Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.
Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.
Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Parkin, Timothy; Falkmer, Torbjörn
The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.
Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Parkin, Timothy; Falkmer, Torbjörn
The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students’ school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students. PMID:24967580
Full Text Available The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.
Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012
What steps can be taken to assure that 8th graders make a successful transition to 9th grade? More students fail ninth grade than any other grade level. When middle school students took part in high school transition programs with a variety of different articulation activities, fewer students were retained in ninth grade. Ideally, these transition…
Yevick, D.; Reimer, M.; Tromborg, Bjarne
We compare the accuracy of the multicanonical procedure with that of transition-matrix models of static and dynamic communication system properties incorporating different acceptance rules. We find that for appropriate ranges of the underlying numerical parameters, algorithmically simple yet high...... accurate procedures can be employed in place of the standard multicanonical sampling algorithm....
Broström, Stig; Einarsdottir, Johanna; Vrinioti, Kalliope
political understanding. Then the authors define and reflect the word transition in theoretical terms using Bronfenbrenner's ecological developmental model. After a short review of international transition research the article focus on international research on children's transition problems...... The article deals with transition from preschool to primary school. Starting with a historical overview presenting Fröbel's transition understanding from 1852 over European politics in the 1960s and 1970s, recommendations by the Councils of Europe from the 1990s and ending with OECD's actual...... and in continuation of this a description of a number of so-called transition activities are described in order to ease children's transition to school....
Parents of adolescents with attention deficit disorders are offered suggestions for easing the transition of their teen from elementary to secondary school. Careful scheduling of classes with the guidance counselor to "fit" the individual teen's needs is urged. The importance of ongoing communication with the school concerning class progress,…
Schielack, Janie; Seeley, Cathy L.
In the move from elementary to middle school mathematics, students encounter major changes in instructional materials and approaches, work expectations, school structure, and general level of difficulty in material. Research shows that, in general, students suffer significant declines in academic achievement in the transition from elementary…
Anisef, Paul, Ed.; Axelrod, Paul, Ed.
This book presents 11 papers of new research by scholars from across Canada engaged in the study of youth, schooling, employment, and social change. It describes the multiple transitions that young adults encounter in their journey from school to work. Particular attention is paid to the themes of gender, socioeconomic status, ethnocultural…
Madjar, Nir; Cohen, Veronique; Shoval, Gal
School transitions are important phases in students' educational experiences. The current study aimed to explore the trajectories of academic and social motivation across the transition from elementary to middle school. Participants (N = 415) were sampled from six elementary schools; 55% transitioned after sixth grade (transition) and 45% remained…
Madjar, Nir; Cohen-Malayev, Maya
The implications of the transition from elementary to middle school are of major concern for educators and researchers worldwide. Previous studies have yielded ambiguous findings; some have indicated negative outcomes of school transition, whereas others have demonstrated null or even positive effects. The aim of the current research was to explore the impact of school transition on students' perceived educational climate while distinguishing between transition effects and age-related effects by comparing students who transitioned to middle schools at the end of the sixth grade versus those who did not. The research included 2 complementary studies. Study 1 was based on a large-scale national survey in Israel (N = 71,739) that compared students from fifth to eighth grades using a cross-sectional design, in which the students completed a survey once in the middle of the school year. Study 2 followed a sample of 415 students across 2 years including 4 waves of survey completion, at the beginning and the end of 2 consecutive school years, during which 55% of the students experienced a transition and 45% remained in elementary school. In both studies, the students completed self-report surveys assessing the perceived school climate. Both multilevel and nonlinear growth-curve analyses consistently indicated that the students who transitioned reported positive perceptions of the school climate before the transition that declined more quickly and become equal to or lower than those of the nontransitioning students. Teachers should apply practices that enhance students' sense of support, specifically following school transitions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Varilly, Patrick; Chandler, David
We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. On the basis of thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.
Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Denmon, Jennifer; Owens, Ruchelle; Lindstrom, Krista
This yearlong qualitative multisite case study investigated ways middle and high school transition supports foster a developmentally responsive transition for students. A total of 23 participants engaged in this study, including 4 students, 4 middle school teachers, 13 high school teachers, 1 middle school principal, and 1 high school principal.…
Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling
The trajectory of early adolescents' popularity goal during the transition to middle school was examined in a diverse sample of 401 students. Popularity goal was assessed at five time points from the spring semester of fifth grade through the spring semester of seventh grade with the transition to middle school occurring between the fifth and…
Full Text Available Relatively little is known about the youth labour market in Mongolia. This paper addresses the issue by taking advantage of a recent ad hoc School to Work Transition Survey (SWTS on young people aged 15-29 years carried out in 2006. After a period of sharp reduction in the 1990s, educational attainment is increasing, as compared to other countries in the area. Nonetheless, important constraints seem to affect the supply of education, especially in rural areas. In addition, as application of the new ILO school-to-work transition classification shows, the country is unable to provide young people with a sufficient number of decent jobs. This translates into high youth unemployment in urban areas and very low productivity jobs in rural areas. Mincerian estimates confirm that human capital is an important determinant of earnings in urban, but not in rural areas
Pietsch, Marcus; Stubbe, Tobias C.
This article explores the mechanisms of educational pathway decision making at the transition from primary to secondary school in the German education system by analysing data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). The highly reliable data of the German sample of the 2001 PIRLS make it possible to take into…
This project improves the National Transit Database (NTD) Sampling Manual and develops an Internet-based, WordPress-powered interactive Web tool to deliver the new NTD Sampling Manual dynamically. The new manual adds guidance and a tool for transit a...
Parker, Philip D.; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W.
The post–high school transition period is believed to be associated with considerable changes in social networks, yet longitudinal studies documenting these changes are scarce. To address this gap, the current research explored 3 relevant issues. First, changes in participants’ relationship characteristics during the transition from high school were examined. Second, the roles of personality traits as antecedents of these changes were studied. Third, the association between change in relationship characteristics and personality during the transition was explored. A sample of over 2,000 German emerging adults, surveyed before leaving school and then 2 years after the transition from high school, was assessed on personality traits and a multidimensional assessment of the quality of their relationships. Findings indicated that participants experienced mostly positive changes in relationship quality during the transition from high school and that antecedent personality at school was an important predictor of the nature of this change. Finally, change in relationship quality was found to be associated with personality change during the post-school transition. Findings indicated that personality traits may influence transition success and that change in relationships during this transition may influence personality development. The implications of the research for post-school transition success are discussed. PMID:22224909
Venezia, Andrea; Jaeger, Laura
The vast majority of high school students aspire to some kind of postsecondary education, yet far too many of them enter college without the basic content knowledge, skills, or habits of mind they need to succeed. Andrea Venezia and Laura Jaeger look at the state of college readiness among high school students, the effectiveness of programs in place to help them transition to college, and efforts to improve those transitions. Students are unprepared for postsecondary coursework for many reasons, the authors write, including differences between what high schools teach and what colleges expect, as well as large disparities between the instruction offered by high schools with high concentrations of students in poverty and that offered by high schools with more advantaged students. The authors also note the importance of noncurricular variables, such as peer influences, parental expectations, and conditions that encourage academic study. Interventions to improve college readiness offer a variety of services, from academic preparation and information about college and financial aid, to psychosocial and behavioral supports, to the development of habits of mind including organizational skills, anticipation, persistence, and resiliency. The authors also discuss more systemic programs, such as Middle College High Schools, and review efforts to allow high school students to take college classes (known as dual enrollment). Evaluations of the effectiveness of these efforts are limited, but the authors report that studies of precollege support programs generally show small impacts, while the more systemic programs show mixed results. Dual-enrollment programs show promise, but the evaluation designs may overstate the results. The Common Core State Standards, a voluntary set of goals and expectations in English and math adopted by most states, offer the potential to improve college and career readiness, the authors write. But that potential will be realized, they add, only if the
Cabriolu, R.; Refsnes, K.M.S; Bolhuis, P.G.; van Erp, T.S.
Nearly 20 years ago, transition path sampling (TPS) emerged as an alternative method to free energy based approaches for the study of rare events such as nucleation, protein folding, chemical reactions, and phase transitions. TPS effectively performs Monte Carlo simulations with relatively short
Transitions and translations from Afrikaans to English in schools of the Helderberg area. ... in order to determine features of a perceived process of language shift. The language repertoire and decisions on school enrollment of learners from ...
Woodruff, Elizabeth A.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.
Transferring from elementary to secondary school can be difficult for many children, and students making this transition often suffer from anxiety and stress. One source of stress can be found in the scary stories transitioning pupils hear about their new schools, particularly those about physical education and sport. The purpose of this study was…
Crouch, Ronald; Keys, Christopher B; McMahon, Susan D
For students with disabilities, the process of school inclusion often begins with a move from segregated settings into general education classrooms. School transitions can be stressful as students adjust to a new environment. This study examines the adjustment of 133 students with and without disabilities who moved from a school that served primarily students with disabilities into 23 public schools in a large urban school district in the Midwest. These students and 111 of their teachers and other school staff rated the degree that students felt they belonged in their new schools and the quality of their social interactions. Results show that students who experienced more positive and fewer negative social interactions with school staff had higher school belonging. Teachers accurately noted whether students felt they belonged in their new settings, but were not consistently able to identify student perceptions of negative social interactions with staff. Implications for inclusion and improving our educational system are explored.
This study explores how children's perceptions of stress factors and coping strategies are constructed over time. Children were interviewed before and after they made the transition from preschool to primary school. This study also explores teachers' and parental strategies in helping children to cope with stress at school. The sample included 53…
This research grant supported my group's efforts to apply and extend the method of transition path sampling that we invented during the late 1990s. This methodology is based upon a statistical mechanics of trajectory space. Traditional statistical mechanics focuses on state space, and with it, one can use Monte Carlo methods to facilitate importance sampling of states. With our formulation of a statistical mechanics of trajectory space, we have succeeded at creating algorithms by which importance sampling can be done for dynamical processes. In particular, we are able to study rare but important events without prior knowledge of transition states or mechanisms. In perhaps the most impressive application of transition path sampling, my group combined forces with Michele Parrinello and his coworkers to unravel the dynamics of auto ionization of water . This dynamics is the fundamental kinetic step of pH. Other applications concern nature of dynamics far from equilibrium [1, 7], nucleation processes , cluster isomerization, melting and dissociation [3, 6], and molecular motors . Research groups throughout the world are adopting transition path sampling. In part this has been the result of our efforts to provide pedagogical presentations of the technique [4, 8, 9], as well as providing new procedures for interpreting trajectories of complex systems .
Budagov, Yu.; Chernikov, A.; Sabirov, B.
The results of leak test of bimetallic (titanium-stainless steel) transition elements produced by explosion welding are presented. Vacuum and high-pressure tests of the sample for leakage were carried out at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. Similar tests were also carried out under thermal cycling conditions
Wilding, Nigel B
Simulation within the grand canonical ensemble is the method of choice for accurate studies of first order vapour-liquid phase transitions in model fluids. Such simulations typically employ sampling that is biased with respect to the overall number density in order to overcome the free energy barrier associated with mixed phase states. However, at low temperature and for large system size, this approach suffers a drastic slowing down in sampling efficiency. The culprits are geometrically induced transitions (stemming from the periodic boundary conditions) which involve changes in droplet shape from sphere to cylinder and cylinder to slab. Since the overall number density does not discriminate sufficiently between these shapes, it fails as an order parameter for biasing through the transitions. Here we report two approaches to ameliorating these difficulties. The first introduces a droplet shape based order parameter that generates a transition path from vapour to slab states for which spherical and cylindrical droplets are suppressed. The second simply biases with respect to the number density in a tetragonal subvolume of the system. Compared to the standard approach, both methods offer improved sampling, allowing estimates of coexistence parameters and vapor-liquid surface tension for larger system sizes and lower temperatures.
Cabriolu, Raffaela; Skjelbred Refsnes, Kristin M.; Bolhuis, Peter G.; van Erp, Titus S.
Nearly 20 years ago, transition path sampling (TPS) emerged as an alternative method to free energy based approaches for the study of rare events such as nucleation, protein folding, chemical reactions, and phase transitions. TPS effectively performs Monte Carlo simulations with relatively short molecular dynamics trajectories, with the advantage of not having to alter the actual potential energy surface nor the underlying physical dynamics. Although the TPS approach also introduced a methodology to compute reaction rates, this approach was for a long time considered theoretically attractive, providing the exact same results as extensively long molecular dynamics simulations, but still expensive for most relevant applications. With the increase of computer power and improvements in the algorithmic methodology, quantitative path sampling is finding applications in more and more areas of research. In particular, the transition interface sampling (TIS) and the replica exchange TIS (RETIS) algorithms have, in turn, improved the efficiency of quantitative path sampling significantly, while maintaining the exact nature of the approach. Also, open-source software packages are making these methods, for which implementation is not straightforward, now available for a wider group of users. In addition, a blooming development takes place regarding both applications and algorithmic refinements. Therefore, it is timely to explore the wide panorama of the new developments in this field. This is the aim of this article, which focuses on the most efficient exact path sampling approach, RETIS, as well as its recent applications, extensions, and variations.
Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; White, James; Richter, Sharon; Walker, Allison
Approximately 28% of students with disabilities do not complete high school (National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, 2005). This increases the likelihood that these students will experience low wages, high rates of incarceration, and limited access to postsecondary education. This article reviews evidence-based secondary transition practices…
Diamond, Karen E.; And Others
The paper describes an ecological-developmental model for planning a child's transition from a preschool special education program to a public school classroom. The model stresses interactions between the various environments in which the child functions. A description of a preschool transition program based on the model is also included.…
Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…
Bower, M. W.; Ellerton, N. F.
