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Sample records for school-aged youth results

  1. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  2. Bullying Victimization Among School-Aged Immigrant Youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R; Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Bullying is a serious sociodevelopmental issue associated with a range of short- and long-term problems among youth who are bullied. Although race and ethnicity have been studied, less attention has been paid to examining prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Using data from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (N = 12,098), we examined prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among U.S. immigrant youth. After controlling for several demographic variables, findings indicate that immigrant youth are more likely to experience bullying victimization than native-born youth. Furthermore, immigrant youth who experience bullying victimization were more likely to report interpersonal, socioemotional, health, and substance use problems. Given the greater risk and unique challenges experienced by immigrant youth, prevention and intervention programs may need to be tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Further research is needed to understand the specific factors and mechanisms involved in bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School-Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Becker, Kirsten M; Shadel, William G; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth's exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles-area youth ages 11-14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school-age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth.

  4. Does psychotherapy work with school-aged youth? A meta-analytic examination of moderator variables that influence therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Alicia L; Ahn, Soyeon; Reese, Robert J; Suarez, Marietta M; Macquoid, Ahjane; Davis, Matthew C; Prout, H Thompson

    2016-06-01

    The present study is a quantitative synthesis of the available literature to investigate the efficacy of psychotherapy for children's mental health outcomes. In particular, this study focuses on potential moderating variables-study design, treatment, client, and therapist characteristics-that may influence therapeutic outcomes for youth but have not been thoroughly accounted for in prior meta-analytic studies. An electronic search of relevant databases resulted in 190 unpublished and published studies that met criteria for inclusion in the analysis. Effect sizes differed by study design. Pre-post-test designs resulted in absolute magnitudes of treatment effects ranging from |-0.02| to |-0.76| while treatment versus control group comparison designs resulted in absolute magnitudes of treatment effects ranging from |-0.14| to |-2.39|. Changes in youth outcomes larger than 20% were found, irrespective of study design, for outcomes focused on psychosomatization (29% reduction), school attendance (25% increase), and stress (48% reduction). The magnitude of changes after psychotherapy ranged from 6% (externalizing problems) to 48% (stress). Several moderator variables significantly influenced psychotherapy treatment effect sizes, including frequency and length of treatment as well as treatment format. However, results did not support the superiority of a single type of intervention for most outcomes. Implications for therapy with school-aged youth and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet, Physical Activity, and Obesity in School-Aged Indigenous Youths in Northern Australia

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    Patricia C. Valery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake (“short nutrition questionnaire” were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food (“fast food” at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.43–4.40, though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P<0.001. Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07–3.35 more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity.

  6. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

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    Goldfield Gary

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement. 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01 indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2

  7. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth

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    Janssen Ian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose was to: 1 perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between physical activity, fitness, and health in school-aged children and youth, and 2 make recommendations based on the findings. Methods The systematic review was limited to 7 health indicators: high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, the metabolic syndrome, obesity, low bone density, depression, and injuries. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key databases. A total of 11,088 potential papers were identified. The abstracts and full-text articles of potentially relevant papers were screened to determine eligibility. Data was abstracted for 113 outcomes from the 86 eligible papers. The evidence was graded for each health outcome using established criteria based on the quantity and quality of studies and strength of effect. The volume, intensity, and type of physical activity were considered. Results Physical activity was associated with numerous health benefits. The dose-response relations observed in observational studies indicate that the more physical activity, the greater the health benefit. Results from experimental studies indicate that even modest amounts of physical activity can have health benefits in high-risk youngsters (e.g., obese. To achieve substantive health benefits, the physical activity should be of at least a moderate intensity. Vigorous intensity activities may provide even greater benefit. Aerobic-based activities had the greatest health benefit, other than for bone health, in which case high-impact weight bearing activities were required. Conclusion The following recommendations were made: 1 Children and youth 5-17 years of age should accumulate an average of at least 60 minutes per day and up to several hours of at least moderate intensity physical activity. Some of the health benefits can be achieved through an average of 30 minutes per day. [Level 2, Grade A]. 2 More vigorous

  8. The outcome of institutional youth care compared to non-institutional youth care for children of primary school age and early adolescence : A multi-level meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbosch, E.L.L.; Huijs, J.A.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Wissink, I.B.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; de Swart, J.J.W.; van der Veen, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The outcome of institutional youth care for children is heavily debated. This multilevel meta-analysis aims to address the outcome of institutional youth care compared to non-institutional youth care for children of primary school age and early adolescence in economically developed

  9. Evidence of an Overweight/Obesity Transition among School-Aged Children and Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Francis, Claire E.; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M.; LeBlanc, Allana G.; Sampson, Margaret; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased considerably in recent years. The transition to higher rates of overweight/obesity has been well documented in high income countries; however, consistent or representative data from lower income countries is scarce. It is therefore pertinent to assess if rates of overweight/obesity are also increasing in lower income countries, to inform public health efforts. Objective This systematic review aimed to investigate the evidence for an overweight/obesity transition occurring in school-aged children and youth in Sub Saharan Africa. Methods Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Africa Index Medicus, Global Health, Geobase, and EPPI-Centre electronic databases. Studies that used subjective or objective metrics to assess body composition in apparently healthy or population-based samples of children and youth aged 5 to 17 years were included. Results A total of 283 articles met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 68 were used for quantitative synthesis. The four regions (West, Central, East, and South) of Sub Saharan Africa were well represented, though only 11 (3.9%) studies were nationally representative. Quantitative synthesis revealed a trend towards increasing proportions of overweight/obesity over time in school-aged children in this region, as well as a persistent problem of underweight. Weighted averages of overweight/obesity and obesity for the entire time period captured were 10.6% and 2.5% respectively. Body composition measures were found to be higher in girls than boys, and higher in urban living and higher socioeconomic status children compared to rural populations or those of lower socioeconomic status. Conclusions This review provides evidence for an overweight/obesity transition in school-aged children in Sub Saharan Africa. The findings of this review serve to describe the region with respect to the growing concern of childhood overweight/obesity, highlight research

  10. Interventions Using Regular Activities to Engage High-Risk School-Age Youth: a Review of After-School Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, I review an issue that is an urgent challenge in the development field-the effectiveness of after-school programs for preventing school-age youth violence in vulnerable settings in Latin American and the Caribbean. These programs have proliferated in the region and include sports, recreation, music, tutoring, and other focused activities. Given their popularity and because they target known risk factors for violence (such as drop-out from school, poor academic performance, lack of motivation, too much idle time, low quality and quantity of adult supervision, and social isolation), it is critical to examine empirically whether they can be effective prevention strategies. Unfortunately, most rigorous trials of after-school interventions to prevent youth violence have been conducted in developed countries, with far fewer in Latin America. In this review, a broad range of databases was searched systematically. Only six studies in five Latin American and Caribbean countries were identified. Reported results indicate at least some benefits for youth behavior, although not across all youth. Additional concerns regarding how these programs are implemented and whether specific components can be tied to violence prevention are noted. The need for more rigorous evaluation of these programs is noted.

  11. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

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    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  12. Suicidal behaviour and related risk factors among school-aged youth in the Republic of Benin.

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    Jason R Randall

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS: The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence.

  13. Characteristics of sports and recreation-related emergency department visits among school-age children and youth in North Carolina, 2010-2014.

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    Harmon, Katherine J; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Richardson, David B; Waller, Anna E; Marshall, Stephen W

    2018-05-15

    Sports and recreational activities are an important cause of injury among children and youth, with sports-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) being of particular concern given the developing brain. This paper reports the characteristics of sport and recreation-related (SR) emergency department (ED) visits among school-age children and youth in a statewide population. This study included all injury-related visits made to all North Carolina 24/7 acute-care civilian hospital-affiliated EDs by school-age youth, 5-18 years of age, during 2010-2014 (N = 918,662). Population estimates were based on US decennial census data. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate incidence rates and rate ratios. During the five-year period, there were 767,075 unintentional injury-related ED visits among school-age youth, of which 213,518 (27.8%) were identified as SR injuries. The average annual absolute number and incidence rate (IR) of SR ED visits among school-age youth was 42,704 and 2374.5 ED visits per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2364.4-2384.6), respectively. In comparison to other unintentional injuries among school-age youth, SR ED visits were more likely to be diagnosed with an injury to the upper extremity (Injury Proportion Ratio [IPR] = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.27-1.29), the lower extremity (IPR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.13-1.15), and a TBI or other head/neck/facial injury (IPR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.11-1.13). Among ED visits made by school-age youth, the leading cause of SR injury was sports/athletics played as a group or team. The leading cause of team sports/athletics injury was American tackle football among boys and soccer among girls. The proportion of ED visits diagnosed with a TBI varied by age and sex, with 15-18 year-olds and boys having the highest population-based rates. Sports and recreational activities are an important component of a healthy lifestyle, but they are also a major source of injury morbidity among school-age youth

  14. Youth WAVE Screener: addressing weight-related behaviors with school-age children.

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    Isasi, Carmen R; Soroudi, Nafisseh; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using the youth Weight, Activity, Variety, and Excess (WAVE) screener in a classroom setting for assessing student weight control intentions and the extent to which they used the WAVE strategies to control their weight. The Youth WAVE Screener was administered to fifth-grade students in an inner-city school located in the Bronx, New York. The study was conducted in part to increase student awareness of snack foods and sugary beverages in relation to weight. Of the 169 students who completed the survey, 45.5% (n = 77) were trying to lose weight. Students who were trying to lose weight were more likely to have low-fat dairy products, less likely to have sugary beverages, and less likely to eat junk foods than those who were not trying to lose weight. Students who reported exercising 3 times weekly were more likely to report healthier dietary patterns and less sedentary behaviors than were students who exercise less often. Feedback and dialogue with fifth graders addressed the relationship between TV viewing and eating behavior, advertisement, availability, and preferences of fruits and vegetables. The Youth WAVE Screener can be used to quickly identify children who are concerned about their weight as well as those with dietary and physical activity patterns that may increase the risk of obesity. Diabetes educators can use this screener to start a dialogue with children about their weight-related behaviors.

  15. The Association of Screen Time, Television in the Bedroom, and Obesity among School-Aged Youth: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health

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    Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Methods: Using 2007 National Survey of…

  16. Who attends recovery high schools after substance use treatment? A descriptive analysis of school aged youth.

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    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Finch, Andrew J; Hennessy, Emily A; Moberg, D Paul

    2018-06-01

    Recovery high schools (RHSs) are an alternative high school option for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs), designed to provide a recovery-focused learning environment. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of youth who choose to attend RHSs, and to compare them with local and national comparison samples of youth in recovery from SUDs who were not enrolled in RHSs. We conducted secondary analysis of existing data to compare characteristics of youth in three samples: (1) adolescents with SUDs who enrolled in RHSs in Minnesota, Texas, and Wisconsin after discharge from treatment (RHSs; n = 171, 51% male, 86% White, 4% African American, 5% Hispanic); (2) a contemporaneously recruited local comparison sample of students with SUDs who did not enroll in RHSs (n = 123, 60% male, 77% White, 5% African American, 12% Hispanic); and (3) a national comparison sample of U.S. adolescents receiving SUD treatment (n = 12,967, 73% male, 37% White, 15% African American, 30% Hispanic). Students enrolled in RHSs had elevated levels of risk factors for substance use and relapse relative to both the local and national comparison samples. For instance, RHS students reported higher rates of pre-treatment drug use, past mental health treatment, and higher rates of post-treatment physical health problems than adolescents in the national comparison sample. We conclude that RHSs serve a population with greater co-occurring problem severity than the typical adolescent in SUD treatment; programming offered at RHSs should attend to these complex patterns of risk factors. SUD service delivery policy should consider RHSs as an intensive recovery support model for the most high-risk students with SUDs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Support for comprehensive sexuality education: perspectives from parents of school-age youth.

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    Eisenberg, Marla E; Bernat, Debra H; Bearinger, Linda H; Resnick, Michael D

    2008-04-01

    Controversy about school-based sexuality education in public schools has continued over the past decade, despite mounting evidence that comprehensive sexuality education effectively promotes sexual health and that parents support these programs in public schools. The present study replicates and expands upon previous findings regarding public views on school-based sexuality education. One thousand six hundred five parents of school-age children in Minnesota responded to telephone surveys in 2006-2007 (63% participation rate), including items regarding general sexuality education, 12 specific topics, the grade level at which each should be taught, and attitudes toward sexuality education. The large majority of parents supported teaching about both abstinence and contraception (comprehensive sexuality education [CSE]; 89.3%), and support was high across all demographic categories of parents. All specific sexuality education topics received majority support (63.4%-98.6%), even those often viewed as controversial. Parents believed most topics should first be taught during the middle school years. Parents held slightly more favorable views on the effectiveness of CSE compared to abstinence-only education, and these views were strongly associated with support for CSE (odds ratio [OR](CSE) = 14.3; OR(abstinence) = 0.11). This study highlights a mismatch between parents' expressed opinions and preferences, and actual sexuality education content as currently taught in the majority of public schools. In light of broad parental support for education that emphasizes multiple strategies for prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (including abstinence), parents should be encouraged to express their opinions on sexuality education to teachers, administrators, and school boards regarding the importance of including a variety of topics and beginning instruction during middle school years or earlier.

  18. Factors associated with school nurses' HPV vaccine attitudes for school-aged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L; DiClemente, Ralph; Shepard, Allie L; Wilson, Kelly L; Fehr, Sara K

    2017-06-01

    School nurses are at the intersection of the healthcare and school communities, thus, they can be considered opinion leaders in providing health advice - including information about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine - to parents and students. This study examined school nurses' attitudes toward the HPV vaccine based on age, years as a school nurse, geographic location, urban vs. rural work setting, HPV and vaccine knowledge, perception of role as opinion leaders, and school district support in providing health education. Participants (n = 413) were systematically sampled from the National Association of School Nurses' membership and completed a web-based survey. Multiple regression was used to predict positive HPV vaccine attitudes. The model was statistically significant accounting for 50.8% of the variance (F [9, 400] = 45.96, p school nurses' positive attitudes towards HPV vaccine. Despite school nurses being seen as champions for adolescent vaccines, they need additional professional development to increase their HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes to encourage parents and adolescents to consider the uptake of HPV vaccination. To engage school nurses' in promoting HPV vaccine uptake, interventions need to focus on increasing school nurses' perception of their role as opinion leaders for HPV vaccine and knowledge to increase positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination for youth.

  19. Associations Between Physical and Relational Forms of Peer Aggression and Victimization and Risk for Substance Use Among Elementary School-Age Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Cooley, John L.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Pederson, Casey A.; Vernberg, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between physical and relational forms of aggression and victimization and risk for willingness to engage in substance use and actual use in a sample of 231 (50% Male) 2nd thru 4th grade students (Mean age = 8.3 years). Physical aggression was more strongly associated with risk for substance use outcomes than physical victimization. Neither relational aggression nor victimization were linked to risk for substance use. Specifically targeting physical aggression for the prevention of early substance use among elementary school-age youth appears to be warranted. PMID:26702250

  20. The association of screen time, television in the bedroom, and obesity among school-aged youth: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-08-01

    Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Using 2007 National Survey of Children's Health data, we used multivariable logistic regression to identify sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with excessive screen time among 6 to 11- and 12 to 17-year-olds on a typical weekday. For 12 to 17-year-olds only, we used logistic regression to examine the odds of obesity using the same variables as above, with the addition of screen time. Overall, 20.8% of 6 to 11-year-olds and 26.1% of 12 to 17-year-olds had excessive screen time. For both age groups, having a bedroom TV was significantly associated with excessive screen time. For the older age group, the dual scenario of excessive screen time with a bedroom TV had the strongest association with obesity (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.9, 3.2). Given the similar risk factors for excess screen time and having a TV in the bedroom, a public health challenge exists to design interventions to reduce screen time among school-aged youth. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Evidence of an overweight/obesity transition among school-aged children and youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

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    Stella K Muthuri

    Full Text Available Prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased considerably in recent years. The transition to higher rates of overweight/obesity has been well documented in high income countries; however, consistent or representative data from lower income countries is scarce. It is therefore pertinent to assess if rates of overweight/obesity are also increasing in lower income countries, to inform public health efforts.This systematic review aimed to investigate the evidence for an overweight/obesity transition occurring in school-aged children and youth in Sub Saharan Africa.Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Africa Index Medicus, Global Health, Geobase, and EPPI-Centre electronic databases. Studies that used subjective or objective metrics to assess body composition in apparently healthy or population-based samples of children and youth aged 5 to 17 years were included.A total of 283 articles met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 68 were used for quantitative synthesis. The four regions (West, Central, East, and South of Sub Saharan Africa were well represented, though only 11 (3.9% studies were nationally representative. Quantitative synthesis revealed a trend towards increasing proportions of overweight/obesity over time in school-aged children in this region, as well as a persistent problem of underweight. Weighted averages of overweight/obesity and obesity for the entire time period captured were 10.6% and 2.5% respectively. Body composition measures were found to be higher in girls than boys, and higher in urban living and higher socioeconomic status children compared to rural populations or those of lower socioeconomic status.This review provides evidence for an overweight/obesity transition in school-aged children in Sub Saharan Africa. The findings of this review serve to describe the region with respect to the growing concern of childhood overweight/obesity, highlight research gaps, and inform interventions

  2. The prevalence of obesity among school-aged children and youth aged 6-18 years in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis study

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    Salman Khazaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is considered as a major health problem of children and adolescents. The present meta-analysis was conducted by extensive search of studies on the prevalence of obesity among school-aged children and youth aged 6-18 years in Iran. METHODS: All conducted cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of obesity in Iranian students in all grades were extracted, without applying any restriction on time in national and international databases including Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Scopus, Google Scholar, and PubMed. Statistical software Stata 12 was used to analyze the data and to obtain the prevalence of obesity among Iranian students. The heterogeneity between the results was determined using statistical test I2. RESULTS: In this meta-analysis, 51 papers met our inclusion criteria and were therefore considered for the analysis. The prevalence of obesity was equal to 5.82% [95% confidence interval (CI: 5-6.66] in Iranian students. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than in girls (6.85% compared to 5.13% (P = 0.300. The highest prevalence of obesity was related to students living in the North and Northwest areas with 7.07% (95% CI: 4.35-9.78. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obesity among Iranian students is not high when compared to Western countries. However, due to lifestyle changes in recent years, it is necessary to plan intervention programs within families and schools to improve dietary patterns and physical activity of this age group.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA

  3. Physical activity among Chinese school-aged children: National prevalence estimates from the 2016 Physical Activity and Fitness in China—The Youth Study

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    Xiang Fan

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Overall, the average MVPA minutes per day among Chinese school-aged children is low, and less than one-third of them meet MVPA recommendations. These results were most evident among junior middle and junior high school children and those living rural areas.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among school-aged youth with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Aimé, Annie; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Morin, Alexandre J S; Normand, Claude L

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature reviews show that bullying perpetration and victimization are major public health concerns for typically developing (TD) youth. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this phenomenon among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the empirical studies examining the prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among youth with ID. A systematic literature search was performed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies showed weighted mean prevalence rates of general bullying perpetration, bullying victimization and both of 15.1%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively. Weighted mean prevalence rates of bullying perpetration and victimization differed according to the characteristics of the studies (e.g., assessment context, school setting, information source, type of measures, time frame). Additionally, high weighted mean prevalence rates of physical (33.3%), verbal (50.2%), relational (37.4%), and cyber (38.3%) victimization were found among youth with ID. When youth with ID were compared to youth with other disabilities or TD peers, no clear differences were found. Finally, the present review shows that correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization in this population remain understudied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High School-Aged Youths' Attitudes toward Their Peers with Disabilities: The Role of School and Student Interpersonal Factors

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    McDougall, Janette; DeWit, David J.; King, Gillian; Miller, Linda T.; Killip, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Negative peer attitudes are generally recognised as being a major barrier to full social inclusion at school for children and youth with disabilities. The present study examined the attitudes of 1,872 grade nine high school students in Ontario, Canada toward their peers with disabilities. A bioecological perspective and a structural equation…

  6. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

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    Hernández Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.

  7. DNA Methylation at the DAT Promoter and Risk for Psychopathology: Intergenerational Transmission between School-Age Youths and Their Parents in a Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cimino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe effect of gene polymorphisms and promoter methylation, associated with maladaptive developmental outcomes, vary depending on environmental factors (e.g., parental psychopathology. Most studies have focused on 0- to 5-year-old children, adolescents, or adults, whereas there is dearth of research on school-age youths and pre-adolescents.MethodsIn a sample of 21 families recruited at schools, we addressed parents’ psychopathological symptoms (through SCL-90-R; offspring emotional–behavioral functioning (through CBCL-6–18; dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 for epigenetic status of the 5′-untranslated region (UTR and for genotype, i.e., variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism at the 3′-UTR. Possible associations were explored between bio-genetic and psychological characteristics within the same individual and between triplets of children, mothers, and fathers.ResultsDAT methylation of CpG at positions M1, M6, and M7 in mothers was correlated with maternal (phobic anxiety, whereas in fathers’ position M6 was related to paternal depression, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism, and higher Global Severity Index (GSI. No significant correlations were found between maternal and offspring DAT methylation. Significant correlations were found between fathers’ methylation at CpG M1 and children’s methylation at CpG M6. Linear regressions showed that mothers and fathers’ GSI predicted children’s methylation at CpG sites M2, M3, and M6, whereas fathers’ GSI predicted children’s methylation at CpG sites, particularly M1, M2, and M6. Moreover, offspring methylation of DAT at CpG M2 predicted somatic complaint, internalizing and attention problems; methylation of DAT at CpG M6 predicted withdraw.ConclusionThis study may have important clinical implication for the prevention and treatment of emotional–behavioral difficulties in children, as it adds to previous knowledge about the role of genetic and environmental factors in

  8. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  9. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Hunter, Stephen; Kuzik, Nicholas; Gray, Casey E; Poitras, Veronica J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Saunders, Travis J; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Okely, Anthony D; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Lee, Helena; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review is an update examining the relationships between objectively and subjectively measured sedentary behaviour and health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Medline were searched in December 2014, and date limits were imposed (≥February 2010). Included studies were peer-reviewed and met the a priori-determined population (apparently healthy children and youth, mean age: 5-17 years), intervention (durations, patterns, and types of sedentary behaviours), comparator (various durations, patterns, and types of sedentary behaviours), and outcome (critical: body composition, metabolic syndrome/cardiovascular disease risk factors, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, academic achievement; important: fitness, self-esteem) study criteria. Quality of evidence by outcome was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. Due to heterogeneity, a narrative analysis was conducted. A total of 235 studies (194 unique samples) were included representing 1 657 064 unique participants from 71 different countries. Higher durations/frequencies of screen time and television (TV) viewing were associated with unfavourable body composition. Higher duration/frequency of TV viewing was also associated with higher clustered cardiometabolic risk scores. Higher durations of TV viewing and video game use were associated with unfavourable behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour. Higher durations of reading and doing homework were associated with higher academic achievement. Higher duration of screen time was associated with lower fitness. Higher durations of screen time and computer use were associated with lower self-esteem. Evidence ranged from "very low" to "moderate" quality. Higher quality studies using reliable and valid sedentary behaviour measures should confirm this largely observational evidence.

  10. Peer-led nutrition education programs for school-aged youth: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Calvin; Gates, Michelle; Gates, Allison; Hanning, Rhona M

    2016-02-01

    To date, the impacts of school-based, peer-led nutrition education initiatives have not been summarized or assessed collectively. This review presents the current evidence, identifies knowledge gaps, and provides recommendations for future research. PubMed, Scopus, ERIC and Google Scholar were searched for refereed Canadian and American primary studies published between January 2000 and November 2013, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Seventeen articles (11 programs) from Canada (24%) and the United States (76%) were identified. The results were summarized in terms of the study population, program design and main outcomes. Common outcome measures included healthy eating knowledge (n = 5), self-efficacy or attitudes towards healthy eating (n = 13), dietary measures (n = 9) and body mass index (n = 4), all of which tended to improve as a result of the programs. More research is needed to ascertain the effect of improvements in knowledge, self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating on food behaviors. When evaluated, programs were generally well received, while the long-term maintenance of positive impacts was a challenge. Studies of sustainability and feasibility to promote long-term impact are a logical next step. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Prevalence of physical fitness in Chinese school-aged children: Findings from the 2016 Physical Activity and Fitness in China—The Youth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In the Chinese school-aged population, about 3 in 10 children achieved an “excellent” or “good” fitness standard in 2016, and about 8% of this population did not meet CNSPFS standards. Children living in urban areas were more likely to not meet minimum fitness performance levels, and boys in school were more likely to not meet minimum fitness performance levels than girls.

  12. Overweight in school-aged children and its relationship with demographic and lifestyle factors: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, E; Rasmussen, Mette; Samdal, O

    2009-01-01

    samples in 41 countries (n=204,534). RESULTS: Overweight prevalence was highest in USA (28.8 %) and lowest in Latvia (7.6 %). In most countries, overweight was more prevalent in boys than girls. Overweight was consistently negatively associated with breakfast consumption and moderate to vigorous physical......OBJECTIVES: To examine overweight prevalence and its association with demographic and lifestyle factors in 11-15 year olds in the HBSC 2005-2006 survey. METHODS: Self-reports of height, weight, eating patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviours were obtained from nationally representative...... activity; OR range: 0.48-0.79 and 0.50-0.78, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overweight prevalence in youth remained high across the countries examined. The primary factors linked to overweight were breakfast consumption and physical activity. These data should contribute to formulating preventive programs...

  13. A simple method for identification of misreporting of energy intake from infancy to school age: Results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Delphina; Luque, Veronica; Xhonneux, Annick; Verduci, Elvira; Socha, Piotr; Koletzko, Berthold; Berger, Ursula; Grote, Veit

    2017-06-01

    Misreporting is a major source of reporting bias in nutritional surveys. It can affect the analysis of associations between diet and disease. Although various methods have been proposed to identify misreporting, their application to infants and young children is difficult. We identify misreporting of energy intake in infants and young children and propose a simplified approach. 1199 children were enrolled in the Childhood Obesity Programme (CHOP) based in 5 European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain) with repeated measurements of 3-day weighed food protocol and anthropometric indices at 10 time points between ages 1-96 months. Individual cut-offs for the ratio of reported energy intake and estimated energy requirement were calculated to identify misreporters. Misreporting was studied according to age, gender, BMI z-scores and country. We identified a higher proportion of over-reporters (18.9%) as compared to under-reporters (10.6%). The proportion of over-reporting was higher among infants while under-reporting was more prevalent in school-aged children. Under-reporting was higher in boys (12.0%) and in obese/over-weight children (36.3%). Mean values for upper and lower cut-offs for the ratio of reported energy intake and estimated energy requirement in children ≤12 months were 0.80 and 1.20, and 0.75 and 1.25 for children >12 months, respectively. Using these fixed (mean) values, 90.4% (kappa statistic: 0.78) of all misreporters could be identified. Despite intensive measures to obtain habitual intake of children, an essential proportion of nutritional reports were found to be implausible. Both over- and under-reporting should be carefully analysed, even in studies on infants. Fixed cut-offs can be applied to identify misreporting if no individual variation in energy intake can be calculated. This trial was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00338689. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition

  14. Risk factors for obesity among school aged children in western Algeria: results of a study conducted on 293 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Mohamed Abdelhaq; Bereksi-Reguig, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Before a prevention approach, it is essential to make a diagnosis on the problem and its risk factors. We opted for a cross-sectional survey of 293 primary students of Sougueur. The prevalence of overweight including obesity according to IOTF cutoffs was 8.18%. A significant relationship existed between obesity and educational level of parents, level of physical activity; taking a snack and skipping the dinner. Our results seem much lower than published values. We find that excess food intake and light exercise can trigger overweight. In Algeria, it is time to launch programs for good nutritional information and a sufficient physical activity in children.

  15. Results of the population study of the prevalence and risk factors of the food intolerance in children of different school age

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    О. Р. Pakholchuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that allergy is genetically predispose. But gene change takes much time, ages. Some researches have doubts that it occurred during last two decades, but allergic pathology spread increased in several times more and continue to grow. That’s why the cause should be searched in the epigenetic influences (environmental, food, ets.. More than the half of the modern hypothesis concerning allergy spread are associated with food (7 from 13. EAACI data showed that quantity of children with self reported food hypersensitivity and positive provocation test results decrease with age. But specific IgE levels to food showed other pattern: it increases in young school children in two times and decreases in elders. We supposed different pathogenetic mechanisms of food intolerance (FI in school children of different ages. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, risk factors and features of the FI in children of different school age. Materials and methods. 250 children 6-17 years old were included into the study. All of them were citizens from the industrial region of the Zaporizhia city. 217 respondents returned questionnaire. 137 of them undergone physical examination. Questionnaire was created on the base of the ISAAC survey and included questions on the life style, food, early age. For the assessment of the skin symptoms severity SCORAD scale was used. Transepidermal water lost was estimated with humidity meter (Queentone,France. Skin pH metria was performed with pH-meter (Ezodo,Taiwan. Statistical analysis was made with Microsoft Exel, Statistica 6.0 programs. Results and discussion. 217 respondents returned questionnaire (86,8%. 129 (59,4% of them were males, 88 (40,6% - females. 85 of children (38,6% – were pupils from the elementary school (age 6-10 y.o., 82 children (37,7% – from the 5-8 classes (age 10-14 y.o., 50 (23,7% - 10-11 classes (age 15-17 y.o.. More than ½ of the respondents (54,3% had skin food

  16. Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs.

  17. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such a reading disability Stressors, such as bullying Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression If you suspect any of these in your child, talk to your child's teacher or health care provider. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Early school-age children should be able to use simple, ...

  18. The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

  19. Prevalence, Motivations, and Social, Mental Health and Health Consequences of Cyberbullying Among School-Aged Children and Youth: Protocol of a Longitudinal and Multi-Perspective Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInroy, Lauren B; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Bhole, Payal; Van Wert, Melissa; Schwan, Kaitlin; Birze, Arija; Daciuk, Joanne; Beran, Tanya; Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra J; Wiener, Judith; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Johnston, David

    2016-01-01

    Background While the online environment may promote important developmental and social benefits, it also enables the serious and rapidly growing issue of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying constitutes an increasing public health problem – victimized children and youth experience a range of health and mental health concerns, including emotional and psychosomatic problems, maladaptive behaviors, and increased suicidality. Perpetrators demonstrate a lack of empathy, and may also struggle with health and mental health issues. Objective This paper describes the protocols applied in a longitudinal and multi-perspective mixed-methods study with five objectives: (1) to explore children/youth’s experiences, and children/youth’s, parents’, and teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of cyberbullying; (2) to explore how children/youth view the underlying motivations for cyberbullying; (3) to document the shifting prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization, witnessing, and perpetration; (4) to identify risk and protective factors for cyberbullying involvement; and (5) to explore social, mental health, and health consequences of cyberbullying. Methods Quantitative survey data were collected over three years (2012-2014) from a stratified random baseline sample of fourth (n=160), seventh (n=243), and tenth (n=267) grade children/youth, their parents (n=246), and their teachers (n=103). Quantitative data were collected from students and teachers during in-person school visits, and from parents via mail-in surveys. Student, parent, and teacher surveys included questions regarding: student experiences with bullying/cyberbullying; student health, mental health, and social and behavioral issues; socio-demographics; and information and communication technology use. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted twice with a sub-sample of students (n=57), purposively selected based on socio-demographics and cyberbullying experience, twice with

  20. Exploring the utility of cardiorespiratory fitness as a population health surveillance indicator for children and youth: An international analysis of results from the 20-m shuttle run test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Justin J

    2018-02-01

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated the strong link between cardiorespiratory fitness and multiple aspects of health (i.e., physiological, physical, psychosocial, cognitive), independent of physical activity, among school-aged children and youth. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a trait that does not vary substantially from day-to-day, and provides an indication of recent physical activity levels, making it an important possible indicator of population health. Thus, the objective of this dissertation was to investigate the utility of cardiorespiratory fitness, measured using the 20-m shuttle run test, as a broad, holistic health indicator for population health surveillance among children and youth. To achieve this objective we completed 7 manuscripts, all prepared for submission to peer-reviewed, scientific journals: (1) Systematic review of the relationship between 20-m shuttle run performance and health indicators among children and youth. (2) Review of criterion-referenced standards for cardiorespiratory fitness: what percentage of 1 142 026 international children and youth are apparently healthy? (3) Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with physical literacy in a large sample of Canadian children aged 8 to 12 years. (4) International variability in 20-m shuttle run performance in children and youth: Who are the fittest from a 50-country comparison? A systematic review with pooling of aggregate results. (5) Making a case for cardiorespiratory fitness surveillance among children and youth. (6) International normative 20-m shuttle run values from 1 142 026 children and youth representing 50 countries. (7) Temporal trends in the cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents representing 19 high-income and upper middle-income countries between 1981 and 2014. Combined, this dissertation provides support for the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness for health surveillance among school-aged children and youth. Results from the international analysis

  1. Results of a Community Mentoring Programme for Youth Heads of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Rwanda: Effects on Youth Sexual Risk Behaviours and Maltreatment ... community adult mentors should be supported as a key strategy in working with YHH to decrease sexual ...... that youth with delinquent behaviours are more likely.

  2. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Monika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES. Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p. More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p. A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6% was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2% or never (22.9% consumed breakfast (p. This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5 times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive

  3. Direct and self-reported measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours by weight status in school-aged children: results from ISCOLE-Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuri, Stella K; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M; Onywera, Vincent O; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown little association between self-report and directly measured physical activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported and directly assessed measures of physical activity and sedentary time by weight status in Kenyan children. Direct assessment of body weight, physical activity and sedentary time of 563 children was collected through anthropometry and accelerometry, while self-reported assessment was achieved by administering a questionnaire. Under/healthy weight children had significantly higher directly measured mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to overweight/obese children (39 vs 20 minutes); had lower mean weekend-day minutes of sedentary time (346 vs 365 minutes); had a higher proportion who met accepted physical activity guidelines (15.3% vs 2.6%); and a higher number reported using active transportation to/from school (49.2% vs 32.4%). Self-reported time spent outside before and after school and active transport to/from school were significantly associated with mean weekday minutes of MVPA (r-value range = 0.12-0.36), but only for the under/healthy weight children. The results of this study found a number of differences in the accumulation of MVPA and sedentary time by weight status and weak-to-moderate correlations between self-report and direct measures of weekday and weekend-day physical activity among the under/healthy weight children.

  4. Career Development for Youth with Disabilities in South Korea: The Intersection of Culture, Theory, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jina; Connor, Annemarie; Kosciulek, John F.; Landon, Trenton; Park, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    Youth with disabilities face difficulties resulting from attitudinal, environmental, and organizational barriers not only in initially accessing and entering school (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011), but also as they transition from school age youth to working adults. With a focus on facilitating a better understanding of the issues,…

  5. PLAYING ORIGAMI ENHANCE THE CREATIVITY OF SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical period for creativity development happened at school aged. Playing Origami is a stimulation that can be done to develop child’s creativity optimally. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of playing origami toward creativity development at school age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. Method: This study was used a pre experimental and purposive sampling design. The populations were children who age in the sixth until seventh age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. There were 41 respondents for this research who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the playing origami while the dependent variable was creativity development of school age. Data were collected by using questionnaire and Figural Creativity test to know the creativity level before and after intervention, and then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level of a£0.05. Result: The result showed that there was an effect of play origami toward the creativity development of school age with significant level (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that playing origami can develop the creativity of school aged children. Every child should be facilitated by provide a chance, supportt and activity that can improve their creativity development that can be useful for them and other people. Further study was recommended to analyze the effect of playing origami on decreasing stress hospitalization.

  6. Urban youth, fear of crime, and resulting defensive actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J S; Singh, B K; Singh, B B

    1994-01-01

    One of the most neglected populations studied in victimology has been juveniles. The present study examines the impact of fear of crime among a sample of urban youth on their defensive actions. Studies of urban adult populations have found that a significant number of people fear to venture outside their homes at night. When they do go out, they often take defensive measures to insure their safety. Carrying "mace," whistles, guns, knives, and clubs, for example, is not uncommon. Some have indicated that they have undertaken training in a variety of self-defensive arts and/or keep dogs to protect themselves from the possibility of being victimized. Using data collected from a sample of 1,775 urban youth in 1986 it was found that this population has taken many of the same defensive actions. Only 11% of the sample indicated that they had not taken any defensive actions as a result of fear of crime. Nearly three-fifths took the precaution of having an escort when they went out at night. Learning a technique of self-defense was reported by 19% of the sample; 10% indicated that they carried "mace" or some other type of repellant. Only 4% reported that they carried a whistle because of crime concerns. Significant predictors of personal defensive actions include gender, crime-witnessing status, victimization status and type of victimization (theft vs. witnessing Other defensive actions taken by members of the respondents' households included installing a burglar alarm (22%), keeping a "trained dog" (17%), keeping lights on a night (39%), and installing security locks (38%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  8. Youth Acts, Community Impacts: Stories of Youth Engagement with Real Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Joel; Pittman, Karen; Cervone, Barbara; Cushman, Kathleen; Rowley, Lisa; Kinkade, Sheila; Phillips, Jeanie; Duque, Sabrina

    2001-01-01

    This document offers eight case studies - and a number of short profiles - documenting efforts in the United States and around the world, all connecting the dots between youth action and meaningful community change. The publication begins with reflections on why it is often so hard, especially in the United States, for young people to find the…

  9. Teen Pregnancy and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of teen pregnancy among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which nonmarital teen births adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address this problem. Methods: Literature review. Results: In 2006, the birth rate among 15-…

  10. Asthma and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of asthma among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which poorly controlled asthma adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Methods: Literature review. Results: Asthma is the most common chronic…

  11. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godeau Emmanuelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  12. MODERN MUNICIPAL POLICIES FOR YOUTH IN RUSSIA: RESULTS OF OUR RESEARCH; THE WAY FORWARD; THE MEANS

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    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Knyazkova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present the data provided from the research that was devoted to the study about the main conclusions and subsidiary findings of the Municipal Youth Policy, and the development of proposals for action based on its principles.The positive results from the research were as follows:1       There is a theoretical discussion in terms of how to realize the aims of the Municipal Youth Policy.2       It is demonstrated that the State Youth Policy can be made more effective by working with young people in a more target-oriented way, being considerate towards the needs and interests of young people in their local societies.3       The Municipal Youth Policy is studied as a part of the State Youth Policy for the Russian Federation. The MYP has its priorities connected with the place of residence and customs of the local area.4       It is noted that the MYP has not yet been fully implemented, despite the constitutional, legislative and basic legal backing of the local administrations;5       A case is made to increase the political cultural awareness amongst young people who participate in the development of political resources based on the Municipal Youth Policy;6       On the basis of the recognized discrepancies and tendencies of the Municipal Youth Policy, the proposals have been elaborated in regards to the formation of the effective model of the Municipal Youth PolicyThe methodology of the studies conducted uses a wide range of scientific methods. At different stages of the study, a wide range of fact-collecting methods was used, and the processing, analyzing and interpreting of it was flexible.The results of the study may be expressed as follows:1       On the one hand, the Municipal Youth Policy is determined by the State Youth Policy, and its priorities in relation to the young generation; and on the other hand, it is a fundamentally new concept for the Russian Federation.2

  13. Families with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  14. School-Age NOTES, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Richard T., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter providing support and information for providers of child care for school-age children. The featured articles for each month are: (1) "Re-Evaluating Praise" (September); (2) "Making the Season Brighter: Tips To Create More Inclusive Holiday Programs" (October);…

  15. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  16. Career counselling with secondary school-aged youth: Directions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the midst of an information age and a global economy, people around the world continue to face significant inequities at school and in the workforce. Career counselling thus finds itself in a paradigm shift that increasingly stresses the influences of culture and sociopolitical context. One area in which the profession can ...

  17. Infant wheeze, comorbidities and school age asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Asa; Bergström, Anna; Gustafsson, Per; Thunqvist, Per; Andersson, Niklas; Nordvall, Lennart; Kull, Inger; Wickman, Magnus

    2014-06-01

    Factors associated with early onset of wheeze have been described, but there is limited knowledge on which of these infant wheezers who will have developed asthma in school age. The aim was to identify clinical risk factors for asthma in the 8-yr-old children that wheezed during infancy in a population-based setting. Three thousand two hundred and fifty-one children from a population-based birth cohort followed prospectively from infancy until age 8 yr were included in the study. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Parents reported any wheeze episode before age 2 yr in 823 subjects (25%). Infant wheezers had an almost fourfold risk of asthma at age 8 [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.68, 95% CI 2.74-4.96], equivalent to an asthma prevalence of 14% compared with 4% among non-wheezers (p < 0.001). After adjustments for sex, exposure to tobacco smoke and indoor dampness/mould, allergic heredity (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.02-2.30), increased frequency of wheeze (aOR 3.41, 95% CI 2.09-5.56 for children with ≥3 episodes compared with ≤2 episodes during the first 2 yr of life), infant eczema (aOR 2.31, 95% CI 1.52-3.49), and recurrent abdominal pain (aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.30-4.16) remained risk factors for school age asthma in the infant wheezing group. Among infant wheezers, allergic heredity, increased severity of wheeze, infant eczema, and recurrent abdominal pain were independent risk factors for asthma at age 8 yr. Among children with three or four of these risk factors, 38% had asthma at school age. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Brief Report: Investigating Relations Between Self-Concept and Performance in Reading and Math for School-Aged Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, James B; Zajic, Matthew C; Oswald, Tasha M; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey E; McIntyre, Nancy C; Harris, Michelle A; Trzesniewski, Kali; Mundy, Peter C; Solomon, Marjorie

    2018-05-01

    A typically developing student's perceptions of his or her own capabilities (academic self-concept), is predictive of later academic achievement. However, little is known about academic self-concept in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To understand whether students math self-concept and reading self-concept predicted their performance, 44 school-aged children and adolescents with ASD and 36 age-matched individuals with typical development (TYP) rated their perceived math and reading abilities and were administered standardized achievement measures. Results showed self-concept was predictive of performance in math and reading in the TYP group. For youth with ASD, there was agreement between self-concept and performance only in math. These findings suggest that educators should be cautious when interpreting the self-assessments of reading ability in students with ASD.

