WorldWideScience

Sample records for school year differences

  1. School year versus summer differences in child weight gain: A narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The causes of the current high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children are not clearly known. Schools have been implicated in the causal chain to high child obesity prevalence. Recent studies have compared school year versus summertime changes (herein called seasonal differences) in chil...

  2. Competencies for first year residents - physicians' views from medical schools with different undergraduate curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Sophie; Schick, Kristina; Deppermann, Jana; Prediger, Sarah; Berberat, Pascal O; Kadmon, Martina; Harendza, Sigrid

    2017-09-07

    Frameworks like the CanMEDS model depicting professional roles and specific professional activities provide guidelines for postgraduate education. When medical graduates start their residency, they should possess certain competencies related to communication, management and professionalism while other competencies will be refined during postgraduate training. Our study aimed to evaluate the relevance of different competencies for a first year resident required for entrustment decision from the perspective of physicians from medical faculties with different undergraduate medical curricula. Nine hundred fifty-two surgeons and internists from three medical schools with different undergraduate medical curricula were invited to rank 25 competencies according to their relevance for first year residents. The rankings were compared between universities, specialties, physicians' positions, and gender. Two hundred two physicians participated, 76 from Hamburg University, 44 from Oldenburg University, and 82 from Technical University Munich. No significant differences were found regarding the top 10 competencies relevant for first year residents between the universities. 'Responsibility' was the competency with the highest rank overall. Internists ranked 'Structure, work planning and priorities' higher while surgeons ranked 'Verbal communication with colleagues and supervisors' higher. Consultants evaluated 'Active listening to patients' more important than department directors and residents. Female physicians ranked 'Verbal communication with colleagues and supervisors' and 'Structure, work planning and priorities' significantly higher while male physicians ranked 'Scientifically and empirically grounded method of working' significantly higher. Physicians from universities with different undergraduate curricula principally agreed on the competencies relevant for first year residents. Some differences between physicians from different positions, specialties, and gender were

  3. Gender differences in first-year dental students' motivation to attend dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarbecz, Mark; Ross, Judith A

    2002-08-01

    Women's role in the field of dentistry has historically been limited to the dental auxiliary fields, rather than that of D.D.S. or D.M.D. Today, women are nearly 38 percent of U.S. dental school students and 14 percent of active practitioners. The slow(er) influx of women into dentistry has been little studied by dental educators. During the 2000-01 academic year, we conducted a survey of first-year dental students at a sample of publicly funded U.S. dental schools. The purpose of the survey was to assess gender differences in motives for pursuing a dental career. The data show that male dental students rate self-employment and business-related motives as more important, while female dental students rate people-oriented motives more highly. Factor analysis revealed four distinct clusters of motives for pursuing a dental career: a financial motive, a business-oriented motive, a people-oriented or caring motive, and a flexibility motive. Women scored significantly higher than men on the caring factor, whereas the reverse was true on the business factor. Male and female students rated financial and flexibility motives equally. The implications of the results for attracting students to the profession of dentistry are discussed.

  4. Gender Differences in Children's Math Self-Concept in the First Years of Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Sven; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Ehm, Jan-Henning; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lonnemann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In the course of elementary school, children start to develop an academic self-concept reflecting their motivation, thoughts, and feelings about a specific domain. For the domain of mathematics, gender differences can emerge which are characterized by a less pronounced math self-concept for girls. However, studies are rather sparse regarding the…

  5. Sex differences in relational and overt aggression in the late elementary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Janet; Counts-Allan, Carla; Dunkel, Stephanie; Drew, Catherine Hardee; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Lopez, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in relational and overt aggression among 3rd (n=176), 4th (n=179), and 5th graders (n=145) from three public schools (n=500; 278 girls) were examined. Nominations of relational aggression increased over time among 4th and 5th grade girls, but not among boys or 3rd grade girls. Among 3rd graders, boys received more nominations for relational aggression than girls. By the end of the 5th grade, girls received more relational aggression nominations than boys. There was also a significant rise in nominations of overt aggression among 5th grade girls, but not among 5th grade boys or younger boys and girls. As expected, boys were more likely than girls to be nominated for overt aggression at all grade levels. The findings are helpful for explaining inconsistencies of earlier research pertaining to sex differences in relational aggression and for advancing our understanding of the causes of aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Dewey, Michael E; Maskey, Sean; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration.

  7. New Mexico High School Supercomputing Challenge, 1990--1995: Five years of making a difference to students, teachers, schools, and communities. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, M.; Kratzer, D.

    1996-02-01

    The New Mexico High School Supercomputing Challenge is an academic program dedicated to increasing interest in science and math among high school students by introducing them to high performance computing. This report provides a summary and evaluation of the first five years of the program, describes the program and shows the impact that it has had on high school students, their teachers, and their communities. Goals and objectives are reviewed and evaluated, growth and development of the program are analyzed, and future directions are discussed.

  8. Is the Grass Greener? Current and Former Music Teachers' Perceptions a Year after Moving to a Different School or Leaving the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    This study is the fourth in a series investigating the retention and turnover of music teachers using nationally representative data from the National Center for Educational Statistics. I identified records for music teachers in the Teacher Follow-Up Survey and determined how they viewed their careers one year after moving to a different school or…

  9. First-Year College Students with ADHD And/or LD: Differences in Engagement, Positive Core Self-Evaluation, School Preparation, and College Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Pinho, Trevor D.; Pollack, Brittany L.; Gormley, Matthew J.; Laracy, Seth D.

    2017-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or learning disabilities (LD) experience significant challenges in making the transition from high school to college. This study examined the ways first-year college students with ADHD, LD, ADHD+LD, and comparison peers differ in engagement, core self-evaluation, high school…

  10. [The differences in speciality preferences and career determinant factors between first- and fifth-year medical school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Asuka; Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Abe, Masanori; Kusunoki, Tomo; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the imbalance in the medical workforce has caused a deterioration of rural medicine. We explored the differences in speciality preferences and career determinant factors among students to identify keys to increase the recruitment of physicians to rural areas. We conducted a survey of first- and fifth-year medical students, using a questionnaire enquiring about their specialty preference and career determinant factors. The data were analyzed with a chi-square test. A higher percentage of first-year students preferred to be basic medicine scientists, while fifth-year students considered internal medicine subspecialities, obstetrics and gynecology, anesthesia, and ophthalmology to be the most desirable. The factor analysis yielded five factors responsible for these findings; high social approval of the specialty, working hours, income, advice from senior classmates and doctors, and the work environment. The percentage of students who considered rural practice as a choice for thier future plan and had an awareness of the collapse of rural medicine was lower in the fifth-year students than in the first-year students. To increase the medical work force in provincial areas, it is necessary to strengthen not only the medical system with regard to general medicine, but also to offer better medical education in rural areas. More information about rural practice should therefore be transmitted to medical students.

  11. I wish I had (not) taken a gap-year? The psychological and attainment outcomes of different post-school pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D; Thoemmes, Felix; Duineveld, Jasper J; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2015-03-01

    Existing gap-year research indicates a number of benefits of a gap-year at the end of school and before university enrollment. Life span theory of control, however, suggests that direct goal investment, rather than delay, at developmental transitions is associated with more adaptive outcomes. Comparing these perspectives, the authors undertook 2 studies: 1 in Finland (N = 384, waves = 3) and 1 in Australia (N = 2,259, waves = 5) both with an initial time wave in the last year of high school. The authors explored the effects of a gap-year on both psychological and attainment outcomes using an extensive propensity score matching technique. The Finnish study found no difference in growth in goal commitment, effort, expectations of attainment and strain, or in actual university enrollment in those planning to enter university directly versus those who plan to take a gap-year. The Australian study found no difference in growth in outlooks for the future and career prospects, and life satisfaction between gap-year youth and direct university entrants. However, the study did find that gap-year students were more likely to drop out of a university degree. Implication for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. 9+ The Year-Round School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The 9-month school year with a 3-month summer vacation had its origin in our earlier agrarian life. Today's teacher shortages, overcrowded schools, and pressures to learn demand extensions of the school year. This publication analyzes five programs: (1) a staggered-vacation school year for all, (2) a full 48-week school year for all, (3) a…

  13. Gender, school and academic year differences among Spanish university students at high-risk for developing an eating disorder: An epidemiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrobles Jose A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of the university population at high-risk of developing an eating disorder and the prevalence of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours amongst groups at risk; gender, school or academic year differences were also explored. Methods A cross-sectional study based on self-report was used to screen university students at high-risk for an eating disorder. The sample size was of 2551 university students enrolled in 13 schools between the ages of 18 and 26 years. The instruments included: a social-demographic questionnaire, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R, and the Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. The sample design is a non-proportional stratified sample by academic year and school. The prevalence rate was estimated controlling academic year and school. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate adjusted associations between gender, school and academic year. Results Female students presented unhealthy weight-control behaviours as dieting, laxatives use or self-induced vomiting to lose weight than males. A total of 6% of the females had a BMI of 17.5 or less or 2.5% had amenorrhea for 3 or more months. In contrast, a higher proportion of males (11.6% reported binge eating behaviour. The prevalence rate of students at high-risk for an eating disorder was 14.9% (11.6–18 for males and 20.8% (18.7–22.8 for females, according to an overall cut-off point on the EDI questionnaire. Prevalence rates presented statistically significant differences by gender (p Conclusion The prevalence of eating disorder risk in university students is high and is associated with unhealthy weight-control practices, similar results have been found in previous studies using cut-off points in questionnaires. These results may be taken into account to encourage early detection and a greater awareness for seeking treatment in order

  14. School Nurses Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchell, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Susan Kitchell decided to become a school-based healthcare provider after working for more than twenty years in pediatrics and pediatric critical care at Roosevelt Hospital in New York City. She needed a position with daytime hours within her field of expertise that allowed her time to spend with her family. She began working as a school nurse in…

  15. I Wish I Had (Not) Taken a Gap-Year? The Psychological and Attainment Outcomes of Different Post-School Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Thoemmes, Felix; Duineveld, Jasper J.; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2015-01-01

    Existing gap-year research indicates a number of benefits of a gap-year at the end of school and before university enrollment. Life span theory of control, however, suggests that direct goal investment, rather than delay, at developmental transitions is associated with more adaptive outcomes. Comparing these perspectives, the authors undertook 2…

  16. Homework in Different Types of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, John Q.; Bennett, Albert

    This study found major differences among types of Chicago (Illinois) elementary schools in the amount and time that sixth grade students spent on homework, and that differences were related to the income level and prior student achievement in those schools. Ten magnet schools, 10 integrated schools and 10 primarily minority schools were chosen for…

  17. Extended School Year. Information Capsule. Volume 0910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Extended school years are being considered by districts around the country as educators search for new ways to raise student achievement. The addition of time to the school calendar is also supported by President Barack Obama, who recently stated that American students do not spend enough time in school. This Information Capsule addresses research…

  18. [Frequency, nature and distribution of school sport injuries at different types of schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, K; Riechelmann, H

    2012-12-01

    A high percentage of all sports injuries occur during school sports. It was analysed whether there are differences in frequency, nature and distribution of school sport injuries at two different types of schools. School sport injuries of all secondary modern schools (n = 106) and in lower classes of grammar Schools (n = 17) in the federal state of Tyrol, Austria, from the ten school years 2001/02 to 2010/11 were analysed. All physical injuries occurring during school sports and resulting in the consultation of a medical doctor and therefore being reported to the general accident department (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt [AUVA]) were assessed. During the evaluation period an average number of 32,935 (±1584) school children attended the two types of schools in Tyrol per year. The average incidence of school sports injuries in this ten-year period in both types of schools was 36.4/1,000 (mean) with a standard deviation of 4.4/1,000 per school child per year. The incidence increased from 30.3 in the school year 2001/02 to 40.4 in the school year 2010/11 (r = 0.91; b = 1.34; p school sport injuries at secondary modern schools (37.4 ± 4.9 per 1,000 school children per year) was higher than at the lower classes of grammar schools (32.9 ± 4.0 per 1,000 school children per year; relative risk 1.138; 95% CI = 1.09-1.19; p = 1.8 × 10-8). In addition, the sports injuries of the school year 2010/11 were analysed in detail and a comparison was made between the two types of schools. The distribution pattern of school sports injuries did not show any significant differences between both school types. At the secondary modern schools, as well as in the lower classes of grammar schools, injuries to the upper extremities prevailed (>50%). Ball sports were responsible for every second injury. Secondary modern school pupils had a significantly higher risk of suffering a school sports injury than pupils in the lower classes of grammar schools. The injury pattern did not show

  19. PRIMARY SCHOOL (5 - 10 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    , but sometimes affects school children. Children pres- ent with itchy white papules on the genitalia, the glans and prepuce or the vulva. Initially there is some red- dish or purplish inflammation around the white lesions, which become wrin-.

  20. School Psychologists' Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Travis G.

    2004-01-01

    School Psychologistsâ Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later (ABSTRACT) This study was designed to replicate nationwide surveys completed in 1982 and 1992. The purpose was to examine and describe the levels of job satisfaction and the relationship between the variables in a national sample of school psychologists belonging to the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). The sample for this study consisted of respondents who reported being full-time school practitioners. ...

  1. A Year To Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-01-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Animating Reactions: A Low-Cost Activity for Particle Conceptualization at the Secondary Level, by Robert W. Milne, p 50. * The Gravity of the Situation, by Damon Diemente, p 55. You must be the change you wish to see in the world. Mahatma Ghandi The beginning of a new year always brings with it a feeling of anticipation, a desire to achieve new goals, and a certain urgency to accomplish. Beginning the last year of the 1900s seems somehow to amplify these feelings. This week I was reminded twice of the challenge that lies in focusing on those things that we can change and not being fettered by those we cannot. The first example occurred in my office on a Monday afternoon. A young woman was considering the choice between entering graduate school or seeking a high school teaching position. After approximately 10 years in the workforce, she had entered college and was now within a semester of graduation. While pursuing her studies she had served as a substitute teacher in her home community, believing the experience would affirm her longstanding desire to teach. The behavioral characteristics of some students seemed to be at odds with her memories of high school only a dozen years earlier. Now she was questioning whether she could make a difference in young lives or if she should give up the idea of teaching in high school in favor of graduate degrees in her discipline, which would lead to a career in post-secondary education. Although I assured her that she could indeed have a great impact on high school students, I empathized with the concern she was feeling. The second example occurred the same day, in a class for chemistry majors who are preparing to teach high school chemistry. While considering the importance of performance assessment, with discussion centered on a JCE article ((a href="//1998/jan/abs64.html">Rasp, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 64-66), one class member asked why we only discussed and read about what teachers

  2. [Behavioral gender differences in school relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postigo Zegarra, Silvia; González Barrón, Remedios; Mateu Marqués, Carmen; Ferrero Berlanga, Javier; Martorell Pallás, Carmen

    2009-08-01

    Adolescents take on different social roles mediated by gender, which affect the development of their identity and the expression of school violence. The purpose of this work is to study the behavioral differences in bullying depending on gender. The sample (N=641) is aged between 12 and 16 years old. Personal variables are assessed by self-reports, and relational variables by sociometric measures. Results indicate a large incidence of bullying, peer rejection, and school maladjustment among boys. Girls report more relational aggressions, acceptance and social skills, but also higher personal maladjustment. Female victims are rejected the most. Gender differences seem more relevant in relational variables, suggesting the special importance of the relational context in bullying.

  3. Differences in school environment, school policy and actions regarding overweight prevention between Dutch schools. A nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buijs Goof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. Methods In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years. Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Results Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (coresponsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. Conclusion This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.

  4. Comparing Slovenian year 8 and year 9 elementary school pupils’ knowledge of electrolyte chemistry and their intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Devetak, Iztok; Drofenik Lorber, Erna; Juriševič, Mojca; Glažar, Saša

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the differences between eight-year elementary school pupils (before the curriculum reform) and nine-year elementary school pupils (soon after the curriculum reform) in Slovenia, as regards specific chemistry knowledge and motivation to learn chemistry. Altogether, 191 elementary school pupils participated in the study. The results show that pupils of nine-year elementary school are not significantly better at chemistry knowledge test scores than eight-year elementary schoo...

  5. Does breakfast make a difference in school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, E

    1995-10-01

    This article reviews selectively the literature on the effects of breakfast on cognition and school performance. The focus is on studies published in refereed journals after 1978 that tested those effects on well-nourished and nutritionally at-risk children. In at-risk subjects (defined by clinical history and anthropometry), a morning and overnight fast had adverse effects on cognition, particularly the speed of information retrieval in working memory. Contradictions in the data from different studies prevent definitive conclusions on whether well-nourished children experience similar functional deficits. Nonetheless, available information suggests that brain function is sensitive to short-term variations in the availability of nutrient supplies. Moreover, well-conducted evaluations suggest that the availability of feeding programs in public schools throughout the academic year increases the probability that children will eat breakfast and improve their educational status.

  6. A cross-sectional study to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district, India with different fluoride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Sunitha, S

    2015-01-01

    Besides dental and skeletal fluorosis, excessive fluoride intake can also affect the central nervous system without first causing the physical deformities associated with skeletal fluorosis. With the existence of widespread endemic fluorosis in India, the possible adverse effect of elevated fluoride in drinking water on the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) level of children is a potentially serious public health problem. This study assessed the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district with different fluoride levels. In this cross-sectional study, 405 school children aged 10-12 years were selected from three villages in Mysore district with normal fluoride (1.20 mg F/l), low fluoride (0.40 mg F/l) and high fluoride (2.20 mg F/l) in their water supplies. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the required data for the survey which included socio demographic details, oral hygiene practices, diet history, body mass index and dental fluorosis. Intelligence Quotient was assessed using Raven's colored Progressive Matrices Test. In bivariate analysis, significant relationships were found between water fluoride levels and Intelligence Quotient of school children (P intelligence when compared to school children residing in areas with normal and low water fluoride levels. Thus, children's intelligence can be affected by high water fluoride levels.

  7. Peripheral bone mineral density and different intensities of physical activity in children 6-8 years old: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E

    2007-01-01

    -stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P girls. They also carried out 9.7% more daily physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...... time in vigorous physical activity (all P girls. In contrast, the girls had 3.8% higher calcaneal BMC (P boys. Both calcaneal and forearm BMD were significantly related to total time of daily physical activity as well......This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured habitual physical activity and calcaneal and forearm bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), one mechanically more loaded and one less loaded skeletal region, in children aged 6-8 years. BMD was measured in 297 boys and 265...

  8. School climate: perceptual differences between students, parents, and school staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Christine M.; Spira, Adam P.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Rebok, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that school climate can have a great impact on student, teacher, and school outcomes. However, it is often assessed as a summary measure, without taking into account multiple perspectives (student, teacher, parent) or examining subdimensions within the broader construct. In this study, we assessed school climate from the perspective of students, staff, and parents within a large, urban school district using multilevel modeling techniques to examine within- and between-school variance. After adjusting for school-level demographic characteristics, students reported worse perceptions of safety and connectedness compared to both parent and staff ratings (all p climate ratings within a school. Understanding how perceptions differ between informants can inform interventions to improve perceptions and prevent adverse outcomes. PMID:28642631

  9. A cross-sectional study to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district, India with different fluoride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Thomas Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Besides dental and skeletal fluorosis, excessive fluoride intake can also affect the central nervous system without first causing the physical deformities associated with skeletal fluorosis. With the existence of widespread endemic fluorosis in India, the possible adverse effect of elevated fluoride in drinking water on the Intelligence Quotient (IQ level of children is a potentially serious public health problem. Aims and Objectives: This study assessed the Intelligence Quotient (IQ of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district with different fluoride levels. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 405 school children aged 10-12 years were selected from three villages in Mysore district with normal fluoride (1.20 mg F/l, low fluoride (0.40 mg F/l and high fluoride (2.20 mg F/l in their water supplies. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the required data for the survey which included socio demographic details, oral hygiene practices, diet history, body mass index and dental fluorosis. Intelligence Quotient was assessed using Raven′s colored Progressive Matrices Test. Results: In bivariate analysis, significant relationships were found between water fluoride levels and Intelligence Quotient of school children (P < 0.05. In the high fluoride village, the proportion of children with IQ below 90, i.e. below average IQ was larger compared to normal and low fluoride village. Age, gender, parent education level and family income had no significant association with IQ. Conclusion: School children residing in area with higher than normal water fluoride level demonstrated more impaired development of intelligence when compared to school children residing in areas with normal and low water fluoride levels. Thus, children′s intelligence can be affected by high water fluoride levels.

  10. Levels of Participation of the School Stakeholders to the Different School-Initiated Activities and the Implementation of School-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabardo, Jimmy Rey Opong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levels of participation of the school stakeholders to the different school-initiated activities and the implementation of school-based management (SBM) in selected schools in the Division of Davao del Sur for the school year 2014-2015 using a descriptive-correlational survey research design. A…

  11. Tackling Illiteracy in Year 7 of the Comprehensive School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Reading standards are regarded by many as the true yardstick by which to measure school effectiveness, and the relative standards achieved by different generations are often debated by adults. Some young people do not perceive reading to be of anything like such importance, however, using digital communication habitually and easily. Each year a…

  12. Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative after Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratos, Kati; Wolford, Tonya; Reitano, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    In 2010-2011, the School District of Philadelphia (the District) launched its Renaissance Schools Initiative, a program designed to dramatically improve student achievement in the District's lowest performing schools. Some schools became Promise Academies, based on the federal turnaround model, and remained District-operated neighborhood schools.…

  13. Peer harassment at primary school: gender and school grade differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Martín Seoane

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the relationship among gender, school grade and peer harassment at Primary School. The participants were 2.050 children aged 8 to 13. The overall sample was designed to represent all students in grades 3th through 6th in both public and private schools. A self-report questionnaire on peer harassment situations was administered to the participants. Factor analysis revealed two different dimensions: ‘physical violence and property attacks’ and ‘verbal violence and social exclusion’. Boys reported higher levels of peer harassment among classmates than girls. No effect of the school grade on the gender differences CONTEXTOS EDUCATIVOS, 13 (2010, 11-26 11 Contextos Educ., 13 (2010, 11-26 was found. This paper provides a better understanding of peer harassment as well as some prevention indications.

  14. [Balance of iron and copper in cadets of military school during physical exercise and next-day rest at different times of the year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, I P; Nasolodin, V V; Beliakov, R A; Arshinov, N P; Zaĭtsev, O N; Meshcheriakov, S I

    2013-03-01

    According to examination, with the help of emission spectrum analysis method, of 24 cadets-athletes of different specialization it was determined that during physical exercise in summer and in winter loss of ferrum and copper with excrements exceeded the intake if these microelements with food. The next day rise of impaction of microelements and decrease of excretion. But despite the positive balance of ferrum and copper, spend of these microelements during physical exercise wasn't compensated for the day of rest. That is why there is a possibility of microelement deficit.

  15. Differences between secondary schools : A study about school context, group composition, school practice, and school effects with special attention to public and Catholic schools and types of schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdenakker, MC; Van Damme, J

    The results indicate that in Flanders secondary schools of different denomination and of different school type (based on their curriculum offerings) differ with respect to several characteristics. With respect to the educational framework, learning environment and learning climate differences

  16. Differences in exam performance between pupils attending selective and non-selective schools mirror the genetic differences between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Woolley, Emily; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Selzam, Saskia; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; von Stumm, Sophie; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S.; Young, Toby; Allen, Rebecca; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2018-03-01

    On average, students attending selective schools outperform their non-selective counterparts in national exams. These differences are often attributed to value added by the school, as well as factors schools use to select pupils, including ability, achievement and, in cases where schools charge tuition fees or are located in affluent areas, socioeconomic status. However, the possible role of DNA differences between students of different schools types has not yet been considered. We used a UK-representative sample of 4814 genotyped students to investigate exam performance at age 16 and genetic differences between students in three school types: state-funded, non-selective schools (`non-selective'), state-funded, selective schools (`grammar') and private schools, which are selective (`private'). We created a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) derived from a genome-wide association study of years of education (EduYears). We found substantial mean genetic differences between students of different school types: students in non-selective schools had lower EduYears GPS compared to those in grammar (d = 0.41) and private schools (d = 0.37). Three times as many students in the top EduYears GPS decile went to a selective school compared to the bottom decile. These results were mirrored in the exam differences between school types. However, once we controlled for factors involved in pupil selection, there were no significant genetic differences between school types, and the variance in exam scores at age 16 explained by school type dropped from 7% to <1%. These results show that genetic and exam differences between school types are primarily due to the heritable characteristics involved in pupil admission.

  17. Accuracy of 11-year-olds selfreported school lunch consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nina

    accuracy differ by the lunch format consumed (Paper III) Material and methods The study was conducted as a cross-sectional dietary reporting study. The population consisted of 11-year-old children from three public schools in Copenhagen. The study was conducted on two consecutive days and assessed...... in general. Objectives The aim of the present thesis was to assess food level reporting accuracy in Danish 11-year-old children’s self-reported school lunch consumption, and the aim was operationalized in following objectives. 1- To identify food items clustering by lunch format (Preliminary analyses) 2......- To assess reporting accuracy in relation to gender and self-reported methods (Paper I) 3- To address aspects of reporting inaccuracy from intrusions by food group, against different objective measures, and classification of intrusions in stretches and confabulations (Paper II) 4- To assess how reporting...

  18. School leadership, sex and gender: welcome to difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krüger, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The biological basis for differences between the sexes has become increasingly clear in recent years. The nature-nurture debate has made way for the view that the individual is a product of the interaction between genes and environment. For the world of school leadership this means that instead of

  19. School violence: An analysis from different interaction contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Varela Garay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyze the differences between adolescents scoring high and low on school violence in the following areas: individual (self-esteem, loneliness, satisfaction with life, and empathy; family (family climate, communication with father and mother; academic (classroom climate, attitudes toward authority, and sociometric status; and community (community involvement, community participation, social support from formal systems, and social support from informal systems. Differences in these relationships between boys and girls scoring high on school violence were also examined. Participants in the study were 1723 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years old, in four secondary schools. Multivariate and univariate analysis of variance were performed. Results showed that adolescents with high levels of school violence scored higher on loneliness, depressive symptomatology, offensive and avoidance communication with father and mother, family conflict, and attitude towards transgression, as compared to adolescents with low levels of school violence. Furthermore, girls scoring high on school violence reported higher scores on academic self-esteem, empathy, and sociometric status, and lower scores on open communication with father and community participation, as compared to boys scoring high in school violence. Finally, these results and their practical implications are discussed.

  20. Family environmental factors do not explain differences in the behavioral effect of a healthy diet promotion program in lower vocational schools among 12-to 14-year-old adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.; Assema, P.; Knibbe, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Brug, J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Assess whether family environmental factors affected changes in fruit and snack consumption among 12- to 14-year-old adolescents participating in a Dutch healthy diet promotion program. Design. Data were derived from pretest and posttest questionnaires completed by adolescents in 10 schools

  1. Changes in America's Public School Facilities: From School Year 1998-99 to School Year 2012-13. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-074

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Steven; Sparks, Dinah

    2016-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief summarizes the changes from the 1998-99 to the 2012-13 school years in the average age of public schools, ratings of satisfaction of the environmental quality of school facilities, the cost to put school buildings in good overall condition, and short-range plans to improve school facilities. In addition to providing…

  2. New Mexico School District Profile: 1982-83 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavatta, Jerry C., Comp.; Borgrink, Henry, Comp.

    The purpose of this report is to provide a broad cross section of data on the operation and performance of New Mexico public schools. Data on school district characteristics (40-Day Average Daily Membership; and percent in kindergarten, bilingual, Chapter 1, and special education programs), teacher characteristics (pupil-teacher ratio, salaries,…

  3. Sex differences and violence among primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad M.

    2017-01-01

    violence, and those between them who suffered violence were mostly exposed to physical violence - was not confirmed. Male students were somewhat less exposed to physical violence (17.1% the female students where 20,6% of them suffered physical violence more times during the last school year. 3 Special hypothesis - Significantly small percentage of primary school female students was exposed to violence, and those between them who suffered violence were mostly exposed to verbal violence - was partly confirmed. 4 Special hypothesis - The most frequent reaction of male students who were exposed to violence in school is to respond in the same way - by violence - was confirmed: 47.3% of male students and 31.8% of female students react exactly in this way while exposed to violence. 5 Special hypothesis - The most frequent reaction of female students who are exposed to violence in school is to be silent and suffer - was not confirmed. The data showed that female students are not inclined to this reaction like male students. 6 Special hypothesis - Male students in primary schools show significantly more readiness to help the victim of violence than female students - was not confirmed. The data showed that there is no statistically significant difference between readiness of male and female students to help the victim of the violence. The problem of violence in school is a popular topic and it opens a lot of controversies: from the one side, school laws aspires to norm every segment of school life because of which students are in "danger" to be labelled as dangerous; on the other side, school evidence shows high percentage of exposure of students to violence and its high frequency. Because of that, the problem of school violence cannot be resolved only by laws and proposed activities which are controlled by school bodies, but on the level of the whole society, connected actions in all its structures - macro-, meso- and micro- structures. With the special accent on developing of

  4. Early Years Swimming: A Way of Supporting School Transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…

  5. Moving House for Education in the Pre-School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine house moves that take place in the pre-school years, focusing on families who move for the education of their children. We present results showing that education- related house moves do indeed occur in the pre-school years with particular types of parents making these…

  6. A Comparison of Teacher Stress and School Climate across Schools with Different Matric Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Karen; Khoza, Harriet

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate differences in teacher stress and perceptions of school climate among teachers from schools with differing matriculation success rates in the Limpopo province of South Africa. Two schools with matric pass rates of 100% and two schools with matric pass rates of less than 25% were selected from a list of schools provided…

  7. School Administrators Can Make a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    1981-01-01

    To help administrators improve school efficiency in a time of financial constraints, this document reviews research on school productivity, points out possible improvements suggested by the research, and discusses several problems in measuring school costs and effectiveness. The author first explains the analytical concepts of school productivity,…

  8. A comparison of teacher stress and school climate across schools with different matric success rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Milner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate differences in teacher stress and perceptions of school climate among teachers from schools with differing matriculation success rates in the Limpopo province of South Africa. Two schools with matric pass rates of 100% and two schools with matric pass rates of less than 25% were selected from a list of schools provided by the province's Educational District Circuit. The schools were matched in terms of area, size, resources, and equipment. Thirty-three teachers from the high performing schools and forty-two teachers from the poor performing schools participated in the study. Student's t tests were used to assess the differences between the schools on the variables under investigation, and the results showed the teachers' experience of stress across the different schools was not significantly different, but significant differences did emerge with regard to school climate. The implications of these findings for the study population are discussed.

  9. Sex differences in psychological adjustment from infancy to 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, M; Smart, D; Sanson, A; Oberklaid, F

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore sex differences in development from infancy to 8 years of age in a community sample. Measures of biological, social, interactive, and parental functioning as well as teacher reports were obtained. There were minimal differences in infancy, but major psychosocial differences emerged with increasing age. In the biological sphere boys were disadvantaged only in ratings of language and motor skills at 3 to 4 years old. They showed greater temperamental "difficulty" and low persistence factor scores from 5 years onward. Boys were significantly more likely to have problems with adaptive behavior and social competence and to show behavior problems of the hyperactive and aggressive type, as rated by mothers. Parent and family functioning measures did not differentiate between the sexes. Teachers rated boys as having more problems in academic and behavioral domains the first 3 years of school. Path analyses combining data sets gathered when the children were 3 to 8 years old demonstrated the differential courses of development for boys and girls although temperamental flexibility was the best predictor of behavioral adjustment for both sexes. A social learning explanation of the increased incidence of problems among males is supported, although biological influences are not ruled out.

  10. Waldorf Schools: Seventy-Six Years of Early Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navascues, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes the history, curriculum, and methodology of elementary school foreign-language (FL) learning within Waldorf schools, using information from Waldorf FL teachers, class observations, and research readings. Waldorf students study two FLs. An oral/choral method is used in the early years. Reading, writing, and formal grammar are introduced…

  11. French in Lesotho schools forty years after independence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most independent African states are now, like Lesotho, about forty years old. What has become of foreign languages such as French that once thrived under colonial rule albeit mostly in schools targeting non-indigenous learners? In Lesotho French seems to be the preserve of private or “international” schools. Can African ...

  12. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  13. Examination of physical activity in adolescents over the school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W; Chad, Karen E; Beattie-Flath, Jodie A; Humbert, M Louise; Verrall, Tanya C; Vu, Lan; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2009-11-01

    This study monitored the physical activity behavior of adolescent students over a ten month school year. Physical activity was assessed at two month intervals using self-report and objective (Actical accelerometers) measures. Self-report results (n = 547) indicated a decline in physical activity throughout the school year for all grades and genders. The decline was attributed largely to a decrease in organized activity participation. Objective physical activity results (n = 40) revealed a significant decline in activity in the latter half of the school year (February to June). Declining physical activity was attributed to a decrease in vigorous activity which was consistent across grade and gender. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of promoting consistent opportunities for adolescents to be active throughout the school year.

  14. The Komsomol and the Schools in the Lenin Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsenko, T.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the cooperative relationship between the Komsomol (All-Union Leninist Communist League of Youth), the Pioneers, and the schools, with specific reference to their mutual responsibilities in the Lenin Year. (JB)

  15. Shaping Attitude toward Christianity among Year Seven Pupils: The Influence of Sex, Church, Home and Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindells, Tracy; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine the differences in attitude toward Christianity among year seven secondary school pupils who had undertaken their primary education either in a Church of England voluntary aided school or a non-denominational state-maintained school. Data were provided by 492 year-seven pupils attending three Church of England…

  16. Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee R

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

  17. [A comparison on general education curriculum of 4-year and 3-year nursing schools in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Joung, Sun-Ei; Hwang, Chung-Il

    2011-02-01

    This study was done to comparatively analyze the general education curriculum of 4-yr and 3-yr nursing schools in Korea. Ten university 4-yr nursing schools were selected based on universities in Korean Accreditation Board of Nursing 2010 or "2009 Korea's Best Universities-Top 10" published by Joong-Ang Daily. Ten college 3-yr nursing schools were selected based on colleges in Korean Accreditation Board of Nursing 2010. 1) Generally 4-yr nursing schools maintained the relationships between organizational philosophy/purposes and subjects in the general education curriculum. But 3-yr nursing schools did not. 2) In 4-yr nursing schools there was a relatively higher credits ratio of general education curriculum and selective courses than in 3-yr nursing schools. 3) In 4-yr nursing schools variety of courses was relatively higher than 3-yr nursing schools. 4) In 4-yr nursing schools, operating conditions were relatively better (number of tenure professors, ratio of professors to students, Identification of exclusive organization in charge of the general education curriculum) for the general education curriculum than 3-yr nursing schools. The results identify significant differences in the general education curriculum of 4-yr and 3-yr nursing schools in Korea, indicating that 3-yr nursing schools should make efforts to improve the good quality of general education curriculum.

  18. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  19. [Differences in subjective health, mental health, and health behavior among 11- to 17-year-olds at secondary schools in Germany : Results of the German health interview and examination survey for children and adolescents: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhauer, Julia; Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Social inequalities in health can already be found among children and adolescents to the disadvantage of socially deprived population groups. This paper aims to detect, whether differences in subjective health, mental health and health behavior among young people are due to the secondary school type attended and whether these associations exist independently of the family's socioeconomic position (SEP). The data basis was the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 1, 2009-2012). Data of 11- to 17-year-old girls and boys (n = 4665) who attend different types of secondary schools in Germany were analyzed. The dependent variables were self-rated health, findings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the detection of psychological abnormalities, as well as self-reported information regarding leisure sport, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. Prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) based on logistic regressions are shown. For the majority of the examined indicators, it can be shown that adolescents in lower secondary schools are more likely to report worse self-rated health and mental problems and engage in unhealthy behavior than peers in grammar schools ("Gymnasium"). The differences decrease after controlling for family's SEP but mostly remain statistically significant. Adolescents who don't attend grammar schools are most strongly disadvantaged in terms of inattention/hyperactivity for both gender (OR: 2.29 [1.70-3.08]), smoking among girls (2.91 [1.85-4.57]) and physical inactivity (no leisure sport) among boys (OR: 2.71 [1.85-3.95]). Unequal health opportunities should be viewed in relation to people's living conditions. For adolescents, school constitutes an important setting for learning, experience, and health. The results indicate divergent needs of school-based health promotion and prevention regarding differences among gender and type of school.

  20. A Multidimensional Model of School Dropout from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study in a General High School Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2013-01-01

    This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…

  1. Does Secondary School Size Make a Difference? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M.; Garrett, Z.; Elbourne, D.; Bradley, S.; Noden, P.; Taylor, J.; West, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a vast body of literature on school size but comparatively few high quality empirical studies comparing outcomes in schools of different sizes. This systematic review synthesizes the results of the published research from 31 studies on the effects of secondary school size from OECD countries since 1990. Overall the directions and patterns…

  2. Impact of School Desegregation in Milwaukee Public Schools on Quality Education for Minorities... 15 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    This publication reports on the effects of school desegregation in Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public Schools 15 years after desegregation was introduced and focuses on the quality of education available for minorities. In particular, the report looks at desegregation and educational outcomes, interracial and human relations, the effect of housing…

  3. Analysis of the Impacts of City Year's Whole School Whole Child Model on Partner Schools' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Julie; Anderson, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    City Year is a learning organization committed to the rigorous evaluation of its "Whole School Whole Child" model, which trains and deploys teams of AmeriCorps members to low-performing, urban schools to empower more students to reach their full potential. A third-party study by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) examined the impact of…

  4. Epidemiology of school accidents during a six school-year period in one region in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowska, Stefania; Kostka, Tomasz

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence of school accidents in relation to school size, urban/rural environment and conditions of physical education classes. 202 primary schools with nearly 50,000 students aged 7-15 years were studied during a 6-year period in the Włocławek region in Poland. There were in total 3274 school accidents per 293,000 student-years. Accidents during breaks (36.6%) and physical education (33.2%) were most common. Most frequently accidents took place at schoolyard (29.7%), gymnasium (20.2%), and in the corridor and stairs (25.2%). After adjustment for students' age and sex, student-staff ratio and duration of school hours, urban environment increased the probability of accident (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14-1.38). Middle-size schools (8-23 classes) had similar accident rate as small schools (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83-1.04), while schools with 24-32 classes (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.10-1.43) and with > or = 33 classes (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-1.58) had increased accident rate. Presence of a gymnasium was also associated with increased probability of accident (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.38-1.61). Urban environment, larger school-size and equipment with full-size gymnasium are important and independent risk factors for school accidents. These findings provide some new insights into the epidemiology of school-related accidents and may be useful information for the planning of strategies to reduce accident incidence in schools.

  5. The effect of phonics-enhanced Big Book reading on the language and literacy skills of 6-year-old pupils of different reading ability attending lower SES schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Laura; Nicholson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the literacy achievement of lower socioeconomic status (SES) children by combining explicit phonics with Big Book reading. Big Book reading is a component of the text-centered (or book reading) approach used in New Zealand schools. It involves the teacher in reading an enlarged book to children and demonstrating how to use semantic, syntactic, and grapho-phonic cues to learn to read. There has been little research, however, to find out whether the effectiveness of Big Book reading is enhanced by adding explicit phonics. In this study, a group of 96 second graders from three lower SES primary schools in New Zealand were taught in 24 small groups of four, tracked into three different reading ability levels. All pupils were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: a control group who received math instruction, Big Book reading enhanced with phonics (BB/EP), Big Book reading on its own, and Phonics on its own. The results showed that the BB/EP group made significantly better progress than the Big Book and Phonics groups in word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and phonemic awareness. In reading accuracy, the BB/EP and Big Book groups scored similarly. In basic decoding skills the BB/EP and Phonics groups scored similarly. The combined instruction, compared with Big Book reading and phonics, appeared to have no comparative disadvantages and considerable advantages. The present findings could be a model for New Zealand and other countries in their efforts to increase the literacy achievement of disadvantaged pupils. PMID:25431560

  6. Bullying victimization among 13 til 15 year old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2008-01-01

    AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...

  7. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  8. Different healthy habits between northern and southern Spanish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Knox, Emily; Zabala, Mikel; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Dalmau, Jose Maria; Muros, Jose Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Healthy habits are influenced by several factors such as geographical location. The aims of this study were to describe and compare healthy habits within two populations of sixth-grade primary school children (aged 11-12 years) from northern and southern Spain. A cross-sectional study using two representative samples of school children was conducted. Participants came from Logroño ( n  = 329) in the north and Granada ( n  = 284) in the south of Spain. Socio-demographic and anthropometric variables, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, aerobic fitness, and healthy lifestyles were recorded. Boys reported a higher level of physical activity and aerobic fitness than girls ( p  = 0.000). Southern school children reported significantly higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (♀: p  = 0.041; ♂: p  = 0.008), lower aerobic fitness (♀: p  = 0.000; ♂: p  = 0.042) and hours of nightly sleep (♀: p  = 0.008, ♂: p  = 0.007) than northern school children. Southern boys also reported lower levels of physical activity ( p  = 0.013). There were slight or moderate correlations among all habits measured (physical activity, diet, screen and sleep time). Additionally, the physical activity level was inversely related to weight status. Overweight and obese northern boys reported less physical activity than healthy-weight northern boys ( p  = 0.020) and overweight and obese southern girls reported less physical activity than healthy-weight southern girls ( p  = 0.024). Results showed differences in physical activity, eating and sleep habits, and aerobic fitness according to geographical location. The relationships found among lifestyle habits indicate the need for health promotion interventions nationally and considering the differences discussed here.