The research reported in this paper addressed the nature of transitions between language genres in school physics. In this qualitative study, quasi-ethnographic methods were employed to understand the culture of one secondary school physics classroom in the USA. One teacher and his physics students were the participants. The teacher was…
McWilliams, Julia Ann; Bonet, Sally Wesley
This article examines how the pre-migratory experiences of 90 Bhutanese, Burmese, and Iraqi refugee youth shape their aspirations, needs and capabilities as they transition to postsecondary education and work in the American urban context. It further explores how their schooling experiences in precarious urban school districts influence their…
Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul; Rudolph, Erin
The present study investigates links between early adolescents' subjective experiences of stress associated with the middle school transition and their academic outcomes. Seventh and eighth grade students (N?=?774) were surveyed about their experiences during their transition to middle school. Students answered questions about stress…
Temkin, Deborah A.; Gest, Scott D.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark; Moody, James
This article expands research on normative school transitions (NSTs) from elementary to middle school or middle to high school by examining the extent to which they disrupt structures of friendship networks. Social network analysis is used to quantify aspects of connectedness likely relevant to student experiences of social support. Data were…
This study investigated Korean children's cultural adjustment during transition to South Australian junior primary school settings. Using case-study methodology to provide a sociocultural perspective, data were collected during interviews with a sample of South Korean international students aged five to eight years, their mothers and teachers. All…
Goodwin, N.P.; Mrug, S.; Borch, C.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female)
Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M.
Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 Cohort (n = 2,798), this study examined patterns of absenteeism and their consequences through the transition to kindergarten. Overall, children were less likely to be absent in kindergarten than from Head Start at ages 3 and 4. Absenteeism was fairly stable…
Kolmos, Anette; Holgaard, Jette Egelund; Clausen, Nicolaj Riise
Pre-university engineering education has received increasing attention to attract more students to engineering and make them better prepared to enter engineering studies at university level. Denmark is one of the countries that offer established high school curriculum that makes engineering...... the core identity of the school. In a longitudinal research project, the cohort of all Danish engineering students who were enrolled in 2010 has been followed. This study takes a quantitative approach to highlight the differences in preparedness for engineering students who have a background...... themselves as being better prepared in relation to the conduct of experiments, engineering analysis and tolls, as well as in relation to process competences as design, problem solving and teamwork. The students from the profession-oriented high schools also find themselves better prepared in relation...
Mojola, Sanyu A
Why are orphaned girls at particular risk of contracting HIV? Using a transition to adulthood framework, this paper uses qualitative data from Nyanza province, Kenya to explore pathways to HIV risk among orphaned and non-orphaned high school girls. I show how co-occurring processes such as residential transition out of the parental home, negotiating financial access and relationship transitions interact to produce disproportionate risk for orphan girls. I also explore the role of financial provision and parental love in modifying girls’ trajectories to risk. I propose a testable theoretical model based on the qualitative findings and suggest policy implications. PMID:21500699
Hughes, Jan N; Im, MyungHee; Kwok, Oi-Man; Cham, Heining; West, Stephen G
Participants were 204 academically at-risk Latino students recruited into a study when in first grade and followed for 9 years. Using piecewise latent growth curve analyses, we investigated trajectories of teacher-rated behavioral engagement and student-reported school belonging during elementary school and middle school and the association between trajectories and enrollment in bilingual education classes in elementary school and a change in school ethnic congruence across the transition to middle school. Overall, students experienced a drop in school belonging and behavioral engagement across the transition. A moderating effect of ethnic congruence on bilingual enrollment was found. A decline in ethnic congruence was associated with more positive trajectories for students previously enrolled in bilingual classes but more negative trajectories for non-bilingual students.
Brahm, Taiga; Euler, Dieter; Steingruber, Daniel
The transition from school to vocational education and training is becoming more difficult for an increasing number of adolescents. Despite the growing significance of "interim solutions" (IS) shaping the pathway after compulsory education, there is hardly any research. This study aims at contributing to this research gap by…
Hull, Susan Hudson; Seeley, Cathy L.
How can teachers help prepare their high school students to make the critical transition to what comes after they graduate? Teachers cannot wait until students are seniors to inspire them to consider postsecondary education or training, and at the same time prepare them to succeed when they get there. It is increasingly important for students to…
Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.
Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…
Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura E.; Marengo, Davide; Settanni, Michele
A robust body of research has identified school transitions during adolescence, and in particular the transition from middle to high school, as one of the riskiest phases for school failure, being characterized by significant social, emotional and behavioral changes. This transition is critical even with respect to academic achievement: in Italy, the highest frequency of school dropout can be observed in the 9th and 10th grades, partly as a consequence of poor adjustment to the new school con...
Chaney, Maura Chase
The purpose of this case study was to examine the transition from junior high school to a middle school as experienced in two middle schools from a mid-sized urban school district located in the Rocky Mountains. The overarching question that guided data collection for this study centered on the factors that influenced school culture before,…
Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A
Normative biopsychosocial stressors that occur during entry into adolescence can affect school performance.As a set of resources for adapting to life's challenges, good health may buffer a child from these potentially harmful stressors. This study examined the associations between health (measured as well-being, functioning, symptoms, and chronic conditions) and school outcomes among children aged 9-13 years in 4th-8th grades. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,479 children from 34 schools followed from 2006 to 2008. Survey data were obtained from children and their parents, and school records were abstracted. Measures of child self-reported health were dichotomized to indicate presence of a health asset. Outcomes included attendance, grade point average, state achievement test scores, and child-reported school engagement and teacher connectedness. Both the transition into middle school and puberty had independent negative influences on school outcomes. Chronic health conditions that affected children's functional status were associated with poorer academic achievement. The number of health assets that a child possessed was positively associated with school outcomes. Low levels of negative stress experiences and high physical comfort had positive effects on teacher connectedness, school engagement, and academic achievement, whereas bullying and bully victimization negatively affected these outcomes. Children with high life satisfaction were more connected with teachers, more engaged in schoolwork, and earned higher grades than those who were less satisfied. As children enter adolescence, good health may buffer them from the potentially negative effects of school and pubertal transitions on academic success. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal
Adjustment to the transition from high school to military service in Israel was examined in a longitudinal study with a sample of 120 late-adolescent girls. During their senior year in high school (Time 1) the young women were administered the Adult Attachment Interview. Their coping and adjustment to the new environment were assessed (at two…
Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura E; Marengo, Davide; Settanni, Michele
A robust body of research has identified school transitions during adolescence, and in particular the transition from middle to high school, as one of the riskiest phases for school failure, being characterized by significant social, emotional and behavioral changes. This transition is critical even with respect to academic achievement: in Italy, the highest frequency of school dropout can be observed in the 9th and 10th grades, partly as a consequence of poor adjustment to the new school context. The impact of students' relationships with their teachers may be particularly relevant during critical developmental periods. Indeed, student-teacher relationships have been widely recognized as protective factors in school adjustment and, in case of negative relationships, also as a factor that increases the risk of maladjustment. Positive and affective student-teacher relationships may play an important role in students' adaptation to the school environment, favoring both academic achievement and adaptive behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the quality of teacher-student relationships, as perceived by pupils, on academic achievement, and problem and prosocial behaviors during the relevant school transition. The sample consisted of 122 students (55% female). We employed a self-report questionnaire to collect information on: demographic characteristics, quality of the relationship with teachers, problem and prosocial behaviors, and academic achievement. Students filled in the questionnaires twice: once during the 8th grade and 1 year later, during their first year of high school (9th grade). Regression analyses indicated that both average and varying levels of closeness with teachers significantly predicted changes in academic achievement: A perceived increase in closeness in 9th grade, as well as a higher mean closeness level, was associated with an increase in academic achievement. In turn, an increase in the level of perceived conflict
The transition from middle school to high school can be difficult for many students due to increases in school size, the structure of an academic schedule, and the complexity of social interactions in high school. However, Black boys face unique challenges during this transition period due to racism and structural inequalities. In response to…
Pearson, Natalie; Haycraft, Emma; P Johnston, Julie; Atkin, Andrew J
The transition from primary/middle school to secondary/high school is likely to be a key period in children's development, characterised by significant changes in their social and physical environment. However, little is known about the changes in sedentary behaviour that accompany this transition. This review aimed to identify, critically appraise and summarise the evidence on changes in sedentary behaviour across the primary - secondary school transition. Published English language studies were located from computerised and manual searches in 2015. Inclusion criteria specified a longitudinal design, baseline assessment when children were in primary/middle school with at least one follow-up during secondary/high school and a measure of sedentary behaviour at both (or all) points of assessment. Based on data from 11 articles (19 independent samples), tracking coefficients were typically in the range of 0.3 to 0.5 and relatively consistent across the different sedentary behaviours examined and durations of follow-up. Both screen-based sedentary behaviour and overall sedentary time increased during the school transition. Overall there was an increase of approximately 10-20min per day per year in accelerometer-assessed sedentary time. Consistent with the broader age-related changes in behaviour observed during this period, sedentary behaviour increases during the transition from primary/middle to secondary/high school. Investigating features of the social and physical environment that might exacerbate or attenuate this trend would be a valuable next step. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rach, Stefanie; Heinze, Aiso
Particularly in mathematics, the transition from school to university often appears to be a substantial hurdle in the individual learning biography. Differences between the characters of school mathematics and scientific university mathematics as well as different demands related to the learning cultures in both institutions are discussed as…
Mundy, Alma Christienne
The purpose of this mixed method study is to explain the ecology Black males experience as they transition from elementary school to middle school in terms of behavior. The Black male graduation rate is well below 50% nationally (Orfield, Losen, Wald, & Swanson, 2004; Schott Foundation for Public Education, 2010). Graduating from high school…
Cameron, Catherine Ann; Pinto, Giuliana; Hunt, Anne Kathryn; Léger, Paul-David
The transition to school, marked by significant moves towards print literacy, is a crucial school-life milestone that can be both exhilarating and daunting. This case study, extracted from an international, quasi-ecological examination of thriving kindergarten children in transition to school films participants, their families, schools and…
Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Epstein, Joyce L.; Sheldon, Steven B.; Fonseca, Ean
This exploratory study addresses the challenge of declining family engagement at the critical transition to high school. We use data from a survey of schools to examine whether and how middle grades and high schools engage families when their students transition to high school. Findings indicate that there is a significant negative relationship…
Xie, Hongling; Dawes, Molly; Wurster, Tabitha J; Shi, Bing
The transition to middle school often presents behavioral and academic challenges to youths. Boys of color (i.e., African American and Hispanic in this study) may be especially vulnerable. In this study, peer nominations of aggressive and academic behaviors as well as youths' perceptions of how these behaviors were related to popularity in peer networks were obtained from the spring semester of fifth grade through the spring semester of seventh grade, with the transition occurring as the students entered the sixth grade. The sample included 188 boys (71 Caucasian, 90 African American, and 27 Hispanic) from an urban school district in the northeastern United States. Trajectory analyses showed that African American boys scored lower in studentship and higher in rule-breaking and aggressive (both physical and social) behaviors prior to the transition, and such differences among ethnic groups were largely maintained during the transition. Hispanic boys displayed decreases in their studentship during the transition. African American boys' perception of how studentship affects popularity was more positive than other boys prior to the transition, but it decreased during the transition. African American boys also endorsed rule breaking and physical and social aggression more positively for popularity prior to the transition, whereas Caucasian and Hispanic boys' endorsement increased during the transition and eventually caught up with those of African American boys in seventh grade. A positive within-individual association was found between youths' popularity perception and their behavior for studentship, rule breaking, and physical aggression, which did not differ by ethnicity. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Hicks, Jeffery L; Hendricson, William D; Partida, Mary N; Rugh, John D; Littlefield, John H; Jacks, Mary E
Academic dentistry, as a career track, is not attracting sufficient numbers of new recruits to maintain a corps of skilled dental educators. The Faculty Development Program (FDP) at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Dental School received federal funds to institute a 7-component program to enhance faculty recruitment and retention and provide training in skills associated with success in academics including:(1) a Teaching Excellence and Academic Skills (TExAS)Fellowship, (2) training in research methodology,evidence-based practice research, and information management, (3) an annual dental hygiene faculty development workshop for dental hygiene faculty, (4) a Teaching Honors Program and Academic Dental Careers Fellowship to cultivate students' interest in educational careers, (5) an Interprofessional Primary Care Rotation,(6) advanced education support toward a master's degree in public health, and (7) a key focus of the entire FDP, an annual Career Transition Workshop to facilitate movement from the practice arena to the educational arm of the profession.The Career Transition Workshop is a cap stone for the FDP; its goal is to build a bridge from practice to academic environment. It will provide guidance for private practice, public health, and military dentists and hygienists considering a career transition into academic dentistry. Topics will be addressed including: academic culture, preparation for the academic environment,academic responsibilities, terms of employment,compensation and benefits, career planning, and job search / interviewing. Instructors for the workshop will include dental school faculty who have transitioned from the practice, military, and public health sectors into dental education.Objectives of the Overall Faculty Development Program:• Provide training in teaching and research skills,career planning, and leadership in order to address faculty shortages in dental schools and under representation of minority
ARL-RP-0528 ● AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Sample Size Induced Brittle-to- Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum...originator. ARL-RP-0528 ● AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Sample Size Induced Brittle-to- Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal...Sample Size Induced Brittle-to- Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
Mandy, William; Murin, Marianna; Baykaner, Ozlem; Staunton, Sara; Hellriegel, Josselyn; Anderson, Seonaid; Skuse, David
The transition from primary to secondary education (hereafter "school transition") is a major ecological shift that poses considerable social, emotional, academic and organisational challenges. It is commonly assumed that this school transition is especially difficult for children with autism spectrum disorder, but that idea is mainly…
This phenomenological study sought to understand how lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) college students described their high school experiences and their later transitions to college. The study data revealed five findings: (a) enduring unsupportive/hostile educational environments, (b) experiencing a lack of family and social…
Fleischman, Katie; Smothers, Melissa K.; Christianson, Heidi F.; Carter, Laura; Hains, Anthony A.; Davies, W. Hobart
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) as they transitioned into high school in order to understand the contextual factors that impact diabetic health-related behaviors and self-identity. A qualitative interviewing methodology called consensual qualitative research (CQR) was…
Benner, Aprile D.; Yan, Ni
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (N = 13,970), we examined whether two aspects of school-family connections, parental involvement and communication quality, accounted for the association between classroom composition and children's academic and socioemotional functioning following the transition to…
Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.
