual arts class. In turn, they used this training to develop their own artistic interpretations of key stroke awareness concepts via project-based learning and then present their projects to raise awareness about stroke. We evaluated our predata and postdata to determine whether the visual art school-based stroke intervention was effective in both educating students about stroke and enabling them to effectively disseminate this information to parents and other adults in their community. The pretest evaluation indicates a fair or good knowledge about stroke, and no student indicated an "outstanding" or "excellent" knowledge. The posttest evaluation indicated a higher degree of stroke awareness because students were rated as having an "outstanding," "excellent," or "very good" performance especially in the ability to translate knowledge of stroke awareness lessons learned in their art class into a well-articulated stroke-related project and presentation. Pearson χ test reveals significant difference (P educating students about stroke and enabling them to effectively disseminate this information to parents and other adults in their community. The use of a visual art teacher to lead the educational component in the intervention indicates that expertise in neurology or stroke is not necessary to facilitate understanding of stroke and highlights the importance of creativeness in stroke education for children.

  4. Effectiveness Of A School-Based Multicomponent Intervention On Nutritional Status Among Primary School Children In Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Nattapon; Panza, Alessio; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Kumar, Ramesh; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adults and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thais is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills, multicomponent, school-based intervention on child nutritional status. A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok. Two schools were selected for control, and two schools for intervention groups. The interventions included education, diet, physical activity (PA), food-environment, school builtenvironment, and life-skills components. Subjects were measured at baseline and at 6 months post-treatment. The intervention group had significant differences in overall healthy practices (+1.5 mean difference, p=0.048), dietary habits, physical activity, lower total cholesterol (TC) levels (-2.43 mean, p=0.019) and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (+4.06 p=0.028) as compared to the control. A higher reduction of overweight individuals among the intervention group over the intervention period was observed. Physical activity and consumption of vegetables increased while consumption of high-caloric snacks and fast foods decreased in children after the intervention. This study indicated that a multidisciplinary approach in school-based interventions is most likely to be effective in preventing children from becoming overweight in the long term. More research should be conducted on school-based interventions with longer intervention periods and higher sustainability.

  5. Healthy whole-grain choices for children and parents: a multi-component school-based pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Champoux, Teri L; Chan, Hing Wan; Rosen, Renee; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to pilot-test a school-based intervention designed to increase consumption of whole grains by 4th and 5th grade children. This multi-component school-based pilot intervention utilised a quasi-experimental study design (intervention and comparison schools) that consisted of a five-lesson classroom curriculum based on Social Cognitive Theory, school cafeteria menu modifications to increase the availability of whole-grain foods and family-oriented activities. Meal observations of children estimated intake of whole grains at lunch. Children and parents completed questionnaires to assess changes in knowledge, availability, self-efficacy, usual food choice and role modelling. Parent/child pairs from two schools in the Minneapolis metropolitan area; 67 in the intervention and 83 in the comparison school. Whole-grain consumption at the lunch meal increased by 1 serving (P < 0.0001) and refined-grain consumption decreased by 1 serving for children in the intervention school compared with the comparison school post-intervention (P < 0.001). Whole-grain foods were more available in the lunches served to children in the intervention school compared with the comparison school post-intervention (P < 0.0001). The ability to identify whole-grain foods by children in both schools increased, with a trend towards a greater increase in the intervention school (P = 0.06). Parenting scores for scales for role modelling (P < 0.001) and enabling behaviours (P < 0.05) were significantly greater for parents in the intervention school compared with the comparison school post-intervention. The multi-component school-based programme implemented in the current study successfully increased the intake of whole-grain foods by children.

  6. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-11-08

    (Chile), and two in Europe (England and Scotland). Sexual and reproductive health educational programmesSix trials evaluated school-based educational interventions.In these trials, the educational programmes evaluated had no demonstrable effect on the prevalence of HIV (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.32, three trials; 14,163 participants; low certainty evidence), or other STIs (herpes simplex virus prevalence: RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.15; three trials, 17,445 participants; moderate certainty evidence; syphilis prevalence: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.39; one trial, 6977 participants; low certainty evidence). There was also no apparent effect on the number of young women who were pregnant at the end of the trial (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.16; three trials, 8280 participants; moderate certainty evidence). Material or monetary incentive-based programmes to promote school attendanceTwo trials evaluated incentive-based programmes to promote school attendance.In these two trials, the incentives used had no demonstrable effect on HIV prevalence (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.96; two trials, 3805 participants; low certainty evidence). Compared to controls, the prevalence of herpes simplex virus infection was lower in young women receiving a monthly cash incentive to stay in school (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.85), but not in young people given free school uniforms (Data not pooled, two trials, 7229 participants; very low certainty evidence). One trial evaluated the effects on syphilis and the prevalence was too low to detect or exclude effects confidently (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.05 to 3.27; one trial, 1291 participants; very low certainty evidence). However, the number of young women who were pregnant at the end of the trial was lower among those who received incentives (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.99; two trials, 4200 participants; low certainty evidence). Combined educational and incentive-based programmesThe single trial that evaluated free school uniforms also included a trial arm in which

  7. A school-based physical activity promotion intervention in children: rationale and study protocol for the PREVIENE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tercedor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. Methods A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age from six schools in Granada (Spain will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children. Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry, physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery, and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference. Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires, academic achievement (grades from the official school’s records, and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires. To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. Discussion The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.

  8. School-based interventions for preventing Hiv, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-01-01

    sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Kenya), one in Latin America (Chile), and two in Europe (England and Scotland). Sexual and reproductive health educational programmes Six trials evaluated school-based educational interventions. In these trials, the educational programmes evaluated had no demonstrable effect on the prevalence of HIV (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.32, three trials; 14,163 participants; low certainty evidence), or other STIs (herpes simplex virus prevalence: RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.15; three trials, 17,445 participants; moderate certainty evidence; syphilis prevalence: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.39; one trial, 6977 participants; low certainty evidence). There was also no apparent effect on the number of young women who were pregnant at the end of the trial (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.16; three trials, 8280 participants; moderate certainty evidence). Material or monetary incentive-based programmes to promote school attendance Two trials evaluated incentive-based programmes to promote school attendance. In these two trials, the incentives used had no demonstrable effect on HIV prevalence (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.96; two trials, 3805 participants; low certainty evidence). Compared to controls, the prevalence of herpes simplex virus infection was lower in young women receiving a monthly cash incentive to stay in school (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.85), but not in young people given free school uniforms (Data not pooled, two trials, 7229 participants; very low certainty evidence). One trial evaluated the effects on syphilis and the prevalence was too low to detect or exclude effects confidently (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.05 to 3.27; one trial, 1291 participants; very low certainty evidence). However, the number of young women who were pregnant at the end of the trial was lower among those who received incentives (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.99; two trials, 4200 participants; low certainty evidence). Combined educational and incentive

  9. Efficacy of school-based interventions aimed at decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Beaulieu, Dominique; Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Boucher, Danielle; Sirois, Caroline; Dugas, Marylène; Provencher, Véronique

    2017-09-01

    To verify the efficacy of school-based interventions aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among adolescents in order to develop or improve public health interventions. Systematic review of interventions targeting adolescents and/or the school environment. The following databases were investigated: MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE. Proquest Dissertations and Theses was also investigated for unpublished trials. Adolescents were defined as individuals between the ages of 12 and 17 years. A total of thirty-six studies detailing thirty-six different interventions tested among independent samples (n 152 001) were included in the review. Twenty interventions were classified as educational/behavioural and ten were classified as legislative/environmental interventions. Only six interventions targeted both individuals and their environment. Over 70 % of all interventions, regardless of whether they targeted individuals, their environment or both, were effective in decreasing SSB consumption. Legislative/environmental studies had the highest success rate (90·0 %). Educational/behavioural interventions only and interventions that combined educational/behavioural and legislative/environmental approaches were almost equally effective in reducing SSB consumption with success rates of 65·0 and 66·7 %, respectively. Among the interventions that had an educational/behavioural component, 61·5 % were theory-based. The behaviour change techniques most frequently used in interventions were providing information about the health consequences of performing the behaviour (72·2 %), restructuring the physical environment (47·2 %), behavioural goal setting (36·1 %), self-monitoring of behaviour (33·3 %), threat to health (30·6 %) and providing general social support (30·6 %). School-based interventions show promising results to reduce SSB consumption among adolescents. A number of recommendations are made to improve future studies.

  10. Two-Year BMI Outcomes From a School-Based Intervention for Nutrition and Exercise: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Elliott, Marc N; Cowgill, Burton O; Klein, David J; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Uyeda, Kimberly; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the long-term effects on BMI of a randomized controlled trial of Students for Nutrition and Exercise, a 5-week, middle school-based obesity prevention intervention combining school-wide environmental changes, encouragement to eat healthy school cafeteria foods, and peer-led education and marketing. We randomly selected schools from the Los Angeles Unified School District and assigned 5 to the intervention group and 5 to a wait-list control group. Of the 4022 seventh-graders across schools, a total of 1368 students had their height and weight assessed at baseline and 2 years' postintervention. A multivariable linear regression was used to predict BMI percentile at ninth grade by using BMI percentile at seventh grade, school indicators, and sociodemographic characteristics (child gender, age, Latino race/ethnicity, US-born status, and National School Lunch Program eligibility [as a proxy for low-income status]). Although the Students for Nutrition and Exercise intervention did not exhibit significant effects on BMI percentile overall, intervention students who were classified as obese at baseline (in seventh grade) showed significant reductions in BMI percentile in ninth grade (b = -2.33 percentiles; SE, 0.83; P = .005) compared with control students. This outcome translated into ∼9 pounds (∼4.1 kg) lower expected body weight after 2 years for an obese student in the intervention school at the mean height and age of the sample at baseline. Multilevel school-based interventions can have long-term effects on BMI among students who are obese. Future research should examine the mechanisms by which school-based obesity interventions can affect BMI over time. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Interactive effects of perceived racism and coping responses predict a school-based assessment of blood pressure in black youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rodney; Gochett, Philip

    2006-08-01

    Research indicates that perceived racism and coping responses are associated with basal blood pressure (BP) levels and BP reactivity in Black adults. No study could be found, however, that has explored the independent and interactive effects of perceived racism and coping responses in a cohort who probably has the greatest risk of developing primary hypertension--Black youth. This study examined the relationship of perceived racism and coping responses to a continuous measure of BP and to a categorical measure of BP status (normal vs. high-normal or high). The convenience sample consisted of 217 Black youth (M age = 11.4 years, SD = 1.3). Participants reported on perceived racism and coping responses (Accepting It, Self-Blame, Taking Action, and Talking to Someone). BP was assessed with an automated monitor in school. Approximately 32% of the sample had average BP levels that were high-normal or high. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the predictive utility of perceived racism and the four coping responses to the continuous and categorical BP assessments. Although perceived racism and the coping response variables did not emerge as significant independent predictors in the linear or logistic regression analyses, perceived racism interacted with Accepting It (p = .009) in the linear regression analysis predicting systolic BP. Follow-up linear regression analyses indicated that perceived racism was not significantly associated with systolic BP among participants low in Accepting It but was inversely related to systolic BP among participants high in Accepting It. Perceived racism also interacted with Accepting It (p = .016) and Talking to Someone (p = .0009) in the logistic regression analysis predicting BP status. Follow-up logistic regression analyses revealed that (a) perceived racism was not significantly associated with BP status among participants low in Accepting It but was inversely related to BP status among participants

  12. Life satisfaction, coping, self-esteem and suicide ideation in Chinese adolescents: a school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y-S; Chang, W-W; Jin, Y-L; Chen, Y; He, L-P; Zhang, L

    2014-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of suicidal ideation (SI) among junior, senior high and college school students. A total of 5249 students in Anhui Province of China participated in a self-administered anonymous survey. Females were more likely to report SI than males (32.1% vs. 20.6%). Using binary logistic regression analysis, we found that being female, passive coping, lower family satisfaction, lower school satisfaction, lower living environment satisfaction and higher self-esteem were associated with an increased risk of SI. This study suggested that SI was common among Chinese adolescents. Being female, high score of passive coping, lower family satisfaction, lower school satisfaction, lower living environment satisfaction and higher self-esteem were significantly associated with an increased risk of SI. There is an urgent need to take effective measures reducing the rate of SI among adolescents through collaboration among families, schools and society. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effectiveness of school-based smoking intervention in middle school students of Linzhi Tibetan and Guangzhou Han ethnicity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Chen, Yan; Hao, Yuantao; Gu, Jing; Guo, Yan; Ling, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of school-based intervention aimed to increase knowledge, to change attitudes and to reduce smoking-related behavior in both Linzhi Tibetan and Guangzhou Han middle school students in China. A concurrent intervention study was conducted in both Linzhi and Guangzhou. Two schools were randomly chosen and one was randomly assigned to the intervention group and the other to the control group in both settings. Participants were grade one and grade two middle school students drawn from two schools in Linzhi, Tibet Autonomous Region (southwest China) and two schools in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (south China). The intervention program lasted for one year and covered three aspects: health policies in school, health environment in school and personal health skills. Primary outcomes were smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior (including ever smoking, daily smoking, weekly smoking and current smoking) and were measured by a self-administered questionnaire before and after the intervention. This intervention increased smoking-related knowledge in both Tibetan (β=1.32, 95% CI (0.87-1.77)) and Han ethnic groups (β=0.47, 95% CI (0.11-0.83)). It changed attitudes toward smoking in Tibetan (β=1.47, 95% CI (0.06-2.87)) but not so in Han (β=-0.33, 95% CI (-1.68-1.01)). The intervention changed the prevalence of smoking in neither ethnic groups (P>0.05). The impact of school-based smoking intervention is different among Tibetan and Han students. This intervention was more effective for Tibetans when compared with the Han ethnic group. More research is needed on how intervention can be adapted to address ethnic and cultural differences. © 2013.

  14. Mothers' involvement in a school-based fruit and vegetable promotion intervention is associated with increased fruit and vegetable intakes - The Pro Children study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. te Velde (Saskia); M. Wind (Marianne); C. Perez-Rodrigo (Carmen); K.I. Klepp (Knut-Inge); J. Brug (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Several school-based fruit and vegetable interventions include activities to involve parents, but not much is know about the effectiveness of such a family component on child and parent intake levels. The current study evaluated the effects of the multi-component school-based

  15. Testing Causal Impacts of a School-Based SEL Intervention Using Instrumental Variable Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Catalina; Nathanson, Lori; Rivers, Susan; Brackett, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Children's social-emotional skills, such as conflict resolution and emotion regulation, have been linked to a number of highly regarded academic and social outcomes. The current study presents preliminary results from a causal test of the theory of change of RULER, a universal school-based approach to social and emotional learning (SEL).…

  16. Closing the Gap: Principal Perspectives on an Innovative School-Based Mental Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Kate F.; Powers, Joelle D.; Edwards, Jeffrey D.; Wegmann, Kate M.; Lechner, Ethan; Swick, Danielle C.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health needs among children in the United States have significant consequences for children and their families, as well as the schools that serve them. This qualitative study evaluated the second year of an innovative school-based mental health project that created a multi-system partnership between an urban school district, a public mental…

  17. Evaluation of Project Chrysalis: A School-based Intervention To Reduce Negative Consequences of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…

  18. School-Based Health Promotion Intervention: Parent and School Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Fernandez, Anna M.; Hernandez, Jennifer; Villa, Manuela; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is high, particularly among minority youth. The objective of this article was to evaluate parent and school staff perspectives of childhood health and weight qualitatively to guide the development of a school-based obesity prevention program for minority youth. Methods: Hispanic parents (N?=?9) of…

  19. Including School Resource Officers in School-Based Crisis Intervention: Strengthening Student Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard K.; Logan, Joan; Davis, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of trained police officers, School Resource Officers (SROs), participating in school-based crisis response efforts. These efforts, mostly preventative in nature, mitigate and de-escalate trauma for students exposed to a wide variety of challenging situations. Scenarios are presented with dialogue between…

  20. School-Based Interventions to Promote Empathy-Related Responding in Children and Adolescents: A Developmental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Chaparro, Maria Paula; Zuffianò, Antonio; Colasante, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Empathy has been identified as a core component of social and emotional functioning across development. Various prevention and intervention programs have utilized components of empathy-related responding to promote the development of children's and adolescents' social-emotional functioning and impede their aggression in school contexts. In this article, we assess the effectiveness of select school-based empathy interventions and the extent to which they align with developmental theory and research. First, we review current conceptualizations of empathy-related responding, identify its components, outline its normative development, and describe the need for developmentally tailored interventions. We then identify and assess the effectiveness and developmental sensitivity of 19 school-based programs with strong empirical support that target empathy-related responding across childhood and adolescence. Although the majority of these programs showed some degree of developmental differentiation between grades, none considered developmental differences within grades. Commencing interventions earlier in development and targeting higher numbers of empathy-related constructs were, in part, associated with larger effects. We discuss how future research can bridge the gap between basic developmental research and the design of developmentally tailored interventions to promote empathy-related responding.

  1. Effectiveness of a brief school-based intervention on depression, anxiety, hyperactivity, and delinquency: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Ferry X; Lammers, J; Onrust, S A; Conrod, P J; de Castro, B Orobio; Monshouwer, K

    2016-06-01

    Problematic substance use and mental health problems often co-occur in adolescents. Effective school-based interventions that are brief and target multiple problems are promising in the field of health promotion. Preventure is a brief, school-based, selective preventive intervention, tailored to four personality profiles. Preventure has already proved effective on alcohol outcomes. Previous trials also reveal effects on several mental health outcomes, yet the evidence for these outcomes is limited. This study presents the results of the Dutch Preventure Trial, on a range of mental health outcomes. In a cluster RCT, including 699 high risk students (mean age 14 years), the intervention effects on mental health problems at 2, 6, and 12 months post intervention were tested in the total high risk population and in four specific personality groups. No significant intervention effects were found on 22 from the 24 tests. A positive intervention effect on anxiety was found in the anxiety sensitivity personality group at 12-month follow-up, and a negative intervention effect on depression was found at 12-month follow-up in the negative thinking group. In post hoc growth curve analyses these effects were not found. This study found no convincing evidence for the effectiveness of Preventure in The Netherlands on mental health problems. This finding is not in line with the results of an earlier effectiveness study in the UK. This highlights the need for more research into the knowledge transfer model of interventions, to ensure that interventions are effective in a variety of circumstances.

  2. The Shaping Healthy Choices Program: design and implementation methodologies for a multicomponent, school-based nutrition education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E; Linnell, Jessica D; Smith, Martin H; Briggs, Marilyn; Bergman, Jacqueline; Brian, Kelley M; Dharmar, Madan; Feenstra, Gail; Hillhouse, Carol; Keen, Carl L; Nguyen, Lori M; Nicholson, Yvonne; Ontai, Lenna; Schaefer, Sara E; Spezzano, Theresa; Steinberg, Francene M; Sutter, Carolyn; Wright, Janel E; Young, Heather M; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    To provide a framework for implementation of multicomponent, school-based nutrition interventions. This article describes the research methods for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a model to improve nutrition and health-related knowledge and behaviors among school-aged children. Longitudinal, pretest/posttest, randomized, controlled intervention. Four elementary schools in California. Fourth-grade students at intervention (n = 252) and control (n = 238) schools and their parents and teachers. Power analyses demonstrate that a minimum of 159 students per group will be needed to achieve sufficient power. The sample size was determined using the variables of nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference score, and body mass index percentile. A multicomponent school-based nutrition education intervention over 1 academic year, followed by activities to support sustainability of the program. Dietary and nutrition knowledge and behavior, critical thinking skills, healthy food preferences and consumption, and physical activity will be measured using a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, a vegetable preferences assessment tool, the Test of Basic Science Process Skills, digital photography of plate waste, PolarActive accelerometers, anthropometrics, a parent questionnaire, and the School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey. Evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative data will use paired t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests and regression modeling using P = .05 to determine statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of school-based interventions on physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents: a review of reviews and systematic update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriemler, S; Meyer, U; Martin, E

    2011-01-01

    School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness although there is controversy about the optimal strategy to intervene.......School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness although there is controversy about the optimal strategy to intervene....

  4. Decreasing In-home Smoking of Adults—Results from a School-based Intervention Program in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Huong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011–2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children’s reported their father’s in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention (p < 0.001 in the intervention school while no change happened in the control school. The study found that the better changed smoking location of adult smokers as reported by children associated with the school who received intervention activities (adjusted OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.28–3.24. Poorer changed attitudes towards secondhand smoke of children associated with a lower percentage of better change in smoking location of their fathers/other adult smokers (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28–0.96. Children’s poorer changed knowledge towards secondhand smoke also associated with poorer changed smoking location of adult smokers (aOR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.07–7.76. It is recommended by this study that similar school based intervention approaches should be applied in primary schools in Viet Nam to increase children’s awareness on the

  5. Effects of School-Based Educational Interventions for Enhancing Adolescents Abilities in Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena V Nordheim

    Full Text Available Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the certainty of the evidence.Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low.Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health

  6. Effects of School-Based Educational Interventions for Enhancing Adolescents Abilities in Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, Lena V; Gundersen, Malene W; Espehaug, Birgitte; Guttersrud, Øystein; Flottorp, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to assess the certainty of the evidence. Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low. Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health claims. The small

  7. Canadian Children's Mental Health: Building Capacity in School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climie, Emma A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing identification of children with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD), it is imperative that innovative ways of addressing these concerns are explored. Fewer than half of students identified with mental illness receive treatment, leaving a significant proportion of students to cope with mental illness without support. One…

  8. How to identify students for school-based depression intervention: can school record review be substituted for universal depression screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Elena S; Vander Stoep, Ann; Herting, Jerald R; Grupp, Katherine; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2013-02-01

    Early identification and intervention are critical for reducing the adverse effects of depression on academic and occupational performance. Cost-effective approaches are needed for identifying adolescents at high depression risk. This study evaluated the utility of school record review versus universal school-based depression screening for determining eligibility for an indicated depression intervention program implemented in the middle school setting. Algorithms derived from grades, attendance, suspensions, and basic demographic information were evaluated with regard to their ability to predict students' depression screening scores. The school information-based algorithms proved poor proxies for individual students' depression screening results. However, school records showed promise for identifying low, medium, and high-yield subgroups on the basis of which efficient screening targeting decisions could be made. Study results will help to guide school nurses who coordinate indicated depression intervention programs in school settings as they evaluate options of approaches for determining which students are eligible for participation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Achieving long-term weight maintenance in Mexican-American adolescents with a school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A; Moreno, Jennette P; Gallagher, Martina R; Wang, Jing; Papaioannou, Maria A; Tyler, Chermaine; Foreyt, John P

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated 24-month outcomes of a school-based intensive lifestyle weight management program targeting overweight Mexican-American adolescents. We recruited a total of 71 adolescents (32 males; 45.1%) between the ages of 10 and 14 years, at or above the 85th percentile for body mass index (BMI). Participants were randomized to a 6-month instructor-led intervention (ILI) or a self-help (SH) program. Both interventions were aimed at modifying eating and physical activity behaviors using behavior modification strategies. We assessed changes in participants' standardized BMI and BMI percentile at baseline, 1, and 2 years. Repeated-measures analyses showed that ILI participants showed significantly greater decreases in standardized BMI at 1 and 2 years (F = 8.58, p school-based intervention resulted in improved weight outcomes in overweight Mexican-American adolescents and results were maintained over 2 years. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Developing parent involvement in a school-based child obesity prevention intervention: a qualitative study and process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, R R; Jago, R; Lawlor, D A

    2012-06-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of parent involvement in school-based obesity prevention interventions. A qualitative study with parents of children aged 9-10 years was conducted to identify possible methods to involve them in a school-based obesity prevention intervention, followed by a process evaluation of homework and school newsletters to involve parents. Qualitative study: parents supported the use of homework and school newsletters to involve them and overcome the main barriers of their work and time. Process evaluation: Ten homeworks and inserts for the school newsletter about the obesity prevention intervention were developed and delivered. The majority of homeworks were given out (73%), completed by children (84%) and recalled by parents (60-68%). The majority of homeworks were enjoyed by parents and children. All the schools put information about the project in the newsletter and this was recalled by parents. Most parents felt the homeworks were a practical way of involving them. Homeworks are routinely given to children and provide a means of engaging potentially all parents if parental support is required. Homeworks which are novel, fun and involve activities and social contact are enjoyed by parents and children and may increase awareness of healthy diet and physical activity.

  11. Child and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: School-Based Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…

  12. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention for enhancing adolescents’ positive attitudes towards people with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tsiantis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents’ attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16-18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research.

  13. LEARNING MODEL OF SCHOOL-BASED ANTI BULLYING INTERVENTION IN EAP (ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Ambarini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual learning can be integrated in any subjects in school. One of the subject is Guidance and Couseling subject that provides opportunities for students to develop their social skills and communication. Today, the phenomenon of bullying often occurs in every aspect of life, and one of them is in educational institutions such as schools. School should be a place to establish a positive attitude and character, but the fact the school becomes the scene of bullying practices. The research question is how the bilingual learning of school-based anti bullying intervension integrated with Guidance and Counseling materials by using English for Academic Purposes settings is. This qualitative study used descriptive qualitative method that aims to understand the process and the outcome of bilingual learning process from the viewpoint or perspective of the participants. This research takes the view that since people are instruments, the objects of the research together with the researcher herself, their active involvement in the process is the key to any sustainable efforts. This research is aslo supposed to identify the students‘ understanding of the school-based anti bullying materials that are implemented in EAP settings. The impact of thus program implementation is certainly expected as the strategies to minimize the impacts that will occur in bullying behavior by the integration of anti-bullying bilingual learning model through guidance and counseling materials.

  14. Outcome of a school-based intervention to promote life-skills among young people in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2014-06-01

    Most of the school-based interventions to prevent suicide are from high income countries and there is a need for evidence based interventions in resource-poor settings. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of a school based intervention to reduce risk factors for suicide among young people in Cambodia by promoting life skills. Six classes were randomly selected from two schools each, one designated as experimental and the other as control school, respectively. In experimental school 168 young people (M=92, F=76) received 6 sessions of life skills education and in the control school 131 students (M=53, F=78) received three general sessions on health. We looked at the pre-post differences on Life-Skills Development Scale Adolescent Form (LSDS-AF)- and Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaire to measure the effect size (ES) from the intervention after 6 months. We analyzed the data by stratifying for gender and for those who reported more severe suicidal expressions at baseline (high-risk group). The girls showed improvement in Human Relationship (ES=0.57), Health Maintenance (ES=0.20) and the Total Life Skills Dimensions (ES=0.24), whereas boys with high-risk behavior improved on Human Relationship (ES=0.48), Purpose in Life (ES=0.26) and Total Life Skills Dimensions (ES=0.22). Effect size for YSR-syndrome scores among all individuals showed no improvement for either gender. Among high-risk individuals boys had a small to moderate effect size from intervention on Withdrawn/Depressed (ES=0.40), Attention problems (ES=0.46), Rule breaking behavior (ES=0.36), Aggressive behavior (ES=0.48) and Externalizing syndrome (ES=0.64). Promoting life skills in schools may enhance the overall mental health of young people, indirectly influencing suicide, particularly among boys with high-risk behavior in Cambodia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of Response to Intervention on Learning Disability Identification: School Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tina B.

    2017-01-01

    The "Response to Intervention Guidance for New York State School Districts" (2010) document indicates Response to Intervention (RTI) is a mandated general education process intended to provide early interventions to struggling at-risk students. The multi-level RTI framework is structured to include targeted evidence-based interventions…

  16. Action Schools! BC: a school-based physical activity intervention designed to decrease cardiovascular disease risk factors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Katharine E; Warburton, Darren E R; Macdonald, Heather M; Naylor, P J; McKay, Heather A

    2008-06-01

    Our primary objective was to determine whether a novel 'active school' model--Action Schools! BC--improved the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in elementary-school children. Our secondary objective was to determine the percentage of children with elevated CVD risk factors. We undertook a cluster-randomized controlled school-based trial with 8 elementary schools across 1 school year, in British Columbia, Canada, beginning in 2003. Boys and girls (n=268, age 9-11 years) were randomly assigned (by school) to usual practice (UP, 2 schools) or intervention (INT, 6 schools) groups. We assessed change between groups in cardiovascular fitness (20-m Shuttle Run), blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI, wt/ht(2)). We evaluated total cholesterol (TC), total:high-density cholesterol (TC:HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen on a subset of volunteers (n=77). INT children had a 20% greater increase in fitness and a 5.7% smaller increase in BP compared with children attending UP schools (PSchools! BC was an effective school-based physical activity model for improving the CVD risk profile of elementary-school children. Our multi-component intervention exposed children to fitness enhancing physical activity. It may be important for education stakeholders to adequately resource the delivery of the active school models if cardiovascular health benefits are to be achieved on a population basis.

  17. Effectiveness of a school-based multi-component smoking prevention intervention: the LdP cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia; Bosi, Sandra; Tamelli, Marco; Monti, Claudia; Storani, Simone; Martini, Andrea; Allara, Elias; Angelini, Paola; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of the Luoghi di Prevenzione-Prevention Grounds school-based smoking prevention programme. We undertook a cluster randomized controlled trial of 989 students aged 14-15 years in 13 secondary schools located in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The intervention consisted of the "Smoking Prevention Tour" (SPT) out-of-school workshop, one in-depth lesson on one Smoking Prevention Tour topic, a life-skills peer-led intervention, and enforcement surveillance of school antismoking policy. Self-reported past 30-day smoking of ≥ 20 or 1-19 days of cigarette smoking (daily or frequent smoking, respectively) was recorded in 2 surveys administered immediately before and 18 months after the beginning of the programme. Analysis was by intention to treat. The effect of the intervention was evaluated using random effects logistic regression and propensity score-matching analyses. Past 30-day smoking and daily cigarette use at eighteen months follow-up were 31% and 46% lower, respectively, for intervention students compared to control students. Taking into account non-smokers at baseline only, daily smoking at eighteen months follow-up was 59% lower in intervention students than in controls. Past 30-day smoking in school areas was 62% lower in intervention students compared to controls. The Luoghi di Prevenzione-Prevention Grounds programme was effective in reducing daily smokers and in reducing smoking in school areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Implication of Mauk Nursing Intervention Model on Coping Strategies of Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shoja

    2015-06-01

    descriptive and inferential tests in SPSS software 16. Results: The mean score for coping strategies before intervention was 111.42±11.71, and after intervention was 102.14±12.45 (P<0.05. The physical, mental and social dimensions in the coping strategies showed significant differences before and after intervention. Discussion: Using the rehabilitation program interventions for effectively dealing with stress, changing and unpredictable behavior patterns in chronic patients is an important component of the treatment protocol, and helps deliver an increase in coping strategies for stroke patients.

  19. Cognitive, behavioral and goal adjustment coping and depressive symptoms in young people with diabetes: a search for intervention targets for coping skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for young people with Type 1 (T1) diabetes. A wide range of coping techniques was studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 78 young people with T1 diabetes participated. They were contacted through a social networking website, several Internet sites, and flyers. A wide range of coping techniques appeared to be related to depressive symptoms. Especially the cognitive coping strategies self-blame, rumination, refocus positive, and other-blame, together with goal adjustment coping, were of importance. A large proportion of the variance of depressive symptoms could be explained (65 %). These findings suggest that these specific coping strategies should be part of coping skills trainings for young people with T1 diabetes.

  20. Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: a school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley-Strickland, Michele R; Griffin, Robert S; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3rd-5th-grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait list comparison groups. Students attended 13 biweekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed.

  1. Impact of early school-based screening and intervention programs for ADHD on children's outcomes and access to services: follow-up of a school-based trial at age 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayal, Kapil; Owen, Victoria; White, Kate; Merrell, Christine; Tymms, Peter; Taylor, Eric

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the impact of early school-based screening and educational interventions on longer-term outcomes for children at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the predictive utility of teacher ratings. A population-based 5-year follow-up of a randomized, school-based intervention. Schools in England. Children between 4 and 5 years of age with high teacher-rated hyperactivity/inattention scores. Follow-up data were collected on 487 children in 308 schools. Following screening, using a 2 x 2 factorial design, schools randomly received an educational intervention (books about ADHD for teachers), the names of children with high hyperactivity/inattention scores between ages 4 and 5 years (identification), both educational intervention and identification, or no intervention. Parent-rated hyperactivity/inattention, impairment in classroom learning, and access to specialist health services for mental health or behavioral problems. None of the interventions were associated with improved outcomes. However, children receiving the identification-only intervention were twice as likely as children in the no-intervention group to have high hyperactivity/inattention scores at follow-up (adjusted odds ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.00). Regardless of intervention, high baseline hyperactivity/inattention scores were associated with high hyperactivity/inattention and specialist health service use at follow-up. We did not find evidence of long-term, generalizable benefits following a school-based universal screening program for ADHD. There may be adverse effects associated with labeling children at a young age.

  2. A Short Stress Coping Intervention in Female Collegate Student-Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Steadman, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the effect of a stress coping based intervention in the lives of female student-athletes. Sixteen female student-athletes attending Utah State University participated in a 60 minute intervention teaching skills such as progressive muscle relaxation, stressor identification, and stress coping. Participants completed the Inventory of College Students’ Recent Life Experiences before and after the intervention. The scores collected from the inventory were used to determine ...

  3. RE-AIM Analysis of a School-Based Nutrition Education Intervention in Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Andrew L.; Liao, Yue; Alberts, Janel; Huh, Jimi; Robertson, Trina; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few nutrition interventions in kindergarten classes have been evaluated, and none has been tested for program effectiveness, implementation, and dissemination. Building a Healthy Me (BHM) is a nutrition intervention for kindergarteners that is classroom-based and includes a family component. This study evaluated the public health…

  4. School-based obesity prevention intervention in Chilean children: effective in controlling, but not reducing obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Juliana; Concha, Fernando; Moreno, Lorena; Leyton, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6-8 y old low-income children (N = 1474). Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children's nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA). Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant). % class time in MVA declined (24.5-16.2) while remaining unchanged (24.8-23.7%) in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33-1.24) and increased (1.22-1.35) in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91-1.06, P = 0.024). Interaction group ∗ time was significant for boys (P < 0.0001) and girls (P = 0.004). This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.

  5. School-Based Mental Health Intervention for Adolescents Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marleen; Rosemond, Michelle E.; Stein, Bradley D.; Langley, Audra K.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Nadeem, Erum

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to violence can result in unidentified trauma and a variety of psychological, behavioral, and school related problems. This article reviews this relationship, then highlights the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools, an evidence-based intervention program which addresses the trauma related to violence…

  6. School-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention in Chilean Children: Effective in Controlling, but not Reducing Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Kain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N=1474. Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children’s nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA. Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant. % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2 while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7% in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24 and increased (1.22–1.35 in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P=0.024. Interaction group * time was significant for boys (P<0.0001 and girls (P=0.004. Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.

  7. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Andersen, Lars Bo; Mamen, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) following a school-based physical activity (PA) intervention. In total, 259 children (age 9.3+/-0.3 years) were invited to participate, of whom 256 participated. The children from the intervention school (63...... boys, 62 girls) carried out 60-min PA over 2 school years. The children from the control school (62 boys, 69 girls) had the regular curriculum-defined amount of physical education in school, i.e. 45 min twice weekly. One hundred and eighty-eight children (73.4%) successfully completed both the baseline...... and the post-intervention peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) test. VO(2peak) was measured directly during a continuous progressive treadmill protocol where the children ran until exhaustion. The children from the intervention school increased their mean VO(2peak) (95% confidence interval) 3.6 (2.5-4.6) m...

  8. School Based Multicomponent Intervention for Obese Children in Udupi District, South India - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Baby S; Bhat, Vinod H

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity and overweight is a global epidemics and has been increasing in the developing countries. Childhood obesity is linked with increased mortality and morbidity independent of adult obesity. Declining physical activity, access to junk food and parenting style are the major determinants of overweight in children. Thus, there is a need for increasing the physical activity of children, educating the parents as well as the children on lifestyle modification. This can be achieved through implementation of multicomponent intervention. To evaluate the effectiveness of multicomponent intervention on improving the lifestyle practices, reducing the body fat and improving the self esteem of obese children from selected schools of Udupi District, South India. A sample of 120 obese children were enrolled for multicomponent intervention. The components of multicomponent intervention were: education provided to the obese children on lifestyle modification, education of the parents and increasing the physical education activity of these children in the form of aerobics under the supervision of physical education teacher. There was an attrition of 25% in the intervention group. Thus the final sample in the intervention group was 90. Total sample of 131 overweight/ obese children enrolled as controls. There was an attrition of 20.61% in the control group. Thus, the final sample in the control group was 104. Intervention group received the multicomponent intervention for six month. Mixed Method Repeated measures Ananlysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied for analysis of data. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in reducing the Body Mass Index (BMI), triceps, biceps, subscapular skin fold thickness of obese children. The intervention was also effective in improving the lifestyle practices and self-esteem of obese children. Overweight/obese children need to control diet and perform vigorous exercise at least for 20 minutes a day to reduce the excess fat

  9. A controlled trial of a school-based intervention to improve asthma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, D C; McWhirter, J; Coleman, H; Calvert, M; Warner, J O

    2006-05-01

    The present study investigated schools as an appropriate context for an intervention designed to produce clinical and psychological benefits for children with asthma. A total of 193 out of 219 (88.1%) children with asthma (aged 7-9 yrs) from 23 out of 24 (95.8%) schools completed the study. Intervention schools received a staff asthma-training session, advice on asthma policy, an emergency beta2-agonist inhaler with spacer and whole-class asthma workshops. Nonintervention schools received no asthma-related input. Intervention children required less general practitioner-prescribed preventer medication despite no differences in symptom control compared with the nonintervention asthmatic group. Increased peer knowledge of asthma may have mediated improved active quality of life in the intervention group, together with increased self-esteem in young females. Those females not receiving the intervention, but identified as being asthmatic within the classroom, and thus possibly stigmatised, reported decreased self-esteem. Lower self-esteem in young males was associated with pet ownership. No change was found in staff knowledge, the establishment of asthma policies or school absences which were low even before intervention. In conclusion, a whole-school intervention can improve the health of children with asthma when followed with support for all children but effects are likely to be modified by sex and the home environment.

  10. Opportunities for pregnant and parenting teenagers: a school-based and school-linked intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, M L; Solomon, C; Glass, M B

    1999-12-01

    Three hundred and ninety (390) pregnant and parenting teens participated in a school-based and school-linked federally funded program at 10 high-risk schools. The program was designed to (1) increase the use of referred services and attendance at these services without students' missing school, (2) increase academic skills, and (3) increase health and well-being of the students and their infants. The program provided 18 services coordinated at the school or provided on site. The end-of-year evaluations indicated 88% to 95% of teens attended services that were recommended, and 69% did not miss school to receive these services. The teens' rate of passing their grade level increased at the end of the program year. Additionally, 78% used birth control, and over 90% of the infants received timely health care. The qualitative data provided by students indicated pregnant and parenting teens wanted to remain in school despite the struggles they encountered. The process evaluation provided by the coordinators at each school indicated that communication and cooperation between program staff and school nurses were the key elements in enabling teens to receive the targeted services.

  11. School-Based Health Center Intervention Improves Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta S. Kong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents Committed to Improvement of Nutrition and Physical Activity (ACTION was undertaken to determine feasibility of a school-based health center (SBHC weight management program. Two urban New Mexico SBHCs were randomized to deliver ACTION or standard care. ACTION consisted of eight visits using motivational interviewing to improve eating and physical activity behavior. An educational nutrition and physical activity DVD for students and a clinician toolkit were created for use as menu of options. Standard care consisted of one visit with the SBHC provider who prescribed recommendations for healthy weight. Sixty nondiabetic overweight/obese adolescents were enrolled. Measures included BMI percentile, waist circumference, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels. Pre- to postchanges for participants were compared between groups. Fifty-one students (mean age 15 years, 62% female, 75% Hispanic completed pre- and postmeasures. ACTION students (n=28 had improvements in BMI percentile (P=0.04 and waist circumference (P=0.04 as compared with students receiving standard care (n=23. No differences were found between the two groups in blood pressure, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and HDL-C. The ACTION SBHC weight management program was feasible and demonstrated improved outcomes in BMI percentile and waist circumference.

  12. A school-based intervention to reduce overweight and inactivity in children aged 6–12 years : Study design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Jansen (Wilma); H. Raat (Hein); E. Joosten-van Zwanenburg (Evelien); I. Reuvers (Ivo); R. Walsem, van (Ron); J. Brug (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground Effective interventions to prevent overweight and obesity in children are urgently needed especially in inner-city neighbourhoods where prevalence of overweight and inactivity among primary school children is high. A school based intervention was developed aiming at the

  13. Scaling up a School-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Intervention in Rural Tanzania: A Process Evaluation Describing the Implementation Realities for the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renju, Jenny; Nyalali, Kija; Andrew, Bahati; Kishamawe, Coleman; Kimaryo, Micheal; Remes, Pieter; Changalucha, John; Obasi, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and mechanisms of factors that facilitate or inhibit the scale-up and subsequent implementation of school-based adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) interventions. We present process evaluation findings examining the factors that affected the 10-fold scale-up of such an intervention, focussing on…

  14. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chin A. Paw, Mai J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials. Methods: We revisited the Intervention Mapping (IM)…

  15. School-based programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity: evidence-based interventions for youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K; Nagle, Brian J; Arredondo, Elva M; Barquera, Simón; Elder, John P

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be gathered from such interventions. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1965 and December 2010. Interventions were considered eligible if they had a school-based component, were done in Latin America, evaluated an obesity related outcome (body mass index [BMI], weight, %body fat, waist circumference, BMI z-score), and compared youth exposed vs not exposed. Ten studies were identified as having a school-based component. Most interventions had a sample of normal and overweight children. The most successful interventions focused on prevention rather than treatment, had longer follow-ups, a multidisciplinary team, and fewer limitations in execution. Three prevention and 2 treatment interventions found sufficient improvements in obesity-related outcomes. We found sufficient evidence to recommend school-based interventions to prevent obesity among youth in Latin America. Evidence-based interventions in the school setting should be promoted as an important component for integrated programs, policies, and monitoring frameworks designed to reverse the childhood obesity in the region. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Mediating Factors of a School-Based Multi-Component Smoking Prevention Intervention: The LdP Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, G.; Bosi, S.; Angelini, P.; Gorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors mediating the effects of Luoghi di Prevenzione (LdP) smoking prevention intervention based on social competence and social influence approaches, and characterized by peer-led school-based interventions, out-of-school workshops, school lessons, and by enforcing the school anti-smoking policy.…

  17. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  18. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lima-Serrano

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed.