  19. Improving asthma-related health outcomes among low-income, multiethnic, school-aged children: results of a demonstration project that combined continuous quality improvement and community health worker strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Patrick; Porter, Patricia G; Lob, Sibylle H; Boer, Jennifer Holloman; Rocha, David A; Adelson, Joel W

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve asthma-related health outcomes in an ethnically and geographically disparate population of economically disadvantaged school-aged children by using a team-based approach using continuous quality improvement and community health workers. A demonstration project was conducted with 7 community clinics treating approximately 3000 children with asthma 5 to 18 years of age. The overall clinic population with asthma was assessed for care-process changes through random cross-sectional chart reviews at baseline and 24 months (N = 560). A subset of patients with either moderate or severe persistent asthma or poorly controlled asthma (N = 405) was followed longitudinally for specific asthma-related clinical outcomes, satisfaction with care, and confidence managing asthma by family interview at baseline and at 12 or 24 months. Patient-centered and care-process outcomes included patient/parent assessment of quality of care and confidence in self-management, asthma action plan review, and documentation of guideline-based indicators of quality of care. Direct clinical outcomes included daytime and nighttime symptoms, use of rescue medications, acute care and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and missed school days. Each clinic site's degree of adherence to the intervention model was evaluated and ranked to examine the correlation between model adherence and outcomes. Cross-sectional data showed clinic-wide improvements in the documentation of asthma severity, review of action plans, health services use, and asthma symptoms. At follow-up in the longitudinal sample, fewer patients reported acute visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, frequent daytime and nighttime symptoms, and missed school days compared with baseline. More patients reported excellent or very good quality of care and confidence in asthma self-management. Linear regression analysis of the clinical sites' model adherence ranks against site

  20. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  1. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  2. Competitive Employment for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Early Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehman, Paul H.; Schall, Carol M.; McDonough, Jennifer; Kregel, John; Brooke, Valerie; Molinelli, Alissa; Ham, Whitney; Graham, Carolyn W.; Riehle, J. Erin; Collins, Holly T.; Thiss, Weston

    2014-01-01

    For most youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), employment upon graduation from high school or college is elusive. Employment rates are reported in many studies to be very low despite many years of intensive special education services. This paper presented the preliminary results of a randomized clinical trial of Project SEARCH plus ASD…

  3. Elevated prevalence of malnutrition and malaria among school-aged children and adolescents in war-ravaged South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charchuk, Rhianna; Houston, Stan; Hawkes, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Emerging as a sovereign state from decades of civil war, the Republic of South Sudan now faces poverty, a lack of health care infrastructure, a high burden of infectious diseases and a widespread food insecurity. School-aged children and youth, in particular, represent a high-risk demographic for malnutrition and infectious diseases. We screened 109 school-aged children and youth for nutritional status and malaria antigenaemia in Akuak Rak, South Sudan, and found a large proportion of underweight (77/109 = 73%) and prevalent malaria (44/109 = 40%). There was no significant association between malnutrition and malaria. This study represents one of the few published reports on child and youth nutritional status and malaria prevalence in South Sudan since its independence. The implementation of nutrition and malaria screening combined with evidence-based interventions in schools could help target this high burden vulnerable group.

  4. Correlates of Dietary Intake in Youth with Diabetes: Results from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortsov, Andrey; Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B., Jr.; Hamman, Richard F.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Maahs, David M.; McKeown, Robert; Marcovina, Santica M.; Thomas, Joan; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore demographic, socioeconomic, diabetes-related, and behavioral correlates of dietary intake of dairy, fruit, vegetables, sweetened soda, fiber, calcium, and saturated fat in youth with diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of youth 10-22 years old with type 1 (T1DM, n = 2,176) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM, n = 365). Association…

  5. School nurses can address existing gaps in school-age sleep research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2013-06-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults. School-age children exhibit increasing independence around health-related behaviors, which provide health professionals the opportunity to educate and promote healthy sleep behaviors. This commentary extends previous research reviews by identifying the current gaps in sleep research, highlighting future directions needed in sleep research, and explaining why school nurses are best suited to address this growing public health issue.

  6. Transformative Performing Arts and Mentorship Pedagogy: Nurturing Developmental Relationships in a Multidisciplinary Dance Theatre Program for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A multidisciplinary dance and theatre arts program geared for high school-aged youth can result in both short-term and the long-term outcomes for its students if it seeks to offer a life-changing peak experience as part of the arts training and performance process. By integrating a combination of dance, movement, theater, music, creative and…

  7. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  8. Results From Denmark's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Troelsen, Jens; Kirkegaard, Kasper Lund

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first Danish Report Card on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Youth describes Denmark's efforts in promoting and facilitating PA and PA opportunities for children and youth. METHODS: The report card relies primarily on a synthesis of the best available research and policy...... strategies identified by the Report Card Research Committee consisting of a wide presentation of researchers and experts within PA health behaviors and policy development. The work was coordinated by Research and Innovation Centre for Human Movement and Learning situated at the University of Southern Denmark...... and the University College Lillebaelt. Nine PA indicators were graded using the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card development process. RESULTS: Grades from A (highest) to F (lowest) varied in Denmark as follows: 1) Overall Physical Activity (D+), 2) Organized Sport Participation (A), 3) Active Play (INC...

  9. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. Objective: To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income ...

  10. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  11. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  12. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  13. Stressors of School-age Children With Allergic Diseases: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Misa; Hamaguchi, Mana; Nagata, Mayumi; Yoshida, Koichi

    2018-05-08

    Most studies of stress in children with chronic diseases have been geared toward parents and caregivers have not considered allergic diseases together. This study aimed to identify the stressors associated with allergic diseases in Japanese school-age children. Stressors associated with allergic diseases of 11 school-age children (seven boys and four girls; age range: 9-12 years) were investigated using semi-structured interviews. In the qualitative thematic analysis of stressors about allergic diseases, two themes: allergic disease-specific stressors and common stressors in chronic diseases, and 12 categories were identified. A thematic map was applied to four domains of stressor: physiological factors, psychological factors, social factors, and environmental factors. The results showed that school-age children with allergic diseases have a variety of stressors. Future studies should aim to develop an allergic disease-specific stress management program with school-age children. In children with allergic diseases, not only is stress management in daily life important, but also stress management for disease-specific matters to control the symptoms and maintain mental health. Stress management should be supported for school-age children with allergic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  16. Is our Youth Cycling to Health? : Results From the Netherlands' 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghard, Marcella; Knitel, Karlijn; van Oost, Iris; Tremblay, Mark S; Takken, Tim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Active Healthy Kids the Netherlands (AHKN) Report Card consolidates and translates research and assesses how the Netherlands is being responsible in providing physical activity (PA) opportunities for children and youth (<18 years). The primary aim of this article is to summarize the

  17. Current cigarette smoking among in-school American youth: results from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2004 United States National Youth Tobacco Survey was carried out to estimate the association between current cigarette smoking and selected smoking-related variables. Study participants were recruited from middle and high schools in the United States. Logistic regression analysis using SUDAAN software was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the following explanatory variables: age, sex, race-ethnicity, peer smoking, living in the same household as a smoker, amount of pocket money at the disposal of the adolescents, and perception that smoking is not harmful to health. Results Of the 27727 respondents whose data were analysed, 15.9% males and 15.3% females reported being current cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, compared to Whites, respondents from almost all ethnic groups were less likely to report current cigarette smoking: Blacks (OR = 0.52; 95% CI [0.44, 0.60], Asians (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.58], Hispanic (OR = 0.81; 95% CI [0.71, 0.92], and Hawaii/Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.52, 0.93]. American Indians were equally likely to be current smokers as whites, OR = 0.98 [95% CI; 0.79, 1.22]. Participants who reported living with a smoker were more than twice as likely to smoke as those who did not live with a cigarette smoker (OR = 2.73; 95% CI [2.21, 3.04]. Having friends who smoked was positively associated with smoking (OR = 2.27; 95% CI [1.91, 2.71] for one friend who smoked, and OR = 2.71; 95% CI [2.21, 3.33] for two or more friends who smoked. Subjects who perceived that it was safe to smoke for one or

  18. The Enjoyment of Formal and Informal Recreation and Leisure Activities: A Comparison of School-Aged Children with and without Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Petrenchik, Theresa; Law, Mary; Hurley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fairly extensive literature on the developmental benefits of youth's participation in organised, out-of-school activities, little is known about the participation of school-aged children with physical disabilities in formal recreation and leisure activities, both in comparison with their participation in informal activities and with…

  19. Metabolic Syndrome in Hispanic Youth: Results from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Samantha A; Llabre, Maria M; Vidot, Denise C; Isasi, Carmen R; Perreira, Krista; Carnethon, Mercedes; Parrinello, Christina M; Gallo, Linda C; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Delamater, Alan

    2017-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, is being diagnosed in youth. Specific diagnostic criteria used to define MetS influence prevalence estimates and populations considered at risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) provide three MetS definitions used in medical research. This study examined concordance among these definitions in 1137 children 10-16 years of age, who participated in the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. Prevalence of MetS and of individual components was estimated using SAS. Mplus was used to test a single-factor model of MetS components (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and fasting glucose). The ATP definition identified most MetS cases in 10-15 (N = 19, 4.7%) and 16-year-old girls (N = 3, 7.3%). The IDF definition identified most cases of MetS in 10-15 (N = 16, 3.1%) and 16-year-old boys (N = 2, 2.8%). Fewest cases of MetS were identified with the WHO definition across age and sex groups. Only one participant was classified as having MetS across all three definitions. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated fasting glucose and systolic blood pressure did not reliably cluster with other risk factors that define MetS in Hispanic/Latino adolescents. We conclude that prevalence estimates of MetS in youth are unstable across current criteria, calling into question the accuracy of defining and diagnosing MetS in youth.

  20. Concussion attitudes, behaviors, and education among youth ages 12-17: Results from the 2014 YouthStyles survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Zoe; Hoffman, Rosanne; Sarmiento, Kelly; Hays, Cameron

    2018-02-01

    This study assessed young athletes' (ages 12 to 17) concussion attitudes and behaviors, particularly their self-reported experience learning about concussion and intentions to report a concussion and disparities in these experiences. We used data from Porter Novelli's 2014 YouthStyles survey that is conducted each year to gather insights about American consumers. Of the 1,005 respondents, 57% reported sports participation. Fourteen percent reported they may have had a previous concussion, and among them 41% reported having a concussion more than once while playing sports. Males (17.7%) were significantly more likely to report having a concussion than females (10.0%; χ 2 (1)=7.01, p=0.008). Fifty-five percent of respondents reported having learned about what to do if they think they may have a concussion, and 92% reported that they would tell their coach if they thought they sustained a concussion while playing youth or high school sports. Youth from higher income families ($75,000-$124,999) were significantly more likely than youth from lower income families (less than $35,000) to report that they learned about what do if they suspected that they had a concussion. Age of athlete, parental income level, athlete's sex, and living in a metro versus non-metro area led to disparities in athletes' concussion education. There is a need for increased access to concussion education and an emphasis on customizing concussion education efforts to meet the needs of different groups. We identified athletes' self-reported previously sustained concussions and predictors of education related to concussion. Further research is needed to explore the age, gender and income gaps in concussion education among athletes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  2. Work Experiences and Family Functioning among Employed Fathers with Children of School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated how 657 fathers' job satisfaction and job stress were related to four domains: individual, parent-child, marital, and child. Results showed that the job affected all four domains. Job stress and job satisfaction were directly related to family functioning. Discusses implications for families with school-age children. (RJM)

  3. Ambiguous Loss and Posttraumatic Stress in School-Age Children of Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocknek, Erika London; Sanderson, Jessica; Britner, Preston A., IV

    2009-01-01

    We describe a sample of school-age children of incarcerated parents enrolled in a federally funded mentoring program. A mixed methods approach was applied to discern key themes related to caregiver incarceration. Results demonstrated a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress as well as high rates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors.…

  4. How Can Gender Affect Psychopathology in Lebanese School-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which gender differences in coping, school and family environments could account for variation in psychopathology among school-age children. Participants were 665 middle school students. Results showed no gender differences for PTSD. Females scored higher on emotional problems and prosocial behavior whereas…

  5. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  6. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Herke, Max G; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  7. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herke, Max G.; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children’s life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children’s life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction. PMID:29420540

  8. Application of means of health-improving fitness for correction of weight of girls of the senior school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Pavlenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to carry out the theoretical analysis of the problem of application of health-improving fitness for the correction of weight of girls of the senior school age. Material & Methods: analysis and synthesis of data of scientific and methodical literature. Results: it is established that the problem of excess weight at girls of the senior school age is one of the most urgent in modern science. The reasons of obesity of teenagers are defined and the main directions of the solution of this problem are characterized. Conclusions: it is defined that application of means of health-improving fitness promotes the correction of weight at girls of the senior school age. It causes the necessity of development and deployment of innovative technology of correction of weight at girls of the senior school age on the basis of primary use of means of health-improving fitness.

  9. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rathmann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes. Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  10. Prerequisites for the development of the concept of health-forming technologies in the process of adaptive physical education of school-age children with hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Kashuba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prerequisites for the development of the concept of health-forming technologies in the process of adaptive physical education of school-age children with hearing impairment Prerequisites for the development of the concept of health-forming technologies in the process of adaptive physical education of school-age children with hearing impairment National University of Physical Education and Sports of Ukraine, Kyiv. Actuality. The leading position of the contemporary issues of health-forming activity of children and youth presented in the form of a methodological basis for the formation of a positive motivation for a healthy lifestyle of the younger generation, especially with specific disabilities in the state of health, separates the central component of this process from the humanistic approach, the essence of which is creating a favorable situation for the readiness of the present youth to perceive and adequately respond to the educational activities of the school and social environment that are implemented in the process of their physical education. Objectives of the study: determination of priority directions of optimization of the process of physical education of students with hearing impairments, selection of rational means and methods that fully satisfy the specific needs of this contingent based on the study of their interests not only during physical education, but also correctional activities, self-organized motor activity Research results. The data obtained during the study showed that most children with hearing impairments understood the problems of their own health and had a desire to carry out activities aimed at improving their level, defining for themselves as the main criterion the physical state of their organism. The results of the questionnaire survey of 236 schoolchildren aged 13 to 19 years with different established hearing disorders supplemented the systematization of preconditions and scientifically substantiated the

  11. Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Joseph TF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of self-reported level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk in Hong Kong Chinese youth of school-age. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007-8 in a school setting with 2119 Hong Kong Chinese youth aged 6-20 years. Physical activity level was assessed using a validated questionnaire, CUHK-PARCY (The Chinese University of Hong Kong: Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth. A summary risk score comprising of waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids was constructed to quantify cardiovascular risk. Results In this cohort, 21.5% reported high level of physical activity with boys being more active than girls (32.1% versus 14.1%, p Conclusion Self-reported level of physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese youth after adjusting for sex and pubertal stage.

  12. Prevalence and Pattern of Executive Dysfunction in School Age Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jacqueline H.; Berl, Madison M.; Armour, Anna C.; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I.; Donofrio, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Executive Function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Design 91 school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age and gender matched control sample was drawn from a normativedatabase. Results CHD patients had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR=4.37, p0.05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. Conclusions School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:27863079

  13. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  14. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  15. Current cigarette smoking among in-school American youth: results from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter

    2009-04-03

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. A secondary analysis of the 2004 United States National Youth Tobacco Survey was carried out to estimate the association between current cigarette smoking and selected smoking-related variables. Study participants were recruited from middle and high schools in the United States. Logistic regression analysis using SUDAAN software was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the following explanatory variables: age, sex, race-ethnicity, peer smoking, living in the same household as a smoker, amount of pocket money at the disposal of the adolescents, and perception that smoking is not harmful to health. Of the 27727 respondents whose data were analysed, 15.9% males and 15.3% females reported being current cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, compared to Whites, respondents from almost all ethnic groups were less likely to report current cigarette smoking: Blacks (OR = 0.52; 95% CI [0.44, 0.60]), Asians (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.58]), Hispanic (OR = 0.81; 95% CI [0.71, 0.92]), and Hawaii/Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.52, 0.93]). American Indians were equally likely to be current smokers as whites, OR = 0.98 [95% CI; 0.79, 1.22]. Participants who reported living with a smoker were more than twice as likely to smoke as those who did not live with a cigarette smoker (OR = 2.73; 95% CI [2.21, 3.04]). Having friends who smoked was positively associated with smoking (OR = 2.27; 95% CI [1.91, 2.71] for one friend who smoked, and OR = 2.71; 95% CI [2.21, 3.33] for two or more friends who smoked). Subjects who perceived that it was safe to smoke for one or two years were more likely to smoke than those who

  16. Predicting ADHD in school age when using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in preschool age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimvall, Martin K; Elberling, Hanne; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2014-01-01

    Indicated prevention of ADHD may reduce impairment and need of treatment in youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief questionnaire assessing child mental health, reported to be a valid screening instrument for concurrent ADHD. This study aimed to examine the validity o...... can identify a group of children with highly increased risk of later being diagnosed and/or treated for ADHD in school age....... of using the SDQ in preschool age to predict ADHD in school age in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,315 children from the Copenhagen child cohort 2000 with no prior history of clinically diagnosed ADHD, who were assessed at age 5-7 years by the SDQ completed by parents and preschool...... regression analyses estimated the risk of later ADHD diagnosis for screen-positive children. A total of 2.94% of the study population were clinically diagnosed and/or were treated with central stimulants for ADHD before age 11-12. Children with possible/probable disorder according to the SDQ hyperactivity...

  17. Brief report: Assessing youth well-being in global emergency settings: Early results from the Emergency Developmental Assets Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Peter C; Roehlkepartain, Eugene C; Wallace, Teresa; Inselman, Ashley; Stephenson, Paul; Rodriguez, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The 13-item Emergency Developmental Assets Profile measures the well-being of children and youth in emergency settings such as refugee camps and armed conflict zones, assessing whether young people are experiencing adequate positive relationships and opportunities, and developing positive values, skills, and self-perceptions, despite being in crisis circumstances. The instrument was found to have acceptable and nearly identical internal consistency reliability in 22 administrations in non-emergency samples in 15 countries (.75), and in 4 samples of youth ages 10-18 (n = 1550) in the emergency settings (war refugees and typhoon victims, .74) that are the measure's focus, and evidence of convergent validity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed acceptable model fit among those youth in emergency settings. Measures of model fit showed that the Em-DAP has configural and metric invariance across all emergency contexts and scalar invariance across some. The Em-DAP is a promising brief cross-cultural tool for assessing the developmental quality of life as reported by samples of youth in a current humanitarian crisis situation. The results can help to inform international relief program decisions about services and activities to be provided for children, youth, and families in emergency settings. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

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    Ikaunieks Gatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  19. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); D.P. Smidts (Diana); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether very preterm (≤30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50

  20. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  1. Maltreatment and the School-Aged Child: School Performance Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, P. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the school performance of 139 school-age and adolescent children, 22 of whom had been physically abused and 47 neglected. The abused children displayed pervasive and severe academic and socioemotional problems, while neglected children displayed academic delays. Both groups of maltreated children showed unexpected strengths on…

  2. School-Aged Victims of Sexual Abuse: Implications for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishon, Phillip M.

    Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…

  3. Functional outcome at school age of children born with gastroschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lap, Chiara C M M; Bolhuis, Sandra W; Van Braeckel, Koenraad J. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Manten, Gwendolyn T. R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hulscher, Jan

    Objective: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. Study design: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands,

  4. Impact of Prematurity on Language Skills at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Channell, Ron W.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The existing literature on language outcomes in children born prematurely focuses almost exclusively on standardized test scores rather than discourse-level abilities. The authors of this study looked longitudinally at school-age language outcomes and potential moderating variables for a group of twins born prematurely versus a control…

  5. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  6. Health behaviour and school environment among school-aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The healthy food score was associated with supportive teachers but not with supportive peers and supportive parents and socioeconomic status. Regarding the different health-related behaviours, gender differences were less pronounced than racial differences. Black school-aged children had a significantly higher ...

  7. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  8. Youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood: results from the Northern Swedish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydsten, Anna; Hammarström, Anne; Strandh, Mattias; Johansson, Klara

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the possible long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. Research indicates that unemployment may lead to socioeconomic downward mobility and mental health problems, but we still lack knowledge of the long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. This article examines the potential long-term association between youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood. The 'Northern Swedish cohort' was used with data from five data collections, from 1981 (age 16) until 2007 (age 42). Youth unemployment was measured as months in unemployment between age 16 and 21, and health outcome as functional somatic symptoms (an index of 10 items of self-reported symptoms). Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between months in youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms at age 21 and age 42, stratified for women and men and adjusted for potential confounders, such as time spent in education at age 21 and later unemployment between age 21 and 42. Youth unemployment was significantly related to functional somatic symptoms at age 21 for men after controlling for confounders, but not for women. Among men, the association remained for functional somatic symptoms at age 42, after controlling for confounders. Adolescence seems to be a sensitive period during which unemployment could have remaining health effects in adulthood, at least for men, though assumptions of causality are tentative and more research is needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceptions and Knowledge of Caffeinated Energy Drinks: Results of Focus Groups With Canadian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cassondra; White, Christine M; Bowman, Carolyn; Fenton, Nancy; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David

    2017-04-01

    To examine use, knowledge, and perceptions of caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) among youth. Qualitative research using focus group discussions (n = 4). Two Canadian cities (Toronto and Montreal). Youth aged 12-18 years (n = 41). Perceived definitions of CEDs, reasons for use, knowledge of health effects, use with alcohol, marketing perceptions, and use and understanding of cautionary statements on packaging. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth identified CEDs as products that provide energy and contain caffeine and sugar. Compared with mainstream CED brands and energy shots, youth were less likely to perceive Gatorade, Coca-Cola, and a Starbucks beverage as energy drinks, despite some ambiguity. The majority of participants believed that CEDs, including mixed with alcohol, were not necessarily harmful in moderation and that marketing was targeted toward older youth and young adults. Awareness of cautionary statements on CEDs was low; cautionary statements were perceived as difficult to find and read owing to the design and small font. Findings suggest a need to increase public education regarding the potential risks of CED consumption, including enhancements to the mandated cautionary statements, with greater attention to the impact of CED marketing on youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 Factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos de edad escolar: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hernández

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.OBJETIVO: Documentar las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos en edad escolar (5 a 11 años de edad obtenidas de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición en 1999 (ENN-1999. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El sobrepeso y la obesidad (definida como un exceso de tejido adiposo en el organismo se evaluaron a través del Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC en 10 901 niños, tomando como patrón de referencia el propuesto por el International Obesity Task Force. Las variables sociodemográficas se obtuvieron a partir de un cuestionario aplicado a la madre del niño. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia nacional de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 19

  11. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  12. Stability of leisure participation from school-age to adolescence in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Schmitz, Norbert; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    With increasing age, youth with disabilities are at risk for decreased participation in leisure activities, a key component for physical and mental health. This prospective study describes changes in leisure participation and leisure preferences from school-age to adolescence in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were recruited at school-age (6-12 years) for a study on participation and reassessed for a second study on adolescents (12-19 years) if >12 years. Thirty-eight children (24 males) with CP who could actively participate in the completion of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and the Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) comprised the sample. Average time between assessments was 5.0 ± 1.3 years. Most children were ambulatory (32/38 Gross Motor Function Classification System I-II). In addition to the CAPE and PAC, children were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 and parents completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Paired t-tests revealed a significant decline in leisure participation diversity and intensity (CAPE) for recreation (p.05). Diversity of active-physical activities increased modestly (p=.06) although intensity of participation in this activity domain decreased (p=.003). There was also a decline in enjoyment of leisure activities. Preferences for these leisure activities remained unchanged between school-age and adolescence, except for recreational activities. Gender, maternal education, family income and gross motor ability were not related to differences in CAPE/PAC scores with increasing age. Findings suggest that over time, children with CP's participation in leisure activities diminishes, which is of concern to their functioning and well-being. Parents may be more involved in early childhood in facilitating participation whereas in adolescence, youth may be faced with more environmental barriers and a greater awareness of challenges to participation. Adolescents

  13. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    standard sample IAEA NN and NN-1 (hair homogenate) as well as comparative method. Accuracy of analysis results of the applied method made up from 7 to 30% depended on concentration and nuclear-physical characteristics. Results and Discussion: Obtained results showed that microelemental contents in hairs and other liquids in children of school age somehow differed from that of in adults. So, contents of iron in children's hair are significantly higher (three times - 81.38±8.55 mkg/g). In erythrocytes of 22 examined sound children the contents of the iron equaled to 2964±52 mg/l, in saliva - 584 351.7 mg/l. In the study of Zn contents in blood of healthy children it was equal to 59 mkg/g, in formed elements of blood it was equal to 32.3 mkg/g which was much less than similar index in adults [3]. According to our data the contents of Zn in blood made up 39.25±4.30 mkg/g which was significantly low compared with similar index in adults (according to V.V.Nasolodin, 1987 the contents of zinc in plasma varies from 86 to 106 mkg/g). In 20 examined children the contents of Zn in erythrocytes equaled to 32.3±1.5 mkg/g. The contents of Zn in saliva of sound children of school age was 518.0±54.17 mkg/g and in urine 386±18.24 mkg/g. In practically sound school children of Zarafshan valley the contents of Zn in hair made up 182.9±6.6 mkg/g. It was established that the contents of Zn in sound school children of Zarafshan valley is in middle position amongst similar data referred in scientific articles [2]. The contents of Cu in hairs of practically sound school children in Zarafshan valley was 9.24±0.84 mkg/g which was low (two times) compared with adults. We found out that the contents of Cu in hairs of healthy school children in Zarafshan valley was lower compared with the data presented by other authors [2] and other regions respectively. A low content of Cu in hairs probably depends on the food-stuff ingredients and peculiarities of the natural condition in biogeochemical

  14. Neurocognitive profiles in MSUD school-age patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchereau, Juliette; Leduc-Leballeur, Julie; Pichard, Samia; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Abi Warde, Marie-Thérèse; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Barbier, Valérie; Brassier, Anaïs; Broué, Pierre; Cano, Aline; Chabrol, Brigitte; Damon, Gilles; Gay, Claire; Guillain, Isabelle; Habarou, Florence; Lamireau, Delphine; Ottolenghi, Chris; Paermentier, Laetitia; Sabourdy, Frédérique; Touati, Guy; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; de Lonlay, Pascale; Schiff, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an inborn error of amino acids catabolism is characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, valine and their corresponding alpha-ketoacids. Impact on the cognitive development has been reported historically, with developmental delays of varying degree. Currently, earlier diagnosis and improved management allow a better neurodevelopment, without requirement of special education. However, specific impairments can be observed, and so far, results of detailed neurocognitive assessments are not available. The aim of this study was to analyse neurocognitive profiles of French MSUD patients. This was a multicentre retrospective study on MSUD patients who underwent neurocognitive evaluation at primary school age. Twenty-one patients with classical neonatal onset MSUD were included. The patients' mean age at the time of evaluation was 8.7 years. The mean intellectual quotient (IQ) score was in the normal range (95.1 ± 12.6). In a subset of eight patients, a consistent developmental pattern of higher verbal than performance IQ was observed (mean of the difference 25.7 ± 8.7, p < 0.0001). No correlation could be established between this pattern and long-term metabolic balance (BCAA blood levels), or severity of acute metabolic imbalances, or leucine blood levels at diagnosis and time to toxin removal procedure. These data show that some MSUD patients may exhibit an abnormal neurocognitive profile with higher verbal than performance abilities. This might suggest an executive dysfunction disorder that would need to be further investigated by specialized testing. This pattern is important to detect in MSUD, as appropriate neuropsychological treatment strategies should be proposed.

  15. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  16. Alcohol Brand Preferences of Underage Youth: Results from a Pilot Survey among a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Heeren, Timothy; Rosenbloom, David L.; Ross, Craig; Ostroff, Joshua; Jernigan, David H.

    2011-01-01

    This study is the first investigation to explore the alcohol brand preferences of underage youth via a national survey. We conducted a pilot study of a new, internet-based alcohol brand survey with 108 youth ages 16–20 years who were recruited from an existing panel and had consumed alcohol in the past month. We ascertained respondents’ consumption of each of 380 alcohol brands during the past 30 days, including which brands of alcohol were consumed during heavy drinking episodes. Our findings suggest that, despite the wide variety of alcohol brands consumed by older adolescents in this study, alcohol preferences are concentrated among a relatively small number of brands. Accurate measurements of alcohol brand preferences will enable important new research into the factors that influence youth drinking behavior. This study establishes the feasibility and validity of a new methodology to determine patterns of brand-specific alcohol consumption among underage drinkers. PMID:22014249

  17. The effect of leukemia and its treatment on self-esteem of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, R L; Mullis, A K; Kerchoff, N F

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the self-esteem of school-age children with leukemia in a clinic setting and to compare it to the self-esteem of healthy children. Thirteen chronically ill children, 6 to 11 years old, who were patients at a midwestern clinic and children's hospital, and 50 school-age children without chronic illness participated in the study. Children were administered the Kinetic Family Drawing-Revised (Spinetta, McLaren, Fox, & Sparta, 1981) to measure their self-image in relation to their family. Children's self-esteem was measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) (Coopersmith, 1981). The results indicated that children with leukemia did not differ in self-esteem from healthy children except on one subscale of the SEI. However, children with and without leukemia did differ on components of the self-image measure, a dimension of self-esteem. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. The experience of parents implementing authoritarian parenting for their school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga Olla, Marice; Catharina Daulima, Novy Helena; Eka Putri, Yossie Susanti

    2018-02-01

    To explore families' experiences who use an authoritarian parenting style in caring for school-age children. This was a qualitative study employing a phenomenological approach. The sampling method was to interview parents of school-age children living in the Central Maluku district in Indonesia. The findings of this study generated the following themes: (1) parents strictly controlled their children to achieve the parental values and expectations, (2) children failed to meet the parental values and expectations, and (3) problems experienced by the children were the results of the parenting style. This study suggested nursing professionals provide adequate information for parents with respect to parenting styles that may facilitate the optimal growth and development of the children. Future studies pertinent to cultural factors associated with authoritarian parenting were also suggested to better understand the cultural context of this parenting style. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth: results from a national survey of local law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Erickson, Darin J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. We surveyed 1,056 local law enforcement agencies in the US and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption.

  20. ARE COMMUNITY –BASED INTERVENTION PROGRAMS EFFECTIVE IN THE YOUTH POPULATION? RESULTS FROM ISFAHAN HEALTHY HEART PROGRAM

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    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Although the relationship between unhealthy lifestyle and development of non-communicable diseases in the youth has been understood but intervention studies to improve lifestyle behaviors in this age group are low. Consequently, this study was performed to highlight important intervention activity of a NCD prevention and health promotion program for young people and to present its main results in Iran.    METHODS: The Youth Intervention Project (YIP as a part of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP was carried out on all the youth aged 19-25 years in Isfahan and Najafabad counties as intervention areas and Arak as control area. The target groups could be reached in Red Crescent Society, universities, and garrisons. Multifactorial interventions included healthy nutrition, physical activity, coping with stress, and tobacco cessation by more emphasis on hookah smoking. Also, enforcing no-smoking regulations in teahouses and coffee shops was considered.    RESULTS: After performing multifactorial interventions, the change of fast food consumption frequency was statistically significant in comparison between intervention and control areas (P for trend<0.05. Percentage of individuals with high stress level were more significant in intervention area compared with control area (P for trend<0.05. Smoking was increased among men and women in both areas whereas the increase was higher in control area (P for trend<0.05. Although daily physical activity frequency was increased in intervention areas but it wasn’t significant compared with control area. Also, decreased trend of carbonated drink consumption were not significant in intervention area compared with control area.     CONCLUSION: The lifestyle modification program in the youth was successfully implemented and was shown to have improved some of the youth’s lifestyle behaviors related to healthy lifestyle.      Keywords: Intervention,The youth, Non

  1. Selected executive functions in children with ADHD in early school age

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    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at finding out whether at the early school age the effectiveness of executive functions distinguishes children with ADHD from those of the control group. Besides, the aim was to check to what extent the use of diagnostic methods evaluating executive functions in children at the early school age is justified. The analysis comprised cognitive flexibility, sustained attention, interference control and planning ability. Those methods of neuropsychological evaluation were used which are mostly applied to characterize executive functions: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, interference task based on the Stroop Interference Test, and tests of verbal fluency and Tower of London. The examined group consisted of 50 children aged 7-10: 25 children with hyperactivity of combined type and 25 children of the control group. Each group consisted of 23 boys and 2 girls. The average age in the criterial group was 8 years and 10 months (SD=10 months, whereas in the control group – 8 years and 6 months (SD=11 months. According to the obtained results, children with ADHD at early school age do not exhibit a wide spectrum of executive functions deficits, which is probably associated with immaturity of executive processes in all children of that age. The findings comprised only difficulties in inhibition of response, monitoring of activity, and ability of executive attention to intentional guidance of the mental effort depending on the task’s requirements. In investigations of children with ADHD at early school age the use of neuropsychological tests and trials designed for evaluation of executive functions is justified only in limited degree. They do not significantly distinguish between children with ADHD and children without this disorder, therefore the results may be mainly of descriptive, and not explanatory, value.

  2. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

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    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  3. IDENTITY FORMATION AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES

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    V. G. Bulygina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary school age is a stage of significant personal changes of a child, including the identity formation as a result of a major restructuring of the system of relations of the child within the family. Background: The aim is to study the influence of a dysfunctional family system on the identity formation of primary school-aged children. Methods: There were examined seven-year-old children, secondary school pupils from families with signs of dysfunctionality (n =42. To assess interfamilial relations there were used proprietary methodologies and standardized tests diagnosing a role structure of the family, emotional sphere of children, peculiarities of the child identification with family members, signs of the family dysfunctionality. Results: It is revealed that the process of identity formation in primary school-aged children in dysfunctional families is characterized by expressed difficulties in identifying himself with family members. In 33% of cases the low hierarchical position and the typical female role characteristics are ascribed to father. To the contrary, the male social role position in 47% of cases is attributed to mother. The ambivalence of the child’s self-relation and his relation to family members is revealed. Therewith, 38% of girls’ profiles coincide either with the set of characteristics of fathers, or equally with sets of characteristics of both parents. The negative emotional state is diagnosed in 62% of children. Conclusion: It is established that in dysfunctional families the interfamilial relations and role structure have specific features, negatively influencing on the child development and the formation of his personality.Key words: children, primary school age, dysfunctional family, identity formation.

  4. Correlation analysis of electronic products with myopia in preschool and school aged children

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    Li-Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the influence of electronic products on myopia in preschool and school aged children, and the development regularities of myopia, to formulate reasonable guidelines for using eyes healthily, and lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control work. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 900 3~12 years old children from outpatients department, and all of them were established individualized archives, recording: uncorrected visual acuity, optometry, slit lamp, ophthalmoscopy, strabismus inspection results; recording eye usage condition on TVs, computers, mobile phones, iPad, homework, extra-curricular books. Statistical analyze the refractive status of each age group, the use of electronic products of different age groups and their correlation with refractive status. RESULTS: The number of preschool children with normal uncorrected visual acuity was more than that of early school-age children, and the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05; the number of children aged 7~12(early school aged childrenwith myopia was more than that of children aged 3~6(preschool childrenand the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: For preschool children, it is necessary to conduct early screening, health guidance, the establishment of personalized medical records and one-to-one personalized guidance; it is also needed to avoid the arduous learning task with the stacking usage of eyes, to fight for myopia and to control the development of myopia. Therefore, to reduce the use of electronic products has become a topic worthy of further study.

  5. Salt intake and eating habits of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei

    2016-11-01

    Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.

  6. Anisometropia prevalence in a highly astigmatic school-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2008-07-01

    To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.

  7. School Vending Machine Purchasing Behavior: Results from the 2005 YouthStyles Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Olivia M.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Moser, Richard P.; Rutten, Lila J. Finney; Agurs-Collins, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods are often available in school vending machines. Providing youth with access to school vending machines, and thus competitive foods, is of concern, considering the continued high prevalence of childhood obesity: competitive foods tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor and can contribute to increased energy intake in…

  8. Education through organised youth sport: The results of four Dutch studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.; Stams, G.J.; Deković, M.; Verweel, P.; Seghers, J.; Vangrunderbeek, H.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this series of four studies was to examine the contribution of organised youth sport to adolescents’ antisocial and prosocial behaviour, and to gain insight into educationally relevant factors that were hypothesized to explain differences in antisocial and prosocial behaviour among

  9. Results From Venezuela's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Méndez-Perez, Betty; Morales, Vanessa Castro; Martín-Rojo, Joana; Tristan, Bianca; Bandy, Amilid Torín; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Macías-Tomei, Coromoto; López-Blanco, Mercedes

    2016-11-01

    The Venezuelan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of information related to physical activity in Venezuela. It provides a compilation of existing information throughout the country and assesses how well it is doing at promoting opportunities for children and youth. The aim of this article is to summarize the information available. Thirteen physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using letters A to F (A, the highest, to F, the lowest) based on national surveys, peer review studies, and policy documents. Some indicators report incomplete information or a lack of data. Overweight and Obesity were classified as A; Body Composition and Nongovernmental Organization Policies as B; Municipal Level Policies as C; and Overall Physical Activity Levels and National Level Policies as D. 63% of children and youth have low physical activity levels. Venezuela needs to undergo a process of articulation between the several existing initiatives, and for said purposes, political will and a methodological effort is required. Investments, infrastructure, and opportunities will be more equal for all children and youth if more cooperation between institutions is developed and communication strategies are applied.

  10. Socioeconomic and Behavioral Characteristics Associated With Metabolic Syndrome Among Overweight/Obese School-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ok Kyung

    Obesity in children comprises a significant public health concern in Korea. As with increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among children, risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) have also increased in this population. The purpose was to examine behavioral and socioeconomic factors that were associated with biomarkers of MetS among overweight/obese school-age children. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenience sample of 75 overweight/obese school-age children participated. Socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and physiologic examinations were studied. The data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 27.8% of our population. Severe stress was significantly associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (P family characteristics, children's perception of family income (wealthy and very wealthy) and mother's education level (high school or less) were associated with diagnoses of MetS in children (P < .05). The results indicated that certain socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics were associated with risk factors of MetS, and therefore, interventions to modify these risk factors are needed to promote the healthy development of overweight/obese school-age children.

  11. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

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    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  12. Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.

  13. Maternal employment and Mexican school-age children overweight in 2012: the importance of households features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Alejandro Martínez

    2018-01-01

    International evidence regarding the relationship between maternal employment and school-age children overweight and obesity shows divergent results. In Mexico, this relationship has not been confirmed by national data sets analysis. Consequently, the objective of this article was to evaluate the role of the mothers' participation in labor force related to excess body weight in Mexican school-age children (aged 5-11 years). A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 17,418 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, applying binomial logistic regression models. After controlling for individual, maternal and contextual features, the mothers' participation in labor force was associated with children body composition. However, when the household features (living arrangements, household ethnicity, size, food security and socioeconomic status) were incorporated, maternal employment was no longer statically significant. Household features are crucial factors for understanding the overweight and obesity prevalence levels in Mexican school-age children, despite the mother having a paid job. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  14. THE MODEL OF MOTOR ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION OF YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN LIVING IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE NORTHERN CITY

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    Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme conditions of the North, computerization, Internet and a gadget dependence, high physical and intellectual loads of children activities living in the north negatively affect younger generation health state. It is difficult to overestimate a role of motor activity in expansion of functionality of the developing organism as the lack of locomotion can lead to pathological shifts in an organism. Based on the study of the concept of a ‘motor activity’ and features North of the city the article suggests a model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. It consisted of 6 units related to goal-setting, diagnostic-analytical, concept, process-activity, reflexive-evaluative and effective. The research was conducted on the basis of Surgut city schools and the Surgut region of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region-Yugra. During the research we revealed the most priority organization forms of motor activity of younger school age children living in conditions of the northern city. The model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children allows to create necessary optimum volume and to control of motor activity of children of younger school age. Purpose. The purpose of our research was to create model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. Methodology. Analysis and synthesis of the materials as well as the method of simulation are used as the main instruments. Results. A model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children has been elaborated in the course of study and its characteristics have been specified. Practical implications. The results can be of use for teachers at professional educational institutions.

  15. Physical exercises and massage influence on the organism of school age children with violations of carriage in a frontal plane.

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    Kruzhylo Galina Grigor'evna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researches results on the subject of efficiency evaluation of the physical exercises and massage influence on the carriage of school age (7 - 14years children are adduced. School age children total number of 20 (10 girls and 10 boys with backbone scoliotic curvatures of I - II degree took part in the experiment. There were applied: physical exercises (forming of carriage, unloading of spine, trunk muscles endurance development, exercises in an equilibrium, classic and segmentary massage. It is well-proven that a neat rehabilitation complex rendered effective influence on a carriage probed experimental group by comparison to the children of control group.

  16. Youth on YouTube as Smart Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Viewing YouTube culture as a creative, collaborative process similar to animal swarms can help art educators understand and embrace youth's digital practices. School-age youth are among the most prolific contributors to YouTube, not just as viewers, but also as producers. Even preschoolers now produce videos (McClure, 2010). So pervasive,…

  17. Long term effects of preventive activities of youth health care in The Netherlands: results of a four-part study

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    Pieter A. Wiegersma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. In this article the results are presented of a four part study on the effect of screening for scoliosis and (repeated well-care visits and freely accessible consultation hours at secondary schools, on the incidence and prevalence of (parasuicide, mental health, adolescent health compromising behaviour and lastly obesity.

    Methods. An ecologic case-referent study design was used with data from the Netherlands Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Defence, the 1992 High-School Student Study, all of the youth health care departments in The Netherlands and relevant censuses.

    Results. Attention to mental and physical health and health compromising behaviour, either during screening, open consultation hours or during well-care visits seems to be ineffective and in some instances even detrimental to youth health.

    Of the 18 different outcome measurements, 5 were significantly negative and none were significantly positive.

    Conclusions. This four part study does not support the hypothesis that on a population level, the preventive activities of youth health care departments such as screening for scoliosis, (more frequent well-care visits or offering open consultation hours at secondary schools, have a beneficial effect on prevention of (parasuicide, poor mental health, health compromising behaviour or obesity.