Objective: Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Participants: Data from the 2006 School Health Policies…
Janet K. Holt
Full Text Available In this study, the effects of school policies and practices on math achievement growth, as students transitioned from middle to high school, were examined while controlling for school contextual variables. A pattern of accelerated growth in mathematics achievement from grades 8 to 12 occurred, in which higher achieving students in mathematics at grade eight accelerated more than lower achieving students in mathematics growth during the transition from middle to high school. Controlling for school context, school policy promoting parent involvement and academic counseling had significant positive impacts on the acceleration in growth during this period. The implications of using multilevel growth models to study growth during transition periods are discussed.
This study explores (1) how parental and teacher scaffolding and children's coping strategies contribute to children's adjustment during the transition from preschool to school; and (2) how children's perception of stress and coping are constructed over time. The sample included 216 six-year-old children, their parents and teachers. The parents,…
Yang, NaYeon; Yaung, Huk; Noh, Hyunkyung; Jang, Sun Hee; Lee, Bora
The current study examined how planned happenstance skills (i.e., curiosity, flexibility, persistence, optimism, and risk-taking) changed during school-to-work transition and how career-related variables were associated with the initial levels and change rates of planned happenstance skills. In a sample of 307 South Korean college students, all…
Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Watermann, Rainer; Hasselhorn, Marcus
The often observed decline in students' self-perceptions across transition to secondary school after grade 6 is often attributed to students' entry to puberty. This study aims to examine whether lowered self-perceptions can be observed after transition in Germany which occurs after grade 4 and thus takes place before puberty. Fifth graders (N =…
Fadzil, Hidayah Mohd; Saat, Rohaida Mohd
The lack of exposure to practical work in primary schools leads to incompetency in manipulative skills and students may carry this problem with them to secondary school. To address this issues, an in-depth qualitative study was conducted during transition from primary to secondary school. The research involved 10 primary school students (grade 6)…
Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Leve, Leslie D
Girls in foster care may face difficulties across the transition to middle school. Latent growth curve modeling was employed to examine trajectories and predictors of academic competence and aggression from and against peers for 75 girls in foster care from the end of elementary school to the 2(nd) year of middle school. Across the transition to middle school, academic competence increased. Poor self-regulation was associated with decreased academic competence, and higher caregiver support was associated with increased academic competence. Frequency of aggression from peers decreased across the transition, with perceived school competence predicting smaller decreases. Aggression against peers dropped initially and then increased to pretransition levels by the end of the 2(nd) year of middle school. Lower caregiver support was associated with higher rates of aggression against peers at the end of the 1(st) year of middle school. The results are discussed in terms of implications for interventions for girls in foster care.
Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.
Understanding the developmental responsiveness of secondary school environments may be an important factor in supporting students as they make the transition from one school to the next. Students' needs may or may not be met depending on the nature of the fit between their basic and developmental needs and secondary school structures at the middle…
Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A; Thornberg, Robert
This study examines sociodemographic characteristics and social-environmental factors associated with bullying during the elementary to middle school transition from a sample of 5th-grade students (n = 300) in 3 elementary schools at Time 1. Of these, 237 participated at Time 2 as 6th-grade students. Using cluster analyses, we found groups of students who reported no increase in bullying, some decrease in bullying, and some increase in bullying. Students who reported increases in bullying also reported decreases in school belongingness and teacher affiliation and increases in teacher dissatisfaction. Students who reported decreases in bullying also reported decreases in victimization. These findings suggest that changes across the transition in students' relations to school and their teachers are predictive of changes in bullying.
McIntyre, Laura Lee; Eckert, Tanya L.; Arbolino, Lauren A.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.; Fiese, Barbara H.
Research suggests that a large percentage of kindergarten children do not successfully transition to school (Rimm-Kaufman et al. 2000). As a result, a number of school transition initiatives have been developed by educators and policy makers to address the difficulties young children may experience upon kindergarten entry. Despite this attention,…
Talapatra, Devadrita; Roach, Andrew T.; Varjas, Kris; Houchins, David E.; Crimmins, Daniel B.
Transition services can be used to forge family, school, and community partnerships and foster a successful shift to adult life for students with intellectual disabilities (ID). School psychologists can play a valuable additive role in supporting the transition process due to their graduate training in interpersonal skills; consultation services;…
Thuo, Mary; Edda, Medhanit
The purpose of this study was to get an insight about how high school female students perceive the transition to university life, and to understand the transition experience of university female students in the first semester. An exploratory study design was used where 166 high school female students and 88 first year university female students…
Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi
Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…
Kelly, Mary E.
The school-to-work (STW) transition occurs when young adults leave education and enter the full-time workforce. Most high school students in the United States will not graduate from a 4-year college and instead transition into the world of work, many filling positions in sales and service. Supporters of the STW movement advocate for educational…
Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Rintamaa, Margaret; Anderman, Eric M.; Anderman, Lynley H.
The authors examined 1,781 rural students' reading motivation and behavior across the transition from middle to high school. Using expectancy-value theory, they investigated how motivational variables predicted changes in reading behavior and achievement across the transition in terms of their expectancies, values, and out-of-school reading…
Mandy, William; Murin, Marianna; Baykaner, Ozlem; Staunton, Sara; Hellriegel, Josselyn; Anderson, Seonaid; Skuse, David
The transition from primary to secondary education (hereafter 'school transition') is a major ecological shift that poses considerable social, emotional, academic and organisational challenges. It is commonly assumed that this school transition is especially difficult for children with autism spectrum disorder, but that idea is mainly based on anecdotal evidence and requires systematic investigation. We describe change and continuity for children with autism spectrum disorder (N = 28, mean age = 11.29 years, mean full-scale IQ = 87.86) transitioning in mainstream education from primary to secondary school. Levels of psychopathology, adaptive functioning and peer victimisation were measured by parent, self and teacher report in the last year of primary school, and again after one term of secondary school. At follow-up, all participants were still in their secondary school, and there was no evidence for a marked escalation of difficulties during the transition. Instead, we observed high levels of psychopathology and maladaption at baseline which persisted across the transition and were in some cases under-recognised. By parent report, levels of bullying fell from primary to secondary school. Future research should investigate factors, such as school characteristics, that influence the move to secondary education in autism spectrum disorder, to inform the development of interventions to promote successful school transition. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available This longitudinal study investigated the psychological wellbeing and self-esteem of students during the transition between secondary school and university. The sample comprised 197 students (82 male; 115 female. The mean age of the students at the start of the study was 18.54 years (SD = 0.78. Students completed measures of psychological wellbeing (Ryff Psychological Wellbeing Scale and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale during their final year of secondary school and again at the start of their university studies. Repeated measures (RM multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to investigate how transition status and gender affected aspects of psychological wellbeing and self-esteem. Multivariate analysis showed main effect of the transition from school to university on psychological wellbeing and self-esteem. Univariate analysis indicated that psychological wellbeing was higher at the start of university studies than during the final year of secondary school, but failed to confirm the effect of the transition on self-esteem. Gender by transition status interactions for two psychological wellbeing dimensions (autonomy and purpose in life were found.
Bull, Bruce; Bullis, Michael
The transition programs of 326 secondary educational programs for deaf and severely hearing-impaired adolescents were surveyed. Results suggested that residential schools had higher implementation rates (for desirable transition characteristics) than did mainstream and other programs. All groups valued the identified transition practices more than…
Marshall, Amy; Powell, Norman; Pierce, Doris; Nolan, Ronnie; Fehringer, Elaine
Students, a large percentage with disabilities, are at high risk for poor post-secondary outcomes in state agency education programs. This mixed-methods study describes the understandings of student transitions in state agency education programs from the perspectives of youth and administrators. Results indicated that: transition is more narrowly defined within alternative education programs; key strengths of transition practice are present in nontraditional schools; and the coordination barriers within this fluid inter-agency transition system are most apparent in students' frequent inter-setting transitions between nontraditional and home schools.
a number of transition activities the author argues for play as pivot for successful transition and more specific dialogical reading followed by play. Thus play is not seen as children’s own free-flow play, but as an educational activity in which the preschool teacher has an active role.......This chapter deals with children’s transition to school and play. First part focuses on transition and shows a number of problem, which in short can be described as lack of continuity between preschool and school. The answer to this problem is to create transition strategies and activities. Besides...
Eapen, Valsamma; Grove, Rachel; Aylward, Elizabeth; Joosten, Annette V; Miller, Scott I; Van Der Watt, Gerdamari; Fordyce, Kathryn; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Maya, Jacqueline; Tucker, Madonna; DeBlasio, Antonia
To evaluate the characteristics that are associated with successful transition to school outcomes in preschool aged children with autism. Twenty-one participants transitioning from an early intervention program were assessed at two time points; at the end of their preschool placement and approximately 5 mo later following their transition to school. Child characteristics were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, Social Communication Questionnaire and the Repetitive Behaviour Scale. Transition outcomes were assessed using Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment and the Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales to provide an understanding of each child's school adjustment. The relationship between child characteristics and school outcomes was evaluated. Cognitive ability and adaptive behaviour were shown to be associated with successful transition to school outcomes including participation in the classroom and being comfortable with the classroom teacher. These factors were also associated with social skills in the classroom including assertiveness and engagement. Supporting children on the spectrum in the domains of adaptive behaviour and cognitive ability, including language skills, is important for a successful transition to school. Providing the appropriate support within structured transition programs will assist children on the spectrum with this important transition, allowing them to maximise their learning and behavioural potential.
Benner, Aprile D; Boyle, Alaina E; Bakhtiari, Farin
The transition to high school is disruptive for many adolescents, yet little is known about the supportive relational processes that might attenuate the challenges students face as they move from middle to high school, particularly for students from more diverse backgrounds. Identifying potential buffers that protect youth across this critical educational transition is important for informing more effective support services for youth. In this study, we investigated how personal characteristics (gender, nativity, parent education level) and changes in support from family, friends, and school influenced changes in socioemotional adjustment and academic outcomes across the transition from middle to high school. The data were drawn from 252 students (50% females, 85% Latina/o). The results revealed declines in students' grades and increases in depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness across the high school transition, with key variation by student nativity and gender. Additionally, stable/increasing friend support and school belonging were both linked to less socioemotional disruptions as students moved from middle to high school. Increasing/stable school belonging was also linked to increases in school engagement across the high school transition. These findings suggest that when high school transitions disrupt supportive relationships with important others in adolescents' lives, adolescents' socioemotional well-being and, to a lesser extent, their academic engagement are also compromised. Thus, in designing transition support activities, particularly for schools serving more low-income and race/ethnic minority youth, such efforts should strive to acclimate new high school students by providing inclusive, caring environments and positive connections with educators and peers.
Buchanan, Rohanna; Nese, Rhonda N T; Clark, Miriam
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) too often do not receive adequate services or care in their school settings, particularly during transitions in educational placements. In addition, school support teams often struggle with creating transition plans that honor the needs of students with input from key stakeholders responsible for supporting student success. This article presents findings from the information-gathering phase of an iterative project that aims to develop a support program for students with EBD transitioning from day-treatment schools to district schools. We conducted 5 semistructured, qualitative focus groups with parents and teachers to explore needs during students' transitions between school settings. Five themes emerged from the focus groups: (a) consistent, behavior-specific feedback and positive reinforcement are vital to sustaining learned prosocial skills; (b) students benefit from regular opportunities to learn and practice social skills; (c) transition programming should emphasize communication between school and home; (d) routines at home and school should be coordinated; and (e) parents need support at school meetings. We will use findings from this study to develop a multifaceted intervention that aims to support students, their caregivers, and their teachers during transitions between the aforementioned types of schools.
Sebanc, Anne M.; Guimond, Amy B.; Lutgen, Jeff
This study investigates whether friendship quality, academic achievement, and mastery goal orientation predict each other across the transition to middle school. Participants were 146 Latino students (75 girls) followed from the end of elementary school through the first year of middle school. Measures included positive and negative friendship…
Symonds, Jennifer; Hargreaves, Linda
Adolescents typically like school less after making age-graded school transitions. Stage-environment fit theory (Eccles & Midgley, 1989) attributes this to a mismatch between developmental needs and new school environments. Our in vivo study provides a basis for future quantitative designs by uncovering the most prevalent stage-environment…
Holmström, Malin Rising; Olofsson, Niclas; Asplund, Kenneth; Kristiansen, Lisbeth
To explore three school based transitions and their impact on positive self-reported-health (SRH), pre-school to elementary school (6-10 y), elementary school to junior high school (10-13 y), and junior high school to upper secondary school/high school (13-16 y), in a long-term longitudinal population based study. The study followed three cohorts through one school transition each. A longitudinal study with data from 6693 Health Dialogue questionnaires were used. Data were collected in the middle of Sweden during 2007-2012 with school children age 6-16 years old. Several significant factors were identified with an impact for a positive self-reported-health among children age 6-16 y; not feeling sad or depressed, afraid or worried, positive school environment (schoolyard and restrooms), not bullied, good sleep, daily physical activity and ability to concentrate. There was no single factor identified, the factors differed according to gender and age. The study have identified several gender and age specific factors for successful school transitions relevant for a positive SRH. This is valuable information for school staff, parents and school children and provides a possibility to provide support and assistance when needed.
As a part of the Individualized Education Plan (IEP), special education teachers work along with their student with special needs and their parent(s)/guardian(s) to create and implement Individualized Transition Plans (ITP) to assist the student with their transition to the post-school environment. As mandated by Individuals with Disabilities…
Baeza, Marco A.
This study analyzed skills, strategies, and theories that new middle school principals used to be successful during their transition period (the first 90 days) in turnaround schools. Based on research on transitions, three research questions guided the study: 1. Do middle school principals in a turnaround school situation find the transition…
Davis, Heather A.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Poirier, Ryan R.