  19. An Adaptive CBPR Approach to Create Weight Management Materials for a School-Based Health Center Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Andrew L.; Montoya, Carolyn; Davis, Sally; Wallerstein, Nina; Kong, Alberta S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. From our previous clinical work with overweight/obese youth, we identified the need for research to create an effective weight management intervention to address the growing prevalence of adolescent metabolic syndrome. Formative assessment through an adaptive community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was conducted toward the development of a nutritional and physical activity (DVD) and clinician toolkit for a school-based health center (SBHC) weight management intervention. Methods. We first conducted parent and adolescent interviews on views and experiences about obesity while convening a community advisory council (CAC) recruited from two participating urban New Mexico high schools. Thematic findings from the interviews were analyzed with the CAC to develop culturally and developmentally appropriate intervention materials. Results. Themes from the parent and adolescent interviews included general barriers/challenges, factors influencing motivation, and change facilitators. The CAC and university-based research team reached consensus on the final content of nutrition and physical activity topics to produce a DVD and clinician toolkit through six monthly sessions. These materials used in the SBHC intervention resulted in a greater reduction of body mass index when compared to adolescents receiving standard care. Conclusions. Formative assessment using an adaptive CBPR approach resulted in the creation of culturally and age appropriate weight reduction materials that were acceptable to study participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00841334. PMID:23984053

  20. Can a school-based intervention increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption in the home setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charlotte; Darby, Helena; Upton, Penney; Upton, Dominic

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research has shown the Food Dudes programme increases children's fruit and vegetable consumption at school, the evidence for the effectiveness in the home setting is more equivocal. The school environment is identified as a logical setting for targeting children's fruit and vegetable consumption; however, to produce sustainable changes in behaviour, it is equally important that interventions target consumption in the home setting. This study aimed to establish whether the Food Dudes intervention can influence home consumption of fruit and vegetables and the extent to which any changes in eating behaviour following the intervention were maintained in the long term. A total of 34 children aged 4-11 years from eight primary schools (four intervention and four control groups) in the West Midlands, United Kingdom, completed a 7-day photographic food diary at baseline (prior to the intervention), a 3-month follow-up (post-intervention) and a 12-month follow-up. The Food Dudes programme did not influence either short- or long-term changes in children's consumption of fruit and vegetables at home during weekdays or at the weekend. The Food Dudes programme had no effect on changing children's fruit and vegetable consumption in the home environment. Further development of the programme could consider how parental and home environmental factors may be combined with the principles of the Food Dudes programme to influence children's fruit and vegetable consumption in this setting.

  1. Systematic review of universal school-based resilience interventions targeting adolescent tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug use: review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Wolfenden, Luke; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2014-05-26

    Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use contribute significantly to global rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite evidence suggesting interventions designed to increase adolescent resilience may represent a means of reducing adolescent substance use, and schools providing a key opportunity to implement such interventions, existing systematic reviews assessing the effectiveness of school-based interventions targeting adolescent substance use have not examined this potential. The aim of the systematic review is to determine whether universal interventions focused on enhancing the resilience of adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent substance use. Eligible studies will: include participants 5-18 years of age; report tobacco use, alcohol consumption or illicit drug use as outcomes; and implement a school-based intervention designed to promote internal (eg, self-esteem) and external (eg, school connectedness) resilience factors. Eligible study designs include randomised controlled trials, cluster randomised controlled trials, staggered enrolment trials, stepped wedged trials, quasi-randomised trials, quasi-experimental trials, time series/interrupted time-series trials, preference trials, regression discontinuity trials and natural experiment studies with a parallel control group. A search strategy including criteria for participants, study design, outcome, setting and intervention will be implemented in various electronic databases and information sources. Two reviewers will independently screen studies to assess eligibility, as well as extract data from, and assess risk of bias of included studies. A third reviewer will resolve any discrepancies. Attempts will be made to quantify trial effects by meta-analysis. Binary outcomes will be pooled and effect size reported using ORs. For continuous data, effect size of trials will be reported using a mean difference where trial outcomes report the same outcome using a consistent measure, or standardised mean

  2. A cluster-randomised controlled trial of a school-based fruit and vegetable intervention: Project Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charlotte E L; Ransley, Joan K; Christian, Meaghan S; Greenwood, Darren C; Thomas, James D; Cade, Janet E

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a multi-component school-based intervention can maintain children's fruit and vegetable intake post eligibility for free school fruit and vegetables. A random sample of fifty-four English primary schools was randomised to receive the 10-month intervention Project Tomato, a multi-component theory-based intervention, or the control. Each group consisted of twenty-seven schools. Children's intake of fruit and vegetables is below recommendations. The English School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme has a short-term impact on intake while children are eligible for the scheme. Dietary measurements were collected from 658 Year 2 pupils aged 7-8 years at baseline and at follow-up 20 months later. Following an intention to treat analysis, the intervention as delivered compared with the control had no impact on the intake of fruit and vegetables (2 g/d, 95 % CI -23, 26 g/d) or on the number of portions of fruit (0.0 portions, 95 % CI - 0.3, 0.3) or vegetables (0.0 portions, 95 % CI - 0.2, 0.3) consumed daily by children. Intake of fruit and vegetables at school and home dropped by ≈ 100 g/d and 50 g/d, respectively, between baseline and follow-up in both the intervention and control groups. Implementation of the intervention was low, with associated lack of impact on fruit and vegetable consumption in children. Alternatives to the delivery of an intervention by teachers and parents are needed to improve the dietary intake of primary-school children.

  3. Improving children's physical self-perception through a school-based physical activity intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars B.; Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brondeel, Ruben

    2018-01-01

    ) PE lessons, 2) in-class activity outside PE, and 3) physical activity during break-time. It used a cluster-randomized design to select 24 Danish schools either for intervention or for control. Survey data on self-perception variables, socio-demographics and physical activity was collected prior......Purpose Physical activity at school can improve the mental health of all children – especially if it targets children's developmental needs and is carried out in a positive social climate. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a 9-month school intervention focusing...... on physical self-worth, self-perceived sport competence, body attractiveness, social competences and global self-worth in children aged 10–13 years. Methods Taking self-determination theory as its starting point, the intervention was developed and pilot-tested in close co-operation with schools. It targeted 1...

  4. The Role of Adherence on the Impact of a School-Based Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Intervention in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Joshua V; Trinies, Victoria; Toubkiss, Jérémie; Freeman, Matthew C

    2017-04-01

    AbstractStudies assessing the impacts of school-based water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions have revealed inconsistent improvements in pupils' health and educational outcomes. This may be in part due to suboptimal project fidelity or adherence. As part of a matched-control trial of a comprehensive school-based WASH project in Mali, we measured the degree to which schools met four prespecified WASH targets, comprised of 15 criteria, 0-3 years after program implementation. We compared achievement of the targets and criteria between beneficiary and matched control schools, and compared achievement within beneficiary schools at baseline and at follow-up visits. We assessed the "as-treated" associations between WASH target achievement and pupil diarrhea, respiratory symptoms, and absence. Between 44% and 81% of beneficiary schools achieved each target. Although adherence was inconsistent across schools, beneficiary schools, on average, met more WASH targets than matched control schools, and beneficiary schools also met more WASH targets at follow-up than at baseline. Very few of the targets were individually associated with health and absenteeism outcomes. Increasing achievement of multiple WASH targets together was associated with a lower odds of pupils having diarrhea (P trend < 0.01) and having respiratory symptoms (P trend < 0.01), but was not associated with roll-call absence (P trend = 0.14) or pupil-reported absence (P trend = 0.41). These results indicate that a comprehensive WASH intervention and a focus on increasing adherence may help maximize the health effects of school WASH programs, but that WASH alone might not be sufficient to decrease pupils' absenteeism.

  5. A randomised controlled feasibility trial for an educational school-based mental health intervention: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Katharine Elizabeth; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max

    2012-03-22

    With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors' knowledge. If efficacious the intervention could provide a

  6. Effects of a school-based intervention on active commuting to school and health-related fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-González, Emilio; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mendoza, Jason A; Chillón, Palma

    2017-01-05

    Active commuting to school has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The main objective was to investigate the effects of a school-based intervention on active commuting to school and health-related fitness in school-age children of Southern Spain. A total of 494 children aged 8 to 11 years were invited to participate in the study. The schools were non-randomly allocated (i.e., school level allocation) into the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). The EG received an intervention program for 6 months (a monthly activity) focused on increasing the level of active commuting to school and mainly targeting children's perceptions and attitudes. Active commuting to school and health-related fitness (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and speed-agility), were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Children with valid data on commuting to school at baseline and follow-up, sex, age and distance from home to school were included in the final analysis (n = 251). Data was analyzed through a factorial ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. At follow up, the EG had higher rates of cycling to school than CG for boys only (p = 0.04), but not for walking to school for boys or girls. The EG avoided increases in the rates of passive commuting at follow up, which increased in the CG among girls for car (MD = 1.77; SE = 0.714; p = 0.010) and bus (MD = 1.77; SE = 0.714; p = 0.010) modes. Moreover, we observed significant interactions and main effects between independent variables (study group, sex and assessment time point) on health-related fitness (p fitness. However, the school-based intervention avoided increases in rates of passive commuting in the experimental group, which were significantly increased in girls of the control group.

  7. Two-year controlled effectiveness trial of a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in Chilean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Barbara; Cerda, Ricardo; Vio, Fernando; Uauy, Ricardo

    2009-09-01

    Obesity prevalence among Chilean children is 19.4%. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a school-based obesity prevention programme. Non-randomized controlled study. The intervention included activities in nutrition and physical activity, fully applied the first year and partially in the second one. Primary outcomes were BMI Z-score (BMIZ) and obesity prevalence; secondary outcomes were waist circumference and triceps skinfold thickness. Time effects were assessed by changes in BMI-related variables by gender and period (ANOVA and Tukey test), while intervention effects were determined by comparing changes in (i) obesity prevalence by gender and period (PROC GENMOD) and (ii) BMIZ according gender, age and period (PROC MIXED). Primary schools in the Chilean cities of Casablanca (intervention group) and Quillota (control group). One thousand seven hundred and fifty-nine children from three schools (intervention group) and 671 from one school (control group). Over the two years, obesity prevalence and BMIZ declined significantly in the intervention group; from 17.0% to 12.3% and 14.1% to 10.3% in boys and girls, respectively, and from 0.62 to 0.53 and 0.64 to 0.58, respectively. In the control group, obesity remained stable at about 21% and 15%, while BMIZ increased significantly in the second year. BMIZ declined in both genders and all age categories in the intervention group during the first year (significant only in younger boys). No changes occurred during the summer, while during the second year, BMIZ increased in boys and girls from both groups (significant only in the younger control boys). Obesity declined significantly only in boys during the first year. Effectiveness was greater in the first school year and more evident in younger boys.

  8. Intervention Effects of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme on Obesity Related Behavioural Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kobel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children’s behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA, a decrease in screen media use (SMU, more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years participated in the cluster-randomised study and were assessed at baseline and 1736 of them at follow-up. Teachers delivered lessons, which included behavioural contracting and budgeting of SMU and SDC. Daily SMU, PA behaviours, SDC, and breakfast patterns were assessed via parental questionnaire. After one-year intervention, significant effects were found in the intervention group for SMU of girls, children without migration background, and children with parents having a low education level. In the control group, second grade children skipped breakfast significantly more often. Tendencies but no significant differences were found for PA and SDC. This intervention seems to affect groups, which are usually hard to reach, such as children of parents with low education levels, which shows that active parental involvement is vital for successful interventions.

  9. Feasibility of a School-Based Parenting Intervention for Adolescent Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Kristin M.; Sheridan, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Associated with complex developmental, personal, and environmental risk factors, adolescent parents have been found to display higher rates of unfavorable parenting practices than adult parents, placing their children at high risk for social, emotional and behavioral concerns. Nevertheless, interventions targeting this group often focus solely on…

  10. Social Validity of the Critical Incident Stress Management Model for School-Based Crisis Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Julie Q.

    2007-01-01

    The Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) model for crisis intervention was developed for use with emergency service personnel. Research regarding the use of the CISM model has been conducted among civilians and high-risk occupation groups with mixed results. The purpose of this study is to examine the social validity of the CISM model for…

  11. A Psychoeducational School-Based Group Intervention for Socially Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Damer, Diana E.; Mellou, Angeliki; Mitropoulou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a psychoeducational group for social anxiety aimed at elementary children. An 8-week psychoeducational program based on empirically validated risk factors was designed. Interventions included cognitive restructuring, anxiety management techniques, and social skills training. Pre-and posttest data from 3 groups…

  12. Promoting Mental Health Literacy among Educators: Critical in School-Based Prevention and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…

  13. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Students: Symptoms and School-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Leininger, Melissa; Heath, Melissa Allen; Prater, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article provides current information relevant to school social workers who serve students with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including how OCD is defined in children and adolescents, the impact of OCD on schooling, issues in identifying students with OCD, and effective interventions. The authors offer suggestions for collaboration…

  14. A meta-review of school-based disaster interventions for child and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Children and adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups affected by natural and man-made disaster. To better understand research and practice concerning mental health and psychosocial support efforts in humanitarian settings, the authors conducted a comprehensive review of all intervention ...

  15. Review of Brief School-Based Positive Psychological Interventions: A Taster for Teachers and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankland, Rébecca; Rosset, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Research studies looking into the effects of positive psychology interventions (PPIs) implemented in classrooms have yielded promising results, not only in terms of student well-being but also in terms of academic outcomes, school climate, and teacher well-being. However, a number of PPIs require relatively high levels of commitment from school…

  16. Impact of a school-based intervention to promote fruit intake: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, R; Araújo, A; Padrão, P; Lopes, O; Moreira, A; Abreu, S; Vale, S; Pereira, B; Moreira, P

    2016-07-01

    There is evidence that fruit consumption among school children is below the recommended levels. This study aims to examine the effects of a dietary education intervention program me, held by teachers previously trained in nutrition, on the consumption of fruit as a dessert at lunch and dinner, among children 6-12 years old. This is a randomized trial with the schools as the unit of randomisation. A total of 464 children (239 female, 6-12years) from seven elementary schools participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Three schools were allocated to the intervention and four to the control group. For the intervention schools, we delivered professional development training to school teachers (12 sessions of 3 h each). The training provided information about nutrition, healthy eating, the importance of drinking water and healthy cooking activities. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop classroom activities focused on the learned topics. Sociodemographic was assessed at baseline and anthropometric, dietary intake and physical activity assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Dietary intake was evaluated by a 24-h dietary recall and fruit consumption as a dessert was gathered at lunch and dinner. Intervened children reported a significant higher intake in the consumption of fruit compared to the controlled children at lunch (P = 0.001) and at dinner (P = 0.012), after adjusting for confounders. Our study provides further support for the success of intervention programmes aimed at improving the consumption of fruit as a dessert in children. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A randomised controlled feasibility trial for an educational school-based mental health intervention: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisholm Katharine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors

  18. A randomised controlled feasibility trial for an educational school-based mental health intervention: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year [1], coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors' knowledge. If efficacious

  19. Protocol for systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in African learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Theodosia; Puoane, Thandi; De Villiers, Anniza; Kengne, André Pascal

    2017-03-27

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in childhood in developing countries is a public health concern to many governments. Schools play a significant role in the obesity epidemic as well as provide favourable environments for change in behaviours in childhood which can be carried on into adulthood. There is dearth of information on intervention studies in poor-resource settings. This review will summarise the available evidence on school-based interventions that focused on promoting healthy eating and physical activity among learners aged 6-15 years in Africa and to identify factors that lead to successful interventions or potential barriers to success of these programmes within the African context. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRIMSA-P 2015. Relevant search terms and keywords generated from the subject headings and the African search filter will be used to conduct a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed), MEDLINE (EbscoHost), CINAHL (EbscoHost), Register Academic Search Complete (EbscoHost) and ISI Web of Science (Science Citation Index) for published literature on school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in learners in Africa. Grey literature will be also be obtained. The searches will cover 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2016. No language limitations will be applied. Full-text articles of eligible studies will be screened. Risk of bias and quality of reporting will be assessed. Data will be extracted, synthesised and presented by country and major regional groupings. Meta-analysis will be conducted for identical variables across studies, where data allow. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRISMA-P 2015. No primary data will be collected hence ethics is not a requirement. The findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, in conferences and in policy documents for decision-making, where needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  20. School-based diabetes interventions and their outcomes: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Pansier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases, while type 2 diabetes in children is increasing at alarming rates globally. Against this backdrop, the school is a critical environment for children with diabetes. They continue to face barriers to education that may lead to depression, poor academic performance, and poor quality of life. To address these challenges, diabetes interventions have been implemented in school and the goal was to systematically review these interventions and their outcomes between 2000 and 2013. Fifteen studies were included in the narrative synthesis. Education of school personnel was the main focus before 2006. Studies reported gains in knowledge and perceived confidence of school staff. Since 2006, more comprehensive interventions have been developed to promote better care coordination and create a safe school environment. These studies reported improved diabetes management and quality of life of students. Assessment tools varied and study design included randomized controlled trials, quantitative and qualitative methods. Although many of the studies reported a significant difference in the parameters measured, it was not possible to determine optimal ways to improve the health, quality of life and academic performance of children with diabetes, given the disparity in scope, assessment tools and measured outcomes. Experimental designs, longer follow-up studies, larger sample sizes, and a higher number of participating schools are critical issues to consider in future studies. Most of the research was conducted in North America and further research is needed in other parts of the world.

  1. Reductions in Traumatic Stress Following a Coping Intervention Were Mediated by Decreases in Avoidant Coping for People Living with HIV/AIDS and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ranby, Krista W.; Meade, Christina S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kochman, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether (a) Living in the Face of Trauma (LIFT), a group intervention to address coping with HIV and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), significantly reduced traumatic stress over a 1-year follow-up period more than an attention-matched support group comparison intervention; and (b) reductions in avoidant coping over time mediated…

  2. Evaluation of a school-based diabetes education intervention, an extension of Program ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Matthew David

    Background: The prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes in the United States has increased over the past two decades and rates remain high. The latest data from the National Center for Health Statistics estimates that 36% of adults and 17% of children and adolescents in the US are obese (CDC Adult Obesity, CDC Childhood Obesity). Being overweight or obese greatly increases one's risk of developing several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 8% of adults in the US have diabetes, type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of these cases. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is still rare, however clinical reports suggest an increase in the frequency of diagnosis (CDC Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011). Results from the Diabetes Prevention Program show that the incidence of type 2 diabetes can be reduced through the adoption of a healthier lifestyle among high-risk individuals (DPP, 2002). Objectives: This classroom-based intervention included scientific coverage of energy balance, diabetes, diabetes prevention strategies, and diabetes management. Coverage of diabetes management topics were included in lesson content to further the students' understanding of the disease. Measurable short-term goals of the intervention included increases in: general diabetes knowledge, diabetes management knowledge, and awareness of type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. Methods: A total of 66 sixth grade students at Tavelli Elementary School in Fort Collins, CO completed the intervention. The program consisted of nine classroom-based lessons; students participated in one lesson every two weeks. The lessons were delivered from November of 2005 to May of 2006. Each bi-weekly lesson included a presentation and interactive group activities. Participants completed two diabetes knowledge questionnaires at baseline and post intervention. A diabetes survey developed by Program ENERGY measured general diabetes knowledge and awareness of type 2 diabetes prevention strategies

  3. Emotional intelligence and coping styles: An intervention in geriatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia-Cobo, Carmen María; Suárez, Soraya González; Menéndez Crispín, Ernesto J; Sarabia Cobo, A Belén; Pérez, Victoria; de Lorena, Pablo; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Cristina; Sanlúcar Gross, Laura

    2017-06-01

    Current research indicates a relationship between EI, stress, coping strategies, well-being and mental health. Emotional intelligence skills and knowledge, and coping strategies can be increased with training. The aims of this study were to use a controlled design to test the impact of theoretically based training on the different components of EI and coping styles in a sample of nurses working with older adults. A group of 92 professionals (RN and CAN) who attended a workshop on EI were included in the study. They completed a self-reported measure of EI and coping styles on three occasions: pre- and post-workshop and at one year follow-up. The EI workshop consisted of four 4-h sessions conducted over a four-week period. Each session was held at the one-week interval. This interval allowed participants to apply what was taught during the session to their daily life. The instruments to measure the EI and coping were the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and the CAE test. There were significant differences between the pre- and post-workshop measures both at the end of the workshop and up to one year for both the Trait Meta-Mood Scale scores and the CAE test. There was a significant increase in the EI and coping styles after the workshop and one year thereafter. The workshop was useful for developing EI in the professionals. The immediate impact of the emotional consciousness of individuals was particularly significant for all participants. The long-term impact was notable for the significant increase in EI and most coping styles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Systematic review of universal school-based 'resilience' interventions targeting adolescent tobacco, alcohol or illicit substance use: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Wolfenden, Luke; Bowman, Jenny; Nepal, Smriti; Dray, Julia; Kingsland, Melanie; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wiggers, John

    2017-07-01

    Universal school-based interventions that address adolescent 'resilience' may represent a means of reducing adolescent substance use, however previous systematic reviews have not examined the effectiveness of such an intervention approach. A systematic review was undertaken to 1) assess whether universal school-based 'resilience' interventions are effective in reducing the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol or illicit substance use by adolescents, and 2) describe such effectiveness per intervention characteristic subgroups. Eligible studies were peer-reviewed reports (1994-2015) of randomised controlled trials including participants aged 5-18years that reported adolescent tobacco, alcohol or illicit substance use, and implemented a universal school-based 'resilience' intervention (i.e. those addressing both individual (e.g. self-esteem) and environmental (e.g. school connectedness) protective factors of resilience). Trial effects for binary outcomes were synthesised via meta-analyses and effect sizes reported as odds ratios. Subgroup (by intervention type, prevention approach, setting, intervention duration, follow-up length) and sensitivity analyses (excluding studies at high risk of bias) were conducted. Nineteen eligible studies were identified from 16,619 records (tobacco: n=15, alcohol: n=17, illicit: n=11). An overall intervention effect was found for binary measures of illicit substance use (n=10; OR: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.6-0.93, p=0.007,Tau2=0.0, I2=0%), but not tobacco or alcohol use. A similar result was found when studies assessed as high risk of bias were excluded. Overall intervention effects were evident for illicit substance use within multiple intervention characteristic subgroups, but not tobacco and alcohol. Such results support the implementation of universal school-based interventions that address 'resilience' protective factors to reduce adolescent illicit substance use, however suggest alternate approaches are required for tobacco and alcohol use

  5. Testing an Integrated Model of Program Implementation: the Food, Health & Choices School-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention Process Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Gray, Heewon Lee; Tipton, Elizabeth; Contento, Isobel; Koch, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex, worldwide problem. Significant resources are invested in its prevention, and high-quality evaluations of these efforts are important. Conducting trials in school settings is complicated, making process evaluations useful for explaining results. Intervention fidelity has been demonstrated to influence outcomes, but others have suggested that other aspects of implementation, including participant responsiveness, should be examined more systematically. During Food, Health & Choices (FHC), a school-based childhood obesity prevention trial designed to test a curriculum and wellness policy taught by trained FHC instructors to fifth grade students in 20 schools during 2012-2013, we assessed relationships among facilitator behaviors (i.e., fidelity and teacher interest); participant behaviors (i.e., student satisfaction and recall); and program outcomes (i.e., energy balance-related behaviors) using hierarchical linear models, controlling for student, class, and school characteristics. We found positive relationships between student satisfaction and recall and program outcomes, but not fidelity and program outcomes. We also found relationships between teacher interest and fidelity when teachers participated in implementation. Finally, we found a significant interaction between fidelity and satisfaction on behavioral outcomes. These findings suggest that individual students in the same class responded differently to the same intervention. They also suggest the importance of teacher buy-in for successful intervention implementation. Future studies should examine how facilitator and participant behaviors together are related to both outcomes and implementation. Assessing multiple aspects of implementation using models that account for contextual influences on behavioral outcomes is an important step forward for prevention intervention process evaluations.

  6. Intervention fidelity in a school-based diet and physical activity intervention in the UK: Active for Life Year 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rona; Rawlins, Emma; Wells, Sian; Kipping, Ruth R; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Peters, Tim J; Lawlor, Debbie A; Jago, Russell

    2015-11-11

    Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) is an educational programme for Year 5 children (aged 9-10) designed to increase children's physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviour and increase fruit and vegetable intake. This paper reports findings from a process evaluation embedded within a randomised controlled trial evaluating the programme's effectiveness. It considers the fidelity of implementation of AFLY5 with a focus on three research questions: 1. To what extent was the intervention delivered as planned? 2. In what ways, if any, did the teachers amend the programme? and 3. What were the reasons for any amendments? Mixed methods were used including data collection via observation of the intervention delivery, questionnaire, teacher's intervention delivery log and semi-structured interviews with teachers and parents. Qualitative data were analysed thematically and quantitative data were summarised using descriptive statistics. Following training, 42 of the 43 intervention school teachers/teaching staff (98%) were confident they could deliver the nutrition and physical activity lessons according to plan. The mean number of lessons taught was 12.3 (s.d. 3.7), equating to 77% of the intervention. Reach was high with 95% of children in intervention schools receiving lessons. A mean of 6.2 (s.d. 2.6) out of 10 homeworks were delivered. Median lesson preparation time was 10 min (IQR 10-20) and 28% of lessons were reported as having been amended. Qualitative findings revealed that those who amended the lessons did so to differentiate for student ability, update them for use with new technologies and to enhance teacher and student engagement. Teachers endorsed the aims of the intervention, but some were frustrated with having to adapt the lesson materials. Teachers also a reported tendency to delegate the physical activity lessons to other staff not trained in the intervention. Fidelity of intervention implementation was good but teachers' enthusiasm for the AFLY5 programme

  7. The role of community, family, peer, and school factors in group bullying: implications for school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael J; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Smith, Megan L

    2015-07-01

    Although an ecological perspective suggests the importance of multiple levels of intervention, most bullying research has emphasized individual- and school-focused strategies. This study investigated community and family factors that influence school efforts to reduce odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze data from the 2009 Youth in Iceland population school survey (N = 7084, response rate: 83.5%, 50.8% girls). Parental support and time spent with parents were protective against group bullying behavior while worsening relationships with teachers and disliking school increased the likelihood of such behavior. Knowing kids in the area increased the likelihood of group bullying while intergenerational closure was a protective factor. Normlessness was consistently positively related to group bullying. We found no indication of higher-level relationships across the bullying models. Parental support was protective against victimization. Disliking school, intergenerational closure, and anomie/normlessness were strongly and negatively related to victimization. We found some indication of multilevel relationships for victimization. Findings support efforts to increase family and community connection, closure, and support as a part of school-based intervention. These factors become more important as young people participate in or experience greater odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  8. Outcomes of a school-based intervention on rabies prevention among school children in rural Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Koji; Obayashi, Yoshi; Jayasinghe, Ananda; Gunawardena, G S P de S; Delpitiya, N Y; Priyadarshani, N G W; Gamage, Chandika D; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2015-09-01

    In Sri Lanka, one of the major challenges in rabies control is to manage the dog population and subsequently to protect people, especially young children, from dog bites. In 2009, an educational-entertainment campaign called 'Rabies Edutainment 4 Kids' was introduced in the school curricula in rural Sri Lanka to improve practices on rabies prevention and pet care among school children, and to evaluate its effectiveness through pre- and post-tests. The level of rabies knowledge, attitude and practice among the pupils was dependent on their responses to a survey, and scores were significantly improved both among the study and control groups after the intervention. A lecture accompanied by a rabies awareness leaflet was much more effective in improving knowledge than the leaflet alone. The type of intervention and language used was significantly associated with the score increment (pSri Lanka would be reduced if they are given appropriate information on rabies prevention as a part of the school curricula. Close collaboration with local education offices is key to successful implementation of school-based rabies control programmes, which is, in turn, crucial to the eradication of rabies from Sri Lanka. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. School-based individualised lifestyle intervention decreases obesity and the metabolic syndrome in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Montemayor, L; Gutierrez, N G; Moreno, D M; Martínez, U; Tamargo, D; Treviño, M

    2013-07-01

    Currently, there is limited evidence about effective strategies to manage childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in school settings. The present study aims to analyse changes in the prevalence of being overweight/obese and having the metabolic syndrome in relation to a 10-month lifestyle intervention based on individualised face-to-face sessions and parental education in school settings. The study sample comprised a cross-sectional sample of 96 overweight/obese Mexican children aged 6-12 years from eight schools. Clinical, anthropometric measurements and 24-h recalls were obtained during each of 13 visits. Laboratory measurements were determined at the beginning and end. The energy-reduced diet was based on dietary recommended intakes. Individualised structured daily meals and a physical activity plan, tailored-made for each child, were provided every 3 weeks at the schools. Parental attendance was required. Student's t-test, McNemar and Shapiro-Wilk tests and simple linear regression were used for the statistical analysis. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome fell significantly from 44% to 16% (P children, 32% achieved normal-weight, whereas 24% of the obese ones converted to overweight and 1% reached normal-weight. Physical activity increased 16 min/day(-1) (P = 0.02) and 2 days/week(-1) . A school-setting lifestyle intervention led to a decreased prevalence of being overweight/obese and to a striking reduction in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a sample of Mexican children. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Grief and trauma intervention for children after disaster: exploring coping skills versus trauma narration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alison; Overstreet, Stacy

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of the Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) with coping skills and trauma narrative processing (CN) and coping skills only (C). Seventy African American children (6-12 years old) were randomly assigned to GTI-CN or GTI-C. Both treatments consisted of a manualized 11-session intervention and a parent meeting. Measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, traumatic grief, global distress, social support, and parent reported behavioral problems were administered at pre, post, 3 and 12 months post intervention. In general, children in both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in distress related symptoms and social support, which, with the exception of externalizing symptoms for GTI-C, were maintained up to 12 months post intervention. Results suggest that building coping skills without the structured trauma narrative may be a viable intervention to achieve symptom relief in children experiencing trauma-related distress. However, it may be that highly distressed children experience more symptom relief with coping skills plus narrative processing than with coping skills alone. More research on the differential effects of coping skills and trauma narration on child distress and adaptive functioning outcomes is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving the well-being of children and youths: a randomized multicomponent, school-based, physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedegaard, Søren; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Bredahl, Thomas; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2016-10-28

    The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well-being. Unfortunately many children and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being. The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4 th to the 6 th grade (10-13 years). A four-phased intervention - design, pilot, RCT, evaluation - is carried out for the development, implementation and evaluation of the intervention which are guided by The Medical Research Council framework for the development of complex interventions. 24 schools have been randomized and the total study population consists of 3124 children (baseline), who are followed over a period of 9 months. Outcome measure data at the pupil level are collected using an online questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up, 9 months later with instruments for measuring primary (general physical self-worth) and secondary outcomes (self-perceived sport competences, body attractiveness, scholastic competences, social competences and global self-worth; enjoyment of PA; self-efficacy; and general well-being) that are both valid and manageable in setting-based research. The RE-AIM framework is applied as an overall instrument to guide the evaluation. The intervention focuses on the mental benefits of physical activity at school, which has been a rather neglected theme in health promotion research during recent decades. This is unfortunate as mental health has been proclaimed as one of the most important health concerns of the 21 st century. Applying a cluster RCT study design, evaluating the real-world effectiveness of the intervention, this study is one of the largest

  12. Improving the well-being of children and youths: a randomized multicomponent, school-based, physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Smedegaard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well‐being. Unfortunately many children and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being. The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4th to the 6th grade (10–13 years. Methods A four-phased intervention – design, pilot, RCT, evaluation - is carried out for the development, implementation and evaluation of the intervention which are guided by The Medical Research Council framework for the development of complex interventions. 24 schools have been randomized and the total study population consists of 3124 children (baseline, who are followed over a period of 9 months. Outcome measure data at the pupil level are collected using an online questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up, 9 months later with instruments for measuring primary (general physical self-worth and secondary outcomes (self-perceived sport competences, body attractiveness, scholastic competences, social competences and global self-worth; enjoyment of PA; self-efficacy; and general well-being that are both valid and manageable in setting-based research. The RE-AIM framework is applied as an overall instrument to guide the evaluation. Discussion The intervention focuses on the mental benefits of physical activity at school, which has been a rather neglected theme in health promotion research during recent decades. This is unfortunate as mental health has been proclaimed as one of the most important health concerns of the 21st century. Applying a cluster RCT study design, evaluating the real-world effectiveness of

  13. Child characteristics associated with outcome for children with autism in a school-based behavioral intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E; Kerns, Connor M; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C; Mandell, David S

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child characteristics (including age, language ability, autism severity, social skills, adaptive behavior, co-occurring psychological symptoms, and restrictive and repetitive behavior) and outcome, as measured by changes in cognitive ability following one academic year of an intervention standardized across the sample were evaluated using linear regression with random effects for classroom. While several scales and subscales had statistically significant bivariate associations with outcome, in adjusted analysis, only age and the presence of symptoms associated with social anxiety, such as social avoidance and social fearfulness, as measured through the Child Symptom Inventory-4, were associated with differences in outcome. The findings regarding the role of social anxiety are new and have important implications for treatment. Disentangling the construct of social anxiety to differentiate between social fearfulness and social motivation has important implications for shifting the focus of early treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Physical activity and child health: Can school-based intervention make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Quinto Romani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractChildhood obesity and inactivity is a significant public health problem that also has economic consequences. Therefore, economists have a role to play in determining the causal impacts. The influences of childhood background on outcomes can, usefully, be broken down into the effect of family, school and peer. To combat the raising childhood obesity, schools have been advocated as a potential area. This paper analyses whether increasing physical activity in a school context can contribute to health improvement using multiple outcomes. We address the issue by using a unique longitudinal data set of, respectively, 1087 (BMI and 1047 (fitness schoolchildren attending 37 state schools in the Municipality of Aalborg, Denmark. The effect is identified by using a randomized experiment that creates an exogenous increase in physical activity. Surprisingly, we find that the intervention did not have the expected impact on schoolchildren’s health, and the scant evidence we have points towards a negative effect. A plausible explanation is that the results mask important heterogeneity. Another plausible explanation is that the results also capture any compensating behaviour that schoolchildren engage in by being less active out of school. From a public-policy perspective, increasing physical activity in a school context seems to increase the ‘gap’ in child health and ‘crowd-out’ outside-school physical activity. Consequently, a supportive cost-benefit case might exist if parental behaviour is assumed to be affected by school resources and endogenous.

  15. School-Based Programs Aimed at the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity: Evidence-Based Interventions for Youth in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K.; Nagle, Brian J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Barquera, Simon; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be…

  16. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; van Mechelen, W.; Brug, J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials.

  17. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  18. Feasibility and impact of a school-based intervention for families of urban adolescents with asthma: results from a randomized pilot trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Unikel, Lynne; Gallagher, Richard; Evans, David; Colland, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and short-term outcomes of Asthma: It's a Family Affair!, a school-based intervention for adolescents with asthma and their caregivers. Twenty-four ethnic minority families with a middle school student with asthma were randomized to immediate

  19. A School Based Intervention for Combating Food Insecurity and Promoting Healthy Nutrition in a Developed Country Undergoing Economic Crisis: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalma, A.; Veloudaki, A.; Petralias, A.; Mitraka, K.; Zota, D.; Kastorini, C.-M.; Yannakoulia, M.; Linos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aiming at reducing the rates of food insecurity and promoting healthy diet for children and adolescents, we designed and implemented the Program on Food Aid and Promotion of Healthy Nutrition-DIATROFI, a school-based intervention program including the daily provision of a free healthy mid-day meal in disadvantaged areas across…

  20. A mixed methods process evaluation of the implementation of JUMP-in, a multilevel school-based intervention aimed at physical activity promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meij, J.; van der Wal, M.F.; van Mechelen, W.; Chinapaw, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors influencing the adoption, implementation, and institutionalization process of JUMP-in-a multilevel school-based physical activity promotion program-to optimize the dissemination of the intervention and improve its effectiveness. The

  1. Two-Year Impacts of a Universal School-Based Social-Emotional and Literacy Intervention: An Experiment in Translational Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Brown, Joshua L.; Lawrence Aber, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to ongoing scholarship at the nexus of translational research, education reform, and the developmental and prevention sciences. It reports 2-year experimental impacts of a universal, integrated school-based intervention in social-emotional learning and literacy development on children's social-emotional, behavioral, and…

  2. The Longitudinal Impact of a Universal School-Based Social-Emotional and Literacy Intervention on Classroom Climate and Teacher Processes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua L.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    This presentation capitalizes on a three-year, longitudinal, school-randomized trial of the 4Rs Program, a comprehensive, school-based social-emotional and literacy program for elementary schools, to test intervention induced changes in features of classroom climate and key dimensions of teacher affective and pedagogical processes and practices…

  3. School-Based Peer-Related Social Competence Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis and Descriptive Review of Single Case Research Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalon, Kelly J.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Martinez, Jose R.; Werch, Brittany L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically examine and summarize the impact of school-based interventions designed to facilitate the peer-related social competence of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reviewed studies employed a single-case experimental design, targeted peer-related social competence, included children 3-12 years old…

  4. Effects of a brief school-based media literacy intervention on digital media use in adolescents: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birte; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a four-session school-based media literacy curriculum on adolescent computer gaming and Internet use behavior. The study comprised a cluster randomized controlled trial with three assessments (baseline, posttest, and 12-month follow-up). At baseline, a total of 2,303 sixth and seventh grade adolescents from 27 secondary schools were assessed. Of these, 1,843 (80%) could be reached at all three assessments (Mage=12.0 years; SD=0.83). Students of the intervention group received the media literacy program Vernetzte www.Welten ("Connected www.Worlds ") implemented by trained teachers during class time. The control group attended regular class. Main outcome measures were adolescents' computer gaming and Internet use: days per month, hours per day, and addictive use patterns. Parental media monitoring and rules at home were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results of multilevel growth-curve models revealed a significant intervention effect in terms of a lower increase in self-reported gaming frequency (β = -1.10 [95% CI -2.06, -0.13]), gaming time (β = -0.27 [95% CI -0.40, -0.14]), and proportion of excessive gamers (AOR=0.21 [95% CI 0.08, 0.57]) in the intervention group. There were also significant group-time interactions for the addictive gaming scale (β=-0.08 [95% CI -0.12, -0.04]), and the Internet Addiction Scale (β = -0.06 [95% CI -0.10, -0.01]). No effect was found for days and hours of Internet use or parental media behavior. The study shows that the program Vernetzte www.Welten can influence adolescents' media use behavior. Future research should address mediating and moderating variables of program effects.

  5. A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR IMPROVING THE RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AT AGES 12 TO 16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Laparidis

    2010-06-01

    studies are needed to evaluate more precisely the effectiveness of school-based interventions.

  6. Coping with itch, a nurse-led intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os-Medendorp, H. van

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide insight into the psychosocial morbidity and itch cognitions of patients with chronic pruritic skin disease and to develop, test and implement a nursing programme, to help patients to cope with itch. In a study of 168 patients, it became clear that patients with a

  7. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion-Learning, Cognition and Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Jakob; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study...... was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12-14 years old adolescents. METHODS: A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age......: 12.9 (0.6) years) completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects). The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using...

  8. The Role of Ethnicity in School-Based Obesity Intervention for School-Aged Children: A Pilot Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Sabrina A.; Carter, Jocelyn S.; DeCator, Draycen D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of obesity have risen disproportionately for ethnic minority youth in the United States. School-based programs may be the most comprehensive and cost-effective way to implement primary prevention in children. In this study we evaluated the effect of a school-based obesity prevention on the outcome of body mass index percentile…

  9. A meta-review of stress, coping and interventions in dementia and dementia caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooly, K J; Gilhooly, M L M; Sullivan, M P; McIntyre, A; Wilson, L; Harding, E; Woodbridge, R; Crutch, S

    2016-05-18

    There has been a substantial number of systematic reviews of stress, coping and interventions for people with dementia and their caregivers. This paper provides a meta-review of this literature 1988-2014. A meta-review was carried out of systematic reviews of stress, coping and interventions for people with dementia and their caregivers, using SCOPUS, Google Scholar and CINAHL Plus databases and manual searches. The meta-review identified 45 systematic reviews, of which 15 were meta-analyses. Thirty one reviews addressed the effects of interventions and 14 addressed the results of correlational studies of factors associated with stress and coping. Of the 31 systematic reviews dealing with intervention studies, 22 focused on caregivers, 6 focused on people with dementia and 3 addressed both groups. Overall, benefits in terms of psychological measures of mental health and depression were generally found for the use of problem focused coping strategies and acceptance and social-emotional support coping strategies. Poor outcomes were associated with wishful thinking, denial, and avoidance coping strategies. The interventions addressed in the systematic reviews were extremely varied and encompassed Psychosocial, Psychoeducational, Technical, Therapy, Support Groups and Multicomponent interventions. Specific outcome measures used in the primary sources covered by the systematic reviews were also extremely varied but could be grouped into three dimensions, viz., a broad dimension of "Psychological Well-Being v. Psychological Morbidity" and two narrower dimensions of "Knowledge and Coping" and of "Institutionalisation Delay". This meta-review supports the conclusion that being a caregiver for people with dementia is associated with psychological stress and physical ill-health. Benefits in terms of mental health and depression were generally found for caregiver coping strategies involving problem focus, acceptance and social-emotional support. Negative outcomes for

  10. Impact of a School-Based Hygiene Promotion and Sanitation Intervention on Pupil Hand Contamination in Western Kenya: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Leslie E.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Akoko, Daniel; Saboori, Shadi; Moe, Christine; Rheingans, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Handwashing with soap effectively reduces exposure to diarrhea-causing pathogens. Interventions to improve hygiene and sanitation conditions in schools within low-income countries have gained increased attention; however, their impact on schoolchildren's exposure to fecal pathogens has not been established. Our trial examined whether a school-based water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention reduced Escherichia coli contamination on pupils' hands in western Kenya. A hygiene promotion and wate...