  18. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Marijuana use and sex with multiple partners among lesbian, gay and bisexual youth: results from a national sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex with multiple partners (SMP is one of the important contributing factors for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs among adolescents and young adults, especially among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB youth. Past studies mainly focus on examining associations of alcohol or club drugs use with unprotected sexual behaviors among adult homo/bisexual men, while little is known about the temporal association between marijuana use (MU and SMP among LGB youth. Methods This study examined the relationship between MU and SMP among LGB adolescents and young adults. Generalized estimating equations (GEE logistic regression analyses were utilized to analyze four waves’ public-use Add Health data (N = 694, youth who reported a homo/bisexual status at any wave; Wave 1: aged 11–21; Wave 4: aged 24–32. Results After adjusting for other substance use, current depression, mother-child relationship quality at Wave 1, and socioeconomic variables, past-year MU was both concurrently and prospectively associated with past-year SMP. The moderating effect of age was not found. Conclusion MU is concurrently and prospectively associated with increased odds of SMP in the adolescent sample and in the young adult sample. Findings imply that prevention/intervention on HIV risk behaviors may benefit from MU reduction not only in LGB adolescents but also in young adults.

  20. School vending machine purchasing behavior: results from the 2005 YouthStyles survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Olivia M; Yaroch, Amy L; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Agurs-Collins, Tanya

    2010-05-01

    Competitive foods are often available in school vending machines. Providing youth with access to school vending machines, and thus competitive foods, is of concern, considering the continued high prevalence of childhood obesity: competitive foods tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor and can contribute to increased energy intake in children and adolescents. To evaluate the relationship between school vending machine purchasing behavior and school vending machine access and individual-level dietary characteristics, we used population-level YouthStyles 2005 survey data to compare nutrition-related policy and behavioral characteristics by the number of weekly vending machine purchases made by public school children and adolescents (N = 869). Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted logistic regression models that were weighted on age and sex of child, annual household income, head of household age, and race/ethnicity of the adult in study. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2008. Compared to participants who did not purchase from a vending machine, participants who purchased >or=3 days/week were more likely to (1) have unrestricted access to a school vending machine (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.13-2.59); (2) consume regular soda and chocolate candy >or=1 time/day (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.87-5.51 and OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.34-5.46, respectively); and (3) purchase pizza or fried foods from a school cafeteria >or=1 day/week (OR = 5.05; 95% CI = 3.10-8.22). Future studies are needed to establish the contribution that the school-nutrition environment makes on overall youth dietary intake behavior, paying special attention to health disparities between whites and nonwhites.

  1. Sadness, suicide, and drug misuse in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaley, Sean; Mancino, Michael J; Messias, Erick

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to drugs is unfortunately common among high school students and its use has been linked to depression and suicide risk. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of drug abuse and to measure its association with teen suicidality. Three types of substance misuse were reported by more than 10% of Arkansas high school students: cannabis (33.3% ever use). inhalants (18.7% ever use). and prescription drugs without a prescription (13.2% ever use). We found in all suicide outcomes a stronger association with prescription drug abuse, followed by inhalant abuse, then cannabis abuse.

  2. Attitudes and practices of school-aged girls towards menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. CHANGES IN COPING STRATEGY IN THE SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Alieva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study: to investigate the changes in preferable coping-strategies during treatment of the school-age children in a TB sanatorium. 77 patients (children and adolescents were enrolled into the study, they all had rehabilitation due to respiratory tuberculosis. All patients were divided into two groups: 8-12 years old (17 boys and 13 girls and 13-17 years old (24 boys and 23 girls. Coping strategies in the school-age children were investigated twice: at admission and discharge from the sanatorium, using a questionnaire adapted by N.A. Sirota and V.N. Yaltonsky and modified by R. M. Granovskaya and I.M. Nikolskaya. Analysis of the structure of the responses identified a group of patients who were oriented in the direction from the problem. This group presented a lower number of scores of the problem solution scale and a higher number of scores in the scales of avoidance, denial, fantasy formation. The other group of patients, focused in the direction towards the problem, characterized by a higher number of scores of the scales of problem solution and communication and a lower number of scores for the scales of denial and fantasy formation. Statistically significant changes were observed in the scale assessing communication (p = 0.03; there was a statistically significant reduction in the scores reflecting avoidance and denial (p < 0.001. There were no significant changes in the other scores. 

  4. Measuring Life Skills: Standardizing the Assessment of Youth Development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat D. Duerden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available While the development of life skills (e.g., communication, problem solving, etc. is a commonly targeted youth program outcome, the lack of standardized conceptualizations and instrumentation make it difficult to compare impacts across programs and develop validated best practices. In order to promote a more unified approach to life skill development, literature reviews were conducted for 10 life skill domains to identify common definitions and, if available, appropriate outcome measures. Data were then collected from an ethnically diverse sample (N = 758 of elementary, middle, and high school aged youth for the 10 identified instruments. Analyses were conducted to ascertain the psychometric qualities of each measure, the interrelationships among measures, and the measures’ relationships with gender, ethnicity, and school level. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to life skill theory and measurement.

  5. Results From Brazil's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Nelson; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; de Moraes Ferrari, Gerson Luis; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Pacheco, Ricardo Lucas; Martins, Priscila Custódio; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Mendes, Anselmo Alexandre; Lazarin, Samara Pereira Brito; Dos Santos, Tamires Leal Cordeiro; Matsudo, Victor

    2016-11-01

    Very few studies have comprehensively analyzed the physical activity of children and adolescents in Brazil. The purpose of this article is to show the methodology and summarize findings from the first Brazilian Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Three Brazilian research institutions coordinated the activities to develop the Brazilian 2016 Report Card. The data available were collected independently and then synthesized by the Research Work Group using the grade system developed for the First Global Matrix released in 2014, which included 9 indicators of physical activity. Where possible, grades were assigned based on the percentage of children and youth meeting each indicator: A is 81% to 100%; B is 61% to 80%; C is 41% to 60%; D is 21% to 40%; F is 0% to 20%; INC is incomplete data. Among the 9 indicators, only 5 had sufficient data for grading. Overall Physical Activity received a C- grade, Active Transportation received a C+ grade, Sedentary Behavior received a D+ grade, and Government Strategies and Investments received a D grade. The low grades observed highlight the need for continued efforts aimed at improving physical activity in Brazilian children.

  6. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  7. Change of dynamics of development of a thyroid gland at children of school age of the both Gomel' and Mogilev area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorovich, M.V.; Loban, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The given work estimates dynamics of development of a thyroid gland depending on age and anthopometrical parameters at children of school age. Results of work can be used in the further researches on the given subjects, for diagnostics of pathologies of a thyroid gland and their prevention, forecasting of groups of risk of diseases by a thyroid gland of children of school age and teenagers depending on development of anatomic, anthopometrical and age data. (authors)

  8. Preparing Adults to Work with Youth: An Environmental Scan of Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gerdes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This feature article shares the results of a national environmental scan conducted to identify professional development programs offered for school age providers across the nation through the Cooperative Extension System. A purposeful sample comprised of representatives from state extension offices throughout the country included 135 respondents from 48 states. Results showed 139 professional development programs for school age providers were offered through the Cooperative Extension System. The majority of programs offered professional development in the areas of health, nutrition, safety, youth development, and quality afterschool environments. This article summarizes the findings of the environmental scan, including number of contact hours, program scope, and program partners, as well as discussion and recommendations for future work in this area.

  9. Career Development for Youth with Disabilities in South Korea: The Intersection of Culture, Theory, and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Chun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth with disabilities face difficulties resulting from attitudinal, environmental, and organizational barriers not only in initially accessing and entering school (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011, but also as they transition from school age youth to working adults. With a focus on facilitating a better understanding of the issues, challenges, and solutions associated with the design and implementation of career development services for youth with disabilities, this article describes the status quo for students with disabilities in South Korea and then discusses career development services that potentially reduce variation, help facilitate optimal career development, and promote future employment opportunities. To accomplish this task, we explore the intersection of culture, theory, and policy in the Korean transition service delivery system.

  10. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of Ear-Level Remote Microphone devices and Classroom Amplification systems resulted in significantly improved listening, communication and social interaction and a reduction in physiologic stress levels (salivary cortisol) in both one-on-one and group listening situations.

  11. [Effects of strontium in drinking water on the growth of school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y; Cao, S; Xu, F; Li, J

    1999-09-30

    An epidemiological study on the effect of strontium in drinking water on body shape development, bone age, prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis was carried out. The results show: there is a certain promotion on the development of bone age of school-age children, especially of girls, and there is no obvious impact on body shape developing when the concentration of strontium in drinking water is only 10 mg/L. The correlation between strontium in drinking water and the prevalence of caries in children could not get a conclusive evidence in this paper. A further epidemiological investigation is necessary if the role of strontium against caries should be proved.

  12. FEATURES OF INTERCONNECTION OF SELF-ESTEEM AND ANXIETY IN THE YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Калюжна, Євгенія; Шевергіна, Марія

    2015-01-01

     The article is devoted the phenomenology of anxiety and self-esteem of personality and the nature their interconnection in the younger school age. Is emphasized that self-esteem and anxiety are complex personal formations, which belong to basic personality traits. The importance of self-esteem as a component of core of personality and the important regulator of social activity. Substantiated the thesis that self-esteem is the result of comparing the person’s qualities with social relevant st...

  13. Pedagogical and didactical rationale of phonemic stimulation process in pre-school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, Yudenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main results of a regional research problem dealing with education in pre-school age. It examines the effectiveness of the didactic conception of the process of phonemic stimulation in children from 3 to 5 years old. The pedagogical and didactic rationale of the process, viewed from the evolutionary, ontogeny, systemic perspective is explained. Likewise, possible scaffolding is illustrated. The suggested procedures focus the provision of support on a systematic and purposely practice which involve first the discrimination of non-verbal sounds and the discrimi-nation of verbal sound later, aiming to the creation of a phonological consciousness.

  14. Involving youth in program decision-making: how common and what might it do for youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva, Thomas; Cortina, Kai S; Smith, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The strategy of sharing program decision-making with youth in youth programs, a specific form of youth-adult partnership, is widely recommended in practitioner literature; however, empirical study is relatively limited. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of youth program decision-making practices (e.g., asking youth to help decide what activities are offered), using single-level and multilevel methods with a cross-sectional dataset of 979 youth attending 63 multipurpose after-school programs (average age of youth = 11.4, 53 % female). The prevalence of such practices was relatively high, particularly for forms that involved low power sharing such as involving youth in selecting the activities a program offers. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed positive associations between youth program decision-making practices and youth motivation to attend programs. We also found positive correlations between decision-making practices and youth problem-solving efficacy, expression efficacy, and empathy. Significant interactions with age suggest that correlations with problem solving and empathy are more pronounced for older youth. Overall, the findings suggest that involving youth in program decision-making is a promising strategy for promoting youth motivation and skill building, and in some cases this is particularly the case for older (high school-age) youth.

  15. HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE REFERENCES FOR SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN WESTERN ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Doros, Gabriela; Simina, Iulia Jurca; Gafencu, Mihai; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To provide head circumference references for school-aged children in western Romania, and compare them with references from other European countries. A total of 2742 children, aged 6-19 years, from Timis county, were examined by medical students, between February 2010-June 2011. Head circumference references were constructed by Cole's LMS method with LMSChartMaker software. The Romanian 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles for head circumference were compared with recent references from Belgium and Germany. Generally, boys show significantly larger head circumference compared to girls at any age. The head circumference increments between 6 and 19 years are Romania to those from Germany and Belgium, we found lower median head circumference in Romanian boys and girls, that could be explained by a taller stature of boys and girls in Germany and Belgium compared to Romania.

  16. Professionalizations of Danish Teachers Encountering the 'Immigrant of School Age'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    of integration', and as such act on behalf of the imagined collective good (Larsen 2012). This educational optimism is understood in terms of the development of the universal welfare state (Sandin 2012) and its rational engineering of social life (Petersen 1997). Petersen (1997) argues that the government...... of the collective good in the modern welfare nation-state becomes highly dependent on "the acceptance of expert knowledge as the foundation of a good life" (p. 367, my translation). The paper argues that the act of and desire for professionalization of teachers encountering the immigrant of school age should...... for the perceived threat to the collective good and as signifiers of the appropriate solutions to this threat. The proposition of problem construction to be the inner logic of professionalization of teachers feeds into the analytical framework of the paper, where relations of power/knowledge make up the history...

  17. School-age children's fears, anxiety, and human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M K; Ryan-Wenger, N A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the fears of school-age children and determine the relationship between fear and anxiety. A descriptive, correlational, secondary analysis study was conducted using a convenience sample of 90 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Each child was instructed to complete the Revised Children's Anxiety Scale and then answer questions from a structured interview. On completion, each child was instructed to draw a human figure drawing. Frequency charts and correlational statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that the most significant fears of the boys were in the categories of animals, safety, school, and supernatural phenomena, whereas girls were more fearful of natural phenomena. High correlations existed between anxiety scores and the number of fears and emotional indicators on human figure drawings. Because human figure drawings are reliable tools for assessing anxiety and fears in children, practitioners should incorporate these drawings as part of their routine assessments of fearful children.

  18. Sleep architecture in school-aged children with primary snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Goda, Yuichiro; Tezuka, Fumitake; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sato, Masahiro; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis, a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis in the lumbar spine, is often precipitated by trauma, but there may be a congenital predisposition to this condition. There have been few studies on spondylolysis in young children, despite their suitability for studies on congenital defects. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children in order to elucidate its pathogenesis. Thirty lumbar spondylolysis patients (23 boys, 7 girls, including a pair of twins; mean age 9.5 years, age range 5-12 years) were studied. Patient data on history of athletic activity, symptoms at first consultation, and radiological findings such as spinal level, stage of the stress fracture, and skeletal age were collected. Among the 30 patients, 27 (21 boys, 6 girls) had L5 spondylolysis (90.0 %). Only 2 patients had no history of athletic activity at the first consultation. All patients, except for 2 whose diagnosis was incidental, complained of low back pain. In the 27 patients with L5 spondylolysis, 17 (63.0 %) had terminal-stage fracture and 25 (92.6 %) had spina bifida occulta (SBO) involving the S1 lamina. Sixteen of the 27 (59.3 %) had SBO involving the affected lamina (L5) and S1 lamina. In contrast, the 3 patients with L3 or L4 spondylolysis had no evidence of SBO. With respect to skeletal age, 23 of the 27 L5 spondylolysis patients (85.2 %) were in the cartilaginous stage while the remaining 4 patients were in the apophyseal stage. Lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children was commonly a terminal-stage bone defect at L5, which was not necessarily related to history of athletic activity and was sometimes asymptomatic. It was often associated with SBO, indicating a possible congenital predisposition. These findings may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of lumbar spondylolysis.

  20. Lifestyle, quality of life, nutritional status and headache in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kamila; Rockett, Fernanda C; Billo, Maira; Oliveira, Gabriela T; Klein, Luciana S; Parizotti, Cristiane S; Perla, Alexandre S; Perry, Ingrid D S

    2013-01-01

    Headache has been described as a factor with significant negative impact on the quality of life of school-aged children with a high risk of developing in chronic and persistent form in adulthood. Among other headache associated triggers or aggravating factors, lifestyle and obesity has been investigated, but results are still conflicting. To evaluate the prevalence of headache in school-aged children and its relationship to anthropometric characteristics, lifestyle, and quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted in six schools located in two cities in southern Brazil, involving 750 students aged 7 to 14 years. Information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables (presence of headache and menarche), anthropometric data, lifestyle, and quality of life. A total of 185 (24.7%) students reported having headache crises in the last 3 months. Among students aged 10 to 14 years, presence of headache was associated with female sex, affecting 32.2% of girls vs. 23.3% of boys (p = 0.042, chi-square test). Anthropometric parameters (data on overweight/obesity) were consistent with national prevalence rates, and there was no association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and headache. Regarding lifestyle, 2.0% of students reported smoking and 1.6% consuming alcohol occasionally, and neither was associated with headache. Quality of life, especially aspects of social life, appeared to be affected by the presence of headache. This study found a high prevalence of headache in school-aged children, which was associated with female students aged 10-14 years and quality of life. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. School-age outcomes of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Young, Gregory S; Hill, Monique; Phelps Hanzel, Elise; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Ozonoff, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proliferated, but few of these samples have been followed longer-term. We conducted a follow-up study, at age 5.5-9 years, of younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk group, n = 79) or typical development (low-risk group, n = 60), originally recruited as infants. Children with ASD were excluded because of the focus on understanding the range of non-ASD outcomes among high-risk siblings. Using examiner ratings, parent ratings, and standardized assessments, we evaluated differences in clinical outcomes, psychopathology symptoms, autism symptoms, language skills, and nonverbal cognitive abilities. After adjusting for covariates, the high-risk group had increased odds of any clinically elevated/impaired score across measures relative to the low-risk group (43% vs. 12%, respectively). The high-risk group also had increased odds of examiner-rated Clinical Concerns (CC) outcomes (e.g., ADHD concerns, broader autism phenotype, speech-language difficulties, anxiety/mood problems, learning problems) relative to the low-risk group (38% vs. 13%, respectively). The high-risk group with CC outcomes had higher parent-reported psychopathology and autism symptoms, and lower directly-assessed language skills, than the Low-Risk Typically Developing (TD) and High-Risk TD groups, which did not differ. There were no differences in nonverbal cognitive skills. For some in the high-risk group, clinical concerns persisted from early childhood, whereas for others clinical concerns were first evident at school-age. Results suggest continued vulnerability in at least a subgroup of school-age children with a family history of ASD and suggest that this population may benefit from continued screening and monitoring into the school-age years. Autism Res 2016, 9: 632-642. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals

  2. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and HIV-related Stigma among African Diasporic Youth; Results from the African, Caribbean, and Black Youth (ACBY) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Northington, Toya; Sockdjou, Tamara; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2018-01-01

    Socio-environmental factors such as neighborhood quality are increasingly recognized drivers of HIV disparities. Additionally, HIV- related stigma heightens HIV vulnerability among youth in the African Diaspora. However, little research examines the intersection of neighborhood quality and HIV- related stigma. This study uses survey data (N=495) from African, Caribbean, and Black youth in a midsized city in Ontario, Canada to address this research deficit. Analysis of variance and multivariate ordinary least squares regressions were conducted to determine differences in HIV- related stigma by neighborhood quality, experiences of discrimination, HIV- knowledge, and demographic factors. Residents in more socially disordered neighborhoods (p<.05), males (p<.0001), African- Muslim youth (p<.01), and individuals with lower HIV- knowledge (p<.0001) endorsed stigmatizing beliefs more often. Addressing neighborhood disadvantage may have implications for HIV- related stigma. More research should be conducted to understand the impact of socio- environmental disadvantage and HIV- related stigma.

  3. INCIDENCE OF STUTTERING IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzeta SALIHOVIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education „Zenica“; Primary school "Kovačići" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions – DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilijaš. All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.

  4. Can coverage of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiasis control programmes targeting school-aged children be improved? New approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, K; Olsen, A; Sheshe, A; Ntakamulenga, R; Ndawi, B; Magnussen, P

    2009-11-01

    Control programmes generally use a school-based strategy of mass drug administration to reduce morbidity of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in school-aged populations. The success of school-based programmes depends on treatment coverage. The community-directed treatment (ComDT) approach has been implemented in the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Africa and improves treatment coverage. This study compared the treatment coverage between the ComDT approach and the school-based treatment approach, where non-enrolled school-aged children were invited for treatment, in the control of schistosomiasis and STH among enrolled and non-enrolled school-aged children. Coverage during the first treatment round among enrolled children was similar for the two approaches (ComDT: 80.3% versus school: 82.1%, P=0.072). However, for the non-enrolled children the ComDT approach achieved a significantly higher coverage than the school-based approach (80.0 versus 59.2%, P<0.001). Similar treatment coverage levels were attained at the second treatment round. Again, equal levels of treatment coverage were found between the two approaches for the enrolled school-aged children, while the ComDT approach achieved a significantly higher coverage in the non-enrolled children. The results of this study showed that the ComDT approach can obtain significantly higher treatment coverage among the non-enrolled school-aged children compared to the school-based treatment approach for the control of schistosomiasis and STH.

  5. Functions of Aggression and Disciplinary Actions among Elementary School-Age Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Evans, Spencer C.; Pederson, Casey A.; Tampke, Elizabeth C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A link between aggression and disciplinary actions has been established; however, specific associations between reactive and proactive functions of aggression and disciplinary actions in the elementary school setting have not been evaluated. A better understanding of links between functions of aggression and disciplinary actions could…

  6. Career Counselling with Secondary School-Aged Youth: Directions for Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    In the midst of an information age and a global economy, people around the world continue to face significant inequities at school and in the workforce. Career counselling thus finds itself in a paradigm shift that increasingly stresses the influences of culture and sociopolitical context. One area in which the profession can advance a social…

  7. Measuring Parenting Practices among Parents of Elementary School-Age Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Karen A.; Radey, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to establish the factor structure of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), an instrument designed to measure parenting practices among parents of elementary school children. Methods: Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) procedures are used to validate the APQ with 790 parents of…

  8. Disclosure of their HIV status to perinatally infected youth using the adapted Blasini disclosure model in Haiti and the Dominican Republic: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Sagué, Consuelo M.; Dévieux, Jessy; Pinzón-Iregui, Maria Claudia; Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Abreu-Pérez, Rosa; Bertrand, Rachel; Rouzier, Vanessa; Gaston, Stephanie; Ibanez, Gladys; Halpern, Mina; Pape, Jean W.; Dorceus, Patricia; Preston, Sharice M.; Dean, Andrew G.; Nicholas, Stephen W.; Blasini, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a culturally-adapted disclosure intervention for perinatally HIV-infected combined antiretroviral therapy patients in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Design A quasi-experimental trial was conducted comparing caregiver–youth pairs who completed the intervention [adapted Blasini disclosure model (aBDM)] to pairs who discontinued aBDM participation before disclosure. aBDM consists of five components: structured healthcare worker training; one-on one pre-disclosure intervention/education sessions for youth (describing pediatric chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes and HIV) and for caregivers (strengthening capacity for disclosure); a scheduled supportive disclosure session; and one-on-one postdisclosure support for caregivers and youth. Methods Caregivers of nondisclosed combined antiretroviral therapy patients aged 10.0–17.8 years were invited to participate. Data were collected by separate one-on-one face-to-face interviews of caregivers and youth by study staff and medical record review by pediatricians at enrollment and 3 months after disclosure or after intervention discontinuation. Results To date, 65 Dominican Republic and 27 Haiti caregiver–youth pairs have enrolled. At enrollment, only 46.4% of youth had viral suppression and 43.4% of caregivers had clinically significant depressive symptomatology. To date, two serious study-related adverse events have occurred. Seven of the 92 (7.6%, 6 in the Dominican Republic) enrolled pairs discontinued participation before disclosure and 39 had completed postdisclosure participation. Median plasma HIV-RNA concentration was lower in youth who completed aBDM than in youth who discontinued participation before aBDM disclosure (<40 versus 8673 copies/ml; P = 0.027). Completers expressed considerable satisfaction with aBDM. Conclusion Preliminary results suggest safety, acceptability, and possible effectiveness of the aBDM. PMID:26049543

  9. Early diagnosis of junior school age children’s posture disorders

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    N.S. Razumeiko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe specificities of early diagnosis method for junior school age children’s posture disorders. Material: in pedagogic experiment 156 junior school age children (boys and girls of 7-10 years’ age participated. All children had no experience of training in sport circles. For determination of uniformity of the tested we fulfilled experts’ examination for presence or absence of external signs of posture disorders in frontal plane. The children’s examination was conducted by qualified specialists at the beginning and at the end of experiment. For determination of early signs of muscular asymmetry in torso right and left sides of the tested children we used methodic, based on registration of tonic vibration reflex. Results: the pupils’ examination permitted to form a group of 108 persons, who did not have external signs of posture disorders. It was proved that it would be purposeful to take prophylaxis measures at very early stages of imbalance in muscular system’s work. Traditional approach in the form of prophylaxis examination can not give confident information about initial stage of imbalance in muscular system’s work in child’s organism. Conclusions: it was found that imbalance of motor nervous centers reflex excitability on both sides of backbone (if no purposeful prophylaxis measures are taken can result in muscular tonus asymmetry on right and left sides of torso in lumbar spine area.

  10. Word Definitional Skills in School age Persian Speaking Children: A Developmental Study on Form

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    Talieh Zarifian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Word definitional skills (WDSs were classified according to the quality of both semantic content and syntactic form. The aim of the present study was to investigate the syntactic development in WDSs in typically developing school- age children. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study,  150 of typically developing school-age children participated by the  multistage sampling method in the second to sixth grade from primary schools in 1, 7 and 17 municipal  districts of Tehran. The definition skill was assessed with word definition task. The reliability was assessed by two independent values and the validity was determined by the content. The results were  analyzed by the SPSS (22th version  statistical software and with the method of independent- samples T test, univariate analysis of variance and Tukey test. Results: The form analysis revealed that all children use phrase/clause  or simple sentence, transitional form and Aristotelian form frequently, but by increasing the age, definitions were developed from simple syntactic structure into Aristotelian form, in fact mean score of the form in word definition was significantly increased by age (P<0.001. Discussion: Owing to the findings of this study, the development of word definitional skills in terms of form was developed from phrase/clause or simple sentence and transitional form responses into Aristotelian form. Also WDSs are closely related to academic success and the development of literacy.

  11. Processing of prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli in school-age children.

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    Lindström, R; Lepistö, T; Makkonen, T; Kujala, T

    2012-12-01

    Speech prosody conveys information about important aspects of communication: the meaning of the sentence and the emotional state or intention of the speaker. The present study addressed processing of emotional prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli in school-age children (mean age 10 years) by recording the electroencephalogram, facial electromyography, and behavioral responses. The stimulus was a semantically neutral Finnish word uttered with four different emotional connotations: neutral, commanding, sad, and scornful. In the behavioral sound-discrimination task the reaction times were fastest for the commanding stimulus and longest for the scornful stimulus, and faster for the neutral than for the sad stimulus. EEG and EMG responses were measured during non-attentive oddball paradigm. Prosodic changes elicited a negative-going, fronto-centrally distributed neural response peaking at about 500 ms from the onset of the stimulus, followed by a fronto-central positive deflection, peaking at about 740 ms. For the commanding stimulus also a rapid negative deflection peaking at about 290 ms from stimulus onset was elicited. No reliable stimulus type specific rapid facial reactions were found. The results show that prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli activate pre-attentive neural change-detection mechanisms in school-age children. However, the results do not support the suggestion of automaticity of emotion specific facial muscle responses to non-attended emotional speech stimuli in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Relationship between Social and Motor Cognition in Primary School Age-Children

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    Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together. PMID:26941685

  13. Prevalence of School Bullying Among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Maïano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Moullec, Grégory; Aimé, Annie

    2016-06-01

    The true extent of school bullying among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remains an underexplored area. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to: (a) assess the proportion of school-aged youth with ASD involved in school bullying as perpetrators, victims or both; (b) examine whether the observed prevalence estimates vary when different sources of heterogeneity related to the participants' characteristics and to the assessment methods are considered; and (c) compare the risk of school bullying between youth with ASD and their typically developing (TD) peers. A systematic literature search was performed and 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. The resulting pooled prevalence estimate for general school bullying perpetration, victimization and both was 10%, 44%, and 16%, respectively. Pooled prevalence was also estimated for physical, verbal, and relational school victimization and was 33%, 50%, and 31%, respectively. Moreover, subgroup analyses showed significant variations in the pooled prevalence by geographic location, school setting, information source, type of measures, assessment time frame, and bullying frequency criterion. Finally, school-aged youth with ASD were found to be at greater risk of school victimization in general, as well as verbal bullying, than their TD peers. Autism Res 2016, 9: 601-615. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Parental Characteristics Associated With Outcomes in Youth With Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the TODAY Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Ruth S; Trief, Paula M; El Ghormli, Laure; Goland, Robin; McKay, Siripoom; Milaszewski, Kerry; Preske, Jeff; Willi, Steven; Yasuda, Patrice M

    2015-05-01

    This study examined parental factors associated with outcomes of youth in the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial. Of 699 youth with type 2 diabetes in the TODAY cohort, 623 (89.1%) had a parent participate and provide data at baseline, including weight, HbA1c, blood pressure, symptoms of depression, binge eating (BE), and medical history. Youth were followed 2-6.5 years. Data were analyzed using regression models and survival curve methods. Parental diabetes (43.6% of parents) was associated with higher baseline HbA1c (P parent, P = 0.0002). Parental hypertension (40.6% of parents) was associated with hypertension in youth during TODAY (40.4% vs. 27.4% of youth with and without parental hypertension had hypertension, P = 0.0008) and with higher youth baseline BMI z scores (P = 0.0038). Parents had a mean baseline BMI of 33.6 kg/m(2). Parental obesity (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with higher baseline BMI z scores in the youth (P parents (20.6% of parents) were related to youth depressive symptoms at baseline only (P = 0.0430); subclinical BE in parents was related to the presence of subclinical BE (P = 0.0354) and depressive symptoms (P = 0.0326) in youth throughout the study period. Parental diabetes and hypertension were associated with lack of glycemic control, hypertension, and higher BMI z scores in youth. Further research is needed to better understand and address parental biological and behavioral factors to improve youth health outcomes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  15. Risk and direct protective factors for youth violence: results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Multisite Violence Prevention Project.

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    Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted as part of a multisite effort to examine risk and direct protective factors for youth violence. The goal was to identify those factors in the lives of young people that increase or decrease the risk of violence. These analyses fill an important gap in the literature, as few studies have examined risk and direct protective factors for youth violence across multiple studies. Data on 4432 middle-school youth, from the CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project were used. Evaluations were made of effects of variables coded as risk and direct protective factors in the fall of 6th grade on violence measured in spring of 7th and 8th grades. Factors tested included depression, delinquency, alcohol and drug involvement, involvement in family activities, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, truancy, and peer deviance. Most variables were coded with two sets of dummy variables indicating risk and protective directions of effects. Results showed that higher teacher-rated study skills were associated with lower subsequent violence across genders and ethnic groups. Affiliation with deviant peers was significantly associated with increased subsequent violence among youth reporting their race/ethnicity as white or other, marginally associated with increased violence among African-American youth, and unrelated among Latino youth. This study identified some factors than should be areas of interest for effective prevention programs. Some ethnic differences also should be considered in planning of prevention. The CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project completed enrollment prior to July 2005. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia.

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    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-12-26

    Although the sensitivity of Wet mount technique is questionable, it is the major diagnostic technique for routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitosis in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2013. Single stool sample was processed for direct, Formol ether concentration (FEC) and Kato Katz methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of diagnostic tests were calculated in terms of the "Gold" standard method (the combined result of the three methods altogether). A total of 422 school age children were participated in this study. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high (74.6%) with Kato Katz technique. The sensitivity of Wet mount, FEC and Kato Katz tests against the Gold standard test was 48.9, 63.1 and 93.7%, respectively. Kato Katz technique revealed a better NPV 80.4 (80.1-80.6) as compared to the Wet mount (33.7%) and FEC techniques (41.3%). In this study, the Kato Katz technique outperformed the other two methods but the true values for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic values are not known. Moreover, it is labor intensive and not easily accessible. Hence, it is preferable to use FEC technique to complement the Wet mount test.

  17. Differentiated correction of junior school age children’s posture at physical culture trainings

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    N.S. Razumeiko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to show peculiarities of differentiated correction of junior school age children’s posture, considering tonic vibration reflex. Material: the research was conducted with participation of 62 junior school age children (7-10 years old boys and girls. All children have no sport training experience. All children were preliminary examined by qualified medical doctors. Tonic vibration reflex of lumbar spine was registered. Children fulfilled test exercises, which characterized power endurance of abdomen muscles, side of torso and back muscles. Results: external signs of posture disorders were absent in frontal plane. In 35 persons (65.8% we registered one-side increased reflex excitability of nervous centers: from right side of backbone - in 28 children (72%; from the left side in 17 children (28%. Correction of posture with the help of correcting exercises can give steady effect only with simultaneous formation of correct posture habit. For this purpose it is necessary to create muscular-joint sense of separate body parts’ position. Conclusions: for determination of functional potentials of in-born muscular corset it is recommended to fulfill special test exercises. For local influence on lumbar spine muscles it is recommended to use exercise of asymmetric character.

  18. The Impact of Nutrition, Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle on School-Age Children

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    Pantea-Stoian Anca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-age. The protocol consisted in clinical examination, body mass index (BMI calculation, questions about diet, physical activity and time spent watching television (TV. Results. Most children do not respect a schedule of meals and snacks (78%. Unhealthy diet (fast food, carbonated beverages, chocolate registered higher preferences. Mean TV time was 2.32 hours/day (SD=1.92 and a strong evidence on relationship between age and number of hours allocated to TV was discovered (p< .01. Four percent of children were found to be under the 5th percentile (underweight, 18% between 85th and 95th percentile (overweight and 14% above 95th percentile (obesity. Conclusions. A sedentary life in this case was mainly determined by the time spent daily in front of the television rather than lack of exercise.

  19. Feasibility of microcoria optometry in screening for ametropia in school-age children

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    Zhe Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the feasibility of microcoria optometry in screening for children ametropia. METHODS: Totally 217 school-age children were selected, included 94 first-grade students(6~8 years oldand 123 fourth-grade students(9~12 years old. Refractive diopter was measured with automatic refractor RM-8000 to evaluate the accuracy of micocoria optometry in screening ametropia. RESULTS: After cycloplegia, both the mean sphere diopter and cylinder diopter in grade one students changed significantly(PPP>0.05in grade four students. Different refractive type: before and after mydriasis spherical myopia, spherical equivalent difference was 0.263±0.618 and 0.216±0.653D, with statistical significance(PP=0.000. The lenticular difference between the two groups were not statistically different(P>0.05. Choosing small pupil computer optometry for ≤-1.00D, ≥-0.50D child myopia or hyperopia could get more accurate value of diagnostic cutoffs, Youden index was 0.672 and 0.580.CONCLUSION: Microcoria optometry can be as a effective method of screening of children with ametropia, but if for optometry, school-age children must accept mydriasis.

  20. Management strategies of mothers of school-age children with autism: implications for practice.

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    Joosten, Annette V; Safe, Anneleise P

    2014-08-01

    Mothering children with autism results in mothers spending more time on daily tasks as well as managing the disorder. The need for mothers to self-manage often increases when the child is school aged. Mothers develop strategies, and occupational therapists and other health professional rely on or expect mothers to be involved in meeting the extra needs of their children with autism and other family members. Little is known about the strategies adopted by the mothers. The aim of this study was to explore the strategies mothers used to manage their roles and emotions, and their child's behaviours. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with seven mothers and data were analysed in this qualitative study using phenomenological analysis. Findings revealed that the mothers had adopted strategies to manage their roles, their emotions and their child's behaviour. However, the strategies were often shaped by the expectations of others or circumstances beyond their control and at times added further to their stress. Mothers of children with autism developed strategies to self-manage their lives and their child's disorder. However, even when these strategies were effective, they sometimes placed further stress on the mothers. The mothers provided insights to how they coped but need help to consider the support they require and therapists need to consider the pressures of expecting mothers to self-manage their child's disorder, their own lives and their family. Family-centred practice emphasising collaboration with mothers needs to be maintained with school-aged children. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  1. The Analysis of Nutritional Predictors of Anemia Combined with Obesity in Primary School-Age Children

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    Sekulic Marija R.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption and amounts of a variety of food products used in a diet affect the incidence of anemia and different levels of nutritional status among school-age children. The prevalence of food intake comprised of fats, carbohydrates and sodium (salt is a significant contributing factor to the incidence of excessive weight. Apart from nutrition, a leisure-time physical activity and the time spent in front of the TV or computer may contribute to an increase in anemia and obesity rates. The objective of this paper was to examine nutritional status, dietary habits and anemia among school-age children in the central Serbia region (the city of Kragujevac. It was established that 47.3% of the surveyed children fell into the normal weight group, 24.5% of the children are considered to be at risk of being overweight, 21.4 % of the children are considered as obese, whereas 6.8% of the children fell into the under-weight group. The incidence of anemia was noted in 10.8% of the cases, whereas anemia in obese children was observed in 21.6% of the cases (n=114; during the school year of 2014-2015. The obtained results show a statistically significant correlation between an increase in the consumption of fast food and anemia in children, whereas the amount of time children spend in front of the TV is also associated with the higher percentage of anemia and obesity.

  2. Maternal coping with the prospect of liver transplant among their school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Nobue; Sato, Naho

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the following: maternal coping with the prospect of becoming the living-donor liver transplant for their child; the daily lives of school-age children surviving biliary atresia with their native liver; and to explore the relationship between these individuals. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 6 school-age children surviving biliary atresia with their native liver and their mothers. The interviews were conducted from June to August 2014, and a qualitative content analysis was used. Results showed that mothers realized a possible need for transplantation in the future, which contributes to emotional and practical uncertainties. The mothers coexisted with this uncertainty and preferred to use a buffering strategy. In contrast, the children did not consider their illness and future and did not adhere to a therapeutic regimen. It is suggested that living with uncertainty about the health and survival of their children is advantageous for mothers. However, problems related to the psychosocial aspect and child's adherence may occur in the future. In addition, problem-solving coping strategies for mothers and the independence of chronically ill children with liver disease should be promoted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. [An assessment of the nutritional status of a school-aged population from Argelia, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Bonilla, Rubén A; Chito-Trujillo, Diana M

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition affects most rural areas in Colombian, mainly involving the school-aged population. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of students (n=1,528) attending an Agricultural College in the town of Argelia in south-western Colombia in the Cauca department. The school-aged children’s weight and height were measured and their nutritional status was determined from their body mass index (BMI), according to criteria defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Anthropometric measurements were analyzed by means of measures of central tendency, stratified by gender and age. The standard error of the difference was estimated to specify the statistical significance of some of the most important differences observed between study indicators; such significance was verified at 0.05 level. Prevalence regarding malnutrition and thinness in 5-10 years-old children, a trend towards obesity in adolescents and growth retardation in children and adolescents was established from analysis of the children’'s weight (P/E), height for age (H/A) and BMI. The results suggested that sports should be encouraged at an early age, as well as training school children and their families regarding healthy eating habits and thus provide scientific support for planning government healthcare agencies’ prevention and control strategies.

  4. Poor nutrition and bullying behaviors: A comparison of deviant and non-deviant youth.

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    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2017-06-01

    Research on the topic of bullying has revealed that a substantial number of youth are bullied each year. Even so, a complete understanding of the origins of bullying behaviors remains elusive. In the current study, we propose that poor nutrition may constitute an important modifiable risk factor for bullying behaviors during adolescence, and that behavioral sensitivity to nutrition may vary across deviant and non-deviant youth. We employ data from the US sample of youth (52% male) ages 10-17 from the 2009-2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study to examine our hypothesis (N = 8753). The results reveal that poor nutrition significantly increases the odds of persistent bullying among youth, and that this relationship is particularly pronounced for non-deviant youth. The findings suggest that efforts to improve the nutrition of non-deviant youth may have the added benefit of reducing their likelihood of engaging in persistent bullying behaviors. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between breakfast and obesity among school-aged children.

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    Rocandio, A M; Ansotegui, L; Arroyo, M

    2000-08-01

    Breakfast models among children are an issue of public health concern given the association between breakfast and school performance and its potential relationship with obesity. Food intake, energy, and nutrients in the breakfast of 32 school aged children (11-years olds) and its relationship with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) were examined. The analysis was made by means of anthropometric measurements and a record of weekly food intake using the accurate weighed amount method. The percentage of studied children with overweight/obesity reached 46.9 (weight for height > 90 percentile). The proportional calorie intake in breakfast was lower than that recommended (16.6%). The association observed between caloric percentage of breakfast regarding daily energy and BMI was not significant. Nevertheless, significant correlations were found between fruit group (Pearson r = 0.6286) and protein foods (Pearson r = -0.7653) with BMI. The amount of total lipids (34.4%) and saturated lipids (19.4% in breakfast exceed the recommendations. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data and serve as basis for the design of nutritional education programs.

  6. Flatfoot in school-age children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Demneh, Ebrahim; Jafarian, Fahimehsadat; Melvin, Jonathan M A; Azadinia, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Fatemeh; Jafarpishe, Mohamad

    2015-06-01

    Flatfoot has been shown to cause abnormal stresses on the foot and lower extremity. The altered mechanical stresses on these structures can aggravate the foot deformity. Screening of the flatfoot and its associated factors helps detect underlying risks influencing the stresses on the foot. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of the medial foot arch and investigate its associated factors in students, aged 7 to 14 years. Multistage cluster sampling was used and each cluster included 2 other random sampling levels. A total of 667 Iranian school children were recruited and their feet were bilaterally evaluated using a static footprint while standing in a fully weightbearing position. The footprint, an observational measurement, and a questionnaire were used for the foot assessment. The prevalence of flatfoot was 17.1% in the population studied. There was no gender difference but the prevalence of flatfoot did decrease with age. The significant differences were observed in the prevalence of flatfoot between normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups (P plantar arch in school-age children is influenced by age and weight. Age and weight were the primary predictive factors of flatfoot. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. A Critical Examination of Change in Interpersonal Relationships among Youth from Different Ethnic Communities as a Result of Ethnic Conflict

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    Kigera, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    This study examined interpersonal relationships among youth from different ethnic communities. The purpose of this study was to examine interpersonal relationships among youth from different ethnic communities in Kenya, especially the vulnerable population of individuals with disabilities, and the ways interpersonal relationships between youth…

  8. Traditional values of virginity and sexual behaviour in rural Ethiopian youth: results from a cross-sectional study

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    Berhane Yemane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delaying sexual initiation has been promoted as one of the methods of decreasing risks of HIV among young people. In traditional countries, such as Ethiopia, retaining virginity until marriage is the norm. However, no one has examined the impact of this traditional norm on sexual behaviour and risk of HIV in marriage. This study examined the effect of virginity norm on having sex before marriage and sexual behaviour after marriage among rural Ethiopian youth. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey in 9 rural and 1 urban area using a probabilistic sample of 3,743 youth, 15–24 years of age. Univariate analysis was used to assess associations between virginity norm and gender stratified by area, and between sexual behaviour and marital status. We applied Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis to estimate age at sexual debut and assessed the predictors of premarital sex among the never-married using SPSS. Results We found that maintaining virginity is still a way of securing marriage for girls, especially in rural areas; the odds of belief and intention to marry a virgin among boys was 3–4 times higher among rural young males. As age increased, the likelihood of remaining a virgin decreased. There was no significant difference between married and unmarried young people in terms of number of partners and visiting commercial sex workers. Married men were twice more likely to have multiple sexual partners than their female counterparts. A Cox regression show that those who did not believe in traditional values of preserving virginity (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 2.91 [1.92–4.40], alcohol drinkers (AHR = 2.91 [1.97–4.29], Khat chewers (AHR = 2.36 [1.45–3.85], literates (AHR = 18.01 [4.34–74.42], and the older age group (AHR = 1.85 [1.19–2.91] were more likely to have premarital sex than their counterparts. Conclusion Although virginity norms help delay age at sexual debut among rural Ethiopian youth, and thus

  9. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers. Results of the study revealed that children with SLI performed similarly to their typically developing peers on a single word spelling task. Alternatively, those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia evidenced poor spelling accuracy. Errors made by both those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia were characterized by numerous phonologic, orthographic, and semantic errors. Cumulative results support the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in typically developing school-age children and their peers with SLI and dyslexia. Findings are provided as further support for the notion that SLI and dyslexia are distinct, yet co-morbid, developmental disorders. PMID:22876769

  10. Unmet Needs of Families of School-Aged Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Brown, Hilary K.; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Hunter, Duncan; Kelley, Elizabeth; Cobigo, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Background: To aid decision making regarding the allocation of limited resources, information is needed on the perceived unmet needs of parents of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 101 Canadian families of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder.…

  11. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  12. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

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    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  13. Education of Social Skills among Senior High School Age Students in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.