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in students' relational engagement across the transition to high school in three schools reformed to improve the quality of student-teacher relationships. In order to analyze this data we employed latent growth curve (LGC) modeling techniques (n = 637). We ran three LGC models on three…
Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron J; Jenson, Jeffrey M
We examined the effects of depressive symptoms, antisocial attitudes, and perspective-taking empathy on patterns of bullying and victimization during the transition from late elementary (4th grade to 5th grade) to middle school (6th grade) among 1,077 students who participated in the Youth Matters (YM) bullying prevention trial. Latent transition analysis was used to establish classes of bullying, victimization, bully-victimization, and uninvolvement. The intervention had a positive impact on children as they moved from elementary to middle school. More students in the YM group transitioned from the involved statuses to the uninvolved status than students in the control group during the move to middle school. Elementary school bullies with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less likely than other students to move to an uninvolved status in the first year of middle school. Students who held greater antisocial attitudes were more likely to be a member of the bully-victim status than the uninvolved status during the move to middle school. Perspective-taking empathy, however, was not a significant predictor of status change during the transition to middle school. Implications for school-based prevention programs during the move to middle school are noted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available There has long been a disparity in the provision of curriculum within Australian secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate whether diversity within schools alters students’ university experiences. While much of the existing literature focuses on each aspect individually, this paper attempts to clarify a link between these factors by focussing on the transition process. A theoretical analysis of key concepts surrounding a web of inter-related issues, including student satisfaction, interest and motivation frames the quantitative data collection. The methodology employed consists of analysing a balanced sample of South Australian secondary schools, from an array of different locations, SES groupings and sizes, and an acknowledgement of previous studies into the first year experience within Australian Universities. The findings suggest that there is a disparity between learning areas in school curricula and an inherent link has been established with issues such as student attrition and dissatisfaction in universities.
Simon, Joan B.; Savina, Elena A.
Over a quarter of a million U.S. students each year reside for a period of time in a psychiatric inpatient hospital setting to receive mental health treatment. Following inpatient treatment, most children are transitioned from the hospital into a regular school setting. Little is known about how these transitions are managed by hospital or school…
Winterson, Julia; Russ, Michael
This article considers the transition from school to university in Music and Music Technology, continuing the discussion of transitional issues which began in Volume 2 of "Arts and Humanities in Higher Education". The focus of the article is a survey of undergraduates, examining areas that were key to their first experience of studying…
Holmström, Malin Rising; Olofsson, Niclas; Asplund, Kenneth; Kristiansen, Lisbeth
Background To explore three school based transitions and their impact on positive self- reported- health (SRH), pre-school to elementary school (6–10 y), elementary school to junior high school (10-13y), and junior high school to upper secondary school/high school (13-16y), in a long-term longitudinal population based study. Methods The study followed three cohorts through one school transition each. A longitudinal study with data from 6693 Health Dialogue questionnaires were used. Data were ...
Wray-Lake, Laura; Rote, Wendy M.; Benavides, Celina M.; Victorino, Christine
Describing how much and what type(s) of change are evident in civic engagement across adolescence is a fundamental starting point for advancing developmental theory in the civic domain. Using five annual waves of data from a large national U.S. sample spanning 8th-12th grades, our study describes civic engagement typologies and transitions in and…
LoBianco, Tony; Kleinert, Harold L.
Young adults with disabilities face multiple challenges in obtaining successful post-school outcomes. In a National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 report, Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, and Levine (2005) found that for former students with disabilities, 70% had engaged in paid employment since leaving high school, though only 40% were employed at…
Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Leach, Miki; Ruiz, Yedalis; Nelson, Consuelo; DiCocco, Hannah
This study analyzed the career development of career and technical education (CTE) high school graduates during their school-to-work transition, specifically their adaptability in the face of barriers. Forty graduates (22 men, 18 women) from working-class backgrounds participated in baseline surveys at graduation and phenomenological interviews 1…
Each year, about 200,000 children in the Netherlands—and many more around the globe—make the transition from primary to secondary school. Many will do fine after this major life change, but others experience serious declines in adjustment in secondary school. The aim of the present dissertation is
Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Moss, Colleen K.; Pesko, Matthew J.
The school activities, social relationships, and leadership opportunities youth with disabilities experience outside of the classroom can make important contributions to positive adolescent development and successful transitions to adult life. Unfortunately, many high school students with disabilities are not accessing or benefiting from the rich…
Otina, Salmon O.; Thinguri, Ruth W.
Autistic children, characterized by impaired social interactions, impaired communication, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviors, are also entitled to education just like the other children in the society. It is therefore important that primary schools in Kenya get prepared so that the children are able to transit to schools from their…
Bullis, Michael; Egelston-Dodd, Judy
Issues relevant to the school-to-community transition of deaf adolescents were identified and subsequently prioritized by 339 deafness professionals. Issues receiving highest priority were related to joint planning efforts among schools, departments of vocational rehabilitation, and families; training of independent living skills; and development…
Ko, Wen-Hwa; Chen, Chieh-Ying
This research focuses on the research and development competence and school-to-work transition on occupation selection for hospitality students with the use of social cognitive career theory. The positive attitude construct is the most identifiable for the research and development competences. For the school-to-work constructs, the most…
Novakovic, Alexandra; Ross, Denise E.
High school students with disabilities can benefit from early exposure to campus-based accommodations and supports as they transition to college. College Student for a Day (CSFAD) is an on-campus activity-based program that introduces high school students with disabilities to supports and accommodations on a college campus. This Practice Brief…
After finishing school, some graduates quickly and easily find a suitable job, while others face periods of un(der)employment. The current dissertation investigated such individual differences in school-to-work transition success. Our focus was on Vocational Education and Training graduates (VET –
Kang, Jean; Horn, Eva M.; Palmer, Susan
Transition to kindergarten can be a pivotal experience for children because of its potential long-term impact on school performance. As the importance of relationships among contextual factors surrounding a child has been recognized, many schools have made efforts to establish strong ties with families in order to make kindergarten transition…
Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Falkmer, Marita
Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.
Full Text Available Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC and mental health functioning (MHF of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.
Speering, Wendy; Rennie, Léonie
As students move through school, attitudes to school in general, and science in particular, become less positive. This paper reports on a longitudinal study which mapped, from the students' point of view, the transition between primary and secondary school in Western Australia. The study focused on the subject of science, and used both quantitative and qualitative methods. During the transition, there is a considerable change in the organisation of the school, the curriculum and the teacherstudent relationship. Students in this study, especially the girls, were generally disenchanted with the teaching strategies used in their secondary science classrooms, and regretted the loss of the close teacher-student relationship of their primary school years. Their perceptions were that science in secondary school was not what they had expected, and this experience may have long term implications for their subject and career choices.
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Sasabe, Tetsuya; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
When students proceed to junior high school from elementary school, rapid changes in the environment occur, which may cause various behavioral and emotional problems. However, the changes in cognitive functions during this transitional period have rarely been studied. In 158 elementary school students from 4th- to 6th-grades and 159 junior high school students from 7th- to 9th-grades, we assessed various cognitive functions, including motor processing, spatial construction ability, semantic fluency, immediate memory, delayed memory, spatial and non-spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. Our findings showed that performance on spatial and non-spatial working memory, alternative attention, divided attention, and semantic fluency tasks improved from elementary to junior high school. In particular, performance on alternative and divided attention tasks improved during the transitional period from elementary to junior high school. Our finding suggests that development of alternative and divided attention is of crucial importance in the transitional period from elementary to junior high school. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kirst, Maritt; Mecredy, Graham; Borland, Tracey; Chaiton, Michael
Young adulthood has been shown to be a time of increased substance use. Yet, not enough is known about which factors contribute to initiation and progression of substance use among young adults specifically during the transition year away from high school. A narrative review was undertaken to increase understanding of the predictors of changes in use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, other illicit drugs, and mental health problems among young adults during the transition period after high school. A review of academic literature examining predictors of the use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis, and co-morbidities (e.g., co-occurring substance use and/or mental health issues) among young adults transitioning from high school to post-secondary education or the workforce. Twenty six studies were included in the review. The majority of the studies (19) examined substance use during the transition from high school to post-secondary settings. Seven studies examined substance use in post-secondary settings. The studies consistently found that substance use increases among young adults as they transition away from high school. During the transition away from high school, common predictors of substance use include substance use in high school, and peer influence. Common predictors of substance use in post-secondary education include previous substance use, peer influence, psychological factors and mental health issues. Conclusions/Importance: Further research on social contextual influences on substance use, mental health issues, gender differences and availability of substances during the transition period is needed to inform the development of new preventive interventions for this age group.
Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt
in the social everyday life children moves across. To understand the way in which children participate within the school start, we need to know about children’s participation possibilities within the social everyday life of the school and further more to be informed of the social life and the children’s former...
Shohel, M. Mahruf C.
The context of the study reported in this paper is the difficulties of transition from nonformal primary schools to formal secondary schools in Bangladesh. The difficulties affecting a smooth school transition relate not only to the making of new relationships and adapting to new norms in a new environment, but also to a very different approach to…
Eduardo Rodríguez Rocha
Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of schools in educational choices in the transition to public high schools in Mexico City. Secondary schools have the potential to influence educational choices, through the development of certain educational functions. This influence comes in different ways, and is relatively independent of adscriptive characteristics and previous academic performance of students. Schools serve i as agents contributing to decision making, facilitating continuity on educational trajectories ii or as instances that do not develop explicit actions aimed to link their students to any of the options offered in the post-secondary educational system. While some schools teaching resources are destined to accompany their students during their decision process, others lack of them, abandoning them in this crucial educational event. The article is based on data provided by an ethnographic study conducted in seven high schools in southern Mexico City between January and July 2012
Full Text Available Background: The high incidence of young people dropping out of school prior to completing secondary schooling remains a nationwide problem in Indonesia. While it is commonly assumed that early school-leavers will become child workers, in fact little is known about their transition to adulthood. Objective: Using retrospective data from a sample of 799 young adults (ages 20-34 in Greater Jakarta who dropped out of school by age 16, this paper investigates their patterns of activity and employment in the adolescent years following their exit from the school system, the timing and patterns of reaching various markers of adulthood, and their current life situations. Results: Less than a quarter of early school-leavers worked in the immediate year following school exit. Instead about 30Š neither worked nor studied between the ages of 12-18. The likelihood of experiencing idleness was highest at age 13 and was relatively higher for females than males. Among those with early work experience the majority worked in the manufacturing industry, as domestic servants, or as informal traders. Early school-leavers left their parental home, married, and became parents at a younger age compared to those who left school at ages 17-19. Conclusions: Female early school-leavers are likely to spend a longer time economically and educationally inactive during their formative years, progress faster to their markers of adulthood, and are less likely to return to school, relative to their male counterparts. Qualitative insights suggest that adolescent dropouts who enter employment early are better off in their young adulthood than those who experience inactivity prior to adulthood.
Maxwell, Timothy John [Northern Illinois U.
Future collider applications as well as present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron lasers operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. We present results on the single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector laboratory. A longitudinal double-pulse modulation of the electron beam is also realized by transverse beam masking followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space exchange beamline. Live profile tuning is demonstrated by upstream beam focusing in conjunction with downstream monitoring of single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of the coherent transition radiation.
The Survey of the Knowledge and Skills Required for Transition Teachers in High School Divisions of Special Needs Education with Intellectual Disabilities : Based on the opinions of transition teachers in high school divisions of special needs education with intellectual disabilities
Fujii, Asuka; Ochiai, Toshiro
The purpose of this study is to investigate the opinions that transition teachers in upper second education division of special school which are requested to themselves on the knowledge and skills needed for transition from school to work. The questionnaires were sent to 574 upper second education divisions of special schools. As the result of statistic analyze, the four domains about the knowledge and skills needed for transition. They were "Needs Assessment", "Coordination" "Job-Coaching" a...
Gul, Seyda; Yesilyurt, Selami
The aim of this study is to determine what level of primary and secondary school students' misconceptions related to greenhouse effect is. Study group consists of totally 280 students attended to totally 8 primary and secondary schools (4 primary school, 4 secondary school) which were determined with convenient sampling method from center of…
Wolf, Sharon; McCoy, Dana C.; Godfrey, Erin B.
Governments in sub-Saharan Africa have made marked efforts to increase school enrollment. Yet attendance and completion rates remain low, particularly for girls. This study examines the reasons that school children do not attend school in a sample of Ghanaian students. Girls were more likely to miss school because a family member was sick, whereas…
Ryan, Allison M; Shim, Sungok Serena; Makara, Kara A
Moving from elementary to middle school is a time of great transition for many early adolescents. The present study examined students' academic adjustment and relational self-worth at 6-month intervals for four time points spanning the transition from elementary school to middle school (N = 738 at time 1; 53 % girls; 54 % African American, 46 % European American). Grade point average (G.P.A.), intrinsic value for schoolwork, self-worth around teachers, and self-worth around friends were examined at every time point. The overall developmental trajectory indicated that G.P.A. and intrinsic value for schoolwork declined. The overall decline in G.P.A. was due to changes at the transition and across the first year in middle school. Intrinsic value declined across all time points. Self-worth around teachers was stable. The developmental trends were the same regardless of gender or ethnicity except for self-worth around friends, which was stable for European American students and increased for African American students due to an ascent at the transition into middle school. Implications for the education of early adolescents in middle schools are discussed.
Molina-García, Javier; Queralt, Ana; Castillo, Isabel; Sallis, James F
This study examined changes in multiple physical activity domains during the transition out of high school and psychosocial and environmental determinants of these changes. A 1-year prospective study was designed. The baseline sample was composed of 244 last-year high school students (58.6% female) from Valencia, Spain. Follow-up rate was 46%. Physical activity and potential determinants were measured by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and other evaluated scales in 2 waves. Total physical activity and active commuting (AC) decreased, respectively, by 21% and 36%, only in males. At time 1, access to car/motorbike (inverse), planning/psychosocial barriers (inverse), street connectivity (positive) and parental education (inverse) were significantly associated with AC (P genders, there was a decrease in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA; -35% in males, -43% in females). At time 1, self-efficacy and social support were positive correlates of LTPA (P physical activity change were identified, and these are promising targets for interventions.
Silver, R.B.; Measelle, J.R.; Armstrong, J.M.; Essex, M.J.