  9. Differences in the Psychosocial Work Environment of Different Types of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, John G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Work Environment Scale (WES) to measure teachers' perceptions of psychosocial dimensions of their school environment. Describes an application of WES in which work climates of different school types were compared and contrasted. (RJC)

  10. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  11. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…

  12. The influence of the school year on measles epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Viggo

    The measles incidence record for Copenhagen 1880-1966 shows that the date of admission of new pupils has major impact on the structure of the epidemics, suggesting that measles transmission should be modelled in a way that accounts for the pulsed influx of new pupils. Assuming that the school year...

  13. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  14. Portland Public Schools Project Chrysalis: Year 2 Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Gabriel, Roy M.; Hahn, Karen J.; Laws, Katherine E.

    In 1994, the Chrysalis Project in Portland Public Schools received funding to prevent or delay the onset of substance abuse among a special target population: high-risk, female adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Findings from the evaluation of the project's second year of providing assistance to these students are reported here. During…

  15. A Year in Review: The "High School Journal" in 1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    In 1920, the "High School Journal" had been up and running for a year and cost 15 cents an issue. Robert Goddard was ridiculed by the "New York Times" for predicting space travel (a retraction was printed in 1969), small countries like Ireland and Romania were fighting for their own governments, and American women voted for the…

  16. 34 CFR 300.106 - Extended school year services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services means special education and related services that— (1) Are provided to a child with a disability... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extended school year services. 300.106 Section 300.106 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  17. Leadership Behaviors of School Administrators: Do Men and Women Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shirley; Busch, Steve; Slate, John R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the reasons why men and women behave differently in leadership roles in schools were investigated because of recent research on the indirect nature of the school principal's impact on learning and on gender differences in leadership behaviors. Practicing principals (109 males, 172 females) from two Southwestern states were surveyed…

  18. The First Year Out: Understanding American Teens after High School. Morality and Society Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clydesdale, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Wild parties, late nights, and lots of sex, drugs, and alcohol. Many assume these are the things that define an American teenager's first year after high school. But the reality is really quite different. As Tim Clydesdale reports in "The First Year Out", teenagers generally manage the increased responsibilities of everyday life immediately after…

  19. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes--United States, 2005-06 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-29

    Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.

  20. Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  1. SLEEP COMPLAINTS AFFECTING SCHOOL PERFORMANCE AT DIFFERENT EDUCATIONAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Pagel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students. Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA’s in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  2. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Schools: A Comparison of Trainee Satisfaction among Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Shingo; Suzuki, Masaru; Yamazaki, Motoyasu; Aikawa, Naoki; Yamazaki, Hajime

    2016-09-25

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has recently been added to the school curriculum worldwide and is currently taught to students between the ages of 10 and 16 years. The effect of the age of trainees on their satisfaction with CPR training has yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare the satisfaction of trainees of different ages who participated in CPR training in schools in Japan. In total, 392 primary school students (10-11 years old), 1798 junior high school students (12-13 years old), and 4162 high schools students (15-16 years old) underwent the same 3-h course of CPR training, according to the guidelines of 2000 for Emergency Cardiovascular Care and CPR. The course was evaluated by a questionnaire completed by the participants. Primary school students responded most positively to all questions, including those reflecting enjoyment and the confidence of participants to apply CPR (Jonckheere-Terpstra test: P CPR training was strongly related to their age. Primary school students enjoyed CPR training more and were more confident in their ability to perform CPR than junior high and high school students were. Therefore, children aged 10-11 years may be the most appropriate candidates for the introduction of CPR training in schools.

  3. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3) and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5). Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Adolescents with no sexual debut at 18 years of age seemed to live a more stable and cautious life than more sexual experienced peers, exemplified by fewer antisocial acts, less smoking and alcohol/drug consumption, less sexual desire, and less experience of sexual abuse.

  4. Towards Understanding Different Faces of School Violence in Different "Worlds" of One Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    The legacy of South Africa's destructive history is still evident in the different worlds in which South Africans live. Quality education is compromised by violence occurring in schools and role-players must face school violence and take steps to deal with it. This can only be done if school violence is deeply understood within the various school…

  5. Concussion Knowledge and Reporting Behavior Differences Between High School Athletes at Urban and Suburban High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Nogle, Sally; Gould, Daniel; Kovan, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    We determined differences in knowledge of concussion and reporting behaviors of high school athletes attending urban and suburban high schools, and whether a relationship exists between underreporting and access to an athletic trainer in urban schools. High school athletes (N = 715) from 14 high schools completed a validated knowledge of concussion survey consisting of 83 questions. The independent variable was school type (urban/suburban). We examined the proportion of athletes who correctly identified signs and symptoms of concussion, knowledge of concussion and reasons why high school athletes would not disclose a potential concussive injury across school classification. Data were analyzed using descriptive, non-parametric, and inferential statistics. Athletes attending urban schools have less concussion knowledge than athletes attending suburban schools (p urban schools without an athletic trainer have less knowledge than urban athletes at schools with an athletic trainer (p urban schools and 10 reasons for not reporting. Concussion education efforts cannot be homogeneous in all communities. Education interventions must reflect the needs of each community. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  6. The effect of school quality on black-white health differences: evidence from segregated southern schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, David; Golberstein, Ezra

    2013-12-01

    This study assesses the effect of black-white differences in school quality on black-white differences in health in later life resulting from the racial convergence in school quality for cohorts born between 1910 and 1950 in southern states with segregated schools. Using data from the 1984-2007 National Health Interview Surveys linked to race-specific data on school quality, we find that reductions in the black-white gap in school quality led to modest reductions in the black-white gap in disability.

  7. Language and social status differences in two urban schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck

    This dissertation is about distinctions, social status differences and contemporary pupil diversity. It addresses how Copenhagen school children in two different schools use language to handle their social everyday lives and how this organizing involves constructions and ascriptions of identities...... and social stereotypes. My research is driven by an interest in learning more about the experience of being part of today´s diverse school environments. Therefore, I approach my data with an emphasis on the participant perspective and focus analytically on the ways in which the participants in my study enact...... of a connection between the prevalent focus on ethnicity in public debates on schooling and social class relations and then the interplay between these relations of power and prestige and the practices that I analyze. Key words: School children, youth, social interaction, linguistic and social difference, social...

  8. DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR STATUS OF CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SEX IN SCHOOL VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Batez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On a sample of 45 children (25 girls and 20 boys age of 9 to 11, who have been training volleyball (one to three years in the club "Sportisimo pajp" in Novi Sad, were applied four motor tests. The aim of this research was to determine differences in the motor status of children of different sex in the school volleyball. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA determined a statistically significant difference in the whole system of analyzed motor variables depending on the sex on studied sample of child¬ren. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that girls had better results in va¬riables of flexibility and agility. Boys are better in standing long jump, while sta¬tistically significant differences between means in the speed of alternative movements between girls and boys the not found.

  9. Teaching the Culturally Different: A Multicultural Framework for School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalon, Constance; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    A multicultural framework for school curricula directed toward the culturally different was developed for implementation of court ordered multicultural education goals at the H. S. Thompson Learning Center of the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The philosophy of multicultural education suggests that ethnic diversity and cultural…

  10. Kick off of the 2017-2018 school year at the EVE and School of the CERN Staff Association

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The Children’s Day-Care Centre (“Espace de Vie Enfantine” - EVE) and School of the CERN Staff Association opened its doors once again to welcome the children, along with the teaching and administrative staff of the structure. The start of the school year was carried out gradually and in small groups to allow quality interaction between children, professionals and parents. At the EVE (Nursery and Kindergarten) and School, the children have the opportunity to thrive in a privileged environment, rich in cultural diversity, since the families (parents and children) come from many different nationalities. The teaching staff do their utmost to ensure that the children can become more autonomous and develop their social skills, all the while taking care of their well-being. This year, several new features are being introduced, for instance, first steps towards English language awareness. Indeed, the children will get to discover the English language in creative classes together with tr...

  11. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastbom ÅA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Åsa A Kastbom,1,2 Gunilla Sydsjö,3 Marie Bladh,3 Gisela Priebe,4,5 Carl Göran Svedin2 1Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Linköping University Hospital, 2Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping, 4Department of Psychology, Linnæus University, Växjö, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. Objective: To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Results: Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3 and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5. Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Conclusion: Adolescents

  12. Changes in diet from age 10 to 14 years and prospective associations with school lunch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor M; Corder, Kirsten L; Jones, Andy; Ambrosini, Gina L; White, Martin; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2017-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how diet changes over the transition from primary to secondary school. In this study we investigated changes in diet from age 10 (2007) to age 14 years (2011) and the contribution of school-time consumption and school lunch choice to such changes. The 351 participants with dietary data (4 day food record) available at baseline (age 10 years) and follow-up (age 14 years) were included. Multi-level regression models were fitted for absolute or change in food and nutrient intake, cross-classified by primary and secondary school attended as appropriate, with adjustment for covariates and mis-reporting. From age 10 to age 14 years, children decreased energy intake from sugars (-2.6% energy (%E)) (standard error (SE) 0.44) and from saturated fats (-0.54%E (SE 0.18)), decreased fruit (-3.13 g/MJ (SE 1.04)) and vegetables (-1.55 g/MJ (SE 0.46)) consumption and increased sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) (4.66  g/MJ (SE 1.87)) and fries (1.31  g/MJ (SE 0.39)) consumption. Intake of snack foods, SSBs, and fries, but also fruits and vegetables was higher outside school hours. Prospective change from non-school lunch to school lunch, compared to maintaining non-school lunch consumption, was associated with decreased consumption of savoury snacks (-8.32 g/day (SE 2.03)), increased consumption of fries (12.8 g/day (SE 4.01)) and decreased consumption of fruit (-25.16 g/day (SE 11.02)) during school hours. Changes in diet from age 10 to age 14 years differed within and outside of school hours. Consumption of a school lunch, compared to lunch obtained elsewhere, was associated with negative as well as positive changes in diet, suggesting that any efforts to encourage school lunch take-up need to be accompanied by further efforts to improve school lunch provision to meet nutritional guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Racial Differences in the Transactional Relationship Between Depression and Alcohol Use From Elementary School to Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkley, Erica L; Zapolski, Tamika C B; Smith, Gregory T

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test hypothesized reverse prospective relationships between alcohol consumption and depressive symptomatology as a function of race among youth. In a two-wave prospective study, 328 European American, 328 African American, and 144 Hispanic American youth were studied at the end of fifth grade (last year of elementary school) and the end of sixth grade (first year of middle school). A positive correlation was observed between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among all youth. However, the predictive relationship differed based on race. For European American and Hispanic American youth, depressive symptom levels at the end of elementary school predicted alcohol consumption at the end of the first year of middle school, but the converse relationship was not observed. For African American youth, the opposite pattern was found. Alcohol consumption at the end of elementary school predicted depressive symptom levels at the end of the first year of middle school, and the converse relationship was not observed. These findings suggest the possibility that etiological relationships between depression and alcohol use vary by race, thus highlighting the importance of considering race when studying the risk process.

  14. Correlates of gratitude disposition in middle school students: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-hyun; Yu, Mi

    2014-01-01

    Gratitude disposition is positively associated with happiness. The purpose of this study was to identify influencing factors on gratitude disposition by gender differences in middle school students. Cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires were administered to participants (n=372) aged between 13 ∼ 15 years in Seoul and Chungnam Province in Korea. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS18.0 statistical program, and frequency analysis and logistic regression analysis were used in the research. The mean score of family abuse of boys was significantly higher than girls' score (t=3.016, p=0.003). In subscales of development assets, empowerment (t=2.264, p=0.024), boundaries and expectation (t=2.476, p=0.014), and commitment to learning (t=1.971, p=0.049) were significantly higher in boys. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 0.334, CI 0.130∼0.862), peer relationship (OR 2.280, CI 1.124∼4.623), social support (OR 2.584, CI 1.176∼5.676), positive identity (OR 3.138, CI 1.256∼7.840) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for boys, while school violence (OR 0.050, CI 0.003∼0.907) and positive identity (OR 2.937, CI 1.313∼6.567) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for girls. This study suggests that it is important to protect adolescents from family abuse and school violence, furthermore, developmental assets should be developed to increase to gratitude disposition.

  15. A comparative study of three different kinds of school furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jens; Storr-Paulsen, Annette

    1995-05-01

    Several studies indicate that the ISO standards for school furniture seem to be inappropriate, and there is increasing evidence that the inclination of the seat should be forward and that it should be possible to adjust the table-top to a certain non-horizontal angle. However, these studies have predominantly used objective measurement methods on adult subjects for short-term experiments in rather artificial surroundings. By means of structured interviews registering the school children's perception of ergonomic comfort, the present study has compared three types of school furniture-the original ISO-standard type, and two different new types characterized by forward slanting seats and tiltable desk-tops, the main difference between the two being approximately 15 cm in the height of the chair as well as the table. The study showed that the highest of the two tilting types was perceived to be significantly better than the two others in terms of table height, chair height, reading position, back-rest, and global assessment. Likewise, the feature of a tiltable table-top was considered overwhelmingly positive independently of the height of the furniture. It is recommended that school authorities, producers of school furniture, and relevant medical personnel consider these results for alternative designs of school furniture. It should be kept in mind, however, that school furniture is only one among many factors in the multifactorial field of the back health of school children.

  16. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010-11 (Fiscal Year 2011). First Look (Provisional Data). NCES 2013-344

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.; Keaton, Patrick; Glander, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2010-11, fiscal year 2011 (FY 11). The F-33 survey is a school district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the…

  17. A New and Different Space in the Primary School: Single-Gendered Classes in Coeducational Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Robin C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper derives from a two-year ethnographic study conducted in single-gendered classes in two Tasmanian government coeducational schools in socio-economically disadvantaged areas. These schools specifically adopted proactive strategies to address the educational disengagement of boys whose social behaviour affected their own education and that…

  18. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  19. What explains between-school differences in rates of sexual experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Lisa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools have the potential to influence their pupils' behaviour through the school's social organisation and culture, as well as through the formal curriculum. This paper provides the first attempt to explain the differences between schools in rates of reported heterosexual sexual experience amongst 15 and 16 year olds. It first examined whether variations in rates of sexual experience remained after controlling for the known predictors of sexual activity. It then examined whether these residuals, or 'school effects', were attributable to processes within the school, or were more likely to reflect characteristics of the neighbourhood. Methods Longitudinal survey data from 4,926 pupils in 24 Scottish schools were linked to qualitative and quantitative data on school processes including quality of relationships (staff-pupil, etc, classroom discipline, organisation of Personal and Social Education, school appearance and pupil morale. Multi-level modelling was used to test a range of models and the resulting 'school effects' were then interpreted using the process data. Results Overall, 42% of girls and 33% of boys reported experience of sexual intercourse, with rates by school ranging from 23% to 61%. When individual socio-economic and socio-cultural factors were taken into account the school variation dropped sharply, though pupils' attitudes and aspirations had little effect. There was very little correlation between boys' and girls' rates of sexual experience by school, after controlling for known predictors of sexual activity. Girls were more influenced by individual socio-economic factors than boys. School-level socio-economic factors were predictive even after taking account of individual socio-cultural factors, suggesting that the wider socio-economic environment further influenced young people's sexual experience. Conclusion Importantly, school processes did not explain the variation between schools in sexual experience

  20. The Biochemistry Over 20 Years In The High School Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E.S. Rocha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   The Biochemistry Over 20 Years In The High School Textbooks   Rocha, C. E. S.1; Büttenbender, M. D.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,2 1Grupo Interdisciplinar de Pesquisa em Práticas de Ensino, UNIPAMPA, RS. 2Laboratório de Estudos Físico Químicos e Produtos Naturais, UNIPAMPA, RS.   INTRODUCTION: Many teachers make use of textbook to lead content in the classroom. The chemistry books introduce concepts that should relate biochemistry to students in schools. It is important that this first contact turns out into an encouraging experience for the students, because once it worked as expected it arouses interest and makes the students see themselves curious to delve into the subject. The research aims to evaluate the presence of related concepts in biochemistry textbooks in chemistry in high school, over 20 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to perform this study, we analyzed the following content related to biochemistry: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids in the books "Chemistry - Structure of Matter and Organic Chemistry" of the year 1993 and the book "Chemistry in approach to daily life" of the year 2012 with the purpose of verifying the changes in the content of biochemistry in the last 20 years. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the 90s, as used in the book, concepts and explanations are introduced in a very objective approach, making a total of 22 pages. The current largest is 23 pages with experiments and curiosities. Through analysis we found that current textbooks present the same issues related to biochemistry, however, a greater amount of data, bringing students to more examples and applications in everyday life. Today we see that the contents and processes are most exploited and that there is a concern on the importance of the study of issues that relate to biochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: The study of the biochemistry textbooks has been more attractive in recent years, contextualizing content with the daily life of

  1. Within-Year Changes in Chinese Secondary School Students' Perceived Reading Instruction and Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-ling

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to expand on existing research about motivational change by investigating within-year changes of adolescents' intrinsic reading motivation and perceived reading instruction among students from different grades and achievement levels. Six hundred and ninety five students from 10 secondary schools in Hong Kong voluntarily completed…

  2. Development of decoding, reading comprehension, vocabulary and spelling during the elementary school years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoutse, C.A.J.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Voeten, M.J.M.; Oud, J.H.L.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was (1) to investigate the development of decoding (efficiency), reading comprehension, vocabulary and spelling during the elementary school years and (2) to determine the differences between poor, average and good performers with regard to the development of these skills.

  3. Different Institutions and Different Values: Exploring First-Generation Student Fit at 2-Year Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoi Tibbetts

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available First-generation (FG college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year degree face a number of challenges as they attempt to obtain a post-secondary degree. They are more likely to come from working-class backgrounds or poverty (Reardon, 2011 and attend lower quality high schools (Warburton et al., 2001 while not benefiting from the guidance of a parent who successfully navigated the path to higher education. FG college students also contend with belonging or “fitting in” concerns due a perceived mismatch between their own values and the values implicit in institutions of higher education (Stephens et al., 2012a. Specifically, prior research has demonstrated that FG college students face an unseen disadvantage that can be attributed to the fact that middle-class norms of independence reflected in American institutions of higher education can be experienced as threatening by many FG students who have been socialized with more interdependent values commonly espoused in working-class populations. The present research examines this theory (cultural mismatch theory in the understudied context of 2-year colleges and tests if a values-affirmation intervention (i.e., an intervention that has shown promise in addressing identity threats and belonging concerns can be effective for FG college students at these 2-year campuses. By considering the tenets of cultural mismatch theory in the creation of the values-affirmation interventions we were able to vary different aspects of the intervention in order to examine how its effectiveness may depend on the nature and magnitude of a perceived cultural mismatch. Results from surveying faculty and students at 2-year colleges indicated that compared to traditional 4-year institutions, the norms of 2-year colleges and the motivations of FG students may be different. That is, FG student motives may be more consistent (and thus less mismatched with the cultural context of 2-year colleges which could

  4. Different Institutions and Different Values: Exploring First-Generation Student Fit at 2-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J; Hecht, Cameron A; Borman, Geoffrey D; Harackiewicz, Judith M

    2018-01-01

    First-generation (FG) college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year degree) face a number of challenges as they attempt to obtain a post-secondary degree. They are more likely to come from working-class backgrounds or poverty (Reardon, 2011) and attend lower quality high schools (Warburton et al., 2001) while not benefiting from the guidance of a parent who successfully navigated the path to higher education. FG college students also contend with belonging or "fitting in" concerns due a perceived mismatch between their own values and the values implicit in institutions of higher education (Stephens et al., 2012a). Specifically, prior research has demonstrated that FG college students face an unseen disadvantage that can be attributed to the fact that middle-class norms of independence reflected in American institutions of higher education can be experienced as threatening by many FG students who have been socialized with more interdependent values commonly espoused in working-class populations. The present research examines this theory (cultural mismatch theory) in the understudied context of 2-year colleges and tests if a values-affirmation intervention (i.e., an intervention that has shown promise in addressing identity threats and belonging concerns) can be effective for FG college students at these 2-year campuses. By considering the tenets of cultural mismatch theory in the creation of the values-affirmation interventions we were able to vary different aspects of the intervention in order to examine how its effectiveness may depend on the nature and magnitude of a perceived cultural mismatch. Results from surveying faculty and students at 2-year colleges indicated that compared to traditional 4-year institutions, the norms of 2-year colleges and the motivations of FG students may be different. That is, FG student motives may be more consistent (and thus less mismatched) with the cultural context of 2-year colleges which could result in fewer

  5. Different Institutions and Different Values: Exploring First-Generation Student Fit at 2-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J.; Hecht, Cameron A.; Borman, Geoffrey D.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2018-01-01

    First-generation (FG) college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year degree) face a number of challenges as they attempt to obtain a post-secondary degree. They are more likely to come from working-class backgrounds or poverty (Reardon, 2011) and attend lower quality high schools (Warburton et al., 2001) while not benefiting from the guidance of a parent who successfully navigated the path to higher education. FG college students also contend with belonging or “fitting in” concerns due a perceived mismatch between their own values and the values implicit in institutions of higher education (Stephens et al., 2012a). Specifically, prior research has demonstrated that FG college students face an unseen disadvantage that can be attributed to the fact that middle-class norms of independence reflected in American institutions of higher education can be experienced as threatening by many FG students who have been socialized with more interdependent values commonly espoused in working-class populations. The present research examines this theory (cultural mismatch theory) in the understudied context of 2-year colleges and tests if a values-affirmation intervention (i.e., an intervention that has shown promise in addressing identity threats and belonging concerns) can be effective for FG college students at these 2-year campuses. By considering the tenets of cultural mismatch theory in the creation of the values-affirmation interventions we were able to vary different aspects of the intervention in order to examine how its effectiveness may depend on the nature and magnitude of a perceived cultural mismatch. Results from surveying faculty and students at 2-year colleges indicated that compared to traditional 4-year institutions, the norms of 2-year colleges and the motivations of FG students may be different. That is, FG student motives may be more consistent (and thus less mismatched) with the cultural context of 2-year colleges which could result in

  6. 78 FR 55121 - Submission for Review: Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14 and Information; and Instructions for Completing the Self...-0032, Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance For The School Year, RI 25-14; and Information... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic...

  7. Health education in primary school textbooks in iran in school year 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kazemian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Health education in schools is one of the most effective ways of promoting health in a society. Studies have shown the effectiveness of health interventions aimed at improving students' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate health issues in primary school textbooks in Iran.In school year 2010-2011, the contents of all primary school textbooks in Iran were assessed in accordance to their health-related teachings. Health lessons of these 27 textbooks in the form of picture and text were retrieved and analyzed using content analysis method.In total, 502 health-related lessons were found. The textbooks of the third grade contained the highest (144 and those of the fourth grade had the lowest (26 number of health lessons. Among health-related issues, the largest number (87 of lessons were about personal hygiene, while prevention of high risk behaviors comprised the least number (8. Some important health issues such as nutrition, oral health, and prevention of high-risk behaviors were not adequately discussed in the textbooks.The potential of primary school textbooks in delivering health messages has been neglected in Iran. Taking the critical importance of school ages into account, incorporating health issues in textbooks should be more strongly emphasized.

  8. Health education in primary school textbooks in iran in school year 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Reza; Ghasemi, Hadi; Movahhed, Taraneh; Kazemian, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Health education in schools is one of the most effective ways of promoting health in a society. Studies have shown the effectiveness of health interventions aimed at improving students' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate health issues in primary school textbooks in Iran. In school year 2010-2011, the contents of all primary school textbooks in Iran were assessed in accordance to their health-related teachings. Health lessons of these 27 textbooks in the form of picture and text were retrieved and analyzed using content analysis method. In total, 502 health-related lessons were found. The textbooks of the third grade contained the highest (144) and those of the fourth grade had the lowest (26) number of health lessons. Among health-related issues, the largest number (87) of lessons were about personal hygiene, while prevention of high risk behaviors comprised the least number (8). Some important health issues such as nutrition, oral health, and prevention of high-risk behaviors were not adequately discussed in the textbooks. The potential of primary school textbooks in delivering health messages has been neglected in Iran. Taking the critical importance of school ages into account, incorporating health issues in textbooks should be more strongly emphasized.

  9. Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools: The Third Year 1992-93. Publication Number 92.31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Melissa

    The 1992-93 school year was the third year of the Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools program of the Austin (Texas) schools; the project is funded by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) and Apple Computer Inc. Grants from these corporations were used to equip three elementary schools with IBM equipment and one with Apple…

  10. The relationship between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of French schoolchildren aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Recently, school meal composition regulations have been implemented in France in order to improve the nutritional status of children. The present study investigated the link between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years. Second French cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Eating frequencies were assessed for twenty-four food groups with a 7 d food record. Eating locations were recorded for main meals. Food group intakes at weekday lunches were compared for the school canteen and for other locations. The children's overall dietary intake was compared based on school lunch attendance. Mainland France. Schoolchildren aged 3-17 years (n 1068). Lunchtime food intake differed between the school canteen and other locations. Some intakes at school canteens were more in accordance with the regulations (more fruit and vegetables, fish and dairy products, and less sandwiches, soft drinks, chocolate and confectionery), whereas others highlighted needs for improvement (more sweet biscuits and pastries, ice cream and dairy desserts, pizzas and salty pastries). Many of these differences were also observed in the children's overall diet: children regularly attending school lunches ate more mashed fruit, fish and sweet biscuits or pastries, and less sandwiches and soft drinks. The link between school lunch attendance and overall diet was less pronounced in secondary-school children. School canteen attendance is associated with both potentially beneficial and deleterious differences in the lunchtime and overall diets of French children. These findings are important to consider when setting national regulations for school meal composition.

  11. Children, childhood and schooling: adjustment in the transition from kindergarten to primary school nine years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciel Barcelos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The following article aims to understand the concepts of children, childhood and education of practitioners of everyday (Teachers graduated in physical education, conductor teacher graduated in Pedagogy and coordinator graduated in Physical Education EMEF "Espírito Santo". Therefore, ethnographic study case became attributed and used as narrative sources produced through record fields, interview and discussion groups. The results show the creation of strategies to incorporate in the children the school cultures. That path is produced by the author's experiences in producing moments that articulate the cultural practices of children with the intentions of the Nine Years of Elementary School Education.

  12. An Exploratory Study of Taiwanese Mathematics Teachers' Conceptions of School Mathematics, School Statistics, and Their Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study used phenomenography, a qualitative method, to investigate Taiwanese mathematics teachers' conceptions of school mathematics, school statistics, and their differences. To collect data, we interviewed five mathematics teachers by open questions. They also responded to statements drawn on mathematical/statistical conceptions and…

  13. School Start Times for Middle School and High School Students - United States, 2011-12 School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Ferro, Gabrielle A; Croft, Janet B

    2015-08-07

    Adolescents who do not get enough sleep are more likely to be overweight; not engage in daily physical activity; suffer from depressive symptoms; engage in unhealthy risk behaviors such as drinking, smoking tobacco, and using illicit drugs; and perform poorly in school. However, insufficient sleep is common among high school students, with less than one third of U.S. high school students sleeping at least 8 hours on school nights. In a policy statement published in 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) urged middle and high schools to modify start times as a means to enable students to get adequate sleep and improve their health, safety, academic performance, and quality of life. AAP recommended that "middle and high schools should aim for a starting time of no earlier than 8:30 a.m.". To assess state-specific distributions of public middle and high school start times and establish a pre-recommendation baseline, CDC and the U.S. Department of Education analyzed data from the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). Among an estimated 39,700 public middle, high, and combined schools* in the United States, the average start time was 8:03 a.m. Overall, only 17.7% of these public schools started school at 8:30 a.m. or later. The percentage of schools with 8:30 a.m. or later start times varied greatly by state, ranging from 0% in Hawaii, Mississippi, and Wyoming to more than three quarters of schools in Alaska (76.8%) and North Dakota (78.5%). A school system start time policy of 8:30 a.m. or later provides teenage students the opportunity to achieve the 8.5-9.5 hours of sleep recommended by AAP and the 8-10 hours recommended by the National Sleep Foundation.

  14. Prevalence of Sport Specialization in High School Athletics: A 1-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David R; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes is unknown. This information is needed to determine the scope of this issue in an active population. To determine the prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes and to determine if specialization is influenced by classification method, year in school, sex, and school size. A secondary purpose was to determine if highly specialized athletes would be more likely to report a history of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. High school athletes between the ages of 13 and 18 years from 2 local high schools completed both a sport specialization survey and an injury history survey. Athletes were classified into low, moderate, or high specialization groups using a recently developed 3-point system and were also classified using a self-classification method. A total of 302 athletes completed the surveys and were classified as low specialization (n = 105, 34.8%), moderate specialization (n = 87, 28.8%), or high specialization (n = 110, 36.4%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to be classified in the low specialization group (low, 43%; moderate, 32%; high, 25%) compared with those from the large school (low, 26%; moderate, 26%; high, 48%) (P single sport (n = 89, 29.5%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to classify themselves as multisport (n = 128, 86%) (P school (n = 85, 56%). There were no differences in the history of hip, knee, or ankle injuries between athletes who self-classified as single sport (hip: n = 10, 3%; knee: n = 19, 6%; ankle: n = 35, 12%) versus those who self-classified as multisport (hip: n = 45, 8%; knee: n = 23, 15%; ankle: n = 98, 33%) (P > .370). Classification method and school size influenced the prevalence of specialization in high school athletes. Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a history of overuse knee or hip injuries. Participating in a single sport for more than 8 months per year

  15. Factors affecting Mathematics achievement of first-year secondary school students in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Nsubuga Kiwanuka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the sources of variability in Mathematics achievement of Ugandan students at the student, classroom and school level. The Mathematics score and questionnaire responses of 4,819 first-year secondary school students (Grade Seven, about 14-15 years old from 78 classrooms of 49 schools were analysed. A three-level linear model was used. The results indicate that out of the total variance in Mathematics achievement 68.8%, 14.2% and 17.0% are situated at student, classroom and school level, respectively. Of all the considered explanatory variables at the three levels, i.e. socio-economic status, gender, prior Mathematics achievement, parental support, peer influence, class mean of prior Mathematics achievement and of students' perception of good classroom assessment, school mean of class climate (class mean of attitude toward mathematics and of parental support were significant predictors of Mathematics achievement. The relevant factors could explain 7.6%, 73.1% and 84.3%, respectively, of student-, classroom- and school-level differences. Implications of our study are considered.

  16. Freshman Year Dropouts: Interactions between Student and School Characteristics and Student Dropout Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvoch, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Data from a large school district in the southwestern United States were analyzed to investigate relations between student and school characteristics and high school freshman dropout patterns. Application of a multilevel logistic regression model to student dropout data revealed evidence of school-to-school differences in student dropout rates and…

  17. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  18. A Summer at the University: A twenty five years experience with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.

  19. Gender Differences in the Approach to caterring Basic School Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Brabcová, Věra

    2015-01-01

    Title: English: Gender Differences in the Approach to caterring Basic School Pupils Author: Věra Brabcová Department: Pedagogy Supervisor: PaedDr. Eva Marádová, CSc. ANNOTATION: The objective of the Bachelor Thesis, divided into two parts, is to find out whether there are any differences in the approach to catering; the discussed group of diners are basic school pupils of the second stage (Czech education system). The work compares the attitude of boys and girls at the age of 11 - 16. The the...

  20. Past in the Present: The Way Parents Remember Their Own School Years Relates to the Way They Participate in Their Child's Schooling and Remember His/Her School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raty, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    This study set out to explore the contribution of parents' own school memories to the way they remembered their child's school years and took part in his/her schooling. The respondents were a group of academically and vocationally educated fathers and mothers (N = 326), who participated in a full 9-year follow-up study of their child's schooling.…

  1. Relationship among the lifestyles of nursing college students, their physical and psychological health conditions, and state and trait anxieties:Comparisons of male and female college students in different school years

    OpenAIRE

    後藤,満津子; 石﨑,文子; 村木,士郎; 重富,勇; 中井,芙美子; 稲田,有紀; 小泉,千恵子; 滝口,里美

    2016-01-01

    The present study involving 203 first- and second-year nursing college students aimed to examine their lifestyles,“state and trait anxieties”(using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: STAI), and physical and psychological health conditions (using the Cornell Medical Index: CMI), as well as analyze their relationships. Regarding the relationships among the lifestyles of college students, their anxieties, andhealth conditions, there was a significant correlation between their sleep states and ex...

  2. Effects of parent-child affective quality during high school years on subsequent substance use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Ralston

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to examine the effects of PCAQ on substance use following high school. The sample was from a RCT that assessed adolescents in rural Iowa from the seventh grade through two years after high school (N=456. We specified direct effects of PCAQ in 12th grade on drunkenness, smoking and illicit drug use during the two years immediately following high school graduation. We also specified the effects of early substance use initiation (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use reported at baseline on later use. The direct effect of PCAQ in 12th grade on substance use was significant for all substances during at least one of the two years past graduation (ypg. Results were: drunkenness 1 ypg, β=-.126, p<.05; smoking 1 ypg, β=-.119, p<.05; 2 ypg, β=-.146, p<.05; illicit drug use 2 ypg, β=-.165, p<.05. Some significant indirect effects of PCAQ at baseline, via PCAQ at 12th grade, were found. Results also indicated significant direct effects of early initiation on two of the three substances, albeit with a different pattern of effects over time for each substance by years post high school. Importantly, while early initiation remains the strongest predictor of long-term tobacco and illicit drug use, results show how PCAQ might reduce its harmful effects.

  3. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in school children aged 8-12 years in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Deepthi Yannam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH. Materials and Methods: A sample of 2,864 students aged 8-12 years were selected from government and private schools in Chennai. MIH was diagnosed clinically based on the diagnostic criteria established by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD 2003. Results: A total of 277 children (9.7% had MIH. There was statistically significant difference in prevalence related to age but there was no statistical difference in prevalence with respect to gender. Conclusion: Prevalence of MIH was 9.7% in the child population residing in Chennai. Males and females were equally affected. The rate of occurrence and severity of MIH are more in the right mandibular first molar. The severity of MIH is more in molars compared to incisors (P < 0.001 and is more in government schools compared to private schools (P = 0.002.

  4. [School performance of former premature infants in the first four years of school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, J; Paalhorn, U

    1992-12-01

    School achievement during the first four grades was analysed by means of subject marks in 203 prematurely born and in 140 maturely born children. In subjects referring to behaviour in the classroom, no statistically significant differences in average marks could be found between prematurely born children and the control group. The average marks in performance subjects were slightly higher in the subgroup of very prematurely born children. However, statistically significant lower marks were observed in the subject of sports only, and for formerly immature children also in the subject of manual training. The higher the educational level of the mothers, the better the average marks without sports. No relationships between school performance and manifestation of postnatal risk factor like Apgar score, blood gas values and duration of oxygen dependency could be seen. These results demonstrate that school performance of former premature infants lies within the normal variance of their grade.

  5. Same admissions tools, different outcomes: a critical perspective on predictive validity in three undergraduate medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel; Friedman, Tim; Pearce, Jacob

    2013-12-27

    Admission to medical school is one of the most highly competitive entry points in higher education. Considerable investment is made by universities to develop selection processes that aim to identify the most appropriate candidates for their medical programs. This paper explores data from three undergraduate medical schools to offer a critical perspective of predictive validity in medical admissions. This study examined 650 undergraduate medical students from three Australian universities as they progressed through the initial years of medical school (accounting for approximately 25 per cent of all commencing undergraduate medical students in Australia in 2006 and 2007). Admissions criteria (aptitude test score based on UMAT, school result and interview score) were correlated with GPA over four years of study. Standard regression of each of the three admissions variables on GPA, for each institution at each year level was also conducted. Overall, the data found positive correlations between performance in medical school, school achievement and UMAT, but not interview. However, there were substantial differences between schools, across year levels, and within sections of UMAT exposed. Despite this, each admission variable was shown to add towards explaining course performance, net of other variables. The findings suggest the strength of multiple admissions tools in predicting outcomes of medical students. However, they also highlight the large differences in outcomes achieved by different schools, thus emphasising the pitfalls of generalising results from predictive validity studies without recognising the diverse ways in which they are designed and the variation in the institutional contexts in which they are administered. The assumption that high-positive correlations are desirable (or even expected) in these studies is also problematised.

  6. School Nurses Race to the Top: The Pilot Year of How One District's School Nurses Revised Their Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffke, Louise Marie; Damm, Paula; Cross, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the 2013-2014 school year, the Shaker Heights, Ohio City school district was mandated to change its evaluation process as part of the Race to the Top initiative. Although not required by the federal or state Departments of Education, the Shaker Heights City school district tasked all members of their faculty and staff, including school…

  7. The Management of Difference in Everyday School Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Martha

    The paper will present and discuss our field study of everyday life in a Danish fifth grade classroom. Our aim has been to observe, describe and analyze those everyday practices in the classroom that ultimately result in offering students different positions, identities and opportunities...... for participation. Our goal is to create knowledge about the way difference is constructed and managed in schools. How is the concept of ‘difference’ conceived of, produced and reproduced through everyday practices and how is the management of difference embedded in school culture. Further our goal is to create...... knowledge about the consequences that occur for different students as a result of specific ways of managing differences by teachers....

  8. School nursing for children with special needs: does number of schools make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Barbara J; Toker, Karen H; Radjenovic, Doreen; Comeaux, Judy M; Macha, Kiran

    2009-08-01

    Few recent studies have focused on the role of school nurses who predominantly care for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). The primary aim of this study was to explore differences related to (a) child health conditions covered, (b) direct care procedures, (c) care management functions, and (c) consultation sources used among nurses who spent the majority of their time caring for CSHCN compared to a mixed student population and among nurses who covered a single school versus multiple schools. A community-based interdisciplinary team developed a 28-item survey which was completed by 50 nurses (48.5% response) employed by health departments and school districts. Descriptive and comparative statistics and thematic coding were used to analyze data. Nurses who covered a single school (n = 23) or who were primarily assigned to CSHCN (n = 13) had a lower number of students, and more frequently (a) encountered complex child conditions, (b) performed direct care procedures, (c) participated in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) development, (d) collaborated with the Title V-CSHCN agency, and e) communicated with physicians, compared to nurses who covered multiple schools or a general child population. Benefits centered on the children, scope of work, school environment, and family relationships. Challenges included high caseloads, school district priorities, and families who did not follow up. The number of schools that the nurses covered, percent of time caring for CSHCN, and employer type (school district or health department) affected the scope of school nurse practice. Recommendations are for lower student-to-nurse ratios, improved nursing supervision, and educational support.

  9. Emerging Partnership Practices in VET Provision in the Senior Years of Schooling in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Gosia; Angelico, Teresa; Polesel, John

    2018-01-01

    School partnerships support the effective provision of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in the senior years of secondary schooling, to a varying degree, in most OECD nations. However, the nature and quality of these partnerships vary considerably from school to school and, indeed, from nation to nation (see Murray and Polesel, "Eur J…

  10. A Five-Year School Building and Future Sites Program 1966-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965

    Five-year school building and site needs and related financial requirements are summarized for Milwaukee's schools. Educational policies concerning the school building program are stated, and consideration is given to factors affecting school board needs such as birth rate, public housing projects, urban renewal, highways, and expressways. School…

  11. First Year Experiences in School of Mechanical Engineering Kanazawa University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinari, Toshiyasu; Kanjin, Yuichi; Furuhata, Toru; Tada, Yukio

    This paper reports two lectures of the first year experience, ‧Lecture on Life in Campus and Society‧ and ‧Freshman Seminar‧ and discusses their effects. Both lectures have been given freshmen of the school of mechanical engineering, Kanazawa University in H20 spring term. The former lecture is aimed at freshmen to keep on a proper way in both social and college life. It consists of normal class and e-learning system lectures. E-learning system examination requires students to review the whole text book and that seems to have brought better results in the survey. The latter seminar is aimed at freshmen to get active and self-disciplined learning way through their investigation, discussion, presentation, writing work, and so on.

  12. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  13. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  14. [Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D S; Glacken, M; Goggin, D

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland. Following training, School Public Health Nurses included the measurement of height and weight as part of the annual 'senior infants' school health check for 5453 6-year-old children in 189 schools between 2004 and 2007. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the International Obesity Taskforce cut-off points using lmsGrowth (a Microsoft Excel add-in), which uses a child's exact age. Kendall's Tau b was used to determine the reliability of measurements. Prevalence trends were tested using multinomial logistic regression. Pearson's chi-squared test was utilized to assess the statistical significance of differences in BMI by gender, school year, and to compare with similar other Irish studies. Out of the 5453 children measured, 3493 were aged 6 years old. A further 11 were excluded because of incomplete data. Data were analysed for 3482 6-year-old children. Overall, 27% of 6-year-olds were classified as either overweight or obese. A significantly greater proportion of girls are overweight or obese compared with boys (31% compared with 23%). Gender differences have remained relatively stable from 2004-2007. Overall, there have been no significant changes in the level of obesity from 2004-2007. In addition, when comparing with other Irish studies that collected data for 2001/2, there are no significant differences in obesity levels. There is a clear need to urgently prioritize the effective management of obesity. Resourses should now be targeted towards ensuring government policies in Ireland and elsewhere are implemented. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A Descriptive Study of Differing School Health Delivery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sherri I.; Maughan, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify and describe emerging models of school health services. Participants (N = 11) provided information regarding their models in semistructured phone interviews. Results identified a variety of funding sources as well as different staffing configurations and supervision. Strengths of…

  17. Does Mission Matter? An Analysis of Private School Achievement Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2009-01-01

    Using student achievement data from British Columbia, Canada, this study is an exploration of the differences that lie within the private school sector using hierarchical linear modeling to analyze the data. The analysis showed that when controlling for language, parents' level of educational attainment, and prior achievement, the private school…

  18. Gender Differences in Students' Perceptions of School Guidance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in relation to students' perceptions of school guidance and counselling (G&C) services in Mberengwa district, Zimbabwe. The convergent parallel design was used in the study. A total of 114 students (68 males and 76 females) randomly selected students ...