    2016-01-01

    Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…

  14. Developmental Trajectories From Birth to School Age in Healthy Term-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.; Meijer, Lisethe; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Bruggink, J.L.M.; Bos, A.F.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of the scores obtained on tests of motor development from birth until school age in healthy, term singletons and to determine if early motor scores are associated with more complex cognitive functions at school age, such as attention and memory. PATIENTS AND

  15. Obesity related factors in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Parvaneh Reza; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Rad, Afagh Hasanzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Overweight and obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in both developed and developing world, and is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Although various studies demonstrated pediatric obesity-related factors, but, due to its ongoing hazardous effects, researchers aimed to assess obesity-related factors in school-aged children in Rasht, Iran. This was a case-control study which was performed in eight primary schools of Rasht. A cluster sampling method was used to select 320 students including 80 in case (BMI ≥85(th) percentile for age and gender) and 240 in control group (BMI = 5(th)-85(th) percentile for age and gender). Data were collected by a scale, a tape meter, and a form which consisted of obesity-related factors, and were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and stepwise multivariate regression tests in SPSS 19. Findings showed that the mean and standard deviation of birth weight (g) in case and control groups were 3671 ± 5.64 and 190 ± 5.46, respectively (P = 0.000). 82.5% of case and 92.9% of control group had exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months (P = 0.024). Also, multivariate regression analysis indicated that birth weight, age, exclusive breastfeeding, and frequency of meals have significant effects on body mass index (BMI). It seems that more accurate interventions for primordial prevention are essential to reduce childhood obesity risk factors, including promotion of pre-pregnancy and prenatal care to have neonates who are appropriate for gestational age and also improving exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. In addition, identifying children at risk for adolescent obesity provides physicians and midwives with an opportunity for earlier intervention with the goal of limiting the progression of abnormal weight gain.

  16. Psycho-pedagogіcal characteristic of adaptive mobile games for deaf children of primary school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іvahnenko A.A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Conducted psycho-pedagogical and medico-biological basis of usage specially adapted mobile games in the psychophysical development of deaf children of primary school age. Determine the importance of mobile gaming as a means of physical education for this children's category. As a result of research found wellness, educational, educate and correctional importance of mobile games adapted deaf schoolchildren. Adaptive mobile games are effective media for psychophysical development of deaf children that brings to improvement of cognitions.

  17. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    VASILEVA Neli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Method...

  18. Associations of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance with biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in Hispanic/Latino youths: Results from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Hua, Simin; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Gallo, Linda C; Hudson, Barry I; Goldberg, Ronald B; Delamater, Alan M; Kaplan, Robert C; Isasi, Carmen R

    2017-05-01

    We hypothesized that Hispanic/Latino youth at high risk for diabetes would have elevated biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. Among 1316 children 8-16years old from the Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth), we used Poisson regression to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the cross-sectional association of quartiles of fasting glucose, HbA1c, and insulin resistance with E-selectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels above the median (≥48.1 and ≥2.02ng/mL, respectively). Levels of E-selectin and PAI-1 were higher in children who were obese or had higher levels of hs-CRP (p<0.05). Insulin resistance was independently associated with higher levels of PAI-1 (adjusted PR and 95% CI for the highest versus lowest quartile (Q4 vs Q1): 2.25 [1.64, 3.09]). We found stronger evidence of associations of insulin resistance with higher levels of PAI-1 among boys as compared with girls (p-interaction = 0.10). Insulin resistance was associated with endothelial dysfunction, as measured by higher levels of PAI-1, in Hispanic/Latino youth. These biomarkers may be useful in risk stratification and prediction of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in high-risk youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GENDER-BASED DIFFERENCES IN SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S DIVERGENT THINKING

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    Leah Roue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the shortage of females in science and engineering is linked to possible gender-based differences in school-aged children’s divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is a direct measure of creativity and an important characteristic in science and engineering. A survey instrument designed to measure divergent thinking was administered to 8th and 11th graders in a mid-western United States school district. Results showed that there were no difference between girls and boys on the three measures of divergent thinking: fluency, flexibility, and originality. These results indicate little reason as to why participation in science and engineering is male dominated, and support the notion that additional exposure to science and engineering through divergent-thinking activities will provide girls with the self-knowledge that they are capable of solving open-ended problems and engineering tasks.

  20. The bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of this bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schencke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous international studies have proved that owning a pet can enhance the quality of life of school-age children; however, there have been no such studies in Chile. The objective of the present study is to analyzes the bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of such bond, in particular as it relates to self-identity and the perception of social support. Some differences appear in the results of international studies, in the sense that no significant difference can be observed in terms of self-identity or perceived social support between children who own a dog and children who don’t. However, it is significant that children who perceive themselves as unpopular have a stronger bond with their pets than those who perceive themselves as popular.

  1. The Empowerment Of Role Of The Family In Developing Character Of Environmental Awareness In Elementary School-Age Children

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    Kadek Aria Prima Dewi PF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to see the empowerment process of role of the family through Waste Bank media to develop character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children. The qualitative descriptive research methodology is used. The result of this research shows that the empowerment of role of the family in developing character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children in State Elementary School 1 Padangsambian is determined by the role of waste bank media through intervention of school to students' parents. The initial stage of intervention activity is performed with parenting activity in school with the theme of environmental awareness. Furthermore, all forms of activities or moral actions of environmental awareness are guided by Waste Bank community. The family becomes active in the environmental awareness activity and the control process is implemented together by school and Waste Bank community.

  2. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...... being chronically enlarged and of a firm consistency. Where co-endemic, the two parasites are thought to synergistically exacerbate hepatosplenomegaly. Here, two potential health consequences, i.e. dilation of the portal vein (indicative of increased portal pressure) and stunting of growth, were...... with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences....

  3. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

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    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  4. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  5. Impact of interactive teaching on the efficient realization of objectives for children in early school age

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    Arbona Xhemajli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation of the practice of teaching through interactive models, new roles of teacher and student, and preference of the activity of the student in the learning process, are found in the basis of changes that is taking place in education in Kosovo. We are talking about actions that aim to improve the quality, durability and applicability of the knowledge that students acquire in school. So today, in all cycles of education, new teaching models are applied that determine the student as an active subject in the teaching process. Interactive teaching is recommended and implemented with significant uplift, because it is becoming a need of modern education, and part of the needs of teachers and students. The extent and quality of mastering the knowledge in a large extent depends on the way work is organized in class and therefore interactive teaching is a key factor to improve the efficiency and quality of learning. Interactive teaching influences a higher level of motivation in the classroom by developing the cooperation between the students and activates the responsibility of the students. They learn about the harmonization of positions, collective action, tolerance and modern communication using different sources of knowledge. In this paper we define the terms of interaction and interactive teaching and actualize a number of other issues related to interactive teaching in the early school age. Also, this paper presents only a part of the authentic results of the two studies combined, one of the results obtained by means of questionnaires given to teachers from nine schools in Kosovo and from the results of interviews conducted with professionists as a focus group. Results from the survey show that interactive learning methods are extensively covered by the school age. They are already very popular in professional environments or communities of teachers since practice proved their effectiveness.

  6. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

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    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  7. Friendship in school-age boys with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analytic summary and developmental, process-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna L; Gates, Jacquelyn A; Lerner, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Friendship-making is considered a well-established domain of deficit for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), with this population sometimes described as incapable of making friends. However, the majority of children with ASD indicate a desire for friends, and many report having friends. To what degree, then, do youth with ASD succeed in achieving friendships with peers? If and when they do succeed, by what means do these friendships emerge relative to models of typically developing (TD) youths' friendships? To address these questions, we first meta-analyzed the descriptive friendship literature (peer-reported sociometrics, self-report, parent-report) among school-age boys with ASD. Using random effects models, we found that youth with ASD do make friends according to peers and parents (Hedges's g > 2.84). However, self-reported friendship quality (Hedges's g = -1.09) and parent- and peer-reported quantity (Hedges's g friendship in TD youth (Hartup & Stevens, 1997). We then present a model that synthesizes these domains through the construct of social information processing speed, and thereby present the first developmental, process-based model of friendship development among youth with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Are We Driving Our Kids to Unhealthy Habits? Results of the Active Healthy Kids Canada 2013 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

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    Casey E. Gray

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT.

  9. Are We Driving Our Kids to Unhealthy Habits? Results of the Active Healthy Kids Canada 2013 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Casey E.; Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel D.; Colley, Rachel C.; Cowie Bonne, Jennifer; Arthur, Mike; Cameron, Christine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Faulkner, Guy; Janssen, Ian; Kolen, Angela M.; Manske, Stephen R.; Salmon, Art; Spence, John C.; Timmons, Brian W.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT) indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT. PMID:24905246

  10. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  11. Clinical implications of daytime sleepiness for the academic performance of middle school-aged adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Marshall, Stephen; Evans, Steven W

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the relative impact of total time slept per night and daytime sleepiness on the academic functioning of 100 middle school-aged youth (mean age = 11.9) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The primary goal of the study was to determine if total time slept per night and/or daytime sleepiness, as measured by youth self-report on the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), predicted academic functioning above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and relevant covariates, such as intelligence, achievement scores and parent education level. Self-reported daytime sleepiness but not self-reported total time slept per night was associated significantly with all academic outcomes. When examined in a hierarchical regression model, self-reported daytime sleepiness significantly predicted parent-rated homework problems and academic impairment and teacher-rated academic competence above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and relevant covariates, but did not predict grade point average or teacher-rated academic impairment. The implications of these findings for understanding more clearly the association between ADHD and sleep and the functional implications of this relationship are discussed. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children

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    Boyede GO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic

  13. Contributions of Qualitative Research to Understanding Savings for Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherraden, Margaret; Peters, Clark; Wagner, Kristen; Guo, Baorong; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores contributions of qualitative research to saving theory for children, youth, and parents in children's development account (CDAs) programs. It brings together findings from three studies: (1) elementary school age children saving for college, (2) youth transitioning from foster care saving for education and other purposes, and…

  14. Factors Related to the Developmental Experiences of Youth Serving as 4-H Camp Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David N.; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental experiences of high-school-aged 4-H youth volunteering as counselors at Louisiana 4-H summer camps. A total of 288 counselors from 10 different camping sessions participated in the study. The Youth Experiences Survey 2.0 and the Developmental Experience Survey measured the personal…

  15. Complex Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…

  16. Effectiveness of a Mentor-Implemented Violence Prevention Intervention for Assault-Injured Youth Presenting to the Emergency Department: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L.; Haynie, Denise; Brenner, Ruth; Wright, Joseph L.; Chung, Shang-en; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Context The emergency department has been described as a promising setting to initiate interventions with assault-injured youth to reduce the risk of re-injury and reactive perpetration. Efforts to intervene have received little study. Objective To assess the impact of a mentor-implemented violence prevention intervention on reducing aggression, fighting and re-injury among assault-injured youth. Design Randomized controlled trial Setting Two large urban hospital emergency departments Participants Youth age 10–15 presenting with peer assault injury were recruited and randomly assigned to intervention and comparison groups. Intervention Intervention youth received a mentor who implemented a 6 session problem-solving curriculum while parents received 3 home visits with a health educator to discuss family needs and facilitate service use and parental monitoring. The comparison group received a list of community resources with 2 follow-up phone calls to facilitate service use. Main Outcome Measures Youth and parents were interviewed at baseline and 6 months to assess attitudes about violence, risk factors, fighting and repeat injury. Results 227 families were recruited with 23% refusing participation and 4% partial interview completion. 166 families were enrolled with 87 randomized to the intervention group and 79 in the comparison group; 118 (71%) completed both youth and parent follow-up interviews and 113 had usable data. Intervention and comparison groups were not significantly different at baseline on demographics or risk factors except for increased knife carrying and less deviant peers in the intervention group. After adjustment for baseline differences, there was a trend toward significant program effect including reducing misdemeanor activity (rate ratio 0.29, confidence interval 0.08–0.98), youth-reported aggression scores (rate ratio .63, 0.4–1.00) and increasing youth self efficacy (beta=2.28, pmentor-implemented program with assault-injured youth

  17. Assessing attachment in school-aged children: Do the School-Age Assessment of Attachment and Family Drawings work together as complementary tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Hopkins, Rebecca; De Burca, Calem; Aldridge, Felicity A

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to identify an assessment package that could improve treatment planning for troubled children and their families. To assess the validity of our tools, we tested the relations among the School-Age Assessment of Attachment, the Family Drawing and children's risk status. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation to interpret the assessments in the hope of identifying a gradient of risk, and explore whether a new coding method improved the validity of Family Drawings and their utility as a tool to complement the School-Age Assessment of Attachment. The participants were 89 children, aged between 5 and 12 years; 32 children were involved with mental health services or child protection. Each child completed a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and a Family Drawing. Both assessments differentiated between clinical and normative referrals with moderate effect sizes when dichotomizing risk versus non-risk attachment. When the analysis incorporated a gradient of six attachment classifications, the effect sizes decreased, but specificity of risk increased. The School-Age Assessment of Attachment had greater validity for discriminating risk, and type of risk, than the Family Drawings. With a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and family history, the Family Drawing can provide information about distress that some children do not provide verbally. Integration of the two assessment tools alongside information about parental and family functioning appears to be the key to formulating children's problems.

  18. Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2014-01-01

    childhood asthma. We hypothesized that children with asthma have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. ObjectiveWe aimed to assess the bacterial immune response in asymptomatic infants and the association with later development of asthma by age 7 years. MethodsThe Copenhagen...... was assessed based on the pattern of cytokines produced and T-cell activation. ResultsThe immune response to pathogenic bacteria was different in infants with asthma by 7 years of age (P = .0007). In particular, prospective asthmatic subjects had aberrant production of IL-5 (P = .008), IL-13 (P = .057), IL-17...... (P = .001), and IL-10 (P = .028), whereas there were no differences in T-cell activation or peripheral T-cell composition. ConclusionsChildren with asthma by school age exhibited an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We propose that an abnormal immune response to pathogenic...

  19. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children.

  20. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Emotion understanding, pictorial representations of friendship and reciprocity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Di Norcia, Anna; Cannoni, Eleonora; Baumgartner, Emma; Bombi, Anna Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional understanding, friendship representation and reciprocity in school-aged children. Two hundred and fifty-one Caucasian 6-year-old children (111 males and 140 females) took part in the study. The Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) were used. Children having a reciprocal friendship and children having a unilateral friendship with a child named as their "best friend" were compared on the emotional understanding task and on their pictorial representations of friendship. Multilevel analyses indicated that friendship status effects were not influenced by classroom-level differences. Results showed that children with reciprocal friendships drew themselves as more similar to and more cohesive with their best friends, and they showed better understanding of emotions, than children having a unilateral friendship. Finally, the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research development on friendship are discussed.

  2. Strategies for addressing bullying with the school-age child who stutters.

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    Murphy, William P; Quesal, Robert W

    2002-08-01

    This article outlines basic principles for helping school-age children who stutter to deal with bullying. Bullying may affect children's school performance and feelings of self-worth and lead to depression and feelings of helplessness and loneliness. Bullying can also exacerbate stuttering behavior, increase negative emotions and negative thoughts, and reduce therapy progress. A variety of techniques can be implemented as part of the overall treatment process to help children deal with bullying. These techniques can improve children's overall success in treatment by helping them develop socially appropriate responses to bullying, reduce or prevent negative emotion that may result from stuttering, and feel more comfortable in applying speech management skills learned in treatment.

  3. Working memory in school-age children with and without a persistent speech sound disorder.

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    Farquharson, Kelly; Hogan, Tiffany P; Bernthal, John E

    2017-03-17

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of working memory processes as a possible cognitive underpinning of persistent speech sound disorders (SSD). Forty school-aged children were enrolled; 20 children with persistent SSD (P-SSD) and 20 typically developing children. Children participated in three working memory tasks - one to target each of the components in Baddeley's working memory model: phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad and central executive. Children with P-SSD performed poorly only on the phonological loop tasks compared to their typically developing age-matched peers. However, mediation analyses revealed that the relation between working memory and a P-SSD was reliant upon nonverbal intelligence. These results suggest that co-morbid low-average nonverbal intelligence are linked to poor working memory in children with P-SSD. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Methods of Strength Development in Boys of Primary School Age Using Active Games

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    С. І. Марченко

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to analyze the effect of games on the dynamics of strength development in boys of the second-fourth grades. Research methods: theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature, method of control testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The paper addresses the feasibility of further scientific substantiation for the effect of the number of games, the number of repetitions, the intervals of rest and their interrelation on the change in the strength indicators for boys of primary school age. The study has revealed that strength development requires that the pupils of the second and the third grades perform four games, while the pupils of the fourth grade — five games. The number of repetitions for the pupils of the second grade is one and two, for the pupils of the third grade — two, and for the boys of the fourth grade — three, with 40-second intervals for rest. The most effective development manifests in the second and the fourth grades during 20 classes, and in the third grade —during 30 classes. After that, it is advisable to use other means. The game duration varies from two to five minutes. Conclusions. The results obtained during the experiment give reason to recommend that primary school teachers, coaches and parents use active games in physical education, sports training and individual motor activity of boys of primary school age. These games should aim at developing strength abilities, both purposefully and in complex with regard to the duration and pace (intensity of their performance.

  5. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

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    Zdeněk Hamřík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine the time spent watching television and using computer, data of a randomly selected set of 11 to 15 year old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4425 was used. Research data collection was conducted within an international research project Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. For statistical processing of results and identification of differences between various age groups of girls and boys, logistic regression analysis in SPSS Statistics 20 programme was used. RESULTS: More than 55% of girls and 60% of boys spend over 2 hours a day in a working week in front of the TV, DVD, video; most of the time was recorded for 13 year old respondents. While playing games on the PC or Playstation occupies more than 2 hours per day for more than a half of boys, for girls more typical is "chatting", "surfing the Internet" or "e-mailing". With age, the proportion of children who spend 2 or more hours a day using computer increases. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of an increasing level of sedentary behaviour in children in their leisure should be addressed together with interventions aimed at increasing the levels of physical activity in children in the national, regional and local policies to encourage physical activity and health in the Czech Republic.

  6. On certain aspects of the semantic development of younger primary school-age children

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    Stevanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand the meaning of words and sentences is an important determinant of the language development, which also indicates the development of the ability to learn. Bearing this in mind, the research was aimed at studying the level of semantic development of younger primary school-age children. Semantic development was studied from the aspect of understanding the meaning of words and their use in the following lexical relations: homonyms, antonyms, synonyms and metonyms. The research was conducted in three Belgrade primary schools during the school year 2013/2014. The sample was convenient and included 431 second- and third-grade pupils. The Semantic test (by S. Vladisavljevic was used in the study. Research results showed that none of the pupils had provided the correct answer to all administered tasks. The best scores were achieved on the part of the test referring to antonyms, while the pupils were least successful on the tasks referring to metonyms. Additionally, third-grade pupils were more successful than younger participants, while there were no differences according to gender. The results indicated that it was necessary to devote more attention to different lexical and semantic exercises at preschool and early school age, considering the link between semantic development, the acquisition of reading and writing skills and the (unsuccessful mastering of the school curriculum in the majority of subjects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  7. Self-Reported Youth and Adult Exposure to Alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: Results of a Pilot Survey.

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    Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Factors Associated With Current Smoking Among Off-Reserve First Nations and Métis Youth: Results From the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

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    Ryan, Christopher; Leatherdale, Scott; Cooke, Martin

    2017-04-01

    First Nations and Métis, two of Canada's constitutionally recognized Indigenous groups, suffer from poorer overall health than non-Indigenous Canadians. Current smoking, a known predictor of chronic health conditions, is close to twice as prevalent among Indigenous youth as it is among non-Indigenous Canadian youth. However, little population-level research has examined the correlates of current smoking among this population. Guided by a health framework centered on Indigenous-specific determinants, we used data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine the correlates of current smoking among First Nations and Métis youth aged 15-17 years living outside of First Nations reserves. Using binary logistic regression, we investigated how culturally specific factors, namely knowledge of an Indigenous language, participation in traditional activities, and family members' attendance at residential schools, were correlated with current smoking. We also considered demographic, geographic, socioeconomic and health-related correlates. Overall, an estimated 20.6% of First Nations and Métis youth reported current smoking. We found no significant associations between culturally specific activities and current smoking in the multivariate analyses, although those who spoke an Indigenous language were more likely to smoke. Those who participated in sports more often were less likely to smoke, and respondents who reported heavy drinking and who were from families with lower income were more likely to smoke. Gender, body mass index, urban/rural geography and regional geography, and mother's highest level of education were not significantly correlated with smoking. The results of our study support prior research that has found a disturbingly high prevalence of current smoking among Indigenous youth, compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Our results highlight the importance of considering sports participation, co-occurring health-risk behaviours and socioeconomic

  9. Influence of outdoor games on functional condition of the respiratory system at girls of the younger school age

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    Оlena Potapova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study influence of outdoor games on functional condition of the respiratory system of girls of the younger school age in the groups of 6–8 and 9–10 years old. Material & Methods: the problem of functional condition of external breath at girls of the younger school age (in the age groups of 6–8 and 9–10 years old, who were divided into the control group (CG in number of 32persons (CS No. 58 and the experimental (EG in number of 29 persons (OTEC No. 109 of Zaporozhe, is considered. Results: it is defined that the studied girls of both groups at the beginning of the research had mainly below average and average levels of functional condition of the system of external breath. Conclusions: the effective impact of outdoor games on functional condition of the whole organism in general and on the system of external breath, in particular, at girls of the experimental group in comparison with the studied girls of the same age of the control group is proved experimentally. Application of the large number of various outdoor games allowed diversifying the program of training at physical education classes emotionally and physically, than promoted the activation of functions of the whole organism of girls of the younger school age.

  10. Investigation of the self-reported health and health-related behaviours of Victorian mothers of school-aged children.

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    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (Pmaternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours.

  11. Alterações cognitivas em escolares de classe socio-econômica desfavorecida: resultados de intervenção psicopedagógica Cognitive function evaluation in school-age children from economically impoverished community: results of enriched education program

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    Célia Sperandéo Macedo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o resultado de intervenções psicopedagógicas no desempenho intelectual e em algumas funções cognitivas específicas em crianças provenientes de famílias de baixa renda, expostas a fatores pessoais e sociais adversos, como desnutrição, stress familiar, ambientes doméstico e de estimulação empobrecidos. Foram examinadas 63 crianças, alunas de escola, gratuita e em regime de semi-internato, que recebe crianças consideradas sob risco pessoal e social. Quarenta e três crianças receberam atividades que objetivam ativação cognitiva, durante período mínimo de 1 ano. Vinte crianças eram recém-admitidas. As técnicas da ativação escolhidas foram: método de aprendizagem ativa, com base em Piaget e método de ativação cognitiva para, através de exercícios psicomotores, desenvolver os pré-requisitos para aprendizagem e prevenção de dificuldades escolares, segundo Lambert. A avaliação das funções cognitivas mostrou: nível intelectual insatisfatório em 30% e médio ou superior em 70% e deficiências cognitivas específicas (noção do esquema corporal, percepção viso-motora, percepção de forma e perseveração em 74%. Maior prevalência de crianças com inteligência superior (p Sixty-three school-age children of low socioeconomic status and exposed to adverse environmental factors (malnutrition, familiar distress and low familiar incomes were submitted to neuropsychological tests to investigate possible cognitive impairments. Classical neuropsychological test battery was employed (Raven test, Bender Gestalt copy of complex figures, draw-a-man Goodenough test. Low intellectual level was found on 30% and 74% showed higher cognitive disorders (visuoperceptual skills and/or perseverations and/or global shapes perception and/or draw-a-man disturbances. These children attended to a school with semi-boarding regimen which receives children under personnel and social adverse factors. School

  12. Influence of physical activity on the posture of school age children

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    Laštro Dijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper posture is an indicator of good health, proper growth and development, which is why it is important to start learning about posture from the earliest age using various forms of physical activity. To establish the impact of physical activity on aspects of posture components of children of school age. The study included 120 subjects aged 10-16 years who were grouped into three groups, which was stratified equal number of boys and girls. The first group consisted of 40 children who are actively practice sports. The second group consisted of 40 children who are not actively practice sport a third group of 40 children with deformity of the spine. For research purposes, we used: test for assessing the degree of physical activity and test for the assessment of body posture. By applying multiple regression analysis, we found that there is an influence of different predictors on the dependent variables in all three categorically defined pattern. The strongest positive correlation was found in the first sample categorically defined between predictors warming up exercises in the training and position keeping the legs, and the amount of connections is β = 0.43. The strongest negative correlations were established also at first categorically defined pattern between predictors time spent at the computer and position keeping the legs, and the amount of connections is β = -0.35. It was found that there is a difference in the level of physical activity between the three categorically defined sample (F = 95.687, p = 0.01, and also the difference in posture between the three categorically defined sample (F = 10.93, p = 0.01. The results show the necessity of promotion of various forms of physical activity of children school age in order of their proper growth and development.

  13. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

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    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

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    Slothower Molly P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if it was felt that these were amenable to therapy with hypnosis. Seventy-five patients returned for follow-up after the first hypnosis session. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 7–17. When insomnia did not resolve after the first instruction session, patients were offered the opportunity to use hypnosis to gain insight into the cause. Results Younger children were more likely to report that the insomnia was related to fears. Two or fewer hypnosis sessions were provided to 68% of the patients. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings and 38% reported improvement. Somatic complaints amenable to hypnosis were reported by 41%, including chest pain, dyspnea, functional abdominal pain, habit cough, headaches, and vocal cord dysfunction. Among these patients, 87% reported improvement or resolution of the somatic complaints following hypnosis. Conclusion Use of hypnosis appears to facilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children.

  15. Interlimb coordination during forward and backward walking in primary school-aged children.

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    Pieter Meyns

    Full Text Available Previous studies comparing forward (FW and backward (BW walking suggested that the leg kinematics in BW were essentially those of FW in reverse. This led to the proposition that in adults the neural control of FW and BW originates from the same basic neural circuitry. One aspect that has not received much attention is to what extent development plays a role in the maturation of neural control of gait in different directions. BW has been examined either in adults or infants younger than one year. Therefore, we questioned which changes occur in the intermediate phases (i.e. in primary school-aged children. Furthermore, previous research focused on the lower limbs, thereby raising the question whether upper limb kinematics are also simply reversed from FW to BW. Therefore, in the current study the emphasis was put both on upper and lower limb movements, and the coordination between the limbs. Total body 3D gait analysis was performed in primary school-aged children (N = 24, aged five to twelve years at a preferred walking speed to record angular displacements of upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot with respect to the vertical (i.e. elevation angle. Kinematics and interlimb coordination were compared between FW and BW. Additionally, elevation angle traces of BW were reversed in time (revBW and correlated to FW traces. Results showed that upper and lower limb kinematics of FW correlated highly to revBW kinematics in children, which appears to be consistent with the proposal that control of FW and BW may be similar. In addition, age was found to mildly alter lower limb kinematic patterns. In contrast, interlimb coordination was similar across all children, but was different compared to adults, measured for comparison. It is concluded that development plays a role in the fine-tuning of neural control of FW and BW.

  16. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

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    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Methods Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Results Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Conclusions Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level – a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of ‘late talkers’ resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

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    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  18. Suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children: Implications for health literacy.

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    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children with asthma and elucidate how these children used their health-literacy abilities to identify whether the materials can be accepted, comprehended and applied. Effective asthma self-management education is influenced by the suitability of materials and an individual's health literacy. A mixed-method research design was developed using quantitative and qualitative surveys. The suitability of the materials was assessed on the basis of the Chinese version of the Suitability Assessment of Materials by five experts. In addition, five school-age children (age: 8-12 years) were recruited and interviewed. In total, 25 pieces of asthma education material for children were collected. On the basis of their type, the materials were categorised as nine brochures, 11 leaflets and five videos. Of the 25 materials, 17 were rated as superior materials, whereas eight were rated as adequate materials. The suitability scores of the video-based materials were significantly higher than those of the brochures and leaflets (p = .006). One print material was considered to have a reading level suitable for fifth-grade or younger children, whereas the remaining materials were considered suitable for sixth-grade or older children. The following six health-literacy domains were identified: recognising asthma through body knowledge, posing reflective questions, identifying self-care difficulties, receiving adult guidance, learning with enjoyment and addressing learning requirements. The video-based materials had integrated content and were appealing to children. Cartoon animations, interactive computer games, and skill demonstrations may enhance learning stimulation and motivation and increase learning effects in children. The present results may help healthcare providers to understand children's capacities to manage their disease, effectively address children's requirements and function as a key resource for

  19. Psychoeducational Psychotherapy and Omega-3 Supplementation Improve Co-Occurring Behavioral Problems in Youth with Depression: Results from a Pilot RCT.

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    Young, Andrea S; Arnold, L Eugene; Wolfson, Hannah L; Fristad, Mary A

    2017-07-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and Individual-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (PEP; a family-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy) for behavior problems among youth with depression. Participants aged 7-14 with DSM-IV-TR depressive disorders (N = 72; 56.9 % male) were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: PEP + omega-3, PEP monotherapy (with pill placebo), omega-3 monotherapy, or placebo (without active intervention). At screen, baseline, and 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 weeks post-baseline, parents completed the SNAP-IV, which assesses attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, and overall behavior problems. At screen, baseline (randomization), 6 and 12 weeks, parents completed the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), which includes Intensity and Problem scales for child behavior problems. Youth who had a completed SNAP-IV or ECBI for at least two assessments during treatment (n = 48 and 38, respectively) were included in analyses of the respective outcome. ClinicalTrials.gov.:NCT01341925. Linear mixed effects models indicated a significant effect of combined PEP + omega-3 on SNAP-IV Total (p = 0.022, d = 0.80) and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity trajectories (p = 0.008, d = 0.80), such that youth in the combined group saw greater behavioral improvement than those receiving only placebo. Similarly, youth in combined treatment had more favorable ECBI Intensity trajectories than youth who received no active treatment (p = 0.012, d = 1.07). Results from this pilot RCT suggest that combined PEP + omega-3 is a promising treatment for co-occurring behavior symptoms in youth with depression.

  20. Exposure to Internet-Based Tobacco Advertising and Branding: Results From Population Surveys of Australian Youth 2010-2013

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    Freeman, Becky; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background Since legislation prohibiting tobacco advertising in traditional media, online communication platforms and social media have become one of the few avenues for the tobacco industry to promote its products to Australians. Little is currently known about the exposure of young people to these new media promotions. Objective To measure exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and branding among Australian youth, identify common formats of branding encountered, and examine the association between exposure and smoking susceptibility. Methods The Tobacco Promotion Impact Study is a repeat cross-sectional telephone survey of young people (12-24 years) in 2 Australian states, conducted yearly from 2010 to 2013 (total n=8820). The survey included questions about past-month exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and tobacco company branding. Changes in levels of exposure, characteristics of exposed youth, and the association between exposure and smoking susceptibility were explored. Results Past-month exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and branding among young people increased over the years of the survey (advertising: 21% in 2010 to 29% in 2013; branding: 20% in 2010 to 26% in 2013). The participants who were younger, female, from lower socioeconomic status, and never-smokers were more likely to report exposure. Facebook was the most commonly cited platform for encountering tobacco branding in 2013 (22% of all branding). Compared with young people interviewed in 2013, participants in 2010 were significantly less likely to report exposure to tobacco branding on social media (odds ratio [OR] 0.26, 95% CI 0.20-0.33, Pbranding (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.57, P=.002) or branding alone (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.77, P=.007) were significant predictors of smoking susceptibility. Conclusions Ensuring tobacco advertising bans are inclusive of Internet-based media is essential. Given the global nature of Internet-based content, cooperation among signatory

  1. A systematic review of the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programmes for First Nations, Inuit and Métis youth in Canada.

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    Godin, K; Leatherdale, S T; Elton-Marshall, T

    2015-06-01

    First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) youth are disproportionately affected by obesity and represent known a high-risk group in Canada. School-based prevention programmes may have the potential to effectively influence obesity-related health behaviours (i.e. healthy eating and physical activity) among this population. We conducted a systematic review of nine electronic databases (2003-2014) to identify studies that describe school-based programmes that have been developed to improve obesity-related health behaviours and outcomes among FNIM youth in Canada. The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes and assess the strength of the methodologies used to evaluate them. Fifteen studies, representing seven distinct interventions, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of these programmes did not result in significant improvements in outcomes related to obesity, healthy eating, or physical activity among FNIM youth. The studies varied in design rigour and use of evaluation activities. The lack of literature on effective school-based programmes for FNIM youth in Canada that target obesity-related outcomes highlights a priority area for future intervention development, evaluation and dissemination within the peer-reviewed literature. Further research is needed on interventions involving Métis and Inuit youth, secondary school-aged FNIM youth and FNIM youth living in urban settings. © 2015 World Obesity.

  2. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented. PMID:27695511

  3. An intervention to improve sibling relationship quality among youth in foster care: Results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Brianne H; McBeath, Bowen; Sorenson, Paul; Bank, Lew; Waid, Jeff; Webb, Sara Jade; Steele, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Sibling programming is an important part of a prevention framework, particularly for youth in foster care. After children are removed from their families and placed into foster care in the aftermath of maltreatment, the sibling relationship is often the most viable ongoing relationship available to the child, and may be critical to a youth's sense of connection, emotional support, and continuity. The promise of dyadic sibling programming in particular rests on the ability of interventions to enhance the quality of sibling relationships; yet little research exists that suggests that sibling interventions can improve relationship quality among foster youth. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a specific dyadic sibling-focused intervention for older and younger siblings on sibling relationship quality. One hundred sixty four dyads (328 youth) participated in the study, with each dyad consisting of an older sibling between 11 and 15 years of age at baseline and a younger sibling separated in age by less than 4 years. Hierarchical linear models were applied to self-reported, observer-reported and observational data over the 18-month study period. Findings suggest that the sibling intervention holds promise for improving sibling relationship quality among youth in foster care. Implications and future directions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensory processing difficulties in school-age children born very preterm : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Königs, Marsh; Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Background Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. Aims To

  5. Pressing Tasks in the Care of Children of Preschool and School Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseytlin, I

    1960-01-01

    ...). It concerns pressing tasks of public health with regard to the care of children of pre-school and school age in order to strengthen the bond between school and life which also promotes the further...

  6. Symbolic Policy and Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In Canada, the prevalence of alcohol use among school-age students has emerged as a leading public health issue. Though governments at all levels have called for inter-organizational collaboration to address the issue, the representation of youth interests by key community groups is critical to the efficacy of those initiatives. This article…

  7. The power of (Mis)perception: Rethinking suicide contagion in youth friendship networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Rees, Carter; Posick, Chad; Zimmerman, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth. In the wake of peer suicide, youth are vulnerable to suicide contagion. But, questions remain about the mechanisms through which suicide spreads and the accuracy of youths' estimates of friends' suicidal behaviors. This study addresses these questions within school-aged youths' friendship networks. Social network data were drawn from two schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, from which 2180 youth in grades 7-12 nominated up to ten friends. A measure of "perceived" friends' attempted suicide was constructed based on respondents' reports of their friends' attempted suicide. This measure was broader than a "true" measure of friends' attempted suicide, constructed from self-reports of nominated friends who attended respondents' schools. Sociograms graphically represented the accuracy with which suicide attempters estimated friends' suicide attempts. Results from cross-tabulation with Chi-square analysis indicated that approximately 4% of youth (88/2180) attempted suicide, and these youth disproportionately misperceived (predominantly overestimated) friends' suicidal behaviors, compared to non-suicide-attempters. Penalized logistic regression models indicated that friends' self-reported attempted suicide was unrelated to respondent attempted suicide. But, the odds of respondent attempted suicide were 2.54 times higher (95% CI, 1.06-6.10) among youth who accurately perceived friends' attempted suicide, and 5.40 times higher (95% CI, 3.34-8.77) among youth who overestimated friends' attempted suicide. The results suggest that at-risk youth overestimate their friends' suicidal behaviors, which exacerbates their own risk of suicidal behavior. Methodologically, this suggests that a continued collaboration among network scientists, suicide researchers, and medical providers is necessary to further examine the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. Practically, it is important to screen at

  8. The Preschool-Aged and School-Aged Children Present Different Odds of Mortality than Adults in Southern Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu-Hui; Huang, Chun-Ying; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Yang, Li-Hui; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2018-04-25

    Background : This study aimed to profile the epidemiology of injury among preschool-aged and school-aged children in comparison to those in adults. Methods : According to the Trauma Registry System of a level I trauma center, the medical data were retrieved from 938 preschool-aged children (aged less than seven years), 670 school-aged children (aged 7⁻12 years), and 16,800 adults (aged 20⁻64 years) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2016. Two-sided Pearson’s, chi-squared, and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical data. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Games-Howell post-hoc test was used to assess the differences in continuous variables among different groups of patients. The mortality outcomes of different subgroups were assessed by a multivariable regression model under the adjustment of sex, injury mechanisms, and injury severity. Results : InFsupppjury mechanisms in preschool-aged and school-aged children were remarkably different from that in adults; in preschool-aged children, burns were the most common cause of injury requiring hospitalization (37.4%), followed by falls (35.1%) and being struck by/against objects (11.6%). In school-aged children, injuries were most commonly sustained from falls (47.8%), followed by bicycle accidents (14%) and being struck by/against objects (12.5%). Compared to adults, there was no significant difference of the adjusted mortality of the preschool-aged children (AOR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.38⁻2.12; p = 0.792) but there were lower adjusted odds of mortality of the school-aged children (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.10⁻0.85; p = 0.039). The school-aged children had lower odds of mortality than adults (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06⁻0.74; p = 0.012), but such lower odds of risk of mortality were not found in preschool-aged children (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.29⁻1.81; p = 0.646). Conclusions : This study suggests that specific types of injuries from different injury mechanisms are predominant among preschool

  9. Early diagnosis of junior school age children’s posture disorders

    OpenAIRE

    N.S. Razumeiko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: to describe specificities of early diagnosis method for junior school age children’s posture disorders. Material: in pedagogic experiment 156 junior school age children (boys and girls of 7-10 years’ age) participated. All children had no experience of training in sport circles. For determination of uniformity of the tested we fulfilled experts’ examination for presence or absence of external signs of posture disorders in frontal plane. The children’s examination was conducted by qua...

  10. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonça, Denisa

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child’s adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal, multi-informant study was conducted. The sample consisted of 519 school-aged children from the Portuguese general population. Parental rearing styles w...

  11. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs.

  12. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Disaster-Exposed Youth with Posttraumatic Stress: Results from a Multiple-Baseline Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.

    2011-01-01

    Youth traumatized by natural disasters report high levels of posttraumatic stress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, and depression. Research suggests that cognitive behavioral therapies are promising interventions for symptom reduction; however, few cognitive behavioral treatments have been systematically…

  13. Psychopathy in Adolescence and Criminal Recidivism in Young Adulthood. Longitudinal Results from a Multiethnic Sample of Youthful Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F.; Cahill, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16…

  14. A Survey of Some Behavioral Disorders Due to Parental Corporal Punishment in School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Qasemi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Qasemi F1, Valizadeh F1, Toulabi T2, Saki M3 1. Instructor, Department of Children, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Instructor, Department of Internal Surgery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Family has an important role on childrens personality and preparing them for future. Corporal punishment involves the application of some forms of physical pain in response to undesirable behavior for the purpose of correction or control of the childs behavior. Corporal punishment constitutes a human-rights violation and has physical and mental health consequences for children. Materials and methods: This survey was conducted to detect and compare some behavioral disorders due to parental corporal punishment in school age children. This case-control trial deals with 240, primary school children aged 7-12 years old. These subjects were selected through cluster randomized sampling in Korramabad and divided into two (case and control groups. Instruments for measuring data consisted of three components: 1 a questionnaire on demographic information, 2 a questionnaire on corporal punishment and, 3 a rating scale about behavioral disorder such as verbal and behavioral aggression, withdrawal, and cooperation in school. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver11. Results: Results indicated that in 92.6% of cases the corporal punishment method was slapping. Significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of mothers educational level (p=0.001, mothers job (p=0.004, mothers child-birth number (p=0.024, verbal aggression (p=0.001, behavioral aggression (p=0.001, withdrawal (p=0.05, and cooperation (p=0.001. Conclusion: Results indicated that housekeeper mothers and mothers with low educational level use more corporal punishment and behavioral

  15. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2004 to estimate the prevalence of smoking. We also assessed whether being exposed to anti-smoking media, education and having discussed with family members on the harmful effects of smoking were associated with smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess these associations. Current smoking was defined as having reported smoking cigarettes, even a single puff, in the last 30 days preceding the survey (main outcome. Results Altogether 1563 adolescents participated in the survey. However, 1122 had data on the main outcome. Altogether, 15.8% of the respondents reported having smoked cigarettes (10.3% among males, and 11.1% among females. Factors that were associated with reported non-smoking were: discussing harmful effects of smoking cigarettes with their family members (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52, 0.71; being taught that smoking makes teeth yellow, causes wrinkles and smokers smell badly (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.52, 0.74; being taught that people of the respondent's age do not smoke (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69, 0.95; and having reported that religious organizations discouraged young people smoking (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60, 0.82. However, exposure to a lot many antismoking messages at social gatherings was associated with smoking. Exposure to antismoking print media was not associated with smoking status. Conclusion A combination of school and home based antismoking interventions may be effective in controlling adolescent smoking in Somaliland.