The unique and interactive contributions of past externalizing behavior, negative parenting, and teacher-child relationship quality to externalizing behavior trajectories after the transition to school were examined. In a sample of 283 children, random regression analyses indicated that conflict in the teacher-child relationship during the school…
There is a paucity of studies conducted with unaccompanied adolescent international students. In this qualitative inquiry, I present a thematic analysis of the critical incidents that Chinese, Japanese, and Korean participants reported as either facilitating or hindering to their transition to Canada. Using the Critical Incident Technique, I…
Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Lundahl, Lisbeth; Järvinen, Tero
All over Europe, a range of policy measures to support young people’s school-to-work transitions have been initiated. However, these transition policies have rarely been studied systematically, particularly not from a comparative perspective. The aim of this article is to compare Swedish, Danish...... and Finnish policies for supporting young people’s edu¬ca¬¬tional and school-to-work transitions, with a particular focus on NEETs and dropouts. The comparison is exploratory and aims to illuminate the strengths and weaknesses of each system in reducing dropout rates and promoting smooth transitions. We draw...... and migrant youth, the political discourse is marked more by ideas of employability and vulnerability than of personal development and citizenship....
Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Lundahl, Lisbeth; Järvinen, Tero
All over Europe, a range of policy measures to support young people’s school-to-work transitions have been initiated. However, these transition policies have rarely been studied systematically, particularly not from a comparative perspective. The aim of this article is to compare Swedish, Danish...... and Finnish policies for supporting young people’s edu¬ca¬¬tional and school-to-work transitions, with a particular focus on NEETs and dropouts. The comparison is exploratory and aims to illuminate the strengths and weaknesses of each system in reducing dropout rates and promoting smooth transitions. We draw...... and migrant youth, the political discourse is marked more by ideas of employability and vulnerability than of personal development and citizenship....
The lack of coherence between early childhood education settings and primary school classrooms provides a challenge to the creation of a seamless educational experience in the period from birth to age eight. This paper examines the nature of technological activities in Kindergartens and New Entrant/Year One classes in New Zealand. It highlights commonalities between the two and discusses the potential for technology education to provide a bridge for children to ease their passage into the formal school setting and to provide a coherent educational experience.
Langenkamp, Amy G.
The transition to high school is a critical stage in students' academic trajectories and can be especially difficult for middle school students who struggle academically. Starting high school on a low academic track and with low academic performance often leads to dropping out of high school. This study investigates what might protect academically…
Jean Farmer. Centre for Teaching and Learning, Stellenbosch University, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa .... This study examines the linguistic resources and language choices of learners in a specific school, ... Afrikaans-dominant bilingualism, to either English-dominant bilingualism or (in extreme cases) to. English ...
This study tracked the progress of alumni of an educational intervention two or three years post school, in order to investigate their pathways to their destinations of work and study. Forty percent of the alumni were successfully traced, and asked to fill in an online questionnaire. Of the 104 traced alumni, 80% reported good ...
van Zenderen, K.L.J.
There is an ongoing concern about the unfavourable position of migrant youth in education and on the labour market, in particular concerning them dropping out of school or becoming unemployed. This leads to a great proliferation of policies and measures to tackle these problems. In this thesis the
Moos, Lejf; Møller, Jorunn
This article will set the context of democratic leadership in Scandinavian countries. This concept is being discussed in a dual perspective: On one hand there are pressures to transform the governing of the schools towards a more 'rigorous' form of New Public Management (NPM) with models...
Examines Piaget's concrete and formal operational stages of intellectual development in relation to the middle school learner. Presents teaching strategies requiring the learner to use concrete and formal operational forms of thought in dealing with a social studies unit about Quebec. (Author/JK)
The value of a college degree is well documented. College graduates earn at least 60% more than high school graduates. Beyond the economic value, college graduates show higher rates of civic participation, engage in volunteer work and even have a much higher likelihood of being "happy." Students who drop out without attaining a college…
Neal, S; Rice, F; Ng-Knight, T; Riglin, L; Frederickson, N
School transition at around 11-years of age can be anxiety-provoking for children, particularly those with special educational needs (SEN). The present study adopted a longitudinal design to consider how existing transition strategies, categorized into cognitive, behavioral or systemic approaches, were associated with post-transition anxiety amongst 532 typically developing children and 89 children with SEN. Multiple regression analysis indicated that amongst typically developing pupils, systemic interventions were associated with lower school anxiety but not generalized anxiety, when controlling for prior anxiety. Results for children with SEN differed significantly, as illustrated by a Group × Intervention type interaction. Specifically, systemic strategies were associated with lower school anxiety amongst typically developing children and higher school anxiety amongst children with SEN. These findings highlight strategies that schools may find useful in supporting typically developing children over the transition period, whilst suggesting that children with SEN might need a more personalized approach. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holtmann, Anne Christine; Menze, Laura; Solga, Heike
School leavers with low educational attainment face great difficulties in their school-to-work transitions. They are, however, quite heterogeneous in terms of their personal and social resources. These within-group differences may influence who shows initiative during the school-to-work transition period and thereby helps employers recognize their learning potential at labor market entry. Yet this recognition also depends on the ways employers select applicants, which may prevent them from discovering such within-group differences. We therefore investigate the interplay between agency and its constraints, that is, whether higher cognitive and noncognitive skills and more parental resources provide low-achieving school leavers with new opportunities in the school-to-work transition period or whether their low school attainment causes the persistency of their disadvantages. We use panel data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), which started in grade 9. The NEPS also includes school leavers from special-needs schools. Our sample consists of 3417 low-achieving adolescents (42% female), defined as adolescents who leave school with no or only a lower secondary school-leaving certificate. Their average school-leaving age is 16 to 17 years. Our key findings are that the transition period opens up new opportunities only for those low-achieving adolescents with better vocational orientation and higher career aspirations, leading them to make stronger application efforts. The success of youth's initiative varies considerably by school-leaving certificate and school type but not by competences, noncognitive characteristics, and parental background. Thus, the label of "having low qualifications" is a major obstacle in this transition period-especially for the least educated subgroup. Their poor school attainment strongly disadvantages them when accessing the required training to become economically independent and hence in their general transition to
Anthony, Kenneth Vance; Burroughs, Susie
This study examined the motivations of families that operate home schools. Four intact, religiously conservative families were interviewed and observed over one year. Findings showed that families were motivated by multiple factors to leave traditional schooling and begin home schooling. Additionally, the motivations to home school influenced the…
Spencer, C H; Fife, R Z; Rabinovich, C E
To the arthritic child and his or her family, the pediatrician is a valuable resource. When school problems first occur in elementary school, the pediatrician can try to solve them with an informal contact with the school teacher, nurse, counselor, or principal. If that effort is unsuccessful, the pediatrician can then suggest that the family go to the school and request the Individual Education Plan (IEP). Although this mechanism is hardly a panacea and local school district variability exists, this process provides an opportunity for the parent and school personnel to sit down and discuss how the child's problems and illness impact school performance. Furthermore, the IEP attempts to adapt the school environment specifically for that child. The current mechanism of modification of a child's education is the result of a long, evolutionary societal and educational process. Educators now recognize that children with disabilities and chronic illnesses are entitled to an appropriate public education with a special focus on how illness can interfere with that education. Whatever congressional changes are likely in the 1990s, many of these civil rights advances for the disabled or chronically ill child should survive. The transition of the adolescent with a chronic illness, such as arthritis, into adulthood has received little attention. This is an area where a compassionate and supportive pediatrician may help prevent adolescent problems rather than simply reacting to them. A gradual, incremental transition program in the pediatric office and clinic may increase the chances that more of these special adolescents will become productive, contributing adults.
Moos, Lejf; Møller, Jorunn
This article will set the context of democratic leadership in Scandinavian countries. This concept is being discussed in a dual perspective: On one hand there are pressures to transform the governing of the schools towards a more 'rigorous' form of New Public Management (NPM) with models of leade......This article will set the context of democratic leadership in Scandinavian countries. This concept is being discussed in a dual perspective: On one hand there are pressures to transform the governing of the schools towards a more 'rigorous' form of New Public Management (NPM) with models...... of leadership/management from the world of business and industry. This trend is seen as an effect of economical and cultural globalisation, and the discourse of NPM seems to have a rather strong influence on how munici-palities organize and govern the schools in Scandinavia. On the other hand there is a growing...... be exercised. The governing of the public sectors therefore has largely to rest on trust and communication....
This small-scale study explores a group of English parents' perceptions of their relationships with their child's nursery school and, after the transition to Reception class, their primary school. It references current research and literature on the issues of transition and the role of parents in their children's education. Findings from…
Full Text Available This longitudinal research started from the conclusion reached by different authors. According to them the time when a child leaves a pre-school institution to start primary school is marked by stagnation of and decrease in child’s creativity, seen as a personality potential. The aim of the research was to establish creativity levels shown by children in both pre-school institution and primary school, and then to conclude if difference between pre-school and school teachers` attitudes influence the development of a child’s creativity. Data was collected from a judgment scale given to pre-school and school teachers and arts creativity task given to children. It was concluded that the level of children’s creativity started to drop after they started primary school. Different understanding of the idea of creativity between pre-school and primary school teachers could be a possible reason leading to the phenomenon of decreasing creative expression in children starting primary school. On the basis of previous theoretical assumptions and the research results it is possible to define measures to be taken in view of teacher training, both at pre-school and primary school level. It is also important to check the validity of suggested measures in future research.
Atilla ÖZDEMİR; Selahattin GELBAL
It is seen that education has a significant effect that changes an individual’s life in our country in which education is a way of moving up the social ladder. In order to continue to a higher education program after graduating from high school, students have to succeed in transition to higher education examination. Thus, the entrance exam is an important factor to determine the future of the students. In our country, middle school grades and high school grade point average that is added to u...
Cryptographic generators, e.g. stream cipher generators like the A5/1 used in GSM networks or pseudo-random number generators, are widely used in cryptographic network protocols. Basically, they are finite state machines with deterministic transition functions. Their state transition graphs typically cannot be analyzed analytically, nor can they be explored completely because of their size which typically is at least n = 264. Yet, their structure, i.e. number and sizes of weakly connected components, is of interest because a structure deviating significantly from expected values for random graphs may form a distinguishing attack that indicates a weakness or backdoor. By sampling, one randomly chooses k nodes, derives their distribution onto connected components by graph exploration, and extrapolates these results to the complete graph. In known algorithms, the computational cost to determine the component for one randomly chosen node is up to O(√n), which severely restricts the sample size k. We present an algorithm where the computational cost to find the connected component for one randomly chosen node is O(1), so that a much larger sample size k can be analyzed in a given time. We report on the performance of a prototype implementation, and about preliminary analysis for several generators.
Schneider, Barry H.; Manetti, Mara; Frattini, Laura; Rania, Nadia; Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Coplan, Robert J.; Cwinn, Eli
Systematic, mandated facilitation of school transitions is an important but understudied aspect of the Reggio-Emilia approach to early childhood education admired internationally as best practice. We studied the links between Northern Italian transition practices and academic achievement, school liking, cooperativeness, and problem behaviors. We…
Rosenblatt, Jennifer L.; Elias, Maurice J.
A number of studies have documented a normative decline in academic achievement across the transition from elementary school to middle or junior high school. The current study examined the effectiveness of varying levels of a social-emotional learning intervention, "Talking with TJ," in limiting achievement loss across transition. Data were…
Mills, Melinda; Präg, Patrick
The school-to-work transition is a crucial life stage for young people, and research has often shown that this stage has important effects on their entire life courses. In recent years, young people willing to enter the labour market have been challenged by increasing uncertainty and comparatively high unemployment. These labour market trends have…
Hernández, Maciel M.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.; Bacher, Kelly Beaumont; Widaman, Keith F.
The relation between cultural socialization and ethnic pride during the transition to middle school was examined for 674 fifth-grade students (50% boys; M[subscript age] = 10.4 years) of Mexican origin. The theoretical model guiding the study proposes that parent-child relationship quality is a resource in the transmission of cultural values from…
Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron J.; Forrest-Bank, Shandra S.; Bender, Kimberly A.; Dieterich, William A.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.
Background: Interventions aimed at reducing bullying behavior commonly target the development of empathy. Yet, few longitudinal studies have investigated how empathy levels vary with bullying and victimization over time, especially during the transition to middle school. Objective: To that end, the purpose of the present study was to: (1) examine…
Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Wishart, Jocelyn
Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Wishart J. (2010). Towards Mobile Learning Support for the Transition from School to the Workplace. Paper presented at the MATEL Workshop in conjunction with the 5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2010): Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to
This article analyzes the crystallized learning disposition formed in secondary schools and its persistent influence on the transition between educational sectors and the workplace. Using interview data from eight adults who graduated from a prestigious university in Korea, this study reveals that "exam-inclined self-direction," a manner…
Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen
Aggression among youth is a public health problem that is often studied in the context of how youth interpret social information. Social cognitive factors, especially hostile attribution biases, have been identified as risk factors for the development of youth aggression, particularly across the transition to middle school. Parental behaviors,…
Mitchell, Kathy Jessee
Nursing is facing a critical shortage and retention of nursing students is of paramount importance. Much research has been completed related to retention in nursing education and student success, but there is very little in current literature related to issues associated with the transition from high school to associate degree nursing (ADN)…
Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.; Regal, Colleen P.
Transition from high school to postsecondary education (PSE) and employment can be challenging for all youth, and particularly for youth with intellectual disability (ID) who are more likely to remain in poverty compared to their peers without disabilities (Mock and Love, "J Policy Pract Intellect Disabil," 9:289-297, 2012; Siperstein et…
This study investigated the role of special education administrators in the transition planning process for children with disabilities ages 3-21 in selected Washington school districts. A basic qualitative study was selected to construct meaning from a described phenomenon. The study sought to identify and explain how special education…
Koen, Jessie; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.