  19. Differences among Age, Gender and School Factors in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conclusion of the study was that there were differences with respect to age, gender, course of study and school type in students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers, while there was none regarding form/class level. Among the counselling implications are that counsellors must take into consideration personal and ...

  20. Occupational accidents in dental school: a 10-year retrospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Maia Araújo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate occupational accidents that occurred during the first 10 years of Fortaleza University (UNIFOR Dental School. Methods: A documental study based on secondary data from the Notification Center of Occupational Accidents of UNIFOR Dental School, reported in the last 10 years. The variables included characteristics of the accidents and of the injured, besides the type of instrument and the resulting injury. Results: Were recorded 160 occupational accidents divided by location, function of the injured and type of accident. It was observed that 63.1% of cases occurred in the Multidisciplinary Clinic, 23.1% in the Integrated Clinic, 8.8% in the laboratories, 1.9% at home, 1.25% in the Surgical Center, 1.25% in the Material Sterilization Central and 0.6% during the training outside university. Concerning the injured, 90.6% of the victims were undergraduates, 5.0% staff, 3.8% teachers and 0.6% patients. Regarding the injury, 40.6% were penetrating bloody injuries, 11.9% cutting bloody injuries, 2.5% cutting non-bloody injuries, 5% burns, 5% penetrating bloody injuries/cutting bloody injuries, 2.5% were injuries with maceration, 1.9% injuries causing ocular trauma and 0.6% of an incident of dog bite. Conclusion: It was concluded that penetrating injuries were prevalent and these occurred mostly in the multidisciplinary clinic, where students of earlier periods of dental course work, indicating that the experience in dental practice generates more care with safety.

  1. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2008-09 (Fiscal Year 2009). First Look. NCES 2012-313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.; Noel, Amber M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2008-09 (fiscal year [FY] 2009). The F-33 is a district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Governments Division of…

  2. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2009-10 (Fiscal Year 2010): First Look. NCES 2013-307

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2009-10, fiscal year 2010 (FY 10). The F-33 is a district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Governments Division of…

  3. Does a selection interview predict year 1 performance in dental school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, R; Ellis, J; Valentine, R A

    2017-05-01

    It is important for dental schools to select students who will complete their degree and progress on to become the dentists of the future. The process should be transparent, fair and ethical and utilise selection tools that select appropriate students. The interview is an integral part of UK dental schools student selection procedures. This study was undertaken in order to determine whether different interview methods (Cardiff with a multiple mini interview and Newcastle with a more traditional interview process) along with other components used in selection predicted academic performance in students. The admissions selection data for two dental schools (Cardiff and Newcastle) were collected and analysed alongside student performance in academic examinations in Year 1 of the respective schools. Correlation statistics were used to determine whether selection tools had any relevance to academic performance once students were admitted to their respective Universities. Data was available for a total of 177 students (77 Cardiff and 100 Newcastle). Examination performance did not correlate with admission interview scores at either school; however UKCAT score was linked to poor academic performance. Although interview methodology does not appear to correlate with academic performance it remains an integral and very necessary part of the admissions process. Ultimately schools need to be comfortable with their admissions procedures in attracting and selecting the calibre of students they desire. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in school children aged 8-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Ana C; Seabra, André F; Mendonça, Denisa M; Brustad, Robert; Maia, José A; Fonseca, António M; Malina, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) among children in different populations may contribute to fostering active lifestyles. This study considered gender differences in relationships between biologic (body mass index, BMI), demographic (socioeconomic sport status, SES) and psychosocial correlates of PA and level of PA in Portuguese primary school children. 683 children, aged 8-10 years, from 20 different elementary schools in northern Portugal were surveyed. Weight status was classified using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria for the BMI. Family SES was estimated from school records. PA level and psychosocial correlates (attraction to PA, perceived physical competence and parental socialization) were obtained with interview and standardized questionnaires, respectively. Sex-specific hierarchical multiple regression analyses (SPSS 18.0) were conducted and included two blocks of predictor variables (biologic and demographic, and psychosocial). Level of PA was significantly higher in boys than girls. Enjoyment of participation in vigorous PA was positively associated with level of PA. Perceived acceptance by peers in games and sports and parental encouragement were positively and significantly related to PA in girls. Perceived physical competence was positively and significantly related to PA in boys. Weight status and SES were not associated with PA. Boys and girls differed in perceived attractiveness of PA and perceived physical competence, both of which influenced level of PA. Differences in perceptions may be important aspects of motivation for PA in school children.

  5. Choral singing in the early years of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Biljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses choral singing as a form of extracurricular activity and teaching in elementary school. It considers the historical development of choral singing in order to highlight the continuity of its existence and importance in society and reviews the importance of choral singing in musical and overall upbringing and education of elementary school students. Authors analyze the curricula of grades I to IV in order to determine how much attention is given to choral singing. Didactic and methodological issues related to the formation of the choir in elementary school are reviewed, together with methodical approach for working with early grades choir, proper selection of the musical compositions and the role of teachers. Listed is the recommended choral literature to supplement the current curricula. Special attention was given to literature containing the Kosovo-Metohija folk songs, suitable for choral arrangement. Performing of these songs in a choral arrangement will contribute to stimulating the interest of students towards musical folklore of Kosovo and Metohija, and therefore its preservation and fostering. It is highlighted that singing in the choir contributes to the development of hearing, voice, harmonic feeling, a sense of rhythm, melody and group play. By mastering different compositions, students become familiar with valuable achievements of artist, spiritual and folk music. The significant meaning and importance of this kind of work is reflected in the possibilities of achieving the tasks of socio-moral education. Choral singing develops a sense of collective responsibility, conscious discipline, perseverance, endurance, helps establish a sense of understanding, mutual respect and tolerance, friendship and a sense of teamwork. Singing in the choir develops aesthetic attitude and taste in music. Students are trained to perceive and to value the true qualities of beauty, grace, harmony and authenticity in music. The value of

  6. Cross-Sequential Results on Creativity Development in Childhood Within two Different School Systems: Divergent Performances in Luxembourg Versus German Kindergarten and Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Krampen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is conducting methodologically sound, cross-sequential analyses of the creativity development of children attending different school systems. Culture-free tests of creativity (ideational fluency and flexibility and intelligence were administered in 5 cohorts (two kindergarten and first three elementary school years, which were retested in three consecutive years. Samples include 244 Luxembourg and 312 German children enrolled in educational systems with obligatory kindergarten and 6-year comprehensive elementary school versus optional kindergarten, 4-year comprehensive elementary school and educational placement thereafter. Results demonstrate (1 linear increases in intelligence, (2 declines of divergent performances after school enrollment in both samples, (3 increases in divergent performances up to the 5th elementary school year in Luxembourg and up to the 3rd elementary school year in Germany (i.e., the next to last school year before educational placement followed by a second creativity slump. Cross-sequential results confirm discontinuities in the development of divergent productions in childhood.

  7. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  8. Why School Librarians Matter: What Years of Research Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Kachel, Debra E.

    2018-01-01

    Since 1992, a growing body of research known as the school library impact studies has consistently shown positive correlations between school librarians and library programs and student achievement. The authors review the findings from these studies and discuss how school leaders can ensure they are making the best use of their librarians'…

  9. Fifteen Fine Years of School Construction Progress, 1950-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    A progress report reviews the Milwaukee School Board's continuous program of acquiring sites and building schools. An itemized listing of 140 completed construction projects is supplemented with pertinent facts and figures, including--(1) growth factors affecting school building needs, (2) resultant increases in the physical plant, staff and…

  10. A Time Profile of Mathematics in a "Gap Year" in Irish Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Meara, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    The Irish education system is unique in an international context as it sets aside a full school year for a transition and youth development programme in the middle of secondary education. The Transition Year (TY) programme is an optional, full time programme offered in the majority of secondary schools. Each school designs its own programme,…

  11. prevalence of sleep disorders in khorramabad 7-12 year old elementary school children in school year 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam Mohsenzadeh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important consequence of sleep disorders in children is cognitive dysfunction that leads to study, family and social disturbances. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disorders in Khorramabad 7-12 year old elementary school children in school year 2006-2007. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 364 students were selected randomly in both sexes male and female with equal numbers. Data were collected using TUCASA questionnaire. Results: Results showed the revalence of sleep disorders as follows: mouth breathing 35/7%, sleep talking 24/7%, habitual snoring 20/3%, nightmare 19/8%, sleep teeth grinding 15/9%, secondary enuresis 8/2%, primary nocturnal enuresis 7/1%, sleep apnea 6/6%, sleep walking 6/6% and excessive daytime sleepiness 10%. Statistical tests showed that there is a significant relation between primary and secondary nocturnal enuresis and male sex, and both disorders were more in boys (p-value=0. 004. Between other disorders, and sex and age there was not significant relation. In this study between teeth grinding and snoring, sleep apnea and snoring, open mouth breathing and snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea, sleep duration and time of sleep of parents, there was significant relation (p-value<0. 001. Conclusion: According to findings, mouth breathing was the most common sleep disorder in our subjects and had a significant relation with sleep snoring. So due to treating ability of nonmedical therapy in sleep disorders, it is recommended to increase parents information about necessity of medication and its effect on children cognition.

  12. Gender Differences in the Effects of Behavioral Problems on School Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Janni; Smith, Nina

    This study analyzes gender differences in the relationships between behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the SDQ questionnaire at the age of 10-12 years of about 6,000 Danish children born in 1990-92. The sample is merged with extensive...

  13. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  14. Postural education program for elementary school: a one-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luis Ritter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objective of this study was to verify the short- and long-term effectiveness of the Elementary School Postural Program in the performance, generalization, and perception of daily school activities. The final sample consisted of 61 subjects divided into experimental (14 years ±0.93; ♀=22; ♂=10 and control group (15.38 years ±0.97; ♀=16; ♂=13, all participants attended a Brazilian public school in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The postural program included 20 sessions over a 10-week period. In each session, participants discussed and practiced routine actions that typically occurred at schools. Eight other meetings were required for the completion of the pre- and post-tests. The experimental group performed significantly better than the control group in the short-term evaluations, although there were no significant statistical differences in the long-term follow-up evaluations. The children demonstrated a good behavioral response to the postural program; nevertheless, the knowledge had not been completely mastered after a year.

  15. Long-term impact of a chef on school lunch consumption: findings from a 2-year pilot study in Boston middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Smit, Liesbeth A; Parker, Ellen; Austin, S Bryn; Frazier, A Lindsay; Economos, Christina D; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    School cafeterias can play an important role in providing healthy meals. Although schools participating in the National School Lunch Program are required to meet minimum program standards, advocates recommend that innovations be sought to enhance menu dietary quality. This study evaluated the Chef Initiative, a 2-year pilot study in two Boston middle schools, designed to increase the availability and consumption of healthier school foods. Between 2007 and 2009, a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to prepare healthier school lunches (ie, more whole grains, fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables, and less sugar, salt, saturated fats, and trans fats). Meal nutrient compositions were monitored from 2007 to 2009, and a plate waste study conducted in the spring of 2009 compared food selection and consumption patterns among students at Chef Initiative schools, with students receiving standard school lunches at two matched control schools. Paired t tests and descriptive statistics were used to examine differences in menus and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to analyze differences in students' food selection and consumption between Chef Initiative and control schools. Overall, the Chef Initiative schools provided healthier lunches and the percent of foods consumed at Chef Initiative and control schools were similar (61.6% vs 57.3%; P=0.63). Of the areas targeted, there was greater whole-grain selection and vegetable consumption; 51% more students selected whole grains (P=0.02) and students consumed 0.36 more vegetable servings/day (P=0.01) at Chef Initiative schools. The potential of chefs collaborating with cafeteria staff to improve the availability, selection, and consumption of healthier meals is promising. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. School Context and Gender Differences in Mathematical Performance among School Graduates in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessudnov, Alexey; Makarov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in mathematical performance have received considerable scrutiny in the fields of sociology, economics and psychology. We analyse a large data-set of high school graduates who took a standardised mathematical test in Russia in 2011 (n = 738,456) and find no substantial difference in mean test scores across boys and girls.…

  17. Problems catching up – age disadvantage in letter recognition, phoneme awareness and speed naming in Danish five-year-olds at school entry does not disappear after the first school year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2017-01-01

    (a) Research findings: Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the development in mastery of preparatory reading skills at the first school year. Method: 96 children from a high income, high resource area of Denmark were tested on alphabet knowledge, phonemic awareness, word mobiliza......(a) Research findings: Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the development in mastery of preparatory reading skills at the first school year. Method: 96 children from a high income, high resource area of Denmark were tested on alphabet knowledge, phonemic awareness, word...... mobilization and word reading at the entry and exit to school (0-grade). Results: There are significant differences in preparatory reading skills in five and six year old children. The differences in performance scores are not evened out during the first school year but remain the same. Conclusion: Even...... with intensive day care and similar demographical and socio-economical factors, children will start school with different levels of preparatory reading skills depending on entry to school age. The Danish curriculum which favors standardized reading practice will not be sufficient to even out skills differences...

  18. Doctors qualifying from United Kingdom medical schools during the calendar years 1977 and 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhouse, J; Parkhouse, H F

    1989-01-01

    At the conclusion of undergraduate medical education in the United Kingdom most students pass a university qualifying examination and obtain a degree in medicine and surgery. Some students pass an external non-university qualifying examination in medicine as an alternative to obtaining a degree, and some do both. The degree may be obtained in the same year as the non-university qualifying examination, or in a different year. Some students from a medical school intake qualify in a later year than expected, for various reasons. Data from university, Health Department and other sources may relate to the academic year, the calendar year, or a fixed date such as 30 September. It is not a simple exercise, therefore, to define the exact number of people who qualify to practise medicine, for the first time, in any given 'year'. In counting qualifiers from individual medical schools, the problems are further compounded by the movement of students between the preclinical and clinical stages of the course, particularly from Oxford and Cambridge to London teaching hospitals. This paper analyses the situation for the calendar years 1977 and 1983, showing a decline in the number of students obtaining double (i.e. both university and non-university) qualifications. The number of UK graduates not registering with the General Medical Council to practise, at least for a time, in the UK was small, and the population base compiled for Medical Career Research Group studies was reasonably accurate in each of the 2 years examined.

  19. Associations between medical school and career preferences in Year 1 medical students in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer; Johnston, Peter W; French, Fiona H; Needham, Gillian

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the relationship between the career preferences of medical students and the medical schools at which they are enrolled. Our aim was to explore this relationship early in students' medical training. Year 1 (2009-2010) medical students at the five Scottish medical schools were invited to take part in a career preference questionnaire survey. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. The response rate was 87.9% (883/1005). No significant differences were found among medical schools with regard to first-choice specialty. Surgery (22.5%), medicine (19.0%), general practice (17.6%) and paediatrics (16.1%) were the top career choices. Work-life balance, perceived aptitude and skills, intellectual satisfaction, and amount of patient contact were rated as the most important job-related factors by most respondents. Few differences were found among schools in terms of the impact of job-related factors on future career preferences. Students for whom the work-life balance was extremely important (odds ratio [OR]=0.6) were less likely to prefer surgery. Students for whom the work-life balance (OR=2.2) and continuity of care (OR=2.1) were extremely important were more likely to prefer general practice. Students' early career preferences were similar across the five medical schools. These preferences result from the interplay among demographic factors and the perceived characteristics of the various specialties. Maintaining a satisfactory work-life balance is very important to tomorrow's doctors, and the data hint that this may be breaking down some of the traditional gender differences in specialty choice. Longitudinal work is required to explore whether students' career preferences change as they progress through medical school and training. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  20. Generation of typical meteorological year for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yingni

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of building energy performance requires precise information of the local climate. Typical weather year files like typical meteorological year (TMY) are commonly used in building simulation. They are also essential for numerical analysis of sustainable and renewable energy systems. The present paper presents the generation of typical meteorological year (TMY) for eight typical cities representing the major climate zones of China. The data set, which includes global solar radiation data and other meteorological parameters referring to dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, has been analyzed. The typical meteorological year is generated from the available meteorological data recorded during the period 1995-2004, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year is compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years are selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 typical months selected from the different years are used for the formulation of a TMY.

  1. Impact of specific language impairment and type of school on different language subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Marina Leite; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore quantitative and qualitative effects of type of school and specific language impairment (SLI) on different language abilities. 204 Brazilian children aged from 4 to 6 years old participated in the study. Children were selected to form three groups: 1) 63 typically developing children studying in private schools (TDPri); 2) 102 typically developing children studying in state schools (TDSta); and 39 children with SLI studying in state schools (SLISta). All individuals were assessed regarding expressive vocabulary, number morphology and morphosyntactic comprehension. All language subsystems were vulnerable to both environmental (type of school) and biological (SLI) effects. The relationship between the three language measures was exactly the same to all groups: vocabulary growth correlated with age and with the development of morphological abilities and morphosyntactic comprehension. Children with SLI showed atypical errors in the comprehension test at the age of 4, but presented a pattern of errors that gradually resembled typical development. The effect of type of school was marked by quantitative differences, while the effect of SLI was characterised by both quantitative and qualitative differences.

  2. World Nuclear University School of Uranium Production: Eight years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojacek, J.

    2014-01-01

    The World Nuclear University School of Uranium Production was established by DIAMO, state enterprise in 2006 year under the auspices of the World Nuclear University in London in partnership with international nuclear organizations – OECD/NEA and IAEA. Using the expertise and infrastructure of DIAMO State Enterprise, in conjuction with national and international universities, scientific institutions, regulatory authorities and other individual experts, the “school” covers its mission with the aim to provide world-class training on all aspects of uranium production cycle to equip operators, regulators and executives with the knowledge and expertise needed to provide expanded, environmentally-sound uranium mining throughout the world: • to educate students on all aspects of uranium production cycle including exploration, planning, development, operation, remediation and closure of uranium production facilities; • to improve the state of the art of uranium exploration, mining and mine remediation through research and development; • to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the latest uranium mining technologies and experiences – best practices.

  3. The Observation Of Defects Of School Buildings Over 100 Years Old In Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alauddin Kartina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is blessed with a rich legacy of heritage buildings with unique architectural and historical values. The heritage buildings become a symbol of the national identity of our country. Therefore, heritage buildings, as important monuments should be conserved well to ensure the extension of the building’s life span and to make sure continuity functions of the building for future generations. The aim of this study is to analyze the types of defects attached in school buildings over 100 years located in Perak. The data were collected in four different schools aged over 100 years in Perak. The finding of the study highlighted the types of defects which were categorized based on building elements, including external wall, roof, door, ceiling, staircase, column, internal wall, floor and windows. Finding showed that the type of defects occurred in school buildings over 100 years in Perak is the same as the other heritage buildings. This finding can be used by all parties to take serious actions in preventing defects from occurring in buildings over 100 years. This would ensure that buildings’ functional life span can be extended for future use.

  4. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2011-12 (Fiscal Year 2012). First Look. NCES 2014-303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.

    2015-01-01

    This First Look report presents data on public elementary and secondary education revenues and expenditures at the local education agency (LEA) or school district level for fiscal year (FY) 2012.1. Specifically, this report includes findings from the following types of school finance data: (1) Revenue and expenditure totals by state and the 100…

  5. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2012-13 (Fiscal Year 2013). First Look. NCES 2015-303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Stephen Q.

    2016-01-01

    This First Look report presents data on public elementary and secondary education revenues and expenditures at the local education agency (LEA) or school district level for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Specifically, this report includes findings from the following types of school finance data: (1) revenue and expenditure totals by state and the 100…

  6. Free school fruit - Sustained effect three years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bere (Elling); M.B. Veierød (Marit); Ø. Skare; K.I. Klepp (Knut-Inge)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Norwegian children consume less fruit and vegetables (FV) than recommended. In order to increase the intake, a School Fruit subscription programme is now offered to all Norwegian elementary and junior high schools. This programme has limited effect due to low participation by

  7. Nutritional quality of dietary patterns of children: are there differences inside and outside school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Aliete dos Santos Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objectives: To describe the dietary patterns of children inside and outside school and investigate their associations with sociodemographic factors and nutritional status. Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study in which children of both sexes, aged 1-6 years, attending private and public daycare centers and preschools in Brazil, were evaluated (n = 2979. Demographic, socioeconomic and dietary data (weighed food records and estimated food records were collected. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis from 36 food groups. Results: Four dietary patterns were identified inside school, and three outside. Inside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated to low income and presented high nutritional quality. The "dual" pattern was associated with low income and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "snack" pattern was associated with children enrolled at private schools and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of added sugar and trans fat. Outside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated with high intake of saturated fat, trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of trans fats and glycemic load, whereas the "snack" pattern was associated with overweight, private schools, high income, and high intake of trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. Conclusion: There are differences in the nutritional quality of dietary patterns inside and outside school, and heterogeneity in adherence to these patterns were observed across regions and socioeconomic classes.

  8. Genome-Wide Polygenic Scores Predict Reading Performance Throughout the School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzam, Saskia; Dale, Philip S; Wagner, Richard K; DeFries, John C; Cederlöf, Martin; O'Reilly, Paul F; Krapohl, Eva; Plomin, Robert

    2017-07-04

    It is now possible to create individual-specific genetic scores, called genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS). We used a GPS for years of education ( EduYears ) to predict reading performance assessed at UK National Curriculum Key Stages 1 (age 7), 2 (age 12) and 3 (age 14) and on reading tests administered at ages 7 and 12 in a UK sample of 5,825 unrelated individuals. EduYears GPS accounts for up to 5% of the variance in reading performance at age 14. GPS predictions remained significant after accounting for general cognitive ability and family socioeconomic status. Reading performance of children in the lowest and highest 12.5% of the EduYears GPS distribution differed by a mean growth in reading ability of approximately two school years. It seems certain that polygenic scores will be used to predict strengths and weaknesses in education.

  9. Gender Differences in Intrahousehold Schooling Outcomes: The Role of Sibling Characteristics and Birth-Order Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Dancer, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of gender, sibling characteristics and birth order on the schooling attainment of school-age Egyptian children. We use multivariate analysis to simultaneously examine three different schooling outcomes of a child having "no schooling", "less than the desired level of schooling", and an…

  10. Differences of adaptation to school and self-resilience before and after sleep education for adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, So-Mi; Kim, Jong-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to verify the effectiveness of sleep education by identifying the differences of adaption to school and self-resilience of the high school students before and after sleep education for a certain period of time. The conclusion of this study is presented below: First, there were differences in adaptation to school and self-resilience of the high school students before and after sleep education for the high school students. After sleep education, adaptation to school environment ...

  11. Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES): First year process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Cate A; Webster, Collin; Weaver, R Glenn; Brian, Ali; Stodden, David; Russ, Laura; Nesbitt, Danielle; Vazou, Spyridoula

    2018-04-01

    Movement integration (MI) is a strategy within comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP). School-university partnerships are recommended to leverage teachers' capacity to use MI. A mixed method process evaluation was conducted of the first year of implementing Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES). Classroom teachers (N=12) from four schools participated. Data were collected in Fall 2014 (baseline) and Spring 2015 (∼ four months of intervention) using the System for Observing Student Movement in Academic Routines and Transitions and semi-structured interviews. There were no significant differences between intervention classrooms and control classrooms MI promotion. Differences approaching significance (U=5, p=0.04, d=1.2) were observed when comparing classrooms that received two (community of practice, community-based participatory research) or three components (two components plus service learning) of the intervention and classrooms that received one (community of practice) or no components. Qualitative findings revealed that teachers in classrooms that were more successful responded more favorably to the intervention components than teachers in classrooms that were less successful. Quantitative and qualitative results supported the effectiveness of community-based participatory research as a component of PACES. This study provides information about MI process variables in the context of a CSPAP intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT SITTING POSTURES ON HAMSTRING MUSCLE FLEXIBILITY IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadivelan .K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children adopting different styles of sitting in class rooms may have an influence over the hamstring length which indirectly produces an effect on posture, gait and musculoskeletal problems. Hence, physiotherapists play an important role in preventing the problems that are to be developed due to the sitting posture adopted at school. Hence, it is important for all the health professionals to understand and know about the effect of different sitting styles of children in school over the children health.The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of two sitting postures (crossed leg sitting and bench sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Aim of the Study to observe the influence of bench sitting and crossed-leg sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Methods: 200 school children (105 boys and 95 girls from private schools (those who are bench sitting and 200 school children (109 boys and 91 girls from government schools (those who are crossed leg sitting aged 6-10 years were included in this study. Active Knee Extension (AKE test with the aid of a simple and economically cheap stabilizing apparatus was used to determine hamstring flexibility. Measurements were taken for both right and left knee. Results: The mean Active Knee Extension (AKE score for bench sitting children was 132.4 and for crossed leg sitting children was 130.1. The difference observed in knee extension range of motion between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Hamstring flexibility was greater in bench sitting children as compared to crossed leg sitting children.

  13. Type of High School Predicts Academic Performance at University Better than Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Benjamin; Perin, Višnja

    2016-01-01

    Psychological correlates of academic performance have always been of high relevance to psychological research. The relation between psychometric intelligence and academic performance is one of the most consistent and well-established findings in psychology. It is hypothesized that intelligence puts a limit on what an individual can learn or achieve. Moreover, a growing body of literature indicates a relationship between personality traits and academic performance. This relationship helps us to better understand how an individual will learn or achieve their goals. The aim of this study is to further investigate the relationship between psychological correlates of academic performance by exploring the potentially moderating role of prior education. The participants in this study differed in the type of high school they attended. They went either to gymnasium, a general education type of high school that prepares students specifically for university studies, or to vocational school, which prepares students both for the labour market and for further studies. In this study, we used archival data of psychological testing during career guidance in the final year of high school, and information about the university graduation of those who received guidance. The psychological measures included intelligence, personality and general knowledge. The results show that gymnasium students had greater chances of performing well at university, and that this relationship exceeds the contribution of intelligence and personality traits to university graduation. Moreover, psychological measures did not interact with type of high school, which indicates that students from different school types do not profit from certain individual characteristics.

  14. Rethinking Dental School Admission Criteria: Correlation Between Pre-Admission Variables and First-Year Performance for Six Classes at One Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Rieken, Susan

    2018-04-01

    Admissions committees in dental schools are charged with the responsibility of selecting candidates who will succeed in school and become successful members of the profession. Identifying students who will have academic difficulty is challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of pre-admission variables for the first-year performance of six classes at one U.S. dental school. The authors hypothesized that the variables undergraduate grade point average (GPA), undergraduate science GPA (biology, chemistry, and physics), and Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores would predict the level of performance achieved in the first year of dental school, measured by year-end GPA. Data were collected in 2015 from school records for all 297 students in the six cohorts who completed the first year (Classes of 2007 through 2013). In the results, statistically significant correlations existed between all pre-admission variables and first-year GPA, but the associations were only weak to moderate. Lower performing students at the end of the first year (lowest 10% of GPA) had, on average, lower pre-admission variables than the other students, but the differences were small (≤10.8% in all categories). When all the pre-admission variables were considered together in a multiple regression analysis, a significant association was found between pre-admission variables and first-year GPA, but the association was weak (adjusted R 2 =0.238). This weak association suggests that these students' first-year dental school GPAs were mostly determined by factors other than the pre-admission variables studied and has resulted in the school's placing greater emphasis on other factors for admission decisions.

  15. Moving down the Track: Changing School Practices during the Second Year of "Diplomas Now"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanik, Susan; Corrin, William; Roy, David; Gray, Aracelis; Fernandez, Felix; Briggs, Ashley; Wang, Kathleen K.

    2015-01-01

    Too many students in high-poverty, urban communities drop out of high school, and too few graduate prepared for college and careers. Three national organizations--Talent Development Secondary, City Year, and Communities In Schools--have formed "Diplomas Now" in an effort to transform urban secondary schools so fewer students drop out and…

  16. Professional Development and the Teaching Schools Experiment in England: Leadership Challenges in an Alliance's First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from the first year of a longitudinal, mixed-methods case study of a large teaching school alliance in England. This national initiative is intended to drive improvement at system level by grouping schools around formally designated teaching schools. These "alliances" work collaboratively to share learning,…

  17. Preventing and Responding to Bullying: An Elementary School's 4-Year Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormac, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a pervasive problem in schools and requires a schoolwide approach. This article describes the action research process used to examine the impact of a 4-year, K-5 school bullying prevention and intervention. The school counselors collaborated with students, staff, and parents to implement the program, and collected and…

  18. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Melvyn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intercalated BScs (iBScs are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year exams. Methods A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276. A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance. Results The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without. Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01. (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300. There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66. (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed". Conclusions Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this

  19. EXTENDED SCHOOL YEAR DESIGNS--AN INTRODUCTION TO NEW PLANS OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION WHICH CAN RESULT IN FINANCIAL ECONOMIES AND PROVIDE MORE EDUCATION FOR ALL PUPILS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS, GEORGE ISAIAH

    THIS REPORT EXPLORES PLANS OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL ORGANIZATION BASED UPON THE LENGTHENING OF THE SCHOOL YEAR TO REDUCE BY ONE OR MORE YEARS THE TOTAL PERIOD OF SCHOOLING. PRACTICAL INFORMATION IS PRESENTED CONCERNING (1) THE CONTINUOUS SCHOOL YEAR PLAN, (2) THE TRIMESTER PLAN, (3) THE QUADRIMESTER PLAN, (4) THE MODIFIED SUMMER SCHOOL…

  20. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Lauritzen, Lotte; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-o...

  1. An Evaluation of the Model School Division (MSD) Preschool Program for the School Year 1973-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    This study was designed to assess the extent to which children served by the Model Schools Division Preschool Program developed socially, intellectually, physically and emotionally during the 1973-74 school year. This evaluation was also designed to measure the appropriateness of the learning environment and the amount of services provided by the…

  2. High school Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening: 5 to 11-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curd, Helen; Lewis, Sharon; Macciocca, Ivan; Sahhar, Margaret; Petrou, Vicki; Bankier, Agnes; Lieberman, Sari; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Delatycki, Martin B

    2014-04-01

    The Melbourne high school Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening program began in 1997. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of this screening program among those who had testing more than 5 years ago, to evaluate the long-term impact of screening. A questionnaire was used for data collection and consisted of validated scales and purposively designed questions. Questionnaires were sent to all carriers and two non-carriers for each carrier who were screened in the program between 1999 and 2005. Twenty-four out of 69 (34.8 %) carriers and 30/138 (21.7 %) non-carriers completed the questionnaire. Most participants (82 %) retained good knowledge of TSD and there was no evidence of a difference in knowledge between carriers and non-carriers. Most participants (83 %) were happy with the timing and setting of screening and thought that education and screening for TSD should be offered during high school. There was no difference between carriers and non-carriers in mean scores for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Decision Regret Scale. This evaluation indicated that 5-11 years post high school screening, those who were screened are supportive of the program and that negative consequences are rare.

  3. Employment and First Year Experience of Beginner Primary School Teachers at Private Educational Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Turgay ÖNTAŞ

    2016-01-01

    In this study to demonstrate primary school teachers' employment process and their first year teaching in private educational organizations is aimed. The major employer of primary school teachers is public schools that are funded by state. There will be a gap between grade inflation and employment rate when all of the teacher candidates claim to be appointed to public schools. Hence private educational organizations provide alternative career opportunities for teacher candidates. Qualitative ...

  4. Do Schools Affect Girls' and Boys' Reading Performance Differently? A Multilevel Study on the Gendered Effects of School Resources and School Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hek, Margriet; Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Pelzer, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Few studies on male-female inequalities in education have elaborated on whether school characteristics affect girls' and boys' educational performance differently. This study investigated how school resources, being schools' socioeconomic composition, proportion of girls, and proportion of highly educated teachers, and school practices, being…

  5. Do high school students with different styles have different level of math anxiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Shirvani, Hosin; Guerra, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This study included 240 mostly Hispanic students from one high school. The study used a learning style survey and a math anxiety survey to find students’ learning styles and level of math anxiety. The study examined whether students with three learning styles (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic) had a different level of math anxiety. The study found that children with kinesthetic learning style had higher math anxiety than the other two types. The study also examined whether there were differe...

  6. Back to School: Racial and Gender Differences in Adults' Participation in Formal Schooling, 1978-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denice, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Trends and gaps in educational attainment by race and gender have received much attention in recent years, but reports of these trends have generally focused on traditional-age college students. Little is known about whether and how enrollment in formal schooling among older adults (between 29 and 61 years old) has changed over time. In this article, I draw on Current Population Survey data from 1978 to 2013 to provide the most comprehensive analysis of trends in adults' formal school enrollment by demographic group to date. Results indicate that adult black women in particular have seen relatively high growth rates in their enrollment. Black women were 85 % more likely to enroll in 2011 and 46 % more likely in 2013 than they were in 1978. Their growing advantage relative to other racial-gender groups owes largely to their increasing educational attainment rates overall, given the relationship between prior schooling and enrollment later in life. Taken together, this article's findings suggest that adult enrollment is at once equalizing and disequalizing. On the one hand, it has the potential to narrow the gaps between those with some college experience and those with a four-year degree. On the other hand, patterns of adults' participation in formal education are widening educational gaps between those with and without traditional-age college experience.

  7. School-Sponsored Before, After and Extended School Year Programs: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elizabeth; Buswell, Sue Ann; Morgitan, Judith; Compton, Linda; Westendorf, Georgene; Chau, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) has the educational and clinical background to coordinate the necessary school health services to provide students with the same health, nutrition, and safety needs while attending…

  8. Motor skills and school performance in children with daily physical education in school--a 9-year intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. An evaluation of vocational high schools in Indonesia: A comparison between four-year and three-year programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soenarto Soenarto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to gain insights into the quality of four-year program vocational high school (VHS in Indonesia compared to four-year program VHS. This research was conducted based on the school graduate standard, business sector and industrial sector (or Dunia Usaha dan Dunia Industri (DUDI – or the performance of the graduates and alumni (the graduates’ satisfaction. The research was conducted using Discrepancy Evaluation Model using 16 VHSs (eight four-year program VHSs and eight three-year program VHSs. The result shows that from the standpoint of the school, the graduates of the four-year program VHS are higher in quality than those of the three-year program VHS. The four-year program VHS graduates are more qualified in seven aspects: teamwork, discipline, tenacity, theoretical knowledge, confidence, creativity, and leadership. Meanwhile, using DUDI standpoint, the four-year program VHS graduates are also higher in quality than the three-year program VHS graduates. In addition, the four-year program VHS graduates are better in the quality of their discipline, tenacity, theoretical knowledge, practical skills, confidence, carefulness, creativity, and leadership. The four-year program VHS graduates have a higher level of satisfaction in terms of income than the three-year program VHS graduates. The higher quality of the four-year program VHS graduates has resulted from longer duration of the internship program (PKL that provides them with reliable experience and skills concerning work-related problem-solving activities.

  10. Gender Differences in the High School and Affective Experiences of Introductory College Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

    2008-10-01

    The disparity in persistence between males and females studying physics has been a topic of concern to physics educators for decades. Overall, while female students perform as well as or better than male students, they continue to lag considerably in terms of persistence. The most significant drop in females studying physics occurs between high school and college.2 Since most female physicists report that they became attracted to physics and decided to study it further while in high school, according to the International Study of Women in Physics,3 it is problematic that high school is also the stage at which females begin to opt out at much higher rates than males. Although half of the students taking one year of physics in high school are female, females are less likely than males to take a second or Advanced Placement (AP) physics course.4 In addition, the percentage of females taking the first physics course in college usually falls between 30% and 40%. In other words, although you may see gender parity in a first high school physics course, this parity does not usually persist to the next level of physics course. In addition, even if there is parity in a high school physics course, it does not mean that males and females experience the course in the same way. It is this difference in experience that may help to explain the drop in persistence of females.

  11. Children’s Day-Care Centre (EVE) and School kicked off the school year 2016-2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    It has been 54 years already, ever since the Nursery school was founded in March 1961, that the Staff Association together with the teachers, the managerial and the administrative staff, welcomes your children at the start of the school year. On Tuesday, 30 August 2016, the Children’s Day-Care Centre (EVE) and School opened its doors again for children between four months and six years old. The start of the school year was carried out gradually and in small groups to allow quality interaction between children, professionals and parents. This year, our structure will accommodate about 130 children divided between the nursery, the kindergarten and the school. Throughout the school year, the children will work on the theme of colours, which will be the common thread linking all our activities. Our team is comprised of 38 people: the headmistress, the deputy headmistress, 2 secretaries, 13 educators, 4 teachers, 11 teaching assistants, 2 nursery assistants and 4 canteen workers. The team is delighted...

  12. Screening 5 and 6 year-old children starting primary school for development and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Deniz; Bayar-Muluk, Nuray; Bayoğlu, Birgül; İdil, Aysun; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    Beginning school is an important milestone for children. Children's readiness for school involves cognitive, physical, and emotional development. Certain school programs allow children to start first grade after 66 months of age, together with 72 month-old children. In order to estimate school readiness, we screened children before starting first grade and compared their school performance according to their age and socio-demographic characteristics. Marmara School Readiness, Denver II developmental screening, and language assessment tests were applied. Language delays were more frequent and school readiness test scores were lower in the younger group compared to older children. However, school achievement did not differ between the two age groups. Preschool education, parental income and education affected performance in most tests. Preschool screening seems effective in detecting children with lower than average developmental skills, and the school system may provide a practical opportunity for providing support to those children.

  13. Smoking Prevention for Students: Findings From a Three-Year Program of Integrated Harm Minimization School Drug Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Lester, Leanne; Foxcroft, David R; Ramsden, Robyn; Venning, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the Drug Education in Victorian Schools (DEVS) program on tobacco smoking. The program taught about licit and illicit drugs in an integrated manner over 2 years, with follow up in the third year. It focused on minimizing harm, rather than achieving abstinence, and employed participatory, critical-thinking and skill-based teaching methods. A cluster-randomized, controlled trial of the program was conducted with a student cohort during years 8 (13 years), 9 (14 years), and 10 (15 years). Twenty-one schools were randomly allocated to the DEVS program (14 schools, n = 1163), or their usual drug education program (7 schools, n = 589). One intervention school withdrew in year two. There was a greater increase in the intervention students' knowledge about drugs, including tobacco, in all 3 years. Intervention students talked more with their parents about smoking at the end of the 3-year program. They recalled receiving more education on smoking in all 3 years. Their consumption of cigarettes had not increased to the same extent as controls at the end of the program. Their change in smoking harms, relative to controls, was positive in all 3 years. There was no difference between groups in the proportionate increase of smokers, or in attitudes towards smoking, at any time. These findings indicate that a school program that teaches about all drugs in an integrated fashion, and focuses on minimizing harm, does not increase initiation into smoking, while providing strategies for reducing consumption and harm to those who choose to smoke.

  14. The Rainforest Still Needs Us: The Forman School's 20 Years in the Mountains of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Leesa

    2013-01-01

    The search for solutions to protect the rainforest, while offering local farmers a sustainable means of making a living, started at The Forman School as a search to fully engage its students in learning. The Forman School is an independent college preparatory school for students with language-based learning differences (LD). This article discusses…

  15. Administrative Problems in the Single-Track Year-Round High Schools: Research Findings and Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Laura L.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    An analysis of the problems pertaining to the adoption of a year-round calendar for high schools, along with the advantages of year-round education (YRE), are examined. It provides a literary review (including historical contexts), types of calendars, benefits, administrative problems, and societal benefits. For the study, 28 schools responded to…

  16. How wide is the gap between high school and first-year chemistry at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to identify the nature and extent of the gap between high school and first-year chemistry at the University of the Witwatersrand. The investigation was done at the macro and micro levels. At the macro level high school physical science and first-year chemistry syllabuses were compared. The testing ...

  17. The First-Year Urban High School Teacher: Holding the Torch, Lighting the Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Paul J.; Weinberg, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The book tracks co-author Paul Weinberg during his first year of teaching as he is introduced to the daily tribulations of an urban Los Angeles high school. Paul's father Carl Weinberg, who fifty years earlier himself began his career in education an urban secondary school teacher, shares his experiences side-by-side with those of his son.…

  18. Puberty, Health and Sexual Education in Australian Regional Primary Schools: Year 5 and 6 Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Bernadette; Fotinatos, Nina; Smith, Amanda; Burke, Jenene

    2013-01-01

    The research reported in this paper investigates why teachers in regional primary schools in the Ballarat region of Victoria, Australia, are choosing to outsource the teaching of sexuality education. A survey was conducted of 29 Year 5 and Year 6 teachers from local primary schools. The teachers provided information about: their confidence in…

  19. Effects of Year-Round Education on Texas Middle School Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of the year-round calendar on student performance in Texas middle schools as measured by achievement on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test. In the State of Texas, 15 schools served students in grades six through eight using the year-round calendar in 2009-2010. The 15…

  20. The Readiness of High School Students to Pursue First Year Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, U.; Molefe, P.