  16. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K. Dollman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds.Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI.Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH, SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices.Results: The descriptive results show that (1 more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2 the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3 two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4 there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5 more than half (n = 16 of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely

  17. Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  18. COMPETENCIA MATEMÁTICA EN NIÑOS EN EDAD PREESCOLAR - MATH COMPETENCY IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYRIAM ESTHER ORTIZ PADILLA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the characteristics of Mathematical competency in pre-school age children in the Magdalena region. The population was represented by 101 children, to whom the Basic Mathematics Competency Test, Item 3, in its Spanish version, was administered. Quantitative methodology was used, from an empirical and analytical approach and a cross-sectional design was implemented. The results indicate that 31% of children evaluated obtaineda Mathematics Competency Global Index average, with 57% for descriptors: below averageand 22% above average. The private institutions placed a higher percentage of students aboveaverage. The sex and age variable does not provide significant differences.

  19. Frequency of occurrence of knock-kneed and bow-legged knees for children and young people in school age

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Siminska; Weronika Bukowska; Dorota Ratuszek–Sadowska; Krystyna Nowacka; Wojciech Hagner

    2017-01-01

    Lower limb faults are one of the most common defects in school-age children and are now a problem in our society. Currently there is a trend towards low physical activity among children. Most young people prefer to spend time sitting down without taking physical activity or limiting it to the minimum. This results in lowering muscle tone, weight gain - manifesting as being overweight or obese. School children often complain of spinal pain as well as lower back pain. We have many disadvantages...

  20. Risk factors and possibilities of preventing gastroesophageal reflux disease in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Belousova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The article presents the main problems of early diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in school-age children, which leads to late detection and initiation of treatment. The purpose of the study was to identify the main risk factors that may predispose the development of this disease, as well as triggers that provoke GERD in school-age children. Knowledge of risk factors can help prevent the formation of GERD in children, and, with timely diagnosis of therapy, reduce the severity of the disease and improve quality of life. Materials and methods. Open comparative study included 98 school-age children (31 girls, 67 boys aged 6 to 18 years (mean age 14.2 years. Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease was conducted in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated January 29, 2013, No. 59 “On Approval of Unified Clinical Protocols for Medical Care of Children with Digestive Disorders”. During the comprehensive examination, the identification of possible risk factors was made, for which a detailed history collection was performed: the nature of the child’s nutrition and the regularity of the meal were evaluated, as well as the mode of the day, the presence and intensity of physical activity, the presence of chronic stress (psycho-traumatic situations, sleep duration, bad habits, false eating habits. Past medical history also revealed the duration of breastfeeding and the time of supplementary food introduction. Physical examination was also aimed at the detection of so-called symptoms of anxiety — “red flags” that may indicate the presence of complications or organic pathology. Results. In both age groups, boys were dominant; besides, there were significantly more children aged 13–17 years in the group with GERD. Early administration of supplements was revealed in both groups, as well as early artificial/mixed feeding. More than 85 % of children had signs of autonomic dysregulation and

  1. [Gene-gene interaction on central obesity in school-aged children in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L W; Zhang, M X; Wu, L J; Gao, L W; Mi, J

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To investigate possible effect of 6 obesity-associated SNPs in contribution to central obesity and examine whether there is an interaction in the 6 SNPs in the cause of central obesity in school-aged children in China. Methods: A total of 3 502 school-aged children who were included in Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) Study were selected, and based on the age and sex specific waist circumference (WC) standards in the BCAMS study, 1 196 central obese cases and 2 306 controls were identified. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood white cells using the salt fractionation method. A total of 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms ( FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, BDNF rs6265, PCSK1 rs6235, SH2B1 rs4788102, and CSK rs1378942) were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays with the GeneAmp 7900 sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between 6 SNPs and central obesity. Gene-gene interactions among 6 polymorphic loci were analyzed by using the Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR) method, and then logistic regression model was constructed to confirm the best combination of loci identified in the GMDR. Results: After adjusting gender, age, Tanner stage, physical activity and family history of obesity, the FTO rs9939609-A, MC4R rs17782313-C and BDNF rs6265-G alleles were associated with central obesity under additive genetic model ( OR =1.24, 95 %CI : 1.06-1.45, P =0.008; OR =1.26, 95 %CI : 1.11-1.43, P =2.98×10(-4); OR =1.18, 95 % CI : 1.06-1.32, P =0.003). GMDR analysis showed a significant gene-gene interaction between MC4R rs17782313 and BDNF rs6265 ( P =0.001). The best two-locus combination showed the cross-validation consistency of 10/10 and testing accuracy of 0.539. This interaction showed the maximum consistency and minimum prediction error among all gene-gene interaction models evaluated. Moreover, the

  2. Physical activity of Canadian children and youth: accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Rachel C; Garriguet, Didier; Janssen, Ian; Craig, Cora L; Clarke, Janine; Tremblay, Mark S

    2011-03-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of health and fitness. This study provides contemporary estimates of the physical activity levels of Canadians aged 6 to 19 years. Data are from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. The physical activity of a nationally representative sample was measured using accelerometers. Data are presented as time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous intensity movement, and in steps accumulated per day. An estimated 9% of boys and 4% of girls accumulate 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on at least 6 days a week. Regardless of age group, boys are more active than girls. Canadian children and youth spend 8.6 hours per day-62% of their waking hours-in sedentary pursuits. Daily step counts average 12,100 for boys and 10,300 for girls. Based on objective and robust measures, physical activity levels of Canadian children and youth are low.

  3. Predictors for Asthma Formation in School-Age Children in Ternopil Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Burbela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Algorithm of screening diagnostics for bronchial asthma (BA to identify asthma susceptibility forces doctors of a first contact to a differentiated approach to the compilation of forecasting, individual treatment and rehabilitation programs. The aim of the study was to investigate the risk of asthma in school-age children. Materials and methods. 121 children with asthma treated at Ternopil region children hospital during 2012–2016 were studied. The control group consisted of 226 adolescents, of which 76.55 % (n  =  173 apparently healthy children at the time of examination were secondary school urban students and 2.45 % (n  =  53 — rural students. The average age of patients investigated was 12.98 ± 2.80 years old and 12.36 ± 2.80 years old in the control group. The study was conducted with regard to the basic principles of the Helsinki Declaration on Biomedical Research and provisions GCH ICH, compliance with ethical principles and guidelines involving people as subjects set out in Belmont Report. Results and discussion. Based on a simple ranking value %AR factors playinbg a major role in causing asthma were considered as a level above 50 %. These predictors were: maintenance of diathesis manifestations after the first year of life, оbstructive bronchitis, passive smoking, burdened heredity for atopy, atopic dermatitis, high personal anxiety, high and medium situational anxiety, general school anxiety, social stress, frustration at needs to succeed, fear expression and fear of knowledge test, fear not to match to the expectations of others, low resistance to physiological stress, the presence of autonomic dysfunction, high (70 cu Robinson index. Seven contributing factors in the formation of BA level above 25 % were determined: atopic manifestations on the skin up to a year, the presence of phlegmatic temperament, and eutonia and vagotony according to the Kerdem index, Robinson index above average (71–75 cu. Conclusions

  4. Phonological complexity in school-aged children who stutter and exhibit a language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Lesley; LaSalle, Lisa R

    2015-03-01

    The Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure are two measures of the phonological complexity of a word. Other phonological measures such as phonological neighborhood density have been used to compare stuttered versus fluent words. It appears that in preschoolers who stutter, the length and complexity of the utterance is more influential than the phonetic features of the stuttered word. The present hypothesis was that in school-age children who stutter, stuttered words would be more phonologically complex than fluent words, when the length and complexity of the utterance containing them is comparable. School-age speakers who stutter were hypothesized to differ from those with a concomitant language disorder. Sixteen speakers, six females and ten males (M age=12;3; Range=7;7 to 19;5) available from an online database, were divided into eight who had a concomitant language disorder (S+LD) and eight age- and sex-matched speakers who did not (S-Only). When all stuttered content words were identified, S+LD speakers produced more repetitions, and S-Only speakers produced more inaudible sound prolongations. When stuttered content words were matched to fluent content words and when talker groups were combined, stuttered words were significantly (p≤0.01) higher in both the Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure and lower in density ("sparser") than fluent words. Results corroborate those of previous researchers. Future research directions are suggested, such as cross-sectional designs to evaluate developmental patterns of phonological complexity and stuttering plus language disordered connections. The reader will be able to: (a) Define and describe phonological complexity; (b) Define phonological neighborhood density and summarize the literature on the topic; (c) Describe the Index of Phonological Complexity (IPC) for a given word; (d) Describe the Word Complexity Measure (WCM) for a given word; (e) Summarize two findings

  5. Treatment patterns of youth with bipolar disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, Gabriela Kattan; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; Angst, Jules

    2015-02-01

    Despite growing evidence that bipolar disorder often emerges in adolescence, there are limited data regarding treatment patterns of youth with bipolar disorder in community samples. Our objective was to present the prevalence and clinical correlates of treatment utilization for a nationally representative sample of US adolescents with bipolar disorder. Analyses are based on data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement, a face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents (ages 13-18) identified in household and school settings. We found that of adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I or II disorder (N = 250), 49 % were treated for depression or mania, 13 % were treated for conditions other than depression or mania, and 38 % did not report receiving treatment. Treatment for depression or mania was associated with increased rates of suicide attempts, as well as greater role disability and more comorbid alcohol use relative to those who had not received treatment. Treated adolescents had triple the rate of ADHD and double the rates of behavior disorders than those without treatment. Our findings demonstrate that a substantial proportion of youth with bipolar disorder do not receive treatment, and of those who do, many receive treatment for comorbid conditions rather than for their mood-related symptoms. Treatment was more common among youth with severe manifestations and consequences of bipolar disorder and those with behavior problems. These trends highlight the need to identify barriers to treatment for adolescents with bipolar disorder and demonstrate that those in treatment are not representative of youth with bipolar disorder in the general population.

  6. Uptake and impact of vaccinating school age children against influenza during a season with circulation of drifted influenza A and B strains, England, 2014/15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebody, Richard G; Green, Helen K; Andrews, Nick; Boddington, Nicola L; Zhao, Hongxin; Yonova, Ivelina; Ellis, Joanna; Steinberger, Sophia; Donati, Matthew; Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Pathirannehelage, Sameera; Mullett, David; Smith, Gillian E; de Lusignan, Simon; Zambon, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The 2014/15 influenza season was the second season of roll-out of a live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) programme for healthy children in England. During this season, besides offering LAIV to all two to four year olds, several areas piloted vaccination of primary (4-11 years) and secondary (11-13 years) age children. Influenza A(H3N2) circulated, with strains genetically and antigenically distinct from the 2014/15 A(H3N2) vaccine strain, followed by a drifted B strain. We assessed the overall and indirect impact of vaccinating school age children, comparing cumulative disease incidence in targeted and non-targeted age groups in vaccine pilot to non-pilot areas. Uptake levels were 56.8% and 49.8% in primary and secondary school pilot areas respectively. In primary school age pilot areas, cumulative primary care influenza-like consultation, emergency department respiratory attendance, respiratory swab positivity, hospitalisation and excess respiratory mortality were consistently lower in targeted and non-targeted age groups, though less for adults and more severe end-points, compared with non-pilot areas. There was no significant reduction for excess all-cause mortality. Little impact was seen in secondary school age pilot only areas compared with non-pilot areas. Vaccination of healthy primary school age children resulted in population-level impact despite circulation of drifted A and B influenza strains.

  7. Marijuana use and sex with multiple partners among lesbian, gay and bisexual youth: results from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2017-01-05

    Sex with multiple partners (SMP) is one of the important contributing factors for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and young adults, especially among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB) youth. Past studies mainly focus on examining associations of alcohol or club drugs use with unprotected sexual behaviors among adult homo/bisexual men, while little is known about the temporal association between marijuana use (MU) and SMP among LGB youth. This study examined the relationship between MU and SMP among LGB adolescents and young adults. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression analyses were utilized to analyze four waves' public-use Add Health data (N = 694, youth who reported a homo/bisexual status at any wave; Wave 1: aged 11-21; Wave 4: aged 24-32). After adjusting for other substance use, current depression, mother-child relationship quality at Wave 1, and socioeconomic variables, past-year MU was both concurrently and prospectively associated with past-year SMP. The moderating effect of age was not found. MU is concurrently and prospectively associated with increased odds of SMP in the adolescent sample and in the young adult sample. Findings imply that prevention/intervention on HIV risk behaviors may benefit from MU reduction not only in LGB adolescents but also in young adults.

  8. Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. Competitive Wrestling-related Injuries in School Aged Athletes in U.S. Emergency Departments

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    Myers, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the characteristics of wrestling injuries occurring in male athletes aged 7-17 treated in United States (U.S. emergency departments (ED from 2000-2006, and to compare injury patterns between younger & older youth wrestlers.Methods: A stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals providing emergency services in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used for 2000-2006. ED visits for injuries sustained in organized wrestling were analyzed for male patients ages 7-17 years old (subdivided into 7-11 years old [youth group] and 12-17 years old [scholastic group].Results: During the study period, there were an estimated 167,606 ED visits for wrestling injuries in 7-17 years old U.S. males, with 152,710 (91.1% occurring in the older (12-17 years old group. The annual injury incidence was 6.49 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the youth group and 29.57 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the scholastic group. The distribution of diagnoses was similar in both age groups, with sprain/strain as the most common diagnosis, followed by fracture and contusion/abrasion. Distributions of injury by location were significantly different between groups (p=0.02, although both groups exhibited approximately 75% of all injuries from the waist up. Overexertion and struck by/against were the most common precipitating and direct mechanisms in both groups, respectively. Over 97% of all injured wrestlers were treated and released.Conclusion: The types of injury in youth (7-11 years old wrestlers are similar to those of scholastic (12-17 years old wrestlers, although the distribution of body parts injured differs between the age groups. The majority of injuries occurs above the waist and may be a target for prevention strategies. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:442-449.

  10. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

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    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  11. Parental involvement in elementary school-aged child’s creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparmi; Suardiman, S. P.; Kumara, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the parental involvement in cultivating elementary school-aged child’s creativity. The qualitative research was designed with multidisciplinary study approach. Eight students and some parents from public elementary schools of Ngawen 4th of Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta, and 4 students from an elementary school in Sleman, Yogyakarta were involved in the process of collecting the data. In-depth interview, observation, and documentation were used simultaneously to collect the data. The results showed that: 1) the subject had a level of intelligence quotient; the intelligence of verbal creativity above the average level, and creative behaviour on average, 2) interaction of parents and child-related discussions, experiences, and plans, academic problems in school were needed to boost the students’ creativity, 3) interactions of parents and school-related participations in school were also encouraged to implant students’ social awareness, 4) interaction among parents communicated each other to have a better result of academic awareness, and 5) Parents should install family norms to cultivate children’s intelligence quotient.

  12. Fitness Trends and Disparities Among School-Aged Children in Georgia, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J

    Although FitnessGram fitness data on aerobic capacity and body mass index (BMI) have been collected in public schools in Georgia since the 2011-2012 school year, the data have not been analyzed. The primary objective of our study was to use these data to assess changes in fitness among school-aged children in Georgia between 2011 and 2014. A secondary objective was to determine if student fitness differed by school size and socioeconomic characteristics. FitnessGram classifies fitness into the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) or not within the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used data for 3 successive school years (ie, 2011-2012 to 2013-2014) obtained from FitnessGram testing of students in >1600 schools. We calculated the percentage of students who achieved the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used growth curve models to estimate the annual changes in these proportions, and we determined the effect of school size and socioeconomic status on these changes. Both elementary school boys (β = 1.31%, standard error [SE] = 0.23%, P fitness profiles. Surveillance results such as these may help inform the process of designing state and local school-based fitness promotion and public health programs and tracking the results of those programs.

  13. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  14. Pedagogical Conditions for Coordination Development in Girls of Primary School Age through Rhythmic Gymnastics

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    С. І. Марченко

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to experimentally verify the effectiveness of the use of rhythmic gymnastics means that have been systematized to develop coordination abilities in girls of primary school age. Research methods: method of theoretical analysis and generalization of literary sources, method of control studies, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The coordination readiness level evaluation demonstrated that at the beginning of the pedagogical experiment the level of the majority of the second-grade girls was low (22.85%, below average (39.97%, and average (11.42%; that of the third-grade girls was below average (57.1%, average (34.26%; and that of the fourth-grade — below average (29.3%, and average (62.06%. After the pedagogical experiment the number of the second-, third- and fourth-grade girls with the low level decreased by 19%, 13.4%, 10.4% in the experimental groups and by 16.3%, 11.8%, 9.8% in the control groups respectively; the number of the girls with the below-average level decreased by 14.7%, 32.7%, 23.1% in the experimental groups and by 12.4%, 21%, 19.1% in the control groups. The positive changes in the level of coordination abilities occurred both in the control and the experimental groups, with the results improved in favor of the experimental groups.

  15. The effectiveness of assertiveness training for school-aged children on bullying and assertiveness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, Fatma; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an assertive training for school-aged children on peer bullying and assertiveness. A quasi-experimental design using pre- and post-testing was conducted. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, an assertiveness scale, and the peer victimization scale. The training program was comprised of eight sessions which were implemented to intervention group. Descriptive characteristics were not statistically different between the groups (p>0.05). The peer victimization victim dimension results show that post-test mean scores of the students in the intervention group were lower than the pre-test mean scores (p0.05). A comparison of the mean pre-test/post-test scores of peer-victimization bully dimension of the students' intervention and control groups revealed that the mean post-test scores of the students in the each group decreased (p>0.05). An assertiveness training program increased the assertiveness level and reduced the state of being victims, but did not affect the state of being bullies. The results of this study can help children acquire assertive behaviors instead of negative behaviors such as aggression and shyness, and help them to build effective social communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-term visual memory properties sheet secondary school age with different levels of physical development

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    E.E. Menshikh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . The results presented properties of short-term visual memory with different levels of physical development. Materials and methods. The study included 405 boys and girls Cherkassy school 11 in age from 13 to 16 years. Study of short-term visual memory was carried out using tables with 10 characters ( numbers and ambiguous geometric shapes . Indicator memory was the higher, the more information was displayed. Measured the length and body weight was recorded cardiorespiratory indicators - heart rate at rest and after 20 squats, lung capacity, breath-hold inspiration and expiration. Physical development factor was calculated by taking into account actual and average population indices. Results . Found that the volume of short-term visual memory, the boys and girls high school age does not depend on the level of their physical development. Despite the fact that the trend towards higher performance memory in groups of persons with a high level of physical development compared to their same age with medium and low levels, significant differences between the mean values for the most part have been identified. No significant differences between the values of the investigated cognitive function in groups by sex. Conclusions . Growth pattern memory with age in this period of ontogenesis preserved that coincides with the data presented in the scientific works of scientists.

  17. Balance deficits and ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve school-aged boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konicarova J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Konicarova,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch11Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech RepublicBackground and objectives: Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age.Results: ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease.Keywords: ADHD, balance deficits, conduct problems, developmental disorders, inhibitory deficits, impulsivity

  18. Association between parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care and myopia risk in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Lihua; Lu, Benlin; Wang, Hexin; Xu, Ting; Du, Dandan; Wu, Shiqing; Li, Xiuxiu; Lu, Meixia

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this survey was to determine the association of parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care with myopia risk in school-aged children.A total of 894 parents of school-aged children were investigated in primary and middle schools in the central and noncentral urban area in Wuhan through stratified cluster random sampling on July, 2015. We analyzed the association by the generalized linear mixed model.The results indicated that children with parents' high expectations of 1.5 or higher on their vision exhibited a decreased risk of myopia compared with 1.0 and 0.5 or lower (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.36-0.67). Children whose parents only paid attention to their vision in junior and senior school and in primary school had an increased myopia risk than that in preschool (OR = 2.12, 95%CI = 1.01-4.45, and OR = 3.11, 95%CI = 1.28-7.58, respectively). Children whose parents ensured for their sufficient sleep had a decreased myopia risk (OR = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.24-0.85). Compared with children whose parents who never adjusted electronic devices' parameters, the odds ratio of sometimes was 0.49 (95%CI = 0.31-0.79), often 0.53 (95%CI = 0.33-0.85), and always 0.44 (95%CI = 0.26-0.75), respectively.Parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care are significantly associated with the myopia risk in school-aged children. Consequently, efforts should be made to educate parents on how they protect children's vision and reduce their risk of myopia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Concussions From Youth Football: Results From NEISS Hospitals Over an 11-Year Time Frame, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan A; Buzas, David; Morawa, Lawrence G

    2013-12-01

    Youth football programs across the United States represent an at-risk population of approximately 3.5 million athletes for sports-related concussions. The frequency of concussions in this population is not known. Descriptive epidemiology study. Over an 11-year span from January 2002 to December 2012, the authors reviewed the concussions sustained by athletes aged 5 to 13 years while playing football, as evaluated in emergency departments (EDs) in the United States and captured by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. There were 2028 (national estimate, 49,185) young football players evaluated in NEISS EDs with concussion from 2002 to 2012. There were 1987 (97.9%) males and 41 (2.1%) females, with a mean age of 11.2 years. The total number of concussions reported increased with age and by year. The majority of concussions were treated in the outpatient setting, with 1878 (91.7%) being treated and released. The total number of head-to-head injury mechanisms mirrored the total number of concussions by year, which increased throughout the 11-year span. The total number of players experiencing a loss of consciousness increased throughout the study period but did not match the total number of concussions over the 11-year time period. Fractures occurred in 11 (0.5%) patients, with 2 being severe (1 skull fracture and 1 thoracic compression fracture). Within the 5- to 13-year age range, there were a significant number of young athletes who presented to EDs with concussion as a result of playing organized football. Older children may be at greater risk for sustaining concussions, fractures, and catastrophic injuries while playing football when compared with younger children. Younger children are more susceptible to long-term sequelae from head injuries, and thus, improved monitoring systems for these athletes are needed to assist in monitoring patterns of injury, identifying risk factors, and

  20. 2017 Dutch Report Card+: Results From the First Physical Activity Report Card Plus for Dutch Youth With a Chronic Disease or Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Burghard

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Dutch Active Healthy Kids (AHK Report Card+ (RC+ consolidates and translates research and assesses how the Netherlands is being responsible in providing physical activity (PA opportunities for youth (< 18 years with a chronic disease or disability. The aim of this article is to summarize the results of the Dutch RC+.Methods: Nine indicators were graded using the AHK Global Alliance RC development process, which includes a synthesis of best available research, surveillance, policy and practice findings, and expert consensus. Two additional indicators were included: weight status and sleep.Results: Grades assigned were: Overall Physical Activity, D; Organized Sports Participation, B–; Active Play, C–; Active Transportation, A–; Sedentary Behavior, C; Sleep C; For Weight Status, Family and Peers, School, Community and Built Environment, Government Strategies, and Investments all INC.Conclusions: The youth with disabilities spend a large part of the day sedentary, since only 26% of them met the PA norm for healthy physical activity. Potential avenues to improve overall physical activity are changing behaviors regarding sitting, screen time, and active play. The Netherlands is on track regarding PA opportunities for youth with disabilities, however they are currently not able to participate unlimited in sports and exercise.

  1. Relationship between Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-second version and psychiatric disorders in youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenarts, L E W; Dölitzsch, C; Schmeck, K; Fegert, J M; Grisso, T; Schmid, M

    2016-09-30

    There is growing evidence that it is important to have well-standardized procedures for identifying the mental health needs of youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions. One of the most widely used tools for mental health screening in the juvenile justice system is the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-second version (MAYSI-2). To contribute to the body of research examining the utility of the MAYSI-2 as a mental health screening tool; the first objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between the MAYSI-2 and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) in a sample of Swiss youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions using a cross-sectional design. Secondly, as the sample was drawn from the French-, German- and Italian-speaking parts of Switzerland, the three languages were represented in the total sample and consequently differences between the language regions were analyzed as well. The third objective was to examine gender differences in this relationship. Participants were 297 boys and 149 girls (mean age = 16.2, SD = 2.5) recruited from 64 youth welfare and juvenile justice institutions in Switzerland. The MAYSI-2 was used to screen for mental health or behavioral problems that could require further evaluation. Psychiatric classification was based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to predict (cluster of) psychiatric disorders from MAYSI-2 scales. The regression analyses revealed that the MAYSI-2 scales generally related well to their corresponding homotypic (cluster of) psychiatric disorders. For example, the alcohol/drug use scale identified the presence of any substance use disorder and the suicide ideation scale identified youths reporting suicide ideation or suicide attempts. Several MAYSI-2

  2. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  3. Filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  5. Main meal frequency measures in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Laursen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate agreement between questionnaire-based frequency measures from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) and 7-day 24-h recall measures of breakfast, lunch and evening meals among 11-15-year-olds, and examine whether disagreement between the two methods varied...... for the breakfast measure: per cent agreement 0.70-0.87, kappa 0.43-0.65. Fair agreement for the lunch measure: per cent agreement 0.53-0.84, kappa 0.26-0.54. High per cent agreement for the evening meal measure (0.83-0.95) but poor kappa agreement (0.14-0.19). Being immigrant predicted disagreement between the two...... methods for week day breakfast OR (95 % CI) 2.17 (1.16-4.04) and lunch 2.44 (1.33-4.48). CONCLUSIONS: We found good to moderate agreement between frequency and 7-day 24-h recall measures for breakfast, a fair agreement for lunch and for evening meal the two agreement methods provided different results...

  6. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

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    Choi Hyeon-Jeong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  7. Teen responses when a younger school-age sibling has been bullied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Zdunowski-Sjoblom, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of bullying among children, and the sometimes tragic consequences as a result, has become a major concern in schools. The larger research for this study reported on in-depth interviews with 28 elementary and middle school-age boys and girls (7–12 years) who had experienced various forms of bullying and relational aggression by their peers, mostly on school grounds, and the responses of their parents and teachers. Responses of the children's teen siblings to the younger child's revelations of being bullied are the focus of this report. In-depth interviews with each teen sibling (n = 28) and with each bullied child revealed how the children viewed the teen siblings' supportive strategies. Almost all the children (89%) reported that their older siblings talked with them and offered advice. The teen siblings shared with the younger ones that they too (71%) had been bullied, or they knew someone who had been bullied (18%). Teens gave the advice to ‘bully back’ to 11% and advice to ‘tell someone’ to 32% of the younger children. The children felt quite positive about their older siblings' advice (89%), which did differ depending on the bullied child's gender. Teen siblings gave advice to ‘avoid bullies’ to 77% of female and to 27% of male younger children. PMID:25931644

  8. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, Burhan; Simsek, Enver; Erdogmus, Besir; Bahcebasi, Talat; Aktas, Alev; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Uzun, Hakan; Safak, Alp Alper

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children

  9. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  10. Theory of mind and specific language impairment in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BMI, total and abdominal fat distribution, and cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, Olta; Gaillard, Romy; Durmus, Busra; Abrahamse, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; de Jonge, Layla L; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-05-01

    More specific total body and abdominal fat mass measures might be stronger associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, than BMI. We examined the independent associations of total and abdominal fat measures with cardiovascular risk factors in school age children. We performed a population-based cohort study among 6,523 children. At the age of 6 y, we measured childhood BMI, and general and abdominal fat mass, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and ultrasound and cardiovascular risk factors. Conditional on BMI, higher fat mass percentage and abdominal fat mass were associated with higher blood pressure, total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, insulin and c-peptide levels, but with lower left ventricular mass and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P values children. Higher childhood adiposity measures were associated with increased odds of cardiovascular risk factors clustering, with the strongest effect for fat mass percentage (odds ratios: 3.01 (95% confidence interval: 2.67, 3.9). Our results suggest that general and abdominal fat measures are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, independent from BMI. These measures may provide additional information for identification of children with an adverse cardiovascular profile.

  12. Interactive vs passive screen time and nighttime sleep duration among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yland, Jennifer; Guan, Stanford; Emanuele, Erin; Hale, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Insufficient sleep among school-aged children is a growing concern, as numerous studies have shown that chronic short sleep duration increases the risk of poor academic performance and specific adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between weekday nighttime sleep duration and 3 types of screen exposure: television, computer use, and video gaming. We used age 9 data from an ethnically diverse national birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using screen time data reported by both the child (n = 3269) and by the child's primary caregiver (n= 2770). Within the child-reported models, children who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had shorter sleep duration by approximately 11 minutes per night compared to those who watched less than 2 hours of television (β = -0.18; P computer use were associated with reduced sleep duration. For both child- and parent-reported screen time measures, we did not find statistically significant differences in effect size across various types of screen time. Screen time from televisions and computers is associated with reduced sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using 2 sources of estimates of screen time exposure (child and parent reports). No specific type or use of screen time resulted in significantly shorter sleep duration than another, suggesting that caution should be advised against excessive use of all screens.

  13. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  14. Functional handwriting performance in school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval-White, Cherie J; Jirikowic, Tracy; Rios, Dianne; Deitz, Jean; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a critical skill for school success. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often present with fine motor and visual-motor impairments that can affect handwriting performance, yet handwriting skills have not been systematically investigated in this clinical group. This study aimed to comprehensively describe handwriting skills in 20 school-age children with FASD. Children were tested with the Process Assessment of the Learner, 2nd Edition (PAL-II), and the Visuomotor Precision subtest of NEPSY, a developmental neuropsychological assessment. Participants performed below average on PAL-II measures of handwriting legibility and speed and on NEPSY visual-motor precision tasks. In contrast, PAL-II measures of sensorimotor skills were broadly within the average range. Results provide evidence of functional handwriting challenges for children with FASD and suggest diminished visual-motor skills and increased difficulty as task complexity increases. Future research is needed to further describe the prevalence and nature of handwriting challenges in this population. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  15. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. School-Age Test Proficiency and Special Education After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Sarah B; Bai, Shasha; Luo, Chunqiao; Cleavenger, Jordyn E; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Mosley, Bridget S; Kaiser, Jeffrey R; Bhutta, Adnan T

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate test proficiency and the receipt of special education services in school-age children who had undergone surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) at age Education longitudinal database containing achievement test scores in literacy and mathematics for grades 3-4 and special education codes. The primary negative outcome was not achieving grade-level proficiency on achievement tests. Logistic regression accounting for repeated measures was used to evaluate for associations between achieving proficiency and demographic data, maternal education, and clinical factors. A total of 362 of 458 (79%) children who underwent surgery for CHD were matched to the Arkansas Department of Education database, 285 of whom had grade 3 and/or 4 achievement tests scores. Fewer students with CHD achieved proficiency in literacy and mathematics (P education predicted proficiency in literacy (P special education services (26.9% vs 11.6%; P special education services than all state students. Results from this study support the need for neurodevelopmental evaluations as standard practice in children with CHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interest-Driven Learning Among Middle School Youth in an Out-of-School STEM Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael A.; Lopez, Megan; Maddox, Donna; Drape, Tiffany; Duke, Rebekah

    2014-10-01

    The concept of connected learning proposes that youth leverage individual interest and social media to drive learning with an academic focus. To illustrate, we present in-depth case studies of Ryan and Sam, two middle-school-age youth, to document an out-of-school intervention intended to direct toward intentional learning in STEM that taps interest and motivation. The investigation focused on how Ryan and Sam interacted with the designed elements of Studio STEM and whether they became more engaged to gain deeper learning about science concepts related to energy sustainability. The investigation focused on the roles of the engineering design process, peer interaction, and social media to influence youth interest and motivation. Research questions were based on principles of connected learning (e.g., self-expression, lower barriers to expertise, socio-technical supports) with data analyzed within a framework suggested by discursive psychology. Analyzing videotaped excerpts of interactions in the studio, field notes, interview responses, and artifacts created during the program resulted in the following findings: problem solving, new media, and peer interaction as designed features of Studio STEM elicited evidence of stimulating interest in STEM for deeper learning. Further research could investigate individual interest-driven niches that are formed inside the larger educational setting, identifying areas of informal learning practice that could be adopted in formal settings. Moreover, aspects of youth's STEM literacy that could promote environmental sustainability through ideation, invention, and creativity should be pursued.

  18. The nutritional status of school-aged children: why should we care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Cora; Neufingerl, Nicole; van Geel, Laura; van den Briel, Tina; Osendarp, Saskia

    2010-09-01

    The nutritional status of school-aged children impacts their health, cognition, and subsequently their educational achievement. The school is an opportune setting to provide health and nutrition services to disadvantaged children. Yet, school-aged children are not commonly included in health and nutrition surveys. An up-to-date overview of their nutritional status across the world is not available. To provide a summary of the recent data on the nutritional status of school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition and identify issues of public health concern. A review of literature published from 2002 to 2009 on the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 12 years from Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean region was performed. Eligible studies determined the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies or child under- and overnutrition using biochemical markers and internationally accepted growth references. A total of 369 studies from 76 different countries were included. The available data indicate that the nutritional status of school-aged children in the reviewed regions is considerably inadequate. Underweight and thinness were most prominent in populations from South-East Asia and Africa, whereas in Latin America the prevalence of underweight or thinness was generally below 10%. More than half of the studies on anemia reported moderate (> 20%) or severe (> 40%) prevalence of anemia. Prevalences of 20% to 30% were commonly reported for deficiencies of iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A. The prevalence of overweight was highest in Latin American countries (20% to 35%). In Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, the prevalence of overweight was generally below 15%. The available data indicate that malnutrition is a public health issue in school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition. However, the available data, especially data on micronutrient status, are limited. These findings emphasize

  19. Cyberbullying Prevalence among United States Middle and High School Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Fales, Jessica L.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying has established links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use, and somatic symptoms. Quality reporting of cyberbullying prevalence is essential to guide evidence-based policy and prevention priorities. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate study quality and reported prevalence among cyberbullying research studies conducted in populations of US adolescents of middle and high school age. Methods Searches of peer-reviewed literature published through June 2015 for “cyberbullying” and related terms were conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Included manuscripts reported cyberbullying prevalence in general populations of U.S. adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. Using a review tool based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, reviewers independently scored study quality on study methods, results reporting, and reported prevalence. Results Search results yielded 1,447 manuscripts; 81 manuscripts representing 58 unique studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Quality scores ranged between 12 and 37 total points out of a possible 42 points (M = 26.7, SD = 4.6). Prevalence rates of cyberbullying ranged as follows: perpetration, 1% to 41%; victimization, 3% to 72%; and overlapping perpetration and victimization, 2.3% to 16.7%. Conclusions Literature on cyberbullying in US middle and high school aged students is robust in quantity but inconsistent in quality and reported prevalence. Consistent definitions and evidence-based measurement tools are needed. PMID:26576821

  20. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-age African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method Forty-three children, grades two through five, generated a fictional and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a story-prompt task, respectively. Narratives produced in these two contexts were characterized for macrostructure, microstructure, and dialect density. Differences across narrative type and grade level were examined. Results Statistically significant differences between the two types of narratives were found for both macrostructure and microstructure but not for dialect density. There were no grade-related differences in macrostructure, microstructure, or dialect density. Conclusion The results demonstrate the complementary role of fictional and personal narratives for describing young children's narrative skills. Use of both types of narrative tasks and descriptions of both macrostructure and macrostructure may be particularly useful for characterizing the narrative abilities of young school-age African American children, for whom culture-fair methods are scarce. Further study of additional dialect groups is warranted. PMID:23633645

  1. Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Program on Pain and Fear in School-aged Children Undergoing Intravenous Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chuan Hsieh, RN, MSN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral program on pain and medical fear in hospitalized school-aged children receiving intravenous (IV placement. Methods: This study used an quasi-experimental design. Thirty-five participants were assigned to the experimental group and 33 to the control group in the acute internal medicine ward of a children's hospital. The cognitive-behavioral program entailed having the patients read an educational photo book about IV placement before the procedure and having them watch their favorite music video during the procedure. The outcome measures were numeric rating scales for pain intensity and fear during the procedure. Results: After applying the cognitive-behavioral program, the mean scores on pain and fear decreased in the experimental group. However, the difference in pain intensity between these two groups was nonsignificant. The intensity of fear in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the cognitive-behavioral program used with school-aged hospitalized children promoted less fear during IV placement. The results of this study can serve as a reference for empirical nursing care and as care guidance for clinical IV injections involving children. Keywords: children, fear, needle, pain

  2. Associations of Insulin Resistance and Glycemia With Liver Enzymes in Hispanic/Latino Youths: Results From the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Rudolph, Bryan J; Lazo, Mariana; Gallo, Linda C; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Cotler, Scott J; Qi, Qibin; Seeherunvong, Tossaporn; Vidot, Denise C; Strickler, Howard D; Kaplan, Robert C; Isasi, Carmen R

    2017-11-03

    Associations of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia with a panel of liver enzymes have not been well studied in a young, heterogenous Hispanic/Latino population. We aimed to assess the associations of insulin resistance and glycemia with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as measured by liver enzymes and the pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index (PNFI), and whether these associations are modified by body mass index and mediated by inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1317 boys and girls aged 8 to 16 years from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. We used Poisson regression to assess the associations of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (>25 U/L in boys, >22 U/L in girls), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (≥37 U/L), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (≥17 U/L), and PNFI (≥9; a function of age, waist circumference, and triglyceride level). HOMA-IR was associated with elevated ALT, AST, GGT, and PNFI [prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for each 1-unit increase in the natural log of HOMA-IR: 1.99 (1.40-2.81), 2.15 (1.12-4.12), 1.70 (1.26-2.30), and 1.98 (1.43-2.74), respectively]. Associations were observed in overweight/obese children, but not in normal weight children (P-interaction=0.04 for AST and P-interaction=0.07 for GGT). After further adjustment for adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, e-selectin, and PAI-1, associations of HOMA-IR with liver enzymes and PNFI were attenuated, but remained statistically significant for AST and PNFI. Insulin resistance was associated with NAFLD in overweight/obese Hispanic/Latino youth, and this association may be partially mediated by inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

  3. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  4. Coping and mental health outcomes among Sierra Leonean war-affected youth: Results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manasi; Fine, Shoshanna L; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2017-02-01

    This study explored how coping with war-related traumatic events in Sierra Leone impacted mental health outcomes among 529 youth (aged 10-17 at baseline; 25% female) using longitudinal data from three time points (Time 1 in 2002, Time 2 in 2004, and Time 3 in 2008). We examined two types of coping items (approach and avoidance); used multiple regression models to test their relations with long-term mental health outcomes (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, adaptive/prosocial behaviors, and posttraumatic stress symptoms); and used mediation analyses to test whether coping explained the relation between previous war exposures (being raped, death of parent(s), or killing/injuring someone during the war) and those outcomes. We found that avoidance coping items were associated with lower internalizing and posttraumatic stress behaviors at Time 3, and provided some evidence of mediating the relation between death of parent(s) during the war and the two outcomes mentioned above. Approach coping was associated with higher Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors, whereas avoidance coping was associated with lower Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors. Avoidance coping may be a protective factor against mental illness, whereas approach coping may be a promotive factor for adaptive/prosocial behaviors in war-affected societies. This study has important implications for designing and implementing mental health interventions for youth in postconflict settings.

  5. Results From the United States of America's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Denstel, Kara D; Beals, Kim; Bolling, Christopher; Wright, Carly; Crouter, Scott E; McKenzie, Thomas L; Pate, Russell R; Saelens, Brian E; Staiano, Amanda E; Stanish, Heidi I; Sisson, Susan B

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 United States (U.S.) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth provides a comprehensive evaluation of physical activity levels and factors influencing physical activity among children and youth. The report card includes 10 indicators: Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Active Transportation, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Health-related Fitness, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments. Nationally representative data were used to evaluate the indicators using a standard grading rubric. Sufficient data were available to assign grades to 7 of the indicators, and these ranged from B- for Community and the Built Environment to F for Active Transportation. Overall Physical Activity received a grade of D- due to the low prevalence of meeting physical activity guidelines. A grade of D was assigned to Health-related Fitness, reflecting the low prevalence of meeting cardiorespiratory fitness standards. Disparities across age, gender, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups were observed for several indicators. Continued poor grades suggest that additional work is required to provide opportunities for U.S. children to be physically active. The observed disparities indicate that special attention should be given to girls, minorities, and those from lower socioeconomic groups when implementing intervention strategies.

  6. Attention Training for School-Aged Children with ADHD: Results of an Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Hughes, Carroll; Ames, Laure; Pickering, Joyce; Silver, Cheryl H.; Stavinoha, Peter; Castillo, Christine L.; Rintelmann, Jeanne; Moore, Jarrette; Foxwell, Aleksandra; Bolanos, S. Gina; Hines, Tabatha; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Emslie, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The article discusses a feasibility study conducted to examine whether Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, could be utilized in a clinical setting with children diagnosed with ADHD, and whether children who received the intervention made attention and executive functioning…

  7. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    . Methods This study is based on prospective data from 10 public schools, six intervention and four control schools matched according to the uptake area of the schools and socio-economic position of the parents. Intervention schools provided four additional PE lessons per week, where as control schools...... continued as usual (two PE lessons per week). A total of 1507 children (intervention n=773, control n=734) attending pre-school to the 4th grade in 2008 were invited to participate in the CHAMPS study-DK and 1218 (81%) children and their parents accepted. Height, weight, waist circumference, DXA scans......, Cardio respiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure, pubertal stage and fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline (2008) and follow-up (2010). Information on parental education level, household income and birth weight were collected from questionnaires during the first school year. Results...