  11. Promoting Positive Youth Development through School-Based Social and Emotional Learning Interventions: A Meta-Analysis of Follow-Up Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rebecca D.; Oberle, Eva; Durlak, Joseph A.; Weissberg, Roger P.

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed 82 school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions involving 97,406 kindergarten to high school students (M[subscript age] = 11.09 years; mean percent low socioeconomic status = 41.1; mean percent students of color = 45.9). Thirty-eight interventions took place outside the United States.…

  12. Developing Interventions for Children's Exercise (DICE): a pilot evaluation of school-based exercise interventions for primary school children aged 7 to 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Torgerson, David; McKenna, Jim; Ashby, Rebecca; Daly-Smith, Andy; Truscott, John; MacKay, Heather; Jennings, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Developing Interventions for Children's Exercise (DICE) is an initiative aimed at determining effective school-based exercise programs. To assess feasibility, we conducted a pilot study of exercise sessions which varied in duration and frequency. Exercise interventions were delivered to Year 3 pupils (age 7-8 years; n = 73) in primary schools within Yorkshire, UK. Evaluations were conducted using focus group sessions, questionnaires and observations. The study revealed positive aspects of all interventions, including favorable effects on children's concentration during lessons and identified the value of incorporation of the DICE concept into curriculum lessons. Children appeared enthused and reported well-being and enjoyment. Areas requiring attention were the need for appropriate timetabling of sessions and ensuring the availability of space. The concept and sessions were well-accepted by teachers who confirmed their full support of any future implementation There appears to be potential for the encouragement and empowerment of teachers to support physical activity and healthy school environments, and to take an interest in the health of their pupils. Ultimately, these findings should assist in the design of successful exercise interventions in the school setting.

  13. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahira M. Probst

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention × 4 (within-subjects time points mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR and heart rate (HR were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities.

  14. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Tahira M; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-03-18

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities.

  15. Interventions to cope with alcohol abuse: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.

  16. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  17. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and positively associated with the impairment of

  18. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion-Learning, Cognition and Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Jakob; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12-14 years old adolescents. METHODS: A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age...... an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study...

  19. Characteristics of Teacher Training in School-Based Physical Education Interventions to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills and/or Physical Activity: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Natalie; Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill (FMS) competence is positively associated with physical activity (PA). However, levels of both FMS and PA are lower than expected. Current reviews of interventions to improve FMS and PA have shown that many school-based programs have achieved positive outcomes, yet the maintenance of these interventions is variable. Teachers play a central role in the success and longevity of school-based interventions. Despite the importance of teacher engagement, research into the nature and quality of teacher training in school-based PA and FMS interventions has received little attention. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the type and quantity of teacher training in school-based physical education PA and/or FMS interventions, and to identify what role teacher training had on the intervention outcome. A systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Publication date restrictions were not implemented in any database, and the last search was performed on 1 March 2015. School physical education-based interventions facilitated by a school teacher, and that included a quantitative assessment of FMS competence and/or PA levels were included in the review. The search identified 39 articles. Eleven of the studies measured FMS, 25 studies measured PA and three measured both FMS and PA. Nine of the studies did not report on any aspect of the teacher training conducted. Of the 30 studies that reported on teacher training, 25 reported statistically significant intervention results for FMS and/or PA. It appears that teacher training programs: are ≥ 1 day; provide comprehensive subject and pedagogy content; are framed by a theory or model; provide follow-up or ongoing support; and measure teacher satisfaction of the training, are more effective at improving student outcomes in FMS and/or PA. However, the provision of information regarding the characteristics of the teacher training was largely inadequate. Therefore, it was

  20. Developing an Exploratory Response to Intervention Construct in the Behavior Domain: An Analysis of Outcome Measures and Targeted, School-Based Interventions for Elementary Students At-Risk for Severe Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielenz, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted, school-based behavioral interventions that are designed in the positive behavior support model and created for elementary students at-risk for severe problem behavior have used four approaches to measuring response to intervention: (1) office discipline referrals, (2) systematic direct observation, (3) standardized behavior rating…

  1. Evaluation of novel school-based interventions for adolescent sleep problems: does parental involvement and bright light improve outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnar, Daniel; Gradisar, Michael; Moseley, Lynette; Coughlin, Anne-Marie; Cain, Neralie; Short, Michelle A

    2015-03-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate school-based motivational sleep education programs (SEPs) with adjunct bright light therapy (BLT) and/or parental involvement (PI). Randomized controlled trial. Six high schools, matched on socio-economic status (SES). A total of 193 adolescents (mean age, 16.3 ± 0.4 years, 79%f). Classes were randomly assigned to (i) SEP + BLT, (ii) SEP + PI, (iii) SEP + BLT + PI, or (iv) classes-as-usual (CAU). Sleep education programs involved 4×50 minute classes (over 4 weeks) based on a Motivational Interviewing framework (Sleep Med 2011;12:246-251). Students in BLT groups attempted a weekend phase advance using portable green light LED glasses (500 nm; 506 lux). Parents of PI groups watched a series of 4 YouTube clips (2-3 minutes in length) outlining their adolescent's learning in class and how they could assist. Students in the CAU groups continued their regular classes. Online questionnaires measuring sleep knowledge, sleep patterns (bedtime, sleep latency, total sleep time [TST], etc) and mood at preintervention and postintervention and 6-week follow-up. Intervention groups also completed a motivation-to-change questionnaire and provided qualitative feedback. Improvements in sleep knowledge (d = 0.59-0.88), sleep onset latency (d = 0.45-0.50), TST (d = 0.32-0.57), and mood (d = 0.24-0.46) were observed in all intervention groups relative to the CAU group. Similar improvements were observed in a subgroup of students identified as having delayed sleep timing (ie, sleep knowledge: d = 0.45-0.92; sleep onset latency: d = 0.59-0.82; TST: d = 0.82-1.18). Increases in motivation to regularize out of bedtimes, obtain morning bright light (BLT groups), and avoid sleeping-in on weekends occurred (all P < .005). This motivational SEP produced meaningful and similar benefits for adolescents in all intervention groups. Longer BLT (ie, over school holidays) and more intensive parental inclusion should be investigated in future studies. Copyright

  2. Impact of a preventive intervention for perinatal depression on mood regulation, social support, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Tamar; Leis, Julie A; Perry, Deborah F; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Tandon, S Darius

    2013-06-01

    Perinatal depression prevention trials have rarely examined proximal outcomes that may be relevant for understanding long-term risk for depression. The Mothers and Babies (MB) Course is a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention intervention, which has been shown to prevent depressive symptoms among at-risk perinatal women of color. This study examined intervention impact on three proximal outcomes that are theoretically linked with the intervention's model of change and have been empirically linked with risk for depression: mood regulation expectancies, perceived social support, and coping. The study used data from a randomized intervention trial of the MB Course with 78 low-income, predominantly African-American perinatal women enrolled at one of four home visitation programs in Baltimore City. Mood regulation expectancies, perceived social support, and coping were assessed with self-report instruments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The intervention group experienced 16 % greater growth in mood regulation from baseline to 6-month follow-up compared to the usual care group, suggesting a prevention effect. The pattern of findings was similar, although not statistically significant, for social support. Contrary to prediction, the control group experienced less growth in avoidant coping than the intervention group. Findings indicate the MB Course enhances mood regulation, which may facilitate prevention of depression over time. Assessment of intervention effects on proximal outcomes is beneficial for understanding how interventions may enhance protective factors relevant to successful long-term outcomes.

  3. The Effects of Coping Interventions on Ability to Perform Under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Kent, Tracey J. Devonport, Andrew M. Lane, Wendy Nicholls, Andrew P. Friesen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perform under pressure is necessary to achieve goals in various domains of life. We conducted a systematic review to synthesise findings from applied studies that focus on interventions developed to enhance an individual’s ability to cope under performance pressure. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines, a comprehensive search of five electronic databases was conducted. This yielded 66,618 records, of which 23 peer review papers met inclusion criteria of containing an intervention that targeted coping skills for performing under pressure. Using the Standard Quality Assessment for evaluation of primary research papers (Kmet et al., 2004 to assess quality, included studies performed well on reporting research objectives, research design, and statistical procedures. Sixteen studies showed poor quality in controlling for potentially confounding factors and small sample sizes. A narrative aggregate synthesis identified intervention studies that provided an educational focus (n = 9, consultancy sessions (n = 6, simulation training (n = 5 and emotion regulation strategies (n = 3. Findings highlight a need to; 1 establish a contextualized pressure task which will generate high levels of ecological validity for participants. Having established a suitable pressure task, 2 research should assess the effects of pressure by evaluating conscious and nonconscious effects and associated coping mechanisms, which should inform the subsequent development of interventions, and 3 assess interventions to enhance understanding of the ways in which they improve coping with pressure, or may fail, and the mechanisms which may explain these outcomes.

  4. Parent Coping Support Interventions During Acute Pediatric Hospitalizations: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupnik, Stephanie K; Hill, Douglas; Palakshappa, Deepak; Worsley, Diana; Bae, Hanah; Shaik, Aleesha; Qiu, Maylene Kefeng; Marsac, Meghan; Feudtner, Chris

    2017-09-01

    Parents may experience psychological distress when a child is acutely hospitalized, which can negatively affect child outcomes. Interventions designed to support parents' coping have the potential to mitigate this distress. To describe interventions designed to provide coping support to parents of hospitalized children and conduct a meta-analysis of coping support intervention outcomes (parent anxiety, depression, and stress). We searched Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO, Psychiatry Online, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature from 1985 to 2016 for English-language articles including the concepts "pediatric," "hospitalization," "parents," and "coping support intervention." Two authors reviewed titles and abstracts to identify studies meeting inclusion criteria and reviewed full text if a determination was not possible using the title and abstract. References of studies meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed to identify additional articles for inclusion. Two authors abstracted data and assessed risk of bias by using a structured instrument. Initial searches yielded 3450 abstracts for possible inclusion. Thirty-two studies met criteria for inclusion in the systematic review and 12 studies met criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The most commonly measured outcomes were parent depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. In meta-analysis, combined intervention effects significantly reduced parent anxiety and stress but not depression. Heterogeneity among included studies was high. Most included studies were conducted at single centers with small sample sizes. Coping support interventions can alleviate parents' psychological distress during children's hospitalization. More evidence is needed to determine if such interventions benefit children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Effects of systematic mental intervention on mental health, personality and coping style in recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-zhen WANG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effects of systematic mental intervention, with combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, on mental health, personality and coping style in recruits, and explore an optimal intervention model for recruits' mental health. Methods  Two thousand and sixteen recruits in one unit were involved in the present study, among them 1064 were allocated to study group, and the remaining 952 to control group. Recruits in study group received centralized teaching with battalion as a unit, and received group interview in squad or platoon as a unit, and meanwhile individual interview was conducted. Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ were filled one month after they were enlisted in the army and 3 days before the training ended. Recruits in control group undertook the same tests mentioned above only 3 days before the training ended. Results  The total score and factor scores except hostility in SCL-90 test were significantly lower after than before systematic mental intervention (P0.05. The total score and factor scores except paranoia in SCL-90 test were significantly lower in study group than in control group after intervention (P0.05, the score of active coping was significantly higher (P<0.001, and of negative coping was significantly lower (P<0.001 after than before intervention. The ratio of the score over 2 and above declined obviously (P<0.05 in neurosis, SCL-90 abnormality, SCL-90 total scores, number of positive items, somatization, obsession, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia, paranoid, and psychotic factor after than before intervention in recruits. Conclusion  Systematic mental intervention, which consisted of combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, may promote the mental health, personality and coping style in recruits.

  6. Effects of a Teacher-Centred, School-Based Intervention Program on Health Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Wartha, Olivia; Brandstetter, Susanne; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children along with accompanying comorbidities has prompted an early acknowledgement of a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teacher-centered, school-based intervention on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and health behavior in elementary school children. 935 first- and second-grade children in southwest Germany provided valid data at baseline and follow-up. Trained technicians measured height and weig...

  7. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials.

  8. Universal School-Based Implementation of Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment to Reduce and Prevent Alcohol, Marijuana, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use: Process and Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Maslowsky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT is an evidence-based approach to reducing substance use in adolescents. An emerging literature shows the promise of school-based SBIRT. However, most school-based SBIRT has only targeted substance-using adolescents and used school-based health clinics, which most schools lack. This project aimed to describe the following: a model for implementing universal SBIRT in high schools without school-based clinics, reasons students most commonly endorsed for reducing or avoiding substance use, students’ perceptions of SBIRT, and students’ intentions to change substance use or remain abstinent following SBIRT. Participants were N = 2513, 9th to 10th grade students in 10 high schools. Students rated SBIRT positively and indicated substantial intentions to reduce or delay substance use following SBIRT. Results support SBIRT’s potential to delay substance use among current abstainers in addition to reducing substance use among current users. This project demonstrates SBIRT’s feasibility as a universal method in high schools without in-school clinics.

  9. Stimulating Resources to Cope with Challenging Times and New Realities: Effectiveness of a Career Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Di Maggio, Ilaria; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    A career intervention based on life design approach was devised for a group of young adults at risk for the process of career construction. It was aimed at fostering a series of resources useful to cope with career transitions, to encourage reflection on the future, to identify one's own strengths, and to plan future projects. Results of the study…

  10. Comparing Student Perceptions of Coping Strategies and School Interventions in Managing Bullying and Cyberbullying Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K.; Blumberg, Herbert H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 407 students in a central London secondary school participated in a survey of different approaches to managing traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Student perceptions of individual coping strategies and school interventions for traditional bullying and cyberbullying were measured. Rankings of the strategies for traditional bullying…

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Resilience and Coping Intervention (RCI) with Undergraduate University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J. Brian; First, Jennifer; Spialek, Matthew L.; Sorenson, Mary E.; Mills-Sandoval, Toby; Lockett, McKenzie; First, Nathan L.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Allen, Sandra F.; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the Resilience and Coping Intervention (RCI) with college students. Participants: College students (aged 18-23) from a large Midwest US university who volunteered for a randomized controlled trial during the 2015 spring semester. Methods: College students were randomly assigned to an…

  12. Evaluation of a Resilience Intervention to Enhance Coping Strategies and Protective Factors and Decrease Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Mary; Dolbier, Christyn

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In this pilot study, the authors examined the effectiveness of a 4-week resilience intervention to enhance resilience, coping strategies, and protective factors, as well as decrease symptomatology during a period of increased academic stress. Participants and Methods: College students were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 30) and…

  13. The effectiveness of a proactive coping intervention targeting self-management in diabetes patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Vinkers, Charlotte D W; van de Schoot, Rens; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study's aim was to investigate psychological, behavioral and medical long-term outcomes of an existing self-management intervention targeting the development of proactive coping skills (e.g. goal setting and identifying barriers) in type 2 diabetes patients. The study aimed to

  14. Coping with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Intervention Strategies and a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadalen, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Family-centered intervention after the death of a baby due to sudden infant death syndrome facilitates reorganization, growth, and development of the family system. A potentially defeating crisis becomes an opportunity to develop coping skills and strengthen family members. Public health nursing is an essential component of the program.…

  15. Raising awareness on cyber safety: adolescents' experience of a primary healthcare professional-led, school-based, multi-center intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Drosos, Evangelos; Drontsos, Anastasios; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Dantsi, Fotini; Sekeri, Zafiria; Dardavesis, Theodoros; Nanos, Panagiotis; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia

    2017-09-15

    Purpose Although safe Internet use is an emerging public health issue, there is a scarcity of published work describing relevant school-based interventions. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of a health professional-led, school-based intervention in raising awareness on cyber-safety in adolescents, Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate adolescents' evaluation of this school-based intervention, 6 months after its implementation, as well as the impact of adolescents' school class and gender on their evaluation. Methods A student sample was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling technique, according to the location and school grade level (middle, high school). The students - aged from 12 to 18 years old experienced an interactive presentation in their classrooms on the amount of time spent online, the use of social networks and the available support services. An evaluation tool was completed anonymously and voluntarily 6 months after the intervention. Results Four hundred and sixty-two students (response rate 90.7%, 246 middle, 216 high school) completed the evaluation tool. Younger students, especially the ones in the first year of middle school, scored significantly higher in all six parameters used in the evaluation of this intervention compared with all the older participants: (a) they had kept the presented information on Safeline and Saferinternet websites and the helpline Ypostirizo (70.2% vs. 33.7%, p cyber safety (66.4% vs. 34%, p cyber behavior (median 7 vs. 5, p cyber-safety based on their experiences was highly evaluated. The impact of the intervention on the youngest students underlines the need for raising awareness on cyber-safety and support services, earlier in the students' life.

  16. Helping Children Cope With Medical Tests and Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, E.V.; Viegas, J.; Bleeker, C.P.; Bruhn, J.; Geffen, G.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Medical procedures and tests become a challenge when anxiety and pain make it difficult for the patient to cooperate or remain still when needed. Fortunately, a short intervention with hypnoidal language at the onset of a procedure induces a positive and sustained change in the way pain and anxiety

  17. Treatment Integrity of School-Based Interventions with Children in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" 1991-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Gresham, Frank M.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed all school-based experimental studies with individuals 0 to 18 years published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" (JABA) between 1991 and 2005. A total of 142 articles (152 studies) that met review criteria were included. Nearly all (95%) of these experiments provided an operational definition of the independent variable,…

  18. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Interventions Aimed to Prevent or Reduce Violence in Teen Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rue, Lisa; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of violence in dating relationships has a significant impact on young people, including decreased mental and physical health. This review is the first to provide a quantitative synthesis of empirical evaluations of school-based programs implemented in middle and high schools that sought to prevent or reduce incidents of dating…

  19. The Psychology School Mental Health Initiative: An Innovative Approach to the Delivery of School-Based Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Golden M.; Lean, Debra; Sweet, Susan D.; Moraes, Sabrina C.; Nelson, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that schools have, by default, become the primary mental health system for students in Canada. The goal of the present study was to design, implement, and evaluate the Psychology School Mental Health Initiative (PSMHI). The PSMHI is an innovative attempt to increase the capacity of school-based psychology staff to deliver…

  20. Process evaluation of a school-based weight gain prevention program: the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.; Brug, J.; Mechelen, van W.

    2009-01-01

    Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the

  1. Typology of delivery quality: latent profile analysis of teacher engagement and delivery techniques in a school-based prevention intervention, keepin’ it REAL curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, YoungJu; Miller-Day, Michelle; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing the delivery quality of school-based, evidence-based prevention programs is one key to ensuring uniform program effects on student outcomes. Program evaluations often focus on content dosage when implementing prevention curricula, however, less is known about implementation quality of prevention content, especially among teachers who may or may not have a prevention background. The goal of the current study is to add to the scholarly literature on implementation quality for a school-based substance use prevention intervention. Twenty-five schools in Ohio and Pennsylvania implemented the original keepin’ REAL (kiR) substance use prevention curriculum. Each of the 10, 40–45 min lessons of the kiR curriculum was video recorded. Coders observed and rated a random sample of 276 videos reflecting 78 classes taught by 31 teachers. Codes included teachers’ delivery techniques (e.g. lecture, discussion, demonstration and role play) and engagement with students (e.g. attentiveness, enthusiasm and positivity). Based on the video ratings, a latent profile analysis was run to identify typology of delivery quality. Five profiles were identified: holistic approach, attentive teacher-orientated approach, enthusiastic lecture approach, engaged interactive learning approach and skill practice-only approach. This study provides a descriptive typology of delivery quality while implementing a school-based substance use prevention intervention. PMID:25274721

  2. Typology of delivery quality: latent profile analysis of teacher engagement and delivery techniques in a school-based prevention intervention, keepin' it REAL curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, YoungJu; Miller-Day, Michelle; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Hecht, Michael L; Krieger, Janice L

    2014-12-01

    Enhancing the delivery quality of school-based, evidence-based prevention programs is one key to ensuring uniform program effects on student outcomes. Program evaluations often focus on content dosage when implementing prevention curricula, however, less is known about implementation quality of prevention content, especially among teachers who may or may not have a prevention background. The goal of the current study is to add to the scholarly literature on implementation quality for a school-based substance use prevention intervention. Twenty-five schools in Ohio and Pennsylvania implemented the original keepin' REAL (kiR) substance use prevention curriculum. Each of the 10, 40-45 min lessons of the kiR curriculum was video recorded. Coders observed and rated a random sample of 276 videos reflecting 78 classes taught by 31 teachers. Codes included teachers' delivery techniques (e.g., lecture, discussion, demonstration and role play) and engagement with students (e.g. attentiveness, enthusiasm and positivity). Based on the video ratings, a latent profile analysis was run to identify typology of delivery quality. Five profiles were identified: holistic approach, attentive teacher-orientated approach, enthusiastic lecture approach, engaged interactive learning approach and skill practice-only approach. This study provides a descriptive typology of delivery quality while implementing a school-based substance use prevention intervention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Nutritional Knowledge and Habits of Low-Socioeconomic School Children in Israel: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Kaufman-Shriqui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA classes for children; the control (CArm received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6% completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p < 0.001 for all, habitual water drinking increased (p = 0.02, and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05. A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches.

  4. Effectiveness of a randomized school-based intervention involving families and teachers to prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana B Cunha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention involving the families and teachers that aimed to promote healthy eating habits in adolescents; the ultimate aim of the intervention was to reduce the increase in body mass index (BMI of the students.Paired cluster randomized school-based trial conducted with a sample of fifth graders.Twenty classes were randomly assigned into either an intervention group or a control group.From a total of 574 eligible students, 559 students participated in the study (intervention: 10 classes with 277 participants; control: 10 classes with 282 participants. The mean age of students was 11 years.Students attended 9 nutritional education sessions during the 2010 academic year. Parents/guardians and teachers received information on the same subjects.Changes in BMI and percentage of body fat.Intention-to-treat analysis showed that changes in BMI were not significantly different between the 2 groups (β = 0.003; p = 0.75. There was a major reduction in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and cookies in the intervention group; students in this group also consumed more fruits.Encouraging the adoption of healthy eating habits promoted important changes in the adolescent diet, but this did not lead to a reduction in BMI gain. Strategies based exclusively on the quality of diet may not reduce weight gain among adolescents.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01046474.

  5. What do parents think about parental participation in school-based interventions on energy balance-related behaviours? a qualitative study in 4 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity in youth has increased dramatically. Therefore, overweight prevention initiatives should start early in life and target modifiable energy balance-related behaviours. Parental participation is often advocated as important for school-based interventions, however, getting parents involved in school-based interventions appears to be challenging based on earlier intervention experiences. The purpose of this study was to get insight into the determinants of and perspectives on parental participation in school-interventions on energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, healthy eating, sedentary behaviours) in parents of ten- to twelve-year olds in order to develop an effective parental module for school-based interventions concerning energy balance-related behaviours. Methods Four countries (Belgium, Hungary, Norway and Spain) conducted the focus group research based on a standardised protocol and a semi-structured questioning route. A variation in parental socio-economic status (SES) and parental school involvement was taken into account when recruiting the parents. The audio taped interviews were transcribed, and a qualitative content analysis of the transcripts was conducted in each country. Results Seventeen focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 92 parents (12 men, 80 women). Physical activity was considered to be a joint responsibility of school and parents, nutrition as parent's responsibility but supported by the school, and prevention of sedentary behaviours as parent's sole responsibility. Parents proposed interactive and practical activities together with their child as the best way to involve them such as cooking, food tasting, nutrition workshops, walking or cycling tours, sport initiations together with their child. Activities should be cheap, on a convenient moment, focused on their children and not on themselves, not tutoring, not theoretical, and school-or home-based. Conclusions Parents want to

  6. What do parents think about parental participation in school-based interventions on energy balance-related behaviours? a qualitative study in 4 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Lippevelde Wendy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity in youth has increased dramatically. Therefore, overweight prevention initiatives should start early in life and target modifiable energy balance-related behaviours. Parental participation is often advocated as important for school-based interventions, however, getting parents involved in school-based interventions appears to be challenging based on earlier intervention experiences. The purpose of this study was to get insight into the determinants of and perspectives on parental participation in school-interventions on energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, healthy eating, sedentary behaviours in parents of ten- to twelve-year olds in order to develop an effective parental module for school-based interventions concerning energy balance-related behaviours. Methods Four countries (Belgium, Hungary, Norway and Spain conducted the focus group research based on a standardised protocol and a semi-structured questioning route. A variation in parental socio-economic status (SES and parental school involvement was taken into account when recruiting the parents. The audio taped interviews were transcribed, and a qualitative content analysis of the transcripts was conducted in each country. Results Seventeen focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 92 parents (12 men, 80 women. Physical activity was considered to be a joint responsibility of school and parents, nutrition as parent's responsibility but supported by the school, and prevention of sedentary behaviours as parent's sole responsibility. Parents proposed interactive and practical activities together with their child as the best way to involve them such as cooking, food tasting, nutrition workshops, walking or cycling tours, sport initiations together with their child. Activities should be cheap, on a convenient moment, focused on their children and not on themselves, not tutoring, not theoretical, and school-or home

  7. A school-based comprehensive lifestyle intervention among chinese kids against obesity (CLICK-Obesity): rationale, design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial in Nanjing city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity among adolescents has been rapidly rising in Mainland China in recent decades, especially in urban and rich areas. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Limited data regarding adolescent overweight prevention in China are available. Thus, we developed a school-based intervention with the aim of reducing excess body weight in children. This report described the study design. Methods/design We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 8 randomly selected urban primary schools between May 2010 and December 2013. Each school was randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group (four schools in each group). Participants were the 4th graders in each participating school. The multi-component program was implemented within the intervention group, while students in the control group followed their usual health and physical education curriculum with no additional intervention program. The intervention consisted of four components: a) classroom curriculum, (including physical education and healthy diet education), b) school environment support, c) family involvement, and d) fun programs/events. The primary study outcome was body composition, and secondary outcomes were behaviour and behavioural determinants. Discussion The intervention was designed with due consideration of Chinese cultural and familial tradition, social convention, and current primary education and exam system in Mainland China. We did our best to gain good support from educational authorities, school administrators, teachers and parents, and to integrate intervention components into schools’ regular academic programs. The results of and lesson learned from this study will help guide future school-based childhood obesity prevention programs in Mainland China. Trial registration Registration number: ChiCTR-ERC-11001819 PMID:22545755

  8. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published and 'grey' literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.

  9. A school-based peer-led smoking prevention intervention with extracurricular activities: the LILT-LdP cluster randomized controlled trial design and study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Sandra; Gorini, Giuseppe; Tamelli, Marco; Monti, Claudia; Storani, Simone; Carreras, Giulia; Martini, Andrea; Allara, Elias; Angelini, Paola; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Few school programs are effective in preventing adolescents' tobacco smoking initiation. The "Lega contro i Tumori - Luoghi di Prevenzione" is a cluster randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a school-based peer-led smoking prevention intervention with extracurricular activities for students aged 14-15 years. This paper presents the study design and the baseline characteristics of the study population. Twenty secondary schools located in the Reggio Emilia province took part in the study. Five schools were excluded because they already participated in smoking prevention interventions. The schools were randomized to control or intervention arms. The study population consisted of students attending the first grade. Components of the intervention included 1) the out-of-school "Smoking Prevention Tour" (SPT) at the "Luoghi di Prevenzione" Center, a 4-hour (4 sessions) extracurricular activity; 2) the "Smoke-free Schools" intervention, combining a life-skills-based peer-led intervention at school, an in-depth lesson on one of the SPT sessions, and enforcement surveillance of the school antismoking policy. Tobacco use was studied through a questionnaire administered before and 6 months after the intervention. Eleven high schools and 9 vocational secondary schools took part in the study for a total of 2,476 out of 3,050 eligible students (81.2%). The proportions of respondents in high schools and vocational secondary schools were 90.9% and 64.5%, respectively (P Intervention and control arms showed a different distribution of gender and school type, whereas no difference was observed in any tobacco-use characteristic. This study is one of the few Italian trials to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based program for preventing smoking initiation.

  10. A school-based comprehensive lifestyle intervention among chinese kids against obesity (CLICK-Obesity: rationale, design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial in Nanjing city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Fei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity among adolescents has been rapidly rising in Mainland China in recent decades, especially in urban and rich areas. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Limited data regarding adolescent overweight prevention in China are available. Thus, we developed a school-based intervention with the aim of reducing excess body weight in children. This report described the study design. Methods/design We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 8 randomly selected urban primary schools between May 2010 and December 2013. Each school was randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group (four schools in each group. Participants were the 4th graders in each participating school. The multi-component program was implemented within the intervention group, while students in the control group followed their usual health and physical education curriculum with no additional intervention program. The intervention consisted of four components: a classroom curriculum, (including physical education and healthy diet education, b school environment support, c family involvement, and d fun programs/events. The primary study outcome was body composition, and secondary outcomes were behaviour and behavioural determinants. Discussion The intervention was designed with due consideration of Chinese cultural and familial tradition, social convention, and current primary education and exam system in Mainland China. We did our best to gain good support from educational authorities, school administrators, teachers and parents, and to integrate intervention components into schools’ regular academic programs. The results of and lesson learned from this study will help guide future school-based childhood obesity prevention programs in Mainland China. Trial registration Registration number: ChiCTR-ERC-11001819

  11. Brain injury coping skills group: a preventative intervention for patients with brain injury and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Samantha L; Ibarra, Summer L; Klyce, Daniel; Trexler, Lance E; Malec, James F

    2010-06-01

    To determine whether training in coping strategies will improve psychologic functioning and self-efficacy in survivors of brain injury (BI) and caregivers. Randomized controlled pilot study with measurements at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Postacute rehabilitation clinic. Survivors of BI (n=20) and caregivers (n=20). The Brain Injury Coping Skills Group is a 12-session, manualized, cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) group providing psychoeducation, support, and coping skills training. Effects of this preventative intervention were examined on emotional functioning and perceived self-efficacy (PSE). Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) and Brain Injury Coping Skills Questionnaire. Analyses revealed that the Brain Injury Coping Skills group showed significantly improved PSE compared with the control group immediately posttreatment (F=14.16; P=.001) and maintained this over time. PSE assessed posttreatment predicted global distress at 3-month follow-up across groups (rho=-.46). No differences between treatment and control groups were apparent on the BSI-18 posttreatment. However, the control group showed increased emotional distress at 3-month follow-up while the Brain Injury Coping Skills group remained stable over time. Few CBT studies have included survivors of BI and caregivers together in group treatment or included a control group. No prior studies have examined the role of PSE specifically. Prior intervention studies show inconsistent effects on emotional functioning, raising questions regarding the role of intervening variables. This study offers a new conceptualization that PSE may moderate longer-term emotional adjustment after brain injury. Results indicate that PSE is an important and modifiable factor in helping persons better adjust to BI. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A school-based intervention to promote physical activity among adolescent girls: rationale, design, and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D; Cotton, Wayne G; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Puglisi, Lauren; Miller, Judy; Wright, Jan; Batterham, Marijka J; Peralta, Louisa R; Perry, Janine

    2011-08-19

    Physical activity levels decline markedly among girls during adolescence. School-based interventions that are multi-component in nature, simultaneously targeting curricular, school environment and policy, and community links, are a promising approach for promoting physical activity. This report describes the rationale, design and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised trial, which aims to prevent the decline in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) among adolescent girls. A community-based participatory research approach and action learning framework are used with measurements at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Within each intervention school, a committee develops an action plan aimed at meeting the primary objective (preventing the decline in accelerometer-derived MVPA). Academic partners and the State Department of Education and Training act as critical friends. Control schools continue with their usual school programming. 24 schools were matched then randomized into intervention (n = 12) and control (n = 12) groups. A total of 1518 girls (771 intervention and 747 control) completed baseline assessments (86% response rate). Useable accelerometer data (≥ 10 hrs/day on at least 3 days) were obtained from 79% of this sample (n = 1199). Randomisation resulted in no differences between intervention and control groups on any of the outcomes. The mean age (SE) of the sample was 13.6 (± 0.02) years and they spent less than 5% of their waking hours in MVPA (4.85 ± 0.06). Girls in Sport will test the effectiveness of schools working towards the same goal, but developing individual, targeted interventions that bring about changes in curriculum, school environment and policy, and community links. By using community-based participatory research and an action learning framework in a secondary school setting, it aims to add to the body of literature on effective school-based interventions through promoting and sustaining increased physical

  13. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion—Learning, Cognition and Motion – A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten; Hillman, Charles H.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12–14 years old adolescents. Methods A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age: 12.9 (0.6) years) completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects). The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p’s>0.05) or mathematics skills (p>0.05). An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4–38.6) and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39–0.05). Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0–9). Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p’s>0.05). Conclusions No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing

  14. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion-Learning, Cognition and Motion - A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Tarp

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12-14 years old adolescents.A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD age: 12.9 (0.6 years completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects. The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness.No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p's>0.05 or mathematics skills (p>0.05. An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4-38.6 and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39-0.05. Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0-9. Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p's>0.05.No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing executive functioning or mathematics skills compared

  15. Is an ecological school-based nutrition intervention effective to improve adolescents' nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in rural areas of China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-05-23

    The purpose of this article is to examine the effect of a school-based nutrition intervention using an ecological approach to improve adolescents' nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in rural China. A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two middle schools were randomly selected and assigned to the school that was conducting a holistic school-based intervention using health-promoting school (HPS) framework, 'HPS School', or to the 'Control School' in Mi Yun County, Beijing. From each school we randomly selected 65 seventh-grade students to participate in the study. Their nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour were measured by pre- and post-intervention surveys with the same instrument. The nutrition intervention lasted for six months. Adolescents in the intervention school were more likely to know the nutrition knowledge items, with an odds ratio (OR) ranging from 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-3.09) to 6.34 (95% CI: 3.83-10.47); more likely to think nutrition is very important to health, developing healthy dietary habits is very important, and that expired foods should be thrown away, with ORs of 3.03 (95% CI: 1.60-5.76), 2.76 (95% CI: 1.66-4.59) and 2.35 (95% CI: 1.33-4.17) respectively, and more likely to consume no soft drinks, desserts or fried food, and to eat vegetables every day of the last week, with ORs of 1.99 (95% CI: 1.31-3.04), 3.96 (95% CI: 2.43-6.46), 3.63 (95% CI: 2.26-5.85), and 2.51 (95% CI: 1.41-4.48) respectively, as compared with those in the control school after interventions. Our intervention using the HPS framework, an ecological approach, was an appropriate model to promote nutrition among adolescents in rural China and its use should be advocated in future school-based nutrition promotion programmes for adolescents. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion-Learning, Cognition and Motion - A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarp, Jakob; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten; Hillman, Charles H; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12-14 years old adolescents. A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age: 12.9 (0.6) years) completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects). The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p's>0.05) or mathematics skills (p>0.05). An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4-38.6) and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39-0.05). Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0-9). Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p's>0.05). No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing executive functioning or mathematics skills compared to a

  17. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based resilience intervention to decrease tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use in secondary school students: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodder Rebecca K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst schools provide a potentially appropriate setting for preventing substance use among young people, systematic review evidence suggests that past interventions in this setting have demonstrated limited effectiveness in preventing tobacco, alcohol and other drug use. Interventions that adopt a mental wellbeing approach to prevent substance use offer considerable promise and resilience theory provides one method to impact on adolescent mental well-being. The aim of the proposed study is to examine the efficacy of a resilience intervention in decreasing the tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the unit of randomisation will be undertaken. Thirty two schools in disadvantaged areas will be allocated to either an intervention or a control group. A comprehensive resilience intervention will be implemented, inclusive of explicit program adoption strategies. Baseline surveys will be conducted with students in Grade 7 in both groups and again three years later when the student cohort is in Grade 10. The primary outcome measures will include self-reported tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and other illicit drug use. Comparisons will be made post-test between Grade 10 students in intervention and control schools to determine intervention effectiveness across all measures. Discussion To the authors’ knowledge this is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive school-based resilience intervention, inclusive of explicit adoption strategies, in decreasing tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents attending disadvantaged secondary schools. Trial registration ACTRN12611000606987

  18. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based resilience intervention to decrease tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use in secondary school students: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca K; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wye, Paula; Hazell, Trevor; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2012-11-21

    Whilst schools provide a potentially appropriate setting for preventing substance use among young people, systematic review evidence suggests that past interventions in this setting have demonstrated limited effectiveness in preventing tobacco, alcohol and other drug use. Interventions that adopt a mental wellbeing approach to prevent substance use offer considerable promise and resilience theory provides one method to impact on adolescent mental well-being. The aim of the proposed study is to examine the efficacy of a resilience intervention in decreasing the tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the unit of randomisation will be undertaken. Thirty two schools in disadvantaged areas will be allocated to either an intervention or a control group. A comprehensive resilience intervention will be implemented, inclusive of explicit program adoption strategies. Baseline surveys will be conducted with students in Grade 7 in both groups and again three years later when the student cohort is in Grade 10. The primary outcome measures will include self-reported tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and other illicit drug use. Comparisons will be made post-test between Grade 10 students in intervention and control schools to determine intervention effectiveness across all measures. To the authors' knowledge this is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive school-based resilience intervention, inclusive of explicit adoption strategies, in decreasing tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents attending disadvantaged secondary schools. ACTRN12611000606987.

  19. School-based intervention to improve the mental health of low-income, secondary school students in Santiago, Chile (YPSA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cova Felix

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is common and can have devastating effects on the life of adolescents. Psychological interventions are the first-line for treating or preventing depression among adolescents. This proposal aims to evaluate a school-based, universal psychological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among student's aged 13-14 attending municipal state secondary schools in Santiago, Chile. Study design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the main clusters. We compared this intervention with a control group in a study involving 22 schools, 66 classes and approximately 2,600 students. Students in the active schools attended 11 weekly and 3 booster sessions of an intervention based on cognitive-behavioural models. The control schools received their usual but enhanced counselling sessions currently included in their curriculum. Mean depression scores and indicators of levels of functioning were assessed at 3 and 12 months after the completion of the intervention in order to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Direct and indirect costs were measured in both groups to assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. Discussion As far as we are aware this is the first cluster randomised controlled trial of a school intervention for depression among adolescents outside the Western world. Trial Registration ISRCTN19466209

  20. Effects of a school-based relaxation intervention on recovery in young elite athletes in high school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Ryom, Knud Eske; Stelter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the effects of a recovery intervention in young elite athletes in high school. The scissors model (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001) was used as a theoretical foundation for the intervention. An intervention group (n = 40) participated in 12 weekly intervention sessions, while the control...

  1. Methodological considerations and impact of school-based interventions on objectively measured physical activity in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borde, R; Smith, J J; Sutherland, R; Nathan, N; Lubans, D R

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis are (i) to determine the impact of school-based interventions on objectively measured physical activity among adolescents and (ii) to examine accelerometer methods and decision rule reporting in previous interventions. A systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials targeting adolescents (age: ≥10 years), conducted in the school setting, and reporting objectively measured physical activity. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine the pooled effects of previous interventions on total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Potential moderators of intervention effects were also explored. Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria, and twelve were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled effects were small and non-significant for both total physical activity (standardized mean difference = 0.02 [95% confidence interval = -0.13 to 0.18]) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (standardized mean difference = 0.24 [95% confidence interval = -0.08 to 0.56]). Sample age and accelerometer compliance were significant moderators for total physical activity, with a younger sample and higher compliance associated with larger effects. Previous school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have been largely unsuccessful, particularly for older adolescents. There is a need for more high-quality research using objective monitoring in this population. Future interventions should comply with best-practice recommendations regarding physical activity monitoring protocols. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Prevalence of childhood asthma and control in children assessed in a pilot school-based intervention programme in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K S; Ng, T P; Kwang, Y P; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala; Wong, C S; Chia, Frances

    2007-05-01

    Because of a high childhood asthma burden in Singapore, assessment of disease control status is essential for formulating school-based strategy of childhood asthma control. The aim of the present study is to assess childhood asthma prevalence and control in Singapore and the socio-demographic and help-seeking correlates. School-based survey using parental self-administered questionnaire, conducted from February to April 2004. Four mixed-gender primary schools selected from geographically distinct zones of Singapore. All primary one (modal age - 6.5 years) and six (modal age - 11.9 years) students from selected schools were invited to participate. Questionnaire respondents were the students' parents or guardians. The response rate was 75.2% (2123/2825). Prevalence of current asthma was 8.9% (190/2123). Among them, 26.3% (46/175) were assessed to have inadequate control. Asthma was more prevalent, and less adequately controlled in children from lower socio-economic backgrounds (lower-end housing type). Children with poorly controlled asthma were more likely to be treated by emergency room physicians and hospital specialists, and to be on preventer medications. In Singapore, poor asthma control is found in a sizeable proportion of school children with asthma, is identifiable for high-risk groups of children from lower socio-economic backgrounds and having asthma-related attendance at the emergency rooms.