    2012-01-01

    A high failure rate at first year physics is often attributed to the lack of readiness of high school students to pursue such studies. This research explores this issue and reports on the perceptions of five physics lecturers at a South African university on the preparedness of high school students for first year physics. Qualitative data was…

  1. Medical Student Perceptions of the Learning Environment at the End of the First Year: A 28-Medical School Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochelak, Susan E; Stansfield, R Brent; Dunham, Lisette; Dekhtyar, Michael; Gruppen, Larry D; Christianson, Charles; Filstead, William; Quirk, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Accreditation and professional organizations have recognized the importance of measuring medical students' perceptions of the learning environment, which influences well-being and professional competency development, to optimize professional development. This study was conducted to explore interactions between students' perceptions of the medical school learning environment, student demographic variables, and students' professional attributes of empathy, coping, tolerance of ambiguity, and patient-centeredness to provide ideas for improving the learning environment. Twenty-eight medical schools at 38 campuses recruited 4,664 entering medical students to participate in the two-cohort longitudinal study (2010-2014 or 2011-2015). The authors employed chi-square tests and analysis of variance to examine the relationship between Medical School Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) scores and student characteristics. The authors used mixed-effects models with random school and campus effects to test the overall variances accounted for in MSLES scores at the end of the first year of medical school. Student attributes and demographic characteristics differed significantly across schools but accounted for only 2.2% of the total variance in MSLES scores. Medical school campus explained 15.6% of the variance in MSLES scores. At year's end, students' perceptions toward the learning environment, as reported on the MSLES, differed significantly according to the medical school campus where they trained. Further studies are needed to identify specific factors, such as grading policies, administrative support, and existence of learning communities, which may influence perceptions of the learning environment at various schools. Identifying such variables would assist schools in developing a positive learning environment.

  2. Alternative Approaches to Organizing the School Day and Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julia

    1994-01-01

    Since 1991, the National Education Commission on Time and Learning has been examining the quality and adequacy of student learning time. Innovations being considered address provision of additional learning opportunities, children's well-being, employee productivity concerns, and efficient use of school facilities. Promising practices include the…

  3. Deaf children attending different school environments: sign language abilities and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf children differed only in their school environment: One group attended a school with a teaching assistant (TA; Sign Language is offered only by the TA to a single deaf child), and the other group attended a bilingual program (Italian Sign Language and Italian). Linguistic abilities and understanding of false belief were assessed using similar materials and procedures in spoken Italian with hearing children and in Italian Sign Language with deaf children. Deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than deaf children attending school with the TA in tasks assessing lexical comprehension and ToM, whereas the performance of hearing children was in between that of the two deaf groups. As for lexical production, deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than the two other groups. No significant differences were found between early and late signers or between children with deaf and hearing parents.

  4. Gender Differences in Resistance to Schooling: The Role of Dynamic Peer-Influence and Selection Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geven, Sara; O Jonsson, Jan; van Tubergen, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Boys engage in notably higher levels of resistance to schooling than girls. While scholars argue that peer processes contribute to this gender gap, this claim has not been tested with longitudinal quantitative data. This study fills this lacuna by examining the role of dynamic peer-selection and influence processes in the gender gap in resistance to schooling (i.e., arguing with teachers, skipping class, not putting effort into school, receiving punishments at school, and coming late to class) with two-wave panel data. We expect that, compared to girls, boys are more exposed and more responsive to peers who exhibit resistant behavior. We estimate hybrid models on 5448 students from 251 school classes in Sweden (14-15 years, 49% boys), and stochastic actor-based models (SIENA) on a subsample of these data (2480 students in 98 classes; 49% boys). We find that boys are more exposed to resistant friends than girls, and that adolescents are influenced by the resistant behavior of friends. These peer processes do not contribute to a widening of the gender gap in resistance to schooling, yet they contribute somewhat to the persistence of the initial gender gap. Boys are not more responsive to the resistant behavior of friends than girls. Instead, girls are influenced more by the resistant behavior of lower status friends than boys. This explains to some extent why boys increase their resistance to schooling more over time. All in all, peer-influence and selection processes seem to play a minor role in gender differences in resistance to schooling. These findings nuance under investigated claims that have been made in the literature.

  5. DIFFERENCES ON THE MOTION KNOWLEDGE LEVEL AT THE MALE STUDENTS IN SOME HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Mitrevski

    2011-01-01

    With the research in this labour we want to realize the difference among the high school students` motion knowledge in different cities in Macedonia. This research consists of 135, 15 years old examinees, all students in high school, Ist class, divided into 3 sub samples The classification was made according the number of the classes and the number of the students who regularly attend the tuition. The analysis on the motorics level was conducted on the polygon for checking the psychophysical ...

  6. Racial differences in suicidal ideation among school going adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Young adults are at increased risk for suicidal behavior and there is growing concern about racial differences in suicidal ideation, especially in the younger population. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess suicidal ideation in school going tribal and nontribal adolescents and to study its relationships with psychological well-being, depression, and anxiety. Materials and Methods: A total of 259 students of Classes X, XI, and XII of three Schools of Ranchi, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were screened for suicidal ideation by Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ and psychological well-being by General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12. The level of anxiety and depression was assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Results: Overall 33.2% of the adolescents had suicidal ideation out of which 34.2% were tribal-students and 32.8% nontribal-students with no significant intergroup difference. Psychological discomfort (GHQ-12 Score ≥3 was noticed in 59.1% of adolescents, but no racial difference was found. However, the mean HADS depression score was significantly higher in tribal adolescents, more so in tribal boys than nontribal adolescents or boys, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation of SIQ total score in all the adolescents with GHQ-12 total score, HADS total score, HADS anxiety score, and HADS depression score. Conclusion: There were no racial differences in suicidal ideation and psychological discomfort among tribal and nontribal adolescents. Tribal adolescents, and more specifically tribal boys, had more depression than their nontribal counterparts. Suicidal ideation was positively correlated with psychological discomfort, anxiety, and depression.

  7. Child Sexual Behaviors in School Context: Age and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Blasio, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to explore the child sexual behaviors that Italian teachers have observed in the school context. A representative sample of 227 children, from 5 to 10 years old, was rated by their teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Frequencies of sexual behaviors among children aged 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 are presented. Younger children showed a broader range of sexual behaviors that decrease with the growing age, such as males in comparison to females. Moreover, findings showed that child sexual behavior is not only related to age and gender but also to family characteristics. These results suggested that child sexual behaviors reported by teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory may provide useful information about the development of children's sexuality. The knowledge of age appropriate sexual behaviors can help teachers discern normal sexual behaviors from problematic sexual behaviors.

  8. Sugar consumption pattern of 13-year-old school children in Belgaum city, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sugar consumption pattern of the school children in Belgaum city and to organize for a diet-counseling program. Easy availability of sugar containing food and high consumption of these sweets if continued unabated, the dental caries among children would become a major public health problem. In this instance, Dietary counseling can be just appropriate to inhibit the carious process. 342 school children aged 13 years, from four schools in Belgaum city participated in the study. The pattern of sugar consumption was assessed using a 4-day diet diary. Analysis was done according to the method described by Nizel and Papas (Nutrition in clinical dentistry, 1989, 277 and the variables were: the sweet score, At meal sugar exposure (AMSE, Between meal sugar exposure (BMSE and Total sugar exposure (TSE. The mean, standard deviation and/or frequency were calculated for all variables. Student′s t-test was used to statistically analyze the gender difference. The mean + SD of the recorded variables were: sweet score 31 + 12.78/day, AMSE 0.88 + 0.33/day, BMSE 3.95 + 0.87/day, and TSE 4.83 + 0.96/day. No statistical significant gender difference with respect to the variables was observed. ′Tell Show And Do′ Diet counseling session will perhaps have a greater impact as compared to the most common strategy of simply exhorting the children to eat less sugar.

  9. Urban-Rural Differences in School Nurses' Asthma Training Needs and Access to Asthma Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson; Roberts, Courtney A; Elio, Alice; Prendergast, Melissa; Durbin, Kathy; Jones, Graceann Clyburn; North, Steve

    Few studies have examined school nurses preferences' for asthma training. Our purpose was to: 1) assess school nurses' perceived asthma training needs, 2) describe nurses' access to asthma educational resources, and 3) identify urban-rural differences in training needs and access to resources in southern states. A convenience sample of school nurses (n=162) from seven counties (two urban and five rural) in North Carolina and South Carolina completed an online, anonymous survey. Chi-square tests were used to examine urban-rural differences. Although most nurses (64%) had received asthma training within the last five years, urban nurses were more likely to have had asthma training than rural nurses (χ 2 =10.84, p=0.001). A majority of nurses (87%) indicated they would like to receive additional asthma training. Approximately half (45%) of nurses reported access to age-appropriate asthma education materials, but only 16% reported that their schools implemented asthma education programs. Urban nurses were more likely than rural nurses to have access to asthma education programs (χ 2 =4.10, p=0.04) and age-appropriate asthma education materials (χ 2 =8.86, p=0.003). Few schools are implementing asthma education programs. Rural nurses may be disadvantaged in terms of receiving asthma training and having access to asthma education programs and materials. Schools are an ideal setting for delivering age-appropriate asthma education. By providing school nurses with access to age-appropriate asthma education resources and additional asthma training, we can help them overcome several of the barriers that impede their ability to deliver asthma care to their students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Different People in Different Places - Secondary School Students' Knowledge About History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Haira Emanuela

    2018-05-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study of students' knowledge about scientists and countries' contributions to science, aiming at answering two research questions: "In which ways are students aware of the history of scientific development carried out by different people in different places of the world? What can be influencing and shaping their awareness?" Thus, this study aimed at depicting students' knowledge about History of Science (HOS), focusing on what they know about science being done by people and communities from different parts of the world and on how this knowledge is constructed through their engagement with school science. An exploratory research was carried out at two multicultural state secondary schools in London, UK, involving 200 students aged 12-15 (58.5% girls, 41.5% boys) and five science teachers. The method involved an initial exploration of students' knowledge about HOS through an open-ended survey, followed by classroom-based observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants. Results showed a disconnection between remembering scientists and knowing about their work and background, hinting at an emphasis on illustrative and decontextualised approaches towards HOS. Additionally, there was a lack of diversity in these students' answers in terms of gender and ethnicity when talking about scientists and countries in science. These findings were further analysed in relation to their implications for school science and for the fields of HOS, science education and public perception of science.

  11. Do schools affect girls’ and boys’ reading performance differently? A multilevel study on the gendered effects of school resources and school practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hek, M.; Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Pelzer, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Few studies on male–female inequalities in education have elaborated on whether school characteristics affect girls’ and boys’ educational performance differently. This study investigated how school resources, being schools’ socioeconomic composition, proportion of girls, and proportion of highly

  12. Sleep Complaints Affecting School Performance at Different Educational Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Pagel, James F.; Kwiatkowski, Carol F.

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness...

  13. Differences in Primary School Students’ Ratings about Themselves and the School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Habók

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available L2L is a frequently used concept, which can be approached from different perspectives. In our theoretical background we provide an overview of the early and current research trends, then we approach the issue from the perspective of the Finnish framework, the second order learning and the learning how to learn approaches. Next, we present the results of the ’Me and the school’ questionnaire from the Finnish framework. Our participants were 5th and 6th grade primary school students. We found that this online questionnaire is a reliable tool for the Hungarian sample. Comparing the results of Grades 5 and 6, we did not register significant relationships between the grades, except for their ‘use of computer’. The most important differences were discovered between the genders, where significantly higher mean values were observed for girls. We also analysed the effects of mathematics and literature school results on some variables. It can be concluded that school results have a significant effect on students’ performance and attitude. While the effect of attitudes on students’ performance was not substantial, there was a stronger effect on students’ evaluation of own competencies in maths for both genders and in reading for boys.

  14. Bullying and School Climate: Associations and Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernbaum, Mark A.; Lotyczewski, Bohdan S.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is an international public health problem that school climate could help prevent or promote. The present paper contains an analysis of an anonymous school climate survey, completed by 9554 students, in grades 5-12 (response rate 87%). Links in the literature between school climate and bullying lack specificity. We examined associations…

  15. Stability over Time of Different Methods of Estimating School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumay, Xavier; Coe, Rob; Anumendem, Dickson Nkafu

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate how stability varies with the approach used in estimating school performance in a large sample of English primary schools. The results show that (a) raw performance is considerably more stable than adjusted performance, which in turn is slightly more stable than growth model estimates; (b) schools' performance…

  16. Equality on Different Terms: The Case of Dutch Hindu Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; Driessen, Geert

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors examine the reasons for the establishment of Hindu schools in the Netherlands and how the Dutch system of education facilitates these and other voluntarily separate schools. In particular, the authors explore the manner in which Hindu schools aim to cultivate and sustain attachments to their own group through a…

  17. [Is there an association between the reduced school years in grammar schools and headache and other health complaints in adolescent students?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Busch, A; Blaschek, A; Borggräfe, I; von Kries, R; Straube, A; Heinen, F

    2010-07-01

    The reduction of school years in grammar schools from 9 to 8 years (G9 vs. G8) is supposed to exhibit increased impairments of health of the latter group of students. Aim of the present study was to investigate whether G8-students are exposed to more stress and report more headaches and other health complaints than G9-students. 1 260 formers of grammar schools in Munich (10 (th) vs. 11 (th) form). In a survey, the frequency of headache and other health complaints, experience of chronic stress and health-related quality of life were assessed with a questionnaire and compared between the two groups of different grammar-school durations (G8 vs. G9). 83.1% of all formers reported to suffer from headache at least once per month. Further frequently reported health complaints were back pain (47.7%), excessive need for sleep (45.6%) and pain in neck or shoulder (45.0%). 20.4% of the formers reported high exposure to stress. The greatest reductions in quality of life were found with respect to school-related and physical wellbeing. As the only significant differences, formers of G8 reported fewer daily leisure time and that available leisure time was not sufficient for recreation. The high prevalence of pain, health complaints and stress indicates high demands to all grammar scholars. High demands due to the reduction of school years in grammar school, however, are not reflected in increased health impairments in these formers, but rather in limited leisure time activities. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  18. BIA and DOD Schools: Student Achievement and Other Characteristics Often Differ from Public Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...) and the Department of Defense (DOD) school systems. Unlike public schools, where federal funding constitutes a small portion of total resources, the BIA and DOD school systems depend almost entirely on federal funds...

  19. BIA AND DOD SCHOOLS: Student Achievement and Other Characteristics Often Differ from Public Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...) and the Department of Defense (DOD) school systems. Unlike public schools, where federal funding constitutes a small portion of total resources, the BIA and DOD school systems depend almost entirely on federal funds...

  20. Food and drink consumption at school lunchtime: the impact of lunch type and contribution to overall intake in British 9-10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Flo; Jennings, Amy; Jones, Andy; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther; Griffin, Simon; Cassidy, Aedín

    2013-06-01

    To examine the differences in dietary intakes of children consuming school meals and packed lunches, the contribution of lunchtime intake to overall dietary intake, and how lunchtime intake relates to current food-based recommendations for school meals. Cross-sectional analysis of overall intake of macronutrients and food choice from 4 d food diaries and school lunchtime intake from the two diary days completed while at school. Norfolk, UK. One thousand six hundred and twenty-six children (aged 9-10 years) attending ninety Norfolk primary schools. At school, lunchtime school meal eaters consumed more vegetables, sweet snacks, chips, starchy foods and milk, and less squash/cordial, fruit, bread, confectionery and savoury snacks than packed lunch eaters. These differences were also reflected in the overall diet. On average school meal eaters met the School Food Trust (SFT) food-based standards, while food choices among packed lunch eaters were less healthy. The contribution of food consumed at school lunchtime to overall diet varied by food and lunch type, ranging from 0.8 % (milk intake in packed lunches) to 74.4 % (savoury snack intake in packed lunches). There were significant differences in the foods consumed by school meal and packed lunch eaters, with food choices among school meal eaters generally in line with SFT standards. The food choices made at school lunchtime make a significant contribution to overall diet.

  1. Reading Development in Typically Developing Children and Children With Prenatal or Perinatal Brain Lesions: Differential School Year and Summer Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Levine, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    Summer slide, uneven growth of academic skills over the calendar year, captures the fact that the learning gains children make over the school year do not continue at the same pace over the summer, when children are typically not in school. We compared growth of reading skills during the school year and over the summer months in children with pre-or perinatal brain lesion (PL) and typically-developing (TD) children from varying socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds as a new way to probe the role of structured environmental support in functional plasticity for reading skills in children with PL. Results showed that children with PL performed lower than TD children on both reading decoding and reading comprehension. Group differences were primarily driven by children with larger lesions and children with right hemisphere lesions (RH). For reading comprehension, children with RH showed greater growth during the school year but more slide during the summer months than both TD children and children with left hemisphere lesions, implicating a particularly strong role of structured input in supporting reading comprehension in this group. TD children from lower SES backgrounds fell behind their TD peers from higher SES backgrounds on decoding and reading comprehension, but did not show differential patterns of school year and summer growth. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering the role of a host of factors interacting at multiple levels of analyses, including biological and environmental, in influencing developmental trajectories of typically and atypically-developing children.

  2. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  3. Latent Factors in Attention Emerge from 9 Years of Age among Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ting; Wang, Ligang; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Shi, Jiannong

    2017-01-01

    We explored the development of attention among elementary school children. Three hundred and sixty-five primary school children aged 7–12 years completed seven attention tests (alertness, focused attention, divided attention, attentional switching, sustained attention, spatial attention, and supervisory attention). A factor analysis indicated that there was no stable construct of attention among 7- to 8-year-old children. However, from 9 years on, children’s attention could be separated into ...

  4. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  5. School nurses' experiences of delivering the UK HPV vaccination programme in its first year

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom (UK) in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme. Methods Thirty in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with school nurses working across the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. This time period covers the first year of the HPV vaccination programme in schools. School nurses were recruited via GP practices, the internet and posters targeted at school nurse practitioners. Results All the school nurses spoke of readying themselves for a deluge of phone calls from concerned parents, but found that in fact few parents telephoned to ask for more information or express their concerns about the HPV vaccine. Several school nurses mentioned a lack of planning by policy makers and stated that at its introduction they felt ill prepared. The impact on school nurses' workload was spoken about at length by all the school nurses. They believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and the time they could dedicate to offering support to vulnerable pupils. Conclusion Overall the first year of the implementation of the HPV vaccination programme in the UK has exceeded school nurses' expectations and some of its success may be attributed to the school nurses' commitment to the programme. It is also the case that other factors, including positive newsprint media reporting that accompanied the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme may have played a role. Nevertheless, school nurses also believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and as such they could no longer dedicate time to offer support to vulnerable pupils. This unintentional aspect of the programme may be worthy of further exploration. PMID:21864404

  6. School nurses' experiences of delivering the UK HPV vaccination programme in its first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate; Bedford, Helen; Petticrew, Mark

    2011-08-24

    In the United Kingdom (UK) in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme. Thirty in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with school nurses working across the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. This time period covers the first year of the HPV vaccination programme in schools. School nurses were recruited via GP practices, the internet and posters targeted at school nurse practitioners. All the school nurses spoke of readying themselves for a deluge of phone calls from concerned parents, but found that in fact few parents telephoned to ask for more information or express their concerns about the HPV vaccine. Several school nurses mentioned a lack of planning by policy makers and stated that at its introduction they felt ill prepared. The impact on school nurses' workload was spoken about at length by all the school nurses. They believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and the time they could dedicate to offering support to vulnerable pupils. Overall the first year of the implementation of the HPV vaccination programme in the UK has exceeded school nurses' expectations and some of its success may be attributed to the school nurses' commitment to the programme. It is also the case that other factors, including positive newsprint media reporting that accompanied the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme may have played a role. Nevertheless, school nurses also believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and as such they could no longer dedicate time to offer support to vulnerable pupils. This unintentional aspect of the programme may be worthy of further exploration.

  7. School nurses' experiences of delivering the UK HPV vaccination programme in its first year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedford Helen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom (UK in September 2008, school nurses began delivering the HPV immunisation programme for girls aged 12 and 13 years old. This study offers insights from school nurses' perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme. Methods Thirty in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with school nurses working across the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. This time period covers the first year of the HPV vaccination programme in schools. School nurses were recruited via GP practices, the internet and posters targeted at school nurse practitioners. Results All the school nurses spoke of readying themselves for a deluge of phone calls from concerned parents, but found that in fact few parents telephoned to ask for more information or express their concerns about the HPV vaccine. Several school nurses mentioned a lack of planning by policy makers and stated that at its introduction they felt ill prepared. The impact on school nurses' workload was spoken about at length by all the school nurses. They believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and the time they could dedicate to offering support to vulnerable pupils. Conclusion Overall the first year of the implementation of the HPV vaccination programme in the UK has exceeded school nurses' expectations and some of its success may be attributed to the school nurses' commitment to the programme. It is also the case that other factors, including positive newsprint media reporting that accompanied the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme may have played a role. Nevertheless, school nurses also believed that the programme had vastly increased their workload leading them to cut back on their core activities and as such they could no longer dedicate time to offer support to vulnerable pupils. This unintentional aspect of the programme may be worthy of further

  8. The School for Nuclear Engineering is 25 years old: Where teachers go to school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, W.

    1986-01-01

    For a quarter of a century the School for Nuclear Engineering at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre has provided further education in all areas of nuclear engineering. The courses are attended by all kinds of people: school teachers, shift managers in nuclear power stations and engineers from the Third World, for example. (orig.) [de

  9. LEAVE OF ABSENCE PRACTICES IN SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOLS--SCHOOL YEAR 1964-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Education Association, Pierre.

    IN ADDITION TO SCHOOL POLICIES RELATING TO TEACHER LEAVES OF ABSENCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA, STATE BY STATE SUMMARIES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION REGARDING SICK LEAVE, MATERNITY LEAVE, AND SABBATICAL LEAVE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. OF THE 228 RESPONDING SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 215 REPORTED EXISTING SICK LEAVE POLICIES. THE MAJORITY OF RESPONDING…

  10. Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in the Junior Secondary School Years: Individual Growth Curve Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs is a positive youth development program implemented in school settings utilizing a curricular-based approach. In the third year of the Full Implementation Phase, 19 experimental schools (n = 3,006 students and 24 control schools (n = 3,727 students participated in a randomized group trial. Analyses based on linear mixed models via SPSS showed that participants in the experimental schools displayed better positive youth development than did participants in the control schools based on different indicators derived from the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale, including positive self-identity, prosocial behavior, and general positive youth development attributes. Differences between experimental and control participants were also found when students who joined the Tier 1 Program and perceived the program to be beneficial were employed as participants of the experimental schools. The present findings strongly suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is making an important positive impact for junior secondary school students in Hong Kong.

  11. Impact of the project P.A.T.H.S. In the junior secondary school years: individual growth curve analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Cecilia M S

    2011-02-03

    The Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs) is a positive youth development program implemented in school settings utilizing a curricular-based approach. In the third year of the Full Implementation Phase, 19 experimental schools (n = 3,006 students) and 24 control schools (n = 3,727 students) participated in a randomized group trial. Analyses based on linear mixed models via SPSS showed that participants in the experimental schools displayed better positive youth development than did participants in the control schools based on different indicators derived from the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale, including positive self-identity, prosocial behavior, and general positive youth development attributes. Differences between experimental and control participants were also found when students who joined the Tier 1 Program and perceived the program to be beneficial were employed as participants of the experimental schools. The present findings strongly suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is making an important positive impact for junior secondary school students in Hong Kong.

  12. Academic Well-Being, Mathematics Performance, and Educational Aspirations in Lower Secondary Education: Changes Within a School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlund, Anna; Tuominen, Heta; Korhonen, Johan

    2018-01-01

    It has been suggested that both performance and academic well-being play a role in adolescent students' educational attainment and school dropout. In this study, we therefore examined, first, what kinds of academic well-being (i.e., school burnout, schoolwork engagement, and mathematics self-concept) and mathematics performance profiles can be identified among lower secondary school students ( N grade 7 = 583, N grade 9 = 497); second, how stable these profiles are across one school year during the seventh and ninth grades; and, third, how students with different academic well-being and mathematics performance profiles differ with respect to their educational aspirations. By means of latent profile analyses, three groups of students in seventh grade: thriving (34%), average (51%), and negative academic well-being (15%) and four groups of students in ninth grade: thriving (25%), average (50%), negative academic well-being (18%), and low-performing (7%) with distinct well-being and mathematics performance profiles were identified. Configural frequency analyses revealed that the profiles were relatively stable across one school year; 60% of the students displayed identical profiles over time. The thriving students reported the highest educational aspirations compared to the other groups. In addition, the low-performing students in the ninth grade had the lowest educational aspirations just before the transition to upper secondary school. Practical implications as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Academic Well-Being, Mathematics Performance, and Educational Aspirations in Lower Secondary Education: Changes Within a School Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Widlund

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that both performance and academic well-being play a role in adolescent students’ educational attainment and school dropout. In this study, we therefore examined, first, what kinds of academic well-being (i.e., school burnout, schoolwork engagement, and mathematics self-concept and mathematics performance profiles can be identified among lower secondary school students (Ngrade 7 = 583, Ngrade 9 = 497; second, how stable these profiles are across one school year during the seventh and ninth grades; and, third, how students with different academic well-being and mathematics performance profiles differ with respect to their educational aspirations. By means of latent profile analyses, three groups of students in seventh grade: thriving (34%, average (51%, and negative academic well-being (15% and four groups of students in ninth grade: thriving (25%, average (50%, negative academic well-being (18%, and low-performing (7% with distinct well-being and mathematics performance profiles were identified. Configural frequency analyses revealed that the profiles were relatively stable across one school year; 60% of the students displayed identical profiles over time. The thriving students reported the highest educational aspirations compared to the other groups. In addition, the low-performing students in the ninth grade had the lowest educational aspirations just before the transition to upper secondary school. Practical implications as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Academic Well-Being, Mathematics Performance, and Educational Aspirations in Lower Secondary Education: Changes Within a School Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlund, Anna; Tuominen, Heta; Korhonen, Johan

    2018-01-01

    It has been suggested that both performance and academic well-being play a role in adolescent students’ educational attainment and school dropout. In this study, we therefore examined, first, what kinds of academic well-being (i.e., school burnout, schoolwork engagement, and mathematics self-concept) and mathematics performance profiles can be identified among lower secondary school students (Ngrade 7 = 583, Ngrade 9 = 497); second, how stable these profiles are across one school year during the seventh and ninth grades; and, third, how students with different academic well-being and mathematics performance profiles differ with respect to their educational aspirations. By means of latent profile analyses, three groups of students in seventh grade: thriving (34%), average (51%), and negative academic well-being (15%) and four groups of students in ninth grade: thriving (25%), average (50%), negative academic well-being (18%), and low-performing (7%) with distinct well-being and mathematics performance profiles were identified. Configural frequency analyses revealed that the profiles were relatively stable across one school year; 60% of the students displayed identical profiles over time. The thriving students reported the highest educational aspirations compared to the other groups. In addition, the low-performing students in the ninth grade had the lowest educational aspirations just before the transition to upper secondary school. Practical implications as well as directions for future research are discussed. PMID:29593603

  15. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of screen time and physical activity with school performance at different types of secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Tanja; Peschel, Thomas; Vogel, Mandy; Jurkutat, Anne; Kiess, Wieland

    2018-04-27

    Previous studies have already reported associations of media consumption and/or physical activity with school achievement. However, longitudinal studies investigating independent effects of physical activity and media consumption on school performance are sparse. The present study fills this research gap and, furthermore, assesses relationships of the type of secondary school with media consumption and physical activity. The consumption of screen-based media (TV/video, game console, PC/internet, and mobile phone) and leisure physical activity (organized and non-organized) of 10 - to 17-year old adolescents participating in the LIFE Child study in Germany were related to their school grades in two major school subjects (Mathematics and German) and in Physical Education. In addition to a cross-sectional analysis at baseline (N = 850), a longitudinal analysis (N = 512) investigated the independent effects of these activities on the school grades achieved 12 months later. All associations were adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, year of data assessment, body-mass-index, and school grades at baseline. A further analysis investigated differences in the consumption of screen-based media and physical activity as a function of the type of secondary school (highest vs. lower secondary school). Adolescents of lower secondary schools reported a significantly higher consumption of TV/video and game consoles than adolescents attending the highest secondary school. Independently of the type of school, a better school performance in Mathematics was predicted by a lower consumption of computers/internet, and a better performance in Physical Education was predicted by a lower consumption of TV/video and a higher frequency of non-organized physical activity. However, the association between non-organized physical activity and subsequent grades in Physical Education was significant in girls only. The present results suggest that media consumption has a negative effect on

  16. Nutritional quality of dietary patterns of children: are there differences inside and outside school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Fisberg, Mauro; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    To describe the dietary patterns of children inside and outside school and investigate their associations with sociodemographic factors and nutritional status. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study in which children of both sexes, aged 1-6 years, attending private and public daycare centers and preschools in Brazil, were evaluated (n=2979). Demographic, socioeconomic and dietary data (weighed food records and estimated food records) were collected. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis from 36 food groups. Four dietary patterns were identified inside school, and three outside. Inside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated to low income and presented high nutritional quality. The "dual" pattern was associated with low income and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "snack" pattern was associated with children enrolled at private schools and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of added sugar and trans fat. Outside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated with high intake of saturated fat, trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of trans fats and glycemic load, whereas the "snack" pattern was associated with overweight, private schools, high income, and high intake of trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. There are differences in the nutritional quality of dietary patterns inside and outside school, and heterogeneity in adherence to these patterns were observed across regions and socioeconomic classes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Cystic fibrosis school for 10-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2000-01-01

    the children about the respiratory system in CF. They take physiotherapi together and go to the swimmingpool. The dietician and the nurse teach the children about the digestive system in CF and they cook together. The children learn about genetics, liver problems, infertility etc from the doctor and the nurse......Compliance or rather lack of compliance has always been a problem when treating patients with cystic fibrosis. The patients tend to drop the treatment more or less if the treatment gets too complicated or laboured. We have attempted a systematical education of our patients in a CF school...

  18. Conceptions of Adolescence: Implications for Differences in Engagement in School Over Early Adolescence in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Pomerantz, Eva M; Wang, Meifang; Cheung, Cecilia; Cimpian, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    American youth are more prone to storm and stress during adolescence than are Chinese youth (e.g., American youth's engagement in school declines more). However, it is unclear why. This research examined differences in conceptions of adolescence in the United States and China. Using both open- and closed-ended measures, youth (N = 397; 50 % female; mean age = 13.19 years) reported on their views of teens. American (vs. Chinese) youth were more likely to see adolescence as a time of decreased family responsibility along with increased individuation from parents, school disengagement, and peer orientation. Conceptions of adolescence as a time of dampened family responsibility and heightened school disengagement contributed to American (vs. Chinese) youth being less engaged in school over the seventh and eighth grades. The findings suggest that culture shapes ideas about adolescence, which contribute to differences in American and Chinese youth's engagement in school over this phase.

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TRACK & FIELD INJURIES: A ONE YEAR EXPERIENCE IN ATHLETIC SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos TH Stergioulas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to record injuries in track & field events that were sustained by students who attended the athletic schools during a one-year period. From September 2009 to May 2010, the researchers observed 2045 students (883 males and 1163 females, who were participating in track and field events at the mentioned schools. During the study period 150 injuries were recorded, which accounted for 13.3% of all injuries sustained by students. Most of the injuries (34% according to the diagnosis were sprains and strains and occurred during the months of February, December and January. A large percentage of the injuries (45.4% were sustained by students who attended the Athletic Schools, which operated in the urban region. Students who attended the second class sustained more injuries than the other classes (first and third. Students who were practising or competing on a tartan playing surface were more likely to sustain an injury. Knee and ankle were the most frequent anatomical sites in which injuries (43.9% occurred. Additionally, 80.0% of injuries occurred in students who were practising or competing in running events. No statistical differences were observed in all above mentioned parameters amongst male and female students. Physical education (P.E. teachers should place more emphasis on prevention measures. These measures should include proper supervision of students during training, warming up and cooling down sessions with stretching techniques. By following these suggestions students will compete in a safe and healthy environment.

  20. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  1. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  2. CAREER PLANS OF GRADUATES OF A CANADIAN DENTAL SCHOOL: PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A 5-YEAR SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Usama; Fairbanks, Connor; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Kilistoff, Alan; Easton, Rick

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive data on the characteristics and opinions of graduating dental students in Canada are lacking. Specifically, only minimal information is available on graduates' immediate career plans and factors that may influence their decisions regarding these plans. Our aim was to gather such data to allow better understanding of this issue and improve the design of future studies on this topic. The Career Development Committee at the school of dentistry, University of Alberta, designed a short survey to be administered to graduating students over 5 years to gain insight into their immediate career plans and opinions on career services at the school. Preliminary results from 2012-2014 are reported here. With a response rate of close to 90% (n = 99/111), the data reveal considerable differences in immediate career plans between the surveyed students and those in other schools in Canada and the United States. Of the students, 89% were planning to work in a general dental practice and only 9% were planning to enroll in advanced education, including general practice residency training. More research is needed to better understand the factors affecting career path decisions of students.

  3. Illegal substance use among Italian high school students: trends over 11 years (1999-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Molinaro

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To monitor changes in habits in drug use among Italian high school students. METHODS: Cross-sectional European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD carried out in Italy annually for 11 years (1999-2009 with representative samples of youth attending high school. The sample size considered ranges from 15,752 to 41,365 students and response rate ranged from 85.5% to 98.6%. Data were analyzed to obtain measures of life-time prevalence (LT, use in the last year (LY, use in the last 30 days (LM, frequent use. Comparisons utilized difference in proportion tests. Tests for linear trends in proportion were performed using the Royston p trend test. RESULTS: When the time-averaged value was considered, cannabis (30% LT was the most, and heroin the least (2% frequently used, with cocaine (5%, hallucinogens (2% and stimulants (2% in between. A clear gender gap is evident for all drugs, more obvious for hallucinogens (average M/F LY prevalence ratio 2, range 1.7-2.4, p<0.05, less for cannabis (average M/F LY prevalence ratio 1.3, range 1.2-1.5, p<0.05. Data shows a change in trend between 2005 and 2008; in 2006 the trend for cannabis use and availability dropped and the price rose, while from 2005 cocaine and stimulant use prevalence showed a substantial increase and the price went down. After 2008 use of all substances seems to have decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Drug use is widespread among students in Italy, with cannabis being the most and heroin the least prevalent. Girls are less vulnerable than boys to illegal drug use. In recent years, a decrease in heroin use is overbalanced by a marked rise in hallucinogen and stimulant use.

  4. Sex Differences in Radiologist Salary in U.S. Public Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Neena; Blumenthal, Daniel M; Smith, Stacy E; Ip, Ivan K; Khorasani, Ramin

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate salary differences between male and female academic radiologists at U.S. medical schools. Laws in several U.S. states mandate public release of government records, including salary information of state employees. From online salary data published by 12 states, we extracted the salaries of all academic radiologists at 24 public medical schools during 2011-2013 (n = 573 radiologists). In this institutional review board-approved cross-sectional study, we linked these data to a physician database with information on physician sex, age, faculty rank, years since residency, clinical trial involvement, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, scientific publications, and clinical volume measured by 2013 Medicare payments. Sex difference in salary, the primary outcome, was estimated using a multilevel logistic regression adjusting for these factors. Among 573 academic radiologists, 171 (29.8%) were women. Female radiologists were younger (48.5 vs 51.6 years, p = 0.001) and more likely to be assistant professors (50.9% [87/171] vs 40.8% [164/402], p = 0.026). Salaries between men and women were similar in unadjusted analyses ($290,660 vs $289,797; absolute difference, $863; 95% CI, -$18,363 to $20,090), and remained so after adjusting for age, faculty rank, years since residency, clinical trial involvement, publications, total Medicare payments, NIH funding, and graduation from a highly ranked medical school. Among academic radiologists employed at 24 U.S. public medical schools, male and female radiologists had similar annual salaries both before and after adjusting for several variables known to influence salary among academic physicians.

  5. Teacher-Student Interpersonal Relationships and Academic Motivation within One School Year: Developmental Changes and Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Maulana, Ridwan; den Brok, Perry

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the developmental changes of teacher-student interpersonal relationships as well as that of academic motivation among first-grade secondary school students. In addition, the link between teacher-student interpersonal behaviour and academic motivation across the school year was investigated. The data were collected 5…

  6. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in schools following 8 years of mandating legislation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Zinckernagel, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    AND RESULTS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey of Danish school leadership (n=1240) and ninth-grade homeroom teachers (n=1381) was carried out for school year 2013-2014. Qualitative interviews and the Theory of Planned Behavior were used to construct the survey. Logistic regression models were employed...

  7. A CTE Legacy Built on Chocolate: Milton Hershey School's 100 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmery, Robert

    2010-01-01

    One hundred years ago, Chocolate Magnate Milton S. Hershey and his wife Catherine signed the deed of trust creating the Hershey Industrial School in the heart of their Pennsylvania farming community. They had no children of their own and wanted to help orphan boys get a good education. The couple eventually left their entire fortune to the school.…

  8. Evaluation of the Family/School Partnership Project, Year III, 1996-97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Donald L.; Plakos, John; Santos, Will

    The report details the third-year evaluation of a transitional bilingual education project at Chester W. Nimitz Middle School in Huntington Park, California. The Family/School Partnership Project is designed to assist limited English proficient students in mastering English skills to transition to regular classroom activities by integrating…

  9. Mesa Verde--A Year-Round High School. A Descriptive Report of 1980-81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housden, Terry; Holmes, Lynda

    Mesa Verde High School was constructed in 1974 and is the last high school built in the San Juan (California) Unified District. It serves students in grades 9 through 12 and has an open enrollment policy. Mesa Verde operates on a year-round schedule with students divided into three tracks. Basically, each track is in session for 9 weeks and then…

  10. Effects of a 3-year intervention: The Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study assessed short and long term effects of a 3-year controlled school-based physical activity (PA) intervention on fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. METHODS: The study involved 18 schools (10 intervention...

  11. Teacher-student interpersonal relationships and academic motivation within one school year : developmental changes and linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Maulana, Ridwan; den Brok, Perry

    The present study explored the developmental changes of teacher-student interpersonal relationships as well as that of academic motivation among first-grade secondary school students. In addition, the link between teacher-student interpersonal behaviour and academic motivation across the school year

  12. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Schools Following 8 Years of Mandating Legislation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Zinckernagel, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    AND RESULTS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey of Danish school leadership (n=1240) and ninth-grade homeroom teachers (n=1381) was carried out for school year 2013-2014. Qualitative interviews and the Theory of Planned Behavior were used to construct the survey. Logistic regression models were employed...

  13. Lessons learned from 15 years of non-grades-based selection for medical school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Stegers-Jager (Karen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractContext: Thirty years ago, it was suggested in the Edinburgh Declaration that medical school applicants should be selected not only on academic, but also on non-academic, attributes. The main rationale behind extending medical school selection procedures with the evaluation of

  14. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  15. A Year after Columbine: Public Looks to Parents More than Schools To Prevent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, Washington, DC.

    An April 2000 telephone survey queried a nationwide sample of 1,000 adults, including 283 parents of children ages 5 to 17 years, concerning school violence and other issues in the news. The vast majority of those surveyed said they believe it is the responsibility of parents to ensure that school shootings, such as occurred at Columbine High…

  16. Grade 10 PSAT Participation and Performance--School Year 2015-2016. Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Maria V.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015-2016 school year marks the first administration of the redesigned PSAT, which is composed of two sections: (1) Evidence-based Reading and Writing (EBRW) and (2) Math. This memorandum presents results of 2015-2016 Grade 10 PSAT participation and performance of Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) students. Among 10,859 MCPS first-time…

  17. Project A+, Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools, 1991-92: The Second Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Todd; Frazer, Linda

    The Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools program, where four elementary schools were equipped with computer hardware and software, was made possible by grants from IBM and Apple, Inc. The goals of the program were, in 3 years, to reduce by 50% the number of students not in their age appropriate grade level and those students not achieving…

  18. Latino Parents' Choice of Magnet School: How School Choice Differs across Racial and Ethnic Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Katherine Taylor; Phillips, Kristie J. R.; Goldring, Ellen B.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, magnet schools have served predominantly Black and Anglo populations. Consequently, little research exists on Latino parent's engagement in school choice and their patterns of participation. Magnet schools are increasingly part of the landscape for improving school achievement for all students. Yet Latino enrollment rates in magnet…

  19. Gender Differences in Factors Associated with How Parents Communicate with School in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Chin, Meejung

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored different factors that were associated with mothers' and fathers' choice between two forms of parent-school communication: school briefing sessions and parent-teacher conferences. A total of 585 parents--295 mothers and 290 fathers from different households--who had at least one child enrolled in middle school in Korea were…

  20. Disentangling the correlates of drug use: A regression analysis of the associations between frequency of drug use, years-of-school, impulsivity, working memory, and psychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene M Heyman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Years-of-school is negatively correlated with illicit drug use. However, educational attainment is positively correlated with IQ and negatively correlated with impulsivity, two traits that are also correlated with drug use. Thus, the negative correlation between education and drug use may reflect the correlates of schooling, not schooling itself. To help disentangle these relations we obtained measures of working memory, simple memory, IQ, disposition (impulsivity and psychiatric status, years-of-school and frequency of illicit and licit drug use in methadone clinic and community drug users. We found strong zero-order correlations between all measures, including IQ, impulsivity, years-of- school, psychiatric symptoms and drug use. However, multiple regression analyses revealed a different picture. The significant predictors of illicit drug use were gender, involvement in a methadone clinic, and years-of-school. That is, psychiatric symptoms, impulsivity, cognition, and IQ no longer predicted illicit drug use in the multiple regression analyses. Moreover, high risk subjects ( low IQ and/or high impulsivity who spent 14 or more years in school used stimulants and opiates less than did low risk subjects who had spent less than 14 years in school. Smoking and drinking had a different correlational structure. IQ and years-of-school predicted whether someone ever became a smoker, whereas impulsivity predicted the frequency of drinking bouts, but years-of-school did not. Many subjects reported no use of one or more drugs, resulting in a large number of zeroes in the data sets. Cragg’s Double-Hurdle regression method proved the best approach for dealing with this problem. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that years-of-school predicts lower levels of illicit drug use after controlling for IQ and impulsivity. This paper also highlights the advantages of Double-Hurdle regression methods for analyzing the correlates of drug use in

  1. Differences in morphological characteristics between of football pioneer and elementary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javorac Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a large number of sports disciplines generally known morphological structure that most influence the sporty performance, although, no doubt, the coefficients of participation of some morphological dimension in the equation specification changes in development techniques and tactics and modern world achievements in a particular sport. It was determined that the anthropological characteristics, each in its own way, the important task of training in solving with football players (Malacko i Radosav 1985. The aim of this research was to determine differences in the morphological characteristics between of football pioneer and elementary school pupils. In a sample of 196 subjects, the average age of 12:45 ± 0.03 years, there was a comparison of morphological characteristics. The first group consisted of 82 players - Pioneers FC 'Red Star' from Belgrade and the other 114 elementary school pupils from Novi Sad. A sample of five measures for the evaluation of morphological characteristics were: body height, body weight, circumference of chest, waist circumference and volume of the thigh. Comparison of morphological characteristics of young soccer players and elementary school pupils was carried out by using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA. Analysis of morphological characteristics of young soccer players and elementary school pupils found that there were no statistically significant differences.