  8. Communication attitudes of Japanese school-age children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version of the CAT could differentiate between the communication attitude of Japanese elementary school CWS and children who do not stutter (CWNS). A Japanese translation of the 1991 version of the Communication Attitude Test-Revised (CAT-R) was used in this study. Eighty Japanese CWS and 80 gender- and grade level-matched CWNS participated in the study. The results showed that CWS had a significantly more negative communication attitude than CWNS. Both CWS and CWNS in 1st grade showed significantly more positive communication attitudes than children in 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grades. Furthermore, a link between stuttering severity and CWS' communication attitude was found. Additional research is needed to confirm the results of the current study, which indicate that the communication attitude of Japanese CWS becomes more negative as they get older. The reader will be able to: (1) Describe the process that was used to develop a Japanese version of the Communication Attitude Test (CAT-J). (2) Discuss attitude differences between Japanese children who stutter and those who do not and how grade level impacts a negative attitude toward communication. (3) Explain the link between stuttering severity and attitudes of Japanese children who stutter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. National Trends in Hemoglobin Concentration and Prevalence of Anemia among Chinese School-Aged Children, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette

    2017-04-01

    To assess the trend of sex disparity in hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia among Chinese school-aged children from 1995 to 2010. Data were collected from 360 866 children aged 7, 9, 12, 14, and 17 years during 4 cross-sectional surveys (1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of the Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health. Shifts in hemoglobin concentration distributions were compared by sex. Average shifts and sex differences were calculated with quantile regression models. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio of sex for prevalence of anemia in different surveys. The mean hemoglobin concentration increased among Chinese children between 1995 and 2010, from 132.7 to 138.3 g/L in boys, and from 127.7 to 132.3 g/L in girls. The prevalence of anemia decreased from 18.8% in 1995 to 9.9% in 2010. It was higher in rural than urban children among all age groups. The prevalence odds ratios of girls versus boys for anemia increased in both urban and rural areas over time. Hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia improved among Chinese school-aged children over time. Hemoglobin concentration improved faster in boys than girls and as a result the relative prevalence of anemia in girls compared with boys increased. Sex-specific preventive guidelines and public health policies for childhood anemia are needed in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Program on Pain and Fear in School-aged Children Undergoing Intravenous Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Cheng, Su-Fen; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Su, Wen-Jen; Cho, Yen-Hua; Chen, Chi-Wen

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral program on pain and medical fear in hospitalized school-aged children receiving intravenous (IV) placement. This study used an quasi-experimental design. Thirty-five participants were assigned to the experimental group and 33 to the control group in the acute internal medicine ward of a children's hospital. The cognitive-behavioral program entailed having the patients read an educational photo book about IV placement before the procedure and having them watch their favorite music video during the procedure. The outcome measures were numeric rating scales for pain intensity and fear during the procedure. After applying the cognitive-behavioral program, the mean scores on pain and fear decreased in the experimental group. However, the difference in pain intensity between these two groups was nonsignificant. The intensity of fear in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group. In this study, the cognitive-behavioral program used with school-aged hospitalized children promoted less fear during IV placement. The results of this study can serve as a reference for empirical nursing care and as care guidance for clinical IV injections involving children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Design Elements and Feasibility of an Organized Multiplayer Mobile Active Videogame for Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sophie; Bangay, Shaun; Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Salmon, Jo

    2014-12-01

    This article describes the design, development, and implementation feasibility of a purpose-built mobile active videogame (M-AVG) named "Pirate Adventure," which was designed for primary school-aged children to engage in physical activity (PA) and fundamental movement skills (FMS), such as hopping, sidestepping, jumping, or running, in an afterschool setting. The design of "Pirate Adventure" was the result of a collaboration between games designers and health researchers. "Pirate Adventure" was designed and developed using Android(®) (Google, Mountain View, CA) phone sensors to respond to player actions within a playground environment. Using an interactive game framework, players solve clues and complete PA and FMS challenges via sensing the physical world through marked-out key game locations. Fourteen primary school-aged children participated in the feasibility evaluation, which took place in four afternoon sessions. The game was evaluated using Android phone telemetry data and a post-gameplay survey for children on their opinions and enjoyment of the game. The "Pirate Adventure" game design facilitated an enjoyable treasure hunt game (average of 11 minutes of activity per game) with narrative elements supporting children's engagement with movement activities. The majority of children (n=9/13) reported that they would like to play the game again. Combining real world and virtual world content through "Pirate Adventure" was moderately successful, with multiple gameplay sessions occurring. Further implementation feasibility testing, under more controlled conditions, needs to be conducted to assert the benefits of using a M-AVG for children's PA and FMS.

  12. Features of Formation of Personality Traits of School-Age Children in the Use of Measures for Psychohygienic Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Mostova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the formation of personality traits of school-age chidren in the use of diagnostic and preventive programs psychohygienic correction for disorders of psychophysiological and psychological adaptation and changes in the health of 14–17-year-old students. To assess personality characteristics of students we used personality questionnaires of Eysenck, Spielberg and Phillips. The results determine the positive impact of measures for psychohygienic correction on the state of criterion parameters of anxious-neurotic personality traits of students of school age. Implementation of the developed program provide the appearance of the positive changes in the structure of indicators that display characteristics of neuroticism (p < 0.05, situational (p < 0.001 and personal (p < 0.01 anxiety both among girls and boys, and in the structure of indicators of school anxiety, determining the existence of problems in relationships with teachers (p < 0.05 among girls. Changes recorded during the analysis of the other components of school anxiety, i.e. personality traits of anxiety, adverse changes in the structure of which are directly related to the impact of such stressor as a modern school, had to be recognized as less significant, but in this case revealed changes should be interpreted as favorable.

  13. Intelligence test at preschool-age predicts reading difficulty among school-aged very low birth weight infants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihito; Ogino, Tatsuya; Koeda, Tatsuya; Oka, Makio; Yorifuji, Takashi; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Sato, Kazuo; Sugino, Noriko; Bonno, Motoki; Nakamura, Makoto; Kageyama, Misao

    2018-05-21

    To elucidate whether the results of an intelligence test at preschool age are predictive of reading difficulty (RD) at school age among very low birth weight infants (VLBWI). Subjects were 48 Japanese children whose birth weight was Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) during the last grade of kindergarten, and four reading tasks during the second to fourth grade of elementary school. All participants had a full-scale intelligence quotient score of 85 or higher. Subjects with a standard deviation reading time score greater than 2.0 in two or more tasks were considered to have RD. We evaluated the associations between each WISC-III score and RD using logistic regression analyses. Furthermore, we performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine a cutoff WISC-III score predictive of RD. In the mutually-adjusted model, the adjusted odds ratio per 1 score increase of freedom from distractibility (FD) was 0.832 (95% confidence interval: 0.720-0.962). In the ROC analysis, an FD score of memory and attention, is a risk factor for RD at school age among Japanese VLBWI. Further investigation is desired to clarify the cognitive deficits underlying RD in Japanese-speaking preterm children, and to establish appropriate interventions for these children. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lombardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children’s performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children’s socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification − given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits − and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking. Keywords: Psychology, Education

  15. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Elisabetta; Di Dio, Cinzia; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Marchetti, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children's performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children's socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification - given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits - and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking.

  16. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, R.L.M.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Wijnen, F.N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  17. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  18. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  19. Functional Impairments at School Age of Children With Necrotizing Enterocolitis or Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Ta, B.D.; van der Ree, Meike H.; Tanis, Jozien C.; van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome at school age of children who had either necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). This case-control study included infants with NEC Bell's stage IIA onward, infants with SIP, and matched controls

  20. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of…

  1. Effects of Neonatal Dexamethasone Treatment on the Cardiovascular Stress Response of Children at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karemaker, Rosa; Karemaker, John M.; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Tersteeg-Kamperman, Marijke; Baerts, Wim; Veen, Sylvia; Samsom, Jannie F.; van Bel, Frank; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The goal was to investigate cardiovascular responses to a psychosocial stressor in school-aged, formerly premature boys and girls who had been treated neonatally with dexamethasone or hydrocortisone because of chronic lung disease. METHODS. We compared corticosteroid-treated, formerly

  2. Behavior Problems in School-Aged Physically Abused and Neglected Children in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paul, Joaquin; Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated behavior problems in 66 school-aged physically abused, neglected, and control group children in the Basque Country, Spain. Abused and neglected children had higher subscale scores for social problems, delinquent behavior, and attention problems and showed lower school adjustment. Neglected children appeared more aggressive,…

  3. An Analysis of Educational Policies for School-Aged Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the educational policies for Syrian school-aged refugees in Turkey. In this study, we identified the policy priorities for refugees by first examining the theoretical approaches to refugee education and the common problems observed for refugee education in different countries. Using this framework, we…

  4. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  5. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  6. School Age Center Connections: Site-Based Management Strategies for Implementation of Quality Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Dahna R.

    This paper describes the outcomes of a practicum that initiated site-based-management strategies to support the consistent implementation of a quality school-age child-care program. Implemented at a multisite child-care center, the program sought to enhance staff members' job satisfaction and maximize their opportunities for professional growth…

  7. Visual search in school-aged children with unilateral brain lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netelenbos, J.B.; de Rooij, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this preliminary study, visual search for targets within and beyond the initial field of view was investigated in seven school-aged children (five females, two males; mean age at testing 8 years 10 months, SD 1 year 3 months; range 6 to 10 years) with various acquired, postnatal, focal brain

  8. Determination of the nutritional status of a population of school-age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutrition assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce the morbidity and mortality that are associated with malnutrition. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the nutritional status of a population of school-age children in ...

  9. Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia is a problem affecting a large group of school children in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to morbidity in this region. In Cape Verde the magnitude of anemia in school-age children is unknown. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among children in Cape Verde. The data are ...

  10. Early lexical development and risk of verbal and nonverbal cognitive delay at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Rescorla, L.; Henrichs, J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterise the relationship between preschool lexical delay and language comprehension and nonverbal intelligence at school age. Methods The mothers of 2724 children completed the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory when their child reached 1.5 years and the Language Development

  11. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  12. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  13. Development of daily activities in school-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, D.W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J.W.; van Schie, P.E.M.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Jongmans, M.J.; Lindeman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the course of capabilities in self-care, mobility, and social function in school-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate associations with CP-, child-, and family-characteristics. A clinic-based sample of children with CP (n= 116; 76 males,

  14. Parents' perception about their preterm child's social interaction reaching school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laansma, Frederike; Smidt, Eva; Crajé, Céline; Luinge, Margreet

    2017-01-01

    A key element in social development is interaction with others. Preterm infants have an increased risk for problems in this aspect. We aimed to gain insight into parents’ perception about their preterm child’s social interaction upon reaching school age. Twelve caregivers of preterm infants aged

  15. The Evaluation of a Personal Narrative Language Intervention for School-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth; O'Brien, Katy H.; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene; Lyrek, Kristen A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention focused on improving personal narrative skills of school-age children with Down syndrome (DS) using an approach involving visual supports. Four females with DS, ages 10 through 15 years, participated in this multiple baseline across participants single-subject…

  16. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  17. Comparison of Measures of Morphosyntactic Complexity in French-Speaking School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeau, Catherine; Plourde, Vickie; Ouellet, Andrée-Anne; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of different measures of morphosyntactic complexity, including the Morphosyntactic Complexity Scale (MSCS), a novel adaptation of the Developmental Sentence Scoring, in French-speaking school-aged children. Seventy-three Quebec children from kindergarten to Grade 3 completed a definition task and a…

  18. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-01-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, "Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry" 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two…

  19. Prevalence and pattern of executive dysfunction in school age children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jacqueline H; Berl, Madison M; Armour, Anna C; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; Donofrio, Mary T

    2017-03-01

    Executive function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Ninety-one school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age- and gender- matched control sample was drawn from a normative database. Children with CHD had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR = 4.37, P  .05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cognitive Motor Coordination Training Improves Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stefanie; Böttcher, Caroline; Jansen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The long-term physical activity in specific sport activities can change the quality of mental rotation performance. This study investigates the influence of "Life Kinetik"--a motion program with tasks of cognition and motor coordination--on mental rotation performance of 44 primary school-aged children. While the experimental group…

  1. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  2. Childhood Fears, Neurobehavioral Functioning and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…

  3. Parent-Reported Differences between School-Aged Girls and Boys on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rebecca; Hodge, Antoinette; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra; Klieve, Helen

    2017-01-01

    More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided…

  4. Properties of the Narrative Scoring Scheme Using Narrative Retells in Young School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann; Dunaway, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical utility of the narrative scoring scheme (NSS) as an index of narrative macrostructure for young school-age children. Method: Oral retells of a wordless picture book were elicited from 129 typically developing children, ages 5-7. A series of correlations and hierarchical regression equations were completed using…

  5. Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism: Communication, Academic Engagement and Classroom Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Kathryne Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Minimally verbal school aged children with autism (MVSACwA) receive the bulk of their behavioral and academic support in schools yet we know little about the environments to which they are exposed. This population of children has often been excluded from studies and thus, underrepresented in current data on autism. As increasing numbers of…

  6. Mood Symptoms and Emotional Responsiveness to Threat in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Sbarra, David A.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical accounts of depression underscore its relation to negative emotional experiences; yet few empirical studies examine emotional experiences in adults with depression, with even less work on depression and emotion in children. Using a nonclinical sample of school-aged children (n = 89) ages 8 to 12, this study evaluated whether greater mood…

  7. A Phonologically Based Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: Implications for Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…

  8. Effect of Hearing Loss on Peer Victimization in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D.; Loy, Betty; Pourchot, Hannah; White, Trissan; Cokely, Elika

    2018-01-01

    Nearly one third of school-age children report being bullied, primarily enduring teasing or rumors. Children with hearing loss (HL) are at increased risk of victimization due to being "different" from the general population. This project assesses effects of auditory status on bullying by comparing incidence and type of bullying in 87…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  10. Quality of general movements and the development of minor neurological dysfunction at toddler and school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, AMC; Stremmelaar, EF; Martijn, A; Butcher, PR; Groen, S.E

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability of assessing infants' general movements (GMs) using a new classification and its validity in predicting complex minor neurological dysfunction (MND) at toddler and at school age. Design: Prospective study of two groups of infants, each consisting of a mix of

  11. Mode of Delivery and Asthma at School Age in 9 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusconi, Franca; Zugna, Daniela; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Evidence on the association between mode of delivery and asthma at school age is inconclusive. We assessed the associations between specific modes of delivery and asthma in children from 9 European birth cohorts that enrolled participants between 1996 and 2006. Cohort-specific crude and adjusted ...

  12. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  13. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis

  14. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  15. Progression of stunting and its predictors among school-aged children in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, J. F.; Phillips-Howard, P. A.; Mirel, L. B.; Terlouw, D. J.; Okello, N.; Vulule, J. M.; Hawley, W. A.; Nahlen, B. L.; ter Kuile, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to assess whether a cohort of school-aged children experiences progression of stunting over a 2-y-period of observation and (2) to identify baseline nutritional and body composition risk factors for the progression of stunting. As part of a large-scale,

  16. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  17. School Age Outcomes of Children Diagnosed Early and Later with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Megan Louise Erin; Vinen, Zoe; Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder is considered best practice, increasing access to early intervention. Yet, many children are diagnosed after 3-years. The current study investigated the school age outcomes of children who received an early and later diagnosis of ASD. The cognitive and behavioural outcomes of children diagnosed early (n…

  18. Prevalence of parent-reported immediate hypersensitivity food allergy in Chilean school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Bachiloglu, R; Ivanovic-Zuvic, D; Álvarez, J; Linn, K; Thöne, N; de los Ángeles Paul, M; Borzutzky, A

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies (FAs) affect 2-4% of school-aged children in developed countries and strongly impact their quality of life. The prevalence of FA in Chile remains unknown. Cross-sectional survey study of 488 parents of school-aged children from Santiago who were asked to complete a FA screening questionnaire. Parents who reported symptoms suggestive of FA were contacted to answer a second in-depth questionnaire to determine immediate hypersensitivity FA prevalence and clinical characteristics of school-aged Chilean children. A total of 455 parents answered the screening questionnaire: 13% reported recurrent symptoms to a particular food and 6% reported FA. Forty-three screening questionnaires (9%) were found to be suggestive of FA. Parents of 40 children answered the second questionnaire; 25 were considered by authors to have FA. FA rate was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.6-7.9). Foods reported to frequently cause FA included walnut, peanut, egg, chocolate, avocado, and banana. Children with FA had more asthma (20% vs. 7%, Phistory compatible with anaphylaxis. Of 13 children who sought medical attention, 70% were diagnosed with FA; none were advised to acquire an epinephrine autoinjector. Up to 5.5% of school-aged Chilean children may suffer from FA, most frequently to walnut and peanut. It is critical to raise awareness in Chile regarding FA and recognition of anaphylaxis, and promote epinephrine autoinjectors in affected children. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. A Spoken-Language Intervention for School-Aged Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken-language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared storytelling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically derived…

  20. evaluation of nutritional status among school-aged children in rural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    This study examines anthropometric indices of school-age children in five .... was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using standard medical techniques with a tape ..... Bundy DA, Drake LJ and C Burbano School food, politics and child health.

  1. Lung function and functional capacity in school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S da Silva Dias de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Six-minute walk test (TC6’ and peak expiratory flow (PEF can be influenced by variables like gender, age and body mass index (BMI. In the school context, these tests can identify losses caused by sedentary habits and/or manifestation of overweight/obesity. Nevertheless, although widely studied in the adult context, they have not been properly clarified in the child public. Objective: To assess the PEF and TC6’ between students in the public and private network and to correlate them with factors like age, gender and BMI. Methods: 39 male and female children between eight and ten years of age were selected for the study. The TC6’ was held at a sports court. The child was instructed to walk at maximum speed for six minutes and the PEF test took place in accordance to the recommendations by Pereira et al (1. Results: No significant correlation was found between the BMI and the PEF and TC6’ scores. No significant correlation was found between sex and PEF, with measures within normal parameters for the entire sample. The EPF measures did not influence the distance walked in the TC6’. A significant correlation was found between sex and distance walked in the TC6’ only among male children attending public schools. Conclusion: Both sex and BMI did not influence the PEF measures which, in turn, does not seem to have influenced the distance the sample walked in the TC6’. Also concerning the TC6’, only the children from public school reached the normal scores proposed in the literature.

  2. [Comparison of polysomnographic characteristics in preschool and school aged children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanfeng; Lei, Fei; Du, Lina; Tang, Xiangdong; Yang, Linghui

    2016-03-01

    To compare the characteristics of polysomnography in preschool and school aged children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The clinical data were collected from October 2009 to October 2013 among children monitored in Sleep Medical Center of West China Hospital. Among them, 189 preschool aged (aged 3-5 years) and 211 school aged (aged 6-13 years) children with sleep breathing disorder, and 33 children complained with sleep talking as controls were enrolled and underwent polysomnography. According to apnea hyponea index (AHI), they were classified as primary snoring (AHIstage and N2 stage among groups (P>0.05). In preschool aged children, the percentage of N1 stage in the moderate/severe group was more than other three groups (moderate/severe group vs control group, primary snoring group, mild group: 24.7%±13.7% vs 17.0%±8.7%, 21.7%±12.4%, 20.9%±11.6%, all Pstage in the moderate/severe group was more than the control group (moderate/severe group vs control group: 18.0%±10.4% vs 12.0%±4.8%, Pstage in the moderate/severe group and the mild group were less than the control group (moderate/severe group, mild group vs control group: 28.3%±9.6%, 28.8%±8.8% vs 33.9%±13.0%, both Ppreschool and school aged children group, the arouse index in the moderate/severe group was higher than other three groups, the mean oxygen saturation and the lowest oxygen saturation in the moderate/severe group were lower than those of the other three groups, the differences were statistically significant (all Ppreschool children (r=-0.02, P>0.05). However, there was significance in school aged children (r=0.26, Ppreschool and school aged (r=0.42, 0.55, both Ppreschool children than in school aged children. The severity is mainly related to enlarged tonsils and adenoids. School aged children with OSAHS may be more susceptible to sleep structure disorder and the severity is mainly related to BMI.

  3. Impact of sleep on executive functioning in school-age children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, A J; Hoffman, E K

    2018-06-01

    Sleep problems have an impact on executive functioning in the general population. While children with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for sleep problems, the impact of these sleep problems on executive functioning in school-age children with DS is less well documented. Our study examined the relationship between parent-reported and actigraphy-measured sleep duration and sleep quality with parent and teacher reports and neuropsychology assessments of executive functioning among school-age children with DS. Thirty school-age children with DS wore an actigraph watch for a week at home at night. Their parent completed ratings of the child's sleep during that same week. Children completed a neuropsychology assessment of their inhibitory control, ability to shift and working memory. Their parents and teachers completed rating scales to assess these same constructs of executive functioning. Parent reports of restless sleep behaviours on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), but not actigraph-measured sleep period or efficiency, were predictive of parent reports of concerns with inhibitory control, shifting and working memory, and of teacher reports of inhibitory control. No measure of sleep was predictive of executive functioning as measured by the neuropsychology assessment. The study findings corroborate the preliminary literature that parent-reported sleep problems are related to executive functioning in school-age children with DS, particularly in the area of inhibitory control across home and school. These findings have implications for understanding contributing factors to academic performance and school behaviour in school-age children with DS. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H.; Greeley, Christopher S.; Piercey, Lisa M.; Yu, Chang

    2011-01-01

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children ≤ 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  5. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  6. Impact of Education on School-aged Children's Knowledge of and Participation in "The Choking Game".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kendall; Raingruber, Bonnie; Butler, Eric; Wilson, Machelle

    2016-06-01

    To better understand school-aged children's awareness of and attitudes about the Choking Game (TCG). To determine if education can increase awareness of the risk of injury when playing TCG and to determine if education can decrease interest in TCG participation. Anonymous pre- and post-education surveys. Two middle/high schools; one in Utah and one in California. 291 participants (163 in Utah, 128 in California) aged 9-18, 68% under age 15, 32% 15 and older; 65% white, 35% non-white; 52% female, 48% male. 76% of participants knew about TCG, of those 62% heard about it at school. 32% knew someone who had played, and twelve (4%) had played, usually with others. Most frequently cited as reasons for participation were curiosity, peer pressure, and competition. School was the most common location for playing. In California education significantly increased risk awareness, and significant positive attitude changes were observed regarding interest in playing TCG. Utah participants also exhibited attitude changes in the desired direction (less interest in playing TCG, would warn friends, and realized it was not safe to stop breathing), although results were not statistically significant, possibly due to previous education and four recent and highly publicized TCG deaths in the community. Results indicate that interactive, standardized, and skills-based education can increase student awareness of TCG risks and decrease interest in participation. Students reported that the schools were often where they first heard about TCG and where TCG was commonly played. Educators and associated health care professionals should therefore be encouraged to provide preventative education as part of school curricula.

  7. Exposure to Internet-Based Tobacco Advertising and Branding: Results From Population Surveys of Australian Youth 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally; Freeman, Becky; Perez, Donna

    2016-06-23

    Since legislation prohibiting tobacco advertising in traditional media, online communication platforms and social media have become one of the few avenues for the tobacco industry to promote its products to Australians. Little is currently known about the exposure of young people to these new media promotions. To measure exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and branding among Australian youth, identify common formats of branding encountered, and examine the association between exposure and smoking susceptibility. The Tobacco Promotion Impact Study is a repeat cross-sectional telephone survey of young people (12-24 years) in 2 Australian states, conducted yearly from 2010 to 2013 (total n=8820). The survey included questions about past-month exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and tobacco company branding. Changes in levels of exposure, characteristics of exposed youth, and the association between exposure and smoking susceptibility were explored. Past-month exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and branding among young people increased over the years of the survey (advertising: 21% in 2010 to 29% in 2013; branding: 20% in 2010 to 26% in 2013). The participants who were younger, female, from lower socioeconomic status, and never-smokers were more likely to report exposure. Facebook was the most commonly cited platform for encountering tobacco branding in 2013 (22% of all branding). Compared with young people interviewed in 2013, participants in 2010 were significantly less likely to report exposure to tobacco branding on social media (odds ratio [OR] 0.26, 95% CI 0.20-0.33, Pbranding (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.57, P=.002) or branding alone (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.77, P=.007) were significant predictors of smoking susceptibility. Ensuring tobacco advertising bans are inclusive of Internet-based media is essential. Given the global nature of Internet-based content, cooperation among signatory nations to the World Health Organization

  8. Evaluation of Adaptive Noise Management Technologies for School-Age Children with Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jace; Duke, Mila; Schafer, Erin; Jones, Christine; Rakita, Lori

    2017-05-01

    with adaptive noise management exceeded the decrement obtained when the signal arrived from behind. Most participants reported better subjective SIRs when using adaptive noise management technologies, particularly when the signal of interest arrived from in front of the listener. In addition, most participants reported a preference for the technology with an automatically switching, adaptive directional microphone and adaptive noise reduction in real-world listening situations when compared to conventional, omnidirectional microphone use with minimal noise reduction processing. Use of the adaptive noise management technologies evaluated in this study improves school-age children's speech recognition in noise for signals arriving from the front. Although a small decrement in speech recognition in noise was observed for signals arriving from behind the listener, most participants reported a preference for use of noise management technology both when the signal arrived from in front and from behind the child. The results of this study suggest that adaptive noise management technologies should be considered for use with school-age children when listening in academic and social situations. American Academy of Audiology

  9. Contralateral Noise Stimulation Delays P300 Latency in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubiali, Thalita; Sanfins, Milaine Dominici; Borges, Leticia Reis; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex modulates auditory afferents through the olivocochlear system, which innervates the outer hair cells and the afferent neurons under the inner hair cells in the cochlea. Most of the studies that investigated the efferent activity in humans focused on evaluating the suppression of the otoacoustic emissions by stimulating the contralateral ear with noise, which assesses the activation of the medial olivocochlear bundle. The neurophysiology and the mechanisms involving efferent activity on higher regions of the auditory pathway, however, are still unknown. Also, the lack of studies investigating the effects of noise on human auditory cortex, especially in peadiatric population, points to the need for recording the late auditory potentials in noise conditions. Assessing the auditory efferents in schoolaged children is highly important due to some of its attributed functions such as selective attention and signal detection in noise, which are important abilities related to the development of language and academic skills. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of noise on P300 responses of children with normal hearing. P300 was recorded in 27 children aged from 8 to 14 years with normal hearing in two conditions: with and whitout contralateral white noise stimulation. P300 latencies were significantly longer at the presence of contralateral noise. No significant changes were observed for the amplitude values. Contralateral white noise stimulation delayed P300 latency in a group of school-aged children with normal hearing. These results suggest a possible influence of the medial olivocochlear activation on P300 responses under noise condition.

  10. Comparison of Nutritional Status Among, Flood Affected and Unaffected School Aged Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, S.N.; Aasim, M.; Ghous, R.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Natural disasters like floods affect large human populations by not only displacing them temporarily but also poses nutritional issues to women and children. Objectives: To determine the long term effects of floods, on the nutritional status of school going children in Pakistan. Study design, settings and duration: A cross sectional study which was conducted in public schools of district Nowshera which is a large district of province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from February 2012 to March 2014. Subjects and Methods: A total of 353 children aged 6-14 years were enrolled. There were 190 children from flood affected areas and 163 controls from unaffected areas. Using height, weight, age and gender, malnutrition indicators like acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition and underweight were calculated to evaluate effect of flood on these children after 20 months of the calamity. Weight for age (WAZ) was used to measure underweight, height for age (HAZ) to measure stunted growth, and weight for height (WHZ) to measure wasting or acute malnutrition. The malnutrition indicators which were positively associated with floods were further evaluated for associated factors. Results The frequency of acute malnutrition or wasting (WHZ) among flood affected children was 23.7 percent as compared to 16.5 percent among unaffected children while the frequency of underweight (WAZ) in flood affected areas was 42.1 percent as against 36.8 percent in unaffected areas (both were not significant). The frequency of chronic malnutrition or stunting (AZ) was 35.8 percent in affected and 27.6 percent in unaffected children (p< 0.041) and was the only positively associated indicator with exposure to floods. Factors associated with chronic malnutrition were age of the child, maternal education, history of fever, administration of de-worming medication and diarrhea. Conclusion: Floods had a long term effect on nutritional status of school aged children as shown by chronic malnutrition

  11. Impact of Coordinated-Bilateral Physical Activities on Attention and Concentration in School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Buchele Harris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study examined the effects of 4-week, daily 6-minute coordinated-bilateral physical activity (CBPA breaks in classroom on attention and concentration in school-aged children. Methods. Participants (n=116 in fifth grade from two elementary schools were assigned to three groups: two intervention groups (n= 60 and one control group (n = 56. All three groups were pre- and post-tested with the d2 Test of Attention (d2 test. One intervention group (n = 31 took part in six minutes of daily classroom-based coordinated-bilateral physical activity (CBPA break for four weeks. Another intervention group (n = 29, the Fitbit Only (Fitbit-O, wore Fitbits per day during a school, five days per week for four weeks without CBPA breaks. A 2 × 3 ANOVA was conducted, followed by the post hoc comparisons. Results. The CBPA showed significant increases in processing speed (F1 = 6.876, p = .010, focused attention (F1 = 10.688, p = .002, concentration performance (F1 = 26.46, p = .000, and attention span (F1 = 14.090, p = .000 over the control, but not in accuracy (Error %. The CBPA showed significant improvement in concentration performance (F1 = 24.162, p = .000 and attention span (F1 = 6.891, p = .011, compared to the Fitbit-O. No significant changes in all five attention parameters were found between the Fitbit-O and the control. Conclusion. It was concluded that daily brief coordinated-bilateral activities can improve attention and concentration in fifth-grade students over the course of four weeks.

  12. Contralateral Noise Stimulation Delays P300 Latency in School-Aged Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Ubiali

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex modulates auditory afferents through the olivocochlear system, which innervates the outer hair cells and the afferent neurons under the inner hair cells in the cochlea. Most of the studies that investigated the efferent activity in humans focused on evaluating the suppression of the otoacoustic emissions by stimulating the contralateral ear with noise, which assesses the activation of the medial olivocochlear bundle. The neurophysiology and the mechanisms involving efferent activity on higher regions of the auditory pathway, however, are still unknown. Also, the lack of studies investigating the effects of noise on human auditory cortex, especially in peadiatric population, points to the need for recording the late auditory potentials in noise conditions. Assessing the auditory efferents in schoolaged children is highly important due to some of its attributed functions such as selective attention and signal detection in noise, which are important abilities related to the development of language and academic skills. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of noise on P300 responses of children with normal hearing.P300 was recorded in 27 children aged from 8 to 14 years with normal hearing in two conditions: with and whitout contralateral white noise stimulation.P300 latencies were significantly longer at the presence of contralateral noise. No significant changes were observed for the amplitude values.Contralateral white noise stimulation delayed P300 latency in a group of school-aged children with normal hearing. These results suggest a possible influence of the medial olivocochlear activation on P300 responses under noise condition.

  13. Conversational Repair in School-Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Mei Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the conversational repair skills of Mandarin Chinese-speaking children with high-functioning autism (HFA as compared with those of typically developing children (TD. Ten school-aged children (age 9 to 12 with HFA were recruited and matched against ten TD children in the control group based on age, gender, and verbal intelligence level. During three different conversation situations (free talk, story picture description, play, an examiner engineered 9 episodes of communicative breakdowns. Each consisted of a stacked series of three prompts for responding to requests for clarification (RQCLs (i.e.‘What?’, ‘I don’t understand’, ‘I still don’t know’. Verbal responses to each RQCL were then coded for further analyses. The results showed that (1 In response to the stacked series RQCLs, children with HFA were similar to the control group children in evidencing repetition, revision, and addition types of repair. Furthermore, children with HFA showed fewer cue type of repair and more inappropriate type of repair than TD group. (2For both groups, the pattern of responding over the series of RQCLs was similar in varying the repetition and revision types of repair strategies. However, the pattern in the addition, cue, and inappropriate types of repair strategies were different. Children with HFA were significantly more likely to respond to an RQCL with an inappropriate response than the language and age-matched controls. It is suggested that teachers and parents could facilitate the conversational repair skills of children with high-functioning autism by offering them opportunities to manage different types of communicative breakdowns.

  14. Behavioral characteristics and cognitive development among school age children born to women with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güveli, Betül T; Gürses, Candan; Ataklı, Dilek; Akça Kalem, Şükriye; Dirican, Ahmet; Bebek, Nerses; Baykan, Betül; Gökyiğit, Aysen

    2015-04-01

    Greater risks of congenital malformation as well as cognitive and behavioral development in later childhood occur as a result of in utero exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We examined the effects of AEDs on behavioral characteristics and cognitive development among school age children born to women with epilepsy. Children aged 6-15 years and born to women with epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Information was collected on the women's demographics and the details of their usage/non-usage of AEDs during pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for the Children-Revised (WICS-R) test was administered to the children. The Alexander IQ test and the Conner Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) were administered to the mothers. Comparisons were made between children who had been exposed and not exposed to AEDs in utero and if exposed, according to exposure to AED monotherapy or polytherapy. The mother's education level and IQ score and data from the same parent's siblings were evaluated with respect to consanguinity. Forty-one children born to 28 women with epilepsy were enrolled. Seven mothers had multiple pregnancies. Twenty-three pregnancies (56%) were exposed to monotherapy and five (12·1%) to polytherapy. The remaining 13 (31·7%) were not exposed to AEDs. Maternal education level was a significant major factor in child IQ development (P sibling assessment indicated a negative effect of valproate on IQ. It is important that the AED dosage be reduced to a minimum to maintain seizure control for healthy cognitive and behavioral development of a child.

  15. [Nursing care of a school-age child with asthma: an ecological system theory approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya

    2012-02-01

    This research applied the Ecological System Theory of Dr. Bronfenbrenner (1979) to evaluate and analyze the impact of a school-age asthmatic child's ecological environment on the child's development. This project ran from March 16th to April 16th, 2010. A full range of data was collected during clinical care, outpatient follow-up services, telephone interviews, home visits, and school visits and then identified and analyzed. Results indicated that the family, household environment, campus, teachers, classmates, physical education program, and medical staffs comprised the most immediate microsystem and that parents, school nurses, teachers, and classmates formed the child's mesosystem. Researchers found a lack of understanding and appreciation in the mesosystem regarding asthmatic patient care needs. Hidden factors in the environment induced asthma, which eventually caused the child to be unable to obtain necessary medical care assistance. The exosystem reflected adequacy of the family social economy. The father's flexible working hours allowed him to allocate more time to childcare responsibilities. The government Asthma Medical Payment program also facilitated effective care. The macrosystem demonstrated parental cognition related to asthma treatment and caring to be deeply influenced by local customs. Thus, rather than using advanced medical treatments, parents preferred to follow traditional Chinese medicinal practices. Evaluation using the Ecological of Human Development Theory showed the subject's ecology environment relationships as based upon a foundation of family and school. Therefore, active family and school support for an asthma management plan appropriate to the subject's needs was critical. Asthma symptoms were better controlled after the child and his parents invested greater effort in mastering asthma management protocols.

  16. Relationship between attention deficit hyperactive disorder symptoms and perceived parenting practices of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Yoo, Il Young

    2013-04-01

    To examine the relationship between the perception on parenting practices and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school-age children. Psychosocial attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention approaches emphasise environmental risk factors at the individual, family and community level. Parenting variables are strongly related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The participants were 747 children and their parents in two elementary schools. The instruments used were Korean Conners Abbreviated Parent Questionnaire and Korean version Maternal Behavior Research Instrument (measuring four dimensions of parenting practices: affection, autonomy, rejection, control). Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. The rejective parenting practice was statistically significant in logistic regression controlling gender and age of children, family structure, maternal education level and socio-economic status. The rejection parenting is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children (OR=1.356). These results suggest the importance of specific parenting educational programmes for parents to prevent and decrease attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. It would be more effective rather than focusing only on the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, developing educational programmes for parents to prevent rejection parenting practice and improve parenting skills in the family system. When developing a treatment programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, healthcare providers should consider not only the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, but also the parenting practices. Comprehensive interventions designed to prevent rejection and improve parenting skills may be helpful in mitigating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. © 2012 Blackwell

  17. Perinatal dioxin exposure and psychosocial and behavioral development in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yumi; Oka, Akira; Tada, Hiroshi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Matsui, Eiko; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between psychosocial and behavioral problems in children at school age and dioxin level in breast milk or estimated dioxin exposure (EDE) through breastfeeding in the general Japanese population. Dioxin level of breast milk at 1month of age and breastfeeding ratio through the first year of life were used to calculate the EDE of infants born in 1998-2005 in Japan. The Japanese Social Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the assessment of children's behavior was sent by mail to mothers whose breast milk underwent the dioxin survey, at the time when their infants were aged 6-13 years. The study subjects were 175 pairs of mothers and their first infants (79 boys, 96 girls). The mean total dioxin levels of breast milk were 18.3 and 19.8 (pgTEQ/g fat) and EDEs were 16.4 and 19.6 (ngTEQ/kg/year) in boys and girls, respectively. In linear multiple regression analyses after adjusting for age at SDQ, maternal age, birth weight and maternal smoking habit, dioxin level in breast milk was not significantly related to the total difficulties score (TDS) of SDQ in boys, B=2.29 (95% CI -7.60-12.18), or in girls, B=-1.04 (95% CI -9.24-7.15). EDE correlated to the TDS in neither boys, B=-0.99 (95% CI -4.14-2.15), nor girls, B=1.08 (95% CI -2.69-4.85). No evidence was found of a correlation between perinatal dioxin exposure and behavioral and psychosocial problems of children measured by SDQ. These results support the benefits of recommending breastfeeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Relationship between family functioning and lifestyle in school-age adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador

    Risk behaviors in adolescents can lead to serious disorders, therefore the objectives of this work are to characterize the lifestyles of teenagers about substance use, sex, and road safety, and to meet socio-demographic factors associated with these. A cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study was conducted with 204 school-age-children from 12 to 17 years, in 2013. They were given a validated questionnaire about sociodemographic, family functioning, and lifestyles such as substance abuse, sexual intercourse and road safety. A descriptive and multivariate analysis was performed by using multiple linear regression in the case of quantitative dependent variables, and binary logistic regression models in the case of binary categories. Data analysis was based on SPSS 20.0, with a significance level of p<0.05. 32.4% of students had smoked, and 61.3% had drunk alcohol. 26% of adolescent between 14-17 years had sexual intercourse; the average age of the first sexual intercourse was 14.9 years. 85.2% used condoms. 94.6% respected traffic signs, 77.5% used to wear a seat belt and 81.9% a helmet. Family functioning, as protective factor, was the variable more frequently associated to risk behaviour: smoking (OR=7.06, p=.000), alcohol drinking (OR=3.97, p=.008), sexual intercourse (OR=3.67, p=.041), and road safety (β=1.82, p=.000). According the results, age, gender and family functioning are the main factors associated with the adoption of risk behaviors. This information is important for the development of public health policies, for instance health promotion at schools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Sonographic biometry of liver size among Igbo school age children of South east, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, Charles Ugwoke; Agwu, Kenneth Kalu; Ezeasor, Daniel Nwagbo; Aronu, Ann Ebele

    2013-01-01

    Background: The endemic diseases in the locality which are associated with changes in liver size necessitate sonographic biometry of this organ. Objectives: To establish by ultrasonography the normal limits and variations of the liver size according to age, sex, height, weight, body surface area and body mass index among school age children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital based study done at university of Nigeria medical center, Nsukka between January 2011 and June 2011. Participants included 947 apparently healthy subjects comprising 496 boys and 451 girls aged 6–17 years. The intra- and inter rater reliability of sonographic measurement of the liver size was determined. The sonographic examination was performed on Shenzhen DP-1100 machine with 3.5 MHz convex transducer. The longitudinal dimension of the liver was obtained in the midclavicular plane with the subject in deep inspiration. The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light weight street clothes without shoes. Results: Measurement of liver length was reliable within and between sonographers. The mean of the liver length was 116.3 ± 10.6 mm. Dimension of the liver was not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05). Height correlated best with the liver dimension followed by age, body surface area, weight, body mass index, and sex. The percentile curves, normal limits and prediction model of the liver dimension were defined according to height of the subjects. Conclusion: Determination of pathologic changes in the size of the liver necessitates knowing the normal ranges of dimension for the liver especially with respect to height in this population

  20. Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.

  1. Intensive Behavioral Intervention for School-Aged Children with Autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)--A Comprehensive Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…

  2. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  3. An Insight into the Challenges Faced by Academic Women with Pre-School Age Children in Academic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günçavdi, Gizem; Göktürk, Söheyda; Bozoglu, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the challenges academic women, especially those who were mothers of pre-school age children, went through. The main guiding question of this study was "How do academic mothers with pre-school age children survive in the academia from pregnancy through all the various stages of parenting and motherhood?". This…

  4. School-age outcomes of children born at the limit of viability : a Swedish national prospective follow-up study at 10 to 12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqi, Aijaz

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim: During the past two decades, major advances in maternal-fetal medicine, neonatology, and the development of regionalized perinatal care have resulted in dramatic increases in survival rates, by more than 60%, of extremely immature (EI) infants born at less than 26 completed weeks of gestation, creating a new infant population. Studies of school-age outcomes in children with an extremely low birth weight of < 1000 g, born in the1980s, indicated that these children had a subs...

  5. Modifiable risk factors in relation to changes in BMI and fatness: what have we learned from prospective studies of school-aged children?

    OpenAIRE

    Must, A; Barish, EE; Bandini, LG

    2009-01-01

    Considerable interest and resources are currently being directed to primary and secondary prevention of childhood obesity among school-aged children. Intervention studies in this age group have yielded mixed results, begging the question as to whether the correct targets for intervention have been identified. To evaluate the evidence base, we reviewed prospective observational studies published in English between 1990–2007 that reported weight or fatness changes in relation to diet, physical ...

  6. Cardiovascular health awareness and the effect of an educational intervention on school-aged children in a rural district of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhab Ray

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Awareness of CVD and its risk factors was far from optimal among the adolescent school-aged children in this study. A school-based educational program may help improve awareness of CVD and reduce the future disease burden in the community. The results of this study may be useful in formulating a nationwide school health program to deal with the emerging epidemic of CVD in countries such as India.