  3. Effectiveness of a brief school-based body image intervention 'Dove Confident Me: Single Session' when delivered by teachers and researchers: Results from a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Atkinson, Melissa J; Steer, Rebecca J; Garbett, Kirsty M; Rumsey, Nichola; Halliwell, Emma

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated a 90-min single session school-based body image intervention (Dove Confident Me: Single Session), and investigated if delivery could be task-shifted to teachers. British adolescents (N = 1707; 11-13 years; 50.83% girls) participated in a cluster randomised controlled trial [lessons as usual control; intervention teacher-led (TL); intervention researcher-led (RL)]. Body image, risk factors, and psychosocial and disordered eating outcomes were assessed 1-week pre-intervention, immediate post-intervention, and 4-9.5 weeks follow-up. Multilevel mixed-models showed post-intervention improvements for intervention students relative to control in body esteem (TL; girls only), negative affect (TL), dietary restraint (TL; girls only), eating disorder symptoms (TL), and life engagement (TL; RL). Awareness of sociocultural pressures increased at post-intervention (TL). Effects were small-medium in size (ds 0.19-0.76) and were not maintained at follow-up. There were no significant differences between conditions at post or follow-up on body satisfaction, appearance comparisons, teasing, appearance conversations and self-esteem. The intervention had short-term benefits for girls' body image and dietary restraint, and for eating disorder symptoms and some psychosocial outcomes among girls and boys. A multi-session version of the intervention is likely to be necessary for sustained improvements. Teachers can deliver this intervention effectively with minimal training, indicating broader scale dissemination is feasible. ISRCTN16782819. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Adherence to physical and mental activity interventions: Coping plans as a mediator and prior adherence as a moderator.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.; Klusmann, V.; Schwarzer, R.; Heuser, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Adherence to behavioural intervention programmes is a necessary condition for beneficial outcomes to be achieved. This study tested whether social cognitive variables and coping plans predict adherence. Design and methods. Adherence was examined in a randomized controlled trial with

  5. Feasibility of School-Based ADHD Interventions: A Mixed-Methods Study of Perceptions of Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Mason, Dana M; Ellison, Anne; Noguchi, Kenji; Garvan, Cynthia W; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about perceptions surrounding academic interventions for ADHD that determine intervention feasibility. As part of a longitudinal mixed-methods research project, representative school district samples of 148 adolescents (54.8%), 161 parents (59.4%), 122 teachers (50.0%), 46 health care providers (53.5%), and 92 school health professionals (65.7%) completed a cross-sectional survey. They also answered open-ended questions addressing undesirable intervention effects, which were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Adolescents expressed significantly lower receptivity toward academic interventions than adult respondents. Stigma emerged as a significant threat to ADHD intervention feasibility, as did perceptions that individualized interventions foster inequality. Findings suggest that adolescents' viewpoints must be included in intervention development to enhance feasibility and avoid interventions acceptable to adults, but resisted by adolescents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Enjoyment and Perceived Value of Two School-Based Interventions Designed To Reduce Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D.; Davidson, Susan; O'Dea, Jennifer A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the enjoyment and perceived value associated with two interventions designed to reduce risk factors for eating disorders in young adolescents, a media literacy program or a self-esteem program. Overall, the media literacy program was the intervention preferred by students. Students in both interventions said that they had learnt to…

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of a Family Treatment Component to Augment a School-Based Intervention Serving Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Hu-Cordova, Maria; Alvarado-Goldberg, Karla; Maher, Lauren M.; Escudero, Pia

    2015-01-01

    This pilot feasibility study provided a preliminary test of a community-partnered intervention that targeted engaging parents and improving parent functioning. This intervention was combined with the Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS), allowing for a comparison of the CBITS-as-usual (CBITS) with the CBITS-plus-family…

  8. Project PANK: Rationale, study protocol and baseline results of a multidisciplinary school based intervention in children with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Batalau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cardiovascular disease risk factors occur more frequently in children with obesity. Project PANK is a multidisciplinary school-based intervention lasting 6 months to improve BMI z-score, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, blood pressure (BP, nutrition, physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviour (SB, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG. Methods/DesignA total of 77 children (7-10 years were recruited from an urban school. The protocol includes PA and SB individual meetings for children/parents; increasing school exercise; PA and SB lessons for children; A goal in the number of steps/day to accomplish in and after school. In nutrition, the protocol includes three individual meetings for children/parents and six lessons for children. ResultsPositive associations were found between the BMI Z-score, WC, and WHtR with TG; the BMI Z-score and WHtR with glucose; the light PA time and HDL-C; the vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous PA with CRF; the caloric intake and lipids with LDL-C, BMI z-score, WC, and WHtR. A negative association was found between CRF and TG. ConclusionBaseline results stress the importance of multidisciplinary school-based interventions. We hypothesized that PANK will improve blood variables, anthropometric measures, and BP, by changing food intake, enhancing PA and CRF, and decreasing SB.

  9. Effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal intervention targeting student resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Hodder, Rebecca; Wolfenden, Luke; Richards, Jody; Leane, Catherine; Green, Sue; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, 10-20% of adolescents experience mental health problems. Strategies aimed at strengthening resilience protective factors provide a potential approach for reducing mental health problems in adolescents. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a universal, school-based intervention targeting resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 20 intervention and 12 control secondary schools located in socio-economically disadvantaged areas of NSW, Australia. Data were collected from 3115 students at baseline (Grade 7, 2011), of whom 2149 provided data at follow up (Grade 10, 2014; enrolments in Grades 7 to 10 typically aged 12-16 years; 50% male; 69.0% retention). There were no significant differences between groups at follow-up for three mental health outcomes: total SDQ, internalising problems, and prosocial behaviour. A small statistically significant difference in favour of the control group was found for externalising problems. Findings highlight the continued difficulties in developing effective, school-based prevention programs for mental health problems in adolescents. ANZCTR (Ref no: ACTRN12611000606987). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based interventions to impact weight-related behaviours in African American children and youth: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L E; Webster, E K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Ceaser, T G; Alhassan, S

    2014-10-01

    This review assessed the effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based obesity prevention and/or treatment interventions targeting healthy eating, physical activity or obesity in African American children and adolescents. Systematic searches were conducted for English-printed research articles published between January 1980 and March 2013. Retained articles included experimental studies conducted in the United States that targeted ≥ 80% African American/black children and adolescents and/or studies whose results were stratified by race/ethnicity, and that were conducted in pre-schools/head start or schools (excluding after-school programmes). Of the 12,270 articles identified, 17 met the inclusion criteria (pre-school, n=2; elementary school, n=7; middle and secondary schools, n=8). Thirteen studies found significant improvements in nutrition (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=7; secondary, n=5) and three found significant improvements in physical activity (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=2) variables of interest. Two studies (pre-school, n=1; secondary, n=1) reported significant reductions in obesity in African American children. The evidence available suggests school-based interventions are effective in promoting healthy nutrition behaviours in African American children. Conclusions overall and, particularly, about effects on physical activity and obesity are limited due to the small number of studies, differences in assessment approaches and a lack of follow-up assessments. © 2014 World Obesity.

  11. Paper Bag Books: A Creative Intervention with Elementary School Children Experiencing High-Conflict Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somody, Catherine; Hobbs, Marsha

    2007-01-01

    Research has found that school-based interventions for children of divorce help counter the adverse effects. Studies of school-based interventions have identified effective means for helping children of divorce cope with their situation and produce a significant reduction in clinical symptoms. Those components include activities that: (a) help…

  12. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large

  13. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Monika; Hanssen, Henner; Lammel, Christoph; Haller, Bernhard; Halle, Martin

    2011-04-22

    Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years) will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis.All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large arteries using a sphygmograph and by analysing

  14. Efficacy of a randomized trial of a community and school-based anti-violence media intervention among small-town middle school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C; Kelly, Kathleen

    2008-09-01

    In a community randomized controlled trial, intervention middle school students from small towns were exposed to a community and school-based anti-violence intervention ("Resolve It, Solve It"). The primary intervention was a media campaign in which local high school students served as models in print, radio, and television PSAs and spearheaded local school and community activities. The media campaign was supported with school and community events that reinforced campaign messages. Tests of recognition and recall indicated widespread exposure to the media intervention. Multiple group latent growth models indicated that relative to control students, intervention students reported significant differences in rates of growth for intent for violence, physical assault against people, verbal victimization, and perceived safety at school. No differences were found for verbal assault, physical assault against objects, physical victimization, or self-efficacy for avoiding violence. When examined by sex, it was determined that results for physical assault against people were obtained only among female students, and changes in verbal victimization and perceived school safety were observed only among male students. These results suggest that a media and reinforcing community intervention led by older peers can alter rates of growth for some measures of violence and associated factors among small-town youth. Further research is indicated to determine how different campaign messages influence students by sex.

  15. A psychoeducational nursing intervention to enhance coping and affective state in newly diagnosed malignant melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, N W

    1995-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a psychoeducational nursing intervention including (a) health education, (b) stress management, and (c) the teaching of coping skills could enhance the coping behavior and affective state of newly diagnosed Stage I/II malignant melanoma patients. The secondary purpose was to determine if this intervention could be implemented by a nurse and integrated into the overall patient care program. Sixty-one patients were randomized to a control condition or an experimental condition that received and educational manual plus 3 h of individual nurse teaching. Despite randomization, experimental patients had significantly higher baseline distress. By 3 months there was a complete reversal of the baseline trend in Profile of Mood States (POMS) total mood disturbance (TMD), suggesting that the experimental subjects were experiencing less distress over time. Between-group analysis of change scores found significant decreases in experimental subjects for POMS TMD, fatigue, and Brief Symptom Index (BSI) somatization. Within-group analysis found significant experimental decreases for BSI somatization, anxiety, grand total, General Severity Index, and Positive Symptom Distress Index as well as for POMS anxiety, fatigue, confusion, vigor, and TMD. No significant changes were found for controls. Experimental patients were using significantly fewer ineffective passive resignation coping strategies than controls at 3 months.

  16. Effectiveness of social marketing strategies to reduce youth obesity in European school-based interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Llauradó, Elisabet; Tarro, Lucia; Moreno-García, Carlos Francisco; Trujillo Escobar, Tamy Goretty; Solà, Rosa; Giralt, Montse

    2016-05-01

    The use of social marketing to modify lifestyle choices could be helpful in reducing youth obesity. Some or all of the 8 domains of the National Social Marketing Centre's social marketing benchmark criteria (SMBC) are often used but not always defined in intervention studies. The aim of this review is to assess the effectiveness of European school-based interventions to prevent obesity relative to the inclusion of SMBC domains in the intervention. The PubMed, Cochrane, and ERIC databases were used. Nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials conducted from 1990 to April 2014 in participants aged 5 to 17 years were included. After the study selection, the 8 domains of the SMBC were assessed in each included study. Thirty-eight publications were included in the systematic review. For the meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting body mass index or prevalence of overweight and obesity were considered. Eighteen RCTs with a total of 8681 participants included at least 5 SMBC. The meta-analysis showed a small standardized mean difference in body mass index of -0.25 (95%CI, -0.45 to -0.04) and a prevalence of overweight and obesity odds ratio of 0.72 (95%CI, 0.5-0.97). Current evidence indicates that the inclusion of at least 5 SMBC domains in school-based interventions could benefit efforts to prevent obesity in young people. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014007297. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  17. Effects of rewards, peer-modelling and pedometer targets on children's physical activity: a school-based intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Horne, Pauline J; Fergus Lowe, C

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a physical activity intervention for children that comprised peer-modelling, pedometer step goals and tangible rewards. A version of the intervention without the reward component was also tested. Participants (n = 386) were from three primary schools, which were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (i) full intervention, where children received "Fit 'n' Fun Dude" peer-modelling materials and were given daily pedometer goals to receive rewards, (ii) no-rewards intervention, where children received peer-modelling materials and pedometer goals but rewards were not used and (iii) control, where children wore pedometers with no further intervention. Physical activity was measured at baseline, intervention and at the end of a 14-week 'taper' phase. During the intervention, the full intervention school showed the largest increase in physical activity relative to baseline (+2456 steps per day, p school (+1033 steps per day, p school continued to increase (+2030 steps per day, p full intervention school. The intervention that used only peer-modelling and pedometer goals produced better effects over time.

  18. Observed parental responsiveness/warmth and children's coping: cross-sectional and prospective relations in a family depression preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kelly H; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Thigpen, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Hudson, Kelsey; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    The current study examined concurrent and prospective relations between observed parenting behaviors and children's coping strategies in the context of a preventive intervention designed to change both parenting and children's use of secondary control coping. Questionnaires and direct observations were obtained from parents with a history of depression (N = 180) and their children (ages 9-15 years) at baseline, 6-month (after completion of the intervention), and 18-month follow-up assessments. Cross-sectional analyses indicate that baseline observed parental responsiveness/warmth was significantly associated with composite parent/child reports of children's baseline primary control, secondary control, and disengagement coping. Using a mixed effects model, prospective mediational analyses indicate that intervention-driven improvements in observed parental responsiveness/warmth from baseline to 6 months significantly accounted for increases in children's use of secondary control coping strategies from baseline to the 18-month follow-up assessment. No significant mediation effects emerged for primary control coping or disengagement coping. The present findings suggest that it may be possible to improve children's coping strategies not only through targeted interventions, but also indirectly by improving responsive and warm parenting behaviors. Limitations and strengths are noted and implications for future research are outlined. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Partner Pronoun Use, Communal Coping, and Abstinence during Couple-Focused Intervention for Problematic Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentscher, Kelly E; Soriano, Emily C; Rohrbaugh, Michael J; Shoham, Varda; Mehl, Matthias R

    2017-06-01

    Communal coping-a process in which romantic partners view a problem as ours rather than yours or mine, and take collaborative action to address it -has emerged as an important predictor of health and treatment outcomes. In a study of partners' pronoun use prior to and during couple-focused alcohol interventions, we examined first-person plural (we-talk) and singular (I-talk) pronouns as linguistic markers of communal coping and behavioral predictors of treatment outcome. Thirty-three couples in which one partner abused alcohol were selected from a randomized control trial (N = 63) of couple-focused Cognitive-Behavioral or Family Systems Therapy if they had unambiguously successful or unsuccessful treatment outcomes (i.e., patient maintained abstinence for 30 days prior to treatment termination or had more than one heavy drinking day in the same period). Pronoun measures for each partner were obtained via computerized text analysis from transcripts of partners' speech, derived from a videotaped pretreatment interaction task and three subsequent therapy sessions. Spouse we-talk during the intervention (accounting for pretreatment we-talk), as an index of communal orientation, uniquely predicted successful treatment outcomes. In contrast, both patient and spouse I-talk during the intervention (accounting for pretreatment I-talk), as a marker of individualistic orientation, uniquely predicted unsuccessful outcomes, especially when distinguishing active and passive (I vs. me/my) pronoun forms. Results strengthen evidence for the prognostic significance of spouse behavior for patient health outcomes and for communal coping (indexed via pronoun use) as a potential mechanism of change in couple-focused interventions for health problems. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  20. Do changes in coping style explain the effectiveness of interventions for psychological morbidity in family carers of people with dementia? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan; Cooper, Claudia; Austin, Allana; Livingston, Gill

    2013-02-01

    Observational studies find that family carers of people with dementia who use more emotional support and acceptance-based coping, and less dysfunctional coping, are less depressed and anxious. We hypothesized that interventions effective in reducing psychological symptoms would increase emotional support and acceptance-based coping, or decrease dysfunctional coping. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials published up to July 2011, of interventions for carers of people with dementia measuring coping and psychological morbidity. We rated study validity and reported findings. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses for interventions where possible. Eight of 433 papers identified by the search met inclusion criteria. All measured coping immediately after intervention. Two interventions significantly decreased depressive or anxiety symptoms: the smaller study found no change in dysfunctional coping. Neither measured emotional support and acceptance-based coping. Meta-analysis found that both group coping skills interventions alone (SMD = -0.39, 95% CI = -0.75 to -0.03, p = 0.04) and with behavioral activation (SMD = -0.26, 95% CI = -0.48 to -0.04, p = 0.02) significantly increased dysfunctional coping, while significantly reducing depressive symptoms. Positive coping (a mix of emotional and solution-focused strategies) increased (SMD = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.05-0.51, p = 0.02) with group coping skills interventions and behavioral activation. Contrary to our hypothesis, dysfunctional coping increased when carer depressive symptoms improved. There was preliminary evidence that emotional support and acceptance-based coping increased, as positive coping increased although solution-focused coping alone did not. More research is needed to elucidate whether successful interventions work through changing coping strategies immediately and in the longer term.

  1. Implementation of a school-based social and emotional learning intervention: understanding diffusion processes within complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rhiannon; Murphy, Simon; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Sporadic and inconsistent implementation remains a significant challenge for social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. This may be partly explained by the dearth of flexible, causative models that capture the multifarious determinants of implementation practices within complex systems. This paper draws upon Rogers (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory to explain the adoption, implementation and discontinuance of a SEL intervention. A pragmatic, formative process evaluation was conducted in alignment with phase 1 of the UK Medical Research Council's framework for Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions. Employing case-study methodology, qualitative data were generated with four socio-economically and academically contrasting secondary schools in Wales implementing the Student Assistance Programme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 programme stakeholders. Data suggested that variation in implementation activity could be largely attributed to four key intervention reinvention points, which contributed to the transformation of the programme as it interacted with contextual features and individual needs. These reinvention points comprise the following: intervention training, which captures the process through which adopters acquire knowledge about a programme and delivery expertise; intervention assessment, which reflects adopters' evaluation of an intervention in relation to contextual needs; intervention clarification, which comprises the cascading of knowledge through an organisation in order to secure support in delivery; and intervention responsibility, which refers to the process of assigning accountability for sustainable delivery. Taken together, these points identify opportunities to predict and intervene with potential implementation problems. Further research would benefit from exploring additional reinvention activity.

  2. Systematic review of universal school-based resilience interventions targeting adolescent tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug use: review protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Wolfenden, Luke; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2014-01-01

    .... Despite evidence suggesting interventions designed to increase adolescent resilience may represent a means of reducing adolescent substance use, and schools providing a key opportunity to implement...

  3. Randomised controlled feasibility study of a school-based multi-level intervention to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviour among vocational school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankonen, Nelli; Heino, Matti T J; Hynynen, Sini-Tuuli; Laine, Hanna; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Sniehotta, Falko F; Vasankari, Tommi; Sund, Reijo; Haukkala, Ari

    2017-03-21

    No school-based physical activity (PA) interventions among older adolescents have demonstrated long-term effectiveness, and few of them so far have addressed sedentary behaviour (SB). Based on behavioural theories and evidence, we designed a multi-level intervention to increase PA and decrease SB among vocational school students. This study investigates feasibility and acceptability of two main intervention components and research procedures. We also examine uptake of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) by the participants. Design was an outcome assessor blinded, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Four classes of students (matched pairs) were randomised into one intervention and one control arm. The intervention consisted of (1) a 6-h group-based intervention for students, (2) two 2-h training workshops to reduce their students' sitting in class for teachers, and (3) provision of light PA equipment in classrooms. At baseline (T1), mid-intervention (T2) at 3 weeks, post-intervention (T3) and 6 months after baseline (T4) we measured hypothesised psychosocial mediators and self-reported PA and sitting. Objective assessment of PA and SB (7-day accelerometry) was conducted at T1, T3 and T4. Body composition (bioimpedance) was measured at T1 and T4. Students and teachers in the intervention arm filled in acceptability questionnaires at T3. Recruitment rate was 64% (students) and 88.9% (teachers), and at T3, all post-intervention measurements were completed by 33 students (retention 76.7%) and 15 teachers (retention 93.8%). Acceptability ratings of sessions were high (students M = 6.29, scale 1-7), and data collection procedures were feasible. Intervention arm students reported increased use of BCTs, but uptake of some key BCTs was suboptimal. BCT use correlated highly with objective measures of PA. Based on both self-report and student evaluation, teachers in the intervention arm increased the use of sitting reduction strategies at post-intervention and T4 follow

  4. "The Program Affects Me 'Cause it Gives Away Stress": Urban Students' Qualitative Perspectives on Stress and a School-Based Mindful Yoga Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariotis, Jacinda K; Cluxton-Keller, Fallon; Mirabal-Beltran, Roxanne; Gould, Laura Feagans; Greenberg, Mark T; Mendelson, Tamar

    School-based mindfulness and yoga studies generally measure stress-related outcomes using quantitative measures. This study answers the following research questions: How do youth define stress and in what ways, if any, was a mindful yoga intervention helpful to youth during stress experiences? To explore youths' own perspectives on stress, stressors in youths' lives, and perceived changes in responses to stress post-intervention, we conducted focus group discussions with 22 middle school students from low-income urban communities following a 16-week mindful yoga intervention. Using thematic analysis, the following three themes emerged: (1) youth conflated stress with negative emotions; (2) peer and family conflicts were common stressors; and (3) youth reported improved impulse control and emotional regulation following the intervention. Study findings have implications for refining intervention content (e.g., discussions of stress), as well as informing the selection and development of quantitative measures for future research on stress and stress responses in urban youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of a school-based peer education intervention on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Chinese adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhaohui; Shah, Smita; Yan, Lijing; Pan, Yongping; Gao, Aiyu; Shi, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yangfeng; Dibley, Michael John

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on physical activity and sedentary behaviour of a pilot school-based peer education programme in urban Beijing, China. 4 junior high schools were matched by school size and randomised to intervention (n=346) and control group (n=336). Trained peer leaders from grade 7 by research staff delivered weekly 40-min lessons to their classmates over four consecutive weeks. Students in control schools received no intervention. A validated 7-day youth physical activity questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and sedentary behaviours at baseline (September 2010), 3 months (December 2010) and 7 months (May 2011). Generalised linear mixed models were applied to evaluate the effect. There was a significant decrease in time in sedentary behaviour on weekdays, 20 min/day at 7 months (p=0.020) reported by students in the intervention schools compared with control schools. This reduction was mainly due to a reduction of 14 min/day in computer usage on weekdays (p=0.0009). There were no significant differences in time on other sedentary behaviours, including television and DVD, video game, extracurricular reading, writing, drawing and listening to music, passive commuting and sitting to talk. There was also no significant difference in time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between intervention and control group. Peer education appears to be a promising intervention in reducing sedentary behaviours in adolescents in China. These results need confirmation in a larger study. ACTRN12612000417886 at http://ANZCTR.org.au.

  6. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Nutritional Knowledge and Habits of Low-Socioeconomic School Children in Israel: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Fraser, Drora; Friger, Michael; Geva, Dikla; Bilenko, Natalya; Vardi, Hillel; Elhadad, Naama; Mor, Karen; Feine, Zvi; Shahar, Danit R.

    2016-01-01

    Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES) school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years) and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm) included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA) classes for children; the control (CArm) received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6%) completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches. PMID:27110817

  7. The effect of a school-based intervention on sunbed use in danish pupils at continuation schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Cecilie; Bonnesen, Camilla T; Thygesen, Lau C

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect of an educational intervention on sunbed use and intentions and attitudes toward sunbed use in 14- to 18-year-olds at continuation schools.......To examine the effect of an educational intervention on sunbed use and intentions and attitudes toward sunbed use in 14- to 18-year-olds at continuation schools....

  8. Effects of a school based intervention to promote healthy habits in children 8-11 years old, living in the lowland area of Bologna Local Health Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, R; Dallolio, L; Musti, M A; Guberti, E; Garulli, A; Beltrami, P; Castellazzi, F; Centis, E; Zenesini, C; Coppini, C; Rizzoli, C; Sardocardalano, M; Leoni, E

    2015-01-01

    A school based health promotion intervention was performed with the aim of increasing physical activity and improving the dietary habits of primary school pupils, using integrated educational strategies involving schools, families, public bodies, sports associations and public health operators. The intervention concerned 11 classes during 3 school years from 2009-10 (231 third-year school children) to 2011-12 (234 fifth-year school children). Information was collected both before and after the intervention about the dietary habits and the physical activities practised by the children, using the questionnaires of the project !OKkio alla Salute! which were administered to both children and parents. At the same time anthropometric measurements were taken (height, weight, BMI) and motor skills were assessed using standardized tests: Sit & Reach, medicine-ball forward throw, standing long jump, 20 m running speed, and forward roll. At the end of the intervention 12 different expected outcomes were assessed (5 about dietary habits, 5 about motor habits, 1 about anthropometric characteristics, 1 about motor skills). At baseline, 35.8% of the children show excess weight (23.4% overweight; 12.4% obese); this percentage falls to 29.3% (25.3% overweight; 4% obese) after the intervention (p dietary habits improve from the pre- to the post-intervention: there is a rise in the percentage of children who receive an adequate mid-morning snack (p children who consume snacks and drinks after the dinner (p habits do not improve in the same way, since there is the increasing tendency with age to skip from a regular daily practice of physical exercise to favour of the occasional practice of a sport. The motor performances, compared after normalization for modifications due to the process of growth, improve between the third and fifth years of primary school, but with no significant differences. To achieve this objective more focused measures are necessary in the administration of

  9. A school-based intervention to promote physical activity among adolescent girls: Rationale, design, and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglisi Lauren

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity levels decline markedly among girls during adolescence. School-based interventions that are multi-component in nature, simultaneously targeting curricular, school environment and policy, and community links, are a promising approach for promoting physical activity. This report describes the rationale, design and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised trial, which aims to prevent the decline in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA among adolescent girls. Methods/Design A community-based participatory research approach and action learning framework are used with measurements at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Within each intervention school, a committee develops an action plan aimed at meeting the primary objective (preventing the decline in accelerometer-derived MVPA. Academic partners and the State Department of Education and Training act as critical friends. Control schools continue with their usual school programming. 24 schools were matched then randomized into intervention (n = 12 and control (n = 12 groups. A total of 1518 girls (771 intervention and 747 control completed baseline assessments (86% response rate. Useable accelerometer data (≥10 hrs/day on at least 3 days were obtained from 79% of this sample (n = 1199. Randomisation resulted in no differences between intervention and control groups on any of the outcomes. The mean age (SE of the sample was 13.6 (± 0.02 years and they spent less than 5% of their waking hours in MVPA (4.85 ± 0.06. Discussion Girls in Sport will test the effectiveness of schools working towards the same goal, but developing individual, targeted interventions that bring about changes in curriculum, school environment and policy, and community links. By using community-based participatory research and an action learning framework in a secondary school setting, it aims to add to the body of literature on effective school-based

  10. School-based intervention to reduce anxiety in children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (PACES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Taylor, Gordon; Anderson, Rob; Daniels, Harry; Simpson, Neil; Phillips, Rhiannon; Skryabina, Elena

    2012-11-27

    Emotional problems such as anxiety and low mood in children are common, impair everyday functioning and increase the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few children with emotional health problems are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate preventive approaches. The study is designed to be a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an efficacious school-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) prevention program (FRIENDS) on symptoms of anxiety and low mood in children 9 to 10 years of age. The unit of allocation is schools which are assigned to one of three conditions: school-led FRIENDS, health-led FRIENDS or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcome measures assess changes in self-esteem, worries, bullying and life satisfaction. An economic evaluation will be undertaken. As of September 2011, 41 schools have been recruited and randomized. Final 12-month assessments are scheduled to be completed by May 2013. ISRCTN23563048.

  11. School-based intervention to reduce anxiety in children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (PACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stallard Paul

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional problems such as anxiety and low mood in children are common, impair everyday functioning and increase the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few children with emotional health problems are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate preventive approaches. Methods/Design The study is designed to be a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an efficacious school-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT prevention program (FRIENDS on symptoms of anxiety and low mood in children 9 to 10 years of age. The unit of allocation is schools which are assigned to one of three conditions: school-led FRIENDS, health-led FRIENDS or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcome measures assess changes in self-esteem, worries, bullying and life satisfaction. An economic evaluation will be undertaken. Discussion As of September 2011, 41 schools have been recruited and randomized. Final 12-month assessments are scheduled to be completed by May 2013. Trial Registration ISRCTN23563048

  12. Comparison of intervention fidelity between COPE TEEN and an attention-control program in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stephanie A; Oswalt, Krista; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Jacobson, Diana

    2015-04-01

    Fidelity in implementing an intervention is critical to accurately determine and interpret the effects of an intervention. It is important to monitor the manner in which the behavioral intervention is implemented (e.g. adaptations, delivery as intended and dose). Few interventions are implemented with 100% fidelity. In this study, high school health teachers implemented the intervention. To attribute study findings to the intervention, it was vital to know to what degree the intervention was implemented. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate intervention fidelity and to compare implementation fidelity between the creating opportunities for personal empowerment (COPE) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (thinking, emotions, exercise, and nutrition) program, the experimental intervention and Healthy Teens, an attention-control intervention, in a randomized controlled trial with 779 adolescents from 11 high schools in the southwest region of the United States. Thirty teachers participated in this study. Findings indicated that the attention-control teachers implemented their intervention with greater fidelity than COPE TEEN teachers. It is possible due to the novel intervention and the teachers' unfamiliarity with cognitive-behavioral skills building, COPE TEEN teachers had less fidelity. It is important to assess novel skill development prior to the commencement of experimental interventions and to provide corrective feedback during the course of implementation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  14. A School-Based Intervention to Increase Lyme Disease Preventive Measures Among Elementary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadick, Nancy A; Zibit, Melanie J; Nardone, Elizabeth; DeMaria, Alfred; Iannaccone, Christine K; Cui, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Educational interventions to reduce Lyme disease (LD) among at-risk school children have had little study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short in-class LD education program based on social learning theory and the Health Belief Model (HBM) impacted a child's knowledge, attitude, and preventive behavior. Students in grades 2-5 in 19 elementary schools were selected in an area that was highly endemic for LD. The children received an educational intervention or were on a wait list as controls. Their knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported preventive behaviors were surveyed before implementing the program and 1 year later. General linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and baseline variables were used to measure the impact of the intervention. There were 3570 participants in the study: 1562 received the intervention, and 2008 were controls. The mean age for both groups was 9.1 years, with 53% women in the intervention group and 50% women in the control group. The children in the intervention group increased their overall knowledge of LD more than the children in the control group (overall knowledge score improvement, mean difference (SD) 1.38 (1.3) vs. 0.36 (1.3) p children in classes receiving the intervention reported an increase in precautionary behavior, positive attitude toward taking precautions, and self-efficacy compared with the wait list controls. Two LD cases were confirmed during the follow-up period, one in the intervention group and one in the controls. These findings demonstrate that a short in-class educational program that includes elements of the HBM, including: (1) awareness and knowledge about the disease, (2) benefits of preventive behavior, and (3) confidence in ability to perform preventive behaviors can improve knowledge, attitude, and self-reported precautionary behavior among at-risk children. www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00594997.

  15. Assessment of a school-based intervention in eating habits and physical activity in school children: the AVall study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llargues, Esteve; Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Ana; Vila, Maria; Pérez, Maria José; Manresa, Josep Maria; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Roure, Eulàlia; Castells, Conxa

    2011-10-01

    Obesity has become a global public health problem, which also affects children. It has been proposed that the educational interventions during childhood could be a key strategy in the prevention of obesity. To evaluate the efficacy of an intervention on food habits and physical activity in school children. A 2-year cluster-randomised prospective study with two parallel arms was used to evaluate an intervention programme in children in their first year of primary schooling (5-6 years of age) in schools in the city of Granollers. The intervention consisted of the promotion of healthy eating habits and physical activity by means of the educational methodology Investigation, Vision, Action and Change (IVAC). At the beginning and at the end of the study (2006 and 2008) the weight and height of each child was measured in situ, while the families were given a self-report physical activity questionnaire and the Krece Plus quick test. Two years after the beginning of the study, the body mass index of the children in the control group was 0.8 kg/m(2) higher than that of the intervention schools. The intervention reduced by 62% the prevalence of overweight children. Similarly, the proportion of children that ate a second piece of fruit and took part in an after-school physical activity increased in the intervention group. In the control group, the weekly consumption of fish was reduced. The educational intervention in healthy eating habits and physical activity in the school could contribute to lessen the current increase in child obesity.

  16. [Effectiveness of School-based Interventions for the Prevention and/or Reduction of Psychosocial Problems among Children and Adolescents: A Review of Reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, S; Landgraf-Rauf, K; Brand, T; Zeeb, H; Pischke, C R

    2017-04-01

    Objective: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for the maintenance of mental health and the prevention of psychosocial problems among pupils. Methods: A systematic literature search of reviews published between 2007 and 2015 was carried out. Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, Campbell Library, Cochrane Library, NICE, ERIC, and Web of Science. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using AMSTAR criteria) were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Results: 6 reviews covering 331 primary studies were included in this review of reviews. Findings of three reviews with a focus on the maintenance and/or promotion of mental health and general well-being suggested that interventions aimed at changes in the social and the school environment were more effective than those that only targeted individual behavior change among pupils. Interventions for the reduction of mobbing/bullying were most effective if they comprised organizational changes at schools, such as playground and schoolyard supervision, and disciplinary measures. One review suggested strong evidence for the effectiveness of classroom management to reduce violent behavior among pupils. Conclusions: Participation in interventions promoting changes in the school environment, in addition to individual behavior change, appears to be associated with improved mental health among pupils and reductions in mobbing/bullying and violent behavior at schools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. School-based intervention with children. Peer-modeling, reward and repeated exposure reduce food neophobia and increase liking of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureati, Monica; Bergamaschi, Valentina; Pagliarini, Ella

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the 'Food Dudes' school-based intervention consisting of rewards, peer-modeling and food exposure on food neophobia and the liking of fruits and vegetables (FV) in a large cohort of children. Five-hundred sixty children recruited from three schools were assigned to the experimental or control group. For 16 days, children in the experimental group watched motivational videos, were read letters to encourage them to eat FV and received a small reward for eating one portion of both a fruit and a vegetable. The control group was only provided with FV for the same time period. Food neophobia and liking were measured in both groups of children before and after the intervention, and a follow-up measurement was carried out 6 months later. The intervention was effective in reducing food neophobia and, most importantly, a persistent effect was observed 6 months after the intervention as children of the experimental group showed significantly lower neophobia scores than the control group. Additionally, the program was effective in increasing liking for both FV; however, this effect was maintained only for fruit after 6 months. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of different school-based preventive interventions for reducing the use of psychotropic substances among students: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Marcelo Oliveira; De Micheli, Denise

    2015-08-01

    Although many schools perform preventive interventions for reducing drug use, little is known about their implementation processes and results. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of three different types of preventive intervention performed in the school setting for reducing substance use among students. The study comprised 1316 students from the 9th year of elementary school to the 3rd year of secondary school in 8 public schools in the city of Guarulhos, São Paulo state, Brazil. Students were randomly assigned to the intervention groups or a control group and were evaluated at two different time-points regarding substance use. The results indicated that interventions performed by teachers were most effective in reducing both substance use and the severity of substance-associated problems. Interventions performed by experts were partially effective, although they only reduced use among experimental users. The results of "Single lecture" interventions revealed that such approaches are counterproductive. In summary, preventive actions that were contextualized to the student's reality and the school environment and that included the active involvement of both teacher and student were most effective at reducing the prevalence of substance use and the severity of associated problems in students.

  19. A school-based intervention to reduce overweight and inactivity in children aged 6–12 years: study design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuvers Ivo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective interventions to prevent overweight and obesity in children are urgently needed especially in inner-city neighbourhoods where prevalence of overweight and inactivity among primary school children is high. A school based intervention was developed aiming at the reduction of overweight and inactivity in these children by addressing both behavioural and environmental determinants. Methods/design The main components of the intervention (Lekker Fit! are the re-establishment of a professional physical education teacher; three (instead of two PE classes per week; additional sport and play activities outside school hours; fitness testing; classroom education on healthy nutrition, active living and healthy lifestyle choices; and the involvement of parents. The effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated through a cluster randomized controlled trial in 20 primary schools among grades 3 through 8 (6–12 year olds. Primary outcome measures are BMI, waist circumference and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are assessed in a subgroup of grade 6–8 pupils (9–12 year olds through classroom questionnaires and constitute of nutrition and physical activity behaviours and behavioural determinants. Multilevel regression analyses are used to study differences in outcomes between children in the intervention schools and in control schools, taking clustering of children within schools into account. Discussion Hypotheses are that the intervention results in a lower prevalence of children being overweight and an improved mean fitness score, in comparison with a control group where the intervention is not implemented. The results of our study will contribute to the discussion on the role of physical education and physical activity in the school curriculum. Trial registration [ISRCTN84383524

  20. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL, a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13–14 years old. Methods/Design Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13–14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity, body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Discussion It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016

  1. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah

    2016-10-20

    Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely 'Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively' (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13-14 years old. Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13-14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity), body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016, retrospectively registered).

  2. Pebbles, rocks, and boulders: The implementation of a school-based social engagement intervention for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Harker, Colleen; Olsen, Anne; Shingledecker, Travis; Barg, Frances; Mandell, David; Beidas, Rinad

    2017-11-01

    Few evidence-based practices, defined as the use of empirically supported research and clinical expertise for children with autism, have been successfully implemented and sustained in schools. This study examined the perspectives of school personnel ( n = 39) on implementing a social engagement intervention for children with autism. Semi-structured interviews, informed by the Domitrovich et al. (2008) framework, were conducted. Participants were asked about (1) school factors that affect the general implementation of evidence-based practices, (2) their specific experiences implementing the social engagement intervention, and (3) barriers to and facilitators of implementing the social engagement intervention. Data were analyzed using an integrated approach. General (e.g. implementation process, leadership, support, and staff) and intervention-specific (e.g. staff, barriers, and facilitators) implementation themes were identified. These findings suggest that a variety of factors should be considered when implementing evidence-based practices in schools and that implementing social engagement interventions for children with autism may require additional specific support for implementation.

  3. Promoting better oral health practices among aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents: a school based oral health education intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Hsin; Sue, Rouh-Lan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Dasanayake, Ananda P

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of an educational program aimed at improving oral health knowledge and behaviors in junior high school students in indigenous communities in Taiwan. Two junior high schools were randomly selected. Students in the intervention school received an oral health education program. Both groups received structured questionnaires to assess their oral health practices and risk behaviors at baseline and after the intervention. The intervention group had statistically significant positive changes in their oral health knowledge (pCarefully designed health education programs delivered within schools in areas with limited access to health care can improve the students' knowledge and reduce their risk behaviors which may prove to be a mechanism that ultimately reduces health disparities.

  4. The effects of a school-based psychosocial intervention on resilience and health outcomes among vulnerable children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowokere, A E; Okanlawon, F A

    2014-06-01

    Responding to the psychosocial health needs of the vulnerable population has been considered as a significant public health issue that must be addressed through access to public health professionals. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the impact of a training program on nurses and teachers' knowledge of psychosocial health needs of vulnerable children and the impact this had on children's resilience and psychosocial health outcomes (self-esteem, social connection, anxiety, and depression). The result showed a significant increase in the knowledge mean scores of both nurses and teachers 6 weeks post intervention. Children's depression scores significantly reduced post intervention. Their resilience, self-esteem, and social connection were also significantly improved, while no significant reduction was found in their anxiety scores. The results of the pilot study suggest that a more rigorous study be conducted to further ascertain the effectiveness of the various interventions used in this study while taking into consideration the challenges raised by the authors.

  5. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT: systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brug Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping (IM protocol, this paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT, a school-based intervention program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain. The intervention focussed on the following health behaviours: (1 reduction of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, (2 reduction of energy intake derived from snacks, (3 decrease of levels of sedentary behaviour, and (4 increase of levels of physical activity (i.e. active transport behaviour and sports participation. The intervention program consisted of an individual classroom-based component (i.e. an educational program, covering 11 lessons of both biology and physical education classes, and an environmental component (i.e. encouraging and supporting changes at the school canteens, as well as offering additional physical education classes. We evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention program using a randomised controlled trial design. We assessed the effects of the intervention on body composition (primary outcome measure, as well as on behaviour, behavioural determinants, and aerobic fitness (secondary outcome measures. Furthermore, we conducted a process evaluation. Discussion The development of the DOiT-intervention resulted in a comprehensive school-based weight gain prevention program, tailored to the needs of Dutch adolescents from low socio-economic background.

  6. School-based intervention for childhood disruptive behavior in disadvantaged settings: a randomized controlled trial with and without active teacher support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Juliette M; De Boo, Gerly M; Huizenga, Hilde; Prins, Pier J M

    2013-12-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support (ATS) versus educational teacher support (ETS) (CBT + ATS vs. CBT + ETS). Screening (n = 1,929) and assessment (n = 224) led to the inclusion of 173 children ages 8-12 years from 17 elementary schools. Most of the children were boys (n = 136, 79%) of low or low-to-middle class socioeconomic status (87%); the sample was ethnically diverse (63% of non-Western origin). Children received CBT + ATS (n = 29) or CBT + ETS (n = 41) or were entered into a waitlist control condition (n = 103) to be treated afterward (CBT + ATS, n = 39, and CBT + ETS, n = 64). Effect sizes (ES), clinical significance (reliable change), and the results of multilevel modeling are reported. Ninety-seven percent of children completed treatment. Teachers and parents reported positive posttreatment effects (mean ES = .31) for CBT compared with the waitlist control condition on disruptive behavior. Multilevel modeling showed similar results. Clinical significance was modest. Changes had remained stable or had increased at 3-months follow-up (mean ES = .39). No consistent effect of teacher condition was found at posttreatment; however, at follow-up, children who received ETS fared significantly better. This study shows that a school-based CBT program is beneficial for difficult-to-reach children with disruptive behavior: The completion rate was remarkably high, ESs (mean ES = .31) matched those of previous studies with targeted intervention, and effects were maintained or had increased at follow-up.

  7. Outcomes of the Y-PATH Randomized Controlled Trial: Can a School-Based Intervention Improve Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency in Adolescent Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Bronagh; Belton, Sarahjane; Fairclough, Stuart J; Powell, Danielle; Issartel, Johann

    2018-02-01

    Multicomponent, school-based interventions are considered to be an effective method for improving fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency levels and physical activity (PA) among youth. This study aimed to evaluate if the youth-physical activity toward health intervention can improve FMS proficiency in a randomized controlled trial among adolescents. Participants were 482 adolescents aged 12-13 years from 20 schools. For an academic year, participants in 10 schools received the youth-physical activity toward health intervention. The remaining 10 schools received their regular weekly physical education lessons. Fifteen FMS were assessed using validated tools; their PA was assessed using accelerometers; their height, weight, and cardiorespiratory fitness were also recorded. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and 3 months later at retention. Multilevel analysis was performed using MLwiN 2.35 software. Significant intervention effects across time were observed for total object control (P < .0001; β = 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 2.92) and total locomotor (P < .0001; β = 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 2.82), with the greatest improvements evident for total FMS score (P < .0001; β = 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 2.39 to 5.69). The effects of the intervention were significant and positive for all children in the intervention group regardless of gender, weight status, or PA level (P = .03 to < .0001). Youth-physical activity toward health has the potential to improve FMS proficiency among adolescents regardless of gender, weight status, and activity levels.