  2. Caries risk assessment among 12-13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitha, Madhu M; Nijesh, J E; Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth; Priyadharshini, Indra; Junaid, Mohammed; Vaishnavi, S

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is as ancient as humankind and has the longest association with the dental profession, an association that is punctuated with agony and ecstasy. The agonizing fact is that despite several efforts toward total eradication, this disease is still prevalent. Nevertheless, an ecstatic success of the profession is the global decline in the incidence compared to the yesteryears' epidemics. Hence, predicting dental caries earlier is a boon. One such model to predict is cariogram developed by Bratthall in 1996. The aim of this study was to assess the caries risk among 12-13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district in Tamil Nadu using cariogram computer model. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 136 study subjects of 12-13 year of age, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were collected using a predesigned questionnaire and scored according to a standardized protocol. The Chi-square test was used to find differences between caries-related factors and cariogram group. The correlation was acquired using Spearman's correlation. Government school study subjects had 56% of chance of avoiding caries whereas the private school study subjects had 66% of chance of avoiding caries in future and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between the chance to avoid dental caries and cariogram sectors. The majority of the study subjects from government school belonged to medium-risk category and private school subjects belonged to low-risk category which inferred that private school students have high chance to avoid dental caries compared to government study subjects.

  3. The variability in the effect of additional education on different mathematics skills in primary school - A regression discontinuity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelet, D.; Haelermans, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the variability in the effect of an additional year of education on different basic mathematical skills, which are taught to children and explicitly repeated at different points in time during elementary school. In addition, the role of child specific characteristics and the role

  4. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Anderssen, S A; Holme, I M

    2011-01-01

    at the I-school carried out 60 min of PA daily. The PA lessons were planned, organized and led by expert physical education (PE) teachers. In the C-school, children were offered the normal 45 min of PE twice weekly. The intervention resulted in a greater beneficial development in systolic (P=0......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 2-year school-based physical activity (PA) intervention in 9-year-old children on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. One intervention school (I-school) (n=125) and one control school (C-school) (n=131) were included. The children...

  5. Special Education: A Statistical Report for the 1982-1983 School Year and the 1980-1981 and 1981-1982 School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Marie

    The two reports compiled here are intended as aids in evaluating and planning future educational efforts for handicapped students in New Jersey. The reports include a census of handicapped pupils, their programs, the service delivery personnel and special education due process cases for the 1980-81, 1981-82, and 1982-83 school years. Each report…

  6. Dental erosion among 12-14 year old school children in Khartoum: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Karim, I A; Sanhouri, N M; Hashim, N T; Ziada, H M

    2007-09-01

    To investigate dental erosion among 12-14 year old Sudanese school children and evaluate the associated risk factors. Cross sectional survey in secondary schools in Khartoum city, Sudan. A sample of 157 school children was obtained from both private and public schools. Erosion on the labial and palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors was measured by criterion based on the Smith and Knight Tooth Wear Index. Dietary intake and other related factors were assessed using a questionnaire. The overall erosion prevalence in this group was 66.9%, of which 45.2% was mild and 21.7% was moderate erosion. A strong association was found between erosion and private schooling (higher socioeconomic groups), carbonated drinks, herbal hibiscus drink and traditional acidic food consumption. There was a high prevalence of dental erosion among Sudanese school children which was mild to moderate in severity and was strongly associated with acidic dietary intake

  7. Radon testing in schools in New York State: a 20-year summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 20 years the Department of Health has conducted programs to assist in the measurement and reduction of indoor radon concentrations in 186 schools located primarily in Zone 1 areas of New York State. Although many schools had few or no rooms containing radon above 148 Bq/m 3 , some rooms had >740 Bq/m 3 and remediation techniques were utilized to reduce exposure. Short-term radon measurements in the schools showed little correlation to basement and first-floor radon results from single-family homes in the towns. - Highlights: • Relatively few schools in New York State have been tested for indoor radon. • We provide a summary of radon-testing results for measured schools. • The radon potential in schools is often less than in local houses. • Short-term measurement results exceeded their long-term counterparts in nearly every case

  8. How School Counselors Make a World of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Patrick J.

    2018-01-01

    School counselors play a key role in promoting students' academic achievement, social and emotional development, and college and career readiness. The author reviews the research on counselors' work in these areas and discusses how schools can ensure that their counselors are better able to succeed in supporting students.

  9. Differences in Students' School Motivation: A Latent Class Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpershoek, Hanke; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the school motivation of 7,257 9th grade students in 80 secondary schools across the Netherlands. Using a multiple goal perspective, four motivation dimensions were included: performance, mastery, extrinsic, and social motivation. Our first aim was to identify distinct motivation profiles within our sample, using the…

  10. Differences in students' school motivation : A latent class modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpershoek, Hanke; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje

    In this study, we investigated the school motivation of 7,257 9th grade students in 80 secondary schools across the Netherlands. Using a multiple goal perspective, four motivation dimensions were included: performance, mastery, extrinsic, and social motivation. Our first aim was to identify distinct

  11. Typical School Day Experiences of Indian Children in Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N.; Malar, G.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that India has experienced conditions that have lead to significant illiteracy, but that commitment to education can be found in lesser-known parts of India today. Profiles three schools in Tamil Nadu and describes a typical school day for a student with special needs, a student in a tribal setting, and a student in a rural setting. (TJQ)

  12. Community Connection and Change: A Different Conceptualization of School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marian

    2008-01-01

    Many of our schools are situated in communities characterized by high levels of disadvantage, presenting a range of challenges. One possible response is to acknowledge this disadvantage and to try to address some of the problems it raises for students. Another is for the school to be proactive, recognizing the challenges faced by the community and…

  13. Gender Differences in High School Students' Interests in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Medine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the interests of high school students in Physics and variable of how the influential factors on their interests depending on gender. The research sample included 154 (F:78 M:76) high school students. A structured interview form was used as the data collection tool in the study. The research data were…

  14. Problematic internet use among high school students: Prevalence, associated factors and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Brambilla, Romeo; Priotto, Bruna; Angelino, Remo; Cuomo, GianLuca; Diecidue, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Problematic Internet Use (PIU) among high school students and to identify factors associated with PIU underlining gender differences. The students filled a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire collecting information on demographic characteristics and patterns of Internet use. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with PIU in the overall sample and by gender. Twenty-five schools and 2022 students participated in the survey. Prevalence of PIU was 14.2% among males and 10.1% among females. Males 15-year-olds and females 14-year-olds had the highest PIU prevalence that progressively lowered with age among females. Only 13.5% of pupils declared parents controlled their Internet use. The sensation of feeling lonely, the frequency of use, the number of hours of connection, and visiting pornographic websites were associated with the risk of PIU in both genders. Attending vocational schools, the activities of chatting and file downloading, and the location of use at Internet point among males, and younger age among females were associated with PIU, whilst information searching was protective among females. PIU could become a public health problem in the next years. The physical and mental health consequences should be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Can Kinesiological Activities Change "Pure" Motor Development in Preschool Children during One School Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krneta, Željko; Casals, Cristina; Bala, Gustav; Madić, Dejan; Pavlović, Slobodan; Drid, Patrik

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an additional, organized, and more intensive kinesiological treatment on "pure" motor abilities in preschool children. In the present study an experimental treatment was carried out on a sample of 37 preschool boys by applying kinesiological activities. The 60 minute treatment was applied over a period of one school year (9 months), twice a week. A control group of 31 boys were trained according to the regular program for preschool institutions. Treatment effects were assessed by 8 motor ability tests and 5 anthropometric measures. The significant differences between the groups, which were observed after the final measurement and compared to the initial one, proved that the kinesiological treatment had a positive impact on the general development of "pure" motor abilities. The most significant effect of experimental kinesiological treatment was the improvement in whole body force, flexibility and coordination of preschool boys. These findings, obtained only in one school year, point to the importance of physical exercise and the application of additional kinesiological activities with various modalities, to improve motor development, even morphological growth and development in preschool children. The effects of the perennial application of kinesiological activities, under the supervision of kinesiological professionals, could be beneficial and could form the basis for a better biological and motor development in older age.

  16. Gender differences in cooperation: experimental evidence on high school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alberto Molina

    Full Text Available The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.

  17. Visual impairment among 10-14-year school children in Puducherry: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnuprasad, R; Bazroy, Joy; Madhanraj, K; Prashanth, Hannah Ranjee; Singh, Zile; Samuel, Abel K; Muthukumar, T

    2017-01-01

    According to the 2010 estimates by the World Health Organization, nearly 285 million (4.24% of total population) people of all ages worldwide are visually impaired. Almost 18.9 million children under 15 years of age are visually impaired globally. In developing countries, 7%-31% of childhood blindness and visual impairment is avoidable. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study among 1884 school students in Puducherry, in the age group of 10-14 years. A child with presenting maximum vision ≤6/12 Snellen equivalent in the better eye is considered visually impaired. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2013 and analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 21.0. Chi-square test was applied for testing difference in proportion and a P visual impairment (vision ≤6/12) among the study participants was 6.37% (95% confidence interval = 5.27-7.47). The prevalence of visual impairment increased with age and it was found to be high among male students (6.6%) when compared to female students (6%). Presenting vision of 6/6 was observed in 79.8% of the children while with pinhole correction, the proportion increased to 94.6%. The prevalence of visual impairment in our study population was found to be 6.37% and the prevalence was even higher among children who belonged to schools of urban region or private schools. Children with a positive family history of spectacle use were more likely to have visual impairment.

  18. Factors affecting Mathematics achievement of first-year secondary school students in Central Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwanuka, Henry Nsubuga; Van Damme, Jan; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Anumendem, Dickson Nkafu; Namusisi, Speranza

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the sources of variability in Mathematics achievement of Ugandan students at the student, classroom and school level. The Mathematics score and questionnaire responses of 4,819 first-year secondary school students (Grade Seven, about 14-15 years old) from 78 classrooms of 49 schools were analysed. A three-level linear model was used. The results indicate that out of the total variance in Mathematics achievement 68.8%, 14.2% and 17.0% are situated at student, classroom and ...

  19. Experimental activities in the early years of elementary school: a methodological tool for construction of the teaching-learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de Souza Lima

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the early years of elementary school, this study evaluated the impact of experimental activities based in the scientific method and preconceptions on the learning and memorization of concepts and phenomena associated with the fermentation process. The different activities were carried out through an experimental course (20hs, with students of elementary school from school municipal Diacono Joao Luiz Pozzobon, Santa Maria-RS. The research involved 20 students, with 6 and 7 old years. The evaluation was performed by comparing the interview responses made before the course (pre-test and after the course (post-test. The post-tests were applied at the end of the experimental course, and after 6 and 12 months. The experimental activities facilitated the acquisition and retention of new concepts. The data show that "experimental activities" can be used by teachers in early grades as a methodological tool to complement the teaching-learning process.

  20. The Impact of a Two-Year School Breakfast Program for Preschool-Aged Children on Their Nutrient Intake and Pre-Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Worobey, Harriet S.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined nutritional differences between home breakfasts and breakfasts served at preschool following School Breakfast Program guidelines and evaluated nutritional impact of program participation on 4-year olds' preacademic performance. Results indicated that breakfast intake was altered under school breakfast conditions. Performance…

  1. Prevalence of Dental Caries in 5 – 6 Years and 12 – 13 Years Age Group of School Children of Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Subedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is one of the most common conditions affecting the general health of children. The present study was carried out among school children of Kathmandu valley to determine the prevalence of dental caries in two age groups. Methods: The study was conducted from December 2007 to May 2008. The age of the school children of the study was divided into two group: 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years. A stratifi ed cluster sampling with proportional allocation was used while grouping the subjects. The dental status examination was done with the help of trained dentists. Decayed, missed and fi lled teeth index and decayed, missed and fi lled surfaces index (dmft for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent dentition were used as the standard tools for the determination of prevalence. Results: A total of 638 students (325 of age group 12 - 13 years and 313 of age group 5 - 6 years from 30 different schools of the Kathmandu valley were included in the study. The caries status was found higher in the age group of 5 - 6 years than in the 12 - 13 years and it was found to be statistically signifi cant (p < 0.001. The dmfs and caries percentage of the age group 5 - 6 years and the DMFS and caries percent of the 12 - 13 years was found to be 3.79, 69 % and 1.6, 53.23 % respectively. The dmft/dmfs value was found to be signifi cant according to the districts in the 5 - 6 years age group whereas the DMFS was found statistically signifi cant among the sexes of the 12 - 13 years age group. Conclusions: The caries percentage was found to be above the recommended level of the World Health Organization. However, the DMFS and DMFT values were within the WHO level. Keywords: Children, dental caries, DMF index.

  2. Gender differences and a school-based obesity prevention program in Argentina: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch Herscovici, Cecile; Kovalskys, Irina; De Gregorio, María José

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of a school-based obesity prevention program that seeks to change food intake among students at schools in Rosario, Argentina. This was a prospective study involving 405 children 9-11 years of age at six schools in the poor areas of Rosario, Argentina, in May-October 2008. After matching for socioeconomic status, schools were selected by simple randomization; participants were assessed at baseline (T1) and again 6 months later, after completion of the intervention (T2). The program focused on increasing the children's knowledge of healthy nutrition and exercise through four workshops; educating the parents/caregivers; and offering healthy options at the school snack bar. The main outcome measures were the children's intake of healthy and unhealthy foods (assessed with a weekly food frequency questionnaire) and their body mass index (BMI). Of the 387 children assessed at T1, 369 were reassessed at T2 (205 intervention; 164 control). Girls at the schools where the intervention occurred increased their intake of three of the five healthy food items promoted by the program (fruits, vegetables, low-sugar cereals). Statistical significance was reached for skim milk (P = 0.03) and for pure orange juice (P = 0.05). Boys of both the intervention and control groups failed to improve their intake of healthy foods, but those of the intervention arm significantly reduced their intake of hamburgers and hot dogs (P = 0.001). Girls were more amenable to improving their dietary intake. Overall, the program was more likely to increase consumption of healthy food than to decrease intake of unhealthy foods. Gender differences should be taken into account when designing preventive interventions.

  3. Gender differences and a school-based obesity prevention program in Argentina: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Rausch Herscovici

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a school-based obesity prevention program that seeks to change food intake among students at schools in Rosario, Argentina. METHODS: This was a prospective study involving 405 children 9-11 years of age at six schools in the poor areas of Rosario, Argentina, in May-October 2008. After matching for socioeconomic status, schools were selected by simple randomization; participants were assessed at baseline (T1 and again 6 months later, after completion of the intervention (T2. The program focused on increasing the children's knowledge of healthy nutrition and exercise through four workshops; educating the parents/caregivers; and offering healthy options at the school snack bar. The main outcome measures were the children's intake of healthy and unhealthy foods (assessed with a weekly food frequency questionnaire and their body mass index (BMI. RESULTS: Of the 387 children assessed at T1, 369 were reassessed at T2 (205 intervention; 164 control. Girls at the schools where the intervention occurred increased their intake of three of the five healthy food items promoted by the program (fruits, vegetables, low-sugar cereals. Statistical significance was reached for skim milk (P = 0.03 and for pure orange juice (P = 0.05. Boys of both the intervention and control groups failed to improve their intake of healthy foods, but those of the intervention arm significantly reduced their intake of hamburgers and hot dogs (P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Girls were more amenable to improving their dietary intake. Overall, the program was more likely to increase consumption of healthy food than to decrease intake of unhealthy foods. Gender differences should be taken into account when designing preventive interventions.

  4. Schools That Make a Difference to Post-Compulsory Uptake of Physical Science Subjects: Some comparative case studies in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of the qualitative component of a combined methods research study that explores a range of individual and school factors that influence the uptake of chemistry and physics in post-compulsory study in England. The first phase involves using the National Pupil Database to provide a sampling frame to identify four matched pairs of high-uptake and low-uptake schools by salient school factors. Case studies of these eight schools indicate that students employ selection strategies related to their career aspirations, their sense of identity and tactics, and their prior experience. The school factors influencing subject choice relate to school management, student support and guidance, and student empowerment. The most notable differences between students in high-uptake and low-uptake schools are that students in high-uptake schools appear to make a proactive choice in relation to career aspirations, rather than a reactive choice on the basis of past experience. Schools with a high uptake offer a diverse science curriculum in the final two years of compulsory study, set higher examination entry requirements for further study and, crucially, provide a range of opportunities for students to interact with the world of work and to gain knowledge and experience of science-related careers.

  5. Bullying in Guimarães Schools: Types of Bullying and Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sousa-Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School  bullying is the most common type of violence in schools and seems to be increasing in recent years. The various types of aggression and victimization by bullying occur with different frequencies depending on the gender of the students.Objectives: To determine the frequency of different types of victimization and aggression by bullying among participating public school students of Guimarães. To compare  frequencies of victimization and aggression by bullying between female and male students.Study Design: Observational and cross-sectional study.Methods: An equal number of classes of the 6th and 8th grade in public schools was selected in the municipality of Guimarães, Portugal. The students autonomously completed a questionnaire with demographic information and the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale adapted to Portugal. Descriptive  and  analytical  statistical  techniques were used to analyze the data. Bullying was considered in relation with colleagues, 2 or more episodes of maltreatment in the previous month.Results: 660 students were evaluated, ranging from 11 to 16 years of age, 48.8% of 6 th  year, 48.8% female, recruited from ten of the fourteen schools in the county. Seventy-one percent of students (78.1% of boys and 64.0% of girls declared themselves directly involved in bullying behaviors, as authors or targets. By type, the prevalence was 61.2% verbal, 36.8% social, 24.8% physical and 22.9% involved in property-related bullying. The most common types reported by victims, of both male and female genders, were the verbal (54.0% and 41.3%, respectively; 48.4% of total student body and social (26.7% and 30.1%, respectively; 28.8% of total students. In the aggressors, verbal and physical bullying types in boys (respectively 44.5% and 25.5% and verbal and social in girls (28.3% and 9.3% were the most common. When considering the total sample, the most  common  types

  6. QUANTITATIVE DIFFERENCES IN ASSESSMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL FEMALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Georgiev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available he research was carried out on 89 female students at first-year who regularly attended the course sport and sport activities. The aim was to see whether there are differences between the grades gained during the teaching and assessments received during the survey. As indicators in the evaluation of assessment during the research into account were taken techniques of performance of several sport disciplines: athletics (high start and gymnastics (rolling forward, from the sport games , basketball (leading the ball with a jump shot towards the basket and test - polygon for checking of the motor skills and habits of the female pupils. The determination of the significance of the differences was performed by t-test. After receiving the survey results, were identified statistically significant differences in the assessment of pupils.

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Boys’ Driven Exercise and Fasting During the Middle School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A.; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    Boys appear to engage in eating disorder behavior, particularly nonpurging compensatory behaviors such as driven exercise and fasting, at higher rates than previously thought. Little is known about the development of these behaviors in adolescent boys. In a sample of 631 non-binge eating and non-purging boys studied once in 5th grade and 6 times over the 3 years of middle school (grades 6 through 8), we found that (a) for some youth, driven exercise and fasting were present from grade 6; (b) different boys progressed along different trajectories of engagement in driven exercise and fasting, with some boys engaging in no driven exercise or fasting (65.8% and 83.5%, respectively), some boys engaging in driven exercise and fasting throughout middle school (25.2% and 16.5%, respectively), and other boys discontinuing engagement in driven exercise (9%); (c) 5th grade depression, eating expectancies, and thinness expectancies predicted subsequent trajectory group membership; and (d) boys engaging in driven exercise and fasting in 8th grade remained distressed. Boys’ engagement in driven exercise and fasting behavior merits the attention of researchers and clinicians. PMID:26707543

  8. Boys starting school disadvantaged: implications from teachers' ratings of behaviour and achievement in the first two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, G; McKay, M

    2001-06-01

    Consistent evidence indicates that low socio-economic status (SES) acts as an important stressor and vulnerability factor for children's school learning. However, specific mechanism(s) of this process are still not well understood. This study was a follow-up of the classroom learning behaviour and perceived achievement of low and middle income children after two years at school, who had previously been rated soon after starting school. It examined whether teachers' ratings displayed predictive stability over that period, and whether significant differences evident at age 5 in SES and gender were still operative at age 7. Two samples, of low income (N = 85) and middle income (N = 63) children, were rated following school entry (mean age 5 years 3 months) and rated again after two years at school. The children were rated at both points by their regular classroom teachers using the Learning Behaviours Scale (Stott et al., 1998) with subscales of Distractible, Apprehensive and Uncooperative, together with ratings of academic achievement and their personal perception of each child. SES was found to be a very limited predictor for the learning behaviour subscale ratings and for teachers' personal perceptions at both ages 5 and 7. SES did significantly predict expected Academic Achievement at age 5, but this effect disappeared completely by age 7. Conversely, within the two defined groups, Low Income boys were found to display significantly poorer learning behaviours at age 5, especially in terms of distractible behaviour, compared with Middle Income boys and with girls generally. This pattern was maintained over the next two years of their schooling. The effect of SES was thus demonstrated more powerfully in between-group differences than by means of regression. The findings emphasised the persistence of teachers' initial negative impressions about distractible 'hard to manage' boys from low SES families. The outcomes of this study suggest that low SES boys commenced

  9. Differences in body dissatisfaction, weight-management practices and food choices of high-school students in the Bangkok metropolitan region by gender and school type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongwatpol, Pitipa; Gates, Gail E

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to compare body dissatisfaction, food choices, physical activity and weight-management practices by gender and school type. A questionnaire was used to obtain height, weight, body image perception using Stunkard's figure rating scale, food choices, physical activity and weight-management practices. Nine single- and mixed-gender schools located in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand. Students in 10th-12th grade, aged 15-18 years (n 2082). Only 18% of females and 21% of males did not indicate body dissatisfaction. About 66% of females selected a thinner ideal figure than their current figure. Among males, 44% wanted a thinner figure, but 35% wanted a bigger figure. However, univariate analysis found differences by school type but not gender in the degree of body dissatisfaction; students in single-gender schools had more body dissatisfaction. Females reported using more weight-management practices but less physical activity, while males reported healthier food choices. Participants in single-gender schools had healthier food choices compared with those in mixed-gender schools. Adolescents who were at increased risk of a greater degree of body dissatisfaction were females, attended single-gender schools, had lower household income, higher BMI and less physical activity. Most participants reported being dissatisfied with their current body shape, but the type and level of dissatisfaction and use of weight-management practices differed by gender and type of school. These findings suggest that programmes to combat body dissatisfaction should address different risk factors in males and females attending single- and mixed-gender schools.

  10. Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Findings from the First Year of Implementation. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Joan E.; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Crepinsek, May Kay; Daft, Lynn M.; Murphy, J. Michael

    In 1998, Congress authorized implementation of a 3-year pilot breakfast program involving 4,300 students in elementary schools in 6 school districts representing a range of economic and demographic characteristics. The program began in the 2000-01 school year. This lengthy report presents the findings from the pilot's first year. The study had two…

  11. Cognitive functioning over 2 years after intracerebral hemorrhage in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lexa K; Compas, Bruce E; Gindville, Melissa C; Reeslund, Kristen L; Jordan, Lori C

    2017-11-01

    Previous research investigating outcomes after pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has generally been limited to global and sensorimotor outcomes. This study examined cognitive outcomes after spontaneous ICH in school-aged children with serial assessments over 2 years after stroke. Seven children (age range 6-16y, median 13; six males, one female; 57% white, 43% black) presenting with spontaneous ICH (six arteriovenous malformations) were assessed at 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months after stroke. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) quantified neurological outcome and Wechsler Intelligence Scales measured cognitive outcomes: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. PSOM scales showed improved neurological function over the first 12 months, with mild to no sensorimotor deficits and moderate overall deficits at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (median 2-year sensorimotor PSOM=0.5, total PSOM=1.5). Changes in cognitive function indicated a different trajectory; verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning improved over 24 months; low performance was sustained in processing speed and working memory. Age-normed centile scores decreased between 1- and 2-year follow-ups for working memory, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Early and serial cognitive testing in children with ICH is needed to assess cognitive functioning and support children in school as they age and cognitive deficits become more apparent and important for function. In children with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), motor function improved between 3 months and 24 months. Improvements in cognitive function were variable between 3 months and 24 months. Working memory centiles declined, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Processing speed improved but remained significantly below the 50th centile. Cognitive impact of ICH may increase with age in children. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Math Achievement Trajectories among Black Male Students in the Elementary- and Middle-School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilanawala, Afshin; Martin, Margary; Noguera, Pedro A.; Mincy, Ronald B.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the variation in math achievement trajectories of Black male students to understand the different ways these students successfully or unsuccessfully navigate schools and the school characteristics that are associated with their trajectories. Using longitudinal student-level data from a large urban US city (n = 7,039),…

  13. Do Multiple Mini-Interview and Traditional Interview Scores Differ in Their Associations With Acceptance Offers Within and Across Five California Medical Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Henderson, Mark C; Griffin, Erin; Hall, Theodore R; Kelly, Carolyn J; Peterson, Ellena M; Wofsy, David; Franks, Peter

    2018-03-20

    In single-school studies, multiple mini-interview (MMI) and traditional interview (TI) scores are associated with acceptance offers. Unexamined is whether scores at one school are associated with acceptance at other schools; such analyses would mitigate single-school design biases and better estimate how well interviews capture desired applicant attributes. Using data from the five California Longitudinal Evaluation of Admissions Practices (CA-LEAP) public medical schools, the authors examined associations of MMI and TI scores with acceptance offers within and across schools. The analyses included applicants who interviewed at ≥1 CA-LEAP school during the 2011-2013 admissions cycles, when three CA-LEAP schools employed TIs and two employed MMIs. Interview scores were standardized (z-scores: mean = 0, SD = 1) and associations with acceptance offers were examined within and across schools in analyses stratified by school, adjusting for applicant sociodemographics, academic metrics, year, and total number of interviews. Of 4,993 applicants interviewed, 428 (8.6%) interviewed at both MMI schools, 681 (13.6%) at ≥2 TI schools, and 1,327 (26.6%) at ≥1 MMI and ≥1 TI school. For each school, acceptance was associated with interview score at that school and also with interview scores at the other four schools. Cross-school associations of MMI versus TI scores with acceptance did not differ statistically. Interview score at a given CA-LEAP school was associated with acceptance at the other four schools, with no significant differences in associations for MMIs versus TIs. The findings suggest both MMIs and TIs captured attributes valued by admissions teams across CA-LEAP schools.

  14. School Nutrition Employees' Perceptions of Farm to School (FTS) Activities Differ Based on Management Type and FTS Participation Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangwook; Arendt, Susan W.; Stokes, Nathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition employees' perceptions of FTS activities and whether the numbers of activities differ based on management type of school foodservice operation and length of FTS participation. Methods: The state with the most FTS programs from each of the eight national FTS regions was selected. A…

  15. Role Perceptions and Job Stress among Special Education School Principals: Do They Differ from Principals of Regular Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, Haim Henry; Cohen-Azaria, Yael; Ermenc, Klara Skubic

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare principals' perceptions of their leadership roles in regular (Dovno, 1999) versus special education (Zaretzky, Faircloth & Moreau, 2005) schools, and how these perceptions affect feelings of job stress (Friedman, 2001; Margalit, 1999). We predicted that regular school principals would differ in…

  16. DO ‘SCHOOL COACHES’ MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN SCHOOL-BASED MENTAL HEALTH PROMOTION?

    OpenAIRE

    Corrieri, Sandro; Conrad, Ines; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental disorders in children and adolescents are common and have serious consequences. Schools present a key opportunity to promote mental health and implement prevention measures. Four school coaches in five German schools were enlisted to engage students, teachers and parents in building a sustainably healthy school and classroom climate. Subjects and methods: Altogether, 58 focus groups with students (N=244), parents (N=54) and teachers (N=62) were conducted longitu...

  17. Framing the Other: cosmopolitanism and the representation of difference in overseas gap year narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snee, Helene

    2013-03-01

    This paper engages with debates surrounding contemporary cosmopolitanism and the outcomes of cultural encounters. It considers if overseas gap years, often put forward in the UK as a way of becoming a global citizen, enable young Britons to 'broaden their mind'. I explore representations of the people and places encountered during these periods of time out through an analysis of young people's travel blogs. Four key themes are highlighted in these narratives: the exotic place; feeling 'out of place'; the importance and outcomes of local interaction; and the historical legacies that are implicated in constructing places as 'different'. Gappers display a willingness to interact with and gain knowledge about their host communities. Yet as gap years are designed to be distinct from the normal course of things, they also demonstrate the 'difference' of places. This can often result in the reproduction of established ways of representing the Other in order to frame them as meaningful. There is a tension in the narratives between 'globally reflexive' and 'globally reproductive' representations of difference, and I suggest that we might question the development of cosmopolitan attitudes and competencies through undertaking a gap year. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  18. Mechanisms of change in Dutch inspected schools: comparing schools in different inspection treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehren, Melanie Catharina Margaretha; Shackleton, Nichola

    2015-01-01

    In many countries the need for education systems and schools to improve and innovate has become central to the education policy of governments. School inspections are expected to play an important role in promoting such continuous improvement and to help schools and education systems more generally

  19. Making a Difference for Overweight Children: The School Nurse Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Nancy W.

    2005-01-01

    This manual discusses the school nurse's role in prevention and management of overweight children from an individual student perspective and, perhaps more important, from a system perspective. Manual includes the BMI (Body Mass Index) Wheel.

  20. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D.; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S.; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students’ exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Results Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Conclusion Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement. PMID:27978408

  1. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-12-15

    Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement.

  2. Parenting and Temperament Influence on School Success in 9-13 Year Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of parenting style and temperament in 9-13 years old children on both academic performance and school adjustment skills. Our hypothesis was that not only parenting style is crucial to academic performance and school adjustment, but also temperament plays an important role in them. We used a Parenting Guide line questionnaire to evaluate parenting style, Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire-R to evaluate temperament; Health Resources Inventory to assess children's school adjustment, and academic grades, as indicator of academic performance. We were interested in testing whether or not the effect of parenting style on academic performance and school adjustment was mediated by temperament. We found that emotional and behavioral regulation mediates the relation between parenting and academic performance. These findings inform of the relevance of child's temperament on school success. Implications for education are discussed with emphasis on the importance of understanding students' temperament to promote school adjustment and good academic performance.

  3. Developments in motivation and achievement during primary school: A longitudinal study on group-specific differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.; van der Veen, I.; Peetsma, T.; Volman, M.

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight in developmental trajectories of motivation during upper primary school, the present study focused on how different aspects of students' motivation, i.e., task-orientation, self-efficacy, and school investment develop from grade three to six of primary school and how these

  4. Dressing Diversity: Politics of Difference and the Case of School Uniforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Through an analysis of school uniform policies and theories of social justice, Samantha Deane argues that school uniforms and their foregoing policies assume that confronting strangers--an imperative of living in a democratic polity--is something that requires seeing sameness instead of recognizing difference. Imbuing schooling with a directive…

  5. Investigation of Primary School Teachers' Conflict Resolution Skills in Terms of Different Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Yilmaz, Kamile Özge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of conflict resolution skills of primary school teachers and whether they vary by different variables. The study was organised in accordance with the scanning model. The universe of the study consists of primary school teachers working at 14 primary schools, two from each of the seven geographical…

  6. Examination of Stress-Coping Methods of Primary School Teachers in Terms of Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Yilmaz, Kamile Özge

    2016-01-01

    This research is a study that aims to reveal whether there is a significant difference between primary school teachers' stress-coping methods and their demographic features, and if any, whether it is negative or positive. The study consists of 191 primary school teachers working in 14 primary schools in seven geographical regions. The…

  7. Contribution of free play towards physical activity guidelines for New Zealand primary school children aged 7-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGall, S E; McGuigan, M R; Nottle, C

    2011-02-01

    the objectives of this study were to investigate children's physical activity patterns to gain comparisons between home and school and to determine whether the current physical activity guidelines of 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily were being met. participants were recruited from two New Zealand primary schools (60 children, mean age (SD) 8.3 (0.7) years). Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days using Actigraph accelerometers. Total activity and average counts were determined for school playtime, after school and weekends. Differences between average counts for these intervals were compared using the t statistic. Time and percentage of time spent were categorised into the activity thresholds: sedentary (5200). Total activity for each day was also determined. no child met the recommended 60 min of MVPA daily during the investigation. Compared to school playtime, activity counts were lower by 36% (CI 25% to 45.5%, p<0.001, effect size (ES)=-1.29) after school, 50.1% (CI 37% to 60.5%, p<0.001, ES=-2.01) on Saturday and 57.4% (CI 46.3% to 66.3%, p<0.001, ES=-2.47) on Sunday. Mean results showed children spent 91-96% of their time engaged in light or sedentary activities. Even during school playtime, where the children were most active, only 8 of 80 min were spent engaged in MVPA. this study found activity levels were considerably lower than the recommended guidelines, and children were more active during school playtime compared to after school and weekends.

  8. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  9. A Comparison of Women's Collegiate and Girls' High School Volleyball Injury Data Collected Prospectively Over a 4-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, Jonathan C; Gregory, Andrew; Berg, Richard L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-01-01

    There is a relative paucity of research examining the sport-specific injury epidemiology of high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. Moreover, differences in study methodology frequently limit our ability to compare and contrast injury data collected from selected populations. There are differences between the injury patterns characteristic of high school and collegiate female volleyball athletes. Retrospective clinical review. Level 3. We statistically analyzed injury incidence and outcome data collected over a 4-year interval (2005-2006 to 2008-2009) by 2 similar injury surveillance systems, the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) and the High School Reporting Injuries Online (HS RIO). We compared diagnoses, anatomic distribution of injuries, mechanisms of injury, and time lost from training or competition between high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. The overall volleyball-related injury rate was significantly greater among collegiate athletes than among high school athletes during both competition (injury rate ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4) and practice (injury rate ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 3.1-3.9). Collegiate athletes had a higher rate of ankle sprain, knee injury, and shoulder injury. Concussions represented a relatively high percentage of injuries in both populations (5.0% of total NCAA ISS injuries vs 4.8% of total HS RIO injuries, respectively). The data suggest that although similar, there were distinct differences between the injury patterns of the 2 populations. Compared with high school volleyball players, collegiate athletes have a higher rate of acute time loss injury as well as overuse time loss injury (particularly patellar tendinosis). Concussions represented a significant and worrisome component of the injury pattern for both study populations. The injury data suggest that important differences exist in the injury patterns of female high school compared with collegiate volleyball athletes

  10. The End of School Year on the Stage of Jesuit Schools in the Bohemian Province

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jacková, Magdaléna

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2016), s. 125-135 ISSN 0515-3190 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP406/12/P823 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Jesuit school theatre * Jesuit drama * Engel, Arnoldus * neo-latin drama Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  11. Effect of different nematicide applications per year on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between cost and benefit of the nematicide applications was also ... Methodology and results: A field experiment was conducted in a 40 years old ... Averaging the 12 root nematode samplings, the lowest R. similis (P= 0.0008), ... Rotation of the nematicides according to their physic-chemical properties and ...

  12. Prevalence of and Differences in Salad Bar Implementation in Rural Versus Urban Arizona Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenschine, Michelle; Adams, Marc; Bruening, Meg

    2018-03-01

    Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based survey. School nutrition managers (N=596) in the state of Arizona. National Center for Education Statistics locale codes defined rural and urban classifications. Barriers to salad bar implementation were examined among schools that have never had, once had, and currently have a school salad bar. Promotional practices were examined among schools that once had and currently have a school salad bar. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare urban and rural differences in presence and implementation of salad bars, adjusting for school-level demographics and the clustering of schools within districts. After adjustment, the prevalence of salad bars did not differ between urban and rural schools (46.9%±4.3% vs 46.8%±8.5%, respectively). Rural schools without salad bars more often reported perceived food waste and cost of produce as barriers to implementing salad bars, and funding was a necessary resource for offering a salad bar in the future, as compared with urban schools (Pbar promotion, challenges, or resources among schools that currently have or once had a salad bar. After adjustment, salad bar prevalence, implementation practices, and concerns are similar across geographic settings. Future research is needed to investigate methods to address cost and food waste concerns in rural areas. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Finnish Parental Involvement Ethos, Health Support, Health Education Knowledge and Participation: Results from a 2-Year School Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular…

  14. Planning abilities of children aged 4 years and 9 months to 8 ½ years: Effects of age, fluid intelligence and school type on performance in the Tower of London test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Nassif, Elaine Pacheco; Levy, Angela Maria; Leite, Wellington Borges; Fuentes, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between age and one type of environmental factor, namely, type of school (i.e., private vs. public), and the development of mental planning ability, as measured by the Tower of London (TOL) test. Participants comprised 197 public and 174 private school students, ranging in age from 4 years and 9 months to 8 years and 6 months. Besides the TOL test, students were administered Raven's Colored Matrices. Results confirmed the findings of previous studies that both age and school type are important predictors of mental planning. Furthermore, results also suggest that the relationship between type of school and mental planning ability cannot be accounted for by differences in students' fluid intelligence. In the present study, the TOL test continued to differentiate public from private school students, even after we controlled for the effect of differences on the Raven test.

  15. Planning abilities of children aged 4 years and 9 months to 8 1/2 years: Effects of age, fluid intelligence and school type on performance in the Tower of London test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the relationship between age and one type of environmental factor, namely, type of school (i.e., private vs. public, and the development of mental planning ability, as measured by the Tower of London (TOL test. Methods: Participants comprised 197 public and 174 private school students, ranging in age from 4 years and 9 months to 8 years and 6 months. Besides the TOL test, students were administered Raven's Colored Matrices. Results: Results confirmed the findings of previous studies that both age and school type are important predictors of mental planning. Furthermore, results also suggest that the relationship between type of school and mental planning ability cannot be accounted for by differences in students' fluid intelligence. Conclusion: In the present study, the TOL test continued to differentiate public from private school students, even after we controlled for the effect of differences on the Raven test.

  16. Astronomy in the early years of elementary education: a partnership between university and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, A.; Carvalho Neto, J. T.; Garrido, D.; Ityanagui, G.; Navi, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the interaction and partnership experience between a school and one of the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)campi, both located in Araras, SP, aiming to teach and promote astronomy and astronautics knowledge among students of the first five years of Elementary Education. This initiative made use of Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics as a motivating event for the theme exploration. The actions were divided into two fronts: an improvement course for the school teachers conducted by university professors and lectures for students by UFSCar students under the guidance of university teachers and the school coordinators. By the observed results, we noticed the importance of narrowing the distance school-university, promoting learning for both institutions and helping to raise the level of education from elementary school to college.

  17. Predicting different grades in different ways for selective admission : Disentangling the first-year grade point average

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenman, Sebastiaan C.; Bakker, Wieger E.; van Tartwijk, Jan W F

    2016-01-01

    The first-year grade point average (FYGPA) is the predominant measure of student success in most studies on university admission. Previous cognitive achievements measured with high school grades or standardized tests have been found to be the strongest predictors of FYGPA. For this reason,

  18. Predicting Different Grades in Different Ways for Selective Admission: Disentangling the First-Year Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenman, Sebastiaan C.; Bakker, Wieger E.; van Tartwijk, Jan W. F.

    2016-01-01

    The first-year grade point average (FYGPA) is the predominant measure of student success in most studies on university admission. Previous cognitive achievements measured with high school grades or standardized tests have been found to be the strongest predictors of FYGPA. For this reason, standardized tests measuring cognitive achievement are…

  19. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years [Introduction to Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different

  1. Analysis of typical meteorological years in different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Lam, Joseph C.; Liu, Jiaping

    2007-01-01

    Typical meteorological years (TMYs) for 60 cities in the five major climatic zones (severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, hot summer and warm winter, mild) in China were investigated. Long term (1971-2000) measured weather data such as dry bulb and dew point temperatures, wind speed and global solar radiation were gathered and analysed. A total of seven climatic indices were used to select the 12 typical meteorological months (TMMs) that made up the TMY for each city. In general, the cumulative distribution functions of the TMMs selected tended to follow their long term counterparts quite well. There was no persistent trend in any particular years being more representative than the others, though 1978 and 1982 tended to be picked most often. This paper presents the work and its findings. Future work on the assessment of TMYs in building energy simulation is also discussed

  2. Different Aspects of Involving Family in School Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blândul Valentin-Cosmin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The school has come to not have a huge credibility even, sometimes being abandoned, primarily because, nowadays, no matter hierarchy and is not perceived as a value. The actual society no longer has trust in the educational establishment, the values acquired and ranked by the amount of learning embedded in it. Such an attitude is reflected by the relationship between “parent - teacher” and “student - teacher”. Based on these findings, the present study aims to investigate the main features of the relationship that is established between school and family, concerned how parents can get involved in school life effectively. The lot of subjects was represented by 212 teachers from secondary schools in Bihor, Romania and the instrument used in the research was a questionnaire consisting of 46 objective and subjective items. The results are very interesting and shows that many respondents argue that parents show indifference to the formal education of their children, not involved in the didactic or extracurricular activities and in school life, not take part in parent meetings or when called for, is difficult to communicate with parents etc. There are some cases when, because of the family economic situation is poor, parents send their children to work, offering less time and interest in their education and instruction.