  7. Secular trends in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican school-aged children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karina dos Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. METHODS: 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls, distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012, were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. RESULTS: Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p2012, and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012. In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys, and normal-weight (in girls; no clear trend was evident for stunting. CONCLUSION: Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  8. DOPING SURVEY IN THE YOUTH SCHOOL GAMES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Doping control is an important means for preventing the use of illegal substances and methods in sports. Objective: This study investigated the self-reported use of illegal substances among young Brazilian students in the Youth School Games, the main sporting event among school-aged athletes in Brazil with almost 2 million students during all the phases. Methods: Cross-sectional study with athletes of the Youth School Games 2006 aged 14-17 years. The subjects were randomly selected and completed an anonymous questionnaire about substances use. Chi-square test was used for comparison of proportions between different variables on self-reported use of substances. Univariate and multivariate analyzes and logistic regression were performed. Results: Among the 402 athletes (aged 14-17 who volunteered to participate, the results showed high prevalence of alcohol (35.8%, nutritional supplements (39.1%, and tobacco (5.4%. Regarding illegal drugs and doping, 1.7% reported the use of stimulants, 2.2% illicit drugs, 0.5% anabolic steroids, and 1.7% hormones and other similar substances. Moreover, a different use of stimulants was found (especially Judo and Table tennis, medications (especially Judo and Chess and dietary supplements (especially Swimming and Judo, with over 50% reported use. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the use of substances among young athletes is similar to the results found among adult Olympic athletes as per International Olympic Committee and World Anti-Doping Agency, especially regarding the use of dietary supplements, anabolic steroids, and stimulants according to data collected by other studies. We consider that the findings of the present work indicate the need for specific efforts to monitor, prevent, and control use of substances among school athletes in big events and competitions, such as this research on doping in the Youth School Games.

  9. Factors associated with tobacco use among adolescents in India: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, India (2000-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswal, Kunal C

    2015-03-01

    To differentiate between the different types of tobacco users and analyze the association between types of tobacco users and factors like pocket money and peer and parental influence across most of the state in India using the data obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) between 2000 and 2004. The GYTS data encompassed a representative 2-stage probability sample of students aged 13 to 15 years across 24 states and 2 union territories in India. These students were interviewed using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. A very strong association between users and pocket money was found in most of the states, with northeastern states having a very strong association-Sikkim, odds ratio (OR) = 8.43 (confidence interval [CI] = 6.08-11.69), and Manipur, OR = 5.58 (CI = 3.60-8.65)-after adjusting for close friend being smoker, close friend being smokeless tobacco user, parental influence, age, and gender. This study found a strong association between tobacco use by adolescents and having pocket money and close friends being tobacco users. © 2012 APJPH.

  10. Associations between awareness of beyondblue and mental health literacy in Australian youth: Results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie B; Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine whether Australian young people's awareness of beyondblue is associated with better recognition of depression and anxiety disorders, and better quality of beliefs about possible interventions and first-aid actions for these problems. In 2011, a telephone interview was conducted with a national sample of 3021 Australians aged between 15 and 25 years. Participants were presented with a vignette portraying depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder or psychosis in a young person. They were then asked about recognition of the disorder portrayed, their beliefs about the helpfulness or harmfulness of various interventions and first-aid actions, and their awareness of beyondblue. The quality of youths' beliefs was scored against health professionals' ratings of the same list of interventions and first-aid actions. Beyondblue awareness was associated with more accurate recognition of the disorder portrayed in all vignettes except social phobia. It was also associated with beliefs about the helpfulness of first-aid actions that were more closely aligned with professional ratings for the depression, psychosis and social phobia vignettes. However, it was associated with beliefs about interventions for the psychosis vignette only. Overall, the associations of beyondblue awareness with better mental health literacy were not specific to depression and anxiety disorders, which are their main focus. Beyondblue awareness is mostly unrelated to treatment beliefs, but seems to have non-specific associations with recognition of disorders and first-aid beliefs.

  11. School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-05-01

    This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of community-based group Early Start Denver Model and 28 had received other community provisions for ASD. Irrespective of groups, cognitive functioning was found to have significantly improved by school age compared to pre-intervention. Autism symptom severity increased during the same developmental period, seemingly driven by an increase in restricted and repetitive behaviours over time. In contrast, both groups displayed improved social affect by school age.

  12. Social Adversity and Regional Differences in Prescribing of ADHD Medication for School-Age Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Thielen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether regional variations in the initiation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication among school-age children are explained by differences in sociodemographic composition and/or ADHD prescribing practice, especially in children who face social...... adversity (low parental education and single parenthood). Methods: A cohort of Danish school-age children (ages 5–17) without previous psychiatric conditions (N = 813,416) was followed during 2010–2011 for incident ADHD prescribing in the individual-level Danish registers. Register information was retrieved...... for both children and their parents. Regional differences were decomposed into contributions from differences in sociodemographic composition and in prescribing practices. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of ADHD prescribing were calculated using demographically standardized...

  13. Executive and intellectual functioning in school-aged children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Marika A; Nieminen, Pirkko E; Helminen, Mika T; Kleemola, Leenamaija

    2017-03-01

    Earlier research and clinical practice show that specific language impairment (SLI) is often associated with nonverbal cognitive deficits and weakened skills in executive functions (EFs). Executive deficits may have a remarkable influence on a child's everyday activities in the home and school environments. However, research information is still limited on EFs in school-aged children with SLI, mostly conducted among English- and Dutch-speaking children. To study whether there are differences in EFs between Finnish-speaking children with SLI and typically developing (TD) peers at school age. EFs are compared between the groups with and without controlling for nonverbal intelligence. Parents and teachers of children with SLI (n = 22) and age- and gender-matched TD peers (n = 22) completed The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF). The mean age of the children was 8,2 years. BRIEF ratings of parents and teachers were compared between the children with SLI and with TD peers by paired analysis using conditional logistic regression models with and without controlling for nonverbal IQ. Intellectual functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Children with SLI had weaker scores in all parent and teacher BRIEF scales compared with TD peers. Statistically significant differences between the groups were found in BRIEF scales Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize and Monitor. Differences between the groups were statistically significant also in intellectual functioning. On BRIEF scales some group differences remained statistically significant after controlling for nonverbal IQ. This study provides additional evidence that also Finnish-speaking school-aged children with SLI are at risk of having deficits in EFs in daily life. EFs have been proposed to have an impact on developmental outcomes later in life. In clinical practice it is important to pay attention to EFs in school-aged children with SLI

  14. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  15. Determinants of Personality Traits of School-Age Children : Evidence from Japanese Students at Age 12

    OpenAIRE

    Hojo, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely recognized among economists that non-cognitive ability, such as self-control, self-esteem, and personality traits, has a great power in predicting social and economic success. Using survey data from students at age 12 and their parents living in Japan, this paper explores the determinants of personality traits of school-age children. Personality traits are measured by students’ answers for questions concerning daily and school life, and we constructed five measures of perso...

  16. Development of Daily Activities in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Schie, Petra; Dallmeijer, Annet; Jongmans, Marian; Lindeman, Eline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the course of capabilities in self-care, mobility, and social function in school-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate associations with CP-, child-, and family-characteristics. A clinic-based sample of children with CP (n = 116; 76 males, 40 females; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo) was…

  17. Dietary patterns are associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children.

  18. THE PSYCHODIAGNOSTICS OF THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUALS AT THE SENIOR SCHOOL AGE

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Opanasyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background. The article deals with the phenomenon of “emotional intelligence” and its characteristic features at the senior school age. It is proved that the emotional intelligence enables senior pupils to reduce the impact of negative feelings with the help of the control over the situation and their emotions. The topicality of the problem is determined by the fact that the emotional intelligence is one of the prerequisites to the formation of the senior pupils’ personality, their abilit...

  19. Therapeutic techniques and their use for children with disabilities at school age

    OpenAIRE

    KOLÁŘOVÁ, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis are therapheutical techniques and the way they are used in helping school-age children with disabilities. The theoretical part of this thesis defines the terms "therapy", "therapist" and ?comprehensive rehabilitation system?. Comprehensive rehabilitation system comprises not only occupational, social and pedagogical resources, but primarily also therapeutic resources that include (but are not limited to) therapies (e.g. ergotherapy, animal-assisted therapy, m...

  20. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  1. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Peugh, James L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Carroll W.

    2013-01-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n = 54) or to a waitlist control group (n = 51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation ap...

  2. Health Effects of Digital Textbooks on School-Age Children: A Grounded Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Seomun, GA; Lee, JA; Kim, EY; Im, MY; Kim, M; Park, SA; Lee, Y

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "p...

  3. Factors affecting nocturnal enuresis amongst school-aged children: brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafalsadat Hakim; Farshid Kompani; Mohammad Bahadoram

    2015-01-01

    Enuresis is the inability to control urination during sleep. It is one of the most common childhood urologic disorders. Nocturnal enuresis refers to the occurrence of involuntary voiding at night after 5 years. Persistent nocturia can decrease self-esteem, increase anxiety and other emotional problems in children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting nocturia amongst school-aged children. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 200 children over a period...

  4. The influence of gymnastic exercises to correct posture for girls of primary school age.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠMOLÍKOVÁ, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    This work is adicted to observation of younger school age girls posture. Respondents are divided anto two groups. One group consists of girls who are practising sport´s gymnastic and the other group are girls practising different or any sports. Disparity of these two groups is examined by means of a questionnaire In the theoretical part there are all information and continuity which are important for this subject, questions concerning gymnastic exercises respectively sports gymnastics. Such a...

  5. Allergic Sensitization at School Age is a Systemic Low-grade Inflammatory Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B. L.; Stokholm, J.; Schoos, A.-M. M.

    2017-01-01

    allergic sensitization. Methods High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) were measured in plasma at age 6 months (N = 214) and 7 years (N = 277) in children from the Copenhagen Prospective...... sensitization in school-aged children suggesting systemic low-grade inflammation as a phenotypic characteristic of this early-onset NCD....

  6. Dental traumatology children of younger school age and the importance of oral hygiene after these situations

    OpenAIRE

    KRÁLOVÁ, Stanislava

    2013-01-01

    Set of teeth in children younger school age going through big changes, and any unwanted interference with healthy dentition in has an impact on the further development of the teeth. When the accident shall be decided by an early and correct diagnosis of injured tissue, suitably elected procedures, periodic inspection of the injured area and thorough dental hygiene, which affects the process of therapy. In the theoretical part describes the development of the dentition and the differences betw...

  7. Relationship between SPECT regional cerebral blood flow imaging and cognitive function in school-age children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiangyan; Chen Xuehong; Wang Zhengjiang; Hu Jingui; Feng Jianzhong; Li Yimin; Lu Xiujuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feature of SPECT regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) imaging, the cognitive functions and the relationship between them in school-age children with primary epilepsy. Methods: 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain imaging was performed on 32 school-age children with primary generalized tonic and (or) clonic seizures(GTCS). Cognitive functions were also evaluated in all patients and normal children. Relationship between cognitive function and rCBF was compared. Results: (1) Thirty of 32 (93.8%) patients were abnormal on SPECT imaging. Fifty areas of 29 cases showed decreased rCBF, the percentage of decreased rCBF was (21.07 ± 7.09)%; 2 areas of 1 case showed increased rCBF, the percentage of increased rCBF was (32.22 ± 4.31)%. 92.3% of the epileptic foci were located in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortexes. (2) Verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) and full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) of children with epilepsy were significantly lower than those of the controls, and there were some cognitive skewnesses in children with epilepsy (VIQ >PIQ). (3)There was negative correlation between the number of foci and VIQ, PIQ, FIQ, the correlation coefficients were -0.543 (P=0.002), -0.469 (P=0.009), -0.578 (P=0.001); there was negative correlation between the extent of foci and VIQ, PIQ, FIQ, the correlation coefficients were -0.560 (P=0.003), -0.142 (P=0.016), -0.582 (P=0.001); there was no significant correlation between all the IQ of cognitive test and the percentage of changed rCBF. Conclusions: SPECT rCBF imaging may be useful for the localization of epileptic focus. Some of school-age children with epilepsy have impairment of the cognitive function, its magnitude is negative correlated with the number and extent of epileptic foci. (authors)

  8. Tests and standards for express-control of physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Bodnar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to day, physical fitness testing often causes negative emotions in pupils. It results in sharp loss of pupils’ wish to fulfill physical exercises in free time and worsens their health. Possibility to assess health level is an important motivation factor for pupils’ passing physical tests. Objective testing system will form positive motivation for physical exercises’ practicing and will facilitate increase of pupils’ motor functioning. It will also facilitate optimization of their physical condition, improvement of physical fitness and strengthening of health. Material: we tested physical fitness level and made diagnosis of pupils’ functional state (10-15 years’ age; n=85 with the help of tool methodic. We also used regressive analysis. Results: the system of tests and standards for express-control over physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils has been worked out and substantiated. The system of tests envisages fulfillment of 4 exercises: back pressing ups on bench during 20 seconds; throwing and catching of ball with two hands from wall during 30 seconds; side bending; torso rising from lying position into sitting during 30 seconds. Integral indicator of pupils’ physical fitness and health correlates with functional state of organism’s leading systems. We worked out 5 levels’ scale for express-control over physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils. The system stipulates calculation of integrative indicator with the help of regression equation by results of 4 test exercises and calculation of one index. Conclusions: The system of tests and standards permits the following: to divide pupils into relatively uniform groups even at the beginning of academic year for successful reasonable physical load. The system also permits to determine standard and find what shall be strived for by a pupil in order to achieve optimal physical fitness and somatic state; to motivate relatively weakly

  9. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  10. High burden of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school-aged children in Marolambo District, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Stephen A; Penney, James M St John; Russell, Hannah J; Howe, Anthony P; Linder, Cortland; Rakotomampianina, Andriamahitsisambatra L D; Nandimbiniaina, Anjara M; Squire, S Bertel; Stothard, J Russell; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Rahetilahy, Alain M

    2017-06-24

    A school-based survey was undertaken to assess prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in the Marolambo District of Madagascar. School-aged children from six purposively selected schools were tested for Schistosoma haematobium by urine filtration and Schistosoma mansoni using circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and Kato-Katz stool analysis. The investigators did not address soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in this study. Of 399 school-aged children screened, 93.7% were infected with S. mansoni based on CCA analysis. Kato-Katz analysis of stool revealed S. mansoni infection in 73.6% (215/ 292). Heavy infections (> 400 eggs per gram) were common (32.1%; 69/ 215), with a mean of 482 eggs per gram of stool. Moderate infection intensities were detected in 31.2% (67/ 215) and light infection intensities in 36.7% (79/ 215) of infected participants. No infection with S. haematobium was detected by urine filtration. Intestinal schistosomiasis appears a considerable public health issue in this remote area of Madagascar where there is a pressing need for mass drug administration.

  11. Factors associated with bed and room sharing in Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Jin, X; Yan, C; Wu, S; Jiang, F; Shen, X

    2009-03-01

    Co-sleeping (bed or room sharing) has potential implications for children's development. Previous studies showed that co-sleeping was more prevalent in non-Western countries than in Western countries, which demonstrated that co-sleeping was marked with ethnic and socio-cultural background characteristics. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence of bed and room sharing and to examine related factors among school-aged children in an Asian country - China. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 10 districts of Shanghai, China from November to December 2005. A total of 4108 elementary school children, 49.2% boys and 50.8% girls with a mean age of 8.79 years, participated. Parent-administered questionnaires were used to collect information about children's sleeping arrangements and socio-demographic characteristics. The prevalence of routine bed sharing, room sharing and sleeping alone in Chinese school-aged children was 21.0%, 19.1% and 47.7%, respectively. Bed and room sharing didn't show significant gender difference but gradually decreased with increasing age. Multivariate logistic regression identified those factors associated with bed and room sharing: younger age, large family, children without their own bedroom and parents' approval of a co-sleeping arrangement. Co-sleeping arrangement was a common practice in Chinese school-aged children. Associated factors were characterized by intrinsic socio-cultural values and socio-economic status in China.

  12. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms in school-aged Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ponniah, Kathryn; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fung, Daniel; Woo, Bernardine

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have examined anxiety and depression experiences of primary (middle) school-aged children from ethnically diverse backgrounds, and most have relied on parents or others as informants. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in Singaporean primary school-aged children. Age, gender, and ethnic differences and interactions were explored as well as similarities and differences between Singaporean children and US norms. A large representative community sample of 1655 8- to 12-year-old Singaporean children (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as part of a larger epidemiological study of mental health in Singaporean children. Rates of clinically elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were 9.3% and 16.9% on the MASC and the CDI, respectively. Separation and social anxieties were most common. Evidence of a gender difference in levels of emotional symptoms was most evident in Indian children, with girls reporting more symptoms than boys. The relationship between age and internalizing problems was weak. A substantial minority of primary school-aged Singaporean children reported elevated anxious and depressive symptoms. Better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these problems can help the development of culture-specific interventions and facilitate the planning of community-tailored services and initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. [Television publicity and food preferences of school age children of the metropolitan region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, S; Albala, C; García, F; Jofré, I

    1999-07-01

    There is an alarming increase in the prevalence of child obesity in Chile. Lack of exercise and bad feeding habits strongly strongly contribute to the problem. To investigate the influence of television publicity on school age children food preferences. A semi structured interview was applied to a representative sample of 786 school age children aged 6 to 11 years old, living in Metropolitan Santiago. Time watching television during week days and the attitude towards food and beverage commercials was analyzed and related to food preferences. Ninety nine percent of school age children watch television during week days and 20% watches more the three hours daily. Snack commercials such as those about potato chips, chocolates, cookies and ice cream, are preferred by 35% of children. Soda commercials are preferred by 33% and yoghurt commercials by 12%. Eighty five percent of children had money to buy food. Of these, 66% bought snacks, 15% bought sodas and 7% yoghurt. The same tendency was observed in school collations. The high percentage of children, watching television and the influence of commercials in their food preferences, requires an urgent educational strategy to promote healthy feeding habits.

  14. The Incorporation of the School Age Group of 16-18 Years Old in Gambling

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    MSc. Alfred Nela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research of this paper focuses on the involvement of the school age group 16-18 years old in sports betting games impacted by beliefs on luck and social groups. For the collection of data literature is utilized, questionnaires are distributed and also focus groups were conducted. The assumptions of the assignment are: a The involvement of school age group 16-18 years in sports betting games are manners learned from their comrades, b The school age group 16-18 years old attribute to fate the participation in sports betting games. Over 64% of responses manifest that they have learned the rules from their companions. The revelations and questionnaire responses argue that over 45% of students in their classes play sports bets, and 34% think that the phenomena of sports betting depends on luck. The major part of this age group do not practice and believe in fortunate rituals or activities. The acquired data reflect that the extent of involvement of this age group is in substantial dimensions. We suggest that the decision-making bodies and service providers should develop strategies in order to reduce the phenomenon.

  15. Developmental precursors of young school-age children's hostile attribution bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Lane, Jonathan D; Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L

    2013-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study provides evidence of preschool-age precursors of hostile attribution bias in young school-age children, a topic that has received little empirical attention. We examined multiple risk domains, including laboratory and observational assessments of children's social-cognition, general cognitive functioning, effortful control, and peer aggression. Preschoolers (N = 231) with a more advanced theory-of-mind, better emotion understanding, and higher IQ made fewer hostile attributions of intent in the early school years. Further exploration of these significant predictors revealed that only certain components of these capacities (i.e., nonstereotypical emotion understanding, false-belief explanation, and verbal IQ) were robust predictors of a hostile attribution bias in young school-age children and were especially strong predictors among children with more advanced effortful control. These relations were prospective in nature-the effects of preschool variables persisted after accounting for similar variables at school age. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for future research and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Correlation between iron deficiency anemia and intestinal parasitic infection in school-age children in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlan, D. M.; Ananda, F. R.; Sari, M. I.; Arrasyid, N. K.; Sari, D. I.

    2018-03-01

    Anemia is an abnormal hemoglobin concentration in blood that impacts almost 40% school-age children in developing countries. Intestinal parasitic infection, along with malnutrition are contributed to influence absorption, transportation, and metabolism of iron which is the most common etiology of anemia in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and parasitic intestinal infection generally and protozoa infection particularly among school-age children in Medan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May until October 2016 in primaryschool in Medan and Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang. Consecutive sampling was used with total 132 samples obtained. Univariate analysis and Bivariate analysis were performed.This study showed the prevalence of IDA was 7.6%, and proportion of parasitic intestinal infection was 26.5% with 19.8% protozoa infection. The correlation between IDA and intestinal parasitic infection was not significant in Chi-Square Test (p-value: 0.089), neither was between IDA and protozoa infection (p-value: 0.287). There was a correlation between MCV, MCH, and anemia with p-valueanemia, parasitic infection, and protozoa infection (p-value>0.05).

  17. Frequency of occurrence of knock-kneed and bow-legged knees for children and young people in school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Siminska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower limb faults are one of the most common defects in school-age children and are now a problem in our society. Currently there is a trend towards low physical activity among children. Most young people prefer to spend time sitting down without taking physical activity or limiting it to the minimum. This results in lowering muscle tone, weight gain - manifesting as being overweight or obese. School children often complain of spinal pain as well as lower back pain. We have many disadvantages in the lower limb - but the most common are the knee and the knee. These defects require a comprehensive, individual physiotherapeutic procedure that will help correct the defect. Applied rehabilitation affects the strength of the muscle, contributes to correcting the defect of the lower limb as well as reduces the occurring pain.

  18. Youth-Driven Information Privacy Education Campaign 2015-16: Digital Trust Foundation Final Grant Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristen L.; Kiesler, Tina; Malone, Summer

    2016-01-01

    This project involved the development of a comprehensive and educational social marketing communications plan designed to help educate middle-school-aged youth about information use and abuse online. We achieved our goal of enhancing digital information literacy while developing critical thinking and creative communication skills for…

  19. School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances: Early Preventative Interventions. Psychosocial Stress Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Kathleen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Together, "School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances" and its accompanying CD provide a complete toolkit for using early preventative interventions with elementary-school age children. In ten thoughtful, clearly written chapters, both new and experienced practitioners will find a wealth of research- and evidence-based…

  20. Relationship of Leadership/Delegation to Group Effectiveness in Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, Julia A.; Carter, Richard I.

    1987-01-01

    Instructional materials designed to teach high school age youth how to increase member involvement by delegating leadership were experimentally tested. New materials made a difference in one test situation. Positive correlations were found between group effectiveness and tendency toward delegation. (Author/CH)

  1. Otitis Media: Implications of Fluctuating, Conductive Hearing Loss on Learning and Behaviour in High School Age Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenton, Jan

    This paper provides an overview of the effects of otitis media on the learning and behavior of children and youth. It begins by describing the conductive hearing loss that is caused by otitis media and the classroom behavior that can result, including poor concentration and attention, disobedience, irritability, and poor social skills. Discussed…

  2. Peer-Led Nutrition Education Programs for School-Aged Youth: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Calvin; Gates, Michelle; Gates, Allison; Hanning, Rhona M.

    2016-01-01

    To date, the impacts of school-based, peer-led nutrition education initiatives have not been summarized or assessed collectively. This review presents the current evidence, identifies knowledge gaps, and provides recommendations for future research. PubMed, Scopus, ERIC and Google Scholar were searched for refereed Canadian and American primary…

  3. Peer-led nutrition education programs for school-aged youth: a systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Calvin; Gates, Michelle; Gates, Allison; Hanning, Rhona M.

    2015-01-01

    To date, the impacts of school-based, peer-led nutrition education initiatives have not been summarized or assessed collectively. This review presents the current evidence, identifies knowledge gaps, and provides recommendations for future research. PubMed, Scopus, ERIC and Google Scholar were searched for refereed Canadian and American primary studies published between January 2000 and November 2013, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Sev...

  4. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, A S; Siziya, S; Rudatsikira, E

    2008-07-01

    The majority of adults who smoke cigarettes initiated the habit when they were adolescents or young adults. While rates of smoking and associated factors are known among 13-15 year olds in Malawi, correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in a national representative sample in Malawi have not been studied. We, therefore, carried out this study to estimate the prevalence of current smoking and determine its correlates in a nationally representative sample of in-school adolescents in Malawi. An analysis of the Malawi Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2005 was conducted. Using logistic regression analysis, we estimated the association between current cigarette smoking and potential explanatory variables. Overall, 2.5% of adolescents (3.2% among males, and 1.8% among females) were current cigarette smokers. Smoking among parents was 9.6% with no significant difference between males and females (10.3% versus 10.1%). Stronger associations with smoking were observed for friends smoking status (AOR=3.07, 95%CI 2.99, 3.16), receiving pocket money (AOR=3.06, 95%CI 2.98, 3.14), and perception that smoking increases body weight (AOR=2.98, 95%CI 2.81, 3.16). Students who thought that cigarette smoking is harmful to health were 56% (AOR=0.44, 95%CI 0.43, 0.45) less likely to smoke than students who thought otherwise. Despite being the world's second leading grower of tobacco, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent is lower than has been reported elsewhere.

  5. Older versus newer media and the well-being of United States youth: results from a national longitudinal panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Bagdasarov, Zhanna; More, Eian

    2013-05-01

    To determine the effects of both older and newer media use on academic, social, and mental health outcomes in adolescents and young adults. We interviewed a nationally representative panel of youth ages 14-24 years (N = 719) twice 1 year apart to determine time spent with television, the Internet, videogames, and book reading, as well as the purpose of those uses. A cluster analysis identified major combinations of media use. Regression models tested hypotheses regarding changes in self-reported school grades, participation in clubs and sports, and symptoms of depression, as predicted by recent media use and differences in cluster membership. Use of older media was related to grades, with television inversely and book reading positively related to performance. Moderate use of the Internet was positively related to participation in both sports and clubs. Although heavy use of the Internet and videogames was associated with an increase in depression, increased depression also predicted greater use of these media as well as withdrawal from sports and clubs. Clusters that used media in moderation with an emphasis on information gathering were most associated with healthy outcomes. Despite concerns that excessive use of new media is harmful to adolescent development, the findings reinforce previous conclusions that television detracts from academic performance and book reading supports it. Heavy use of the Internet and video gaming may be more a symptom of mental health problems than a cause. Moderate use of the Internet, especially for acquiring information, is most supportive of healthy development. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations of infant subcutaneous fat mass with total and abdominal fat mass at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent WV

    2017-01-01

    Background Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height3), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat) and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Results Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures (pfat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (Odds Ratio 1.70 [95% Confidence Interval 1.36, 2.12]). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Conclusions Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared to body mass index. PMID:27225335

  7. The development of the own-race advantage in school-age children: A morphing face paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Sarina Hui-Lin; Tai, Chu-Lik; Yang, Shu-Fei

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies examining the other-race effect in school-age children mostly focused on recognition memory performance. Here we investigated perceptual discriminability for Asian-like versus Caucasian-like morph faces in school-age Taiwanese children and adults. One-hundred-and-two 5- to 12-year-old children and twenty-three adults performed a sequential same/different face matching task, where they viewed an Asian- or a Caucasian-parent face followed by either the same parent face or a different morphed face (containing 15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% contribution from the other parent face) and judged if the two faces looked the same. We computed the d' as the sensitivity index for each age groups. We also analyzed the group mean rejection rates as a function of the morph level and fitted with a cumulative normal distribution function. Results showed that the adults and the oldest 11-12-year-old children exhibited a greater sensitivity (d') and a smaller discrimination threshold (μ) in the Asian-parent condition than those in the Caucasian-parent condition, indicating the presence of an own-race advantage. On the contrary, 5- to 10-year-old children showed an equal sensitivity and similar discrimination thresholds for both conditions, indicating an absence of the own-race advantage. Moreover, a gradual development in enhancing the discriminability for the Asian-parent condition was observed from age 5 to 12; however, the progression in the Caucasian-parent condition was less apparent. In sum, our findings suggest that expertise in face processing may take the entire childhood to develop, and supports the perceptual learning view of the other-race effect-the own-race advantage seen in adulthood likely reflects a result of prolonged learning specific to faces most commonly seen in one's visual environment such as own-race faces.

  8. Mastering of musical rhythm by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings

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    N.B. Petrenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that regular listening to specially selected music develops children’s cognitive abilities. Musical influence optimizes many important functions of brain: increases mental workability; accelerates processing of information; improves short term memory. Besides, sensitivity of visual and hearing analyzers strengthens, as well as regulation of arbitrary movements; indicators of verbal and non verbal intellect improve. Purpose: to determine peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings. Material: the categories of the tested children: children of age - 4-5 and 5-6 years with speech disorders and healthy pre-school age children. Children of 4-5 years’ age composed: main group (n=12, control group (n=16; group of healthy children (n=24. For assessment of verbal thinking and rhythm-motor (or dance abilities we used complex of tests of constantly increasing difficulty. Results: we found that under influence of dance-correcting exercises activation of rhythm-motor abilities and development of cognitive functions happened in children. We also found main functional peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children. It was determined that by the end of pedagogic experiment, main groups of children approached to groups of healthy peers by all tested characteristics. Conclusions: it is recommended to include correcting components (fit ball - dance gymnastic, tales-therapy, logo-rhythm trainings, and game fitness in trainings by choreographic program.

  9. Vital signs: sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Gunn, Janelle P; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah; Galuska, Deborah A; Barrett, Jan; Hirschman, Jay; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Rhodes, Donna; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-09-12

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (plunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%). Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no replacement from other sources, sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children will be reduced by an average of about 75–150 mg per day and about 220–440 mg on days children consume school meals.

  10. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12-8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78-7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83-9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61-9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children.

  11. Association of major dietary patterns with socioeconomic factors among rural school-aged children in Bijar, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of major dietary patterns using factor analysis can provide information about health status of children by obtaining an overall picture of the person's diet. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and to identify socioeconomic factors affecting them in school age children in rural areas of Bijar, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 255 rural school age children living rural areas of Bijar were selected by simple random sampling. Dietary intakes during the past year and assessment of socioeconomic information were examined. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis and their relation to socioeconomic factors was investigated. Results: Three major dietary patterns," traditional", "modern" and "mixed", were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnic and energy intake, Age of mother (b= 0.03, CI=0.00_0.05 was positively associated and age of father (b= -0.03, CI=-0.05_-0.01, laboring Job for father (b= -0.24, CI=-0.44_-0.03 and higher education of parents (b= -0.20, CI=-0.35_-0.05 were negatively associated with traditional dietary pattern. In addition, higher education of parents (b= 0.27, CI=0.11_0.44 was positively associated and age of mother (b= -0.03, CI=-0.06_0.00 was negatively associated with mixed dietary pattern. Conclusion: Some socio-economic variables such as maternal age, parental education, parental occupation and economic conditions can have effect on major dietary patterns among rural children.

  12. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Syväoja

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls, who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose

  13. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  14. Associations of Infant Subcutaneous Fat Mass with Total and Abdominal Fat Mass at School-Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-09-01

    Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A survey of rate of victimization and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, S E; Acik, Y; Ayar, A

    2008-01-01

    Violence of any type is a serious issue in the lives of many children from all racial, cultural and economic backgrounds, and is a topic of enormous societal concern in any society. The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of exposure to violence as victims, and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in eastern Turkey. All the basic education schools in Elazig, a typical eastern Anatolian city, were included. A total of 3725 fifth and sixth graders were asked to answer survey questions about the rate of physical violence exposure in their everyday lives and whether they thought the violence was an 'acceptable' behaviour. The mean age of participants was 12.8 years with 46.8% boys and 53.2% girls, and their socio-economic status ranged from low-income to upper middle class. Seventy-four per cent of school-aged children reported exposure to at least one case of physical violence in their lives, and 43.4% reported experiencing physical violence within previous 12 months. Higher rates of exposure to physical violence were reported by boys than girls (P = 0.0001). Of the victims, 33.8% regarded physical violence as an acceptable or inevitable way of solution or responding to life events. Results from the self-report of the receiving end of violent behaviours indicate that physical violent victimization is at an alarmingly high rate among children of eastern Turkey, and a significant per cent of these victims approves violence as a way of solution.

  16. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P Results Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P Conclusion Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics.

  17. Reading comprehension of ambiguous sentences by school-age children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Weak central coherence (processing details over gist), poor oral language abilities, poor suppression, semantic interference, and poor comprehension monitoring have all been implicated to affect reading comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study viewed the contributions of different supporting skills as a collective set of skills necessary for context integration-a multi-component view-to examine individual differences in reading comprehension in school-age children (8-14 years) with ASD (n = 23) and typically developing control peers (n = 23). Participants completed a written ambiguous sentence comprehension task in which participants had to integrate context to determine the correct homonym meaning via picture selection. Both comprehension products (i.e., offline representations after reading) and processes (i.e., online processing during reading) were evaluated. Results indicated that children with ASD, similar to their TD peers, integrated the context to access the correct homonym meanings while reading. However, after reading the sentences, when participants were asked to select the meanings, both groups experienced semantic interference between the two meanings. This semantic interference hindered the children with ASD's sentence representation to a greater degree than their peers. Individual differences in age/development, word recognition, vocabulary breadth (i.e., number of words in the lexicon), and vocabulary depth (i.e., knowledge of the homonym meanings) contributed to sentence comprehension in both children with ASD and their peers. Together, this evidence supports a multi-component view, and that helping children with ASD develop vocabulary depth may have cascading effects on their reading comprehension. Autism Res 2017, 10: 2002-2022. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Like their peers, children with ASD were able to integrate context, or link words while reading

  18. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of Pediatric Voice Handicap Index: in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Shin; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Won Yong; Hong, Young Hye; Jeong, Nyun Gi; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI) for cross-cultural adaptation of the Korean version with school age children. The questionnaire was translated into Korean and was completed by 101 Korean parents who have children with or without disordered voice. The Korean version-pVHI scores were obtained with 60 parents of normal children and 41 parents who have children with voice problems. Content validity was verified by five experienced speech-language pathologists with clinical specialization in voice disorders. Internal consistency was calculated through Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability of the Korean version-pVHI score was determined using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare GRBAS with the Korean version-pVHI scores between normal and dysphonia group. The relationship between the parent-reported the Korean version-pVHI total scores and perceptual ratings of voice quality from experts was investigated using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed that the Korean version-pVHI provided a high internal consistency (α=0.92) and test-retest reliability of its subscales: total (T) 0.97, functional (F) 0.90, physical (P) 0.95, emotional (E) 0.92. The Korean version-pVHI mean scores in normal group were 1.28 (T), 0.62 (F), 0.35 (P) and 0.32 (E), respectively whereas those of the Korean version-pVHI in children group with dysphonia were 23.13 (T), 8.90 (F), 9.54 (P) and 4.93 (E). Significant differences in the Korean version-pVHI (T, F, P, E) and perceptual evaluation (grade, rough, breathy) between normal and dysphonia group were revealed (PKorean version-pVHI parameters (T) and perceptual measures (G) was exhibited in children with dysphonia. The subjective Korean version-pVHI can be applicable and useful supplementary tool for evaluating parents' perception of their children's voice dysfunction, identifying

  19. THE PSYCHODIAGNOSTICS OF THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUALS AT THE SENIOR SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Opanasyuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The article deals with the phenomenon of “emotional intelligence” and its characteristic features at the senior school age. It is proved that the emotional intelligence enables senior pupils to reduce the impact of negative feelings with the help of the control over the situation and their emotions. The topicality of the problem is determined by the fact that the emotional intelligence is one of the prerequisites to the formation of the senior pupils’ personality, their ability to ensure and regulate the acquired experience, as well as the ability of self-identi?cation. Objective. The purpose of the study is to determine the level of the senior pupils’ emotional intelligence development, as well as to analyze the nature of the interrelation of its components. The set aim presupposes the ful?llment of the following tasks: 1 to analyze the content characteristic feature of the phenomenon of “emotional intelligence” and the levels of its development among the senior pupils; 2 to carry out the diagnostics of the development of the senior pupils’ emotional intelligence; 3 to identify the relationships between the emotional intelligence and its components on the basis of the empirical researches. Method. The research tasks have determined the sample of 420 pupils (15-17 years old representing various schools of the Ivano-Frankivsk region. The diagnostics of emotional barriers in interpersonal communication (V.V. Boyko; the diagnostics of emotional intelligence (N. Hall; the diagnostics of the emotional orientation of the individual (B.I. Dodonov; the emotional intelligence questionnaire “EmIn” (D.V. Lyusin. The mathematical processing of the above-mentioned test methods was conducted with the help of the correlation and factor analysis. Results. The research identi?es signi?cant relationships between the emotional intelligence components. The emotional intelligence correlates with understanding one’s own and others

  20. Brief Report: Diminished Gaze Preference for Dynamic Social Interaction Scenes in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Rebecca C; Pedapati, Ernest V; Shic, Frederick; Gaietto, Kristina; Bowers, Katherine; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we present an eye-tracking paradigm, adapted from previous work with toddlers, for assessing social-interaction looking preferences in youth ages 5-17 with ASD and typically-developing controls (TDC). Videos of children playing together (Social Scenes, SS) were presented side-by-side with animated geometric shapes (GS). Participants with ASD demonstrated reduced SS preferences compared to TDC, results also represented continuously by associations between higher SS preferences and fewer social difficulties across the combined sample. Exploratory analyses identified associations between increased SS preferences and higher Vineland Daily Living Skills in ASD and suggested SS preferences in TDC females might drive ASD versus TDC between-group differences. These findings describe potentially sex-linked couplings between preferences for social information and social functioning in school-aged children.

  1. Involving Parents in a Community-Based, Culturally Grounded Mental Health Intervention for American Indian Youth: Parent Perspectives, Challenges, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Jessica; LaNoue, Marianna; Lee, Christopher; Freeland, Lance; Freund, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    An important predictor of youth well-being and resilience is the presence of nurturing adults in a youth's life. Parents are ideally situated to fulfill this role but often face challenges and stressors that impede their ability to provide adequate support and guidance. American Indian parents may also be affected by intergenerational transmission…

  2. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Byrnes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories, injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objective: To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design: Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078. Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results: The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001 and fighting (p=0.02 injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01. Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94, average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97 or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91, not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85, not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97 and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98 were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59. Conclusions: Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are

  3. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: : Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children.

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  5. Youth Awareness on Youth Development Law

    OpenAIRE

    Yeon, Asmah Laili; Azhar, Alias; Ayub, Zainal Amin; Abdullah, Siti Alida John; Arshad, Rozita; Suhaimi, Safiah

    2016-01-01

    Lack of awareness and understanding of youth development law amongst youth and policy makers is quite significant. Among the reasons that have been identified to be the root cause of this weakness is due to the failure or less priority given by the youth societies and related organization which are responsible in providing quality programmes for youth. In light of the above gap, the paper examines youth awareness on youth development law from the perspective of policy makers and youth themse...

  6. An examination of internet and land-based gambling among adolescents in three Canadian provinces: results from the youth gambling survey (YGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Elton-Marshall

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid proliferation of new gambling technology and online gambling opportunities, there is a concern that online gambling could have a significant impact on public health, particularly for adolescents. The aim of this study is to examine online and land-based gambling behaviour among adolescents in 3 Canadian provinces (Ontario, Newfoundland and Labrador, Saskatchewan prior to the implementation of legalized online gambling. Methods Data are from 10,035 students in grades 9 to 12 who responded to the 2012–2013 Youth Gambling Survey (YGS supplement, a questionnaire administered as part of the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS, 2012 in 3 provinces: Newfoundland and Labrador (n = 2,588, Ontario (n = 3,892, and Saskatchewan (n = 3,555. Results Overall, 41.6 % of adolescents (35.9 % of females and 47.4 % of males had gambled in the past 3 months. 9.4 % of adolescents had gambled online in the past 3 months alone (3.7 % of females and 15.3 % of males. The most popular form of online gambling was online sports betting. Adolescents also engaged in online simulated gambling including internet poker (9.1 % and simulated gambling on Facebook (9.0 %. Few adolescents participated in online gambling exclusively and online gamblers were more likely than land-based gamblers to engage in multiple forms of gambling. A higher proportion of adolescent online gamblers scored “high” or “low to moderate” in problem gambling severity compared to land-based only gamblers. Conclusions Despite restrictions on online gambling at the time of the study, adolescents were engaging in online gambling at a significantly higher rate than has been previously found. Adolescents were also using technology such as video games to gamble and free online gambling simulations.

  7. Postoperative pain management experiences among school-aged children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sng, Qian Wen; Taylor, Beverley; Liam, Joanne Lw; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Wang, Wenru; He, Hong-Gu

    2013-04-01

    To explore postoperative pain management experiences among school-aged children. Ineffective postoperative pain management among children has been commonly reported. School-aged children are able to evaluate how their pain is managed and what their preferred strategies are. Most studies in pain management have adopted quantitative methods and have overlooked children's pain management experiences. This is a qualitative study using face-to-face interviews. Data were collected from 15 school-aged children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore by in-depth interviews conducted between November 2010 and January 2011. Data were analysed by thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: children's self-directed actions to relieve their postoperative pain (e.g. using cognitive-behavioural methods of distraction and imagery, physical method of positioning, sleeping and drinking, seeking other people's help by informing parents and crying and using pain medications); children's perceptions of actions parents take for their postoperative pain relief (assessing pain, administering pain medications, using various cognitive-behavioural, physical methods and emotional support strategies, assisting in activities and alerting health professionals); children's perception of actions nurses take for their postoperative pain relief (administering medication, using cognitive-behavioural methods, emotional support strategies and helping with activities of daily living) and suggestions for parents (using distraction and presence) and nurses (administering medications, distraction and positioning) for their postoperative pain relief improvement. This study contributed to the existing knowledge about children's postoperative pain management based on their own experiences. Children, their parents and nurses used various strategies, including pain medication and non-pharmacological methods, especially distraction, for children's postoperative pain relief. This study provides evidence

  8. [Overweight in primary school-age children. Prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, M B; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Hanschmann, K M; Gerhards, B; Kuhn, K; Krackhardt, B

    2015-10-01

    Various studies show that pre-school age is a sensitive period for the development of overweight and obesity. During a longitudinal study between 2010 and 2013, the municipal health authority (city of Frankfurt) in cooperation with the university children's hospital investigated the development of weight in children aged 5 to 8. The weight and height of a collective of 5720 children were measured (2010/11). In addition, nutritional and exercise habits, as well as media consumption was documented for 4758 children through a questionnaire during the school enrolment procedure. The weight and height of 3481 children were measured again in the second grade (2012/13). Over a period of 24 months, the percentage of overweight (not obese) children increased from 7.5 to 9.4 % and that of obese children from 4.5 to 5.0 %. 164 of 2818 children with a normal initial weight (5.8 %) changed to percentile class overweight or obese. 79 of 260 children who were initially overweight, not obese (30 %), changed to the group of normal weight, but only 4 out of 156 obese children (3 %). Increased TV consumption (> 1 h per day), availability of their own television, lack of physical activity, and consumption of high-calorie drinks were risk factors for the development of overweight during the primary school age. 72 % of parents of overweight children and 22 % of obese children falsely classified their children as normal weight. Targeted education about the risk of obesity in the primary school age and offers for early intervention should be established in the healthcare services concerned.