  8. School-Based Interventions to Reduce Dating and Sexual Violence: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2014:7

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rue, Lisa; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of psychological, physical, and sexual violence in intimate dating relationships has a significant impact on young people. These issues are of great concern to researchers, educators, and administrators who strive to help youth be happy and healthy. This review focused on prevention and intervention efforts implemented in…

  9. Analyzing Who, When, and Where: Data for Better Targeting of Resources for School-Based Asthma Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raun, Loren H.; Campos, Laura A.; Stevenson, Elizabeth; Ensor, Katherine B.; Johnson, Gwen; Persse, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rates of uncontrolled asthma vary by demographics, space, and time. This article uses data on ambulance-treated asthma attacks in children to analyze these variations so that school districts can improve their asthma management interventions. Methods: Incidence rates of 1826 ambulance-treated asthma attacks for children aged 5-18 years…

  10. Development of "Long Live Love+," a School-Based Online Sexual Health Programme for Young Adults. An Intervention Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Fraukje E. F.; van Empelen, Pepijn; Watzeels, Anita; van Duin, Gee; Meijer, Suzanne; van Lieshout, Sanne; Kok, Gerjo

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Dutch online programme called "Long Live Love+" focusing on positive, coercion-free relationships, contraception use, and the prevention of STIs, using the Intervention Mapping (IM) approach. All six steps of the approach were followed. Step 1 confirmed the need for a sexual health programme…

  11. Application of Theory of Planned Behavior to Improve Obesity-Preventive Lifestyle among Students: A School-based Interventional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Didarloo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is regarded as the epidemic of diseases correlated with an unhealthy lifestyle. The avoidance of inactivity could prevent obesity and its relevant issues. The present study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the theory of planned behavior (TPB to improve obesity-preventive lifestyle among Iranian students. Materials and Methods: The current study was a quasi-experimental study. Using multistage sampling, 100 Junior High-school students in Khoy, Iran in 2016 were selected and assigned to two groups, namely intervention (n=50 and control (n=50. To collect the study data, researchers utilized a researcher-made questionnaire including items about demographic information and TPB constructs such as attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC, behavioral intention, and behaviors related to physical activities, television watching, and computer-game playing. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0. Results: The mean age of the intervention group was 13.88 ± 0.79 and that of the control group was 14.12 ± 0.77 years. Prior to the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the mean of the scores of both the TPB constructs and their health performances. However, three months after the intervention, the mean score of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and behavior of students changed, and all these changes were statistically significant between two groups (p

  12. Commitment and Compatibility: Teachers' Perspectives on the Implementation of an Effective School-Based, Peer-Led Smoking Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey, Suzanne; Holliday, Jo; Campbell, Rona

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although current UK policy argues that schools have a key role in raising health standards, emphasis on the core curriculum restricts teachers' opportunities to undertake health promotion activities. The challenge is to design effective health promotion interventions that minimize pressures on teaching staff and curriculum space. Here…

  13. Daily Report Cards as a School-Based Intervention for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Darren A.; Whittaker, Sarah; Ford, Tamsin J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes daily report cards and the evidence relating to their use in schools for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This intervention typically involves teachers evaluating a student's behaviour at school against pre-determined targets and parents subsequently providing reinforcement at home for positive…

  14. The Impact and Evaluation of Two School-Based Interventions on Intention to Register an Organ Donation Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubsaet, A.; Brug, J.; Kitslaar, J.; Van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the impact and evaluation of two intervention components--a video with group discussion and an interactive computer-tailored program--in order to encourage adolescents to register their organ donation preference. Studies were conducted in school during regular school hours. The video with group discussion in class had a…

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of Using School-Based Coaches to Support Intervention Fidelity of a Classwide Behavior Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Allison F.; Wehby, Joseph H.; McGuire, Terrell M.

    2017-01-01

    Many schools are beginning to implement universal behavior management interventions as part of multitiered systems of support. Past research suggests that teachers need support to implement new practices with fidelity. Coaching is one method for supporting implementation, but little is understood about how coaching takes place when relying on…

  16. A school-based resilience intervention to decrease tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Justine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite schools theoretically being an ideal setting for accessing adolescents and preventing initiation of substance use, there is limited evidence of effective interventions in this setting. Resilience theory provides one approach to achieving such an outcome through improving adolescent mental well-being and resilience. A study was undertaken to examine the potential effectiveness of such an intervention approach in improving adolescent resilience and protective factor scores; and reducing the prevalence of adolescent tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use in three high schools. Methods A non-controlled before and after study was undertaken. Data regarding student resilience and protective factors, and measures of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use were collected from grade 7 to 10 students at baseline (n = 1449 and one year following a three year intervention (n = 1205. Results Significantly higher resilience and protective factors scores, and significantly lower prevalence of substance use were evident at follow up. Conclusions The results suggest that the intervention has the potential to increase resilience and protective factors, and to decrease the use of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana by adolescents. Further more rigorous research is required to confirm this potential.

  17. The Effectiveness of School-Based Smoking Prevention Interventions among Low- and High-SES European Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Crone, M. R.; De Vries, H.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lien, N.; Fagiano, F.; Vitoria, P. D.; Van Lenthe, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing smoking initiation among adolescents of lower socio-economic groups is crucial for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in health. The aim of the present study was to examine whether effective smoking prevention interventions in Europe are equally effective among adolescents of low- and high-socio-economic status (SES). As part…

  18. Pebbles, Rocks, and Boulders: The Implementation of a School-Based Social Engagement Intervention for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Harker, Colleen; Olsen, Anne; Shingledecker, Travis; Barg, Frances; Mandell, David; Beidas, Rinad

    2017-01-01

    Few evidence-based practices, defined as the use of empirically supported research and clinical expertise for children with autism, have been successfully implemented and sustained in schools. This study examined the perspectives of school personnel (n = 39) on implementing a social engagement intervention for children with autism. Semi-structured…

  19. Improved Body Mass Index Measures Following a Middle School-Based Obesity Intervention--The MATCH Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazorick, Suzanne; Fang, Xiangming; Hardison, George T.; Crawford, Yancey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Motivating Adolescents with Technology to CHOOSE Health™ (MATCH) is an educational and behavioral intervention in seventh grade. Methods: Teachers in 2 schools delivered the MATCH curriculum, with 1 control school. Using a quasi-experimental design, outcome measures included lessons completed, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score (zBMI),…

  20. Discourse Comprehension Intervention for High-Functioning Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Preliminary Findings from a School-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Jakob; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2010-01-01

    Many students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate comprehension difficulties. In the present study, 12 high-functioning Swedish students with ASD (aged 10-15 years) took part in a naturalistic classroom-based intervention to support comprehension of connected narrative discourse. An effective approach for supporting discourse…

  1. A school-based resilience intervention to decrease tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca K; Daly, Justine; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Hazell, Trevor; Wiggers, John

    2011-09-24

    Despite schools theoretically being an ideal setting for accessing adolescents and preventing initiation of substance use, there is limited evidence of effective interventions in this setting. Resilience theory provides one approach to achieving such an outcome through improving adolescent mental well-being and resilience. A study was undertaken to examine the potential effectiveness of such an intervention approach in improving adolescent resilience and protective factor scores; and reducing the prevalence of adolescent tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use in three high schools. A non-controlled before and after study was undertaken. Data regarding student resilience and protective factors, and measures of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use were collected from grade 7 to 10 students at baseline (n = 1449) and one year following a three year intervention (n = 1205). Significantly higher resilience and protective factors scores, and significantly lower prevalence of substance use were evident at follow up. The results suggest that the intervention has the potential to increase resilience and protective factors, and to decrease the use of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana by adolescents. Further more rigorous research is required to confirm this potential.

  2. SunSmart: Evaluation of a Pilot School-Based Sun Protection Intervention in Hispanic Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. A.; Langholz, B. M.; Ly, T.; Harris, S. C.; Richardson, J. L.; Peng, D. H.; Cockburn, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma is rising among Hispanic populations in the United States. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot sun safety educational intervention conducted from 2006 to 2012 on Hispanic early adolescents in a high ultraviolet environment. Nineteen schools with high Hispanic enrollment were recruited from urban…

  3. The Role of Community, Family, Peer, and School Factors in Group Bullying: Implications for School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael J.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Smith, Megan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although an ecological perspective suggests the importance of multiple levels of intervention, most bullying research has emphasized individual- and school-focused strategies. This study investigated community and family factors that influence school efforts to reduce odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. Methods: We used…

  4. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention – Project Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conner Mark T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3 their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. Method This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group, consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET, and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2 and 18 month follow-up (Year 4. The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. Discussion A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Trial registration Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297

  5. The researchers have left the building: what contributes to sustaining school-based interventions following the conclusion of formal research support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah; Flattum, Colleen F; Simpson, Danielle; Nederhoff, Dawn M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the sustainability of New Moves, a school-based program aimed at decreasing weight-related problems in adolescent girls. The National Cancer Institute recognizes New Moves as a research-tested intervention program that produced positive behavioral and psychosocial outcomes. Ten schools participated in the sustainability study. Teachers completed a survey and interview, and research staff observed 1 physical education (PE) class within 2 years of the study's completion. Qualitative data were grouped by themes. Frequencies were calculated using quantitative data. All schools continued all-girls PE classes using New Moves components following the study period. Fewer schools continued the nutrition and social support classroom modules and individual coaching sessions while no schools continued lunch get-togethers. Program components were sustained in both New Moves intervention schools and control schools. Programs are most likely to be sustained if they (1) fit into the current school structure, (2) receive buy-in by teachers, and (3) require minimal additional funds or staff time. Providing control schools with minimal training and intervention resources was sufficient to continue program components if staff perceived the program was important for students' health and compatible within the school's existing infrastructure. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  6. School-based intervention to enable school children to act as change agents on weight, physical activity and diet of their mothers: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Nalika; Kurotani, Kayo; Indrawansa, Susantha; Nonaka, Daisuke; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Samarasinghe, Diyanath

    2016-04-06

    School health promotion has been shown to improve the lifestyle of students, but it remains unclear whether school-based programs can influence family health. We developed an innovative program that enables school children to act as change agents in promoting healthy lifestyles of their mothers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the child-initiated intervention on weight, physical activity and dietary habit of their mothers. A 12-month cluster randomized trial was conducted, with school as a cluster. Participants were mothers with grade 8 students, aged around 13 years, of 20 schools in Homagama, Sri Lanka. Students of the intervention group were trained by facilitators to acquire the ability to assess noncommunicable disease risk factors in their homes and take action to address them, whereas those of the comparison group received no intervention. Body weight, step count and lifestyle of their mothers were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Multi-level multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of intervention on continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Of 308 study participants, 261 completed the final assessment at 12 month. There was a significantly greater decrease of weight and increase of physical activity in the intervention group. The mean (95% confidence interval) difference comparing the intervention group with the control group was -2.49 (-3.38 to -1.60) kg for weight and -0.99 (-1.40 to -0.58) kg/m(2) for body mass index. The intervention group had a 3.25 (95% confidence interval 1.87-5.62) times higher odds of engaging in adequate physical activity than the control group, and the former showed a greater number of steps than the latter after intervention. The intervention group showed a greater reduction of household purchase of biscuits and ice cream. A program to motivate students to act as change agents of family's lifestyle was effective in decreasing weight and

  7. Psychological interventions helping pediatric oncology patients cope with medical procedures: a nurse-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aurélie G; Henrich, Christopher C

    2013-12-01

    This study explored whether psychological interventions are currently used by pediatric oncology nurses to help children cope with their treatment and, if so, which interventions were considered by oncology nurses to be the most effective. A web-based survey was developed to assess pediatric oncology nurses' impressions of psychological care for pediatric patients during their medical treatment. A sample of 88 pediatric oncologic nurses from twelve leading pediatric oncology departments in the US participated in the survey. The closed questions were analyzed through quantitative methods with statistics. The open questions were examined through qualitative methods with report narratives and discourse analysis. Pediatric oncology nurses identified three psychological interventions to reduce suffering: educating children by explaining the procedure; providing emotional support to children by listening, answering children's worries, or holding their hands; and distracting children through passive and active forms. The survey further showed that nurses spent on average 3 h per day providing emotional support, would be willing to be trained in additional interventions (93%), and could devote at least 10 min per treatment to provide support (77%). This work demonstrates the central role nurses play as emotional support caregivers. Since nurses would be willing to provide emotional support during treatments, training may be an approach to incorporate the use of psychological interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shenghui Li; Lester Arguelles; Fan Jiang; Wenjuan Chen; Xingming Jin; Chonghuai Yan; Ying Tian; Xiumei Hong; Ceng Qian; Jun Zhang; Xiaobin Wang; Xiaoming Shen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. ...

  9. A pilot study of an online universal school-based intervention to prevent alcohol and cannabis use in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Conrod, Patricia J; Rodriguez, Daniel M; Teesson, Maree

    2014-05-19

    The online universal Climate Schools intervention has been found to be effective in reducing the use of alcohol and cannabis among Australian adolescents. The aim of the current study was to examine the feasibility of implementing this prevention programme in the UK. A pilot study examining the feasibility of the Climate Schools programme in the UK was conducted with teachers and students from Year 9 classes at two secondary schools in southeast London. Teachers were asked to implement the evidence-based Climate Schools programme over the school year with their students. The intervention consisted of two modules (each with six lessons) delivered approximately 6 months apart. Following completion of the intervention, students and teachers were asked to evaluate the programme. 11 teachers and 222 students from two secondary schools evaluated the programme. Overall, the evaluations were extremely positive. Specifically, 85% of students said the information on alcohol and cannabis and how to stay safe was easy to understand, 84% said it was easy to learn and 80% said the online cartoon-based format was an enjoyable way to learn health theory topics. All teachers said the students were able to recall the information taught, 82% said the computer component was easy to implement and all teachers said the teacher's manual was easy to use to prepare class activities. Importantly, 82% of teachers said it was likely that they would use the programme in the future and recommend it to others. The Internet-based universal Climate Schools prevention programme to be both feasible and acceptable to students and teachers in the UK. A full evaluation trial of the intervention is now required to examine its effectiveness in reducing alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents in the UK before implementation in the UK school system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Outcome evaluation results of school-based cybersafety promotion and cyberbullying prevention intervention for middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Anthony J; Eden, Jen; Savage, Matthew W; Ramos-Salazar, Leslie; Deiss, Douglas M

    2014-01-01

    Guided largely by the Extended Parallel Process Model, the Arizona Attorney General's Social Networking Safety Promotion and Cyberbullying Prevention presentation attempts to shape, change, and reinforce middle school students' perceptions, attitudes, and intentions related to these important social issues. This study evaluated the short-term effects of this presentation in a field experiment using a posttest-only control-group design with random assignment to conditions. A total of 425 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at a public middle school in a large Southwestern city participated in this study. Results reveal several interesting trends across grade levels regarding cyberbullying perpetration and victimization, and concerning access to various communication technologies. The intervention had the hypothesized main effect on eight of the dependent variables under investigation. Examination of condition by grade interaction effects offered further support for an additional four hypotheses (i.e., the intervention positively affected or reversed a negative trend on four dependent variables in at least one grade). Ideas and implications for future social networking safety promotion and cyberbullying prevention interventions are discussed.

  11. Design and methods for "Commit to Get Fit" - a pilot study of a school-based mindfulness intervention to promote healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Sue; Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Crawford, Sybil; Pbert, Lori

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular prevention is more effective if started early in life, but available interventions to promote healthy lifestyle habits among youth have been ineffective. Impulsivity in particular has proven to be an important barrier to the adoption of healthy behaviors in youth. Observational evidence suggests that mindfulness interventions may reduce impulsivity and improve diet and physical activity. We hypothesize that mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education will improve dietary habits and physical activity among teenagers by reducing impulsive behavior and improving planning skills. The Commit to Get Fit study is a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial examining the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of school-based mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education for promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents. Two schools in central Massachusetts (30 students per school) will be randomized to receive mindfulness training plus standard health education (HE-M) or an attention-control intervention plus standard health education (HE-AC). Assessments will be conducted at baseline, intervention completion (2 months), and 8 months. Primary outcomes are feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, diet, impulsivity, mood, body mass index, and quality of life. This study will provide important information about feasibility and preliminary estimates of efficacy of a school-delivered mindfulness and health education intervention to promote healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors among adolescents. Our findings will provide important insights about the possible mechanisms by which mindfulness training may contribute to behavioral change and inform future research in this important area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effectiveness of a New School-Based Media Literacy Intervention on Adolescents' Doping Attitudes and Supplements Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Alivernini, Fabio; Chirico, Andrea; Manganelli, Sara; Galli, Federica; Biasi, Valeria; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a media literacy intervention targeting, for the first time, the specific topic of Performance and Appearance Enhancing Substances (PAESs) use in high-school students. Overall, 389 students (52% male) aged between 13 and 19 years (mean = 16.56 year; SD = 1.26) participated to a media literacy intervention (i.e., "intervention group") while 103 students aged between 14 and 19 year (mean = 16.10 year; SD = 1.38) were considered as the control group (i.e., "control group"). In two separate occasions over the course of six consecutive months, students in both groups filled out a set of questionnaires which included measures of social-cognitive beliefs (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, intentions) and a self-reported measure of retrospective use of doping (Yes/No) and supplements (Yes/No). Compared to students in the control group (Mean(time1) = 1.96; SD(time1) = 0.85; and Mean(time2) = 2.09; SD(time2) = 0.94), intervention students on average expressed relatively stronger attitudes against doping use over time (Mean(time1) = 2.2; SD(time1) = 0.85; and Mean(time2) = 2.05; SD(time2) = 0.82). Students in the latter group also showed a statistically significant decrease in self-reported supplement use (Use(time1) = 6.7%; Use(time2) = 3.8%; p = 0.05, McNemar Test). Interestingly, albeit marginally significant, students in the control group showed a relative increment in the self-reported use of supplements over time (Use(time1) = 4.9%; Use(time2) = 8.7%; p = 0.22, McNemar Test). Overall, the media literacy intervention investigated in the present study was effective in decreasing adolescent student's positive attitudes toward doping use and in reducing the use of legal PAES. These findings supported the generalizability and the usefulness of a media literacy approach in the specific field of PAES.

  13. The Effectiveness of a New School-Based Media Literacy Intervention on Adolescents’ Doping Attitudes and Supplements Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lucidi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a media literacy intervention targeting, for the first time, the specific topic of Performance and Appearance Enhancing Substances (PAESs use in high-school students. Overall, 389 students (52% male aged between 13 and 19 years (mean = 16.56 year; SD = 1.26 participated to a media literacy intervention (i.e., “intervention group” while 103 students aged between 14 and 19 year (mean = 16.10 year; SD = 1.38 were considered as the control group (i.e., “control group”. In two separate occasions over the course of six consecutive months, students in both groups filled out a set of questionnaires which included measures of social-cognitive beliefs (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, intentions and a self-reported measure of retrospective use of doping (Yes/No and supplements (Yes/No. Compared to students in the control group (Mean(time1 = 1.96; SD(time1 = 0.85; and Mean(time2 = 2.09; SD(time2 = 0.94, intervention students on average expressed relatively stronger attitudes against doping use over time (Mean(time1 = 2.2; SD(time1 = 0.85; and Mean(time2 = 2.05; SD(time2 = 0.82. Students in the latter group also showed a statistically significant decrease in self-reported supplement use (Use(time1 = 6.7%; Use(time2 = 3.8%; p = 0.05, McNemar Test. Interestingly, albeit marginally significant, students in the control group showed a relative increment in the self-reported use of supplements over time (Use(time1 = 4.9%; Use(time2 = 8.7%; p = 0.22, McNemar Test. Overall, the media literacy intervention investigated in the present study was effective in decreasing adolescent student’s positive attitudes toward doping use and in reducing the use of legal PAES. These findings supported the generalizability and the usefulness of a media literacy approach in the specific field of PAES.

  14. The Effectiveness of a New School-Based Media Literacy Intervention on Adolescents’ Doping Attitudes and Supplements Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Alivernini, Fabio; Chirico, Andrea; Manganelli, Sara; Galli, Federica; Biasi, Valeria; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a media literacy intervention targeting, for the first time, the specific topic of Performance and Appearance Enhancing Substances (PAESs) use in high-school students. Overall, 389 students (52% male) aged between 13 and 19 years (mean = 16.56 year; SD = 1.26) participated to a media literacy intervention (i.e., “intervention group”) while 103 students aged between 14 and 19 year (mean = 16.10 year; SD = 1.38) were considered as the control group (i.e., “control group”). In two separate occasions over the course of six consecutive months, students in both groups filled out a set of questionnaires which included measures of social-cognitive beliefs (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, intentions) and a self-reported measure of retrospective use of doping (Yes/No) and supplements (Yes/No). Compared to students in the control group (Mean(time1) = 1.96; SD(time1) = 0.85; and Mean(time2) = 2.09; SD(time2) = 0.94), intervention students on average expressed relatively stronger attitudes against doping use over time (Mean(time1) = 2.2; SD(time1) = 0.85; and Mean(time2) = 2.05; SD(time2) = 0.82). Students in the latter group also showed a statistically significant decrease in self-reported supplement use (Use(time1) = 6.7%; Use(time2) = 3.8%; p = 0.05, McNemar Test). Interestingly, albeit marginally significant, students in the control group showed a relative increment in the self-reported use of supplements over time (Use(time1) = 4.9%; Use(time2) = 8.7%; p = 0.22, McNemar Test). Overall, the media literacy intervention investigated in the present study was effective in decreasing adolescent student’s positive attitudes toward doping use and in reducing the use of legal PAES. These findings supported the generalizability and the usefulness of a media literacy approach in the specific field of PAES. PMID:28536552

  15. Promoting physical activity with a school-based dance mat exergaming intervention: qualitative findings from a natural experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duika Burges Watson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is critical to improving health and well-being in children. Quantitative studies have found a decline in activity in the transition from primary to secondary education. Exergames (active video games might increase physical activity in adolescents. In January 2011 exergame dance mat systems were introduced in to all secondary schools across two local authority districts in the UK. We performed a quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment using a mixed methods design. The quantitative findings from this work have been previously published. The aim of this linked qualitative study was to explore the implementation of the dance mat scheme and offer insights into its uptake as a physical activity intervention. Methods Embedded qualitative interviews at baseline and 12 month follow-up with purposively selected physical education teachers (n = 20 and 25 focus groups with a convenience sample of pupils (n = 120 from five intervention schools were conducted. Analysis was informed by sociology of translation approach. Results At baseline, participants (both teachers and pupils reported different expectations about the dance mats and how they could be employed. Variation in use was seen at follow-up. In some settings they were frequently used to engage hard to reach groups of pupils. Overall, the dance mats were not used routinely to increase physical activity. However there were other unanticipated benefits to pupils such as improved reaction time, co-ordination and mathematic skills. The use of dance mats was limited in routine physical education classes because of contextual issues (school/government policy technological failures (batteries/updates and because of expectations about how and where they could be used. Conclusions Our linked quantitative study (previously published suggested that the dance mats were not particularly effective in increasing physical activity, but the qualitative

  16. Promoting physical activity with a school-based dance mat exergaming intervention: qualitative findings from a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges Watson, Duika; Adams, Jean; Azevedo, Liane B; Haighton, Catherine

    2016-07-20

    Physical activity is critical to improving health and well-being in children. Quantitative studies have found a decline in activity in the transition from primary to secondary education. Exergames (active video games) might increase physical activity in adolescents. In January 2011 exergame dance mat systems were introduced in to all secondary schools across two local authority districts in the UK. We performed a quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment using a mixed methods design. The quantitative findings from this work have been previously published. The aim of this linked qualitative study was to explore the implementation of the dance mat scheme and offer insights into its uptake as a physical activity intervention. Embedded qualitative interviews at baseline and 12 month follow-up with purposively selected physical education teachers (n = 20) and 25 focus groups with a convenience sample of pupils (n = 120) from five intervention schools were conducted. Analysis was informed by sociology of translation approach. At baseline, participants (both teachers and pupils) reported different expectations about the dance mats and how they could be employed. Variation in use was seen at follow-up. In some settings they were frequently used to engage hard to reach groups of pupils. Overall, the dance mats were not used routinely to increase physical activity. However there were other unanticipated benefits to pupils such as improved reaction time, co-ordination and mathematic skills. The use of dance mats was limited in routine physical education classes because of contextual issues (school/government policy) technological failures (batteries/updates) and because of expectations about how and where they could be used. Our linked quantitative study (previously published) suggested that the dance mats were not particularly effective in increasing physical activity, but the qualitative results (reported here) show that the dance mats were not used

  17. School-based intervention to promote eating daily and healthy breakfast: a survey and a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Adar, S; Koren-Morag, N; Siman-Tov, M; Livne, I; Altmen, H

    2011-02-01

    The recent rapid increase in childhood obesity rates suggests that a consideration of the role of the schools in addressing this problem is necessary. 'Fits me' program functions to promote eating daily and healthy breakfast among elementary school children. Separate children groups were sampled each year by clusters from seven regions around Israel. They filled a self-administered questionnaire at the beginning of 2003, before the program started, and in 2003-2005, after the program. A separate sample was collected in 2006 in a case-control structure. The answer to the question: 'what do you eat for breakfast?' considered as a healthy breakfast if it included one of the following food items: A sandwich (not including chocolate, jam or butter), cereals, vegetable, fruit, egg and dairy product. As compared with 2003 before the program, more children reported eating daily breakfast over the years (51-65% before and until 2005, respectively, P for trendhealthy breakfast, in 2006 in the intervention (n=417) vs controls (n=572), adjusted for sex and age were OR=1.53 (95% CI: 1.15-2.04). However, only a third of 75% of the children who ate a healthy breakfast in the intervention group estimated that they were eating a healthy breakfast. After implementation an educational program to promote daily and healthy breakfast eating, the goal of a healthier breakfast was achieved. However, one should strive to define an exact definition of a healthy breakfast.

  18. Analyzing Who, When, and Where: Data for Better Targeting of Resources for School-Based Asthma Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raun, Loren H; Campos, Laura A; Stevenson, Elizabeth; Ensor, Katherine B; Johnson, Gwen; Persse, David

    2017-04-01

    Rates of uncontrolled asthma vary by demographics, space, and time. This article uses data on ambulance-treated asthma attacks in children to analyze these variations so that school districts can improve their asthma management interventions. Incidence rates of 1826 ambulance-treated asthma attacks for children aged 5-18 years were calculated for school zones for elementary, middle, and high schools in the Houston (Texas) Independent School District (HISD). Zones with rates in the upper quartile were identified as the highest rate zones and were compared with other school zones in the district by demographics, location, and timing of attacks. The ambulance-treated asthma rate was respectively 5, 3, and 2 times greater in the highest rate school zones compared with all other school zones for those school levels. Ambulance-treated asthma attacks in the high-rate school zones occurred most at midday and in the evening and high-rate zones were often geographically contiguous. Schools in the high-rate zones had a higher percent of socioeconomically disadvantaged students and were more often without a school nurse. Spatial and temporal analysis of ambulance data can be valuable tools for schools to focus policy and program interventions for the students in need of improved asthma management. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  19. Multi-year school-based implementation and student outcomes of an evidence-based risk reduction intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Adderley, Richard; Poitier, Maxwell; Koci, Veronica; Marshall, Sharon; Gomez, Perry

    2017-02-10

    Intervention effects observed in efficacy trials are rarely replicated when the interventions are broadly disseminated, underscoring the need for more information about factors influencing real-life implementation and program impact. Using data from the ongoing national implementation of an evidence-based HIV prevention program [Focus on Youth in The Caribbean (FOYC)] in The Bahamas, this study examines factors influencing teachers' patterns of implementation, the impact of teachers' initial implementation of FOYC, and subsequent delivery of the booster sessions on students' outcomes. Data were collected from the 80 government elementary and 34 middle schools between 2011 and 2014, involving 208 grade 6, 75 grade 7, and 58 grade 8 teachers and 4411 students initially in grade 6 and followed for 3 years. Student outcomes include HIV/AIDS knowledge, reproductive health skills, self-efficacy, and intention to use protection. Data from teachers includes implementation and modification of the curriculum, attitudes towards the prevention program, comfort level with the curriculum, and attendance at training workshops. Structural equation modeling and mixed-effect modeling analyses were applied to examine the impact of teachers' implementation. Teachers' attitudes towards and comfort with the intervention curriculum, and attendance at the curriculum training workshop had a direct effect on teachers' patterns of implementation, which had a direct effect on student outcomes. Teachers' attitudes had a direct positive effect on student outcomes. Teachers' training in interactive teaching methods and longer duration as teachers were positively associated with teachers' comfort with the curriculum. High-quality implementation in grade 6 was significantly related to student outcomes in grades 6 and 7 post-implementation. Level of implementation of the booster sessions in grades 7 and 8 were likewise significantly related to subsequent student outcomes in both grades. High

  20. The World Starts With Me: using intervention mapping for the systematic adaptation and transfer of school-based sexuality education from Uganda to Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Reinders, Jo; Darwisyah, Wati; Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2011-06-01

    Evidence-based health promotion programmes, including HIV/AIDS prevention and sexuality education programmes, are often transferred to other cultures, priority groups and implementation settings. Challenges in this process include the identification of retaining core elements that relate to the programme's effectiveness while making changes that enhances acceptance in the new context and for the new priority group. This paper describes the use of a systematic approach to programme adaptation using a case study as an example. Intervention Mapping, a protocol for the development of evidence-based behaviour change interventions, was used to adapt the comprehensive school-based sexuality education programme 'The World Starts With Me'. The programme was developed for a priority population in Uganda and adapted to a programme for Indonesian secondary school students. The approach helped to systematically address the complexity and challenges of programme adaptation and to find a balance between preservation of essential programme elements (i.e. logic models) that may be crucial to the programme's effectiveness, including key objectives and theoretical behaviour change methods, and the adaptation of the programme to be acceptable to the new priority group and the programme implementers.

  1. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal Kapil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16. The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28 which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023 had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628

  2. Parental involvement and association with adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake at follow-up: Process evaluation results from the multi-component school-based Boost intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegård; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Due, Pernille; Krølner, Rikke

    2016-10-26

    Based on the assumption of parental influence on adolescent behavior, multicomponent school-based dietary interventions often include a parental component. The effect of this intervention component is seldom reported and the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic process evaluation of the parental component and examined whether the leveal of parental involvement in a large multi-component intervention: the Boost study was associated with adolescents' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake at follow-up. The Boost study was targeting FV intake among 1,175 Danish 7th graders (≈13- year-olds) in the school year 2010/11. The study included a school component: free FV in class and curricular activities; a local community component: fact sheets for sports- and youth clubs; and a parental component: presentation of Boost at a parent-school meeting, 6 newsletters to parents, 3 guided student-parent curricular activities, and a student-parent Boost event. Students whose parent replied to the follow-up survey (n = 347). Questionnaire data from students, parents and teachers at 20 intervention schools. Process evaluation measures: dose delivered, dose received, appreciation and level of parental involvement. Parental involvement was trichotomized into: low/no (0-2 points), medium (3 points) and high (4-6 points). The association between level of parental involvement and self-reported FV intake (24-h recall), was analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. The Boost study was presented at a parent-school meeting at all intervention schools. The dose delivered was low to moderate for the three other parental elements. Most parents appreciated the intervention and talked with their child about Boost (83.5 %). High, medium and low parental involvement was found among 30.5 %, 29.6 % and 39.4 % of the students respectively. Parental involvement was highest among women. More men agreed that the parental newsletters provided new information. Students with a medium

  3. Implementing an early childhood school-based mental health promotion intervention in low-resource Ugandan schools: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Nakigudde, Janet; Calzada, Esther; Boivin, Michael J; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2014-12-01

    Children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are burdened by significant unmet mental health needs, but this region has limited access to mental health workers and resources to address these needs. Despite the successes of numerous school-based interventions for promoting child mental health, most evidence-based interventions are not available in SSA. This study will investigate the transportability of an evidence-based program from a developed country (United States) to a SSA country (Uganda). The approach includes task-shifting to early childhood teachers and consists of professional development (five days) to introduce strategies for effective behavior management and positive teacher-student interactions, and group-based consultation (14 sessions) to support adoption of effective practices and tailoring to meet the needs of individual students. The design of this study is guided by two implementation frameworks, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the Teacher Training Implementation Model, that consider multidimensional aspects of intervention fidelity and contextual predictors that may influence implementation and teacher outcomes. Using a cluster randomized design, 10 schools in Uganda will be randomized to either the intervention group (five schools) or the waitlist control group (five schools). A total of 80 to 100 early childhood teachers will be enrolled in the study. Teacher utilization of evidence-based strategies and practices will be assessed at baseline, immediate post-intervention (six months after baseline), and at seven months post-intervention (during a new academic year). Fidelity measures will be assessed throughout the program implementation period (during professional development and consultation sessions). Individual teacher and contextual factors will be assessed at baseline. Data will be collected from multiple sources. Linear mixed-effect modeling, adjusting for school nesting, will be applied to address study questions. The

  4. Study on cognitive behavioural coping of intervention and rescue personnel in toxic / flammable / explosive environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Izabella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In any given field, the psychological examination represents a prerequisite for ensuring that the work process is properly and appropriately directed towards increasing its efficiency. An important aspect of the psychological examination is to identify risk and protective factors associated with developing and maintaining emotional and behavioural problems. Special conditions resulting from emergency situations are likely to lead to physical and emotional tensions. In some intervention and rescue personnel these are accompanied by mobilization of internal resource, while in others they can generate inadequacy phenomena and symptoms of mental distress. From this perspective, stress is regarded as a result of the marked disparity between environmental requirements and the individual’s response possibilities. To highlight both cognitive and behavioural coping strategies most often used by rescuers trained in NRDI INSEMEX we used two instruments, namely Strategic Approach to Coping Scale SACS and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire CERQ. This paper displays the results of the project no. PN 16 43 01 12, study conducted through Nucleu program, implemented with the support of NASR.

  5. A coping and communication support intervention tailored to older patients diagnosed with late-stage cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hannum Rose

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Julia Hannum Rose1,2,3, Rosanne Radziewicz4, Karen F Bowman5, Elizabeth E O’Toole11Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Louis Stokes Cleveland VAMC-GRECC, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Center for Health Care Research and Policy, Case at MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA; 4Department of Nursing, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA; 5Department of Sociology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: As our society ages, increasing numbers of older Americans will be diagnosed and eventually will die of cancer. To date, psycho-oncology interventions for advanced cancer patients have been more successful in reaching younger adult age groups and generally have not been designed to respond to the unique needs and preferences of older patients. Theories and research on successful aging (Baltes and Baltes 1990; Baltes 1997, health information processing style (Miller 1995; Miller et al 2001 and non-directive client-centered therapy (Rogers 1951, 1967, have guided the development of a coping and communication support (CCS intervention. Key components of this age-sensitive and tailored intervention are described, including problem domains addressed, intervention strategies used and the role of the CCS practitioner. Age group comparisons in frequency of contact, problems raised and intervention strategies used during the first six weeks of follow up indicate that older patients were similar to middle-aged patients in their level of engagement, problems faced and intervention strategies used. Middle-aged patients were more likely to have problems communicating with family members at intervention start up and practical problems as well in follow up contacts. This is the first intervention study specifically designed to be age sensitive and to examine age differences in engagement from the early treatment phase for late-stage cancer through end of life. This tailored intervention is

  6. Effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal resilience intervention in reducing tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use in a population of adolescents: cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Dray, Julia; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Wiggers, John

    2017-08-18

    Initiation of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use typically occurs during adolescence, with the school setting recommended to reduce adolescent substance use. Strengthening individual (eg, problem solving) and environmental (eg, caring relationships at school) resilience protective factors of adolescents has been suggested as a strategy for reducing substance use by adolescents; however, few studies have examined this potential. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal 'resilience' intervention in reducing the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use, and increasing the individual and environmental protective factors of students. A cluster-randomised controlled trial. Thirty-two Australian secondary schools (20 intervention; 12 control). Cohort of grade 7 students followed-up in grade 10 (2014; aged 15-16 years). A pragmatic intervention involving school staff selection and implementation of available programmes and resources targeting individual and environmental 'resilience' protective factors for all grade 7-10 students was implemented in schools (2012-2014). School staff were provided implementation support. An online survey collected baseline and follow-up data for primary outcomes: tobacco (ever, recent) and alcohol (ever, recent, 'risk') use, and secondary outcomes: marijuana and other illicit substance use, and individual (six-factor subscales, aggregate) and environmental (three-factor subscales, aggregate) protective factor scores. Generalised and linear mixed models examined follow-up differences between groups. Follow-up data from 2105 students (intervention=1261; control=844; 69% of baseline cohort) were analysed. No significant differences were found between intervention and control students for any primary (ever tobacco: OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.68, p=0.14; recent tobacco: OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.84 to 2.31, p=0.19; recent ever alcohol: OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.48, p=0

  7. Assessing "First Mile" Supply Chain Factors Affecting Timeliness of School-Based Deworming Interventions: Supply and Logistics Performance Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koporc, Kimberly M; Strunz, Eric; Holloway, Cassandra; Addiss, David G; Lin, William

    2015-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2012, Children Without Worms (CWW) oversaw the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) donation of Vermox (mebendazole) for treatment of school-age children to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). To identify factors associated with on-time, delayed, or missed mass drug administration (MDA) interventions, and explore possible indicators for supply chain performance for drug donation programs, we reviewed program data for the 14 STH-endemic countries CWW supported during 2007-2012. Data from drug applications, shipping records, and annual treatment reports were tracked using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data from interviews with key personnel were used to provide additional context on the causes of delayed or missed MDAs. Four possible contributory factors to delayed or missed MDAs were considered: production, shipping, customs clearance, and miscellaneous in-country issues. Coverage rates were calculated by dividing the number of treatments administered by the number of children targeted during the MDA. Of the approved requests for 78 MDAs, 54 MDAs (69%) were successfully implemented during or before the scheduled month. Ten MDAs (13%) were classified as delayed; seven of these were delayed by one month or less. An additional 14 MDAs (18%) were classified as missed. For the 64 on-time or delayed MDAs, the mean coverage was approximately 88%. To continue to assess the supply chain processes and identify areas for improvement, we identified four indicators or metrics for supply chain performance that can be applied across all neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug donation programs: (1) donor having available inventory to satisfy the country request for donation; (2) donor shipping the approved number of doses; (3) shipment arriving at the Central Medical Stores one month in advance of the scheduled MDA date; and (4) country programs implementing the MDA as scheduled.

  8. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children aged 7-11 years from Poznań (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilińska, Inez; Kryst, Łukasz

    2017-07-01

    The epidemic of obesity, which is one of the most important public health problems, appeared paradoxically as a result of improving living conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effects on overweight/obesity prevalence of the primary-school-based intervention program. The group of 5,293 children (7-11 year-olds) from Poznań (Poland) was divided into two subgroups: experimental and control one. The research group was participating in extra physical activities. Measurements (height and weight) were taken twice: at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. The estimations of the prevalence of overweight/obesity were based on the cut-off points of the IOTF values. To estimate the risk the odds ratio (OR) were calculated. There were no differences in BMI for both boys and girls. Also there were no significant differences in prevalence of overweight and obesity, for both sexes. The risk of being overweight/obese was not reduced in children in the experimental group - OR for boys was 0.93 (0.80, 1.08), and for girls OR = 0.88 (0.76, 1.03). In conclusion, the risk of overweight/obesity has not changed after one year of extra physical activities and engagement in health-oriented education program. This study shows that in case of such programs it is necessary to apply more intense interventions, probably also during longer period of time. It is possible that other adverse factors have a stronger influence on the body mass, which would suggest that the theoretical part of intervention concerning pro-health-related behaviors was not implemented in practice.

  9. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.

  10. Impact of a school-based intervention on nutritional education and physical activity in primary public schools in Chile (KIND programme study protocol: cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Bustos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region one school will be selected for each of the three nutritional intervention modes and one school will be selected as the control group. The intervention modes consist of the following: Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN; Optimized physical activity (AFSO; Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN + optimized physical activity (AFSO; Control group. The effectiveness of each intervention will be evaluated by determining the nutritional condition of each child by measuring percentage of body fat, BMI and the z-score of the BMI. This study will also identify the eating behaviours, nutritional knowledge and fitness of each child, along with the effective time of moderate activity during physical education classes. Discussion A protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to control and/or reduce the rates of childhood obesity for children between 6 and 10 years of age was developed. The protocol was developed in line with the Declaration of Helsinski, the Nüremberg Code and the University of Chile Guidelines for ethical committees, and was approved by the INTA, Universidad de Chile ethical committee on Wednesday 12 March 2014. There is consensus among researchers and health and education personnel that schools are a favourable environment for actions to prevent and/or control childhood obesity. However a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to date has led some to question the wisdom of

  11. Impact of a school-based intervention on nutritional education and physical activity in primary public schools in Chile (KIND) programme study protocol: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, Sonia; Leyton, Bárbara; Cano, Marcelo; Albala, Cecilia

    2016-12-03

    Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region one school will be selected for each of the three nutritional intervention modes and one school will be selected as the control group. The intervention modes consist of the following: Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN); Optimized physical activity (AFSO); Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN) + optimized physical activity (AFSO); Control group. The effectiveness of each intervention will be evaluated by determining the nutritional condition of each child by measuring percentage of body fat, BMI and the z-score of the BMI. This study will also identify the eating behaviours, nutritional knowledge and fitness of each child, along with the effective time of moderate activity during physical education classes. A protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to control and/or reduce the rates of childhood obesity for children between 6 and 10 years of age was developed. The protocol was developed in line with the Declaration of Helsinski, the Nüremberg Code and the University of Chile Guidelines for ethical committees, and was approved by the INTA, Universidad de Chile ethical committee on Wednesday 12 March 2014. There is consensus among researchers and health and education personnel that schools are a favourable environment for actions to prevent and/or control childhood obesity. However a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to date has led some to question the wisdom of allocating resources to programmes. This is the first study

  12. A Comparison of the Effects of Interventions on Stress Coping Resources of Beginning Associate Degree Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollant, Paulette D.; Curlette, William

    A study examined the effectiveness of group and self-directed interventions for developing stress-coping resources among students in three associate degree nursing programs. The 46 students in the modified curriculum group received instruction in two stress-monitoring techniques and three tension control exercises. The second group (n = 61)…

  13. An Evidence-Based Group Coping Intervention for Women Living with HIV and History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Puffer, Eve S.; Kochman, Arlene; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2011-01-01

    Women living with HIV/AIDS and a history of childhood sexual abuse often exhibit sexual trauma symptoms and elevated rates of HIV-risk behaviors. In this paper, we describe a coping skills group intervention that reduced traumatic stress and sexual-risk behavior in a recent randomized clinical trial. We focus on clinical issues that emerged among female participants receiving the intervention. Clinical observations showed that recognizing connections between trauma, psychological distress, an...