  3. Do schools differ in suicide risk? the influence of school and neighbourhood on attempted suicide, suicidal ideation and self-harm among secondary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Robert

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of suicide and poor mental health are high in environments (neighbourhoods and institutions where individuals have only weak social ties, feel socially disconnected and experience anomie - a mismatch between individual and community norms and values. Young people spend much of their time within the school environment, but the influence of school context (school connectedness, ethos and contextual factors such as school size or denomination on suicide-risk is understudied. Our aim is to explore if school context is associated with rates of attempted suicide and suicide-risk at age 15 and self-harm at age 19, adjusting for confounders. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 1698 young people surveyed when aged 11, (primary school, 15 (secondary school and in early adulthood (age 19. Participants provided data about attempted suicide and suicide-risk at age 15 and deliberate self-harm at 19. In addition, data were collected about mental health at age 11, social background (gender, religion, etc., and at age 15, perception of local area (e.g. neighbourhood cohesion, safety/civility and facilities, school connectedness (school engagement, involvement, etc. and school context (size, denomination, etc.. A dummy variable was created indicating a religious 'mismatch', where pupils held a different faith from their school denomination. Data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression. Results After adjustment for confounders, pupils attempted suicide, suicide-risk and self-harm were all more likely among pupils with low school engagement (15-18% increase in odds for each SD change in engagement. While holding Catholic religious beliefs was protective, attending a Catholic school was a risk factor for suicidal behaviours. This pattern was explained by religious 'mismatch': pupils of a different religion from their school were approximately 2-4 times more likely to attempt suicide, be a suicide-risk or self

  4. Changes in the Relation Between Competence Beliefs and Achievement in Math Across Elementary School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Anne F; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-03-01

    Math competence beliefs and achievement are important outcomes of school-based learning. Previous studies yielded inconsistent results on whether skill development, self-enhancement, or reciprocal effects account for the interplay among them. A development-related change in the direction of their relation in the early school years might explain the inconsistency. To test this, 542 German elementary school students (M = 7.95 years, SD = 0.58) were repeatedly investigated over 24 months from Grade 2 to Grade 4. Math competence beliefs declined and had a growing influence on subsequent math grades. This suggests changes in the dominant direction of the relation from a skill development to a reciprocal effects model during elementary school. Findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical and practical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Personality traits as predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujičić Milena M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to examine the predictive power of personality traits, as defined by the Big five model of personality in expressing depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years. The research was conducted on a sample of 977 secondary school students in the third and fourth grade from ten secondary schools in Niš. The gender structure of the sample was as follows: 397 boys and 607 girls. The following instruments were used in the research: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995, Big Five Inventory - BFI (John, Donahue and Kentle, 1991. The results showed that the regression model constructed by personal traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to experience explain 26% of the criterion variable of Anxiety. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β=.34, p<0.01 . Other personal traits that contribute to the prediction of this variable at a statistically significant level are Extraversion (β =-.17, p<0.01, Agreeableness (β =-.14, p<0.01 and Conscientiousness (β =-.17, p<0.01. The same model explains 37% of the criterion variable Stress. The largest individual contribution to Stress prediction is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.57, p<0.01. The same model explains 27% of the criterion variable Anxiety as well. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.45, p<0.01, whereas a statistically significant correlation between personal traits Agreeableness (β =-.06, p<0.05 and Conscientious (β =-.12, p<0.01 exists. Results show that the difference between boys and girls in expressing Anxiety (t=-2.96, p<0.01 and Stress (t=-5.01, p<0.01 exists. These emotional states are more expressive with girls. However, there are no differences in expressing Depression

  6. The Ties That Bind: Linkages among Secondary Schools, Two-Year Colleges, and Baccalaureate Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, James J.

    This document discusses the roles of secondary schools, two-year colleges, and the upper level university in the University of Wisconsin System. Because of close ties with the host communities, Wisconsin's two-year institutions are uniquely situated to function as community resources. The paper discusses the advantages of a collaborative…

  7. Characteristics and Changes in the Mathematics Textbooks for the Secondary School in Argentina along 67 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Viviana Carolina; Otero, Maria Rita

    2018-01-01

    This work analyses the changes in the relationship between arguing and images from the mathematics textbooks for the secondary school in Argentina (students 12-17 years old) along 67 years. The textbooks have been published in the period 1940 thru 2007. The analysis is done by (N = 137) textbooks based on three metacategories in an inductive way.…

  8. Entry-Year Administrator Induction: A State and Local School District Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, William R.

    1988-01-01

    The Dayton (Ohio) City School District initiated a very successful pilot induction program for entry-year administrators in January 1987. Nine special workshops were planned to train both volunteer mentors and entry-year administrators in such areas as personal development, conflict management, problem identification and solution, time management,…

  9. The effects of a three-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Erkki; Pennanen, Marjaana; Haukkala, Ari; Dijk, Froukje; Lehtovuori, Riku; De Vries, Hein

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a 3-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki. The study is part of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA), in which Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK participated. A total of 27 secondary schools in Finland participated in the programme (n = 1821). Schools were randomised into experimental (13) and control groups (14). The programme included 14 information lessons about smoking and refusal skills training. The 3-year smoking prevention programme was also integrated into the standard curriculum. The community-element of the programme included parents, parish confirmation camps and dentists. The schools in the experimental group received the prevention programme and the schools in the control group received the standard health education curriculum. Among baseline never smokers (60.8%), the programme had a significant effect on the onset of weekly smoking in the experimental group [OR = 0.63 (0.45-0.90) P = 0.009] when compared with the control group. Being female, doing poorly at school, having parents and best friends who smoke and more pocket money to spend compared with others were associated with an increased likelihood of daily and weekly smoking onset. These predictors did not have an interaction effect with the experimental condition. This study shows that a school- and community-based smoking prevention programme can prevent smoking onset among adolescents.

  10. Does school environment affect 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krølner, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Rasmussen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    It is often found that adolescents eat too little fruit and vegetables. We examined the importance of school for 11-year-olds' daily intake measured by food frequency- and 24-h recall questionnaires in Danish data from the European 2003 Pro Children Survey. Multilevel logistic regression analyses...... > or = 130 g vegetables/day. Most of the total variance in students' intake occurred at the individual level (93-98%). There were larger between-school variations in vegetable intake than in fruit intake. Fruit and vegetable consumption clustered within schools to a larger degree for boys than girls...

  11. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  12. Moral education in extracurricular work of general schools of Ukrainian provinces in 1850–1860 years

    OpenAIRE

    Biletska Svitlana Anatoliivna

    2015-01-01

    The article raised the actual problem of organization of moral education of pupils in extracurricular work of general schools (historical aspect).It is stated that the purpose of moral education of pupils of general schools in extracurricular work of 1850–1860 years was to create a holistic, perfect humanistic person. Ways of realization of the global purpose are revealed through the prism of inheritance of such known educators as K. Ushinsky, P. Kapterev, I. Kyreyevsky, L. Modzalevsky. In th...

  13. Back pain in children surveyed with weekly text messages - a 2.5 year prospective school cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Claudia; Wedderkopp, Niels; Jespersen, Eva

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back pain is reported to occur already in childhood, but its development at that age is not well understood. The aims of this study were to describe BP in children aged 6-12 years, and to investigate any sex and age differences. METHODS: Data on back pain (defined as pain in the neck......, mid back and/or lower back) were collected once a week from parents replying to automated text-messages over 2.5 school years from 2008 till 2011. The prevalence estimates were presented as percentages and 95% confidence intervals. Differences between estimates were considered significant...

  14. Differences in Students' Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Public, Factory, and Private Secondary Schools in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lu, Ciyong; Ling, Wenhua

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of smoking among Chinese adolescents has dramatically increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese students in 3 types of secondary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3957 students of…

  15. Differences in prevalence of overweight and stunting in 11-year olds across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium. CONCLUSIONS: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain......., Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Parents reported height and weight of the children, and BMI values were analysed using the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force reference populations. Continuous variables were...

  16. Comparative Study of Three Different Personal Response Systems with Fourth-Year Undergraduate Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, Denis; Senior, Avril

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different Personal Response Systems that have been used in recent years at the School of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool: a technology-free system (Communicubes), a handset delivery device (TurningPoint), and a cloud-based technology (Poll Everywhere) that allows students to use a range of personal computing devices to register their answer. All three systems offer a method to promote active learning, and lecturers were encouraged to use them. However, there are cost and logistical implications for each. The authors found that both staff and students did have particular preferences for a specific system. This preference was not the same for both groups. The outcome of the comparison is that further research is needed into cloud-based technology as it offers benefits to the students but is also a distraction.

  17. Evaluation of different techniques for erosion control on different roadcuts in its first year of implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Rodríguez, Abraham; Viedma, Antonio; Contreras, Valentin; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Linear infrastructures, such as highways and railways, present a large environmental impact. Among this impact is the effect on landscape and the modification of the hydrological conditions of the area and an increase in erosive processes (Martin et al., 2011). The increase of erosive processes is specially significant in roadbanks, resulting in high maintenance costs as well as security risks for the use of the infrastructure if it is not properly controlled. Among roadbanks, roadcuts are specially challenging areas for erosion control and ecological restoration, due to their usually steep slope gradient and poor conditions for establishment of vegetation. There are several studies in Mediterranean conditions indicating how the combination of semiarid conditions with, sporadic, intense rainfall events makes a successful vegetation development and erosion control in motorway roadbanks extremely difficult (e.g. Andrés and Jorbat, 2000; Bochet and García-Fayos, 2004). This communication presents the results of the first year evaluation (hydrological year 2012-2013) of five different erosion control strategies on six different locations under different materials on roadcuts of motorways or railways in Andalusia during 2012-2013 using natural rainfall and simulated rainfall. The six sites were located on roadcuts between 10 and 20 m long on slope steepness ranging from 40 to 90%, in motorways and railways spread over different materials in Andalusia. Site 1, Huelva was located on consolidated sand material, sites 2, Osuna I, site 3, Osuna II and site 4, Mancha Real, on marls. Sites 5, Guadix, and 6, Fiñana, were located on phyllites, in comparison a harder material. At each site 12 plots (10 m long and 2 m wide) were installed using metal sheets buried 10 cm within the soil with their longest side in the direction of the roadcut maximum slope. Six different treatments were evaluated at each site, two replications each. These treatments were: 1- A control with bare

  18. Transforming School Counseling: Making a Difference for Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Convinced that school counselors can do more to increase young people's access to high achievement and successful postsecondary educational and career options, the DeWitt Wallace-Readers' Digest Fund awarded the Education Trust a planning grant to study counselor preparation. Ten universities were selected to revamp training programs around eight…

  19. Race and Cultural Flexibility among Students in Different Multiracial Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Prudence L.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: One of the most critical functions of a well-integrated school is the development of "culturally flexible" students who, over the course of their social development, effectively navigate diverse social environs such as the workplace, communities, and neighborhoods. Most studies, albeit with some exceptions, have…

  20. A Different Model for School Success: Empower Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris-Berg, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This article opens with a thought provoking question--When it comes to defining teacher leadership, how much do we limit ourselves by assuming that the way teachers work today must always be the way teachers work? The author points out that pioneering groups of public school teachers across the United States are advancing a new definition of…

  1. Socioeconomic differences in school dropout among young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Background School dropout in adolescence is an important social determinant of health inequality in a lifetime perspective. It is commonly accepted that parental background factors are associated with later dropout, but to what extent social relations mediate this association is not yet fully...

  2. Cyberbullying in Schools: A Research of Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the nature and the extent of adolescents' experience of cyberbullying. A survey study of 264 students from three junior high schools was conducted. In this article, "cyberbullying" refers to bullying via electronic communication tools. The results show that close to half of the students were bully victims and about one in…

  3. Past 15-year trends in adolescent marijuana use: Differences by race/ethnicity and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Renee M; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C Debra M

    2015-10-01

    The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999 to 2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, past 30-day use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999 to 2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive and Executive Functions in Colombian School Children with Conduct Disorder: Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urazán-Torres, Gina Rocío; Puche-Cabrera, Mario José; Caballero-Forero, Mangelli; Rey-Anacona, César Armando

    2013-12-01

    Most of the studies that have examined cognitive and executive functions in conduct disorders (CD) have been conducted on institutionalized male adolescents. In this research the cognitive and executive functions of non-institutionalized Colombian school children with CD were compared with normal school children, all between 6 and 12 years-old. We used a case-control design. The cases were participants who met the diagnostic criteria for CD (n=39) and controls who did not meet these criteria (n=39), according to reports of a professional of the participants' institution, and a structured interview for childhood psychiatric syndromes. The two groups were selected from educational institutions, and there were no differences in age, school grade, or socioeconomic level. The IQ was reviewed, as well as the presence of other mental disorders, serious physical illnesses, and more serious neurological signs. The cognitive and executive functions were evaluated using a child neuropsychological test battery. We found that participants with CD had significantly lower scores in construction abilities, perceptual abilities (tactile, visual and auditory), differed in verbal memory, differed in visual memory, language (repetition, expression and understanding), meta-linguistic abilities, spatial abilities, visual and auditory attention, conceptual abilities, verbal and graphic fluency, and cognitive flexibility. The same differences were found between males, except in repetition, whereas girls showed fewer differences, thus the cognitive and executive performance was poorer in males with CD than in females, especially in verbal and linguistic-related functions. Children with CD could show generalized cognitive and executive deficits. These deficits seem to be more frequent in boys than in girls with CD. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. The same teacher, the same curriculum materials, different schools: What is the enacted curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Tammy

    This research examines how the same teacher implements the same curriculum material in two different schools. The aim of the study is to examine how the enacted algebra curriculum may change when the same teacher enacts the same written curriculum materials in different classes. This research comprises two case studies. Each case examines one teacher who taught the beginning of the mathematical topic "equivalent algebraic expressions", to two 7th grade classes from different schools. The same textbook was used in all four classes. The data collected includes: 1. Observations: 25930 lessons throughout the school year in each of the participating classes; Other mathematics classes in each of the schools; Other non9mathematics classes in the participating classes. A total of 130 lessons were observed. The observations included continuous observations of the teaching of "equivalent algebraic expressions" (15919 lessons) in each class. These observations are the main data source of this research; 2. Interviews with the teachers; 3. Informal conversations; and 4. Field notes. The data was analyzed both through quantitative and qualitative analysis. The research focuses on the following two aspects of the enacted curriculum: implementation of the recommendation that appeared in the curriculum materials and the types of algebraic activity that the students were exposed to during the teaching of the mathematical topic. Kieran's framework (Kieran, 1996, 2004), which distinguishes between three types of algebraic activities 9 generational, transformational and global/meta9level 9 was employed for the examination of the algebraic activities. Comparisons were made for two aspects of the research: between the enacted curriculum in each of the classes and the curriculum materials; and between each of the classes taught by same teacher. It was found that in case study 1, that examined teacher Sara and schools Carmel and Tavor -- most of the recommendations for instruction that

  6. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  7. Exploring Instructional Differences and School Performance in High-Poverty Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, Regina G.; Hollo, Alexandra; Scott, Terrance M.

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, federal funding under Title 1 is provided to schools to improve academic achievement for disadvantaged students. Many students attending schools eligible for Title 1 funding are from families in poverty and at risk for negative outcomes. Identifying instructional factors that mitigate this risk must be a priority for teachers…

  8. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6-9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy Ma

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009\\/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007\\/2008 to 2009\\/2010.

  9. Sex differences in physician salary in U.S. public medical schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B.; Olenski, Andrew R.; Blumenthal, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Limited evidence exists on salary differences between male and female academic physicians, largely due to difficulty obtaining data on salary and factors influencing salary. Existing studies have been limited by reliance on survey-based approaches to measuring sex differences in earnings, lack of contemporary data, small sample sizes, or limited geographic representation. Objective To analyze sex differences in earnings among U.S. academic physicians. Design, setting, and participants Freedom of Information laws mandate release of salary information of public university employees in several states. In 12 states with salary information published online, we extracted salary data on 10,241 academic physicians at 24 public medical schools. We linked this data to a unique physician database with detailed information on sex, age, years of experience, faculty rank, specialty, scientific authorship, NIH funding, clinical trial participation, and Medicare reimbursements (proxy for clinical revenue). We estimated sex differences in salary adjusting for these factors. Exposure Physician sex Main outcome measures Annual salary Results Female physicians had lower unadjusted salaries than male physicians ($206,641 vs. $257,957; difference $51,315; 95% CI $46,330–$56,301). Sex differences persisted after multivariable adjustment ($227,782 vs. $247,661; difference $19,878; 95% CI $15,261–$24,495). Sex differences in salary varied across specialties, institutions, and faculty ranks. Female full and associate professors had comparable adjusted salaries to those of male associate and assistant professors, respectively. Conclusions and relevance Among physicians with faculty appointments at 24 U.S. public medical schools, significant sex differences in salary exist even after accounting for age, experience, specialty, faculty rank, and measures of research productivity and clinical revenue. PMID:27400435

  10. Gender differences in trajectories of relational aggression perpetration and victimization from middle to high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; McNicholas, Caroline; Nahapetyan, Lusine

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression refers to harming others through damaging or manipulating peer relationships. In a cohort of students surveyed annually from middle to high school, this study identified groups of adolescents who followed distinct trajectories of perpetration and of victimization of relational aggression, compared the proportion of boys and girls in each trajectory, and examined the overlap between perpetration and victimization trajectories. The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Students completed yearly surveys from Grade 6-12. We used group-based trajectory modeling to identify the trajectories. Adolescents followed three developmental trajectories of perpetration and three similar trajectories of victimization: Low (lowest aggression), Moderate, and High Declining (high in middle school, with a steep decline in high school). All trajectories declined from Grade 6-12. The largest groups were the Low perpetration (55%) and Low victimization (48%). Relational aggression trajectories differed by gender: more boys reported perpetration, and more girls reported victimization. For perpetration, slightly more boys than girls were classified in the two trajectories of higher aggression. For victimization, significantly fewer girls than boys were classified in the Low trajectory, and significantly more girls than boys were classified in the Moderate trajectory. There was substantial overlap of the perpetration and victimization trajectories. These findings highlight the importance of implementing programs to reduce relational aggression for boys and for girls. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. ANTHROPOMETRICAL STATUS AND GENDER DIFFERENCES AT 12 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Gllareva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to verify the current anthropometrical status of the pupils of the age 12, as well as to compare it with the standards of raising in accordance with the WHO standards. In the study were included 62 pupils (42 male and 20 female. The anthropometric tests were done in height, weight, biacromial and elbow breadth, subcutaneous adipose tissue at the : suprailiac skinfold; subscapular skinfold; triceps skinfold, as well as the abdominal circumference. The results showed that there was a heterogenic distribution of results, especially in the body weight, where the distribution between the minimal and maximal results is 28-70 kg, with the average 43, 14 ± 9, 78 of standard deviation with the male pupils, while with the female pupils was noticed more homogenous group and the standard deviation was significantly lower than with the female pupils in all variables. The findings show that almost in all measured variables female pupils are more developed at this age, especially the body high, body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while as regards the abdominal circumference and body breadth, the male pupils are more developed. Comparison of symbolic sample of this research with the WHO data shows an approximate trend of raising and development of children which were included in this research, and the difference is as follows: Female pupils age 12, body height=151.97 cm

  12. School results and access test results as indicators of first-year performance at university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bothma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The goals set by the National Plan for Higher Education, the fact that many schools are still severely disadvantaged as well as far-reaching changes in the school system demand that South African universities urgently reconsider their admission procedures. Redesigning admission procedures calls for a thorough understanding of the interrelationships between school marks, results in existing access tests and first-year university performance. These interrelationships were statistically investigated in the case of the 1999, 2000 and 2001 intake groups, who were compelled to write access tests before being admitted to Stellenbosch University. The results of this investigation confirm an alarming degree of unpreparedness among many prospective students regarding what is expected of them at university. This is aggravated by school marks creating a totally unrealistic expectation of performance in the first year at university. It is emphasised that schools and authorities dealing with admission of prospective students at universities should be cognisant of the findings reported here. Furthermore, the statistical analyses demonstrate several novel techniques for investigating the interrelationship between school marks, access test results and university performance.

  13. Teachers in Schools with Low Socioeconomic Composition: Are They Really That Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Julien

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to assess whether differences in teacher characteristics vary with differences in socioeconomic compositions of schools. We conducted correlation analyses on administrative data from the French-speaking education system in Belgium. This database regroups more than 20,000 teachers in 1,630 elementary schools. We selected…

  14. Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Are There Gender Differences in School Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Tresco, Katy E.; Junod, Rosemary E. Vile; Volpe, Robert J.; Lutz, J. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have comprehensively examined possible gender differences in the school functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated differences in academic, social, and emotional and behavioral functioning between 133 male and 42 female elementary school students who met research diagnostic…

  15. Danubius International Business SchoolDifferent Ways in Business Education

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Arsith; Radu Lupoae; Catalin Ionescu

    2013-01-01

    In this material we propose an analysis of values, mission and vision of a new entity born into Danubius University landscape – Danubius International Business School (DIBS). Viewed as a bridge between theory and practice made from guidance, DIBS is an agent which transforms academic approach into a ready to apply in real world the business knowledge. Also, DIBS aim to participate at the creation of a global business community based on communication, ethics and knowledge. What we want to prov...

  16. [Effects of daily physical exercise at school on cardiovascular risk--results of a 2-year cluster-randomized study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, C; Mende, M; Gaede, L; Müller, U; Machalica, K; Schuler, G

    2011-11-01

    It was the aim of this study to measure the effects over two years of daily sport activity during the school-day on their physical fitness (primary endpoint), motor coordination and blood pressure (secondary endpoints). A total of 232 children from eleven different 6 (th) grade classes were enrolled after informed parental consent. Their mean age was 11.1  ±  0.6 years. Six classes were randomly assigned for intervention (n=141), five as control (n=91). Those of the intervention cohort undertook, for five days weekly during the school year one hour of regulated sport exercise, including 15 min of endurance training. The pupils of the control group undertook customary sport activity (two hours a week). Anthropometric data were recorded and maximal oxygen uptake measured in each pupil, as well as blood pressure and motor coordination at the beginning and at the end of each of the two years of the study. The data were analyzed using the cluster randomization method. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO (2)max) had improved among the intervention group after two years, compared with the controls (3.12 m/kg/min, 95% confindence interval [CI] 0.06-6.19), while improvement in motor coordination just failed to reach statistical significance (3.06, 95% CI -0.17-6.29). There was no significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but a downward trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity from 12.1% to 7.8% in the intervention group. The results indicate that daily physical exercise during school hours should be given greater importance. But it will require a long-term trial to determine whether promotion of increased physical activity at school influences the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors when the pupils reach adulthood. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness: the Sogndal school-intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Andersen, Lars Bo; Mamen, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) following a school-based physical activity (PA) intervention. In total, 259 children (age 9.3+/-0.3 years) were invited to participate, of whom 256 participated. The children from the intervention school (63...... boys, 62 girls) carried out 60-min PA over 2 school years. The children from the control school (62 boys, 69 girls) had the regular curriculum-defined amount of physical education in school, i.e. 45 min twice weekly. One hundred and eighty-eight children (73.4%) successfully completed both the baseline...

  18. School Effects, Gender and Socioeconomic Differences in Reading Performance: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Perparim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of Albanian secondary schools, which are associated with reading achievement and the effects of gender and socio-economic status on reading performance of 15-year-old students. This study used data on the background and achievement of 4,596 students in 181 Albanian schools from the 2009…

  19. Job Satisfaction of Catholic Primary School Staff: A Study of Biographical Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nobile, John J.; McCormick, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study's purpose is to examine the relationships between the biographical characteristics gender, age, years of experience and employment position, and job satisfaction of staff members in Catholic primary schools. Design/methodology/approach: Survey data were collected from 356 staff members from Catholic primary schools. Research…

  20. Acute Alcohol Intoxication: Differences in School Levels and Effects on Educational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Joris J.; Klerk, Frouktje Ade; Van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on adolescents' school performance. In the 2007-2015 period, 3,317 adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) were treated for acute alcohol intoxication, and 37 adolescents were admitted to the hospital twice. Alcohol intoxication has an overrepresentation in "low" school levels. The…

  1. Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in School Discipline among U.S. High School Students: 1991-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, John M.; Goodkind, Sara; Wallace, Cynthia M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2008-01-01

    The present study uses large nationally representative samples of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian American, and American Indian students to examine current patterns and recent trends (1991 to 2005) in racial, ethnic, and gender differences in school discipline. We found that Black, Hispanic, and American Indian youth are slightly more likely than White and Asian American youth to be sent to the office and substantially (two to five times) more likely to be suspended or expelled. Although school...

  2. The English proficiency and academic language skills of Australian bilingual children during the primary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennaoui, Kamelia; Nicholls, Ruth Jane; O'Connor, Meredith; Tarasuik, Joanne; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that early proficiency in the language of school instruction is an important predictor of academic success for bilingual children. This study investigated whether English-proficiency at 4-5 years of age predicts academic language and literacy skills among Australian bilingual children at 10-11 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children ( LSAC, 2012 ). The LSAC comprises a nationally representative clustered cross-sequential sample of Australian children. Data were analysed from a sub-sample of 129 bilingual children from the LSAC Kindergarten cohort (n = 4983), for whom teachers completed the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) checklist (a population measure of early childhood development) and the Academic Rating Scale (ARS) language and literacy subscale. Linear regression analyses revealed that bilingual children who commenced school with stronger English proficiency had higher academic language and literacy scores at the end of primary school (β = 0.45). English proficiency remained a significant predictor, even when accounting for gender and socio-economic disadvantage (β = 0.38). The findings indicate that bilingual children who begin school without English proficiency are at risk of difficulties with academic language and literacy, even after 6 years of schooling. Risk factors need to be identified so early support can be targeted towards the most vulnerable children.

  3. Year in school and physical activity stage of change as discriminators of variation in the physical activity correlate profile of adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Con; Murphy, John J; MacDonncha, Ciaran

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of the physical activity correlate profile of adolescent females will provide insight into decreasing physical activity patterns among adolescent females. Correlates of physical activity and physical activity stage of change were assessed during 2007-2008 among 871 Irish adolescent females in years 1-6 in secondary schools (15.28 ± 1.8 years). Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used to identify whether differences in correlates of physical activity could be detected across year in school and physical activity stages of change. Significant differences (P physically active (partial eta range (ηp2) .21-.25) to be the most important predictors of physical activity stage of change. Females in more senior years in school and in earlier physical activity stages of change reported a significantly less positive physical activity correlate profile than females in junior years and in later physical activity stages of change. This finding supports the construct validity of the physical activity stages of change.

  4. Building energy simulation using multi-years and typical meteorological years in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Lam, Joseph C.; Liu Jiaping; Tsang, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Detailed hourly energy simulation was conducted for office buildings in the five major climate zones - severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild and hot summer and warm winter - in China using multi-year (1971-2000) weather databases as well as typical meteorological years (TMY). The primary aim was to compare the energy simulation results from the TMY with those from individual years and their long term means. A total of 154 simulation runs were performed. Building heating and cooling loads, their components and energy use for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning were analysed. Predicted monthly load and energy consumption profiles from the TMY tended to follow the long term mean quite closely. Mean bias errors ranged from -4.3% in Guangzhou to 0% in Beijing and root-mean-square errors from 3% in Harbin to 5.4% in Guangzhou. These percentages were not always the smallest compared with the 30 individual years, however, they are at the lower end of the percentage error ranges. This paper presents the work and its findings

  5. Caries risk assessment/treatment programs in U.S. dental schools: an eleven-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorty, Jack S; Walls, Allan Todd; Wearden, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk assessment/treatment (CRA/ Tx) programs in U.S. dental schools in 2009 and compare the results to those of the 1998 survey. A survey of U.S. dental schools was conducted in 2009 using the same eleven-question survey instrument as in 1998. Results were analyzed using stratified random sampling and chi-square tests for six of the questions. Additionally, data from the other questions were directly compared. Two questions showed a statistically significant difference: an increase in programs supervised by one school department and the number of schools using CRA as a graduation requirement. Positive changes are occurring in the development of CRA/Tx programs in U.S. dental schools. A wide variety of approaches to teaching this subject, including use of terminology and treatment philosophies, is evident. The evolution of this subject has been slow and varied over the past eleven years. Changing from a mainly surgical approach model to a medical model is occurring, but a more integrated method is needed to clarify terminology, diagnosis, treatment, and communications with researchers, clinicians, teachers, patients, and third-party payers.

  6. Short-term visual memory properties sheet secondary school age with different levels of physical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Menshikh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . The results presented properties of short-term visual memory with different levels of physical development. Materials and methods. The study included 405 boys and girls Cherkassy school 11 in age from 13 to 16 years. Study of short-term visual memory was carried out using tables with 10 characters ( numbers and ambiguous geometric shapes . Indicator memory was the higher, the more information was displayed. Measured the length and body weight was recorded cardiorespiratory indicators - heart rate at rest and after 20 squats, lung capacity, breath-hold inspiration and expiration. Physical development factor was calculated by taking into account actual and average population indices. Results . Found that the volume of short-term visual memory, the boys and girls high school age does not depend on the level of their physical development. Despite the fact that the trend towards higher performance memory in groups of persons with a high level of physical development compared to their same age with medium and low levels, significant differences between the mean values for the most part have been identified. No significant differences between the values of the investigated cognitive function in groups by sex. Conclusions . Growth pattern memory with age in this period of ontogenesis preserved that coincides with the data presented in the scientific works of scientists.

  7. A 12-year comparison of students’ perspectives on diversity at a Jesuit Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Mujawar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have assessed perspectives of medical students toward institutional diversity, but few of them have attempted to map changes in diversity climate over time. Objective: This study aims to investigate changes in diversity climate at a Jesuit medical institution over a 12-year period. Methods: In 1999, 334 medical students completed an anonymous self-administered online survey, and 12 years later, 406 students completed a comparable survey in 2011. Chi-square tests assessed the differences in percent responses to questions of the two surveys, related to three identities: gender, race, and sexual orientation. Results: The 1999 versus 2011 samples were 46% versus 49% female, 61% versus 61% Caucasian, and 41% vs. 39% aged 25 years or older. Findings suggested improvements in medical students’ perceptions surrounding equality ‘in general’ across the three identities (p<0.001; ‘in the practice of medicine’ based on gender (p<0.001, race/ethnicity (p=0.60, and sexual orientation (p=0.43; as well as in the medical school curriculum, including course text content, professor's delivery and student–faculty interaction (p<0.001 across the three identities. There was a statistically significant decrease in experienced or witnessed events related to gender bias (p<0.001 from 1999 to 2011; however, reported events of bias based on race/ethnicity (p=0.69 and sexual orientation (p=0.58 only showed small decreases. Conclusions: It may be postulated that the improvement in students’ self-perceptions of equality and diversity over the past 12 years may have been influenced by a generational acceptance of cultural diversity and, the inclusion of diversity training courses within the medical curriculum. Diversity training related to race and sexual orientation should be expanded, including a follow-up survey to assess the effectiveness of any intervention.

  8. Determination of Prevalence of Dental Erosion in 12 - 14 Years School Children and Its Relationship with Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Uzma; Quadir, Fauzia; Hosein, Tasleem

    2016-07-01

    To determine the frequency of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its association with dietary habits. Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi, from January to June 2010. School children aged between 12 - 14 years were included in this study. Dental erosion was detected by visual examination. Aself-developed questionnaire was used to assess the dietary habits of children. Acidic diet was considered a diet that has an acidic pH. The amount of consumption of acidic drinks and food per week was categorized into low consumption (1 - 7 times / week) and medium consumption (8 - 21 times / week). Chi-square test was applied to see any statistical difference between diet and tooth erosion at 95% CI. The results showed a high frequency of (46%) dental erosion in children, which was significantly higher (p dental erosion in children. Acidic diets need to be controlled in frequency to prevent dental erosion.

  9. Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. State of Mechanisms of Adaptation to Teaching Loads for High-school Students with Different Levels of Professional Preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Danilenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of functional adaptability of 69 high-school students with different levels of professional preparedness had been carried out. The dynamics of the indices of heart rate variability and hemodynamics indices during the academic year had been studied. The difference in adaptive capacity, depending on the personal characteristics of students, the level of preparedness of adolescents to professional choice had been shown.

  11. Еvaluation of health status of children attending primary schools with different organization of physical education lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Oleksandra S.; Korshun, Maria M.; Garkavyi, Serhii I.; Garkavyi, Serhii S.

    2018-01-01

    The mandatory swimming lesson in primary schools, equipped with swimming pools, was introduced without studying of its health-saving effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health status of pupils studying in schools with different organization of physical education lessons. Cross-sectional study was organized in two schools with different organization of physical education lessons. The experimental group (E) consisted of 408 children of 1‑4 year of study (210 girls and 198 boys) who during one of the lessons of physical education were engaged in swimming in the school basin. Control group (C) consisted of 279 primary school children (210 girls and 156 boys) from a neighboring educational institution where all physical education lessons were organized in the gym. The health status was evaluated using classical method of complex assessment of the state of health with the subsequent assignment of each child to one of the health groups. In result of evaluation of state of health there was established that among pupils from E group the proportion of boys with harmonious anthropometric parameters is higher (pprimary school has positive effect on health status of children.

  12. [Realities and professional expectations of medical students attending Guinea Bissau's medical school in 2007 school year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.

  13. Student engagement in the school : interpersonal and inter-center differences.

    OpenAIRE

    Ros Martínez de Lahidalga, Iker

    2012-01-01

    This research project aim to identify differences in students’ engagement in school life, in terms of both sociopersonal characteristics (sex and educational stage) and type of school (state, private with some state funding and cooperative). Participants were 1229 students aged between 9 and 17 (598 from a worker cooperative and 631 from state and private stated-funded schools of the Basque Country and Catalonia). Three components were distinguished in engagement (emotional, behavioural and ...

  14. Student Engagement in the School: Interpersonal and Inter-Center Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Ros Martínez de Lahidalga, Iker; Goikoetxea Piédrola, Javier; Gairín, Joaquín; Lekue Rodríguez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Traducido al castellano e inglés [EN[This research project aims to identify differences in students’ engagement in School life, in terms of both socio-personal characteristics (sex and educational stage) and type of school (state, private with some state funding and cooperative). Participants were 1229 students aged between 9 and 17 (598 from a worker cooperative and 631 from state and private stated-funded schools of the Basque Country and Catalonia). Three components were distinguishe...

  15. Parent involvement in beginning primary school: Correlates and changes in involvement across the first two years of school in a New Zealand sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowall, Philippa S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Schaughency, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    This study described the relations of parents' and teachers' beliefs and attitudes to forms of parents' involvement in children's first two years of primary school. Parents of children in their first year of primary school (age 5) were recruited from 12 classrooms within four schools in New Zealand; 196 families participated in their child's first year, and 124 families continued to participate in their child's second school year. Parents completed the Family-Involvement Questionnaire, New Zealand, and we archivally collected parent-documented children's oral reading homework. Teachers' rated helpfulness of parents' involvement at school (level 2) and parents' rated teacher invitations to be involved and their perceived time and energy (level 1) contributed to school-based involvement in Year 1 in multilevel models, with parents' rated teacher invitations for involvement also found to predict Year 1 home-school communication in regression analyses. Contributors to Year 1 child-parent reading in multilevel models included level 1 predictors of two or more adults in the home and parents' perceived time and energy. Longitudinal analyses suggested both consistency and change in each form of involvement from Year 1 to Year 2, with increases in each form of involvement found to be associated with increases in parents' and/or teachers' views about involvement in Year 2 in cross-sectional time-series analyses. Implications for schools wanting to engage families are that parents' involvement in children's schooling may be influenced by parents' perceptions of their capacity, teachers' engagement efforts, and the school's climate for involvement. This is a special issue paper "Family Engagement in Education and Intervention". Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Orienting to Medicine: Scripting Professionalism, Hierarchy, and Social Difference at the Start of Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Sienna R; Scott, Rebekah; Blackwood, Kristy

    2018-04-23

    Nascent medical students' first view into medical school orients them toward what is considered important in medicine. Based on ethnography conducted over 18 months at a New England medical school, this article explores themes which emerged during a first-year student orientation and examines how these scripts resurface across a four-year curriculum, revealing dynamics of enculturation into an institution and the broader profession. We analyze orientation activities as discursive and embodied fields which serve "practical" purposes of making new social geographies familiar, but which also frame institutional values surrounding "soft" aspects of medicine: professionalism; dynamics of hierarchy and vulnerability; and social difference. By examining orientation and connecting these insights to later, discerning educational moments, we argue that orientation reveals tensions between the overt and hidden curricula within medical education, including what being a good doctor means. Our findings are based on data from semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and participant-observation in didactic and clinical settings. This article answers calls within medical anthropology and medical education literature to recognize implicit values at play in producing physicians, unearthing ethnographically how these values are learned longitudinally via persisting gaps between formal and hidden curricula. Assumptions hidden in plain sight call for ongoing medical education reform.

  17. Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

  18. Korean Children's Cultural Adjustment during Transition to the Early Years of School in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ngaire

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated Korean children's cultural adjustment during transition to South Australian junior primary school settings. Using case-study methodology to provide a sociocultural perspective, data were collected during interviews with a sample of South Korean international students aged five to eight years, their mothers and teachers. All…

  19. Adolescents attitudes towards organic food : a survey of 15- to 16 year old school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Casimir, G.J.; Borghuis, J.; Marks, I.; Meijer, L.; Zebeda, S.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents are the consumers of tomorrow; therefore policies aimed at increasing organic food consumption should address the needs of this group. To discover their attitudes towards organic food and their knowledge of the subject, a survey among almost 700 school children aged 15-16¿years was

  20. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  1. Effect of Religious Attendance on Years of Schooling in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhu S.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the USA, the study demonstrates that an individual's completed years of schooling later in life is positively related to his/her frequency of religious attendance during youth. Using the propensity score matching technique, the study shows that this relationship is causal. This conclusion remains valid for youths of different…

  2. What Can Year-5 Children's Drawings Tell Us about Their Primary School Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the research process and trialling of a drawing technique for gathering pupils' views within a Personal Construct Psychology framework. Seventy-two pupils in curriculum year 5 were asked to produce two drawings of themselves in school (144 drawings), one in a "happy" situation and one in an "unhappy"…

  3. Cycle-Based Budgeting and Continuous Improvement at Jefferson County Public Schools: Year 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the first-year of implementing Cycle-based Budgeting at Jefferson County Public Schools (Louisville, KY). To address the limitations of incremental budgeting and zero-based budgeting, a Cycle-based Budgeting model was developed and implemented in JCPS. Specifically, each new program needs to submit an on-line budget request…

  4. Evaluating the Promise of Single-Track Year-Round Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenn, Joseph F.

    1996-01-01

    Describes two single-track year-round elementary schools in Durham, North Carolina, established in discrete attendance zones. Remediation and enrichment activities were provided during intersession. Low-SES students were overrepresented in remediation sessions. Student outcomes data (end-of-grade reading and math test scores) suggest that…

  5. Determining the Numeracy and Algebra Errors of Students in a Two-Year Vocational School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the mathematics achievement level in basic numeracy and algebra concepts of students in a two-year program in a technical vocational school of higher education and determine the errors that they make in these topics. The researcher developed a diagnostic mathematics achievement test related to numeracy and…

  6. Year-round School Makes Good Business Sense, Says This Boardman-Businessman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    Argues that year-round schools make good business sense by providing (1) a more efficient use of capital investments, (2) an alleviation of uneconomical and undesirable peaks in working and recreation, and (3) a more sensible way of looking at teacher salaries. (JF)

  7. Parent Attitudes Toward the Virginia Beach Year-Round School Pilot Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    Part of the Virginia Beach year-round school program evaluation, this final report contains a detailed analysis of parental attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions. The data leads to the following conclusions: a majority (53.3 percent) of parents are dubious or negative toward the 45-15 pilot project; a slight majority of parents in the pilot schools…

  8. The Impact of Years of Teaching Experience on the Classroom Management Approaches of Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Zafer; Unal, Aslihan

    2012-01-01

    This study provided a basis for answering the following essential question: Does the years of experience affect teachers' classroom management approaches? Data were collected from 268 primary school teachers. The findings of this study demonstrated that experienced teachers are more likely to prefer to be in control in their classrooms than…

  9. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  10. The development of the classroom social climate during the first months of the school year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainhard, M.T.; Brekelmans, J.M.G.; Brok, den P.J.; Wubbels, Th.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the mean stability of classroom social climates during the first months of the school year and the deviation of individual classrooms (N = 48) and students (N = 1208) from this general trend were investigated by taping students’ interpersonal perceptions of their teachers. Multilevel

  11. Enhancing Students' Engagement: Report of a 3-Year Intervention with Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Julianne C.; Christensen, Andrea; Kackar-Cam, Hayal Z.; Trucano, Meg; Fulmer, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    All teachers (N = 32) at one middle school participated in a university-led intervention to improve student engagement. Teachers discussed four principles of motivation and related instructional strategies. Teachers enacted instructional strategies in their classrooms. We observed six randomly selected teachers and their students over 3 years.…

  12. The Inclusion of Pseudowords within the Year One Phonics "Screening Check" in English Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Howard; England, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights problems surrounding the Year 1 Phonics Screening Check that has accompanied the legislative framework for synthetic phonics in English primary schools. It investigates the inclusion of pseudowords and raises questions regarding their generation and categorization, the rationale for their inclusion and the assumption that the…

  13. Revisiting Public School/University Partnerships for Formal Leadership Development: A Brief 30-Year Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the Kansas State University Chair of the Department of Educational Leadership reviews the strong history of his department's university and public school partnerships and the impact these partnerships have had on leadership preparation programs. Almost 30 years ago, Kansas State University foresaw the power of partnerships with…

  14. In Patience and Hope: A 20-Year Narrative Study of a Family, School, and Community Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Ann; Deegan, James G.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes a 20-year journey of educational transformation from 1985 to 2005 in a bellwether, or highly developed, instance of one school, family, and community partnership--the Kileely Community Project--situated in a large social housing project in Limerick City in the Midwestern region of the Republic of Ireland. The study is a…

  15. Obesity in 7 - 10-year-old children in urban primary schools in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban 7 - 10-year-old children in affluent (quintile 5) English-medium primary schools in Port Elizabeth. Method. A quantitative, descriptive one-way cross-sectional research design utilising random sampling was used.