The transition from school to work is one of the most critical steps in graduates' careers, as it can determine vocational outcomes and future career success. Yet, these newcomers to the labor market often take longer than regular job seekers to find a suitable job, are more likely to experience a job mismatch and to suffer from underemployment.…
Simone E. Pfenninger
Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the problem of articulation between levels in the educational system, as the transition from a rather more communicative, contentbased and holistic approach to English as a foreign language (EFL teaching at primary level to more formal and explicit ways of foreign language (FL teaching at secondary is often experienced as problematic by students and teachers alike (see, e.g., Muñoz, Tragant, & Camuñas, 2015. The results of a mixed methods analysis are presented, in which we analyzed, through a questionnaire and language experience essays, perceived continuity between input received in primary school and secondary school, as well as learners’ beliefs, attitudes and self-efficacy before and after they transitioned to secondary school. Twelve primary schools and six secondary schools in Switzerland participated in the study, with a total of 280 early learners of EFL (biological age 12-13 years, age of onset 8 years. We will argue that one of the main reasons why early FL instruction seems not to bear fruit later in secondary school is that, on the one hand, coherence in curriculum design and practice vary in a few—but crucial—aspects within and between primary schools. On the other hand, the fact that secondary education becomes a meeting point for mixed ability classes also seems to mitigate the potential advantages of an earlier start.
Johnson, Valerie L; Simon, Patricia; Mun, Eun-Young
The present study investigated the impact of a manualized high school transition program, the Peer Group Connection (PGC) program, on the graduation rate at a low-income, Mid-Atlantic high school. The program utilized twelfth grade student peer leaders to create a supportive environment for incoming ninth grade students. Results of a randomized control trial demonstrated that male students who participated in the program during ninth grade were significantly more likely to graduate from high school within four years than male students in the control group (81% versus 63%). Findings suggest that peers can be effective in delivering a school-based, social emotional learning intervention and that it is possible to intervene in the ninth grade to influence the probability of high school graduation.
Odgaard, Ane Bjerre
This paper reports on a socioculturally informed design-based study concerning young children's use of tablets within the educational contexts constituting their transition from day-care to school. The study explores tablet-mediated and dialogical activities as potential means for negotiating...... connections between the different contexts which the children traverse during this transition. At several occasions, the participating 5- to 7-year-old children are invited to use tablets for producing photos, photo-collages and e-books about their everyday institutional environments, thus aiming at mediating...... these contexts are pivots of dialogue. Networked learning is thus conceptualized as a matter of networked situations and contexts for young children during their transition from day-care to primary school, and technological artefacts are viewed as potential means for mediating children's meaning making about...
Poorthuis, A.; Thomaes, S.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Orobio de Castro, B.
The transition from primary to secondary school challenges children's psychological well-being. A cross-transitional longitudinal study (N = 306; mean age = 12.2 years) examined why some children's self-esteem decreases across the transition whereas other children's self-esteem does not. Children's
Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Mey, See Ching; Eng, Tan Kok; Othman, Rosly; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz
Transition services are required by law for students with disabilities in many developed countries. In Malaysia, however, there is still no specific legislation mandating that school-to-work transition planning and services be provided to students with disabilities. This study investigated the state of the transition services provided by…
Patra, Sarbani; Keshavamurthy, Srihari
It has been known for sometime now that isomerization reactions, classically, are mediated by phase space structures called reactive islands (RI). RIs provide one possible route to correct for the nonstatistical effects in the reaction dynamics. In this work, we map out the reactive islands for the two dimensional Müller-Brown model potential and show that the reactive islands are intimately linked to the issue of rare event sampling. In particular, we establish the sensitivity of the so called committor probabilities, useful quantities in the transition path sampling technique, to the hierarchical RI structures. Mapping out the RI structure for high dimensional systems, however, is a challenging task. Here, we show that the technique of Lagrangian descriptors is able to effectively identify the RI hierarchy in the model system. Based on our results, we suggest that the Lagrangian descriptors can be useful for detecting RIs in high dimensional systems.
Mazzone, Luigi; Ducci, Francesca; Scoto, Maria Cristina; Passaniti, Eleonora; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Vitiello, Benedetto
Abstract Background Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Methods Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8–10 years), middle (N = 267, age 11–13 years), and high school (N = 80, age 14–16 years) children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class comm...
Introduction. Access to higher education is a social justice and economic issue discussed in the educational literature across ... At the same time, the benefits of tertiary education qual- ifications ... lessons and camps. In the ..... sample formed by the respondents differed in ..... Higher Education in Brazil and India using critical.
Ji Hoon Ryoo
Full Text Available Applications of latent transition analysis (LTA have emerged since the early 1990s, with numerous scientific findings being published in many areas, including social and behavioral sciences, education, and public health. Although LTA is effective as a statistical analytic tool for a person-centered model using longitudinal data, model building in LTA has often been subjective and confusing for applied researchers. To fill this gap in the literature, we review the components of LTA, recommend a framework of fitting LTA, and summarize what acceptable model evaluation tools should be used in practice. The proposed framework of fitting LTA consists of six steps depicted in Figure 1 from step 0 (exploring data to step 5 (fitting distal variables. We also illustrate the framework of fitting LTA with data on concerns about school bullying from a sample of 1,180 students ranging from 5th to 9th grade (mean age = 12.2 years, SD = 1.29 years at Time 1 over three semesters. We identified four groups of students with distinct patterns of bullying concerns, and found that their concerns about bullying decreased and narrowed to specific concerns about rumors, gossip, and social exclusion over time. The data and command (syntax files needed for reproducing the results using SAS PROC LCA and PROC LTA (Version 1.3.2 (2015 and Mplus 7.4 (Muthén and Muthén, 1998–2015 are provided as online supplementary materials.
Transitioning from elementary school to middle school can be a difficult time for many adolescents. It is a period often correlated with a decline in students' academic achievement, perceptions of performance, potential, and value in schooling. Research has shown evidence that parents' involvement in their children's education significantly…
Duque, Diana L.
The Computer-Based Junior High/Intermediate School Program of Transitional Bilingual Education was a federally funded program in its third year of operation in one intermediate school and two junior high schools in Manhattan (New York) in 1992-93. During this period, it served 244 native Spanish-speaking, limited-English-proficient (LEP) students…
Iadarola, Suzannah; Shih, Wendy; Dean, Michelle; Blanch, Erica; Harwood, Robin; Hetherington, Susan; Mandell, David; Kasari, Connie; Smith, Tristram
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public education settings experience difficulties with transitions during classroom routines, which can result in challenging behavior. Single-subject research supports techniques for transitions, but school-based approaches often require resources and training unavailable in low-resource districts, limiting implementation. We developed and evaluated the Schedules, Tools, and Activities for Transitions (STAT) program, a short-term, manualized intervention of behavioral supports to support daily routine transitions for students with ASD (K-5) in underresourced districts. We utilized a multisite, cluster-randomized, group comparison design (immediate treatment versus waitlist) with matched pairs ( n = 150 students, 57 educators). Data indicated (a) no group differences for academic engagement or classroom independence, and (b) an advantage for STAT in reducing challenging behavior and increasing teacher fidelity. Results show preliminary support for an intervention that is feasible and perceived as sustainable in real-world settings.
Bruininks, Robert H.; Thurlow, Martha L.
The final report describes a 3-year project which had four primary objectives: (1) development of a followup system feasible for schools to use to obtain information on individuals with handicaps who leave school; (2) data collection on three special education samples; (3) data analysis to evaluate long-term effects of secondary programs and…
Kellems, Ryan O.; Springer, Ben; Wilkins, Melinda K.; Anderson, Caroline
The ultimate goal for school psychologists, special education practitioners, and other professionals who work with adolescents with disabilities is to help students plan and prepare to transition from school to adult life with the skills and knowledge to live happy, productive, and fulfilling lives. This article describes how school psychologists…
Parker, Audra K.
Transitions can be difficult at any age; however, the move from elementary school to middle school, coupled with the onset of adolescence, is often associated with a myriad of psychological and academic declines. One strategy currently used to "ready" elementary students for middle school is a departmentalized organizational structure. The purpose…
Ines Lovenjak; Cirila Peklaj
The aim of our research was to determine the relationships between experiencing stress, coping strategies, coping self-efficacy and primary school students' school satisfaction. We were also interested in the predictive power of these variables on school satisfaction. A total of 512 students from the seventh, eighth and ninth grades participated in this study and the results show that primary school students which are feeling stressed are less satisfied with school. There is a negative correl...
Wijnen-Meijer, Marjo; ten Cate, Olle Th J; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Borleffs, Jan C C
Recently, many medical schools' curricula have been revised so that they represent vertically integrated (VI) curricula. Important changes include: the provision of earlier clinical experience; longer clerkships, and the fostering of increasing levels of responsibility. One of the aims of vertical integration is to facilitate the transition to postgraduate training. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether a VI curriculum at medical school affects the transition to postgraduate training in a positive way. We carried out a questionnaire study among graduates of six medical schools in the Netherlands, who had followed either a VI or a non-VI curriculum. Items in the questionnaire focused on preparedness for work and postgraduate training, the time and number of applications required to be admitted to residency, and the process of making career choices. In comparison with those who have followed non-VI programmes, graduates of VI curricula appear to make definitive career choices earlier, need less time and fewer applications to obtain residency positions and feel more prepared for work and postgraduate training. The curriculum at medical school affects the transition to postgraduate training. Additional research is required to determine which components of the curriculum cause this effect and to specify under which conditions this effect occurs.
Brás, Natércia F; Fernandes, Pedro A; Ramos, Maria J; Schwartz, Steven D
Human α-phosphoglucomutase 1 (α-PGM) catalyzes the isomerization of glucose-1-phosphate into glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) through two sequential phosphoryl transfer steps with a glucose-1,6-bisphosphate (G16P) intermediate. Given that the release of G6P in the gluconeogenesis raises the glucose output levels, α-PGM represents a tempting pharmacological target for type 2 diabetes. Here, we provide the first theoretical study of the catalytic mechanism of human α-PGM. We performed transition-path sampling simulations to unveil the atomic details of the two catalytic chemical steps, which could be key for developing transition state (TS) analogue molecules with inhibitory properties. Our calculations revealed that both steps proceed through a concerted S N 2-like mechanism, with a loose metaphosphate-like TS. Even though experimental data suggests that the two steps are identical, we observed noticeable differences: 1) the transition state ensemble has a well-defined TS region and a late TS for the second step, and 2) larger coordinated protein motions are required to reach the TS of the second step. We have identified key residues (Arg23, Ser117, His118, Lys389), and the Mg 2+ ion that contribute in different ways to the reaction coordinate. Accelerated molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the G16P intermediate may reorient without leaving the enzymatic binding pocket, through significant conformational rearrangements of the G16P and of specific loop regions of the human α-PGM. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E
The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) is extended into the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and applied to simulate a vapor-liquid phase transition in Lennard-Jones fluids. Merging an optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling with replica exchange, gREM is particularly well suited for the effective simulation of first-order phase transitions characterized by "backbending" in the statistical temperature. While the metastable and unstable states in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition are masked by the enthalpy gap in temperature replica exchange method simulations, they are transformed into stable states through the parameterized effective sampling weights in gREM simulations, and join vapor and liquid phases with a succession of unimodal enthalpy distributions. The enhanced sampling across metastable and unstable states is achieved without the need to identify a "good" order parameter for biased sampling. We performed gREM simulations at various pressures below and near the critical pressure to examine the change in behavior of the vapor-liquid phase transition at different pressures. We observed a crossover from the first-order phase transition at low pressure, characterized by the backbending in the statistical temperature and the "kink" in the Gibbs free energy, to a continuous second-order phase transition near the critical pressure. The controlling mechanisms of nucleation and continuous phase transition are evident and the coexistence properties and phase diagram are found in agreement with literature results.
This study applied individual growth trajectory analyses and person-oriented analysis to identify common profiles of out-of-school activity engagement trajectories among racially and ethnically diverse inner city teens (N = 1,430). On average, teens exhibited declining trajectories of participation in school-based and team sports activities and…
van de Pol, Jeroen M; Geljon, Jurjen G; Belitser, Svetlana V; Frederix, Geert W J; Hövels, Anke M; Bouvy, Marcel L
The nature of community pharmacy is changing, shifting from the preparation and distribution of medicines to the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS); however, often the provision of traditional services leaves little time for innovative services. This study investigated the time community pharmacists spend on the tasks and activities of daily practice and to what extent they are able to implement CPS-related services in daily practice. Self-reporting work sampling was used to register the activities of community pharmacists. A smartphone application, designed specifically for this purpose, alerted participants to register their current activity five times per working day for 6 weeks. Participants also completed an online survey about baseline characteristics. Ninety-one Dutch community pharmacists provided work-sampling data (7848 registered activities). Overall, 51.5% of their time was spent on professional activities, 35.4% on semi-professional activities, and 13.1% on non-professional activities. The proportion of time devoted to CPS decreased during the workweek, whereas the time spent on traditional task increased. This study shows it is feasible to collect work-sampling data using smartphone technology. Community pharmacists spent almost half of their time on semi-professional and non-professional activities, activities that could be delegated to other staff members. In practice, the transition to CPS is hampered by competing traditional tasks, which prevents community pharmacists from profiling themselves as pharmaceutical experts in daily practice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dzierlenga, Michael W; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven D
The mechanisms involved in enzymatic hydride transfer have been studied for years, but questions remain due, in part, to the difficulty of probing the effects of protein motion and hydrogen tunneling. In this study, we use transition path sampling (TPS) with normal mode centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) to calculate the barrier to hydride transfer in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Calculation of the work applied to the hydride allowed for observation of the change in barrier height upon inclusion of quantum dynamics. Similar calculations were performed using deuterium as the transferring particle in order to approximate kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). The change in barrier height in YADH is indicative of a zero-point energy (ZPE) contribution and is evidence that catalysis occurs via a protein compression that mediates a near-barrierless hydride transfer. Calculation of the KIE using the difference in barrier height between the hydride and deuteride agreed well with experimental results.