  9. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development.

  10. Low back pain in school-age children: risk factors, clinical features and diagnostic managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boćkowski, L; Sobaniec, W; Kułak, W; Smigielska-Kuzia, J; Sendrowski, K; Roszkowska, M

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in adult population, and it is becoming a serious health concern in adolescents. On surveys, about every fifth child in the school-age reports LBP. The study objective was to analysis the natural history, risk factors, clinical symptoms, causes and diagnostic management in school-age children hospitalized with LBP. The study group consisted of 36 patients at the age between 10 and 18 years, 22 girls and 14 boys suffering from LBP hospitalized in our Department of Pediatric Neurology and Rehabilitation in years 2000-2004. The mean age of clinical onset of LBP in our group was 14.7 years, earlier in girls, later in boys. We find the family history of LBP in 50% children. Most frequent factors associated with LBP were: spina bifida (16.7%) and incorrect posture (13.9%). Half of patients pointed the factor initialising LBP: rapid, incoordinated move (39%) or heavy load rise (11%). 58% of patients present the symptoms of ischialgia. Diagnostic imaging showed disc protrusion in 11 children (31%) 6 in computed tomography, 4 in magnetic resonance imaging and 1 in X-Ray examination only. Other causes of LBP included: spondylolysis in 2 patients, Scheuermann disease in one case and juvenile reumatoid arthritis in one case. Some school-age children suffering on low back pain, particulary with sciatic neuralgia symptoms seek medical care in hospital. Althought the main causes are mechanical, associated with lack of physical activity or strenous exercise, serious diagnostic managment is strongly recommended.

  11. [Food preferences and nutritional status in school-age children living in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Rocío; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; González-Unzaga, Marco Aurelio

    Childhood is a basic period for the development of habits and their continuation during the course of life. The objective of this study was to identify food preferences and their variations according to the nutritional status in school-age children living in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 1465 school-age children attending eight public elementary schools in Mexico City. Children were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their preferences to 70 selected different foods. Anthropometric measurements were also carried out. Parents of the children provided sociodemographic information. For each food, the preference was evaluated using a Likert scale. Frequencies were calculated for the total sample and for different nutritional status levels. Median age of children was 9 years old. Forty-eight percent of the children were overweight or obese. The most preferred foods were fruits, pizzas, flavored milk, and French fries. The least preferred foods were vegetables, whole-grain cereals, fish, meat, and panela cheese. Plain water (72%) and sugar-sweetened beverages (71%) had a high level of preference. There was no preference variation according to nutritional status. Food preference patterns of school-age children are a risk for unhealthy food consumption as well as for the increase in obesity prevalence in this population. Interventions focused on the promotion of a healthy food environment are necessary, aimed at improving food preferences from early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Is Not Associated with Intellectual Development of Young School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Yang, Wenfang; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is often prescribed during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on intellectual development in young school-aged children are less than clear. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid or multiple micronutrient (including iron and folic acid) supplementation vs. folic acid supplementation on the intellectual development of young school-aged children in rural China. Young school-aged children (aged 7-10 y, n = 1744) of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with various combinations of micronutrients and remained residents in 2 rural counties in China were followed. We measured their intellectual development by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV generated the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI). Multilevel analyses were used to assess the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on the intellectual development of children. The mean differences in FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI, respectively, were not significant between prenatal folic acid supplementation and either iron plus folic acid [-0.34 (P = 0.65), -0.06 (P = 0.95), -0.22 (P = 0.76), -0.01 (P = 0.99), and -1.26 (P = 0.11)] or multimicronutrient [-0.39 (P = 0.60), -0.64 (P = 0.48), 0.11 (P = 0.87), -0.43 (P = 0.59), and -0.34; (P = 0.65)] supplementation after adjusting for confounders. There is no evidence to suggest a different effect on intellectual development between prenatal iron plus folic acid, multimicronutrient supplementation, and prenatal folic acid supplementation in children aged 7-10 y. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN08850194. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Swimming level classification of young school age children and their success in a long distance swimming test

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Title: Swimming level classification of young school age children and their success in a long distance swimming test Work objectives: The outcome of our work is comparison and evaluation of the initial and final swimming lenght in a test of long distance swimming. This test is taken during one swimming course. Methodology: Data which were obtained by testing a certain group of people and were statistically processed, showed the swimming level and performance of the young school age children. ...

  14. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE THE SPORTS DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARNACOVA ELEONORA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes some conclusions about the influence of the sports dance on the multilateral development of a preschool child`s personality. The author presents methods and techniques used in the didactic activity of teaching-learning the sports dance in groups of children of under school age. At the same time, she outlines the methods of organizing systematically her classes and the fact that the teacher is free to choose the time when to deliver theoretical courses or have practical classes taking in consideration the children`s individual abilities.

  15. Hypnobehavioral approaches for school-age children with dysphagia and food aversion: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, T P; Kajander, R L; Kohen, D P; Reaney, J B

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe hypnobehavioral treatment of five school-age children with maladaptive eating behaviors, including functional dysphagia, food aversion, globus hystericus, and conditioned fear of eating (phagophobia). The unique treatment approach described emphasizes the successful use of self-management techniques, particularly hypnosis, by all five children. Common etiological factors, treatment strategies, and proposed mechanisms of change are discussed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such case series in the mainstream pediatric literature describing the use of a hypnobehavioral approach for children with these maladaptive eating problems.

  16. Bespoke program design for school-aged therapy disability service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherill, Pamela; Bahn, Susanne; Cooper, Trudi

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the evaluation of a school-aged therapy service for children with disabilities in Western Australia to investigate models of service delivery. The current literature on family-centered practice, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches, and 4 models of service are reviewed. The models include the life needs model, the relational goal-orientated model of optimal service delivery to children and families, the quality of life model, and the collaborative model of service delivery. Analysis of the data is presented together with a bespoke model of service delivery for children with disabilities, arguing that local contexts benefit from custom-made service design.

  17. Results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-12-01

    We used Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected over time to monitor articles of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The GYTS is a school-based survey, conducted in 23 countries in WHO EMR countries from 1999-2008. The prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was high compared to cigarette use in all countries. In general, the following changes were observed between baseline and repeated surveys: in five countries fewer youth supported a ban on smoking in public places. In four countries more youth saw actors smoking on TV and were exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) outside of home. Fewer youth were offered free cigarettes in ten countries; in eight countries youth saw less advertisement on TV; in seven countries youth had fewer items with a tobacco logo, discussed more reasons for smoking and dangers of smoking, and were less exposed to SHS at home; in six countries youth saw less advertisement at sports events. The GYTS data can be used for monitoring, evaluation of national tobacco control plans and defining future directions for tobacco control. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Minority Youth Communication Resources Protective Factors for LGBT Youth Survey of Today’s Adolescent Relationships and Transitions ( ... as a result of challenges such as stigma, discrimination, family disapproval, social rejection, and violence. Sexual minority ...

  19. The effectiveness of web-based programs on the reduction of childhood obesity in school-aged children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Flora; Fazylova, Natalya; Garcon, Marie-Carmel; Lopez, Liliana; Rubiano, Rosagna; Slyer, Jason T

    The objective of this review is to synthesise the best available evidence on the effectiveness of web-based programs on the reduction of childhood obesity in school age children. Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings.[1] The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate globally.[2] The International Association for the Study of Obesity; estimates that up to 200 million school aged children are either overweight or obese, of those 40-50 million are classified as obese. Obesity has negative health impact in childhood, as well as in the long term.Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity. It is defined as a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of his/her height in meters (kg/m). The World Health Organization defines overweight as BMI greater than or equal to 25 and BMI greater than or equal to 30 as obesity. Children two years of age or older with a BMI between the 85 and 94 percentile on age-growth charts are considered overweight; children with a BMI greater than the 95 percentile are considered obese. BMI provides the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages worldwide. Measures of central obesity such as the waist:hip ratio and waist circumference can provide more robust indices of overall obesity-related health risk than BMI alone. A BMI z-score is a quantitative measure of the deviation of a specific BMI percentile from the mean of that population. A positive z-score indicates a child is heavier than the mean and a negative z-score indicates a child is lighter than the mean. Thus, a z-score compares the BMI of a given child to the BMI

  20. Care and supportive measures in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandtorv, Lisbeth B; Haugland, Siren; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to substances, including alcohol, opiates, and a number of illicit drugs, may have a negative impact on fetal development. Studies have shown that substance exposure can influence a child's neurodevelopment and the need for care and supportive measures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the care status and the level of supportive measures in school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol and other substances. This study included children aged between 6 and 14 years who were referred to Haukeland University Hospital in Norway with developmental impairment and a history of prenatal substance exposure. Participants were classified according to their main prenatal exposure to either alcohol or other substances. Information on care status and supportive measures was obtained from medical records and participants' caregivers. We also compared the use of supportive measures for children placed into foster care before and after 1 year of age. A total of 111 (87% of 128 referrals) eligible children participated in the study. Of these 111 children, 96 (86%) were in foster care, of whom 29 (30%) were placed into foster care during their first year of life and 83 out of 90 (92%) had supportive measures, including reinforced foster care and school or social support. A high proportion of the sample lived in foster care and received supportive measures. Findings may reflect an increased need of care and support in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure, highlighting the importance of awareness among caregivers and public agencies.

  1. Measuring listening-related effort and fatigue in school-aged children using pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarrigle, Ronan; Dawes, Piers; Stewart, Andrew J; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Munro, Kevin J

    2017-09-01

    Stress and fatigue from effortful listening may compromise well-being, learning, and academic achievement in school-aged children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) typical of those in school classrooms on listening effort (behavioral and pupillometric) and listening-related fatigue (self-report and pupillometric) in a group of school-aged children. A sample of 41 normal-hearing children aged 8-11years performed a narrative speech-picture verification task in a condition with recommended levels of background noise ("ideal": +15dB SNR) and a condition with typical classroom background noise levels ("typical": -2dB SNR). Participants showed increased task-evoked pupil dilation in the typical listening condition compared with the ideal listening condition, consistent with an increase in listening effort. No differences were found between listening conditions in terms of performance accuracy and response time on the behavioral task. Similarly, no differences were found between listening conditions in self-report and pupillometric markers of listening-related fatigue. This is the first study to (a) examine listening-related fatigue in children using pupillometry and (b) demonstrate physiological evidence consistent with increased listening effort while listening to spoken narratives despite ceiling-level task performance accuracy. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underpin listening-related effort and fatigue could inform intervention strategies and ultimately mitigate listening difficulties in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Characteristics and Low Vision Rehabilitation Methods for Partially Sighted School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; Çalışkan, Deniz; İdil, Aysun; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-04-01

    To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near) were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7%) of them were male and 62 (41.3%) of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36%) followed by cortical visual impairment (18%). The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3%) for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7%) and telemicroscopic systems (26.0%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation.

  3. [Effect of poor dietary behaviors on the overweight and obesity of school-aged children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Yun, Chen; Zhao, Ai; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei; Mu, Zhishen

    2014-09-01

    To explore the rate of overweight and obesity, and the association between unhealthy dietary behaviors and overweight and obesity among Chinese school-aged children from 9 areas. By multiple stage stratified cluster sampling, 814 children aged 7 - 12 years old were chosen, provided with questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. According to the definition from Working Group on Obesity in China, children,were divided into different group, univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between unhealthy dietary behaviors and overweight and obesity. The rates of overweight and obesity of school-aged children were 22. 88% and 9. 90%, respectively. The rates were higher in urban areas, and second-tier cities were similar with first-tier city. Influence factor analysis revealed skipping breakfast behavior was the influence factor (OR =1. 65, Pchildren’s overweight and obesity has been an increasingly serious health problem, which were correlated with genetic factor, environmental factor, and dietary behaviors and so on, poor dietary behavior might be influence factor for overweight and obesity, so it is necessary to provide earlier intervention strategies for parents to promote children’s good dietary habits.

  4. Factors associated with medication adherence in school-aged children with asthma

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    Amy H.Y. Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted. 101 children (mean (range age 8.9 (6–15 years, 51% male participated. Median (interquartile range preventer adherence was 30% (17–48% of prescribed. Four explanatory factors were identified: female sex (+12% adherence, Asian ethnicity (+19% adherence, living in a smaller household (−3.0% adherence per person in the household, and younger age at diagnosis (+2.7% for every younger year of diagnosis (all p<0.02. In school-aged children attending the emergency department for asthma, males and non-Asian ethnic groups were at high risk for poor inhaled corticosteroid adherence and may benefit most from intervention. Four factors explained a small proportion of adherence behaviour indicating the difficulty in identifying adherence barriers. Further research is recommended in other similar populations.

  5. Long-term outcomes of epilepsy surgery in school-aged children with partial epilepsy.

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    Liang, Shuli; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Junchen; Ding, Chengyun; Zhang, Zhiwen; Fu, Xiangping; Hu, Xiaohong; Meng, Xiaoluo; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Shaohui

    2012-10-01

    The pediatric epileptic spectrum and seizure control in surgical patients have been defined in developed countries. However, corresponding data on school-aged children from developing countries are insufficient. We summarized epileptic surgical data from four centers in China, to compare surgical outcomes of school-aged children with intractable partial epilepsy from China and those from developed countries, and introduce surgical candidate criteria. Data from 206 children (aged 6-14 years) undergoing surgical resection for epilepsy between September 2001 and January 2007 were selected. Postoperative freedom from seizures was achieved in 173 cases (84.0%) at 1 year, 149 (72.3%) at 3 years, and 139 (67.5%) at 5 years. Patients with focal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and a short history of seizure were most likely to become seizure-free postoperatively. Those with preoperative low intelligence quotients who became seizure-free postoperatively achieved improvements in full memory quotients, intelligence quotients, and overall quality of life at 2 years. Significant differences were evident in mean changes of full intelligence quotient, full memory quotient, and overall quality of life between patients with preoperative low intelligence quotients who received corpus callosotomies and those with a normal preoperative intelligence quotient, and between seizure-free children and those with continual seizures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Health perceptions and behaviors of school-age boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M V; Uphold, C R

    1992-01-01

    This study described and compared the health perceptions and behaviors of 83 school-age boys and girls. An age-appropriate interview schedule was designed to collect data related to demographic characteristics, health perceptions, safety, life-style practices, nutrition, dental health, and care of minor injuries. Findings indicated that most boys and girls viewed themselves as healthy and managed their own care fairly well in the areas of seat belt use, exercise, and dental health. Nutrition was identified as an area of concern, with 10% of the children skipping breakfast, and over half eating snacks with empty calories. Generally, children were found to be knowledgeable in the management of simple injuries and how to respond in the event of an emergency. Boys and girls were similar in all areas of health perceptions and behaviors except for dental health, with boys reporting more regular visits to the dentist than did girls. Further research is needed to learn more about the process by which school-age children acquire positive health behaviors to assist nurses to design and implement intervention programs that appropriately address the needs of this age group.

  7. Exposure to violence among urban school-aged children: is it only on television?

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    Purugganan, O H; Stein, R E; Silver, E J; Benenson, B S

    2000-10-01

    To measure exposure to different types of violence among school-aged children in a primary care setting. Child interviews using an instrument measuring 4 types of exposure (direct victimization, witnessing, hearing reports, media). Violent acts measured include being beaten up, chased/threatened, robbed/mugged, stabbed/shot, killed. Pediatric primary care clinic of large urban hospital. Convenience sample of 175 children 9-12 years old and their mothers. A total of 53% of the children were boys, 55% were Hispanic, and 40% received public assistance. All children had been exposed to media violence. A total of 97% (170/175) had been exposed to more direct forms of violence; 77% had witnessed violence involving strangers; 49% had witnessed violence involving familiar persons; 49% had been direct victims; and 31% had witnessed someone being shot, stabbed, or killed. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with being male. Most school-aged children who visited a pediatric primary care clinic of a large urban hospital had directly experienced violence as witnesses and/or victims.

  8. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

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    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  9. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part II. Counseling recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    School-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, it is important to counsel these patients about healthy lifestyle practices during well-child examinations. Children and families should be advised to eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat or nonfat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean meats, while limiting sugar, fast food, and highly processed foods. Children should engage in at least 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games) should be limited to no more than one to two hours of quality programming daily. Most school-aged children require 11 hours of sleep per night. Decreased sleep is associated with behavioral issues, decreased concentration at school, and obesity. Children should brush their teeth twice per day with a toothpaste containing fluoride. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in this age group in the United States, and families should be counseled on traffic, water, sports, and firearm safety. Because high-risk behaviors may start in early adolescence, many experts recommend screening for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use beginning at 11 years of age. Sexually active adolescents should be counseled on protecting against sexually transmitted infections, and should be screened for these infections if indicated.

  10. Utterance-final position and pitch marking aid word learning in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Piera; Laaha, Sabine; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of word order and prosody on word learning in school-age children. Third graders viewed photographs belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing four-word nonsense utterances containing a target word. In the control condition, all words had the same pitch and, across trials, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance. The only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of target words and referents. This cue was present in all conditions. In the Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and at the same fundamental frequency as all the other words of the utterance. In the Pitch peak condition, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance across trials, and produced with pitch contrasts typical of infant-directed speech (IDS). In the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and was marked with a pitch contrast typical of IDS. Word learning occurred in all conditions except the control condition. Moreover, learning performance was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence ( control condition) only for the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition. We conclude that, for school-age children, the combination of words' utterance-final alignment and pitch enhancement boosts word learning.

  11. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children

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    Jacqueline S. Leventon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes. The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

  12. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Stevens, Jennifer S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes). The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological disturbance in atopic eczema: the extent of the problem in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absolon, C M; Cottrell, D; Eldridge, S M; Glover, M T

    1997-08-01

    Although psychological factors are widely considered to be important in atopic eczema, there have been few controlled studies to assess the extent of disturbance in affected children and the problems experienced by their parents. This study was designed to find out the degree of psychological difficulty experienced by children with atopic eczema, whether their mothers show higher levels of mental distress than a comparison group, and whether the families of children with atopic eczema have less social support than the comparison group. We investigated 30 school-aged children with atopic eczema for psychological problems using the Rutter parent scale and compared them with 30 children with relatively minor skin lesions such as viral warts. Mental distress in mothers was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire. The Family Support Scale was used to get a measure of the social support experienced by the families. We found twice the rate of psychological disturbance in children in the eczema group compared with the control group. This difference was statistically significant for children with moderately severe eczema and severe eczema, but not for children with very mild eczema. Levels of mental distress were no greater in mothers of children with eczema than in parents of the control group and there was no difference in the degree of social support experienced by their families. These findings indicate that school-aged children with moderate and severe atopic eczema are at high risk of developing psychological difficulties, which may have implications for their academic and social development.

  14. The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Iran

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    Forugh Rafii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A good night’s sleep plays a key role in diseases resistance, injury prevention, and mood stability. The objective of this study was to examine relationship between sleep problems and accidental injury occurrences in school-aged children. Method. A retrospective study was conducted for comparing two groups of children. Children who have experienced injuries for at least two times during an academic year are the participants in the injury group (IG and those who have not experienced any kind of injuries are placed in the noninjury group (NIG. Data was collected through parent-reported sleep patterns and problems using Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ. Findings. The findings showed that global sleep problems were more in the IG than in the NIG. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the daytime sleepiness and sleep duration are the two major reasons for accidental injury. In addition, significant difference was seen between the sleep patterns of the two groups. Sleep duration was also shorter in the IG, and this group had a greater percentage (63% versus 41.1% of “short sleepers” (<9 h. Conclusion. There is a significant relationship between injury occurrence and sleep problems and sleep duration in Iranian school-aged children.

  15. Amblyopia and refractive errors among school-aged children with low socioeconomic status in southeastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Dursun, Mehmet Emin; Dag, Umut; Balsak, Selahattin; Alakus, Fuat; Yavuz, Abdullah; Palanci, Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of refractive errors and other eye diseases, incidence and types of amblyopia in school-aged children, and their relation to gender, age, parental education, and socioeconomic factors. A total of 21,062 children 6 to 14 years old were screened. The examination included visual acuity measurements and ocular motility evaluation. Autorefraction under cycloplegia and examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus were performed. There were 11,118 females and 9,944 males. The average age was 10.56 ± 3.59 years. When all of the children were evaluated, 3.2% had myopia and 5.9% had hyperopia. Astigmatism 0.50 D or greater was present in 14.3% of children. Myopia was associated with older age, female gender, and higher parental education. Hyperopia was inversely proportional with older age. Spectacles were needed in 4,476 (22.7%) children with refractive errors, and 10.6% of children were unaware of their spectacle needs. Amblyopia was detected in 2.6% of all children. The most common causes of amblyopia were anisometropia (1.2%) and strabismus (0.9%). Visual impairment is a common disorder in school-aged children. Eye health screening programs are beneficial in early detection and proper treatment of refractive errors. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD tests in a school-age hearing screening programme – analysis of 76,429 children

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    Piotr H. Skarzynski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Hearing disorders among school-age children are a current concern. Continuing studies have been performed in Poland since 2008, and on 2 December 2011 the EU Council adopted Conclusions on the Early Detection and Treatment of Communication Disorders in Children, Including the Use of e-Health Tools and innovative Solutions. The discussion now focuses not only on the efficacy of hearing screening programmes in schoolchildren, but what should be its general aim and what tests it should include? This paper makes the case that it is important to include central auditory processing disorder (CAPD tests. One such test is the dichotic digits test (DDT. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the usefulness of the DDT in detecting central hearing disorders in school-age children. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. During hearing screening programmes conducted in Poland in 2008–2010, exactly 235,664 children (7–12-years-old were screened in 9,325 schools. Of this number, 7,642 were examined using the DDT test for CAPD. Screening programmes were conducted using the Sense Examination Platform. [b]Results.[/b] With the cut-off criterion set at the 5th percentile, results for the DDT applied in a divided attention mode were 11.4% positive for 7-year-olds and 11.3% for 12-year-olds. In the focused attention mode, the comparable result for 12-year-olds was 9.7%. There was a clear right ear advantage. In children with positive DDT results, a higher incidence of other disorders, such as dyslexia, was observed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. A test for CAPD should be included in the hearing screening of school-age children. The results of this study form the basis for developing Polish standards in this area.

  17. Effectiveness of a mentor-implemented, violence prevention intervention for assault-injured youths presenting to the emergency department: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Haynie, Denise; Brenner, Ruth; Wright, Joseph L; Chung, Shang-en; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2008-11-01

    The goal was to assess the impact of a mentor-implemented, violence prevention intervention in reducing aggression, fighting, and reinjury among assault-injured youths. In a randomized, controlled trial performed in the emergency departments of 2 large urban hospitals, 10- to 15-year-old youths who presented with peer assault injuries were recruited and randomly assigned to intervention and comparison groups. In the intervention group, youths received a mentor, who implemented a 6-session problem-solving curriculum, and parents received 3 home visits with a health educator, to discuss family needs and to facilitate service use and parental monitoring. The comparison group received a list of community resources, with 2 follow-up telephone calls to facilitate service use. Youths and parents were interviewed at baseline and at 6 months, for assessment of attitudes about violence, risk factors, fighting, and repeat injury. A total of 227 families were recruited, with 23% refusing participation and 4% providing partial interview completion. A total of 166 families were enrolled, with 87 assigned to the intervention group and 79 to the comparison group; 118 (71%) completed both youth and parent follow-up interviews, and 113 had usable data. The intervention and comparison groups were not significantly different at baseline with respect to demographic features or risk factors, except for increased knife-carrying and fewer deviant peers in the intervention group. After adjustment for baseline differences, there was a trend toward significant program effects, including reduced misdemeanor activity and youth-reported aggression scores and increased youth self-efficacy. Program impact was associated with the number of intervention sessions received. A community-based, mentor-implemented program with assault-injured youths who presented to the emergency department trended in the direction of decreased violence, with reduced misdemeanors and increased self-efficacy.

  18. Youth injury prevention in Canada: use of the Delphi method to develop recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Ian; Piedt, Shannon; Davison, Colleen M; Russell, Kelly; Macpherson, Alison K; Pickett, William

    2015-12-22

    The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey is one of very few cross-national health surveys that includes information on injury occurrence and prevention within adolescent populations. A collaboration to develop a Canadian youth injury report using these data resulted in, Injury among Young Canadians: A national study of contextual determinants. The objective of this study was to develop specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations arising from the national report, using a modified-Delphi process with a panel of expert stakeholders. Eight injury prevention experts and a 3-person youth advisory team associated with a Canadian injury prevention organization (Parachute Canada) reviewed, edited and commented on report recommendations through a three-stage iterative modified-Delphi process. From an initial list of 27 draft recommendations, the modified-Delphi process resulted in a final list of 19 specific recommendations, worded to resonate with the group(s) responsible to lead or take the recommended action. Two recommendations were rated as "extremely important" or "very important" by 100 % of the expert panel, two were deleted, a further two recommendations were deleted but the content included as text in the report, and four were merged with other existing recommendations. The modified-Delphi process was an appropriate method to achieve agreement on 19 specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations to complement the national youth injury report. In providing their input, it is noted that the injury stakeholders each acted as individual experts, unattached to any organizational position or policy. These recommendations will require multidisciplinary collaborations in order to support the proposed policy development, additional research, programming and clear decision-making for youth injury prevention.

  19. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

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    Neli VASILEVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Methods: The dynamics of the visual per-ception (visual gnosis in typically develop¬ing children were tested with an adapted version of the Poppelreuter-Ghent Test for figure-ground segregation. The total number of overlapping objects is 33, grouped accor¬ding to the level of difficulty. The children are given a group of objects separately in a following sequence and they should segregate and name the objects. Results: A number of 365 typically developing children without diagnosis of visual disorders and without corrected visus took part in the research. All children, aged 4, 5, and 6 from three different settlements attend state nursery schools and have Bulgarian as a mother tongue. A three-factor dispersion analysis was held to define the statistical significance of the independent factors age, gender and settlement. The research’s data define the 5 year olds as sensitive about the dynamics of the complex forms of visual perception, compared to the four year old children (presults of the children from the big town compared to the capital (p

  20. Internalizing forms of problem behavior in school-age children with mild intellectual disability

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    Brojčin Branislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are very frequent affective symptoms often found in children with disabilities. Even the nonclinical depression or depressive mood in children are characterized by social withdrawal and decline in self-confidence, anger or auto-destructive behavior, as well as decrease in academic achievement. The objective of this research is to determine the prevalence of elevated expression of internalizing behavior in children with mild intellectual disability and to perceive elevated expression association of this form of problem behavior with chronological age, gender, IQ, speech comprehension and speech production of the participants. Subscale used to assess level of internalizing types of problem behavior, which is part of the teacher's Problem Behavior Rating Scale, of the Social Skills Rating System was applied on 120 participants with mild intellectual disability, aged from 8 to 16. Increased level of internalizing problem behavior is found in 25% of the participants, whereas statistically significant correlation is detected only between this variable and IQ. The results obtained in this study indicate the necessity for children and youth with intellectual disability who have elevated level of problem internalization to be identified, for the purpose of undertaking proper measures to eliminate or alleviate those problems. Development of preventive programs directed to reinforce the skills, necessary for resolving emotional and social problems is advised as well.

  1. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Ghana and Uganda

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    Karl Peltzer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in low income African countries (Ghana, Uganda. The total sample included 5,613 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples from two African countries. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behavior, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 10.4% among girls and 3.2% among boys, and 0.9% and 0.5% obesity only among girls and boys, respectively. Among girls smoking cigarettes and loneliness and among boys smoking cigarettes were found to be associated with overweight or obesity in multivariable analysis. Overweight status was not associated with the intake of fruits, vegetables, and sedentary behavior. Low prevalence rates of overweight or obesity were found in Ghana and Uganda. Smoking cessation and social programs could be integrated into strategies to prevent and treat overweight and obesity in youth.

  2. Supporting Youth with Special Needs in Out-of-School Time: A Study of OST Providers in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jane; Rodas, Elizabeth Rivera; Sadovnik, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Although the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 requires accommodations for individuals with disabilities in community settings, many out-of-school time (OST) programs struggle to successfully support youth with special needs. Programs that fully include children with special needs are less available for school-age children and…

  3. Mentoring Transition-Age Youth with Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Clinical Significance of Oscillatory Components in the Rhythmic Structure of Pulse Signal in the Diagnostics of Psychosomatic Disorders in School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desova, A A; Dorofeyuk, A A; Anokhin, A M

    2017-01-01

    We performed a comparative analysis of the types of spectral density typical of various parameters of pulse signal. The experimental material was obtained during the examination of school age children with various psychosomatic disorders. We also performed a typological analysis of the spectral density functions corresponding to the time series of different parameters of a single oscillation of pulse signals; the results of their comparative analysis are presented. We determined the most significant spectral components for two disordersin children: arterial hypertension and mitral valve prolapse.

  5. Family Structure as a Correlate of Organized Sport Participation among Youth.

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    Rachel McMillan

    Full Text Available Organized sport is one way that youth participate in physical activity. There are disparities in organized sport participation by family-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-traditional family structure and physical custody arrangements are associated with organized sport participation in youth, and if so whether this relationship is mediated by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 2009-10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative cross-section of Canadian youth in grades 6-10 (N = 21,201. Information on family structure was derived from three survey items that asked participants the number of adults they lived with, their relationship to these adults, and if applicable, how often they visited another parent outside their home. Participants were asked whether or not they were currently involved in an organized sport. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of organized sport participation according to family structure. Bootstrap-based mediation analysis was used to assess mediation by perceived family wealth. The results indicated that by comparison to traditional families, boys and girls from reconstituted families with irregular visitation of a second parent, reconstituted families with regular visitation of a second parent, single-parent families with irregular visitation of a second parent, and single-parent families with regular visitation of a second parent were less likely to participate in organized sport than those from traditional families, with odds ratios ranging from 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.61 to 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.08. The relationship between family structure and organized sport was significantly mediated by perceived family wealth, although the magnitude of the mediation was modest (ie, <20% change in effect estimate. In conclusion, youth living in both single-parent and reconstituted families experienced significant

  6. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

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    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  7. Comparative investigation of indicators of growth and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age in Isfahan during 2015

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    Marzieh Yousefi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents' and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009 and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10. The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49. Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children.

  8. EHLS at School: school-age follow-up of the Early Home Learning Study cluster randomized controlled trial.

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    Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Bennett, Clair; Cullinane, Meabh; Hackworth, Naomi J; Berthelsen, Donna; Reilly, Sheena; Mensah, Fiona K; Gold, Lisa; Bennetts, Shannon K; Levickis, Penny; Nicholson, Jan M

    2018-05-02

    Targeted interventions during early childhood can assist families in providing strong foundations that promote children's health and wellbeing across the life course. There is growing recognition that longer follow-up times are necessary to assess intervention outcomes, as effects may change as children develop. The Early Home Learning Study, or 'EHLS', comprised two cluster randomized controlled superiority trials of a brief parenting intervention, smalltalk, aimed at supporting parents to strengthen the early childhood home learning environment of infants (6-12 months) or toddlers (12-36 months). Results showed sustained improvements in parent-child interactions and the home environment at the 32 week follow-up for the toddler but not the infant trial. The current study will therefore follow up the EHLS toddler cohort to primary school age, with the aim of addressing a gap in literature concerning long-term effects of early childhood interventions focused on improving school readiness and later developmental outcomes. 'EHLS at School' is a school-aged follow-up study of the toddler cluster randomized controlled trial (n = 1226). Data will be collected by parent-, child- and teacher-report questionnaires, recorded observations of parent-child interactions, and direct child assessment when children are aged 7.5 years old. Data linkage will provide additional data on child health and academic functioning at ages 5, 8 and 10 years. Child outcomes will be compared for families allocated to standard/usual care (control) versus those allocated to the smalltalk program (group program only or group program with additional home coaching). Findings from The Early Home Learning Study provided evidence of the benefits of the smalltalk intervention delivered via facilitated playgroups for parents of toddlers. The EHLS at School Study aims to examine the long-term outcomes of this initiative to determine whether improvements in the quality of the parent

  9. Overweight and obesity in school-age children and teenagers of a urban area of Riobamba city, Ecuador

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    Patricio David Ramos-Padilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school students and adolescents of a urban area of the city of Riobamba.Material and Methods: 3680 students between 5 and 19 years, 1581 school students and 2099 adolescents enrolled in 65 units of basic education and high school were studied. The variables studied were: type of educational establishment, sex, age, weight and height. For the diagnosis of nutritional status, the WHO-2007 reference standards of body mass index for were used. School children and adolescents whose standard deviation was found <–2 were considered thin, between –2 and +1 normal weight, >+1 to +2 overweight and >+2 as obesity. Data were analyzed by the computer programs: Anthro Plus v1.0.4 and SPSS v20.Results: Being overweight affects 24.1% of school/adolescents; overweight, 17.8% and 6.3% obese. Excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in school (27.7% than in adolescents (21.5%. Similarly, excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in children men (31.0% than in women (24,4% at school age. And it is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in adolescent females (23.3% than in adolescent males (19.8%. Being overweight in school/adolescents affects: private schools (27.7%, treasury missionary establishments (25.3% and fiscal establishments (22.9%. Similarly, excess weight is greater among schoolchildren in private schools (28.1% than in fiscal establishments, 27.7% (non statistically p = 0.9984. And it is statistically greater (p <0.0001 in adolescents of private establishments (27.6% than in fiscal establishments (18.4%.Conclusions: The prevalence of weight excess (overweight / obesity in school students and young urban area of the city of Riobamba is high (24.1%, and is higher in school age (27.7% than in adolescents (21,5%. An intervention is needed to prevent and treat this serious public health trend.

  10. School-age effects of the newborn individualized developmental care and assessment program for preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction: preliminary findings.

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    McAnulty, Gloria; Duffy, Frank H; Kosta, Sandra; Weisenfeld, Neil I; Warfield, Simon K; Butler, Samantha C; Alidoost, Moona; Bernstein, Jane Holmes; Robertson, Richard; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2013-02-19

    The experience in the newborn intensive care nursery results in premature infants' neurobehavioral and neurophysiological dysfunction and poorer brain structure. Preterms with severe intrauterine growth restriction are doubly jeopardized given their compromised brains. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program improved outcome at early school-age for preterms with appropriate intrauterine growth. It also showed effectiveness to nine months for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction. The current study tested effectiveness into school-age for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction regarding executive function (EF), electrophysiology (EEG) and neurostructure (MRI). Twenty-three 9-year-old former growth-restricted preterms, randomized at birth to standard care (14 controls) or to the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (9 experimentals) were assessed with standardized measures of cognition, achievement, executive function, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The participating children were comparable to those lost to follow-up, and the controls to the experimentals, in terms of newborn background health and demographics. All outcome measures were corrected for mother's intelligence. Analysis techniques included two-group analysis of variance and stepwise discriminate analysis for the outcome measures, Wilks' lambda and jackknifed classification to ascertain two-group classification success per and across domains; canonical correlation analysis to explore relationships among neuropsychological, electrophysiological and neurostructural domains at school-age, and from the newborn period to school-age. Controls and experimentals were comparable in age at testing, anthropometric and health parameters, and in cognitive and achievement scores. Experimentals scored better in executive function, spectral coherence, and cerebellar volumes. Furthermore, executive function, spectral coherence

  11. Characteristics of participants in an HIV prevention intervention for youth in Rwanda: results from a longitudinal study

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    Hanne Celis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper studies determinants of participation in a peer-led school-based HIV prevention intervention in Rwanda. Methods. A baseline survey among 1071 students (mean age 17 years assessed potential determinants of participation, while a follow-up six months in the intervention measured actual participation in the intervention. Statistical models were built using multivariate linear and multinomial regression analysis predicting overall participation, par- ticipation in group discussions and individual counseling. Results. Those who recently had sex, had been tested for HIV, feel more susceptible to HIV, have a higher sexual self-concept, a more positive future perspective (only for non-sexually active, and boys, were more likely to participate in group activities. Also students from the same class as the peer educator and boarding school students were more likely to participate in group activities. Older students and those with low external health locus of control participated more in individual counseling. Discussion. Participation could be increased by investing in general well-being of young people, organizing girls-only activities, and diversifying activities. Key words: selection bias, HIV prevention, participation rate, young people, Rwanda

  12. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Punjab, India: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003

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    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. There is therefore need to identify relevant factors associated with smoking among adolescents in order to better tailor public health interventions aimed at preventing smoking. Methods We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS conducted in 2003 in Punjab, India, on 2014 adolescents of whom 58.9% were males. We conducted a weighted logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age and sex, to determine associations between predictor variables and current tobacco smoking status. Results A total of 2014 adolescents participated in the survey in 2003, and of these 58.9% were males. Male respondents tended to be older than females (21.2% of males, and 13.1% of females were of age 16 years or above. The percent of males and females in the other age groups were: 23.0% and 28.6% for Conclusion The observed associations between current smoking on one hand and peer smoking, and perception that boys who smoke are less attractive on the other, deserve further studies. The factors reported in the current study should be considered in the design of public health interventions aimed to reduce adolescent cigarette smoking.

  13. Social ecological predictors of the transition to overweight in youth: results from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools (TEENS) study.

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    Klein, Elizabeth G; Lytle, Leslie A; Chen, Vincent

    2008-07-01

    To explore the social ecological predictors of the transition to overweight in youth, as shown in results from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools study. Longitudinal data from a school-based intervention trial. Adolescents who were involved in the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools intervention study who reported a healthful weight at baseline in 1998 (n=1,728). Transition to overweight status (body mass index > or =85th percentile) at follow-up in eighth grade. Generalized linear mixed model regression. Factors in the social, environmental, individual, and behavioral domains had significant unadjusted relationships with a transition to overweight status. In the multivariate analysis, adolescents who perceived themselves to be overweight at baseline were 2.3 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up compared to those with a normal weight self-perception. Compared to nondieters, current dieters were 2.6 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up, and boys were nearly three times more likely to transition to overweight status at follow-up compared with girls. Individual factors, primarily related to a self-perception of being overweight, were the strongest predictors of transitioning to overweight as adolescents progressed from seventh through eighth grade. A better understanding of the relationship between weight concern and transition to overweight is needed.

  14. Emotional prosody perception and its association with pragmatic language in school-aged children with high-function autism.

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    Wang, Jia-En; Tsao, Feng-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Emotional prosody perception is essential for social communication, but it is still an open issue whether children with high-function autism (HFA) exhibit any prosodic perception deficits or experience selective impairments in recognizing the prosody of positive emotions. Moreover, the associations between prosody perception, pragmatic language, and social adaptation in children with HFA have not been fully explored. This study investigated whether emotional prosody perception for words and sentences in children with HFA (n=25, 6-11 years of age) differed from age-matched, typically developing children (TD, n=25) when presented with an emotional prosody identification task. The Children's Communication Checklist and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale were used to assess pragmatic and social adaption abilities. Results show that children with HFA performed poorer than TD children in identifying happy prosody in both emotionally neutral and relevant utterances. In contrast, children with HFA did not exhibit any deficits in identifying sad and angry prosody. Results of correlation analyses revealed a positive association between happy prosody identification and pragmatic function. The findings indicate that school-aged children with HFA experience difficulties in recognizing happy prosody, and that this limitation in prosody perception is associated with their pragmatic and social adaption performances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Alcohol consumption trends among Spanish school-aged adolescents in the first decade of the 21(st) century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Queija, Inmaculada; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco; Ramos, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    To determine trends in beer, wine, and liquor consumption among Spanish adolescents in 2002, 2006, and 2010, as well as drunkenness trends during the same period. The study sample was composed of 23,169 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years old: 7,103 in 2002, 10,443 in 2006 and 5,623 in 2010. In the three time points of the study, the data were representative of Spanish adolescent students. We used the alcohol consumption questionnaire designed by the international team of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. We estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals through logistic regressions. The main results showed a decrease in frequent consumption of wine and liquor from 2002 to 2010. This decrease was maintained after controlling for the variability due to the participants' gender and age. However, an increasing trend was found in drunkenness episodes in the different cohorts of the adolescents under study. The results of this study are of particular importance in the analysis of the effects of the public health policies implemented during this time period. We also found changes in consumption patterns of the various alcoholic drinks, which may constitute key information in the design of new public health policies. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. [Intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ma, Hong-Wei; Tian, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2009-10-01

    To study the intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The intelligence levels were tested by the Wechsler Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in 54 children with FGR and in 84 normal children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) in the FGR group were 105.9+/-10.3, 112.4+/-11.2 and 97.1+/-10.6 respectively, and they all were in a normal range. But the PIQ was significantly lower than that in the control group (104.8+/-10.5; pintelligence level of children with FGR is normal, but there are imbalances in the intelligence structure and dysfunctions in performance ability related to right cerebral hemisphere. Performance trainings should be done from the infancy in children with FGR.

  17. [Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mispireta, Monica L

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement culturally-sensitive measures to fight this problem as part of the current nutritional policies, and prevent the problem from spreading, making sure the sustainability of the health system is not affected.

  18. Effects of music on assertive behavior during exercise by middle-school-age students.

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    Mills, B D

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of a particular style of music and assertive behavior in middle-school-aged students during exercise. Participants were students enrolled in a public middle school (Grades 6, 7, and 8, N = 502). A statistically significant relationship was found between the number of assertive behaviors occurring while listening to fast tempo music and grades and between difference scores and grades. Difference scores were obtained by subtracting the number of assertive behaviors occurring while listening to fast tempo music from those while listening to slow tempo music. Discriminant function analysis showed the number of assertive behaviors when listening to fast tempo music and difference scores were predictive of membership by grade. The higher the more assertive behaviors were emitted when listening to fast tempo music.

  19. Consumption of junk foods by school-aged children in rural Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Gajendra

    2018-01-01

    There has been an increase in the consumption of junk food (JF) among school-aged children (SAC) possibly leading to obesity and diet-related diseases among them. We do not have evidence on consumption of JF in rural areas; hence, we conducted a study to assess the consumption of JF by SAC in rural, Himachal Pradesh. A total of 425 children in the age group of 12-18 years studying in 30 government schools (clusters) were included. The clusters were selected using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. We found high prevalence (36%) of consumption of JF among SAC during the last 24 h. Efforts should be taken to reduce the consumption of JF by promotion of healthy dietary habits and educating children about the ill effects of JF.

  20. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.