  16. Allergy sensitization and asthma among 13-14 year old school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Allergy sensitization and asthma among 13-14 year old school children in Nigeria. Oluwole O1 ... Identified asthma cases were matched to controls. Allergy skin tests ..... lower risk of asthma than those with low birth order because exposure to ...

  17. Dissertation Research in School Psychology: Changes in Topics and Methodology over the Past 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekwa, Adam; Ysseldyke, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Eighty school psychology programs offering training at the doctoral level were contacted with a request for lists of authors, titles, and abstracts of dissertations completed between the years 2000 and 2007. Titles and abstracts from 1119 dissertations were reviewed to assess the interests and experiences of new researchers and practitioners in…

  18. Sexual behavior, depressive feelings, and suicidality among Estonian school children aged 13 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmets, L; Samm, A; Sisask, M; Kõlves, K; Aasvee, K; Värnik, A

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is based on a WHO Collaborative Cross-National Study "Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC)." It aimed at describing and analyzing how the sexual behaviors of 13- to 15-year-old Estonian school children were associated with self-reported depressive feelings and suicidality. Distinctive behavioral traits in relation to age of first sexual intercourse were also investigated. Self-reported questionnaires from school children (n = 3,055) were analyzed. In total, 15.2% of school children reported being nonvirgin. Among 13-year-olds, 2.9% of girls and 6.8% of boys were nonvirgins. Approximately 25% of the 15-year-old girls and boys were nonvirgins. The likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal ideation increased significantly in both genders with loss of virginity. Boys who had lost their virginity at 13 years or younger were 4.2 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts; comparable girls were 7.8 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Compared to virgins, youths who had lost their virginity reported poor self-assessed health and more risk behaviors in themselves and their peers. Experiences of sexual intercourse increased the odds ratios for depressive feelings and suicidality. The earlier sexual intercourse was initiated, the greater were the odds of lower mental well-being. Risk behaviors emerged as a complex phenomenon requiring complex prevention.

  19. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationships between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, K C; Rowe, D C

    1999-07-01

    This study investigated (a) genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between family and school environment and depressed mood and (b) potential sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to both variation in and covariation between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood. Data are from 2,302 adolescent sibling pairs (mean age = 16 years) who were part of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Although genetic factors appeared to be important overall, model-fitting analyses revealed that the best-fitting model was a model that allowed for different parameters for male and female adolescents. Genetic contributions to variation in all 3 variables were greater among female adolescents than male adolescents, especially for depressed mood. Genetic factors also contributed to the correlations between family and school environment and adolescent depressed mood, although, again, these factors were stronger for female than for male adolescents.

  1. Heritable differences in schooling behavior among threespine stickleback populations revealed by a novel assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R Wark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the proximate and ultimate mechanisms of social behavior remains a major goal of behavioral biology. In particular, the complex social interactions mediating schooling behavior have long fascinated biologists, leading to theoretical and empirical investigations that have focused on schooling as a group-level phenomenon. However, methods to examine the behavior of individual fish within a school are needed in order to investigate the mechanisms that underlie both the performance and the evolution of schooling behavior. We have developed a technique to quantify the schooling behavior of an individual in standardized but easily manipulated social circumstances. Using our model school assay, we show that threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus from alternative habitats differ in behavior when tested in identical social circumstances. Not only do marine sticklebacks show increased association with the model school relative to freshwater benthic sticklebacks, they also display a greater degree of parallel swimming with the models. Taken together, these data indicate that marine sticklebacks exhibit a stronger tendency to school than benthic sticklebacks. We demonstrate that these population-level differences in schooling tendency are heritable and are shared by individuals within a population even when they have experienced mixed-population housing conditions. Finally, we begin to explore the stimuli that elicit schooling behavior in these populations. Our data suggest that the difference in schooling tendency between marine and benthic sticklebacks is accompanied by differential preferences for social vs. non-social and moving vs. stationary shelter options. Our study thus provides novel insights into the evolution of schooling behavior, as well as a new experimental approach to investigate the genetic and neural mechanisms that underlie this complex social behavior.

  2. "I Wish Everyone Had a Library Like This": Year 2 Report on the Baltimore Elementary and Middle School Library Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Steven B.; Davis, Marcia H.

    2015-01-01

    This report focuses on the opening of new school libraries and their impact on schools, teachers and students after two years of implementation of the Baltimore Elementary and Middle School Library Project (Library Project). The findings build on the first report of this project and show that it is not just new facilities, but also the added…

  3. School day and weekend patterns of physical activity in urban 11-year-olds: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Gregor; Sorić, Maroje; Starc, Gregor; Kovač, Marjeta; Mišigoj-Duraković, Marjeta; Borer, Katarina; Strel, Janko

    2015-01-01

    This multi-center study was conducted to objectively evaluate energy expenditure and physical activity (PA) patterns on school days and weekends in urban 11-year-olds. The sample consisted of 241 children from three cities: Zagreb, Ljubljana (both in Central Europe) and Ann Arbor (United States). Energy expenditure and PA were assessed during two school days and two weekend days using a multiple-sensor body monitor. Differences between the cities were observed for all PA variables. The highest level of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was noted in Ljubljana boys [284 (98) min/day] and the lowest in Zagreb girls [179 (95) min/day]. In Zagreb and Ljubljana, boys were more physically active than girls, while in Ann Arbor the opposite was observed. In contrast, no gender difference in sedentary behavior was observed in any of the cities. A decline in PA from school days to weekends was noted in all city groups in both genders. However, the magnitude of the reduction in daily energy expenditure differed between the cities, with the largest differences being observed in Ljubljana and the smallest in Ann Arbor. In all three city groups, the great majority of boys and girls achieved current recommendations of 60 min of MVPA either during school days or weekends. Weekends seem to be an appropriate target when promoting PA in 11-year-olds in all the cities included in the study. Increasing vigorous activity on weekends seems to be of particular importance in Zagreb and Ljubljana. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparatives of Expressive Activities of Junior High School Students with Different Types of Representative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geydebrekht N.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data from a study of drawings of children of primary school age to identify the сcomparative diagnostic parameters that allow to define the leading representative system in the child. 164 drawings of 51 persons under test of the two grades of primary school were analyzed. The observation and modified in relation to primary school age version of the method «Representational systems bias test» (Lewis A., Puselik R., 2012 were used as elements of the diagnostic unit. Based on these results it is concluded that the drawings of children of primary school age with different types of representative systems have differences, sufficient to justify their diagnostic informative value. The results of the study make comparative profiles of children of primary school age with different types of representational systems to facilitate the diagnostic part of the work with children's drawings.

  5. 10 years with Planet Earth essence in the primary school children drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2016-04-01

    "10 years with Planet Earth" is the title of the 2016 INGV calendar for primary schools representing the review of a project conceived as support and complement of 15 years long INGV dissemination activities with schools. We realized 10 calendars together with and for primary schools, every year with a subject related to a World in constant evolution. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunami waves, magnetic storms and other phenomena are manifestations of the complexity and dynamicity, which began more than four billion years ago and never halted. Since the Earth originated to the first presence of water, life and oxygen, the Cambrian explosion of species, the domain of dinosaurs, the great extinctions and glaciations, the surface of our planet experiences continents collisions, mountains and oceans formation and life forms emerging and disappearing. Every year we have launched a competition asking children to send drawings on themes chosen to stimulate learning about Earth Sciences and Planet Earth dynamics. We intended to raise awareness on issues as water resources availability, protection against natural disasters and control of environmental degradation. For each competition, we chose the most significant drawings to be included in the yearly calendar about the Earth. The authors of drawings were awarded by scientists, journalists, artists and science communicators and even by a minister. Besides the competitions, these drawings depict their own impressions and reflections, providing an opportunity to illustrate the children's point of view. From drawings and texts arise a great consideration and respect for the Planet, raising hopes that similar initiatives can contribute to increase the knowledge of the Earth and of the fragile human ecosystem in the hearts and minds of future active citizens. The project was made possible thanks to the teachers and to the wonderful students of more than 200 schools that sent about 10,000 drawings that have intrigued

  6. Evaluating a blended-learning course taught to different groups of learners in a dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahinis, Kimon; Stokes, Christopher W; Walsh, Trevor F; Cannavina, Giuseppe

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to present and evaluate a blended-learning course developed for undergraduate (B.D.S.), postgraduate, and diploma (hygiene and therapy) students at the University of Sheffield School of Clinical Dentistry. Blended learning is the integration of classroom face-to-face learning with online learning. The overall methodology used for this study was action research. The data were collected using three processes: questionnaires to collect contextual data from the students taking the course; a student-led, nominal group technique to collect group data from the participants; and a non-participant observer technique to record the context in which certain group and individual behaviors occurred. The online component of the course was accepted as a valuable resource by 65 percent of those responding. While online information-sharing occurred (31 percent of the students posted in forums), there was no evidence of online collaboration, with only 8 percent replying to forum postings. Accessibility of the online environment was one of the main concerns of the students at the nominal group sessions. Differences regarding overall engagement with the course between the student groups (years) were observed during the sessions. The majority of the students were satisfied with the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) course. No statistically significant differences between males and females were found, but there were differences between different student cohorts (year groups).

  7. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  8. Factors Affecting School Participation in Turkey: An Analysis of Regional Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Sedat; Chudgar, Amita

    2016-01-01

    There are thousands of children who remain out of school at both primary and secondary levels in Turkey. The current disparities in access to education in Turkey are mostly driven by systematic regional differences and high gender inequalities. Although several existing studies have paid close attention to gender-based inequities in school access,…

  9. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  10. Differences in Assessments of Organizational School Climate between Teachers and Adminsitrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Brandy Kinlaw

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the organizational school climate perceptions of teachers and principals and to ascertain the extent to which their perceptions differed. This causal comparative study used the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire for Elementary Schools (OCDQ-RE) as the survey instrument for data…

  11. Poor School Bonding and Delinquency over Time: Bidirectional Effects and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, Jenny Freidenfelt; Eklund, Jenny M.; Fritz, Marie Vafors; Klinteberg, Britt af

    2011-01-01

    The association between poor school bonding and delinquency has only been partly addressed in earlier research. Using a longitudinal design, the objective of our study was to investigate possible bidirectional effects and sex differences between adolescents' experienced school bonding and self-rated delinquency over time. A total of 788…

  12. Optimization as a dispositive in the production of differences in schools in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    concerning schools and education. The findings of the study conclude that students are problematized and excluded from the mainstream school on the basis of different problematizations of behavior. In the present period these problematizations demand that subjects become social, reflexive, and learning...

  13. Does the Organization of Instruction Differ in Charter Schools? Ability Grouping and Students' Mathematics Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Mark; Donaldson, Kristi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although we have learned a good deal from lottery-based and quasi-experimental studies of charter schools, much of what goes on inside of charter schools remains a "black box" to be unpacked. Grounding our work in neoclassical market theory and institutional theory, we examine differences in the social organization of schools…

  14. Location, Location, Location: How Would a High-Performing Charter School Network Fare in Different States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Chris; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the authors do not examine different operating strategies for charter schools or analyze the impact of their often educationally intensive models on finance. Instead, because public charter schools are funded predominantly by public dollars, they simply ask what impact location--and its associated variances in public funding and the…

  15. The Geneva University Global Health and Human Rights Summer School: A 5-Year Intercultural Collaborative Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Mpinga, Emmanuel K

    2018-01-01

    Education and training in human rights has been set as a priority by the United Nations. Health and human rights are closely related. Training professionals from various backgrounds in human rights might ultimately contribute to improve the health of individuals and communities. We present the 5 years' experience with a 3-week residential Global Health and Human Rights Course developed at the University of Geneva and implemented with the support/participation of international organizations (IOs) and non-governmental organizations active in the health and human rights sector. Over the years, roughly 150 students from 43 nationalities, with many different educational backgrounds, attended the course. The male/female ratio was 1/5. The adopted educational approach was multifold and comprised lectures from academics and experts with field experience, group work, individual case studies, journal clubs, and site visits. Evaluation data show that site visits at IOs were highly appreciated as well as networking opportunities among students, with academics and experts with field experience. The variety of topics discussed was, at times, "too much"; yet, it allowed students to measure the extent of the challenges the field is facing. The adopted active learning approach facilitated the exchange of experiences among students and allowed them to get acquainted with different cultural sensitivities. The Global Health and Human Rights Summer-School of the University of Geneva allowed its participants, coming from all over the world, to identify challenges of the interlinked fields of health and human rights, reflect upon their underlying causes, and imagine possible solutions. Sharing our experience will hopefully help passionate educators around the world to develop similar programs.

  16. Does nutrition education in primary schools make a difference to children's fruit and vegetable consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransley, Joan Kathleen; Taylor, Elizabeth Faye; Radwan, Yara; Kitchen, Meaghan Sarah; Greenwood, Darren Charles; Cade, Janet Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    To explore whether initiatives to promote fruit and vegetables in primary schools are associated with changes in children's diet. Cross-sectional dietary survey. Main outcome measures were intakes of fruit, vegetables and key nutrients; and a score for initiatives promoting fruit and vegetables in school. One hundred and twenty-nine English primary schools. Year 2 children (aged 6-7 years, n 2530). In schools running a gardening club, children ate more vegetables, 120 (95 % CI 111, 129) g/d, compared with those that did not, 99·3 (95 % CI 89·9, 109) g/d; and where parents were actively involved in school initiatives to promote fruit and vegetables, children's intake of vegetables was higher, 117 (95 % CI 107, 128) g/d, compared with those where parents were not involved, 105 (95 % CI 96·2, 114) g/d. In schools that achieved a high total score (derived from five key types of initiatives to promote fruit and vegetables in school) children ate more vegetables, 123 (95 % CI 114, 132) g/d, compared with those that did not, 97·7 (95 % CI 88·7, 107) g/d. Gardening, parental involvement and other activities promoting fruit and vegetables to children in school may be associated with increased intake of vegetables but not fruit. These effects were independent of deprivation status and ethnicity.

  17. Soil water erosion under different cultivation systems and different fertilization rates and forms over 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of rain and surface runoff together are the active agents of water erosion, and further influences are the soil type, terrain, soil cover, soil management, and conservation practices. Soil water erosion is low in the no-tillage management system, being influenced by the amount and form of lime and fertilizer application to the soil, among other factors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of the form of liming, the quantity and management of fertilizer application on the soil and water losses by erosion under natural rainfall. The study was carried out between 2003 and 2013 on a Humic Dystrupept soil, with the following treatments: T1 - cultivation with liming and corrective fertilizer incorporated into the soil in the first year, and with 100 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T2 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over five years, and with 75 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T3 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over three years, and with 50 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T4 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over two years, and with 25 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T5 - fallow soil, without liming or fertilization. In the rotation the crops black oat (Avena strigosa , soybean (Glycine max , common vetch (Vicia sativa , maize (Zea mays , fodder radish (Raphanus sativus , and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris . The split application of lime and mineral fertilizer to the soil surface in a no-tillage system over three and five years, results in better control of soil losses than when split in two years. The increase in the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage cultivation increases phytomass production and reduces soil loss by water erosion. Water losses in treatments under no-tillage cultivation were low in all crop cycles, with a similar behavior as soil losses.

  18. Is obesity associated with school dropout? Key developmental and ethnic differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to expand the literature on child obesity and school outcomes by examining associations between obesity and high school dropout, including the role of obesity onset and duration as well as ethnicity. Methods Data on 5066 children obtained between 1986 and 2010 from the child cohort of the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) were analyzed. Group-based trajectory analysis identified obesity trajectories from 6-18 years. School completion information from age 14 into young adulthood was used to calculate school dropout. Chi-square and pairwise comparison tests were used to identify significant associations between obesity trajectories and school dropout. Results Adolescents belonging to an increasing trajectory (adolescent-onset obesity) had a higher likelihood of dropping out of high school compared to those belonging to chronic, decreasing (childhood-only obesity), and non-obese trajectories. This association was particularly salient among white adolescents. Conclusions Obesity onset during early adolescence increased risk of high school dropout. White adolescents were particularly vulnerable. Given that early adolescence is marked by significant biological and social changes, future research should seek to identify the underlying processes linking adolescent-obesity and school dropout to decrease school dropout risk among this vulnerable population. PMID:26331748

  19. Children's thinking about diversity of belief in the early school years: judgments of relativism, tolerance, and disagreeing persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainryb, Cecilia; Shaw, Leigh A; Langley, Marcie; Cottam, Kim; Lewis, Renee

    2004-01-01

    Children's thinking about diversity of belief in 4 realms--morality, taste, facts, and ambiguous facts--was examined. Ninety-six participants (ages 5, 7, and 9) were interviewed about beliefs different from their own that were endorsed by characters with different status; their judgments of relativism, tolerance, and disagreeing persons were assessed. Five-year-olds made fewer relative and tolerant judgments than 7- and 9-year-olds. Nevertheless, participants of all ages organized their judgments according to the realm of diversity, thought that some beliefs are relative and some are nonrelative, and made tolerant judgments of some divergent beliefs (and their proponents) but not of others. The findings suggest that, in the early school years, children have multiple and well-differentiated perspectives on belief diversity.

  20. Trends in body weight for 7-year boys from different environmental sites of copper mining region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The epidemic of the XXI century – a disease that threatens through development of other ailments, caused by pathological accumulation of adipose tissue in the body, beyond the physiological needs and adaptability – the obesity. A significant number of diseases are largely a consequence of obesity, and despite the fact that it mainly occurs in adults, that problem may start influencing our health from an early age. In childhood and adolescence the most common form is simple obesity, and frequency of occurrence shows significant growing trend, regardless of gender. The prevalence of obesity in early stages of life is associated with a significant probability of a continuation of or increase in adulthood, therefore one should look for the onset of obesity in childhood. The results of studies and projections show steady growth in the number of overweight and obese in populations of developing countries and developed economies, including Poland. Therefore it is important to continuously monitor body weight and degree of fatness of children and adolescents. Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in six rural primary schools from the Copper Mining Region and in all three primary schools from Polkowice. More measurements were made in 2008 and 2010. The total number of 7-year old boys was 277. The measurements covered Body height, Body weight, Lean Body Mass, Total Body Water and Total Body Fat. These data were collected with the use of anthropometer, body scale and FUTREX 5000, the optical body composition analyzer. Measurements were necessary to get the BMI. Results. Based on analysis, it was observed that the height and weight of 7-year-old boys from the Copper Mining Region has increased compared to the first series of tests. The BMI and amount of body fat have also increased. This situation was observed both in rural and urban environment. There was a difference in body fat percentage. Lower values were

  1. Student achievement in science: A longitudinal look at individual and school differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alina

    The importance of science in today's technological society necessitates continued attention to students' experiences in science and specifically their achievement in science. There is a need to look at gender and race/ethnicity simultaneously when studying students' experiences in science and to explore factors related to higher achievement among students. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, this study contributes to existing literature on student achievement in science by simultaneously exploring the effects of race/ethnicity and gender. Capitalizing on the availability of yearly science achievement scores, I present trajectories of student achievement from 7th to 12th grade. This study also includes an exploration of school effects. Overall, student achievement in science increases from 7th to 12th grade, although some leveling is seen in later grades. Growth in achievement differs by both gender and race/ethnicity, but racial/ethnic differences are larger than gender differences. Hispanic, Black, Asian, and White males score higher, on average, throughout the secondary grades than their female counterparts. Achievement scores of Asian students are consistently higher than White students, who in turn score higher than Hispanic and finally Black students. Both background and science-related factors help explain variation in achievement status and growth in achievement. Parental education is positively associated with achievement status among all groups except Black students for whom there is no effect of parental education. Science related resources in the home are positively associated with student achievement and the effect of these resources increases in later grades. Student achievement in science is also positively related to student course taking and attitude toward science. Furthermore, both the negative effect of viewing science as a male domain, which exists for males and females, and the positive effect of parental support for

  2. Differences in Professional Interests Between School Librarians and School Directors of Audio-Visual Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Winston

    Since the state of Ohio has combined the certification requirements for the professions of school librarians and directors of audiovisual services, the professional interests of these two groups were compared to discover if they have identical interests. A questionnaire was devised with rating scales for areas of professional concern. The…

  3. Exploring Gender Differences across Elementary, Middle, and High School Students' Science and Math Attitudes and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrand, Julie

    The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (pgender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.

  4. Danubius International Business SchoolDifferent Ways in Business Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Arsith

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this material we propose an analysis of values, mission and vision of a new entity born into Danubius University landscape – Danubius International Business School (DIBS. Viewed as a bridge between theory and practice made from guidance, DIBS is an agent which transforms academic approach into a ready to apply in real world the business knowledge. Also, DIBS aim to participate at the creation of a global business community based on communication, ethics and knowledge. What we want to prove is that academic formation could be adapted to the requests of a fast changing socio-economic environment through complementary steps aimed to offer to participants skills and knowledge needed to solve complex challenges and to adapt identified solutions to new contexts. In the same time, we will demonstrate that inside DIBS, the entrepreneur/ intrapreneur is promoted as a competence creator, for its own or for others, the finality being the consolidation and development of the company for which is working for, having in mind guide-values as ethics based principles which guide the path from what it is through what it should be.

  5. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2013-14 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Masalovich, Svetlana; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Singleton, James A; Greby, Stacie M

    2014-10-17

    State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013-14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities. Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children.

  6. Multicultural desires? Parental negotiation of multiculture and difference in choosing secondary schools for their children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Bridget; de Tona, Carla

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the ways in which parents talk about choosing secondary schools in three areas of Greater Manchester. It argues that this can be a moment when parents are considering their own attitudes to, and shaping their children's experiences of, multiculture. Multiculture is taken as the everyday experience of living with difference. The paper argues that multiculture needs to be understood as shaped not only by racialized, ethnic or religious difference (as it is commonly understood) but also by other differences which parents may consider important, particularly class and approaches to parenting. We stress the need to examine what parents say about schooling in the context in which they are talking, which is shaped by local areas and the experiences of their children in primary schools. Based on interviews with an ethnically mixed groups of parents from different schools, we show how perceptions of the racialized and class demographics of schools can influence parents' choice of secondary schools. The paper also argues that attention needs to be paid to the ways in which terms such as ‘multicultural’ and ‘mix’ are applied uniformly to very different contexts, be they particular schools or local areas, suggesting there is a paucity of language in Britain when talking about multiculture. PMID:25506091

  7. Forty years trends in timing of pubertal growth spurt in 157,000 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    to 1969 who attended primary school in the Copenhagen Municipality. 135,223 girls and 21,612 boys fulfilled the criteria for determining age at OGS and age at PHV. These physiological events were used as markers of pubertal development in our computerized method in order to evaluate any secular trends...... in pubertal maturation during the study period (year of birth 1930 to 1969). In this period, age at OGS declined statistically significantly by 0.2 and 0.4 years in girls and boys, respectively, whereas age at PHV declined statistically significantly by 0.5 and 0.3 years in girls and boys, respectively...

  8. Approaches to Learning of First-Year and Fifth-Year Student Teachers: Are There Any Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušic, Iris; Jugovic, Ivana; Loncaric, Darko

    2017-01-01

    The motivation, skills and professional identity of future teachers develop during their initial teacher education. The aim of this research is to assess the differences between first-year and fifth-year student teachers on a number of personality and motivational variables that are indicative of their approaches to learning, using a…

  9. Oral Health Status among 12- and 15-Year-Old Children from Government and Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhabogi, J R; Shekar, Cbr; Hameed, Ia; Ramana, Iv; Sandhu, G

    2014-09-01

    The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio-economic background. The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between children from government and private schools in Andhra Pradesh, India. A combination of cluster and stratified random sampling was employed to select the study participants. Oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience was assessed and compared among 12- and 15-year-old children from three government and private schools each. The examination was carried out by three trained and calibrated investigators using a mouth mirror and explorer under natural daylight. A total of 604 children (331 government and 273 private) were examined in the study. The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) was higher among government school children (2.9 [1.1]) compared private school children (0.6 [0.4]). The mean gingival score and mean decayed missing filled teeth were also higher among government school children compared with private school children. A significantly higher number of children in the government schools had poor oral hygiene status, moderate to severe gingivitis and caries experience. The prevalence of oral diseases was relatively less among children from private schools in comparison with those from government schools. Hence, the children from government schools should be given the priority compared with private school children in any school dental health programs planned on a statewide basis.

  10. [Weight, dietary patterns and exercise habits in first-year primary school children: the AVall study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llargués, Esteve; Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Anna; Vila, Maria; José Pérez, M; Martínez-Mateo, Francesc; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Castells, Conxa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate weight, dietary patterns and exercise habits in children attending the first year of primary school in the city of Granollers (Spain). We performed a cross-sectional study of children enrolled in the schools of the city of Granollers. All the children were born in 2000. Data were collected from September to October 2006. Weight and height were measured in each schoolchild. The parents completed a questionnaire on the frequency of food intake and physical activity and the Krece Plus test. The International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for body mass index were used to define overweight and obesity. A total of 566 schoolchildren were included. The prevalence of overweight was 19.6% and that of obesity was 8.5%. Only 3.8% of the children had an adequate breakfast and 17.1% ate five portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Some families consumed a low amount of fruit (22%), vegetables (37%), bread/pasta/ rice/cereals (14%), fish (32%), legumes (13%) and nuts (9%). Children who had lunch at school ate more fruits (38% vs 29%), vegetables (35% vs 25%) and fish (82% vs 73%) than those who did not have lunch at school. A total of 82% of the schoolchildren exercised regularly. A quarter of the children who participated in the study were overweight. The schoolchildren who had lunch at school had better dietary patterns. Inappropriate family habits can determine children's dietary habits.

  11. Validity of self-reported lunch recalls in Swedish school children aged 6-8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Monica; Pena, Pablo; Lissner, Lauren; Grafström, Lisen; Vanaelst, Barbara; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Eiben, Gabriele

    2013-09-18

    Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day's school lunch reported by 6-8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child's intake of the previous day's lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children's recalls and teachers' records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6-8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson's correlations r=0.92, pteacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Children 6-8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake

  12. Equally Prepared for Life? How 15-Year-Old Boys and Girls Perform in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    In the past few decades there has been an increasing interest in the different educational experiences, success and eventual outcomes that prevail for males and females. Women often excel at school, however men often earn more and are more likely to hold positions of power in political and economic life. Looking at these inequalities, government…

  13. Complexities in Identifying and Defining Mathematics Learning Disability in the Primary School-Age Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Myers, Gwen F.

    2003-01-01

    Findings from a prospective longitudinal study of math disability (MD) addressed its incidence during primary school, the utility of different MD definitions, and evidence of MD subtypes. Findings indicated only 22 of 209 participants demonstrated "persistent MD"; reading disability was more frequent in this group; and reading related skills and…

  14. Twenty Years after the Velvet Revolution: Shifts in Czech Adolescents' Perceptions of Family, School, and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerek, Jan; Macek, Petr; Ježek, Stanislav; Lacinová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Families and schools are traditionally seen as substantial socialization agents forming adolescents' social values and their views of society. Special attention is paid to the question whether the relative importance of these influences remains stable in times of major social changes. In this study, two different generations of Czech middle…

  15. School Belonging in Different Cultures: The Effects of Individualism and Power Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai S. Cortina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited evidence exists on how the larger cultural framework affects psychological processes related to schooling. We investigated how the cultural dimensions of individualism/collectivism and power distance influence the sense of school belongingness using 2003 Programme for International Student Assessment survey data on 15-year-old students from 31 countries. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis indicated that power distance (i.e., hierarchical nature of social relationships is a better predictor of school belongingness on the cultural level than individualism/collectivism. Accordingly, students living in cultures with high degree of power distance (particularly East Asian countries in these data sets report lower school belongingness than students living in cultures with more lateral power relationships (Western countries. Positive teacher student relations and preference for cooperative learning environment predict higher school belongingness across cultures.

  16. Cohort Graduation Rate: Policy and Technical Manual. 2016-17 Graduation Rates Based on Students First Entering High School during the 2012-13 and 2013-14 School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    High School graduation rates are key indicators of accountability for high schools and school districts in Oregon. Beginning with the 2008-09 school year, the Oregon Department of Education (ODE) implemented the cohort method of calculating graduation rates. The cohort method identifies the year the student entered high school for the first time…

  17. Medical school gift restriction policies and physician prescribing of newly marketed psychotropic medications: difference-in-differences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marissa; Essick, Connor; Bearman, Peter; Ross, Joseph S

    2013-01-30

    To examine the effect of attending a medical school with an active policy on restricting gifts from representatives of pharmaceutical and device industries on subsequent prescribing behavior. Difference-in-differences approach. 14 US medical schools with an active gift restriction policy in place by 2004. Prescribing patterns in 2008 and 2009 of physicians attending one of the schools compared with physicians graduating from the same schools before the implementation of the policy, as well as a set of contemporary matched controls. Probability that a physician would prescribe a newly marketed medication over existing alternatives of three psychotropic classes: lisdexamfetamine among stimulants, paliperidone among antipsychotics, and desvenlafaxine among antidepressants. None of these medications represented radical breakthroughs in their respective classes. For two of the three medications examined, attending a medical school with an active gift restriction policy was associated with reduced prescribing of the newly marketed drug. Physicians who attended a medical school with an active conflict of interest policy were less likely to prescribe lisdexamfetamine over older stimulants (adjusted odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.88; P=0.02) and paliperidone over older antipsychotics (0.25, 0.07 to 0.85; P=0.03). A significant effect was not observed for desvenlafaxine (1.54, 0.79 to 3.03; P=0.20). Among cohorts of students who had a longer exposure to the policy or were exposed to more stringent policies, prescribing rates were further reduced. Exposure to a gift restriction policy during medical school was associated with reduced prescribing of two out of three newly introduced psychotropic medications.

  18. Mixed Schools versus Single-Sex Schools: Are There Differences in the Academic Results for Boys and Girls in Catalonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gracia, Maribel; Donoso Vázquez, Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    This study carries out a comparative analysis of achievement according to gender between mixed and single-sex schools in the region of Catalonia, Spain, for the subjects of Spanish, Catalan, English and Mathematics. After a brief contextualisation, a review of the main findings from international studies on differences in results for mixed schools…

  19. Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in School Discipline among U.S. High School Students: 1991-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John M., Jr.; Goodkind, Sara; Wallace, Cynthia M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2008-01-01

    Large nationally representative samples of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian American, and American Indian students were used in this study to examine current patterns and recent trends in racial, ethnic, and gender differences in school discipline from 1991 to 2005. Findings revealed that Black, Hispanic, and American Indian youth are slightly more…

  20. Queer(y)ing New Schooling Accountabilities through "My School": Using Butlerian Tools to Think Differently about Policy Performativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowlett, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article takes the role of provocateur to "queer(y)" the rules of intelligibility surrounding new schooling accountabilities. Butler's work is seldom used outside the arena of gender and sexualities research. A "queer(y)ing" methodology is subsequently applied in a context very different to where it is frequently…

  1. Burnout among medical students during the first years of undergraduate school: Prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and possible factors associated with the development of burnout among medical students in the first years of undergraduate school. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Barretos School of Health Sciences, Dr. Paulo Prata. A total of 330 students in the first four years of medical undergraduate school were invited to participate in responding to the sociodemographic and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) questionnaires. The first-year group consisted of 150 students, followed by the second-, third-, and fourth-year groups, with 60 students each. Results Data from 265 students who answered at least the sociodemographic questionnaire and the MBI-SS were analyzed (response rate = 80.3%). One (n = 1, 0.3%) potential participant viewed the Informed Consent Form but did not agree to participate in the study. A total of 187 students (187/265, 70.6%) presented high levels of emotional exhaustion, 140 (140/265, 52.8%) had high cynicism, and 129 (129/265, 48.7%) had low academic efficacy. The two-dimensional criterion indicated that 119 (44.9%) students experienced burnout. Based on the three-dimensional criterion, 70 students (26.4%) presented with burnout. The year with the highest frequency of affected students for both criteria was the first year (p = 0.001). Personal attributes were able to explain 11% (ΔR = 0.11) of the variability of burnout under the two-dimensional criterion and 14.4% (R2 = 0.144) under the three-dimensional criterion. Conclusion This study showed a high prevalence of burnout among medical students in a private school using active teaching methodologies. In the first years of graduation, students’ personal attributes (optimism and self-perception of health) and school attributes (motivation and routine of the exhaustive study) were associated with higher levels of burnout. These findings reinforce the need to establish preventive measures focused on the personal attributes of first-year

  2. Burnout among medical students during the first years of undergraduate school: Prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Robson Aparecido Dos Santos; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and possible factors associated with the development of burnout among medical students in the first years of undergraduate school. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Barretos School of Health Sciences, Dr. Paulo Prata. A total of 330 students in the first four years of medical undergraduate school were invited to participate in responding to the sociodemographic and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) questionnaires. The first-year group consisted of 150 students, followed by the second-, third-, and fourth-year groups, with 60 students each. Data from 265 students who answered at least the sociodemographic questionnaire and the MBI-SS were analyzed (response rate = 80.3%). One (n = 1, 0.3%) potential participant viewed the Informed Consent Form but did not agree to participate in the study. A total of 187 students (187/265, 70.6%) presented high levels of emotional exhaustion, 140 (140/265, 52.8%) had high cynicism, and 129 (129/265, 48.7%) had low academic efficacy. The two-dimensional criterion indicated that 119 (44.9%) students experienced burnout. Based on the three-dimensional criterion, 70 students (26.4%) presented with burnout. The year with the highest frequency of affected students for both criteria was the first year (p = 0.001). Personal attributes were able to explain 11% (ΔR = 0.11) of the variability of burnout under the two-dimensional criterion and 14.4% (R2 = 0.144) under the three-dimensional criterion. This study showed a high prevalence of burnout among medical students in a private school using active teaching methodologies. In the first years of graduation, students' personal attributes (optimism and self-perception of health) and school attributes (motivation and routine of the exhaustive study) were associated with higher levels of burnout. These findings reinforce the need to establish preventive measures focused on the personal attributes of first-year students, providing better

  3. Initiation to scientific literacy in early years of elementary school: contributions of a didactic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pinto Viecheneski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research professional, which was developed in the context of the early years of elementary school, from the application of a didactic sequence, with a view to initiation of scientific literacy of students in the literacy process of language. The methodological approach was qualitative, interpretative nature. The subjects were the students of 1st year 1st Cycle of Basic Education in a public school in Ponta Grossa - PR. The data were collected through observation, application of diagnostic testing, audio recordings, photographs, written records, illustrations and posttest. The theory History Cultural Development made the analysis of pedagogical actions and reflections on them. The main results indicate that the activities of the instructional sequence, contributed to the progressive advancement of the students' knowledge in relation to the area of science and basic scientific literacy, and also contributed to make learning the language more contextualized and interdisciplinary. It is noted that this work requires a teacher to assume the role of mediator between the scientific and the children, as well as requires the understanding that, as the subject entered the technological means, students in the early years have a right to access scientific culture. In this perspective, respecting the level of development of the children, the teacher can provide challenges and mediations necessary for the gradual construction of scientific knowledge, the first years of elementary school.

  4. DIFFERENCES ON THE MOTION KNOWLEDGE LEVEL AT THE MALE STUDENTS IN SOME HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mitrevski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the research in this labour we want to realize the difference among the high school students` motion knowledge in different cities in Macedonia. This research consists of 135, 15 years old examinees, all students in high school, Ist class, divided into 3 sub samples The classification was made according the number of the classes and the number of the students who regularly attend the tuition. The analysis on the motorics level was conducted on the polygon for checking the psychophysical alertness of the students. For the differences` determination among the students` groups were used uni variant analyses of variable (ANOVA and post hock analyses (LSD test. From the gained results we can notice that there are many differences among the students` groups on the motion level.

  5. Nutritional quality of dietary patterns of children: are there differences inside and outside school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Aliete dos Santos Vieira

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: There are differences in the nutritional quality of dietary patterns inside and outside school, and heterogeneity in adherence to these patterns were observed across regions and socioeconomic classes.

  6. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  7. Employment and First Year Experience of Beginner Primary School Teachers at Private Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay ÖNTAŞ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study to demonstrate primary school teachers' employment process and their first year teaching in private educational organizations is aimed. The major employer of primary school teachers is public schools that are funded by state. There will be a gap between grade inflation and employment rate when all of the teacher candidates claim to be appointed to public schools. Hence private educational organizations provide alternative career opportunities for teacher candidates. Qualitative methods will be used in this study to display real evidence from the eyes of teachers and also principals. The data have been obtained through documents and interview techniques. After the data have been collected, descriptive analysis has been used. The findings of the study were given within the frame of themes and codes which were determined based on the problem statement. The first theme, career was presented in the context of choosing sector, recruitment and selecting process, professional development, leave the profession. The second theme, factors affecting first years' success was explained in the context of teaching factors, consistency and skills focus. The third theme was presented in a category of pressure, workload, complaining psychological and physical exhaustion, flexible working conditions.

  8. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Schools Following 8 Years of Mandating Legislation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Zinckernagel, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    AND RESULTS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey of Danish school leadership (n=1240) and ninth-grade homeroom teachers (n=1381) was carried out for school year 2013-2014. Qualitative interviews and the Theory of Planned Behavior were used to construct the survey. Logistic regression models were employed...... to identify factors associated with completed CPR training. Information from 63.1% of eligible schools was collected: 49.3% (n=611) of leadership and 48.2% (n=665) of teachers responded. According to teachers, 28.4% (95% CI 25.0% to 32.0%) and 10.3% (95% CI 8.1% to 12.8%) of eligible classes had completed CPR...... and automated external defibrillator training, respectively. Among leadership, 60.2% (95% CI 56.2% to 64.1%) reported CPR training had occurred during the 3 years prior to the survey. Factors associated with completed CPR training included believing other schools were conducting training (odds ratio [OR] 9...

  9. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S

    2014-01-01

    Given that lifestyleshave similar determinants and that school-based interventions are usually targeted at all the risks that affect adolescents, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics and effects of school-based interventions acting on different behavioral domains of adolescent health promotion. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers who searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for experimental or observational studies with at least two measures of results published from 2007 to 2011, given that the research information available doubles every 5 years. Methodological quality was assessed with a standardized tool. Information was extracted from 35 studies aiming to prevent risk behaviors and promote healthy nutrition, physical activity, and mental and holistic health. Activities were based on theoretical models and were classified into interactive lessons, peer mediation, environmental changes, parents' and community activities, and tailored messages by computer-assisted training or other resources, usually including multiple components. In some cases, we identified some moderate to large, short- and long-term effects on behavioral and intermediate variable. This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing the benefits of five years of different approaches to treatment of urogenital schistosomiasis: A SCORE project in Northern Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Phillips

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mozambique, schistosomiasis is highly endemic across the whole country. The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE coordinates a five-year study that has been implemented in various African countries, including Mozambique. The overall goal of SCORE was to better understand how to best apply preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ for schistosomiasis control by evaluating the impact of alternative treatment approaches.This was a cluster-randomised trial that compared the impact of different treatment strategies in study areas with prevalence among school children of ≥21% S. haematobium infection by urine dipstick. Each village was randomly allocated to one of six possible combinations of community-wide treatment (CWT, school-based treatment (SBT, and/or drug holidays over a period of four years, followed by final data collection in the fifth year. The most intense intervention arm involved four years of CWT, while the least intensive arm involved two years of SBT followed by two consecutive years of PZQ holiday. Each study arm included 25 villages randomly assigned to one of the six treatment arms. The primary outcome of interest was change in prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium among 100 children aged 9-to-12-years that were sampled each year in every village. In addition to children aged 9-to-12 years, 100 children aged 5-8 years in their first-year of school and 50 adults (aged 20-55 years were tested in the first and final fifth year of the study. Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection was evaluated by two filtrations, each of 10mL, from a single urine specimen.In total, data was collected from 81,167 individuals across 149 villages in ten districts of Cabo Delgado province, Northern Mozambique. Overall PZQ treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of S. haematobium infection from Year 1 to Year 5, where the average prevalence went from 60.5% to 38

  11. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Readiness: Ethno-linguistic and gender differences in high-school course selection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The study examines science-related course choices of high-school students in the culturally diverse schools of the province of British Columbia, Canada. The analysis employs K-12 provincial data and includes over 44,000 students born in 1990 who graduated from high school by 2009. The research sample reflects the presence of about 27% of students for whom English is not a first language. We construct an empirical model that examines ethno-linguistic and gender differences in Grade 12 course choices while accounting for personal and situational differences among students. The study employs a course selection typology that emphasizes readiness for science, technology, engineering and math fields of study. Findings indicate that math- and science-related course selection patterns are strongly associated with ethnicity, qualified not only by gender and prior math and science achievement but also by the individual's grade level at entry to the system and enrollment in English as a Second Language program. Students who are more likely to engage in math and science courses belong to Asian ethno-linguistic groups and entered the provincial school system during the senior high-school years. We suggest that ethnic diversity and broader academic exposure may play a crucial role in changing the gender composition of science classrooms, university fields of study and science-related occupations.