  14. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10 year old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome...... of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure...

  15. A culturally adapted family intervention for African American families coping with parental cancer: outcomes of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of this 2-year pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted family intervention in improving family communication among African American parents coping with cancer and their school-age children. A secondary objective was to determine its impact on other symptoms of psychosocial distress (depression and anxiety). The third objective was to assess for acceptability and feasibility. Using a two-arm pre-intervention and post-intervention prospective design, 12 African American families received five bi-monthly sessions of either a culturally adapted family intervention (n=7 families) or psycho-education treatment (n=5 families). Parents and their children completed pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires assessing perceptions of family communication, quality of their relationship, and symptoms of depression. School-age children additionally completed a questionnaire assessing their levels of anxiety. Consumer satisfaction was also evaluated at post-intervention. Parents and school-age children who completed the culturally adapted family intervention reported significantly better communication with each other and were more satisfied compared with the psycho-education control group. No changes were noted in symptoms of anxiety or depression. The culturally adapted family intervention was acceptable based on our findings, families' feedback, and rates of retention. Feasibility is uncertain because our oncology clinic approach to recruitment was slower than expected. Providing culturally adapted family intervention programs to African American families who are coping with parental cancer may result in improved family communication. This pilot study serves as the first step in the development of culturally adapted family intervention programs to help African American families cope with parental cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a novel school-based intervention to prevent obesity in school children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last three decades there has been a substantial increase in the proportion of children who are overweight or obese. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) is a novel school-based intervention, using highly interactive and creative delivery methods to prevent obesity in children. Methods/Design We describe a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of HeLP. The intervention has been developed using intervention mapping (involving extensive stakeholder involvement) and has been guided by the Information, Motivation, Behavioural Skills model. HeLP includes creating a receptive environment, drama activities, goal setting and reinforcement activities and runs over three school terms. Piloting showed that 9 to 10 year olds were the most receptive and participative. This study aims to recruit 1,300 children from 32 schools (over half of which will have ≥19% of pupils eligible for free school meals) from the southwest of England. Participating schools will be randomised to intervention or control groups with baseline measures taken prior to randomisation. The primary outcome is change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) at 24 months post baseline. Secondary outcomes include, waist circumference and percent body fat SDS and proportion of children classified as overweight or obese at 18 and 24 months and objectively measured physical activity and food intake at 18 months. Between-group comparisons will be made using random effects regression analysis taking into account the hierarchical nature of the study design. An economic evaluation will estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of HeLP, compared to control, from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS)/third party payer. An in-depth process evaluation will provide insight into how HeLP works, and whether there is any differential uptake or engagement with the programme. Discussion The results of the trial will provide

  17. COPE for Depressed and Anxious Teens: A Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Skills Building Intervention to Increase Access to Timely, Evidence-Based Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Pamela; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    TOPIC Evidence–based CBT skills building interventionCOPE -for depressed and anxious teens in brief 30 minute outpatient visits. PURPOSE Based on COPE training workshops, this paper provides an overview of the COPE program, it’s development, theoretical foundation, content of the sessions and lessons learned for best delivery of COPE to individuals and groups in psychiatric settings, primary care settings and schools. SOURCES Published literature and clinical examples CONCLUSION With the COPE program, the advanced practice nurse in busy outpatient practice can provide timely, evidence-based therapy for adolescents and use the full extent of his/her advanced practice nursing knowledge and skills. PMID:23351105

  18. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Anderssen, S A; Holme, I M

    2011-01-01

    at the I-school carried out 60 min of PA daily. The PA lessons were planned, organized and led by expert physical education (PE) teachers. In the C-school, children were offered the normal 45 min of PE twice weekly. The intervention resulted in a greater beneficial development in systolic (P=0...

  19. Effects of a worksite coping skills intervention on the stress, social support, and health outcomes of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, M L; Snow, D L

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a 15-session worksite coping skills intervention aimed at modifying work- and family-related risk and protective factors and at reducing negative health outcomes among mothers employed in secretarial positions. A sample of 142 mothers employed at one of four corporate worksites was assessed at pretest, immediately following the intervention, and at 6-month follow-up using multiple self-report measures. Results showed that at immediate posttest, intervention participants reported significantly lower employee role stress, higher social support from work sources, and lower levels of alcohol and tobacco use. They also tended to report less use of avoidance coping and lower psychological symptomatology. At 6-month follow-up, intervention participants reported significantly lower work-family and work environment stress, higher social support from work sources, less avoidance coping, and lower psychological symptomatology. Attrition analyses provided support for the external and internal validity of the study findings. Results were discussed in relation to issues of longitudinal prevention research and worksite-based interventions.

  20. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: study protocol for the ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities. Methods/Design The cluster randomised trial will be conducted with 10 secondary schools located in selected regions of New South Wales, Australia. The schools will be selected from areas that have a level of socio-economic status that is below the state average. Five schools will be allocated to receive an intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools framework, and will be supported by a part-time physical activity consultant placed in intervention schools who will implement a range of intervention adoption strategies. Study measures will be taken at baseline when students are in Year 7 (12–13 years and again after 12- and 24-months. The primary outcome, minutes of moderate- to-vigorous- intensity physical activity per day and percentage of time in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, will be objectively assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3x+. Group allocation and intervention delivery will commence after baseline data collection. The intervention will continue during school terms through to 24-month follow-up. Discussion The study will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention that includes an in-school physical activity consultant targeting the physical activity levels of adolescents in disadvantaged Australian secondary schools. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000382875.

  1. Community-based counselors' interventions for elementary school-age children coping with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Laura; Baker-Phibbs, Christina; Woodson, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Child trauma is a mental health concern and more information is needed about treatment in community mental health settings. This article presents results of a focus group and member checking sessions held with counselors who provided therapy for children experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder in a community-based setting. Results indicated that play and art techniques were commonly used during individual child therapy sessions. Sessions were child-directed and allowed children to review trauma experiences in a "safe" setting with an "expert" guide. Several themes were commonly addressed in sessions including opportunities to re-experience, release, and reorganize the trauma, building resilience or self-esteem for the child, promoting safety, and helping the child to regulate emotional reactions and behavior problems. Counselors focused on discussing ways to interact with the child to promote healing and there was a belief that children would return to a positive developmental trajectory after coping with traumatic experiences. Future research needs to address what works for whom, in terms of what interventions are useful in child-directed counseling sessions for children who have experienced specific types of trauma, such as sexual and physical abuse or witnessing domestic violence. Integration of knowledge from evidence-based treatments will also further inform clinical practice with children who have experienced traumatic events.

  2. Coping as a Predictor of Burnout and General Health in Therapists Working in ABA Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, G. M.; Barbakou, A.; Hastings, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the work-related well-being of applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapists who work in school-based contexts and deliver ABA interventions to children with autism. Methods: A questionnaire on work-related stress (burnout), general distress, perceived supervisor support and coping was completed by 45 ABA therapists…

  3. Piloting a Coping Skills Group Intervention to Reduce Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Patients Awaiting Kidney or Liver Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Julie Anne; Miner, Dee; Remtulla, Tasneem; Miller, Janet; Zanussi, Lauren W

    2017-02-01

    The authors evaluated the use of a coping skills group (CSG) therapy intervention to decrease depression and anxiety and increase healthy coping skills in a population of kidney and liver transplant candidates. The study, using a pre-posttest design, piloted a CSG with a convenience sample of 41 consenting participants on a waiting list or in workup for kidney or liver transplant. Two transplant social workers led five eight-week closed psychoeducational groups. Coping skills, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were assessed preintervention, postintervention, and at follow-up one month later. Results suggest that the CSG group created significant changes in some coping areas, such as decreasing the use of denial and self-blame and increasing the use of acceptance, religion, and instrumental supports. In this study, instrumental supports are strategies such as seeking assistance, finding information, or asking for advice about what to do. The effects on instrumental supports did not sustain at the one-month follow-up. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly reduced, and these changes were sustained at one-month follow-up. This study supports the use of a group-based psychosocial intervention for the pretransplant population and will be most relevant to social workers practicing in the transplant field. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  4. Assessment of an intervention to reduce the impact of stigma on people with HIV, enabling them to cope with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Fuster-Ruiz de Apodaca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess an intervention program to reduce the impact of stigma on people with HIV and to enable them to cope with it. A quasi-experimental design, with non-equivalent control group and pre- and posttest was used. Participants were 221 people with HIV, of whom 164 received the intervention and 56 made up the nonequivalent control groups. The dependent variables were perception of stigma-enacted and internalized-, self-esteem, perception of selfefficacy, strategies used to cope with stigma-primary control, secondary control, and avoidance-and quality of life. Analysis of variance (MANOVAS and ANOVAS was conducted to determine pretest differences and differential scores in both groups, and analysis of covariance (MANCOVAS and ANCOVAS was performed to assess the efficacy of the program. The results showed reduction of perceived stigma and avoidance strategies and an increase in perceived self-efficacy to cope with stigma, disposition to use approach strategies, self-esteem, and quality of life. These results indicate that it is possible to train people with HIV to cope with stigma.

  5. Mindfulness-based stress reduction: an intervention to enhance the effectiveness of nurses' coping with work-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah A

    2014-06-01

    This critical literature review explored the current state of the science regarding mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) as a potential intervention to improve the ability of nurses to effectively cope with stress. Literature sources include searches from EBSCOhost, Gale PowerSearch, ProQuest, PubMed Medline, Google Scholar, Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, and reference lists from relevant articles. Empirical evidence regarding utilizing MBSR with nurses and other healthcare professionals suggests several positive benefits including decreased stress, burnout, and anxiety; and increased empathy, focus, and mood. Nurse use of MBSR may be a key intervention to help improve nurses' ability to cope with stress and ultimately improve the quality of patient care provided. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  6. The development of a culturally appropriate school based intervention for Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities: A formative evaluation of the Alert Program®intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bree; Fitzpatrick, James; Symons, Martyn; Jirikowic, Tracy; Cross, Donna; Latimer, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the benefits of targeting self-regulation in non-Aboriginal children, it is unclear whether such programs would be effective for Aboriginal children attending school in remote communities. Some of these children have been diagnosed with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) impairing their ability to self-regulate. The aim of this article is to describe a three phase formative process to develop and pilot a curriculum version of the Alert Program ® , a promising intervention for improving self-regulation that could be used in remote community schools. This modified version of the program will be subsequently tested in a cluster randomised controlled trial. A mixed methods approach was used. Modifications to the Alert Program ® , its delivery and evaluation were made after community and stakeholder consultation facilitated by a senior Aboriginal community researcher. Changes to lesson plans and program resources were made to reflect the remote community context, classroom environment and the challenging behaviours of children. Standardised study outcome measures were modified by removing several questions that had little relevance to the lives of children in remote communities. Program training for school staff was reduced in length to reduce staff burden. This study identified aspects of the Alert Program ® training, delivery and measures for evaluation that need modification before their use in assessing the efficacy of the Alert Program ® in remote Aboriginal community primary schools. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  7. How can a brief intervention contribute to coping with back pain? A focus group study about participants’ experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ree, Eline; Harris, A.; Indahl, A

    2014-01-01

    had participated in a brief intervention for back and neck pain, perceived the intervention as helpful and had returned or remained at work subsequent to the intervention. Participants were invited to share stories of how the intervention had made a positive difference to their work situation...... and everyday life and helped them cope with their complaints. Systematic text condensation was used for analysis. RESULTS: Analysis revealed several aspects of how the participants considered the intervention to be helpful. They emphasized the importance of having the information delivered in a comprehensible...... way, with the use of practical examples and images of the spine. Discussions revealed the significance of trusting the lecturers and perceiving them as experts. Understanding why they felt the pain and that it was not a sign of serious disease changed the participants' perception of how they could...

  8. A three-year cohort study of the relationships between coping, job stress and burnout after a counselling intervention for help-seeking physicians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaksson Ro, Karin E; Tyssen, Reidar; Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold; Aasland, Olaf G; Gude, Tore

    2010-01-01

    .... The present three-year follow-up study aimed to investigate the roles of coping strategies, job stress and personality traits in burnout reduction after a counselling intervention for distressed physicians...

  9. Using a positive self-talk intervention to enhance coping skills in breast cancer survivors: lessons from a community-based group delivery model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton, R; Miedema, B; Macintyre, L; Easley, J

    2011-01-01

    .... The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a positive self-talk (pst) intervention in enhancing the coping skills and improving the psychological well-being of breast cancer survivors...

  10. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of a self-directed coping skills intervention for couples facing prostate cancer: rationale and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Sylvie D; Girgis, Afaf; Turner, Jane; McElduff, Patrick; Kayser, Karen; Vallentine, Paula

    2012-01-01

    ... how they cope with and adjust to the illness, few psychosocial interventions target couples. Those that are available tend to be led by highly trained professionals, limiting their accessibility and long-term sustainability...

  11. Feasibility, Acceptability and Preliminary Treatment Outcomes in a School-Based CBT Intervention Program for Adolescents with ASD and Anxiety in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmic, Irene E.; Aljunied, Mariam; Reaven, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for anxiety difficulties and disorders. Clinic-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective; however, few published school-based CBT programs for youth with ASD exist. In this study, the Facing Your Fears CBT protocol was adapted for delivery and piloted within a school…

  12. Feasibility and Impact of Implementing Motivational Enhancement Therapy--Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as a Substance Use Treatment Intervention in School-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belur, Vinetha; Dennis, Michael L.; Ives, Melissa L.; Vincent, Robert; Muck, Randolph

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of behavioral health services to school-based health centers under the Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148) presents an opportunity to improve access to substance use disorders treatment for youth and reduce their substance use, and emotional, health, and school problems. We explore the feasibility of implementing five to seven…

  13. Changes in stress and coping from a randomized controlled trial of a three-month stress management intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, M.V.; Thulstrup, A.M.; Hertz, J.

    2009-01-01

    . Methods Using a randomized wait list control design, 102 participants were divided into two groups: intervention and wait list control. The intervention was a three-month group-based stress management program. Outcomes measures were the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, range 0-40 points) and five......% Cl -0.89-0.07) favouring the intervention. The gains achieved during treatment were maintained when followed up three months later. Conclusions Treatment is Superior to the control condition in positively affecting perceived stress and positive reframing. When followed up, the gains achieved......Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate whether it group-based stress management intervention, based on principles from cognitive behavior therapy, call reduce stress and alter coping strategies in an occupationally diverse population with extensive symptoms of work-related stress...

  14. Psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder and coping style modification: similar clinical outcomes, similar mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sagar V; Hawke, Lisa D; Zaretsky, Ari; Beaulieu, Serge; Patelis-Siotis, Irene; Macqueen, Glenda; Young, L Trevor; Yatham, Lakshmi; Velyvis, Vytas; Bélanger, Claude; Poirier, Nancy; Enright, Jean; Cervantes, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    To investigate changes in the use of coping styles in response to early symptoms of mania in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), compared with psychoeducation, for bipolar disorder. Data were drawn from a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT and psychoeducation. A subsample of 119 participants completed the Coping Inventory for the Prodromes of Mania and symptom assessments before treatment and 72 weeks later. Both CBT and psychoeducation were associated with similar improvements in symptom burden. Both treatments also produced equivalent improvements in stimulation reduction and problem-directed coping styles, but no statistically significant change on the endorsement of help-seeking behaviours. A treatment interaction showed that a reduction in denial and blame was present only in the CBT treatment condition. CBT and psychoeducation have similar impacts on coping styles for the prodromes of mania. The exception to this is denial and blame, which is positively impacted only by CBT but which does not translate into improved outcome. Given the similar change in coping styles and mood burden, teaching patients about how to cope in adaptive ways with the symptoms of mania may be a shared mechanism of change for CBT and psychoeducation. NCT00188838.

  15. Examining the effect of peer helping in a coping skills intervention: a randomized controlled trial for advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Secinti, Ekin; Johns, Shelley A; O'Neil, Bert H; Helft, Paul R; Shahda, Safi; Jalal, Shadia I; Champion, Victoria L

    2017-06-10

    At the end of life, spiritual well-being is a central aspect of quality of life for many patients and their family caregivers. A prevalent spiritual value in advanced cancer patients is the need to actively give. To address this need, the current randomized trial examined whether adding a peer helping component to a coping skills intervention leads to improved meaning in life and peace for advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and their caregivers. Feasibility and acceptability outcomes were also assessed. Advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and caregivers (n = 50 dyads) were randomly assigned to a 5-session, telephone-based coping skills intervention or a peer helping + coping skills intervention. One or both dyad members had moderate-severe distress. Peer helping involved contributing to handouts on coping skills for other families coping with cancer. Patients and caregivers completed measures of meaning in life/peace, fatigue, psychological symptoms, coping self-efficacy, and emotional support. Patient pain and caregiver burden were also assessed. Small effects in favor of the coping skills group were found regarding meaning in life/peace at 1 and 5 weeks post-intervention. Other outcomes did not vary as a function of group assignment, with both groups showing small decreases in patient and caregiver fatigue and caregiver distress and burden. High recruitment and retention rates supported feasibility, and high participant satisfaction ratings supported acceptability. Although a telephone-based intervention is feasible and acceptable for this population, peer helping in the context of a coping skills intervention does not enhance spiritual well-being relative to coping skills alone.

  16. Evaluation of a comedy intervention to improve coping and help-seeking for mental health problems in a women's prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steve; Twardzicki, Maya; Gomez, Fabio; Henderson, Claire

    2014-08-01

    Rates of mental illness and self-harm are very high among women prisoners. Questionnaires assessed prisoners' knowledge of and attitudes towards mental health problems, and relevant behavioural intentions before and after the intervention, to evaluate the effectiveness of a comedy show in a women's prison to reduce mental health stigma and improve coping and help-seeking for mental health problems. The intervention appeared to have been successful in improving some aspects of prisoners' knowledge about the effectiveness of psychotherapy (Z = - 2.304, p = 0.021) and likelihood of recovery from mental health problems (Z = - 2.699, p = 0.007). There were significant post-intervention increases in the proportion who stated they would discuss or disclose mental health problems with all but one of the sources of help in the questionnaire, which was consistent with the increases in the number of prisoners who rated themselves as likely to start using different sources of help or prison activities. There was no improvement in intentions to associate with people with a mental health problem. The intervention appeared effective in improving factors that might increase help-seeking and improve coping, but not those that would change behaviour towards others with a mental health problem.

  17. Development and preliminary evaluation of a telephone-based coping skills training intervention for survivors of acute lung injury and their informal caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher E; Porter, Laura S; Hough, Catherine L; White, Douglas B; Kahn, Jeremy M; Carson, Shannon S; Tulsky, James A; Keefe, Francis J

    2012-08-01

    Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) and their informal caregivers have difficulty coping with the physical and emotional challenges of recovery from critical illness. We aimed to develop and pilot test a telephone-based coping skills training intervention for this population. Fifty-eight participants were enrolled overall. A total of 21 patients and 23 caregivers participated in a cross-sectional study to assess coping and its association with psychological distress. This also informed the development of an ALI coping skills training intervention in an iterative process involving content and methodological experts. The intervention was then evaluated in seven patients and seven caregivers in an uncontrolled, prospective, pre-post study. Outcomes included acceptability, feasibility, and symptoms of psychological distress measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale (PTSS). Survivors and their caregivers used adaptive coping infrequently, a pattern that was strongly associated with psychological distress. These findings informed the development of a 12-session intervention for acquiring, applying, and maintaining coping skills. In the evaluation phase, participants completed 77 (92 %) of a possible 84 telephone sessions and all (100 %) reported the intervention's usefulness in their daily routine. Mean change scores reflecting improvements in the HADS (7.8 U) and PTSS (10.3 U) were associated with adaptive coping (r = 0.50-0.70) and high self-efficacy (r = 0.67-0.79). A novel telephone-based coping skills training intervention was acceptable, feasible, and may have been associated with a reduction in psychological distress among survivors of ALI and their informal caregivers. A randomized trial is needed to evaluate the intervention.

  18. The Effectiveness of a Knowledge Translation Cognitive-Educational Intervention for Family Members of Persons Coping with Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P; Hadas-Lidor, N; Weizman, A; Sachs, D

    2017-09-13

    Keshet, a course for family members of persons' coping with mental illness, was developed to enhance positive family cognitive communication skills. Improving communication with the use of mediation techniques, primarily used by therapists, creates a learning environment viewed as a strategy of Knowledge Translation. To examine the effectiveness of Keshet in improving attitudes, problem solving, communication skills and attenuation of burden a quasi-experimental research design was applied with study and control condition. The same group of participants (N = 38) completed questionnaires at different stages: 3 months prior to course, initiation and completion. Following participation, significant changes were observed in attitudes regarding knowledge of how to cope and interact with family member. A correlation was found between improved knowledge and decline in burden. Implementing interventions which provide caregivers with professional "know-how" leads to lessened burden, thus contributing to maintaining well-being of family caregiver population.

  19. A three-year cohort study of the relationships between coping, job stress and burnout after a counselling intervention for help-seeking physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffart Asle

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about important factors in reduction of burnout is needed, but there is a dearth of burnout intervention program studies and their effects among physicians. The present three-year follow-up study aimed to investigate the roles of coping strategies, job stress and personality traits in burnout reduction after a counselling intervention for distressed physicians. Methods 227 physicians who attended a counselling intervention for burnout at the Resource Centre Villa Sana, Norway in 2003-2005, were followed with self-report assessments at baseline, one-year, and three-year follow-up. Main outcome measures were emotional exhaustion (one dimension of burnout, job stress, coping strategies and neuroticism. Changes in these measures were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. Temporal relationships between changes were examined using structural modelling with cross-lagged and synchronous panel models. Results 184 physicians (81%, 83 men, 101 women completed the three-year follow-up assessment. Significantly reduced levels of emotional exhaustion, job stress, and emotion-focused coping strategies from baseline to one year after the intervention, were maintained at three-year follow-up. Panel modelling indicated that changes in emotion-focused coping (z = 4.05, p Conclusion A sequential relationship indicated that reduction in emotion-focused coping and in job stress preceded reduction in emotional exhaustion. As a consequence, coping strategies and job stress could be important foci in intervention programs that aim to reduce or prevent burnout in help-seeking physicians.

  20. An evidence-based group coping intervention for women living with HIV and history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Eve S; Kochman, Arlene; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2011-01-01

    Women living with HIV/AIDS and a history of childhood sexual abuse often exhibit sexual trauma symptoms and elevated rates of HIV-risk behaviors. In this paper, we describe a coping skills group intervention that reduced traumatic stress and sexual-risk behavior in a recent randomized clinical trial. We focused on clinical issues that emerged among female participants receiving the intervention. Clinical observations showed that recognizing connections between trauma, psychological distress, and high risk behaviors was a new and powerful experience for many participants. Participants successfully applied psychoeducational material, expressing an increased sense of power and control over their relationships and behaviors as they developed more adaptive cognitive and behavioral skills. Women expressed high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. Recommendations for clinical practice are provided.

  1. Community involvement, planning and coping skills: pilot outcomes of a recreational-therapy intervention for adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snethen, Gretchen; McCormick, Bryan P; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    The Independence through Community Access and Navigation (I-CAN) intervention was developed to increase community participation in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) through identification of interest-based recreation activities and supported participation. Ten individuals consented to participate in a 10-week pilot intervention. Eight individuals participated in the intervention, during which time they worked with a recreational therapist to identify interest-based recreation activities, develop participation goals and coparticipate with the recreational therapist. At the end of the intervention, seven participants were involved in a semistructured interview to understand their perceptions of the intervention, including its outcomes and effectiveness. Therapists' notes and transcripts from the semistructured interviews were used to understand clients' perception of the intervention. Thematic analyses of seven exit interviews suggested the primary perceived outcomes of the intervention included: increased community involvement; development of planning skills; and the development of coping skills. These were facilitated by the therapeutic relationship between the client and therapist. This project provides preliminary support for the I-CAN as a participant-centered method for individuals with SSD to develop skills in the community. Implications for practice and future research are presented.

  2. Coping Strategies for Adaptation to New Teacher Appointments: Intervention for Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharplin, Elaine; O'Neill, Marnie; Chapman, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Findings are presented from a qualitative longitudinal collective case study of 29 teachers newly appointed to rural or remote schools in Western Australia. All participants experienced stress and articulated coping strategies in response: direct-action, palliative and avoidant strategies. Where protective structures and processes existed in…

  3. A three-year cohort study of the relationships between coping, job stress and burnout after a counselling intervention for help-seeking physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffart Asle; Tyssen Reidar; Isaksson Ro Karin E; Sexton Harold; Aasland Olaf G; Gude Tore

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge about important factors in reduction of burnout is needed, but there is a dearth of burnout intervention program studies and their effects among physicians. The present three-year follow-up study aimed to investigate the roles of coping strategies, job stress and personality traits in burnout reduction after a counselling intervention for distressed physicians. Methods 227 physici...

  4. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10-year-old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.

  5. A physiotherapist-delivered, combined exercise and pain coping skills training intervention for individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Michael A; Keefe, Francis J; Bryant, Christina; Metcalf, Ben R; Ahamed, Yasmin; Nicholas, Michael K; Bennell, Kim L

    2013-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is associated with a number of physical and psychological impairments. Unfortunately, very few treatment strategies are capable of addressing both types of impairments concurrently. We performed a pilot, randomized controlled, proof of principle trial investigating the feasibility and effects of an intervention combining physical exercise and pain coping skills training (PCST). Twenty patients with a clinical and radiographical diagnosis of tibiofemoral OA were randomized to receive either 10 weeks of physiotherapist supervised exercises (lower limb strengthening and walking) combined with non-directive counseling (NDC) or the same exercise program delivered concurrently with PCST. Primary outcomes included self-reported pain and pain coping, while secondary outcomes included self efficacy and self-reported physical function. Ten participants were randomized to each group and both groups exhibited significant improvements in isometric knee strength, self-reported knee pain and physical function, self efficacy for control of pain management and other arthritis symptoms. Only those in the exercise + PCST group reported statistically significant improvements in pain control coping and rational thinking. No between-group differences existed in any outcome (0.07 < p < 0.98). Based on our findings, 63 participants per group would be needed for future large-scale studies using similar outcome measures and design. Our study showed that an intervention that combines exercise and PCST within the same treatment session and delivered by specially-trained physiotherapists is feasible and can improve both physical and psychological outcomes in individuals with knee OA. Level II Clinical Trials Registry number: ACTRN12609000623291. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcoholic liver disease patients' perspective of a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention after hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Rudkjær; Hendriksen, Carsten; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objective: To identify and describe the impact of a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention on alcoholic liver disease patients after hepatic encephalopathy in terms of their interaction with professionals and relatives. Background: Patients who have experienced ...... over the diseased body’. This is subdivided into three separate categories: ‘the experience of being physically strong’, ‘togetherness’ and ‘self-control’, and they impact each other and are mutually interdependent. Conclusion: Alcoholic liver disease patients described the strength...... of the rehabilitation as regaining control over the diseased body. Professionals and relatives of patients with alcoholic liver disease may need to focus on strengthening and preserving patients’ control of their diseased body by facilitating the experience of togetherness, self-control and physical strength when...... interacting with and supporting patients with alcoholic liver disease. Relevance to clinical practice: A coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention may help alcoholic liver disease patients to regain control over their diseased body and give patients the experience of togetherness, self-control...

  7. Technology as an aid to coping with caring: a usability evaluation of a telematics intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, M; Connor, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents evaluation data for an interactive software program designed to provide family carers with information, advice and psychological support by way of feedback of their coping capacity. The multimedia program consists of an information-based package that provides carers with advice on health promotion and relaxation and offers them a range of coping strategies (for example, positive self-talk, assertiveness training and relaxation tapes and videos). The program also includes a carer's self-assessment instrument, designed to provide both family and professional carers with information to assess how family carers are coping with their care-giving role. As part of the usability evaluation, casual users (family carers, professional carers and older people) were invited to test the program and were administered a program evaluation questionnaire measuring quality and efficiency in utility and usability. Quantitative data were analysed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and qualitative data were analysed by content analysis. Findings indicated that the program is visually pleasant, easily understood, responds quickly and corresponds with user expectations. A number of recommendations are made for improvement of the navigation of the program.

  8. ‘Let’s Move It’ – a school-based multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among older adolescents in vocational secondary schools: a study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Hankonen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA has been shown to decline during adolescence, and those with lower education have lower levels of activity already at this age, calling for targeted efforts for them. No previous study has demonstrated lasting effects of school-based PA interventions among older adolescents. Furthermore, these interventions have rarely targeted sedentary behaviour (SB despite its relevance to health. The Let’s Move It trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of a school-based, multi-level intervention, on PA and SB, among vocational school students. We hypothesise that the intervention is effective in increasing moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, particularly among those with low or moderate baseline levels, and decreasing SB among all students. Methods The design is a cluster-randomised parallel group trial with an internal pilot study. The trial is conducted in six vocational schools in the Helsinki Metropolitan area, Finland. The intervention is carried out in 30 intervention classes, and 27 control classes retain the standard curriculum. The randomisation occurs at school-level to avoid contamination and to aid delivery. Three of the six schools, randomly allocated, receive the ‘Let’s Move It’ intervention which consists of 1 group sessions and poster campaign targeting students’ autonomous PA motivation and self-regulation skills, 2 sitting reduction in classrooms via alterations in choice architecture and teacher behaviour, and 3 enhancement of PA opportunities in school, home and community environments. At baseline, student participants are blind to group allocation. The trial is carried out in six batches in 2015–2017, with main measurements at pre-intervention baseline, and 2-month and 14-month follow-ups. Primary outcomes are for PA, MVPA measured by accelerometry and self-report, and for SB, sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time (accelerometry

  9. United We Stand? The Effects of a Couple-Coping Intervention on Adjustment to Early Stage Breast or Gynecological Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer L.; Halford, W. Kim; Ward, Bruce G.

    2004-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis affects the psychological well-being of both patients and their partners, and effective coping has been suggested to be a conjoint process of mutual support. Ninety-four married women with early stage cancer and their partners were randomly assigned to couples-based coping training (CanCOPE), individual coping training for the…

  10. Development and Pilot-Testing of a Cognitive Behavioral Coping Skills Group Intervention for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evon, Donna M; Golin, Carol E; Ruffin, Rachel; Fried, Michael W

    2017-06-01

    Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection are needed to attenuate the impact of extrahepatic symptoms, comorbid conditions, and treatment side effects on HCV health outcomes. We adapted empirically-supported interventions for similar patient populations to develop a Cognitive Behavioral Coping Skills group intervention for HCV patients (CBCS-HCV) undergoing treatment. The objectives of this paper are to describe the research activities associated with CBCS-HCV development and pilot testing, including: (1) formative work leading to intervention development; (2) preliminary study protocol; and (3) pilot feasibility testing of the intervention and study design. Formative work included a literature review, qualitative interviews, and adaption, development, and review of study materials. A preliminary study protocol is described. We evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the CBCS-HCV with 12 study participants in Wave 1 testing to examine: (a) feasibility of intervention delivery; (b) patient acceptability; (c) recruitment, enrollment, retention; (d) feasibility of conducting a RCT; (d) therapist protocol fidelity; and (e) feasibility of data collection. Numerous lessons were learned. We found very high rates of data collection, participant attendance, engagement, retention and acceptability, and therapist protocol fidelity. We conclude that many aspects of the CBCS-HCV intervention and study protocol were highly feasible. The greatest challenge during this Wave 1 pilot study was efficiency of participant enrollment due to changes in standard of care treatment. These findings informed two additional waves of pilot testing to examine effect sizes and potential improvements in clinical outcomes, with results forthcoming.

  11. Development and pilot-testing of a cognitive behavioral coping skills group intervention for patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Evon, Ph.D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV infection are needed to attenuate the impact of extrahepatic symptoms, comorbid conditions, and treatment side effects on HCV health outcomes. We adapted empirically-supported interventions for similar patient populations to develop a Cognitive Behavioral Coping Skills group intervention for HCV patients (CBCS-HCV undergoing treatment. The objectives of this paper are to describe the research activities associated with CBCS-HCV development and pilot testing, including: (1 formative work leading to intervention development; (2 preliminary study protocol; and (3 pilot feasibility testing of the intervention and study design. Formative work included a literature review, qualitative interviews, and adaption, development, and review of study materials. A preliminary study protocol is described. We evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT of the CBCS-HCV with 12 study participants in Wave 1 testing to examine: (a feasibility of intervention delivery; (b patient acceptability; (c recruitment, enrollment, retention; (d feasibility of conducting a RCT; (d therapist protocol fidelity; and (e feasibility of data collection. Numerous lessons were learned. We found very high rates of data collection, participant attendance, engagement, retention and acceptability, and therapist protocol fidelity. We conclude that many aspects of the CBCS-HCV intervention and study protocol were highly feasible. The greatest challenge during this Wave 1 pilot study was efficiency of participant enrollment due to changes in standard of care treatment. These findings informed two additional waves of pilot testing to examine effect sizes and potential improvements in clinical outcomes, with results forthcoming.

  12. An intervention to increase coping and reduce health care utilization for school-age children and adolescents with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, M E; Maikler, V; Kelber, S; Bailey, P; Lea, G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether coping with pain changed immediately and one year after a self-care intervention for school-age children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Sixty-five children and 32 adolescents attended an educational program for living with SCD. They were then randomly assigned to relaxation, art therapy or attention-control groups. Coping was measured before, after the intervention, and 12 months later. Thirty-three children and 14 adolescents completed the one year follow-up. Although there was no significant increase in the overall number of coping strategies school-age children and adolescents used from baseline to 12 months, there was a significant increase in those strategies specifically targeted by the intervention. For adolescents, there was a significant increase in the total number of coping scores used before the intervention and one year later. When compared to well African-American adolescents, overall coping scores in this sample were significantly lower. Health care utilization related to clinic visits, emergency department visits and hospitalizations decreased significantly for all participants in the study.

  13. An Informal School?based, Peer-led Intervention for Prevention of Tobacco Consumption in Adolescence: A Cluster Randomized Trial in Rural Gandhinagar

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali Sunil Kumar Mall; Aroor Bhagyalaxmi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use among adolescence is one of the important preventable causes of death as well as a leading public health problem all over the world. The present study was conducted with the objective of studying the effect of peer-led interventions on tobacco use among adolescents. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected and ten schools each were identified as cluster for intervention and control groups. A total of 402 students in intervention group and 422 in con...

  14. An Informal School-based, Peer-led Intervention for Prevention of Tobacco Consumption in Adolescence: A Cluster Randomized Trial in Rural Gandhinagar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Anjali Sunil Kumar; Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use among adolescence is one of the important preventable causes of death as well as a leading public health problem all over the world. The present study was conducted with the objective of studying the effect of peer-led interventions on tobacco use among adolescents. Twenty schools were randomly selected and ten schools each were identified as cluster for intervention and control groups. A total of 402 students in intervention group and 422 in control group were studied. About 48% and 41% of adolescents were consuming smokeless tobacco in any form in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Prevalence of consumption of smokeless tobacco was significantly high among boys as compared to girls. Pan masala was the most common form of consumption. After conducting A Stop Smoking in School Trial-like peer-led intervention, a significant reduction in tobacco consumption of any form was observed in the intervention group (48%-36%) during the follow-up (Z = 3.2, P group (32%-29%) was also observed. All the students smoking initially had stopped smoking at the end of the follow-up in both the groups. It was found that peer-led intervention was effective in reducing the consumption of smokeless tobacco in any form. The rate of reduction was more in the first follow-up as compared to the end of the intervention. Sustained intervention in the form of retraining is needed for the long-term effect.

  15. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of a self-directed coping skills intervention for couples facing prostate cancer: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sylvie D; Girgis, Afaf; Turner, Jane; McElduff, Patrick; Kayser, Karen; Vallentine, Paula

    2012-09-26

    Although it is known both patients' and partners' reactions to a prostate cancer diagnosis include fear, uncertainty, anxiety and depression with patients' partners' reactions mutually determining how they cope with and adjust to the illness, few psychosocial interventions target couples. Those that are available tend to be led by highly trained professionals, limiting their accessibility and long-term sustainability. In addition, it is recognised that patients who might benefit from conventional face-to-face psychosocial interventions do not access these, either by preference or because of geographical or mobility barriers. Self-directed interventions can overcome some of these limitations and have been shown to contribute to patient well-being. This study will examine the feasibility of a self-directed, coping skills intervention for couples affected by cancer, called Coping-Together, and begin to explore its potential impact on couples' illness adjustment. The pilot version of Coping-Together includes a series of four booklets, a DVD, and a relaxation audio CD. In this double-blind, two-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 70 couples will be recruited within 4 months of a prostate cancer diagnosis through urology private practices and randomized to: 1) Coping-Together or 2) a minimal ethical care condition. Minimal ethical care condition couples will be mailed information booklets available at the Cancer Council New South Wales and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline. The primary outcome (anxiety) and additional secondary outcomes (distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy, and dyadic and individual coping) will be assessed at baseline (before receiving study material) and 2 months post-baseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. As partners' distress rates exceed not only population norms, but also those reported by patients themselves, it is imperative

  16. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of a self-directed coping skills intervention for couples facing prostate cancer: Rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Sylvie D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is known both patients’ and partners’ reactions to a prostate cancer diagnosis include fear, uncertainty, anxiety and depression with patients’ partners’ reactions mutually determining how they cope with and adjust to the illness, few psychosocial interventions target couples. Those that are available tend to be led by highly trained professionals, limiting their accessibility and long-term sustainability. In addition, it is recognised that patients who might benefit from conventional face-to-face psychosocial interventions do not access these, either by preference or because of geographical or mobility barriers. Self-directed interventions can overcome some of these limitations and have been shown to contribute to patient well-being. This study will examine the feasibility of a self-directed, coping skills intervention for couples affected by cancer, called Coping-Together, and begin to explore its potential impact on couples’ illness adjustment. The pilot version of Coping-Together includes a series of four booklets, a DVD, and a relaxation audio CD. Methods/design In this double-blind, two-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 70 couples will be recruited within 4 months of a prostate cancer diagnosis through urology private practices and randomized to: 1 Coping-Together or 2 a minimal ethical care condition. Minimal ethical care condition couples will be mailed information booklets available at the Cancer Council New South Wales and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline. The primary outcome (anxiety and additional secondary outcomes (distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy, and dyadic and individual coping will be assessed at baseline (before receiving study material and 2 months post-baseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. Discussion As partners’ distress rates exceed not only population

  17. Promotion of Well-being During Treatment for Childhood Cancer: A Literature Review of Art Interventions as a Coping Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Yael E; Deatrick, Janet A

    Scientific literature suggests that art interventions can assist children with cancer cope with physical and psychosocial difficulties associated with cancer treatment. Little is known about how the making of tangible visual art can be helpful and which proposed therapeutic mechanisms are clinically important. The purpose of this literature review is to assess and synthesize the research evidence regarding the role of art therapy/art-making interventions for promoting the well-being of children with cancer undergoing treatment. A search of electronic databases (MEDLINE [PubMed], CINAHL, PsycINFO) and EBM Reviews including Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (OVID) and manual review of references in articles accessed were undertaken. Inclusion criteria were as follows: research studies of any design; children with cancer undergoing treatment (2-21 years old), and art therapy/art-making intervention. Data extraction and quality appraisal were undertaken. Data were analyzed with an author-developed review sheet and synthesized into a table. Six articles reporting 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were based on qualitative (n = 3) and mixed quantitative/qualitative (n = 3) methodologies. Three outcome categories emerged that outline potential therapeutic roles of art interventions. Though sparse and developmental in nature, the existing evidence suggests that art interventions may potentially promote the well-being of children undergoing cancer treatment by reducing anxiety, fear, and pain and promoting collaborative behaviors; enhancing communication with the treatment team; and counteracting the disruption of selfhood that cancer treatment evokes. Further and higher-quality research is warranted before routinely integrating standardized art interventions into the treatment protocols for children with cancer.

  18. LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Ostergaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    with the intervention was assessed by short message service (SMS)-tracking and questionnaires were delivered to students, parents and teachers. DISCUSSION: LCoMotion has ability to provide new insights on the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention on cognitive function and academic skills in 6th and 7th grade...

  19. Impact and Acceptability of the Coach and Teacher Training within a School-Based Sport-for-Health Smoking Prevention Intervention: Smokefree Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnham-Lee, Katy; Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E.; Knowles, Zoe; Foweather, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact and acceptability of a three-hour bespoke training workshop for sports coaches and teachers to subsequently deliver a sport-for-health smoking prevention intervention in primary schools. Questionnaires were completed pre- and post-training by both teachers (N = 24) and coaches (N = 8), and post-intervention by…

  20. An informal school-based, peer-led intervention for prevention of tobacco consumption in adolescence: A cluster randomized trial in rural Gandhinagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sunil Kumar Mall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use among adolescence is one of the important preventable causes of death as well as a leading public health problem all over the world. The present study was conducted with the objective of studying the effect of peer-led interventions on tobacco use among adolescents. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected and ten schools each were identified as cluster for intervention and control groups. A total of 402 students in intervention group and 422 in control group were studied. Results: About 48% and 41% of adolescents were consuming smokeless tobacco in any form in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Prevalence of consumption of smokeless tobacco was significantly high among boys as compared to girls. Pan masala was the most common form of consumption. After conducting A Stop Smoking in School Trial-like peer-led intervention, a significant reduction in tobacco consumption of any form was observed in the intervention group (48%–36% during the follow-up (Z = 3.2, P < 0.01. A significant reduction in exposure to passive smoking in the intervention group (32%–29% was also observed. All the students smoking initially had stopped smoking at the end of the follow-up in both the groups. Conclusion: It was found that peer-led intervention was effective in reducing the consumption of smokeless tobacco in any form. The rate of reduction was more in the first follow-up as compared to the end of the intervention. Sustained intervention in the form of retraining is needed for the long-term effect.