  12. [Fifty years of the Polish School of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh (1941-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, W

    1994-01-01

    The Polish School of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh started in 1941 on the initiative of the University. It was destined for soldier-students in the Polish Forces in Great Britain. This academic institution, unique in the history of universities, was a joint Scottish-Polish enterprise. An Agreement was concluded between the Polish Government in London and the University of Edinburgh. The School was an independent Polish academic institution and, at the same time, an integral part of the University of Edinburgh. The students matriculated at the University. The University provided all the laboratory and clinical facilities necessary for teaching. Due to a lack of Polish professors for some chairs a few of them were held by Scottish professors. Attached to them were Polish lecturers but the examinations were then held in English. The diploma, originally valid only in Poland, became recognised in Great Britain following an Act of Parliament in 1947. There were 337 students, a number of them women. 227 obtained the degree M.B., Ch.B. The war ended in 1945. The School continued up till 1949. Poland was not free. The Nazi occupation of Poland was replaced by Soviet domination which was to last for over 40 years. Only 22 of the graduates returned home, about 100 settled in G. Britain, another 100 dispersed world wide. The "magnanimous gesture" of the University of Edinburgh was thereafter remembered with gratitude by the members of the Polish School. In 1961, on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the School, the first reunion of the graduates was organised in Birmingham for those settled in Gr. Britain. The success of the reunion prompted decision on organising annual "English" gatherings of the Polish graduates in Gr. Britain. The first world reunion of the graduates took place in Edinburgh in 1966, attracting a large number of participants on this occasion of the 25th anniversary of the School. That immensely successful anniversary of the Polish School

  13. Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in the Junior Secondary School Years: Objective Outcome Evaluation Based on Eight Waves of Longitudinal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S., a randomized group trial with eight waves of data collected was carried out. At the fifth year of data collection, 19 experimental schools (n=2, 662 students and 24 control schools (n=3, 272 students participated in the study. Analyses based on individual growth curve modeling showed that participants in the experimental schools displayed better positive youth development than did participants in the control schools in terms of different indicators derived from the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale, including moral competence and behavioral competence and cognitive behavioral competencies. Significant results were also found when examining the trajectories of psychological development among control and experimental participants who perceived the program to be beneficial. Findings based on longitudinal objective outcome evaluation strongly suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in promoting positive development in Hong Kong secondary school students.

  14. Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in the junior secondary school years: objective outcome evaluation based on eight waves of longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Cecilia M S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S., a randomized group trial with eight waves of data collected was carried out. At the fifth year of data collection, 19 experimental schools (n = 2, 662 students) and 24 control schools (n = 3, 272 students) participated in the study. Analyses based on individual growth curve modeling showed that participants in the experimental schools displayed better positive youth development than did participants in the control schools in terms of different indicators derived from the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale, including moral competence and behavioral competence and cognitive behavioral competencies. Significant results were also found when examining the trajectories of psychological development among control and experimental participants who perceived the program to be beneficial. Findings based on longitudinal objective outcome evaluation strongly suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in promoting positive development in Hong Kong secondary school students.

  15. A study on the different roles’ leadership and school culture within the Catholic middle schools in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Ling Tchong

    2016-01-01

    In Taiwan, Catholic schools are now facing a crisis of leadership as the available number of priests and nuns who are able to lead these schools is declining rapidly. The question is now being asked as to whether the ministry of the Catholic school’s mission can be sustained as more and more lay principals are needed and appointed to replace principals affiliated with religious orders. This basic question led to an exploration of three research questions. First, what differences, if any, are ...

  16. The Effects of Year-Round Schools on the Hospitality Industry's Seasonal Labor Force in the State of Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickeral, Lyn M.; Hubbard, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Data collected from 66 managers in Tennessee tourist attractions indicate that 53 percent of seasonal workers in Tennessee come from the school system. The proposal to implement year-round schools would drastically increase the tourism industry's labor shortage. An alternative labor force needs to be identified and the issue of year-round schools…

  17. The relationship between first-year achievement and the pedagogical-didactical fit between secondary school and university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenbeek, Marjolein; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan

    2011-01-01

    Central in this study is the degree to which the pedagogical-didactical approach in undergraduate programmes aligns with the pedagogical-didactical approach in secondary schools, and how this is related to first-year achievement. Approaches to teaching at secondary schools and in first-year

  18. An Investigation of Emotional Skills of Six-Year-Old Children Attending Nursery School According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmusoglu-Saltali, Neslihan; Arslan, Emel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is for the emotional skills of six-year-old children attending nursery school according to some variables. The participants were 306 (135 girls and 171 boys) six-year-old children attending nursery school. Data were collected from Assessment of Children's Emotional Skills and personal information form. In order to analyze…

  19. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: an innovative, year-long program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-09-01

    The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements include longitudinal mentoring by attending physicians in an outpatient psychiatry clinic, exposure to the major psychotherapies, psychopharmacology training, acute psychiatry "immersion" experiences, and a variety of clinical and didactic teaching sessions. The longitudinal psychiatry curriculum has been sustained for 8 years to-date, providing effective learning as demonstrated by OSCE scores, NBME shelf exam scores, written work, and observed clinical work. The percentage of students in this clerkship choosing psychiatry as a residency specialty is significantly greater than those in traditional clerkships at Harvard Medical School and greater than the U.S. average. Longitudinal integrated clerkship experiences are effective and sustainable; they offer particular strengths and opportunities for psychiatry education, and may influence student choice of specialty.

  20. Does the school food environment influence the dietary behaviours of Norwegian 11-year-olds? The HEIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Andersen, Lene F; Bjelland, Mona; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Totland, Torunn H; Bergh, Ingunn H; Lien, Nanna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the school food environment on the dietary behaviours of 11-year-old Norwegian children in elementary schools. Baseline data from a school-based intervention study: the Health In Adolescents study was used. A total of 1425 11-year-old children from 35 schools from the eastern part of Norway were included. School administrators provided information on the physical, political, and sociocultural school food environment and students reported their intake of fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and snacks. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the school-level variance in dietary behaviours and to investigate the association of school food environmental factors with these dietary behaviours. After adjustment for student characteristics, the school level accounted for a small proportion (1.1%-3.0%) of the variance in the dietary behaviours investigated. None of the investigated school food environmental factors were found to be related to the children's reported intake of fruits, vegetables, snacks or SSB. Most of the variance in the dietary behaviours investigated was at the personal level. Thus in this sample, the investigated school-level factors do not appear to exert a strong influence on the dietary behaviours of children. Longitudinal studies using validated measures of the school food environment are needed.

  1. Collaborative teacher learning in different primary school settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doppenberg, J.J.; Bakx, A.W.E.A.; Brok, den P.J.

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been a growing awareness of the potentially strong role teacher collaboration can play in relation to teacher and team learning. Teachers collaborate with their colleagues in different formal and informal settings. Because most studies have focused on teacher

  2. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...... experimental research is required to ascertain the extent that: a) the educational achievement of young people with early-onset conduct problems can be improved; and b) the extent to which any such improvements translate into reductions in subsequent antisocial behviour....

  3. HANDBALL AS ELECTIVE SPORT IN THE THIRD ROUND OF THE NINE YEARS PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojica Marušić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the third Round of the nine years Primary school the curriculum anticipates elective subjects. One of the possible choices is the sport for the sportsman and within it are the programs for the handball. This work has proposed operational aims of the handball as the elective sport for the seventh, eight and ninth grade, which would be fulfilled through 198 classes two times a week.

  4. The Geneva University Global Health and Human Rights Summer School: A 5-Year Intercultural Collaborative Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chastonay

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Education and training in human rights has been set as a priority by the United Nations. Health and human rights are closely related. Training professionals from various backgrounds in human rights might ultimately contribute to improve the health of individuals and communities. We present the 5 years’ experience with a 3-week residential Global Health and Human Rights Course developed at the University of Geneva and implemented with the support/participation of international organizations (IOs and non-governmental organizations active in the health and human rights sector. Over the years, roughly 150 students from 43 nationalities, with many different educational backgrounds, attended the course. The male/female ratio was 1/5. The adopted educational approach was multifold and comprised lectures from academics and experts with field experience, group work, individual case studies, journal clubs, and site visits. Evaluation data show that site visits at IOs were highly appreciated as well as networking opportunities among students, with academics and experts with field experience. The variety of topics discussed was, at times, “too much”; yet, it allowed students to measure the extent of the challenges the field is facing. The adopted active learning approach facilitated the exchange of experiences among students and allowed them to get acquainted with different cultural sensitivities. The Global Health and Human Rights Summer-School of the University of Geneva allowed its participants, coming from all over the world, to identify challenges of the interlinked fields of health and human rights, reflect upon their underlying causes, and imagine possible solutions. Sharing our experience will hopefully help passionate educators around the world to develop similar programs.

  5. Tooth surface loss, prevalence and associated risk factors among 12-14 years school children in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhouri, N M; Ziada, H M; Ahmed, G I; Kamis, A H

    2010-12-01

    Investigate Tooth Surface Loss TSL, among 12-14 years school children in Khartoum State, Sudan; evaluate pattern, severity and determine relationship between TSL, dietary habits and socio-economical status. Cross sectional survey among primary public and private schools. Cluster sample of 1,138 12 to 14-year old students from both public and private school. Mild and moderate TSL was measured on buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular incisors and canines and occlusal, buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars. Surfaces scored according to criterion described by the National Survey of Child Dental Health. The prevalence of TSL was found to be 74%. Mild and moderate TSL was detected on palatal surfaces of maxillary central incisors followed by occlusal surfaces of mandibular molars. TSL into the pulp was not detected. A high prevalence of 74% was found with mild and moderate TSL with no pulpal involvement. There was an association between consumption of erosive foods and the prevalence of TSL. Socio-economic status and gender did not present significant differences.

  6. Prevalence of proteinuria in school children (aged 12-14 years in Kashmir valley, India, using dipstick method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Ahmad Malla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening for kidney diseases by urinalysis in school children is being conducted in many parts of the world with inexpensive tools such as urinary dipsticks. We conducted this study to know the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria in school children (age group 12-14 years in Kashmir valley as no previous study is available. After applying exclusion criteria, 2068 children were screened for proteinuria by dipstick method. Another test was performed in the children with abnormal findings in the first sample with dipstick of the same brand, after a period of one-month. These children were also assessed by timed urine collection (i.e., 24 h urinary protein. In the first dipstick test, the prevalence of proteinuria in the studied population was 6.2% which persisted in 2.17% after second dipstick examination. No child in the studied group was found to have glycosuria. In our study, no statistically significant association was found between proteinuria and gender, body mass index, or hypertension. In our study, the prevalence of persistent proteinuria in school children (age group 12-14 years in Kashmir valley was almost similar to the studies conducted in different parts of the world.

  7. Effect of a school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in 7–11 year old children

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    Stensel David J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is recognised as a public health concern within children and interventions to increase physical activity are needed. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body composition, knowledge, and psychological variables. Method A non-randomised controlled study involving 8 primary schools (4 intervention, 4 control. Participants were 589 children aged 7–11 years. The intervention lasted 10 months and comprised a CD-rom learning and teaching resource for teachers; an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; two highlight physical activity events (1 mile school runs/walks; a local media campaign; and a summer activity wall planner and record. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers and fruit and vegetable consumption. Secondary outcomes included body mass index, waist circumference, estimated percent body fat, knowledge, psychological variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for the data analysis. Results Relative to children in control schools, those in intervention schools significantly increased their total time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA (by 9 minutes/day vs a decrease of 10 minutes/day, their time in MVPA bouts lasting at least one minute (10 minutes/day increase vs no change and increased daily steps (3059 steps per day increase vs 1527 steps per day increase. A similar pattern of results was seen in a subset of the least active participants at baseline. Older participants in intervention schools showed a significant slowing in the rate of increase in estimated percent body fat, BMI, and waist circumference. There were no differences between groups in fruit and vegetable intake. Extrinsic motivation decreased more in the intervention group. Conclusion The intervention produced positive

  8. Changes in Weight, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity during the School Year and Summer Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Tanaka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine bidirectional associations between body weight and objectively assessed sedentary behaviour (SB and physical activity (PA during the school year and summer vacation. Methods: Participants were 209 Japanese boys and girls (9.0 ± 1.8 years at baseline. SB and PA were measured using triaxial accelerometry that discriminated between ambulatory and non-ambulatory PA, screen time measured by questionnaire during the school-term was evaluated in May and the summer vacation, and relative body weight measured in May and just after the end of summer vacation. Results: There were no significant relationships between changes in SB or PA and changes in body weight. However, higher relative body weight at baseline was associated with decreased non-ambulatory moderate PA (p = 0.049, but this association was slightly diminished after adjusting for change in SB (p = 0.056. Longer screen time at baseline was also associated with increased relative body weight (p = 0.033. Conclusions: The present study revealed that body weight might be particularly influential on non-ambulatory moderate PA while SB, PA or changes in these variables did not predict changes in body weight. Moreover, screen time during the school year is a predictor of change in relative body weight during the subsequent summer vacation.

  9. Empathy scores in medical school and ratings of empathic behavior in residency training 3 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Mangione, Salvatore; Nasca, Thomas J; Gonnella, Joseph S; Magee, Mike

    2005-12-01

    The authors designed the present study to examine the association between individuals' scores on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, & M. Magee, 2003; M. Hojat, J. S. Gonnella, T. J. Nasca, S. Mangione, M. Vergare, & M. Magee, 2002; M. Hojat, S. Mangione, T. J. Nasca, M. J. M. Cohen, J. S. Gonnella, J. B. Erdmann, J. J. Veloski, & M. Magee, 2001), a self-report empathy scale, during medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs 3 years later. Participants were 106 physicians. The authors examined the relationships between scores on the JSPE (with 20 Likert-type items) at the beginning of the students' 3rd year of medical school and ratings of their empathic behavior made by directors of their residency training programs. Top scorers on the JSPE in medical school, compared to Bottom scorers, obtained a significantly higher average rating of empathic behavior in residency 3 years later (p prosocial and helping behavior, it is important for investigators to further enhance our understanding of its correlates and outcomes among health professionals.

  10. The Incorporation of the School Age Group of 16-18 Years Old in Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Alfred Nela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research of this paper focuses on the involvement of the school age group 16-18 years old in sports betting games impacted by beliefs on luck and social groups. For the collection of data literature is utilized, questionnaires are distributed and also focus groups were conducted. The assumptions of the assignment are: a The involvement of school age group 16-18 years in sports betting games are manners learned from their comrades, b The school age group 16-18 years old attribute to fate the participation in sports betting games. Over 64% of responses manifest that they have learned the rules from their companions. The revelations and questionnaire responses argue that over 45% of students in their classes play sports bets, and 34% think that the phenomena of sports betting depends on luck. The major part of this age group do not practice and believe in fortunate rituals or activities. The acquired data reflect that the extent of involvement of this age group is in substantial dimensions. We suggest that the decision-making bodies and service providers should develop strategies in order to reduce the phenomenon.

  11. Differences of Cutaneous Two-Point Discrimination Thresholds Among Students in Different Years of a Chiropractic Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Andrew B; Teh, Elaine; Reckelhoff, Kenneth E; Ying, Pee Kui

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there were differences in the two-point discrimination (2-PD) of fingers among students at different stages of a chiropractic program. This study measured 2-PD thresholds for the dominant and nondominant index finger and dominant and nondominant forearm in groups of students in a 4-year chiropractic program at the International Medical University in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Measurements were made using digital calipers mounted on a modified weighing scale. Group comparisons were made among students for each year of the program (years 1, 2, 3, and 4). Analysis of the 2-PD threshold for differences among the year groups was performed with analysis of variance. The mean 2-PD threshold of the index finger was higher in the students who were in the higher year groups. Dominant-hand mean values for year 1 were 2.93 ± 0.04 mm and 1.69 ± 0.02 mm in year 4. There were significant differences at finger sites (P < .05) among all year groups compared with year 1. There were no significant differences measured at the dominant forearm between any year groups (P = .08). The nondominant fingers of the year groups 1, 2, and 4 showed better 2-PD compared with the dominant finger. There was a significant difference (P = .005) between the nondominant (1.93 ± 1.15) and dominant (2.27 ± 1.14) fingers when all groups were combined (n = 104). The results of this study demonstrated that the finger 2-PD of the chiropractic students later in the program was more precise than that of students in the earlier program. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Home-School Differences: What It Means for Kindergarten Readiness. NCRECE In Focus. Volume 1, Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Stacie G.

    2010-01-01

    Differences between home and school environments are a topic of longstanding interest and often of concern. The "match" between home and school in terms of child-rearing beliefs and socialization practices can affect the ease with which children adapt to school and ultimately their success in meeting school expectations. With growing numbers of…

  13. The quality of school lunch consumed reflects overall eating patterns in 11-16-year-old schoolchildren in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles-Tirkkonen, Tanja; Pentikäinen, Saara; Lappi, Jenni; Karhunen, Leila; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2011-12-01

    To explore how the quality of school lunch consumed reflected overall eating patterns in school-aged children. Children filled in an Internet-based questionnaire about their eating patterns. The children were then divided into balanced and imbalanced school lunch eaters on the basis of their responses in the questionnaire. A balanced school lunch consisted of, by the definition used in the present study, a main dish, salad and bread. Eleven primary schools and one middle school in eastern Finland. A total of 531 schoolchildren (247 boys and 284 girls) aged 11-16 years. The school lunch was balanced in 46·5% of children. Eating a balanced school lunch was associated with overall healthier eating patterns outside school. Children who ate a balanced school lunch had more regular meal times and consumed healthier snacks. They ate fruit or berries and vegetables, dairy products and wholegrain foods more often, consumed fewer salty snacks, pizzas, meat pies and drank fewer soft drinks and energy drinks. Their eating patterns at home were also healthier, with vegetables being offered at every family dinner and fruit being offered daily, whereas soft drinks were offered seldom. The choices made by children in their school lunch reflect the overall eating patterns among school-aged children. Eating a balanced school lunch is associated with more regular meal patterns, the availability of healthier foods at home and an overall healthier diet, suggesting that healthy eating patterns are learnt at home.

  14. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  15. Public School Teacher Autonomy in the Classroom across School Years 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2015-089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat

    2015-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief explores teacher autonomy in the classroom during the 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 school years. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), the Statistics in Brief examines a construct of teacher autonomy based on teachers' responses to six questions regarding…

  16. Effects of School Quality, School Citizenship Policy, and Student Body Composition on the Acquisition of Citizenship Competences in the Final Year of Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Anne Bert; Geijsel, Femke; Ledoux, Guuske; van der Veen, Ineke; ten Dam, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of general educational quality of schools, school citizenship policy, and ethnic homogeneity of the student body on the acquisition of citizenship competences in the final year of primary education. The theoretical framework is based on developmental, psychological, and sociological studies into effects of social…

  17. Are Charter Schools Getting More Money into the Classroom? A Micro-Financial Analysis of First Year Charter Schools in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Paul; Millot, Marc Dean

    This report examines the first-year finances of Massachusetts' first 15 charter schools. Analysis of the financial statements of these schools offers insights into how their boards of trustees allocated funds as they tried to meet academic goals and survive as new organizations. Revenue and expenditure patterns were compared with national district…

  18. "PCI Reading Program": The Final Report of a Three Year Experimental Study in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, Megan; Jaciw, Andrew; Ma, Boya; Lipton, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    PCI Education conducted a three-year longitudinal study to determine the comparative effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program" ("PCI") for students with severe disabilities as implemented in Florida's Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The primary question addressed by the study is whether students…

  19. Impact of Cyberprogram 2.0 on different types of school violence and aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Some antibullying interventions have shown positive outcomes with regard to reducing violence. The aim of the study was to experimentally assess the effects on school violence and aggressiveness of a program to prevent and reduce cyberbullying. The sample was comprised of a randomly selected sample of 176 adolescents (93 experimental, 83 control, aged 13-15 years. The study used a repeated measures pre-posttest design with a control group. Before and after the program, two assessment instruments were administered: the Cuestionario de Violencia Escolar-Revisado (CUVE-R [School Violence Questionnaire - Revised]; Álvarez-García et al., 2011 and the Cuestionario de agresividad premeditada e impulsiva (CAPI-A [Premeditated and Impulsive Aggressiveness Questionnaire]; Andreu, 2010. The intervention consisted of 19 one-hour sessions carried out during the school term. The program contains 25 activities with the following objectives: (1 to identify and conceptualize bullying/cyberbullying; (2 to analyze the consequences of bullying/cyberbullying, promoting participants’ capacity to report such actions when they are discovered; (3 to develop coping strategies to prevent and reduce bullying/cyberbullying; and (4 to achieve other transversal goals, such as developing positive variables (empathy, active listening, social skills, constructive conflict resolution, etc.. The pre-posttest ANCOVAs confirmed that the program stimulated a decrease in: (1 diverse types of school violence—teachers' violence towards students (ridiculing or publicly humiliating students in front of the class, etc.; students' physical violence (fights, blows, shoves... aimed at the victim, or at his or her property, etc.; students' verbal violence (using offensive language, cruel, embarrassing, or insulting words… towards classmates and teachers; social exclusion (rejection or exclusion of a person or group, etc., and violence through Information and Communication Technologies

  20. Impact of Cyberprogram 2.0 on Different Types of School Violence and Aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Martínez-Valderrey, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Some antibullying interventions have shown positive outcomes with regard to reducing violence. The aim of the study was to experimentally assess the effects on school violence and aggressiveness of a program to prevent and reduce cyberbullying. The sample was comprised of a randomly selected sample of 176 adolescents (93 experimental, 83 control), aged 13-15 years. The study used a repeated measures pre-posttest design with a control group. Before and after the program, two assessment instruments were administered: the "Cuestionario de Violencia Escolar-Revisado" (CUVE-R [School Violence Questionnaire - Revised]; Álvarez-García et al., 2011) and the "Cuestionario de agresividad premeditada e impulsiva" (CAPI-A [Premeditated and Impulsive Aggressiveness Questionnaire]; Andreu, 2010). The intervention consisted of 19 one-hour sessions carried out during the school term. The program contains 25 activities with the following objectives: (1) to identify and conceptualize bullying/cyberbullying; (2) to analyze the consequences of bullying/cyberbullying, promoting participants' capacity to report such actions when they are discovered; (3) to develop coping strategies to prevent and reduce bullying/cyberbullying; and (4) to achieve other transversal goals, such as developing positive variables (empathy, active listening, social skills, constructive conflict resolution, etc.). The pre-posttest ANCOVAs confirmed that the program stimulated a decrease in: (1) diverse types of school violence-teachers' violence toward students (ridiculing or publicly humiliating students in front of the class, etc.); students' physical violence (fights, blows, shoves… aimed at the victim, or at his or her property, etc.); students' verbal violence (using offensive language, cruel, embarrassing, or insulting words… toward classmates and teachers); social exclusion (rejection or exclusion of a person or group, etc.), and violence through Information and Communication Technologies (ICT

  1. Impact of Cyberprogram 2.0 on Different Types of School Violence and Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Martínez-Valderrey, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Some antibullying interventions have shown positive outcomes with regard to reducing violence. The aim of the study was to experimentally assess the effects on school violence and aggressiveness of a program to prevent and reduce cyberbullying. The sample was comprised of a randomly selected sample of 176 adolescents (93 experimental, 83 control), aged 13–15 years. The study used a repeated measures pre-posttest design with a control group. Before and after the program, two assessment instruments were administered: the “Cuestionario de Violencia Escolar-Revisado” (CUVE-R [School Violence Questionnaire – Revised]; Álvarez-García et al., 2011) and the “Cuestionario de agresividad premeditada e impulsiva” (CAPI-A [Premeditated and Impulsive Aggressiveness Questionnaire]; Andreu, 2010). The intervention consisted of 19 one-hour sessions carried out during the school term. The program contains 25 activities with the following objectives: (1) to identify and conceptualize bullying/cyberbullying; (2) to analyze the consequences of bullying/cyberbullying, promoting participants’ capacity to report such actions when they are discovered; (3) to develop coping strategies to prevent and reduce bullying/cyberbullying; and (4) to achieve other transversal goals, such as developing positive variables (empathy, active listening, social skills, constructive conflict resolution, etc.). The pre-posttest ANCOVAs confirmed that the program stimulated a decrease in: (1) diverse types of school violence—teachers’ violence toward students (ridiculing or publicly humiliating students in front of the class, etc.); students’ physical violence (fights, blows, shoves… aimed at the victim, or at his or her property, etc.); students’ verbal violence (using offensive language, cruel, embarrassing, or insulting words… toward classmates and teachers); social exclusion (rejection or exclusion of a person or group, etc.), and violence through Information and Communication

  2. Reinforcement at last years of elementary school assessment the inclusion in the political- pedagogical project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO JACQUES MARTINS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reports produced by the Education Ministry, after the Prova Brasil results, applied to 8º and 9º grade students in the Portuguese and Mathematics subject shows the Brazilians students learning difficulties in these areas. The Prova Brasil results applied in 2013 shows that in Portuguese only 28,7% of the students graduates at elementary school with the appropriate learning and in mathematics this rate falls to 16,4%. The Brazilian educational legislation determines the minimum pattern at the education quality and the compulsory requirement of reinforcement classes to students who has learning difficulties. Many authors and the legislation establish the pedagogical time and space expansion necessity. The reinforcement, assessment the inclusion in the political- pedagogical project, is an important alternative to the mathematic and Portuguese learning difficulties confront. With the purpose of know the difficulties faced by the Mathematics and Portuguese teachers at the last years of elementary school and the schools reinforcement adoption, interviews were carried out with docents of both areas who works at two public schools at Barra do Quaraí.

  3. [NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND PHYSICAL CAPACITY IN 4 TO 7-YEAR-OLD STUDENTS IN A CHILEAN PUBLIC SCHOOL 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Silva, Miguel; Aguilar-Farías, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    overweight and obesity in children have experienced a significant increase around the world, however, there are regional differences due to many factors. Furthermore, evidence have showed that physical capacity in children has been affected as well. For this reason, the study goal was to assess nutritional status and physical capacity in 4 to 7-year-old children in a public school from South Chile. 351 students (6.1 years, SD = 1.13; 47.3% men) completed the study. To determine nutritional status, body mass index and Z-scores from World Health Organisation were used. Body fat percentage was measured with skinfold anthropometry. To assess physical capacity, 6-minute walking test (6MWT) was used. overweight prevalence was 27.0% (range 21-32%), while obesity had 39.9% (range 33-50%), no gender differences were observed (p = 0.84). Mean body fat percentage was 19.1% in men and 20.9% in women (p = 0.02). For 6MWT, differences were found for age (p schools. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning and teaching natural science in the early years: A case study of three different contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela James

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently many children in early childhood education cannot be accommodated in provincial department schools. Consequently, different non-governmental institutions offer Grade R programmes in an attempt to support the DBE. Pre-primary schools that traditionally took responsibility for early childhood education also offer Grade R education. The recent policy decision to include Grade R in the primary school is an innovation, which is still in its infancy. It is against this background that the national South African Curriculum (NCS has to be implemented. This paper focuses on the teaching of natural science in Grade R and attempts to determine if the teaching and learning of natural science has different outcomes in the different contexts described above. An oral questionnaire was administered to capture children’s understanding of natural science phenomena, while interviews provided data with regard to teachers’ understanding of natural science in the foundation phase. The results show that there are differences in children’s understanding of natural phenomena in the different contexts and these differences are related to teachers’ understanding of the curriculum, as well as their views of the nature of science.

  5. Intervention study on school meal habits in Norwegian 10-12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IlløKken, Kristine E; Bere, Elling; Øverby, Nina C; Høiland, Renate; Petersson, Kirsten O; Vik, Frøydis N

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a free school meal every day was associated with children's intake of healthy food during school. A non-randomized study design with an intervention and a control group was used to measure change in children's meal habits at lunchtime. In total, 164 children participated; 55 in the intervention group and 109 in the control group. Children in the intervention group were served a free, healthy school meal every school day. Participating children completed a questionnaire at baseline and at 6 months' follow up. Possible associations were evaluated with a healthy food score, which was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire on lunch habits at school. Chi-square and Independent Samples t-test were used to analyse the data. At baseline, there was no significant difference in the healthy food score between the intervention and the control group ( p = 0.08). Children in the intervention group increased their healthy food score significantly compared with children in the control group after 6 months ( p ⩽ 0.01). Change in the healthy food score was mainly due to an increase in the intake of fruit ( p ⩽ 0.01), vegetables ( p ⩽ 0.01) and fish spread ( p = 0.02); all in favour of the intervention group. A serving of a free school meal every day for 6 months increased children's intake of healthy food at lunchtime compared with the control group. Further studies are needed to establish possible long-term effects.

  6. ART restorations and sealants placed in Chinese school children--results after three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, C J; Lo, E C; Hu, D; Wan, H

    2000-08-01

    These were to assess whether ART restorations and sealants could be provided to children in a school environment in China, to assess patient acceptability of the ART approach, and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the treatments performed. This study was conducted in Deyang, Sichuan Province, in western China. A total of 294 ART restorations were placed in 197 children and 191 fissure sealants were placed in 140 children by five middle-level dentists in four secondary schools. Standard instruments and procedures for ART were used. The restorative material used was a high-strength glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, ESPE). The treatments were evaluated annually after placement by the same examiner who had not been involved in the placement of the restorations nor sealants using explorers and mouth-mirrors. At the 3-year examination an independent external examiner evaluated the restorations using USPHS criteria. Most of the children did not report discomfort during treatment and 92% were willing to receive ART restorations again. The cumulative 1-year and 3-year survival rates of small Class I restorations were 99% and 92% respectively. The corresponding figures for large Class I restorations were 90% and 77%. After 3 years, 72% of the sealants were either partially or completely retained. Only 2% of the sealed teeth developed fissure caries and these involved teeth where the sealants had been lost. Similar success rates were found using USPHS criteria. The ART approach for preventing and treating tooth decay in Chinese school children was shown to be appropriate, effective and acceptable. The 3-year survival rates of the restorations were high but were related to the size and type of the restoration.

  7. Differences in prevalence of overweight andstunting in 11-year olds across Europe:The Pro Children Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... and obesity for both genders. The ranking of the countries according to overweight and obesity prevalence was roughly the same, independent of reference population. The prevalence of underweight varied from 2.3% (Swedish boys) to 12.3% (Belgian boys), using the American reference population. The proportion...

  8. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966 and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children, lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98% and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%.

  9. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  10. Planned approaches to business and school partnerships. Does it make a difference? The business perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Hope, John; Abdulghani, Fatima

    2016-04-01

    In many countries, schools are encouraged to link with business to add authenticity to learning. The number of these business-school partnerships has shown a marked increase over the last twenty years. Traditionally researchers investigating these partnerships have focussed on the schools' perspectives (Du, Bhattacharya, & Sen, 2010, pp. 32-33), however this New Zealand research has focused solely on the business perspective of established school partnerships. The study used a mixed methods approach utilising both online survey and semi-structured interviews. Ten out of the forty participating businesses surveyed used a brokering organisation as a way of developing and maintaining these partnerships and some developed rationales to support the partnership. This study investigated the value of using brokering organisations, rationales and designated staff to support business-school partnerships. Findings indicate that brokers and designated staff play a very effective role in enhancing business-school links, and more benefits are perceived when a rationale has been established. It is anticipated that these findings will support the development and success of business-school partnerships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender Differences in School-Family Conflict and School-Family Enrichment in Nontraditional Portuguese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Cláudia; van Rhijn, Tricia; Coimbra, Susana

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, higher education institutions have made efforts to attract people who are either in the labor market or unemployed to the educational system. Accordingly, the participation of nontraditional students in postsecondary education has been increasing over the years in Portugal, including working students and working student parents.…

  12. Investigating teacher and student effects of the Incredible Years Classroom Management Program in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Desiree W; Rabiner, David L; Kuhn, Laura; Pan, Yi; Sabet, Raha Forooz

    2018-04-01

    The present paper reports on the results of a cluster randomized trial of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY-TCM) and its effects on early elementary teachers' management strategies, classroom climate, and students' emotion regulation, attention, and academic competence. IY-TCM was implemented in 11 rural and semi-rural schools with K-2 teachers and a diverse student sample. Outcomes were compared for 45 teachers who participated in five full day training workshops and brief classroom consultation and 46 control teachers; these 91 teachers had a total of 1192 students. A high level of teacher satisfaction was found and specific aspects of the training considered most valuable for early elementary teachers were identified. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated a statistically significant intervention effect on Positive Climate in the classroom (d=0.45) that did not sustain into the next school year. No main effects on student outcomes were observed, although a priori moderator analyses indicated that students with elevated social-behavioral difficulties benefitted with regard to prosocial behavior (d=0.54) and inattention (d=-0.34). Results highlight potential benefits and limitations of a universal teacher training program for elementary students, and suggest strategies for future delivery of the IY-TCM program and areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender Differences in the Consistency of Middle School Students’ Interest in Engineering and Science Careers

    OpenAIRE

    Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R; Tsai, Sherry M

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for males (58% in engineering, 39% in science). After controlling for student and school demographic characteristics, females were as consistent as male...

  14. Distributed radiology clerkship for the core clinical year of medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Felix S

    2002-11-01

    The central role that diagnostic radiology has in the modern practice of medicine has not always been reflected in radiology's place in the curriculum. We developed a new radiology clerkship for undergraduate medical students during their core clinical year that was supported by Web technology. The assumptions underlying the design of the clerkship were that radiology is best learned from radiologists and that students are most receptive to learning radiology when it is related to concurrent patient care experiences. Beginning in May 2000, a required radiology clerkship experience was incorporated into the core clinical year at Wake Forest University School of Medicine. The core clinical year was organized into three 16-week blocks of clerkships. Two or four independent half-day radiology tutorial sessions were included with each clerkship block, and attended by all students in the block (approximately 35 students), regardless of their specific clerkship assignments. There were ten different radiology tutorials, each given three times during the year as students rotated through the clerkship blocks. Thus, each student attended a radiology tutorial session every four to eight weeks during the year. The topics covered during the tutorials were correlated with the content of the clerkship blocks and included adult and pediatric chest radiology, adult and pediatric abdominal radiology, body CT, neuroradiology, obstetric ultrasound, gynecologic ultrasound, osteoporosis, adult and pediatric fractures, mammography, and cervical spine trauma. The tutorials included pre- and post-test, lectures, case presentations, and sometimes tours of the radiology department. The educational emphasis was on pragmatic case-based learning exercises, development of verbal and visual vocabulary, and learning when and where to seek more information. To provide continuity and organization, Web-based curriculum materials were designed and implemented as a component of the clerkship. The home

  15. Health related physical fitness of school children (6 to 10 years from Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pina de Morais

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purposes of this research were: (1 to investigate health related physical fitness (HPF of school children (6 to 10 years from Azores islands, Portugal, and to (2 analyse sex differences in each age. The sample comprised 3742 children of both sexes, residents in Azores islands, Portugal. Twenty-five percent of the children in each gender and age in each island were evaluated with FITNESSGRAM: 1-mile run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, trunk lift and body mass index (BMI (kg/m-2. Data were analysed as follow: χ2 to test the differences in ratio of success/failure in each age group; factorial ANOVA gender*age to test the differences between age groups and gender; discriminant function to test the presence of multivariate profiles of HPF in age natural groups. The ratios of success in both boys and girls were low. In girls there was a substantial decrease of ratio of success between 6 and 10 years of age. Among 10-year-old girls the global ratio of success was only 18%. In boys, the ratios of success had also a tendency to decrease along age. Among 10-years-old boys the global ratio of success was 39%. Boys had better performance in all tests than girls of all ages. Discriminant function analyses indicated that there were a low percentage of children classified in their natural age groups. Although there were children with HPF level advanced for their natural age groups, there were a considerable number of children with HPF level lower than the expected for their own age. RESUMO Pretendeu-se (1 conhecer os níveis da aptidão física associada à saúde (ApFS da população escolar de 6 a 10 anos de idade do arquipélago dos Açores, Portugal e (2 analisar as diferenças entre os sexos ao longo da idade. A amostra foi constituída por 3742 crianças, de ambos os sexos, residentes no arquipélago dos Açores. A avaliação da ApFS foi efectuada de acordo com a bateria de testes FITNESSGRAM: corrida/marcha da milha, curl-ups, push-ups, trunk

  16. [Oral health in 12 year-old students from public and private schools in the city of Goiânia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Reis, Sandra Cristina Guimaraes Bahia; Gonçalves, Michele Martins; Balbo, Patrícia Lima; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    To compare 12-year-old students from public and private schools in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, in terms of the prevalence of caries, periodontal conditions, dentofacial anomalies, and fluorosis. In 2003, the 2002-2003 Oral Health Conditions in the Brazilian Population project (SB Brasil) was expanded to Goiânia as a cross-sectional study, as described in the present article. The sample included 1 947 students from urban schools: 1 790 (91.9%) attended public schools and 157 (8.1%) attended private schools. Data on the following oral conditions were collected through clinical examination: dental caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth index, DMFT), periodontal condition (Community Periodontal Index, CPI), dentofacial anomaly (Dental Aesthetics Index, DAI), and dental fluorosis (Dean index). The groups were compared using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. There were differences between the public and private schools for all the variables. DMFT, CPI, and DAI indexes were higher in children from public schools (P schools (P school was associated with the oral health condition of the children in this sample. Investments in actions and services to mitigate this inequality and its effects should be made as part of the policies to promote oral health.

  17. Differences in students' mathematics engagement between gender and between rural and urban schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md.; Mahmud, Rosnaini; Salim, Nur Raidah; Sulaiman, Tajularipin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore secondary school students' mathematics engagement focusing on the cognitive, affective and behavioural engagement domains. A total of 387 students (186 male and 201 female) from the urban and rural secondary schools in Pahang, Malaysia, were randomly selected. There were 158 students from the urban schools and 229 students from the rural schools. Descriptive analyses for mathematics engagement domains revealed behavioural engagement had the highest mean (M = 3.74, SD = .63), followed by cognitive engagement (M = 3.56, SD = .43) and affective engagement (M = 3.48, SD = .47). The mean for students' overall mathematics engagement was 3.56 (SD = .46). Further analyses showed there were significant differences in each of the engagement domains in mathematics learning (affective, cognitive and behavioural), where students in the urban schools showed significantly better in the mean scores for affective, cognitive, behavioural domains and the overall mathematics engagement as compared to the students in the rural schools. Similar findings also showed there were significant differences in the overall mathematics engagement mean between the genders. The findings indicated girls were significantly better than boys in all (affective, cognitive and behavioural) of the engagement domains in mathematics learning. It was also shown girls had higher overall mathematics engagement mean as compared to boys. However, the study also indicated the overall students' mathematics engagement was at a moderate level. Besides, the rural school students did not show high mathematics engagement as compared to the urban school students. Further analyses showed girls significantly had better mathematics engagement as compared to boys. Hence, it is recommended that in order to optimize students' mathematics engagement, they should be actively engaged in more participative learning activities in mathematics classrooms. Focus should be given to rural schools

  18. Audiospatial and Visuospatial Working Memory in 6–13 Year Old School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Vuontela, Virve; Steenari, Maija-Riikka; Carlson, Synnöve; Koivisto, Juha; Fjällberg, Mika; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2003-01-01

    The neural processes subserving working memory, and brain structures underlying this system, continue to develop during childhood. We investigated the effects of age and gender on audiospatial and visuospatial working memory in a nonclinical sample of school-aged children using n-back tasks. The results showed that auditory and visual working memory performance improves with age, suggesting functional maturation of underlying cognitive processes and brain areas. The gender differences found i...

  19. Classroom anxiety of year 6 EFL primary school students in correlation with their learning achievements

    OpenAIRE

    Praček, Anja

    2017-01-01

    The Master thesis examines classroom anxiety of the 6th Grade primary School students in relation to their learning achievements in English as a foreign language. In many a thing, the English class differs from other classes and it is precisely this unique learning situation that can provoke anxiety in students. The Master thesis consists of a theoretical and empirical part. The theoretical part reviews the literature available on the current state of teaching and learning English as a for...

  20. Web-based Dietary Assessment for 8-11 Year Old School-children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    status and BMI of the children. Possible causes may be the weight and health focus of the study, social desirability and the diet reporting itself. When using plasma carotenoid concentrations as a reference, the WebDASC’s ability to rank participants according to FJV intake was good and the Web...... ability and social desirability which in addition is influenced by the OPUS study. Furthermore, they are untrained in the task and they may not be involved in food shopping or preparation and therefore have little insight into the foods they eat. The overall aim of the present project was to deliver......Background and aim The potential health effects of a New Nordic Diet (NND) are to be tested in the Danish OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal study among 8-11- year-old school-children. Valid and reliable dietary...