  1. Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in Rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hetherington

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Methods Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged pastoralist high-school students and communities in the development and evaluation of culturally and contextually relevant strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Using a train-the-trainer approach, key activities included teacher workshops, school-based lessons, extra-curricular activities, community events and a One Health sanitation science fair which showcased projects related to water, sanitation and hygiene in relation to human and animal health. The process and outcome of the study were evaluated through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with diverse project participants, as well as pre- and post- questionnaires completed by students on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning sanitation and hygiene. Results The questionnaire results at baseline and follow-up showed statistically significant improvements on key measures including a decrease in unhygienic behaviors, an increase in the perceived importance of handwashing and intention to use the toilet, and increased communication in the social network about the importance of clean water and improved sanitation and hygiene practices, however there were no significant changes in sanitation related knowledge. Qualitative data highlighted strong leadership emerging from youth and enthusiasm from teachers and students concerning the overall approach in the project, including the use of participatory methods. There was a high degree of community engagement with hundreds of

  2. Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Erin; Eggers, Matthijs; Wamoyi, Joyce; Hatfield, Jennifer; Manyama, Mange; Kutz, Susan; Bastien, Sheri

    2017-02-07

    Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education) is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged pastoralist high-school students and communities in the development and evaluation of culturally and contextually relevant strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Using a train-the-trainer approach, key activities included teacher workshops, school-based lessons, extra-curricular activities, community events and a One Health sanitation science fair which showcased projects related to water, sanitation and hygiene in relation to human and animal health. The process and outcome of the study were evaluated through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with diverse project participants, as well as pre- and post- questionnaires completed by students on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning sanitation and hygiene. The questionnaire results at baseline and follow-up showed statistically significant improvements on key measures including a decrease in unhygienic behaviors, an increase in the perceived importance of handwashing and intention to use the toilet, and increased communication in the social network about the importance of clean water and improved sanitation and hygiene practices, however there were no significant changes in sanitation related knowledge. Qualitative data highlighted strong leadership emerging from youth and enthusiasm from teachers and students concerning the overall approach in the project, including the use of participatory methods. There was a high degree of community engagement with hundreds of community members participating in school-based events

  3. Do school-based interventions focusing on physical activity, fitness, or fundamental movement skill competency produce a sustained impact in these outcomes in children and adolescents? A systematic review of follow-up studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Samuel K; Costigan, Sarah A; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Stodden, David F; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) who have participated in school-based interventions have sustained outcomes in PA, fitness, and/or FMS. A systematic search of six electronic databases (CINAHL® Plus with Full Text, Ovid MEDLINE®, SPORTDiscus™, Scopus, PsycINFO® and ERIC) was conducted from 1995 to 26 July 2012. Included studies were school-based studies (including randomized controlled trials, longitudinal cohort, quasi-experimental, and experimental) that had a positive effect at post intervention in at least one variable and had a follow-up PA, fitness, or FMS assessment at least 6 months after the post-intervention assessment. Risk of bias assessment was guided by the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" statement. The search identified 14 articles, and some studies addressed multiple outcomes: 13 articles assessed PA; three assessed fitness; and two assessed FMS. No study in this review met four key methodological criteria that have been shown to influence results, i.e., clarity on the randomization process, assessor blinding, analyzing participants in their original groups, and retaining sufficient participants through the entire study. Three-quarters (ten of 13) of the studies addressing PA, reported PA behavior change maintenance. The length of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 20 years, and the degree of PA difference reported was between 3 and 14 min per day. Only one of the three studies assessing fitness reported a sustained impact, whilst both studies that assessed FMS reported maintenance of effects. It is likely that PA is a sustainable outcome from interventions in children and adolescents, and there is reasonable evidence that interventions of longer than 1 year and interventions that utilize a theoretical model or framework are effective in producing this sustained impact. It would seem probable that FMS are a sustainable

  4. Effects of a coping intervention on transmission risk behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS and a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Kathleen J; Wilson, Patrick A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kochman, Arlene; Neufeld, Sharon; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Kershaw, Trace

    2008-04-01

    To examine the effect of a 15-session coping group intervention compared with a 15-session therapeutic support group intervention among HIV-positive men and women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on sexual transmission risk behavior. A randomized controlled behavioral intervention trial with 12-month follow-up. A diverse sample of 247 HIV-positive men and women with histories of CSA was randomized to 1 of 2 time-matched group intervention conditions. Sexual behavior was assessed at baseline; immediately after the intervention; and at 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-up periods (5 assessments). Changes in frequency of unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse by intervention condition were examined using generalized linear mixed models for all partners, and specifically for HIV-negative or serostatus unknown partners. Participants in the HIV and trauma coping intervention condition decreased their frequency of unprotected sexual intercourse more than participants in the support intervention condition for all partners (P coping with HIV and CSA can be effective in reducing transmission risk behavior among HIV-positive men and women with histories of sexual trauma.

  5. Protocol for Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With or At-Risk of Academic Difficulties in Grade K to 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Eiberg, Misja

    2016-01-01

    -assisted instruction, and incentive programs with the objective of assessing their comparative effectiveness. As such, the review will contribute to the knowledge of what type of interventions that can be used to improve the educational achievement of students with or at-risk of academic difficulties.......This systematic review will examine the effects of targeted interventions to students with or at-risk of academic difficulties in Kindergarten to grade 6 on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. We will examine interventions such as for example tutoring, cooperative learning, computer...

  6. Protocol for Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With or At-Risk of Academic Difficulties in Grade 7 to 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine

    2016-01-01

    -assisted instruction, and incentive programs with the objective of assessing their comparative effectiveness. As such, the review will contribute to the knowledge of what type of interventions that can be used to improve the educational achievement of students with or at-risk of academic difficulties.......This systematic review will examine the effects of targeted interventions to students with or at-risk of academic difficulties in grades 7 to 12 on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. We will examine interventions such as for example tutoring, cooperative learning, computer...

  7. Six year follow-up of students who participated in a school-based physical activity intervention: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Lyndon O

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the long-term impact of a childhood motor skill intervention on adolescent motor skills and physical activity. Methods In 2006, we undertook a follow-up of motor skill proficiency (catch, kick, throw, vertical jump, side gallop and physical activity in adolescents who had participated in a one-year primary school intervention Move It Groove It (MIGI in 2000. Logistic regression models were analysed for each skill to determine whether the probability of children in the intervention group achieving mastery or near mastery was either maintained or had increased in subsequent years, relative to controls. In these models the main predictor variable was intervention status, with adjustment for gender, grade, and skill level in 2000. A general linear model, controlling for gender and grade, examined whether former intervention students spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at follow-up than control students. Results Half (52%, n = 481 of the 928 MIGI participants were located in 28 schools, with 276 (57% assessed. 52% were female, 58% in Grade 10, 40% in Grade 11 and 54% were former intervention students. At follow-up, intervention students had improved their catch ability relative to controls and were five times more likely to be able to catch: ORcatch = 5.51, CI (1.95 – 15.55, but had lost their advantage in the throw and kick: ORthrow = .43, CI (.23 – .82, ORkick = .39, CI (.20 – .78. For the other skills, intervention students appeared to maintain their advantage: ORjump = 1.14, CI (.56 – 2.34, ORgallop = 1.24, CI (.55 – 2.79. Intervention students were no more active at follow-up. Conclusion Six years after the 12-month MIGI intervention, whilst intervention students had increased their advantage relative to controls in one skill, and appeared to maintain their advantage in two, they lost their advantage in two skills and were no more active than controls

  8. Population-Level Evaluation of School-Based Interventions to Prevent Problem Substance Use among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Adolescents in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Homma, Yuko; Poon, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether students’ odds of recent substance use were lower in the presence of GSAs or explicit anti-homophobia policy that had been established at their school recently, or at least three years prior. Methods We analyzed a population-based sample of students in grades 8 through 12 from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey of 2008 (weighted N = 21,708). We used multi-nomial logistic regressions to test the hypothesized effects of GSAs and policies on substance use outcomes for LGB and 100% heterosexual students separately. Results Results indicated that GSAs and anti-homophobic bullying policies were linked to significantly lower odds of some but not all types of recent risky alcohol use, and past-year harms from alcohol or drug use, for LGB adolescents, but these were predominantly among girls, and almost exclusively in schools where the policies or GSAs had been established for at least three years. Conclusions Our findings suggest that these school-based strategies (GSAs and anti-homophobia policies) to reduce homophobia and foster school inclusion may be beneficial in reducing problem alcohol use among all students, not just sexual minority students. PMID:23850517

  9. Population-level evaluation of school-based interventions to prevent problem substance use among gay, lesbian and bisexual adolescents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Homma, Yuko; Poon, Colleen

    2013-12-01

    This study examined whether students' odds of recent substance use were lower in the presence of gay-straight alliances or explicit anti-homophobia policy that had been established at their school recently, or at least 3 years prior. We analyzed a population-based sample of students in grades 8 through 12 from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey of 2008 (weighted N=21,708). We used multi-nomial logistic regressions to test the hypothesized effects of gay-straight alliances and policies on substance use outcomes for lesbian, gay and bisexual students, and heterosexual students separately. Results indicated that gay-straight alliances and anti-homophobic bullying policies were linked to significantly lower odds of some but not all types of recent risky alcohol use, and past-year harms from alcohol or drug use, but almost exclusively in schools where the policies or gay-straight alliances had been established for at least 3 years; and among lesbian, gay and bisexual adolescents, only for girls. Our findings suggest that these school-based strategies (gay-straight alliances and anti-homophobia policies) to reduce homophobia and foster school inclusion may be beneficial in reducing problem alcohol use among all students, not just sexual minority students. © 2013.

  10. Mid-way and post-intervention effects on potential determinants of physical activity and sedentary behavior, results of the HEIA study - a multi-component school-based randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Ingunn H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited knowledge as to whether obesity prevention interventions are able to produce change in the determinants hypothesized to precede change in energy balance-related behaviors in young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on a wide range of theoretically informed determinants of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB. Moderation effects of gender, weight status and parental education level and whether the perceived intervention dose received influenced the effects were also explored. Methods The HEIA study was a 20-month school-based, randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight development. In total, 1418 11-year-olds participated at baseline and post-intervention assessment. Enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends related to PA, perceived parental regulation of TV-viewing and computer/game-use and perceived social inclusion at schools were examined by covariance analyses to assess overall effects and moderation by gender, weight status and parental education, mid-way and post-intervention. Covariance analyses were also used to examine the role of intervention dose received on change in the determinants. Results At mid-way enjoyment (p = .03, perceived social support from teachers (p = .003 and self-efficacy (p = .05 were higher in the intervention group. Weight status moderated the effect on self-efficacy, with a positive effect observed among the normal weight only. At post-intervention results were sustained for social support from teachers (p = .001, while a negative effect was found for self-efficacy (p = .02. Weight status moderated the effect on enjoyment, with reduced enjoyment observed among the overweight. Moderation effects for parental education level were detected for perceived social support from parents and teachers. Finally, positive effects on several

  11. Mid-way and post-intervention effects on potential determinants of physical activity and sedentary behavior, results of the HEIA study - a multi-component school-based randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Grydeland, May; Lien, Nanna; Andersen, Lene F; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2012-05-29

    There is limited knowledge as to whether obesity prevention interventions are able to produce change in the determinants hypothesized to precede change in energy balance-related behaviors in young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on a wide range of theoretically informed determinants of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Moderation effects of gender, weight status and parental education level and whether the perceived intervention dose received influenced the effects were also explored. The HEIA study was a 20-month school-based, randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight development. In total, 1418 11-year-olds participated at baseline and post-intervention assessment. Enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends related to PA, perceived parental regulation of TV-viewing and computer/game-use and perceived social inclusion at schools were examined by covariance analyses to assess overall effects and moderation by gender, weight status and parental education, mid-way and post-intervention. Covariance analyses were also used to examine the role of intervention dose received on change in the determinants. At mid-way enjoyment (p = .03), perceived social support from teachers (p = .003) and self-efficacy (p = .05) were higher in the intervention group. Weight status moderated the effect on self-efficacy, with a positive effect observed among the normal weight only. At post-intervention results were sustained for social support from teachers (p = .001), while a negative effect was found for self-efficacy (p = .02). Weight status moderated the effect on enjoyment, with reduced enjoyment observed among the overweight. Moderation effects for parental education level were detected for perceived social support from parents and teachers. Finally, positive effects on several determinants were observed among those receiving a high

  12. Lessons learned: Outcomes and methodology of a coping skills intervention trial comparing individual and group formats for patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, L; Rosberger, Z; Collet, J P

    2001-01-01

    Nucare, a short-term psychoeducational coping skills training intervention was evaluated in a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) of 225 newly diagnosed breast and colon cancer patients. Measures of psychosocial distress, well being and optimism were evaluated every four months during a one-year period. Patients were randomized to one of four arms: Nucare presented in an individual basis; Nucare presented in a group format; a non-directive supportive group; and a no-intervention control. The interventions were provided in five sessions of ninety minutes each. Patients with breast cancer who received Nucare presented in an individual format showed more significant improvements in well-being over time compared to those in the control and group arms. We were unable to develop functioning groups within the RCT. Partial explanations for the latter finding include the structural limitations of the RCT: the groups were small, difficult to schedule and patients indicated that they would have preferred to choose whether or not to participate in a group. The positive changes in women with breast cancer who received Nucare persisted at 12 months.

  13. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China: e67928

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shenghui Li; Lester Arguelles; Fan Jiang; Wenjuan Chen; Xingming Jin; Chonghuai Yan; Ying Tian; Xiumei Hong; Ceng Qian; Jun Zhang; Xiaobin Wang; Xiaoming Shen

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  14. Assessing the impact of a school-based safe water intervention on household adoption of point-of-use water treatment practices in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We assessed a pilot project by UNICEF and Hindustan Unilever Limited to improve the quality of drinking water for children in schools through adoption of improved drinking water practices among households in southern India. The intervention consisted of providing classrooms of 200 schools a commercial water purifier, and providing basic hygiene and water treatment information to students, parents, and teachers. We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in improving awareness or uptake of effective water treatment practices at home. A similar proportion of household members in the intervention and control groups boiled their water (P = 0.60), used a ceramic filtration system (P = 0.33), and used a cloth filter (P = 0.89). One year after the launch of the campaign, household ownership of the commercial purifier promoted at schools was higher in the intervention group (26%) than the control group (19%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.53).

  15. The effect of self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation on motivation : A longitudinal study on the effect of school-based interventions in secondary education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, Alexander; Prince, Arnout; Opdenakker, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Studies show a decrease in students’ motivation in secondary education. Hence, it was investigated whether training of teachers could stop this decline. Two interventions were implemented in prevocational secondary education, being self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation

  16. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based resilience intervention to decrease tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use in secondary school students: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hodder Rebecca K; Freund Megan; Bowman Jenny; Wolfenden Luke; Campbell Elizabeth; Wye Paula; Hazell Trevor; Gillham Karen; Wiggers John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Whilst schools provide a potentially appropriate setting for preventing substance use among young people, systematic review evidence suggests that past interventions in this setting have demonstrated limited effectiveness in preventing tobacco, alcohol and other drug use. Interventions that adopt a mental wellbeing approach to prevent substance use offer considerable promise and resilience theory provides one method to impact on adolescent mental well-being. The aim of the...

  17. [Community interventions among tobacco control strategies: coping with their definition and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Paolo; Coppo, Alessandro; Di Stefano, Francesca; Charrier, Lorena; Piccinelli, Cristiano; Molinar, Roberta; Senore, Carlo; Giordano, Livia; Segnan, Nereo

    2008-01-01

    Community interventions represent a key component of the current anti-smoking strategies. We propose a conceptual framework for classifying these interventions, based on the concept of community utilised in different studies. We identified 5 different focuses: geographical areas (i.e. city, county, region); targets (sub-group of a population); settings (school, workplace); culture and individual attitudes; multilevel networks. These two latter views refer to functional rather than to structural aspects of a community and they represent the most promising approaches to design intervention strategies. Communities are represented as a group of organizations, systems and social networks investigating individual, environmental and cultural factors that can strongly influence behavioural changes. The great heterogeneity in what the authors mean as community interventions has in our opinion affected the evaluation of their impact. To facilitate their evaluation and to contribute to the detection of determinants, as well as of barriers, it is necessary to compare community interventions sharing similar theoretical approaches and focuses. Also, studies aimed at assessing the steps of the implementation process of community programmes may allow to identify those components related to specific levels of intervention, thus enabling the generalisation of results. To reach this goal it may be helpful to combine study designs allowing for both quantitative and qualitative assessments, such as action research and participatory evaluation research.

  18. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  19. Coping behaviors in families with children suffering from thalassemia major and evaluating the implementation effect of nursing intervention on these behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Salehi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia disease in children, make the family and especially parents faced with many challenges. Better and more effective coping behaviors in father and mother, are followed by increased quality level of the sick child's life and the other family members. Therefore, the present study is conducted aims to evaluate the implementation effect of nursing intervention on coping behaviors of the families with children with Thalassemia major in Thalassemia Center of Doctor Mohammad Kermanshahi Hospital in Kermanshah at 2015. The research has been semiexperimental and the required information was collected through a 45-articles questionnaire of Maccubin called CHIP. The sample consisted of 38 families with children with Thalassemia major who admitted to the hospital of Doctor Mohammad Kermanshahi in Kermanshah that were selected by convenience sampling method in 2015. First, the coping behaviors of these families were determined and then divided into two groups of 19 individuals randomly that nursing intervention was implemented for 6 weeks in four sessions for each member of intervention group individually. Pre-intervention results indicated that the obtained scores in the first and third scales in each two groups is less than normal. Total post-test scores of coping behaviors in the control group have increased near to 1.05 units compared to the pre-test scores. But post-test scores of the families in the test group have increased near to 10.21 units compared to pre-test scores average. To compare the difference of pre-test and post-test scores between both control and test groups, independent t-test was used and based on the results of this test, a significant difference between two groups was observed (P<0.05, df=36, t=-5.928. So, the increase in the scores from pre-test to post-test in the test group was significantly higher. Thus, the implementation of intervention causes a significant increase in coping behaviors of families in the test group

  20. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester A Mwidunda

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and

  1. Effects of Tailored Health Education Program on Overweight Elementary School Students’ Obesity-Related Lifestyle: A School-Based Interventional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Haghani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Overweight and obesity are regarded as one of the most serious health and nutrition issues worldwide. This is immediately recognizable in both children and adolescents. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of tailored education on lifestyle modification in elementary school students in Isfahan. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study, two elementary schools in Isfahan District 3, Iran, were randomly selected to determine the intervention and comparison groups. Subsequently, 32 students from each school, 64 in total, were chosen arbitrarily and included in the study. They filled out the standardized questionnaire of physical activity and dietary behaviors before the intervention. Following one and four months’ educational intervention, they were asked to complete the questionnaires once more. Results: The average general lifestyle score, one and four months after education, was significantly different between the groups (p < 0.001. However, this difference was not significant before the intervention (p = 0.660. Furthermore, the average lifestyle scores related to nutrition and physical activity one and four months after education showed a significant difference between the groups (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Providing overweight elementary school students with education about a healthy lifestyle improves their general lifestyle and reduces weight. Therefore, it is recommended that such interventions are applied to prevent complications associated with being overweight in children.

  2. A three-year cohort study of the relationships between coping, job stress and burnout after a counselling intervention for help-seeking physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson Ro, Karin E; Tyssen, Reidar; Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold; Aasland, Olaf G; Gude, Tore

    2010-04-27

    Knowledge about important factors in reduction of burnout is needed, but there is a dearth of burnout intervention program studies and their effects among physicians. The present three-year follow-up study aimed to investigate the roles of coping strategies, job stress and personality traits in burnout reduction after a counselling intervention for distressed physicians. 227 physicians who attended a counselling intervention for burnout at the Resource Centre Villa Sana, Norway in 2003-2005, were followed with self-report assessments at baseline, one-year, and three-year follow-up. Main outcome measures were emotional exhaustion (one dimension of burnout), job stress, coping strategies and neuroticism. Changes in these measures were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. Temporal relationships between changes were examined using structural modelling with cross-lagged and synchronous panel models. 184 physicians (81%, 83 men, 101 women) completed the three-year follow-up assessment. Significantly reduced levels of emotional exhaustion, job stress, and emotion-focused coping strategies from baseline to one year after the intervention, were maintained at three-year follow-up.Panel modelling indicated that changes in emotion-focused coping (z = 4.05, p help-seeking physicians.

  3. The Effect of Self-regulated Strategy Instruction and Behavioral Consultation on Motivation: A Longitudinal Study on the Effect of School-Based Interventions in Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Minnaert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies show a decrease in students’ motivation in secondary education. Hence, it was investigated whether training of teachers could stop this decline. Two interventions were implemented in prevocational secondary education, being self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation combined with strategy instruction. The longitudinal effects of the two interventions were tested on the goal orientations of 279 students. The growth curves show a long-term effect of the intervention combining teacher consultancy with strategy instruction on task orientation, ego-enhancing orientation, and ego-defeating orientation as compared to the control condition. For the strategy instruction only condition, only effects on ego orientation were found. The outcomes suggest that combining the instruction of self-regulation strategies with teacher consultation on student problem-solving can stop the downward trend in student motivation, even on the long term.

  4. Paving the way for the use of the SDQ in economic evaluations of school-based population health interventions: an empirical analysis of the external validity of SDQ mapping algorithms to the CHU9D in an educational setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Nicole R S; Miller, Sarah; Connolly, Paul; McIntosh, Emma

    2016-04-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a behavioural screening tool for children. The SDQ is increasingly used as the primary outcome measure in population health interventions involving children, but it is not preference based; therefore, its role in allocative economic evaluation is limited. The Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D) is a generic preference-based health-related quality of-life measure. This study investigates the applicability of the SDQ outcome measure for use in economic evaluations and examines its relationship with the CHU9D by testing previously published mapping algorithms. The aim of the paper is to explore the feasibility of using the SDQ within economic evaluations of school-based population health interventions. Data were available from children participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial of the school-based roots of empathy programme in Northern Ireland. Utility was calculated using the original and alternative CHU9D tariffs along with two SDQ mapping algorithms. t tests were performed for pairwise differences in utility values from the preference-based tariffs and mapping algorithms. Mean (standard deviation) SDQ total difficulties and prosocial scores were 12 (3.2) and 8.3 (2.1). Utility values obtained from the original tariff, alternative tariff, and mapping algorithms using five and three SDQ subscales were 0.84 (0.11), 0.80 (0.13), 0.84 (0.05), and 0.83 (0.04), respectively. Each method for calculating utility produced statistically significantly different values except the original tariff and five SDQ subscale algorithm. Initial evidence suggests the SDQ and CHU9D are related in some of their measurement properties. The mapping algorithm using five SDQ subscales was found to be optimal in predicting mean child health utility. Future research valuing changes in the SDQ scores would contribute to this research.

  5. LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Østergaard, Lars; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten

    2014-09-18

    The aim of the study; LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion was to develop, document, and evaluate a multi-component physical activity (PA) intervention in public schools in Denmark. The primary outcome was cognitive function. Secondary outcomes were academic skills, body composition, aerobic fitness and PA. The primary aim of the present paper was to describe the rationale, design and methods of the LCoMotion study. LCoMotion was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled study. Fourteen schools from all five regions in Denmark participated. All students from 6th and 7th grades were invited to participate (n = 869) and consent was obtained for 87% (n = 759). Baseline measurements were obtained in November/December 2013 and follow-up measurements in May/June 2014. The intervention lasted five months and consisted of a "package" of three main components: PA during academic lessons, PA during recess and PA homework. Furthermore a cycling campaign was conducted during the intervention period. Intervention schools should endeavor to ensure that students were physically active for at least 60 min every school day. Cognitive function was measured by a modified Eriksen flanker task and academic skills by a custom made mathematics test. PA was objectively measured by accelerometers (ActiGraph, GT3X and GT3X+) and aerobic fitness assessed by an intermittent shuttle-run test (the Andersen intermittent running test). Furthermore, compliance with the intervention was assessed by short message service (SMS)-tracking and questionnaires were delivered to students, parents and teachers. LCoMotion has ability to provide new insights on the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention on cognitive function and academic skills in 6th and 7th grade students. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02012881 (10/10/2013).

  6. Effect of nutrition changes on foods selected by students in a middle school-based diabetes prevention intervention program: the HEALTHY experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C; Stadler, Diane D; Staten, Myrlene A; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-02-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and à la carte venues are compared to the experience of control schools. The intervention was implemented in 21 middle schools from winter 2007 through spring 2009 (following a cohort of students from sixth through eighth grades); 21 schools acted as observed controls. The nutrition component targeted school food service environmental change. Data identifying foods and nutrients served (selected by students for consumption) were collected over a 20-day period at baseline and end of study. Analysis compared end of study values for intervention versus control schools. Intervention schools more successfully limited dessert and snack food portion size in NSLP and à la carte and lowered fat content of foods served. Servings of high-fiber grain-based foods and/or legumes were improved in SBP but not NSLP. Intervention and control schools eliminated >1% fat milk and added-sugar beverages in SBP, but intervention schools were more successful in NSLP and à la carte. The HEALTHY program demonstrated significant changes in the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served in the SBP, NSLP, and à la carte venues, as part of an effort to decrease childhood obesity and support beneficial effects in some secondary HEALTHY study outcomes. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriota, Pollyanna Fernandes; Filgueiras, Andrea Rocha; de Almeida, Viviane Belucci Pires; Alexmovitz, Guilherme Aparecido Costa; da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; de Carvalho, Vivian Fortuna Feres; Carvalho, Natália; de Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Domene, Semiramis Martins Alvares; do Prado, Wagner Luiz; Torres, Gustavo Enrique Salazar; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Reis; Sesso, Ricardo; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2017-09-15

    Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN) in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438) consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] -for-age Z score, n = 138) received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353) participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n = 125) were invited to attend the routine outpatient

  8. Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Fernandes Patriota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. Methods/study design The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438 consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] –for-age Z score, n = 138 received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353 participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n

  9. A school-based comprehensive lifestyle intervention among Chinese kids against Obesity (CLICK-Obesity) in Nanjing City, China: the baseline data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Wang, Xiaorong; Ware, Robert S; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Hong, Xin; Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Li, Jiequan; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Background urgent development of effective interventions to prevent rapidly rising childhood obesity in China is needed. Methods Between May 2010 and December 2013, a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 4th graders in eight urban primary schools randomly assigned to intervention or control groups in Nanjing, China. A multi-component intervention program was implemented within the treatment group, while students in the control group followed their usual health education curriculum without additional intervention. Results At baseline, 638 and 544 students were enrolled in the intervention and control group, respectively. The prevalence of excess body weight was 26.8%, with 27.4% in the intervention group and 26.1% in the control group (p=0.61). The mean (SD) BMI and WC was 18.7 (3.0) and 63.0 (9.2) for participants in intervention schools, and 18.5 (2.9) and 63.6 (8.7) for students in control group, separately (p=0.24 and 0.41, respectively). Compared to those who were not aware of what lifestyle/behavior factors were unhealthy, students who were aware of the unhealthy lifestyle/behavior factors consumed fewer fried snacks (0.46±0.76 serves/week vs 0.65±0.91 serves/week; p<0.01), soft drinks (160±194 ml/week vs 199±227 ml/week; p<0.01), but larger amount of meat (502±429 g/week vs 449±344 g/week; p=0.03), and reported less screen time (214±232 minutes/week vs 252±264 minutes/week; p<0.01). Moreover, there was no difference within physical activity time between these two groups (257±341 minutes/week vs 218±324 minutes/week; p=0.13). Conclusions Main characteristics of participants were balanced at baseline within intervention and control schools, but a gap existed between healthy lifestyle knowledge and actual healthy behavior in students. Trial Registration number ChiCTR-ERC-11001819 PMID:24561972

  10. Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness of School-based Dissemination Strategies of an Internet-based Program for the Prevention and Early Intervention in Eating Disorders: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moessner, Markus; Minarik, Carla; Ozer, Fikret; Bauer, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Only little is known about costs and effects (i.e., success) of dissemination strategies, although cost-effective dissemination strategies are crucial for the transfer of interventions into routine care. This study investigates the effects and cost-effectiveness of five school-based dissemination strategies for an Internet-based intervention for the prevention and early intervention of eating disorders. Three-hundred ninety-five schools were randomly assigned to one of five dissemination strategies. Strategies varied with respect to intensity from only sending advertisement materials and asking the school to distribute them among students to organizing presentations and workshops at schools. Effects were defined as the number of page visits, the number of screenings conducted, and the number of registrations to the Internet-based intervention. More expensive strategies proved to be more cost-effective. Cost per page visit ranged from 2.83€ (introductory presentation plus workshop) to 20.37€ (dissemination by student representatives/peers). Costs per screening ranged from 3.30€ (introductory presentation plus workshop) to 75.66€ (dissemination by student representatives/peers), and costs per registration ranged from 6.86€ (introductory presentation plus workshop) to 431.10€ (advertisement materials only). Dissemination of an Internet-based intervention for prevention and early intervention is challenging and expensive. More intense, expensive strategies with personal contact proved to be more cost-effective. The combination of an introductory presentation on eating disorders and a workshop in the high school was most effective and had the best cost-effectiveness ratio. The sole distribution of advertisement materials attracted hardly any participants to the Internet-based program.

  11. Mindfulness-based psychological intervention for coping with pain in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Kold; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Vedsted-Hansen, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    after optimal medical treatment. We suggest a psychological intervention based on mindfulness techniques for dealing with pain, and report results from a pilot study with 10 endometriosis patients with chronic pain problems. Participants’ level of distress was measured with self-report questionnaires...

  12. ASL, Total Communication and Oralism: Identifying Shared Characteristics of School-Based Writing Intervention Programs for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students, K-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Carolyn Mascia

    2009-01-01

    To be effective in providing a writing literacy program, regardless of communication approaches, educators should establish program-wide conditions that promote English writing literacy over time. The researcher's purpose for this study was to identify shared characteristics of writing intervention programs in three different communication school…

  13. School-Based Health Education Strategies for the Improvement of Body Image and Prevention of Eating Problems: An Overview of Safe and Successful Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review current programmes and major issues surrounding preventive interventions for body image and obesity in schools. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review was carried out by analysing papers cited in major literature databases from the last 50 years. This review describes and summarises…

  14. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-Based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program: The HEALTHY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A.; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program…

  15. Pragmatic Pilot Cluster Randomised Control Trial of a School-Based Peer-Led Anti-Smoking Intervention for 13-14 Year Olds in Malaysia: Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melson, Elniee; Bridle, Christopher; Markham, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the process evaluation of a pilot randomised control trial of an anti-smoking intervention for Malaysian 13-14-year olds, conducted in 2011/2012. It was hypothesised that trained peer supporters would promote non-smoking among classmates through informal conversations. Design/methodology/approach:…

  16. Perceptions of Teachers and Staff regarding the Impact of the Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Model for School-Based Crisis Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Julie Q.

    2007-01-01

    The Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Model for crisis intervention was developed for use with emergency service personnel. Research regarding the use of the CISM Model has been conducted among civilians and high-risk occupation groups with mixed results. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the CISM Model for…

  17. "A Child Is Also a Teacher": Exploring the Potential for Children as Change Agents in the Context of a School-Based WASH Intervention in Rural Eastern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresee, S.; Caruso, B. A.; Sales, J.; Lupele, J.; Freeman, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    As part of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in low-income settings, it is frequently assumed that pupils can disseminate information and catalyze change at home, yet this assumption has not been rigorously assessed. We employed qualitative research methods in two phases to assess the potential for children to be change agents in five…

  18. Outcomes of a School-Based Intervention (RESCATE) to Improve Physical Activity Patterns in Mexican Children Aged 8-10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin-Ramirez, E.; Castillo-Martinez, L.; Orea-Tejeda, A.; Vergara-Castaneda, A.; Keirns-Davis, C.; Villa-Romero, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an intervention program on the patterns of physical activity in 8- to 10-year-old Mexican children from lower socioeconomic status. This study performed a randomized controlled field trial in 498 children aged 8-10 years from 10 public schools of low socioeconomic status in Mexico City. Schools…

  19. Enhancing Self-Determination in Health: Results of an RCT of the Ask Project, a School-Based Intervention for Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Lyn; Ware, Robert S.; Carrington, Suzanne; Lennox, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with intellectual disability have high levels of unrecognized disease and inadequate health screening/promotion which might be addressed by improving health advocacy skills. Methods: A parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate whether a health intervention package, consisting of…

  20. Structural and functional cardiac adaptations to a 10-week school-based football intervention for 9-10-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, Peter Riis; Nielsen, Claus Malta

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the cardiac effects of a 10-week football training intervention for school children aged 9-10 years using comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography as a part of a larger ongoing study. A total of 97 pupils from four school classes were cluster-randomized into a c...

  1. Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led school-based intervention to increase the physical activity of adolescent girls (PLAN-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Kipping, Ruth; Banfield, Kathryn; Tomkinson, Keeley; Garfield, Kirsty; Lyons, Ronan A; Simon, Joanne; Blair, Peter S; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity levels are low amongst adolescent girls, and this population faces specific barriers to being active. Peer influences on health behaviours are important in adolescence and peer-led interventions might hold promise to change behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of Peer-Led physical Activity iNtervention for Adolescent girls (PLAN-A), a peer-led intervention aimed at increasing adolescent girls' physical activity levels. A two-arm cluster randomised feasibility trial will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention n  = 4; control n  = 2) with year 8 (12-13 years old) girls. The intervention will operate at a year group level and consist of year 8 girls nominating influential peers within their year group to become peer-supporters. Approximately 15 % of the cohort will receive 3 days of training about physical activity and interpersonal communication skills. Peer-supporters will then informally diffuse messages about physical activity amongst their friends for 10 weeks. Data will be collected at baseline (time 0 (T0)), immediately after the intervention (time 1 (T1)) and 12 months after baseline measures (time 2 (T2)). In this feasibility trial, the primary interest is in the recruitment of schools and participants (both year 8 girls and peer-supporters), delivery and receipt of the intervention, data provision rates and identifying the cost categories for future economic analysis. Physical activity will be assessed using 7-day accelerometry, with the likely primary outcome in a fully-powered trial being daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants will also complete psychosocial questionnaires at each time point: assessing motivation, self-esteem and peer physical activity norms. Data analysis will be largely descriptive and focus on recruitment, attendance and data provision rates. The findings will inform the sample size required for a

  2. Teddy and I Get a Check-Up: A Pilot Educational Intervention Teaching Children Coping Strategies for Managing Procedure-Related Pain and Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Dalley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pediatric medical information provision literature focuses on hospitalization and surgical procedures, but children would also benefit from an educational program regarding more commonly experienced medical procedures (e.g., needles, general check-up. Objective. To determine whether an evidence-based educational program reduced children’s ratings of fear of and expected pain from medical stimuli and increased their knowledge of procedural coping strategies. Methods. An educational, interactive, developmentally appropriate Teddy Bear Clinic Tour was developed and delivered at a veterinary clinic. During this tour, 71 5–10-year-old children (Mage=6.62 years, SD=1.19 were taught about medical equipment, procedures, and coping strategies through modelling and rehearsal. In a single-group, pretest posttest design, participants reported their fear of and expected pain from medical and nonmedical stimuli. Children were also asked to report strategies they would use to cope with procedural fear. Results. Children’s ratings for expected pain during a needle procedure were reduced following the intervention. No significant change occurred in children’s fear of needles. Children reported more intervention-taught coping strategies at Time 2. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that an evidence-based, interactive educational program can reduce young children’s expectations of needle pain and may help teach them procedural coping strategies.

  3. From despair to hope: a longitudinal study of illness perceptions and coping in a psycho-educational group intervention for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Maarten J; Wiesenhaan, Marion E; Does-den Heijer, Aukje; Kleijn, Wim C; Nortier, Johan W R; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships of illness perceptions, coping, and distress in women with breast cancer. Illness perceptions and coping at baseline and changes in these variables over time served as possible predictors of distress at two follow-up points. Fifty-seven women with breast cancer who participated in a psychosocial aftercare programme completed a questionnaire before the start of the intervention, directly after the end of the intervention, and 1 year after the start of the intervention. Study variables were assessed with the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (illness perceptions), the COPE (coping), and the Hopkins Symptom Check List (distress). Results showed that 43% of variance in distress at baseline was explained by participants' illness perceptions. Cyclical timeline perceptions were the strongest predictor of distress at baseline. Longitudinal data revealed that after the end of the intervention, the intensity of general distress and breast cancer-related emotions had decreased significantly. Partial correlations showed that baseline illness perceptions were unrelated to distress at follow-up. However, changes in illness perceptions (perceptions about the cyclical and chronic timeline and symptoms associated with breast cancer) showed significant associations with distress at both follow-up assessments. Associations of follow-up distress with coping styles were less consistent. Our results suggest that changes in illness perceptions are related to an improvement or worsening of patients' emotional well-being over time. These findings hold promise for the development of interventions that specifically target patients' representations of their illness. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Goal X: Preparing for a Changing World--Coping With Change. A Guide to Intervention Techniques for the Development of Problem-Solving and Coping Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, James F.

    This publication defines an approach and lists some possible materials to help students develop problem-solving and coping skills. It is a preliminary guide serving as a background for those wishing to learn more about this area. It stresses definitions and sources, not specific strategies. Different sections focus on kindergarten teachers,…

  5. Effect of intervention aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary behaviour, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children: active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) school based cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Ruth R; Howe, Laura D; Jago, Russell; Campbell, Rona; Wells, Sian; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mytton, Julie; Noble, Sian M; Peters, Tim J; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-05-27

    To investigate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and increase fruit and vegetable consumption in children. Cluster randomised controlled trial. 60 primary schools in the south west of England. Primary school children who were in school year 4 (age 8-9 years) at recruitment and baseline assessment, in year 5 during the intervention, and at the end of year 5 (age 9-10) at follow-up assessment. The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) intervention consisted of teacher training, provision of lesson and child-parent interactive homework plans, all materials required for lessons and homework, and written materials for school newsletters and parents. The intervention was delivered when children were in school year 5 (age 9-10 years). Schools allocated to control received standard teaching. The pre-specified primary outcomes were accelerometer assessed minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day, accelerometer assessed minutes of sedentary behaviour per day, and reported daily consumption of servings of fruit and vegetables. 60 schools with more than 2221 children were recruited; valid data were available for fruit and vegetable consumption for 2121 children, for accelerometer assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour for 1252 children, and for secondary outcomes for between 1825 and 2212 children for the main analyses. None of the three primary outcomes differed between children in schools allocated to the AFLY5 intervention and those allocated to the control group. The difference in means comparing the intervention group with the control group was -1.35 (95% confidence interval -5.29 to 2.59) minutes per day for moderate to vigorous physical activity, -0.11 (-9.71 to 9.49) minutes per day for sedentary behaviour, and 0.08 (-0.12 to 0.28) servings per day for fruit and vegetable consumption. The intervention was effective for three out of nine of the secondary outcomes after

  6. Evaluating the acceptability and efficacy of a psycho-educational intervention for coping and symptom management by children with cancer: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Min; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Lin, Pei-Chin; Liao, Yu Mei; Chen, Hsing-Mei; Hsiao, Chih-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of a psycho-educational intervention designed to improve effective coping and reduce symptom severity in children with cancer. Cancer treatments increase survival rates and also cause physical and psychological effects on children with cancer. A psycho-educational intervention is used to assist children and adolescents with these effects and its efficacy has been described in several studies. A randomized controlled trial. Participants being treated were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups from September 2011-February 2013 in Taiwan. The intervention group received a psycho-educational intervention in addition to standard care, while the control group received only standard care. Each participant was assessed using a paediatric cancer coping scale and perceived symptom severity was evaluated at three time points (baseline, 1 month and 3 months). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to estimate the effects of intervention. Qualitative findings were analysed using content analysis. No significant difference in coping scores was found between groups, but the experimental group reported significantly lower scores in gastrointestinal problems and pain. Most symptoms decreased significantly over time in both groups, except for gastrointestinal problems. The scores in pain, bone marrow suppression and body image showed significant interaction effects between groups on changes over time. Qualitative results reported that participants evaluated the intervention positively, especially about receipt of psychological support and learnt coping skills. The psycho-educational intervention administered was acceptable for children with cancer and was found to reduce gastrointestinal problems and pain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A school-based rope skipping intervention for adolescents in Hong Kong: protocol of a matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S; Lonsdale, Chris; Ng, Johan Y Y; Lubans, David R

    2014-05-30

    Schools present venues for physical activity promotion among youth, with physical education (PE) considered the primary vehicle responsible for increasing activity levels. Yet students are not very physically active during typical school PE classes. With the aim to engage Hong Kong students in more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during PE, a fitness infusion intervention using rope skipping was designed, and its effectiveness will be examined. Rope skipping was chosen because a) it provides moderate-to-high intensity physical activity; b) is inexpensive; c) students find it enjoyable; and d) is feasible in typical environments in Hong Kong, where PE classes are large in size (up to 40 students) and space available for physical activity is usually limited. A matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial was designed. Secondary school students from 24 classes (from 12 schools) will be recruited to participate in the trial. Students' baseline MVPA will be measured during school PE. Classes will be matched according to baseline variables and one class from each pair will be randomized into the experimental group. Teachers in the experimental group will be invited to attend a teacher workshop, and will insert a 15-minute rope skipping activity in four consecutive PE lessons. Motivational factors based on self-determination theory will also be measured as secondary outcomes. The effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated by comparing changes in the proportion of lesson time spent in MVPA from baseline to follow-up across the experimental and control groups. Physical activity levels in PE are often very low and there is a need to identify feasible low-cost interventions that can be easily disseminated. If the results of the study suggest the intervention to be effective, it could be implemented to schools throughout Hong Kong and other cities where space is limited. ACTRN12613000968774. Registered on 30 August 2013.

  8. Kelston Beverages Pilot Study: Rationale, design and implementation of a community and school based intervention to reduce sugary drink consumption among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundborn, G; Ni Mhurchu, C; Ness, C; Latu, H; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The Kelston Beverages Study was designed to increase awareness of the sugar content of sugary drinks, the poor health consequences that high intake of these drinks have, and inform on ways to reduce intake of students. The aims of this pilot study were to refine interventions and processes designed to raise awareness of the harms that sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) have on health, and to reduce their consumption among the youth of a small West Auckland suburb. There were three arms to this interventional study, one in schools, another in community organisations (churches, sports clubs and community groups), and the final arm is in the local retail sector. The school arm was the most extensive component and initially involved a survey of children's knowledge and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) using a brief questionnaire. The study evaluated any SSB policies in schools and for schools that did not have policies, opportunities were scoped to develop and implement them; a canteen AUDIT focussed particularly on beverages was carried out; and finally a student partnered social marketing exercise was undertaken that comprised 2 competitions, one to design a poster, and another to write and perform a rap. Children were re-surveyed at the completion of the intervention (7 months later) to determine change in knowledge and self-reported consumption of SSBs. Both the community organisations and retail arms of this study focussed on raising awareness into the harmful effects of SSBs and establishing healthy beverage policy in the respective organisations. Promising results with regards to acceptability, feasibility, and recruitment as well as valuable learnings with regard to process support the development of a proposal to conduct a cluster randomised trial of the interventions successfully tested in this pilot study.

  9. The benevolent overreaction: nursing assessment and intervention in families coping with seizure disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J A; Haynes, M P

    1996-08-01

    Boone and Hartman identified the phenomenon of benevolent overreaction to describe the enmeshment seen in parents and their chronically ill children. The cylce of the benevolent overreaction begins with the child's diagnosis with a chronic illness and the subsequent natural protective behaviors of the parents. However, overprotection may become pathologic if these protective behaviors persist and delay or prevent the child's achieving developmental goals. This ego boundary deficit is one of the most frequently seen phenomena in families with chronically ill children. On the Comprehensive Epilepsy Unit this phenomenon was repeatedly observed. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain the frequency of benevolent overreaction seen on the unit, and to identify the nursing interventions used to address this issue. A chart review was used to identify the frequency of the phenomenon during the past year, the discipline first identifying the phenomenon and nursing interventions applied to the phenomenon. Nursing staff interviews were then conducted, using unit census records of the past year, to identify staff recall of the phenomenon. Nursing staff frequently identified the components of benevolent overreaction in the inpatient population, however, consistent intervention for the phenomenon was less frequently seen. Autonomy, empowerment and self-advocacy for families are goals of the Comprehensive Epilepsy Unit. Consistent application of the nursing process to this phenomenon is vital to providing quality patient care.

  10. Exploring the role of gender norms in nutrition and sexual health promotion in a piloted school-based intervention: The Philadelphia Ujima™ experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ana; Robertson-James, Candace; Reels, Serita; Jeter, Janay; Rivera, Hilda; Yusuf, Zena; Liu

    2015-08-01

    Perceptions of masculinity and femininity influence behaviors and can be identified in young children and adolescents (Brannon, 2004). Thus, adolescents' engagement in health risk or promoting behaviors is influenced by perceptions of masculinity and femininity and the differences in expectations, norms and responsibilities for girls and boys (WHO, 2007). Girls and boys have different needs, and gender-based interventions that consider similarities as well as differences are needed. A gender-based nutrition and sexual health promotion program was developed and piloted by the Philadelphia Ujima Coalition in a high school setting. To explore the gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of the influence of gender norms on weight, nutrition, physical activity, and sexual health and the implication of these differences in future gender-integrated health promotion programming for youth, a content analysis of student and facilitator debriefing forms were implemented for the participating schools. The content analysis was used to identify central themes, concepts gained, and overall impact of the intervention sessions. Overall, gender norms influence healthy eating practices and activity through influencing perceptions of body type in adolescents. Gender norms also influence sexual activity and decision making through influencing perceptions of beauty, masculinity, femininity, pressures and popular concepts related to sexual activity. Thus, interventions that address gender may more effectively promote health and wellness in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design and methods for “Commit to Get Fit” – A pilot study of a school-based mindfulness intervention to promote healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Sue; Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Crawford, Sybil; Pbert, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular prevention is more effective if started early in life, but available interventions to promote healthy lifestyle habits among youth have been ineffective. Impulsivity in particular has proven to be an important barrier to the adoption of healthy behaviors in youth. Observational evidence suggests that mindfulness interventions may reduce impulsivity and improve diet and physical activity. We hypothesize that mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education will improve dietary habits and physical activity among teenagers by reducing impulsive behavior and improving planning skills. Methods/Design The Commit to Get Fit study is a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial examining the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of school-based mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education for promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents. Two schools in central Massachusetts (30 students per school) will be randomized to receive mindfulness training plus standard health education (HE-M) or an attention-control intervention plus standard health education (HE-AC). Assessments will be conducted at baseline, intervention completion (2 months), and 8 months. Primary outcomes are feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, diet, impulsivity, mood, body mass index, and quality of life. Conclusions This study will provide important information about feasibility and preliminary estimates of efficacy of a school-delivered mindfulness and health education intervention to promote healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors among adolescents. Our findings will provide important insights about the possible mechanisms by which mindfulness training may contribute to behavioral change and inform future research in this important area. PMID:25687667

  12. The role of family-related factors in the effects of the UP4FUN school-based family-focused intervention targeting screen time in 10- to 12-year-old children: the ENERGY project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Bere, Elling; Verloigne, Maïté; van Stralen, Maartje M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Vik, Frøydis Nordgård; Manios, Yannis; Grillenberger, Monika; Kovács, Eva; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2014-08-18

    Screen-related behaviours are highly prevalent in schoolchildren. Considering the adverse health effects and the relation of obesity and screen time in childhood, efforts to affect screen use in children are warranted. Parents have been identified as an important influence on children's screen time and therefore should be involved in prevention programmes. The aim was to examine the mediating role of family-related factors on the effects of the school-based family-focused UP4FUN intervention aimed at screen time in 10- to 12-year-old European children (n child-parent dyads = 1940). A randomised controlled trial was conducted to test the six-week UP4FUN intervention in 10- to 12-year-old children and one of their parents in five European countries in 2011 (n child-parent dyads = 1940). Self-reported data of children were used to assess their TV and computer/game console time per day, and parents reported their physical activity, screen time and family-related factors associated with screen behaviours (availability, permissiveness, monitoring, negotiation, rules, avoiding negative role modeling, and frequency of physically active family excursions). Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country). Almost all TV-specific and half of the computer-specific family-related factors were associated with children's screen time. However, the measured family-related factors did not mediate intervention effects on children's TV and computer/game console use, because the intervention was not successful in changing these family-related factors. Future screen-related interventions should aim to effectively target the home environment and parents' practices related to children's use of TV and computers to decrease children's screen time. The study is registered in the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (registration number: ISRCTN34562078).

  13. A non-equivalent group pilot trial of a school-based physical activity and fitness intervention for 10–11 year old english children: born to move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. Fairclough

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PE lessons are the formal opportunity in schools for promotion of physical activity and fitness. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot PE intervention on physical activity, fitness, and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Participants were 139 children aged 10–11 years from four schools. For six weeks children in two schools received a twice-weekly pilot ‘Born to Move’ (BTM physical activity (PA and fitness intervention alongside one regular PE lesson. Children in the two comparison (COM schools received their regular twice weekly PE lessons. Outcomes were lesson time and whole-day light (LPA, moderate (MPA, vigorous (VPA, and MVPA, and sedentary time, muscular fitness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, and lesson-specific perceived exertion, enjoyment, and perceived competence. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (T0, midway through the intervention (T1, and at the end (T2 using ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. Intervention fidelity was measured using child and teacher surveys at T2 and analysed using Chi-square tests. Results The BTM group engaged in moderate PA for significantly more lesson time (29.4 % than the COM group (25.8 %; p = .009, d = .53. The amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA during the T1 BTM lesson contributed 14.0 % to total MVPA, which was significantly more than the COM group’s T1 PE lesson (11.4 %; p < .001, d = .47. The BTM group were significantly more active during the whole-day (p < .05 and the school-day (p < .01. In both groups push-up test performance increased (p < .001 and CRF test performance decreased (p < .01. Perceived exertion, enjoyment, and perceived competence increased in both groups (p < .05, but the BTM group rated their enjoyment of the T1 BTM lesson higher than the COM group rated their PE lesson (p = .02, d = .56. The children’s and teachers’ responses to the intervention indicated that the delivery aims of enjoyment

  14. The impact of active stakeholder involvement on recruitment, retention and engagement of schools, children and their families in the cluster randomised controlled trial of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP): a school-based intervention to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J; McHugh, C; Minton, J; Eke, H; Wyatt, K

    2017-08-14

    Recruitment and retention of participants is crucial for statistical power and internal and external validity and participant engagement is essential for behaviour change. However, many school-based interventions focus on programme content rather than the building of supportive relationships with all participants and tend to employ specific standalone strategies, such as incentives, to improve retention. We believe that actively involving stakeholders in both intervention and trial design improves recruitment and retention and increases the chances of creating an effective intervention. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme, HeLP (an obesity prevention programme for children 9-10 years old) was developed using intervention mapping and involved extensive stakeholder involvement in both the design of the trial and the intervention to ensure that: (i) delivery methods were suitably engaging, (ii) deliverers had the necessary skills and qualities to build relationships and (iii) the intervention dovetailed with the National Curriculum. HeLP was a year-long intervention consisting of 4 multi-component phases using a range of delivery methods. We recruited 1324 children from 32 schools from the South West of England to a cluster-randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of HeLP in preventing obesity. The primary outcome was change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) at 24 months post randomisation. Secondary outcomes included additional anthropometric and behavioural (physical activity and diet) measures at 18 and 24 months. Anthropometric and behavioural measures were taken in 99%, 96% and 94% of children at baseline, 18 and 24 months, respectively, with no differential follow up between the control and intervention groups at each time point. All children participated in the programme and 92% of children and 77% of parents across the socio-economic spectrum were considered to have actively engaged with HeLP. We attribute our excellent

  15. Can a psychosocial intervention programme teaching coping strategies improve the quality of life of Iranian women? A non-randomised quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addelyan Rasi, Hamideh; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent; Moula, Alireza

    2013-03-25

    To assess whether a psychosocial intervention teaching coping strategies to women can improve quality of life (QOL) in groups of Iranian women exposed to social pressures. Quasi-experimental non-randomised group design involving two categories of Iranian women, each category represented by non-equivalent intervention and comparison groups. A large urban area in Iran. 44 women; 25 single mothers and 19 newly married women. Seventh-month psychosocial intervention aimed at providing coping strategies. Effect sizes in four specific health-related domains and two overall perceptions of QOL and health measured by the WHOQOL-BREF instrument. Large effect sizes were observed among the women exposed to the intervention in the WHOQOL-BREF subdomains measuring physical health (r=0.68; p<0.001), psychological health (r=0.72; p<0.001), social relationships (r=0.52; p<0.01), environmental health (r=0.55; p<0.01) and in the overall perception of QOL (r=0.72; p<0.001); the effect size regarding overall perception of health was between small and medium (r=0.20; not significant). Small and not statistically significant effect sizes were observed in the women provided with traditional social welfare services. Teaching coping strategies can improve the QOL of women in societies where gender discrimination is prevalent. The findings require reproduction in studies with a more rigorous design before the intervention model can be recommended for widespread distribution.

  16. PRALIMAP: study protocol for a high school-based, factorial cluster randomised interventional trial of three overweight and obesity prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrinier Nelly

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increase in overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents in the last decade, effective prevention strategies for these conditions in adolescents are urgently needed. The PRALIMAP (Promotion de l'ALImentation et de l'Activité Physique trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness for these conditions of 3 health promotion strategies -- educational, screening and environmental -- applied singly or in combination in high schools over a 2-year intervention period. Methods PRALIMAP is a stratified 2 × 2 × 2 factorial cluster randomised controlled trial including 24 state high schools in Lorraine, northeastern France, in 2 waves: 8 schools in 2006 (wave 1 and 16 in 2007 (wave 2. Students entering the selected high schools in the 4 academic years from 2006 to 2009 are eligible for data collection. Interventional strategies are organized over 2 academic years. The follow-up consists of 3 visits: at the entry of grade 10 (T0, grade 11 (T1 and grade 12 (T2. At T0, 5,458 (85.7% adolescents participated. The educational strategy consists of nutritional lessons, working groups and a final party. The screening strategy consists in detecting overweight/obesity and eating disorders in adolescents and proposing, if necessary, an adapted care management program of 7 group educational sessions. The environmental strategy consists in improving dietary and physical activity offerings in high schools and facilities, especially catering. The main outcomes are body size evolution over time, nutritional behaviour and knowledge, health and quality of life. An evaluation process documents how each intervention strategy is implemented in the schools and estimates the dose of the intervention, allowing for a per protocol analysis after the main intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion PRALIMAP aims at improving the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in adolescents by translating current evidence into public health practice

  17. The prevention of anxiety in children through school-based interventions: study protocol for a 24-month follow-up of the PACES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Taylor, Gordon; Anderson, Rob; Daniels, Harry; Simpson, Neil; Phillips, Rhiannon; Skryabina, Elena

    2014-03-13

    Anxiety in children is common and incapacitating and increases the risk of mental health disorders in adulthood. Although effective interventions are available, few children are identified and referred for specialist treatment. Alternative approaches in which prevention programmes are delivered in school appear promising. However, comparatively little is known about the best intervention leader (health care-led vs. school-led), long-term effects or the primary preventive value of such programmes. Preventing Anxiety in Children through Education in Schools, or PACES, is a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy prevention programme (FRIENDS) on symptoms of anxiety and low mood in 9- to 10-year-old children. Forty-one schools were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: school-led FRIENDS, health care-led FRIENDS or treatment as usual. Assessments were undertaken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months, with the primary outcome measure being the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale score at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures are changes in self-esteem, worries, bullying and life satisfaction. This protocol summarises the procedure for the 24-month follow-up of this cohort. The study will determine the medium-term effectiveness of an anxiety prevention programme delivered in schools. ISRCTN23563048.

  18. An exploratory randomized controlled trial of a novel high-school-based smoking cessation intervention for adolescent smokers using abstinence-contingent incentives and cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Cooney, Judith L; Schepis, Ty S; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas B; Liss, Amanda K; McMahon, Thomas J; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2013-09-01

    There are few effective smoking cessation interventions for adolescent smokers. We developed a novel intervention to motivate tobacco use behavior change by (1) enhancing desire to quit through the use of abstinence-contingent incentives (CM), (2) increasing cessation skills through the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and (3) removing cessation barriers through delivery within high schools. An exploratory four-week, randomized controlled trial was conducted in Connecticut high schools to dismantle the independent and combined effects of CM and CBT; smokers received CM alone, CBT alone, or CM+CBT. Participants included 82 adolescent smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. The primary outcome was seven-day end-of-treatment (EOT) point prevalence (PP) abstinence, determined using self-reports confirmed using urine cotinine levels. Secondary outcomes included one-day EOT PP abstinence and cigarette use during treatment and follow up. Among participants who initiated treatment (n=72), group differences in seven-day EOT-PP abstinence were observed (χ(2)=10.48, padolescent smokers; adding cognitive behavioral therapy does not appear to further enhance outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Process evaluation for a school-based physical activity intervention for 6th- and 7th-grade boys: reach, dose, and fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lorraine B; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Wesolek, Stacey M; Lo, Yun-Jia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the reach, dose, and fidelity of Guys Only Activity for Life (G.O.A.L.), a 7-week pilot intervention conducted from February to March 2011 to increase 6th and 7th grade boys' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). One middle school was randomly assigned to the G.O.A.L. intervention and another from the same urban school district in the Midwestern U.S. to a comparison condition. Thirty boys, ages 10-14 years, participated in each school. The intervention, guided by the Health Promotion Model (HPM) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT), consisted of a 90-min after-school physical activity club 4 days/week and one motivational interviewing session with a registered (school) nurse. Data were gathered via attendance records, club observations, heart rate monitors, audio-taping of motivational interviewing sessions, and surveys. On average boys attended the club 2.11 days/week (SD=.86). A trained independent process evaluator reported that the physical activity club instructors provided the boys with the opportunity for a mean of 25.8 min/day of MVPA. Using a four-point Likert scale (1=disagree a lot; 4=agree a lot), the process evaluator perceived that the club was delivered with high fidelity and adherence to the underlying theories (M=3.48; SD=0.39). Sessions with the nurse lasted an average of 13 min, 29 s. All boys attended. Two trained independent coders indicated that the nurse demonstrated at least beginning proficiency for all tasks associated with motivational interviewing, with the exception of using sufficient open- as opposed to closed-ended questions and reflections compared to questions. Fidelity related to session delivery and adherence to the theories was high (M=3.83; SD=0.19). The process evaluation data indicated that strategies are needed to increase attendance and boys' MVPA during the club time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Success of a comprehensive school-based asthma intervention on clinical markers and resource utilization for inner-city children with asthma in Chicago: the Mobile C.A.R.E. Foundation's asthma management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bina; Sheridan, Phil; Detjen, Paul; Donnersberger, David; Gluck, Eric; Malamut, Karen; Whyte, Stephanie; Miller, Amy; Qing, Harshaw

    2007-03-01

    Children with asthma in low-income households in Chicago were participants in a school-based mobile van clinic, Mobile C.A.R.E. Our objective was to investigate whether long-term follow-up changed clinical markers and resource utilization. Children were evaluated by a pediatrician in a mobile allergy clinic and classified and treated based on National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines. Intervention consisted of assessment of allergic environment with avoidance recommendations, institution of appropriate controller therapy and inhaler technique, education on asthma and asthma management, and expectations for asthma control. Over 20,000 children were screened, 2041 were examined at least once, and 677 children had four follow-up visits. With follow-up, there was a decrease in hospitalizations and emergency room visits. Symptomatic markers (daytime and nighttime cough, wheezing, and dyspnea symptoms), frequency of rescue inhaler use, and a quality-of-life score improved from baseline. These findings suggest that ongoing school interventions may reduce resource utilization and improve clinical symptoms. Primary care physicians may be able to deliver specialized care to large numbers of inner-city children with asthma.

  1. An Initial Investigation of the Generalization of a School-Based Social Competence Intervention for Youth with High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of generalization of the Social Competence Intervention-Adolescent (SCI-A curriculum in a school setting for individuals with high-functioning autism or Asperger's Syndrome (=6. This study examined to what degree the generalization of the SCI-A curriculum could be measured when delivered in a school setting. Across the six participants preliminary results suggest improvement on teacher reports of social skills and executive functioning. Some improvements were also evident in direct measures of facial-expression recognition. Data collected in the nonintervention settings indicated that some generalization of social interaction skills may have occurred for all six participants. Future research directions are discussed.

  2. The effect of a school-based iron intervention on the haemoglobin concentration of school children in north-west Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousham, E K; Uzaman, B; Abbott, D; Lee, S F; Mithani, S; Roschnik, N; Hall, A

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of iron supplements administered to school children through a longitudinal school health intervention in terms of child haemoglobin concentration and anaemia prevalence. Children and adolescents aged 5-17 years were selected from 30 schools in north-west Pakistan for a longitudinal iron supplement intervention. Children received once-weekly iron supplements (200 mg ferrous sulphate containing 63 mg of elemental iron) for 24 weeks (n=352); or the same supplements twice-weekly for 12 weeks (n=298) or received no tablets (n=298). Haemoglobin concentration was estimated in finger-prick blood samples at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. Follow-up samples were taken at 36 weeks. A non-significant increase in haemoglobin concentration was observed in children receiving iron supplements after 12 weeks (mean 1.4 g/l s.d. 15.0 g/l in once-weekly versus 2.5 g/l s.d. 14.5 g/l in twice-weekly) compared with the group receiving no iron supplements. There was no significant reduction in the prevalence of anaemia in the once-weekly or twice-weekly group compared with the unsupplemented group. The prevalence of anaemia increased in all three groups during the follow-up period (24-36 weeks). Once-weekly and twice-weekly iron supplements were not associated with significant increases in haemoglobin concentration compared with unsupplemented children. In all groups, baseline haemoglobin concentration was the strongest predictor of haemoglobin increase. The lack of improvement may stem from the moderate baseline prevalence of anaemia (33%); other micronutrient deficiencies; variable compliance; or the worsening of haemoglobin status owing to seasonal changes in dietary iron and other nutrients.

  3. A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachel M; Meyer, Adria; Kay, Christi; Allensworth, Diane; Gazmararian, Julie A

    2014-06-26

    Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 - 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 - 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument "Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool" or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p schools tended to improve their practices over time, as measured via the CITT instrument. The present report demonstrates the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in producing positive change in school policies and practices, student knowledge and behaviors, and student fitness and BMI, supporting

  4. Retaining critical therapeutic elements of behavioral interventions translated for delivery via the Internet: recommendations and an example using pain coping skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Christine; Porter, Laura S; Somers, Tamara J; McKee, Daphne C; Keefe, Francis J

    2014-12-19

    Evidence supporting the efficacy of behavioral interventions based on principles of cognitive behavioral therapies has spurred interest in translating these interventions for delivery via the Internet. However, the benefits of this dissemination method cannot be realized unless the translated interventions are as effective as possible. We describe a challenge that must be overcome to ensure this occurs--Internet interventions must retain therapeutic components and processes underlying the success of face-to-face interventions on which they are based. These components and processes vary in the ease with which they can be translated to the online environment. Moreover, some are subtle and may be overlooked, despite being recognized as essential to the success of face-to-face interventions. We provide preliminary guidance for retaining critical therapeutic components and processes in the translation process, using Pain Coping Skills Training for osteoarthritis pain to illustrate methods. Directions for future research are also discussed.

  5. A pilot, multisite, randomized controlled trial of a self-directed coping skills training intervention for couples facing prostate cancer: accrual, retention, and data collection issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sylvie D; McElduff, Patrick; Girgis, Afaf; Levesque, Janelle V; Regan, Tim W; Turner, Jane; Candler, Hayley; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Shih, Sophy T F; Kayser, Karen; Chong, Peter

    2016-02-01

    To examine the acceptability of the methods used to evaluate Coping-Together, one of the first self-directed coping skill intervention for couples facing cancer, and to collect preliminary efficacy data. Forty-two couples, randomized to a minimal ethical care (MEC) condition or to Coping-Together, completed a survey at baseline and 2 months after, a cost diary, and a process evaluation phone interview. One hundred seventy patients were referred to the study. However, 57 couples did not meet all eligibility criteria, and 51 refused study participation. On average, two to three couples were randomized per month, and on average it took 26 days to enrol a couple in the study. Two couples withdrew from MEC, none from Coping-Together. Only 44 % of the cost diaries were completed, and 55 % of patients and 60 % of partners found the surveys too long, and this despite the follow-up survey being five pages shorter than the baseline one. Trends in favor of Coping-Together were noted for both patients and their partners. This study identified the challenges of conducting dyadic research, and a number of suggestions were put forward for future studies, including to question whether distress screening was necessary and what kind of control group might be more appropriate in future studies.

  6. Coping strategies as mediators of the effect of the START (strategies for RelaTives) intervention on psychological morbidity for family carers of people with dementia in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan; Cooper, Claudia; Barber, Julie; Rapaport, Penny; Griffin, Mark; Livingston, Gill

    2014-10-01

    Family carers of people with dementia frequently become depressed or anxious. In observational studies, more emotion-focused and less dysfunctional coping predict fewer psychological symptoms, but no randomised controlled trial (RCT) has directly investigated emotion-focused coping as mediator of effectiveness of a successful psychological intervention. We hypothesised that emotion-focused coping would mediate the START psychological intervention׳s effects in an RCT. We tested whether mediated effects were moderated by severity of baseline symptoms. 260 family carers from NHS dementia services were randomised to START (manualised coping skills intervention), or treatment-as-usual (TAU). Blinded raters administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-T) and Brief COPE inventory at baseline, 4 and 8 months. HADS-T improved in the intervention group when compared to TAU at all levels of psychological distress. We tested whether coping was a mediator and for moderated mediation, and (post-hoc) subgroup treatment effects on coping. Data were available for 187 carers (71.9%) for the mediation analysis. The reduced HADS-T score in the intervention group was mediated by increased emotion-focused coping only among carers with higher (16+) baseline HADS-T scores (mediated effect=-0.63 [-1.11, -0.15]; proportion of overall effect=33% [3%, 64%]). We did not measure plausible psychosocial treatment mechanisms other than coping. START benefited family carers both in preventing and treating psychological morbidity, through different mechanisms of action. The most psychologically distressed carers increased their emotion-focused coping and did not decrease their dysfunctional coping, while others benefited but not through this mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A school-based programme for tobacco and alcohol prevention in special education: effectiveness of the modified 'healthy school and drugs' intervention and moderation by school subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Abdullah; Onrust, Simone A; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Pieterse, Marcel E

    2017-03-01

    To test the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) programme on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends upon subtypes of SE schools and the level of implementation. In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-treatment follow-up, 363 students were allocated arbitrarily or depending on teacher motivation to either intervention condition (n = 205) or usual curriculum (n = 158). Thirteen secondary SE schools spread throughout the Netherlands. Participants were recruited during the autumn of 2013 from three school subtypes: SE for adolescents with intellectual/physical disabilities (SEI; n = 13), behavioural/emotional difficulties (SEB; n = 136) and learning disabilities/developmental disorders (SEL; n = 214). Self-reported life-time smoking prevalence and life-time drinking frequency as outcomes, and school subtype (SEL/SEB) and implementation fidelity (high/low) as moderators. No significant differences were found at follow-up in life-time smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-3.12] and drinking frequency (d = 0.01; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.18). Interaction analyses revealed adverse effects in SEB students for alcohol use (d = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.16-0.69). Effect on tobacco refusal self-efficacy was moderated positively by implementation fidelity (d = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.07-0.63). The Healthy School and Drugs programme adapted for secondary special education in the Netherlands lacked clear evidence for effects on all outcomes. This pilot study suggests further that, within special education, substance use interventions may need to be targeted at school subtypes, as these may have harmful effects among students with behavioural difficulties. Finally, limited evidence was found that programme effectiveness may depend upon implementation fidelity. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Reductions in alcohol and cocaine use following a group coping intervention for HIV-positive adults with childhood sexual abuse histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Drabkin, Anya S; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2010-11-01

    Few interventions exist to reduce alcohol and non-injection drug use among people living with HIV/AIDS. This study tested the effects of a coping group intervention for HIV-positive adults with childhood sexual abuse histories on alcohol, cocaine and marijuana use. Participants were assigned randomly to the experimental coping group or a time-matched comparison support group. Both interventions were delivered in a group format over 15 weekly 90-minute sessions. A diverse sample of 247 HIV-positive men and women with childhood sexual abuse were recruited from AIDS service organizations and community health centers in New York City. Substance use was assessed pre- and post-intervention and every 4 months during a 12-month follow-up period. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, longitudinal changes in substance use by condition were assessed using generalized estimating equations. At baseline, 42% of participants drank alcohol, 26% used cocaine and 26% used marijuana. Relative to participants in the support group, those in the coping group had greater reductions in quantity of alcohol use (Wald χ²(₄)=10.77, P = 0.029) and any cocaine use (Wald χ²(₄) = 9.81, P = 0.044) overtime. Many HIV patients, particularly those with childhood sexual abuse histories, continue to abuse substances. This group intervention that addressed coping with HIV and sexual trauma was effective in reducing alcohol and cocaine use, with effects sustained at 12-month follow-up. Integrating mental health treatment into HIV prevention may improve outcomes. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Cultural Adaptation of a Dyadic Intervention for Korean Couples Coping with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Minyoung; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hwang, So-Yeon; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; Spencer, Beth

    2017-08-16

    The Couples Life Story Approach (CLSA) was recently reveloped in the U.S. for older couples dealing with dementia to improve their quality of life. The purpose of this article is to describe how the CLSA was adapted to be culturally appropriate for older Korean couples and to discuss cultural htemes that emerged during the implementation process. The intervention was adapted using the Cultural Adaptation Process Model. The revised materials were implemented on 56 Korean couples. A multiple case study method was used to analyze the clinical data. Four cultural themes were identified: (1) dealing with negative memories in early years of marriage; (2) communication styles and patterns; (3) ways to incorporate difficult life events into the Life Story Book; and (4) complex dynamics of heirarchy in the relationship between older couples and the interventionist. With each theme, case examples are described that illustrate relevant issues. Cultural adaptation can be conducted systematically to improve the delivery of the CLSA for different populations. Cliniocians working with older Korean couples affected by dementia should consider cultural uniqueness in a life-story approach.

  10. The application of Intervention Mapping in developing and implementing school-based sexuality and HIV/AIDS education in a developing country context: the case of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkumbo, Kitila; Schaalma, Herman; Kaaya, Sylvia; Leerlooijer, Joanne; Mbwambo, Jessie; Kilonzo, Gad

    2009-06-01

    Effective sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programmes are needed to protect young people against HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a theory- and evidence-based approach and adapting the programmes to local contexts, increases the effectiveness of these programmes. This paper describes and discusses the challenges and opportunities concerning the application of Intervention Mapping (IM) in the development and implementation of a sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programme targeting young people aged 12-14 in Tanzania. The sexuality and HIV/AIDS programme was designed in a participatory manner, involving researchers, curriculum developers and teachers' and students' panels. The programme comprised five lessons, organized around 23 sessions with the aim of delaying the onset of sexual intercourse and increase correct and consistent condom use among young people. The programme was delivered by trained teachers as an extracurricular lesson. The IM protocol facilitated the development of a comprehensive sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programme relevant and appropriate to the social cultural context and the needs of learners in Tanzania. The paper has demonstrated that, although the IM was developed in the Western context, it can be used in a flexible manner to adapt to local contexts such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. 'A child is also a teacher': exploring the potential for children as change agents in the context of a school-based WASH intervention in rural Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresee, S; Caruso, B A; Sales, J; Lupele, J; Freeman, M C

    2016-08-01

    As part of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in low-income settings, it is frequently assumed that pupils can disseminate information and catalyze change at home, yet this assumption has not been rigorously assessed. We employed qualitative research methods in two phases to assess the potential for children to be change agents in five schools in rural Zambia. Phase 1 included role-play and focus group discussions among pupils on their percieved ability to serve as change agents. Children were then given 'homework' that included information on health messages and on how to build a handwashing station, and were encouraged to engage their family. In Phase 2, we conducted separate focus group discussions with pupils and mothers on their experiences with the 'homework'. We found that, in general, pupils were enthusiastic about engaging with parents-typically male heads of household-and were successful at constructing handwashing stations. Mothers reported high levels of trust in children to relay health information learned at school. Pupils were able to enact small changes to behavior, but not larger infrastructure changes, such as construction of latrines. Pupils are capable of communicating knowledge and behaviors to family members; however, discrete activities and guidance is required. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Assessing “First Mile” Supply Chain Factors Affecting Timeliness of School-Based Deworming Interventions: Supply and Logistics Performance Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koporc, Kimberly M.; Strunz, Eric; Holloway, Cassandra; Addiss, David G.; Lin, William

    2015-01-01

    Background Between 2007 and 2012, Children Without Worms (CWW) oversaw the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) donation of Vermox (mebendazole) for treatment of school-age children to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). To identify factors associated with on-time, delayed, or missed mass drug administration (MDA) interventions, and explore possible indicators for supply chain performance for drug donation programs, we reviewed program data for the 14 STH-endemic countries CWW supported during 2007–2012. Methodology Data from drug applications, shipping records, and annual treatment reports were tracked using Microsoft Excel. Qualitative data from interviews with key personnel were used to provide additional context on the causes of delayed or missed MDAs. Four possible contributory factors to delayed or missed MDAs were considered: production, shipping, customs clearance, and miscellaneous in-country issues. Coverage rates were calculated by dividing the number of treatments administered by the number of children targeted during the MDA. Principal Findings Of the approved requests for 78 MDAs, 54 MDAs (69%) were successfully implemented during or before the scheduled month. Ten MDAs (13%) were classified as delayed; seven of these were delayed by one month or less. An additional 14 MDAs (18%) were classified as missed. For the 64 on-time or delayed MDAs, the mean coverage was approximately 88%. Conclusions and Significance To continue to assess the supply chain processes and identify areas for improvement, we identified four indicators or metrics for supply chain performance that can be applied across all neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug donation programs: (1) donor having available inventory to satisfy the country request for donation; (2) donor shipping the approved number of doses; (3) shipment arriving at the Central Medical Stores one month in advance of the scheduled MDA date; and (4) country programs implementing the MDA as scheduled. PMID:26657842

  13. An Exploration of the Role of Occupation in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jeryl DiSanti

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…

  14. A school-based intervention incorporating smartphone technology to improve health-related fitness among adolescents: rationale and study protocol for the NEAT and ATLAS 2.0 cluster randomised controlled trial and dissemination study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Peralta, Louisa R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Eather, Narelle; Dewar, Deborah L; Kennedy, Sarah; Lonsdale, Chris; Hilland, Toni A; Estabrooks, Paul; Finn, Tara L; Pollock, Emma; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic. Interventions aimed at developing skills in lifelong physical activities may provide the foundation for an active lifestyle into adulthood. In general, school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have produced modest results and few have been designed to be ‘scaled-up’ and disseminated. This study aims to: (1) assess the effectiveness of two physical activity promotion programmes (ie, NEAT and ATLAS) that have been modified for scalability; and (2) evaluate the dissemination of these programmes throughout government funded secondary schools. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in two phases. In the first phase (cluster randomised controlled trial), 16 schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention or a usual care control condition. In the second phase, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (Re-AIM) framework will be used to guide the design and evaluation of programme dissemination throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In both phases, teachers will be trained to deliver the NEAT and ATLAS programmes, which will include: (1) interactive student seminars; (2) structured physical activity programmes; (3) lunch-time fitness sessions; and (4) web-based smartphone apps. In the cluster RCT, study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end point) and 12-months. Muscular fitness will be the primary outcome and secondary outcomes will include: objectively measured body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, resistance training skill competency, physical activity, self-reported recreational screen-time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverage and junk food snack consumption, self-esteem and well-being. Ethics and dissemination This study has received approval from the University of Newcastle (H-2014-0312) and the NSW Department of Education (SERAP: 2012121) human research ethics committees. This

  15. Loneliness and Students with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms: Self-Perceptions, Coping Strategies, and Preferred Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavri, Shireen; Monda-Amaya, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Twenty students with learning disabilities in inclusive fourth and fifth grades were interviewed to determine their experience with school-related loneliness and coping strategies. Most students felt lonely at school when they were bored or lacked a companion and coped by engaging in a solitary activity or seeking companionship. (Contains…

  16. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of a self-directed coping skills intervention for couples facing prostate cancer: Rationale and design

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert Sylvie D; Girgis Afaf; Turner Jane; McElduff Patrick; Kayser Karen; Vallentine Paula

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although it is known both patients’ and partners’ reactions to a prostate cancer diagnosis include fear, uncertainty, anxiety and depression with patients’ partners’ reactions mutually determining how they cope with and adjust to the illness, few psychosocial interventions target couples. Those that are available tend to be led by highly trained professionals, limiting their accessibility and long-term sustainability. In addition, it is recognised that patients who might b...

  17. The impact of a self-administered coping intervention on emotional well-being in women awaiting the outcome of IVF treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockhuijsen, Henrietta; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Eijkemans, Marinus; Macklon, Nick; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-07-01

    What is the effect of the positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI) on anxiety in women awaiting the outcome of an IVF/ICSI cycle? Women reported significantly more anxiety during the waiting period than before treatment, but the use of the PRCI did not significantly reduce anxiety during the waiting period. Waiting for the outcome of IVF/ICSI treatment after embryo transfer is one of the most stressful periods of fertility treatments. At present, no evidence-based coping interventions are available to assist women though this waiting period. The PRCI has been designed to address this unmet need by promoting positive reappraisal coping. A three-armed randomized controlled trail (RCT) was designed to evaluate the PRCI in women undergoing IVF/ICSI. Data were collected between October 2010 and June 2012. A total of 377 participants were randomized to receive either the PRCI and emotional monitoring, emotional monitoring only, or routine care. Only the PRCI-monitoring group received the coping intervention, comprising an explanatory leaflet and ten statements to be read at least once in the morning and once in the evening. To capture the general impact of the PRCI, all three groups completed questionnaires at three time points: just before the waiting period (time 1: stimulation phase), on Day 10 of the 14-day waiting period (time 2: waiting period) and 6 weeks after the start of the waiting period (time 3: 6-week follow-up). In addition, to capture the specific impacts of the PRCI on the days of the waiting period, the PRCI-monitoring group and the monitoring-control group also rated their emotions and reactions daily, for the 14-day waiting period. Of the women who agreed to participate and who met eligibility criteria, 377 were randomized. All study participants reported significantly more anxiety and depression during the waiting period than before treatment (P emotions during the waiting period. However, patients randomized to the PRCI reported significantly

  18. School-Based Anxiety Treatments for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig-Anderson, Kathleen; Colognori, Daniela; Fox, Jeremy K.; Stewart, Catherine E.; Warner, Carrie Masia

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY School-based empirically supported treatments for anxiety disorders are a promising avenue for providing necessary intervention to distressed youth who would otherwise never receive treatment. Sustaining such programs in school settings should be viewed as a multiple-stage process, from integration of the program into the institution and maintenance of the intervention to responding to institutional change and ownership of the program by the school.51 Given the scarce resources available to schools, additional research on embedding programs into the school culture and maximizing existing resources is essential to enhancing the sustainability of school-based interventions for anxiety disorders and reaching youth in need. PMID:22801000

  19. A school-based intervention incorporating smartphone technology to improve health-related fitness among adolescents: rationale and study protocol for the NEAT and ATLAS 2.0 cluster randomised controlled trial and dissemination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Peralta, Louisa R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Eather, Narelle; Dewar, Deborah L; Kennedy, Sarah; Lonsdale, Chris; Hilland, Toni A; Estabrooks, Paul; Finn, Tara L; Pollock, Emma; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-06-27

    Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic. Interventions aimed at developing skills in lifelong physical activities may provide the foundation for an active lifestyle into adulthood. In general, school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have produced modest results and few have been designed to be 'scaled-up' and disseminated. This study aims to: (1) assess the effectiveness of two physical activity promotion programmes (ie, NEAT and ATLAS) that have been modified for scalability; and (2) evaluate the dissemination of these programmes throughout government funded secondary schools. The study will be conducted in two phases. In the first phase (cluster randomised controlled trial), 16 schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention or a usual care control condition. In the second phase, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (Re-AIM) framework will be used to guide the design and evaluation of programme dissemination throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In both phases, teachers will be trained to deliver the NEAT and ATLAS programmes, which will include: (1) interactive student seminars; (2) structured physical activity programmes; (3) lunch-time fitness sessions; and (4) web-based smartphone apps. In the cluster RCT, study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end point) and 12-months. Muscular fitness will be the primary outcome and secondary outcomes will include: objectively measured body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, resistance training skill competency, physical activity, self-reported recreational screen-time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverage and junk food snack consumption, self-esteem and well-being. This study has received approval from the University of Newcastle (H-2014-0312) and the NSW Department of Education (SERAP: 2012121) human research ethics committees. This study is funded by the Australian Research Council (FT

  20. "I was in the darkness but the group brought me light": Development, relevance and feasibility of the Sondela HIV adjustment and coping intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwabisa Shai

    Full Text Available Developing interventions that address psychosocial wellbeing of people living with HIV is critical to ensure strong linkages to and retention in HIV care. This paper describes the development of Sondela, an HIV adjustment and coping intervention for heterosexual men and women living with HIV, and its relevance and feasibility in the South African context. Sondela is a six three-hour, small group-based, participatory workshop series. We followed an iterative, multi-phased process of curriculum development that involved research, theoretical frameworks and piloting. A systematic review highlighted the absence of psychosocial interventions targeting heterosexual HIV positive populations living in high HIV prevalence and resource-poor settings. Formative studies demonstrated risk and social factors associated with adjustment and coping with HIV, emphasising the need for interventions that acknowledge gendered experiences. Our pilot of Sondela demonstrated high levels of relevance and feasibility. Men appreciated the workshop "space" to openly talk about their HIV positive status and what is means for their role as partners and fathers and friends. Women valued the skills and approaches because they were relevant to "real life" situations and not just about HIV. Sondela promises to be valuable in supporting health system initiatives and psychosocial support to strengthen linkages to and retention in HIV care, and this suggests a need for rigorous evaluation of Sondela to establish evidence for its effectiveness in a general population.

  1. Assessing the outcomes of school-based partnership resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on the outcomes of educational psychology school-based intervention. The aim was to determine whether the intervention served as an educational pathway to resilience. Through a concurrent mixed-methods research design interpreted through a pragmatic lens, academic school performance of ...

  2. Impact of intensive school-based nutrition education and lifestyle interventions on insulin resistance, β-cell function, disposition index, and subclinical inflammation among Asian Indian adolescents: a controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Neha; Misra, Anoop; Shah, Priyali; Gulati, Seema; Bhatt, Suryaprakash; Sharma, Suresh; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2011-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess the impact of intensive and repetitive nutrition education and lifestyle interventions on insulin resistance, β-cell function, disposition index (DI), and subclinical inflammation in Asian Indian adolescents (15-17 years) residing in North India. In this prospective study, two matched schools were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 56; 31 boys and 25 girls) or control group (n = 50; 30 boys and 20 girls). The intervention consisted of seven components: (1) Dissemination of health-related information through lectures and focused group discussions, (2) planning of activities such as quizzes, (3) individual counseling of students, (4) promotion of physical activity, (5) change in the canteen menu to healthier alternatives, (6) conducting health camps involving parents and teachers, and (7) training of student volunteers for sustainability of the program in school. Impact of intervention was studied on surrogate markers of insulin resistance, β-cell function, disposition index, and subclinical inflammation. At 6 months follow-up, significantly higher (P = 0.037) mean value of homeostasis model assessment denoting β-cell function (HOMA-βCF) was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group, whereas high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was significantly lowered (P < 0.001). The increase (30.3 ± 73.4; P < 0.037) observed in the DI in adolescents in the intervention group was significantly higher compared to the control group. The Pearson's coefficient of correlation in the intervention group showed that the Δ-decrease in mean waist circumference was significantly correlated (r = 0.267, P < 0.05) with Δ-decrease in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The interventi