Lee Lai Fong
Full Text Available This study looks at the culture of writing of second language (L2 writers in English who are in transition from secondary school to postsecondary education. It looks at four case studies of students in their first semester of postsecondary education in a public university. It examines their negotiation of culture of writing in secondary school to the culture of writing in postsecondary education from the perspective of sociocultural theory. Data was obtained from interviews, personal narratives and observation. The findings show that sociocultural theory can offer an understanding of these ESL writers as they move from one culture of writing to another
Full Text Available Background: On 28 th June, 2006, 55 cases of the gastroenteritis were reported among the hostellers of the Tibetan Transit School, Dharamshala. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source, propose control and preventive measures. Materials and Methods: We defined a case of the gastroenteritis as the occurrence of more than three smelly loose motions between 28 th June to 2 nd July, 2006 among some sections of the resident hostellers. We determined age and sex specific attack rate. We hypothesized it as a food borne beef meat outbreak. We conducted the case control study and collected the information about the food items consumed inside and outside the hostel at dinner using the standardized questionnaire. We calculated floor wise incidences of four hostels, odds ratios and attributable fractions. We interviewed food handlers. We lifted the seven rectal stool, four water and three samples from floor, kitchen and meat chopper room for culture and sensitivity. Results: 116 cases patients of 802 hostellers met the case definition. The maximum attack rate (16% was in the youngest group (15-20yrs and nil in staff and 31-40 years age group with 5 overall attack rate as 14%. Sex specific attack rate was more (18% in females. The floor wise incidences of the case patients were the highest in 2nd and 3rd floors, occupied by the youngest group. The median age was 20 yrs (Range 17-40 yrs. The most common symptoms were watery diarrhea (71/116, 61% and bloody diarrhea-(45/116, 39%; abdominal pains- (87/116, 75%. Of the six food/water items examined, the food specific attack rate was highly statistically significant in the beef meat eaters (82% with PAF 71%, and Odds Ratio 19.19 (95% C.I. as 9.3-140. The food handlers & their cooking conditions in the kitchen were unhygienic. The food was not available for testing. Escherichia coli were detected in the samples from rectal stools, kitchen and meat chopper room. No fatality was reported. Conclusion
Brener, Nancy D.; Pejavara, Anu; McManus, Tim
Background: The School Health Index (SHI) is a tool designed to help schools assess the extent to which they are implementing practices included in the research-based guidelines and strategies for school health and safety programs developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC previously analyzed data from the 2000 School…
Andrew, Megan; Flashman, Jennifer
School transitions are a regular feature of the educational career. While they are of general interest as instances of academic change, they also represent instances of peer environment and influence change. Previous theoretical and empirical work suggests peer influence is important for students' academic and educational outcomes, especially for the complex decision-making processes leading up to those outcomes. In this manuscript, we study the impact of peers on educational expectation formation at the 8th-to-9th-grade school transition. In doing so, we test a theoretical model that links institutional settings, social influence, and individual decision-making. We find the 9th grade transition likely represents a negative shock for students' college attendance expectations. Independent of this transition, however, stable peer environments further depress expectations. A more equal mixture of new and old peers in the 9th grade likely increases students' educational expectations in contrast. These effects of peer perturbations and the re-organization of social ties they imply mainly apply to female students. But, both male and female students revise their educational expectations in light of changing peer intelligence comparisons, albeit in countervailing ways. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Schubnell, M; Schawe, J E
In differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), remnant moisture loss in samples often overlaps and distorts other thermal events, e.g. glass transitions. To separate such overlapping processes, temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) has been widely used. In this contribution we discuss the quantitative determination of the heat capacity of a moist sample from TMDSC measurements. The sample was a spray-dried pharmaceutical compound run in different pans (hermetically-sealed pan, pierced lid pan [50 microm] and open pan). The apparent heat capacity was corrected for the remaining amount of moisture. Using this procedure we could clearly identify the glass transition of the dry and the moist sample. We found that a moisture content of about 6.2% shifts the glass transition by about 50 degrees C.
Levpušcek, Melita Puklek; Inglés, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; García-Fernández, Jose M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) using a sample of 646 Slovenian adolescents (48% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. Single confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated four-factor structure of scores on the SAI for anxiety-provoking school situations…
This article theorizes and charts the implementation of a learning activity designed from the hip-hop aesthetic of sampling. The purpose of this learning activity was to enable recent urban school graduates to reflect upon their previous schooling experiences as a platform for future learning in higher education. This article illustrates what…
Laura R. Hartman
Full Text Available Acquired brain injury (ABI is one of the greatest causes of death and disability among children in Canada. Following ABI, children are required to transition back to school and adapt to the physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional demands of the school environment. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of students’ and parents’ experiences of the transition back to school following ABI. We identified 20 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Six themes emerged: (a lack of ABI-specific education for families and professionals, (b communication-related factors as a facilitator and/or barrier to transition, (c emotional focus, (d peer relationships, (e supports, and (f ABI sequelae in the classroom. Students’ and families’ personal motivations and abilities and the support they receive in their environment affect their experiences of transitioning back to school and the disrupted occupations they face.
Hartman, Laura R.; Tibbles, Alana; Paniccia, Alicia; Lindsay, Sally
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is one of the greatest causes of death and disability among children in Canada. Following ABI, children are required to transition back to school and adapt to the physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional demands of the school environment. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of students’ and parents’ experiences of the transition back to school following ABI. We identified 20 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Six themes emerged: (a) lack of ABI-specific education for families and professionals, (b) communication-related factors as a facilitator and/or barrier to transition, (c) emotional focus, (d) peer relationships, (e) supports, and (f) ABI sequelae in the classroom. Students’ and families’ personal motivations and abilities and the support they receive in their environment affect their experiences of transitioning back to school and the disrupted occupations they face. PMID:28462322
Hartman, Laura R; Tibbles, Alana; Paniccia, Alicia; Lindsay, Sally
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is one of the greatest causes of death and disability among children in Canada. Following ABI, children are required to transition back to school and adapt to the physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional demands of the school environment. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of students' and parents' experiences of the transition back to school following ABI. We identified 20 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Six themes emerged: (a) lack of ABI-specific education for families and professionals, (b) communication-related factors as a facilitator and/or barrier to transition, (c) emotional focus, (d) peer relationships, (e) supports, and (f) ABI sequelae in the classroom. Students' and families' personal motivations and abilities and the support they receive in their environment affect their experiences of transitioning back to school and the disrupted occupations they face.
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
sampling: school size, town/rural etc.). Likert-scale questions were analysed by frequency, and open-ended reflections, and the qualitative data, were categorized/coded through an iterative data based process (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2007). To answer the first two research questions teachers’ reports...... methods (Creswell & Clark, 2007). Quantitative and qualitative data were retrieved during and after each of the course-modules. One part of data was a repeated questionnaire with 5 point Likert-scale questions and open-ended categories focused on teachers’ experiences from the seminars, from trials in own...... classrooms, and from collaborative activities at their schools. Qualitative data also included observations at the seminar days, interviews with students, teachers and school leaders at the local schools, observation from PLC-meetings, and repeated observations in classrooms at five schools (diversity...
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...
Full Text Available The following article aims to understand the concepts of children, childhood and education of practitioners of everyday (Teachers graduated in physical education, conductor teacher graduated in Pedagogy and coordinator graduated in Physical Education EMEF "Espírito Santo". Therefore, ethnographic study case became attributed and used as narrative sources produced through record fields, interview and discussion groups. The results show the creation of strategies to incorporate in the children the school cultures. That path is produced by the author's experiences in producing moments that articulate the cultural practices of children with the intentions of the Nine Years of Elementary School Education.
TransQUAL Online is designed to assist school districts collaborate with others and continuously improve their transition practices for youth. TransQUAL incorporates New York State Education Department Transition Quality Indicators (TQI), based on the work of Paula Kolher from Western Michigan University. The TQI assesses program structure,…
Mazer, Barbara; Dion, Karyne; Moryoussef, Aguy
Children with disabilities require coordinated services to optimise transition into school. This study compared type, frequency and approach to service utilisation for children with primary language impairment transitioning from rehabilitation to the educational system, and examined parent satisfaction. Parents responded to a telephone…
Inui, Akio; Kojima, Yoshikazu
This article examines the precarious transition from school to work, considers its relation to young people's identity formation in late modern Japan, and rethinks the theory of identity formation in late modernity. Although Japan's transition system had been efficient and stable over many years, since the late 1990s this has been replaced by an…
Benner, Aprile D.; Thornton, Anna; Crosnoe, Robert
Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and…
Despite knowledge that the school food environment can have a significant impact on children’s nutritional health, few studies have taken a comprehensive approach to assessing this environment. The purpose of this study was to determine school characteristics that were associated with healthy and u...
Trainor, Audrey; Murray, Angela; Kim, Hye-Jung
Little is known about the characteristics, transition education, and postschool outcomes of English learners with disabilities (ELSWDs), despite that English learners are a rapidly growing group of U.S. students with consistently poor outcomes. This study examines a nationally representative sample of ELSWDs through a secondary analysis of the…
Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen
Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…
Rutten, Cindy; Boen, Filip; Vissers, Nathalie; Seghers, Jan
Based on Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), this study tested whether changes in autonomous motivation toward physical education (AMPE) during the transition from elementary to secondary school can be predicted by changes in perceived need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and perceived physical school environment.…
This paper analyses a "critical moment" in the educational trajectories of young indigenous children in Peru: the transition to primary school. It addresses the inequalities in educational services that affect indigenous children, before looking at the micro-level processes that take place in school settings, through a focus on two…
Oral language competence (skill in everyday talking and listening) is critical in the early years of school in two key respects: it underpins the transition to literacy in the early years, and is the means by which children form and maintain interpersonal relationships in the school setting. In this paper, the role of oral language competence with…
Many students drop out in the first year after a school transition. Most commonly used indicators of an increased risk for dropout reveal little of the mechanisms that push or pull students out of school. In this study, we look at the association of a set of common risk indicators with students’
Ashburner, Jill K.; Bobir, Natasha I.; van Dooren, Kate
After leaving school, young people with autism spectrum disorder often struggle with social, educational and employment participation. A post-school transition programme underpinned by individualised case management, where mentees are guided to complete self-selected projects by mentors with multimedia skills, was evaluated using a qualitative…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR. Comparisons included a control group without indicators of school fear or truancy. The three groups were compared across questionnaires measuring emotional and behavioural problems, life-events, self-related cognitions, perceived parental behaviour, and perceived school environment. Results The frequency of self-reported school fear decreased over time (6.9 vs. 3.6% whereas there was an increase in truancy (5.0 vs. 18.4%. Subjects with school fear displayed a pattern of associated internalizing problems and truants were characterized by associated delinquent behaviour. Among other associated psychosocial features, the distress coming from the perceived school environment in students with school fear is most noteworthy. Conclusion These findings from a community study show that school fear and truancy are frequent and display different developmental trajectories. Furthermore, previous results are corroborated which are based on smaller and selected clinical samples indicating that the two groups display distinct types of school-related behaviour.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a growing body of research from the United States and other industrialized countries on the inverse association between supportive social relationships in the school and youth risk behavior engagement, research on the measurement of supportive school social relationships in Central America is limited. We examined the psychometric properties of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion (SPSC scale, a 10-item scale that asks students to rate with a 5-point Likert-type response scale their perceptions of the school social environment, in a sample of public secondary school students (mean age = 15 years living in central El Salvador. Methods Students (n = 982 completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the SPSC scale along with measures of youth health risk behaviors based on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the scale, and two internal consistency estimates of reliability were computed. Construct validity was assessed by examining whether students who reported low school cohesion were significantly more likely to report physical fighting and illicit drug use. Results Results indicated that the SPSC scale has three latent factors, which explained 61.6% of the variance: supportive school relationships, student-school connectedness, and student-teacher connectedness. The full scale and three subscales had good internal consistency (rs = .87 and α = .84 for the full scale; rs and α between .71 and .75 for the three subscales. Significant associations were found between the full scale and all three subscales with physical fighting (p ≤ .001 and illicit drug use (p Conclusion Findings provide evidence of reliability and validity of the SPSC for the measurement of supportive school relationships in Latino adolescents living in El Salvador. These findings provide a foundation for further research on
In the Australian mathematics curriculum, Year 12 students (aged 16-17) are asked to solve conditional probability problems that involve the representation of the problem situation with two-way tables or three-dimensional diagrams and consider sampling procedures that result in different correct answers. In a small exploratory study, we…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.
Full Text Available In 2004, with the closing of the last Hmong refugee camp, Wat Tham Krabok, the latest group of Hmong refugees resettled to the US. To facilitate the language transition of approximately 1,000 school-aged newcomer Hmong children, the Saint Paul Public Schools, developed and established Transitional Language Centers. In this article, we examine the experiences and perspectives of principals, teachers and educational assistants who worked with newcomer Hmong children in the newly-established Transitional Language Centers and well-established Language Academy programs. We also elucidate the experiences of Hmong parents with the schools that served their children. Our research offers insights into the important work of the Transitional Language Centers as well as the need to better support newcomer Hmong parents.
Pavelko, Stacey L.; Owens, Robert E., Jr.; Ireland, Marie; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.
Purpose: This article examines use of language sample analysis (LSA) by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs), including characteristics of language samples, methods of transcription and analysis, barriers to LSA use, and factors affecting LSA use, such as American Speech-Language-Hearing Association certification, number of years'…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Methods Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8–10 years, middle (N = 267, age 11–13 years, and high school (N = 80, age 14–16 years children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class community in Catania, Italy. Children completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC. T-scores were computed for the MASC total scores, and considered to be in the anxious range if 65 or above. Current academic grades were obtained from school records. Results Of the 478 children, 35 (7.3% had a MASC T-score in the anxious range. The rate of children in the anxious range was 2.3% in elementary, 7.9% in middle, and 15.9% in high school (χ2 = 7.8, df = 2, p 2 = 11.68, df = 2, p Conclusion In this community sample of children and adolescents attending elementary through high school, the prevalence of abnormally high self-reported levels of anxiety increased in frequency with age and was negatively associated with school performance.
Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Jimerson, Shane R
The middle school transition is a salient developmental experience impacting adolescents around the world. This study employed a randomized-controlled treatment design, with randomization at the school level, to investigate the impact of a school adjustment program for middle school transition and potential gender differences. Participants included 1147 students (M age = 9.62; SD = 0.30, 45.7 % girls), who were assessed at four time points during the transition, regarding five dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, emotional, physical and family) and self-esteem. Parallel growth curves were employed to analyze the evolution of self-concept. Following the transition to middle school, students reported lower levels of self-concept (academic, emotional and physical) and self-esteem, while participation in the intervention led to increases in self-esteem and gains in social self-concept. No gender differences were found. These results provide preliminary evidence supporting such interventions in early middle school transitions.
Gordon, Allegra R.; Conron, Kerith J.; Calzo, Jerel P.; White, Matthew T.; Reisner, Sari L.; Austin, S. Bryn
Background: Young people may experience school-based violence and bullying victimization related to their gender expression, independent of sexual orientation identity. However, the associations between gender expression and bullying and violence have not been examined in racially and ethnically diverse population-based samples of high school…
Benner, Aprile D.; Thornton, Anna; Crosnoe, Robert
Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and school mechanisms selecting children into experiencing these practices. Analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that both family and school factors predicted children’s exposure to several PK-3 sustainability practices. PK-3 sustainability practices were associated with reading (but not math) gains and better interpersonal skills (but not fewer externalizing behaviors) following the transition into kindergarten. These links were not conditioned by the selection mechanisms. The findings highlight who is more likely to seek out (at the family level) or offer (at the school level) sustainability practices and how relevant they are to fighting preschool fadeout. PMID:28794610
Benner, Aprile D; Thornton, Anna; Crosnoe, Robert
Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and school mechanisms selecting children into experiencing these practices. Analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that both family and school factors predicted children's exposure to several PK-3 sustainability practices. PK-3 sustainability practices were associated with reading (but not math) gains and better interpersonal skills (but not fewer externalizing behaviors) following the transition into kindergarten. These links were not conditioned by the selection mechanisms. The findings highlight who is more likely to seek out (at the family level) or offer (at the school level) sustainability practices and how relevant they are to fighting preschool fadeout.
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina
We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...... on the probability of completing a qualifying education and on the entry into the labour market, but it has a much smaller impact on the duration of the first employment spell and on the wage level. Growing up in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of immigrants is associated with negative labour market...... prospects both for young natives and 2nd generation immigrants....
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina
We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...... on the probability of completing a qualifying education and on the entry into the labour market, but it has a much smaller impact on the duration of the first employment spell and on the wage level. Growing up in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of immigrants is associated with negative labour market...
To examine the mechanisms for capillary condensation and for capillary evaporation in porous glass, we measured the hysteresis critical points and desorption scanning curves of nitrogen in four kinds of porous glasses with different pore sizes (Vycor, CPG75A, CPG120A, and CPG170A). The shapes of the hysteresis loop in the adsorption isotherm of nitrogen for the Vycor and the CPG75A changed with temperature, whereas those for the CPG120A and the CPG170A remained almost unchanged with temperature. The hysteresis critical points for the Vycor and the CPG75A fell on the common line observed previously for ordered mesoporous silicas. On the other hand, the hysteresis critical points for the CPG120A and the CPG170A deviated appreciably from the common line. This strongly suggests that capillary evaporation of nitrogen in the interconnected and disordered pores of both the Vycor and the CPG75A follows a cavitation process at least in the vicinity of their hysteresis critical temperatures in the same way as that in the cagelike pores of the ordered silicas, whereas the hysteresis critical points in the CPG120A and the CPG170A have origin different from that in the cagelike pores. The desorption scanning curves for the CPG75A indicated the nonindependence of the porous domains. On the other hand, for both the CPG120A and the CPG170A, we obtained the scanning curves that are expected from the independent domain theory. All these results suggest that sample spanning transitions in capillary condensation and evaporation take place inside the interconnected pores of both the CPG120A and the CPG170A.
Grant, Monica J
There has been a recent, rapid de facto privatization of education in many African countries, as the number of private secondary schools operating in the region grew. The majority of these schools are "low-cost" private schools where tuition and fees are set as low as possible to cover operating costs and still generate profit. Proponents of low-cost private schools argue that these schools have proliferated in impoverished areas to meet unmet demand for access to education and where private schools may offer better quality than locally available public schools. Theories of inequality of educational opportunity suggest that if private schools offer better quality education, students from more advantaged families will be more likely to enroll at these institutions, potentially exacerbating educational inequality in the region. This analysis uses data from a school-based longitudinal survey, the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Study, to examine socio-economic inequalities in the transition to secondary school and on-time enrollment in upper secondary. My findings indicate that youth from non-poor households are not only more likely to enroll in secondary school than poor youth, but they are also more likely to substitute enrollment in private schools for enrollment in second-tier government schools. Enrollment at private schools, however, does not yield schooling advantages; relative to both tiers of government secondary schooling, students who initially enrolled at private schools were the least likely to enroll on time in upper secondary school. These patterns suggest that these schooling circumstances may yield less segregation of opportunity than might otherwise be assumed.
Strong, Donna Dorough
The increasing popularity of the middle school movement necessitates a need for more interpretive research in middle level education. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore science teachers' perceptions of the transition to a new middle school and the meanings they attached to this new experience. The participants were three eighth grade science teachers, each with 20 plus years of teaching experience. The primary data for analysis was a series of five interviews with each participant. Data collection also included weekly participant observation of team meetings. Findings revealed that the science teachers all had positive feelings attached to the ability to keep track of students' academic progress and behavior problems as a result of teaming. The changes associated with the first year were very stressful for all three, primarily the loss of the traditional junior high departmentalized structure. The two participants who transferred directly from the junior high school were very skeptical of any benefits from an interdisciplinary curriculum, the appropriateness of the middle school philosophy for eighth grade students, and the move to heterogeneously grouped science classes. In contrast, the former junior high teacher who had spent the past ten years teaching sixth grade at the elementary school had positive beliefs about the potential benefits of an interdisciplinary curriculum and heterogeneous grouping. Teacher stress associated with a change in the school setting and the science teachers' constraints to actualizing a meaningful middle schooling experience are illuminated. Teachers' lack of ownership in the reform decision making process, loss of time with their science teacher peers, diminished compliments from high school counterparts, and need for more empirical evidence supporting proposed changes all served as barriers to embracing the reform initiatives. The participants found taking a very slow approach to be their most useful means of
Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Norton, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H.
The transition from elementary to middle or junior high school is commonly regarded as a period of stress and turmoil for young adolescents, and has been associated with changes in anxiety and other psychological problems. However, less is known about risk and resilience factors that may predict these changes. This study examined changes in anxiety, as well as predictors of these changes among 77, predominantly Caucasian (88%), male and female (52%) adolescents from Grades 6 to 8. Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine the predicted grade and gender differences. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the prediction of eighth grade anxiety symptoms by sixth grade self-worth, perceived social acceptance, and social support, as well as the potential moderating role of gender in these relations. Results suggested a significant decrease in anxiety, particularly social anxiety, over this period for boys but not girls. Examination of predictors of changes in anxiety suggested that, in general, global self-worth, social acceptance, and gender were each associated with overall and social anxiety. Findings are integrated with extant literature on developmental changes associated with anxiety and school transitions and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20711893
Full Text Available Procrastination as putting off until tomorrow what one had intended to do today is well-known tendency in everyday life. In an attempt to understand the character of procrastination in different life-domains, a large body of research has been accumulated over the last decades. This article was aimed to evaluate a specific decisional procrastination of school-to-work transition (SWT that is treated as maturity postponement. Two studies are reported examining SWT procrastination defined as career indecision among Polish students graduating universities. In Study 1 (N=366, attitudinal and identity statuses were analyzed as correlates of career procrastination. A path analysis conducted for the model, which was aimed to explain the influence of career self-efficacy and occupational commitment on career indecision (dependent variable, revealed its very good fitness (RMSEA=.000. Those two independent variables explain 10% of career indecision variance. Stepwise multiple regression analyses conducted to ascertain relationship of five identity statuses (Brzezińska, Piotrowski, 2010 to procrastination measure (career indecision showed that Commitment Making and Ruminative Exploration are strongest predictor variables. In study 2 (N=157, the stepwise multiple regression analyses conducted to ascertain the independent relationship of each of Big Five personality factor revealed that Neuroticism and Extraversion accounts of the most of explained variance of school-to-work transition procrastination.
Ng-Knight, Terry; Schoon, Ingrid
Internal locus of control is associated with academic success and indicators of wellbeing in youth. There is however less understanding regarding the role of locus of control in shaping the transition from school to work beyond the more widely studied predictors of socioeconomic background and academic attainment. Guided by a socio-ecological model of agency, the current study examines to which extent internal locus of control, understood as an indicator of individual agency, can compensate for a lack of socioeconomic resources by moderating the association between parental disadvantage and difficulties in the transition from school to work. We draw on data collected from a longitudinal nationally representative cohort of 15,770 English youth (48% female) born in 1989/90, following their lives from age 14 to 20. The results suggest that the influence of agency is limited to situations where socioeconomic risk is not overpowering. While internal locus of control may help to compensate for background disadvantage regarding avoidance of economic inactivity and unemployment to some extent, it does not provide protection against long-term inactivity, i.e. more than 6 months spent not in education, employment or training.
Mazzone, Luigi; Ducci, Francesca; Scoto, Maria Cristina; Passaniti, Eleonora; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Vitiello, Benedetto
Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8-10 years), middle (N = 267, age 11-13 years), and high school (N = 80, age 14-16 years) children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class community in Catania, Italy. Children completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). T-scores were computed for the MASC total scores, and considered to be in the anxious range if 65 or above. Current academic grades were obtained from school records. Of the 478 children, 35 (7.3%) had a MASC T-score in the anxious range. The rate of children in the anxious range was 2.3% in elementary, 7.9% in middle, and 15.9% in high school (chi2 = 7.8, df = 2, p children and adolescents attending elementary through high school, the prevalence of abnormally high self-reported levels of anxiety increased in frequency with age and was negatively associated with school performance.
Reis, Shmuel; Urkin, Jacob; Nave, Rachel; Ber, Rosalie; Ziv, Amitai; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Meitar, Dafna; Gilbey, Peter; Mevorach, Dror
We reviewed the existing programs for basic medical education (BME) in Israel as well as their output, since they are in a phase of reassessment and transition. The transition has been informed, in part, by evaluation in 2014 by an International Review Committee (IRC). The review is followed by an analysis of its implications as well as the emergent roadmap for the future. The review documents a trend of modernizing, humanizing, and professionalizing Israeli medical education in general, and BME in particular, independently in each of the medical schools. Suggested improvements include an increased emphasis on interactive learner-centered rather than frontal teaching formats, clinical simulation, interprofessional training, and establishment of a national medical training forum for faculty development. In addition, collaboration should be enhanced between medical educators and health care providers, and among the medical schools themselves. The five schools admitted about 730 Israeli students in 2015, doubling admissions from 2000. In 2014, the number of new licenses, including those awarded to Israeli international medical graduates (IMGs), surpassed for the first time in more than a decade the estimated need for 1100 new physicians annually. About 60 % of the licenses awarded in 2015 were to IMGs. Israeli BME is undergoing continuous positive changes, was supplied with a roadmap for even further improvement by the IRC, and has doubled its output of graduates. The numbers of both Israeli graduates and IMGs are higher than estimated previously and may address the historically projected physician shortage. However, it is not clear whether the majority of newly licensed physicians, who were trained abroad, have benefited from similar recent improvements in medical education similar to those benefiting graduates of the Israeli medical schools, nor is it certain that they will benefit from the further improvements that have recently been recommended for the Israeli
Full Text Available Free energy calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF based on the combination of targeted molecular dynamics (TMD simulations and umbrella samplings as a function of physical coordinates have been applied to explore the detailed pathways and the corresponding free energy profiles for the conformational transition processes of the butane molecule and the 35-residue villin headpiece subdomain (HP35. The accurate PMF profiles for describing the dihedral rotation of butane under both coordinates of dihedral rotation and root mean square deviation (RMSD variation were obtained based on the different umbrella samplings from the same TMD simulations. The initial structures for the umbrella samplings can be conveniently selected from the TMD trajectories. For the application of this computational method in the unfolding process of the HP35 protein, the PMF calculation along with the coordinate of the radius of gyration (Rg presents the gradual increase of free energies by about 1 kcal/mol with the energy fluctuations. The feature of conformational transition for the unfolding process of the HP35 protein shows that the spherical structure extends and the middle α-helix unfolds firstly, followed by the unfolding of other α-helices. The computational method for the PMF calculations based on the combination of TMD simulations and umbrella samplings provided a valuable strategy in investigating detailed conformational transition pathways for other allosteric processes.
Joseph A. MOYNIHAN
Full Text Available Transition Year is a unique and exciting programme situated in the middle of the six year second level education system in Ireland. Since its introduction in 1974, the programme has experienced unprecedented growth now being offered in over 80% of schools on the island. Transition Year seeks to emphasize alternative learning methodologies including self-directed learning and experiential learning; intellectual, social and personal development; community and inter-school communications; exposure to careers education and the world of work. The latter occurs predominantly through actual work experience. This paper situates and explains the Transition Year Programme in Irish education as well as outlining the significance of the essential work experience component. Transition Year work experience is the bridge that connects young people in the classroom with adult life and the world of work.
Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James
Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…
Ahumada, O; Pérez-Madrigal, M M; Ramirez, J; Curcó, D; Esteves, C; Salvador-Matar, A; Luongo, G; Armelin, E; Puiggalí, J; Alemán, C
A sensitive nanocalorimetric technology based on microcantilever sensors is presented. The technology, which combines very short response times with very small sample consumption, uses the bimetallic effect to detect thermal transitions. Specifically, abrupt variations in the Young's modulus and the thermal expansion coefficient produced by temperature changes have been employed to detect thermodynamic transitions. The technology has been used to determine the glass transition of poly(3-thiophene methyl acetate), a soluble semiconducting polymer with different nanotechnological applications. The glass transition temperature determined using microcantilevers coated with ultra-thin films of mass = 10(-13) g is 5.2 °C higher than that obtained using a conventional differential scanning calorimeter for bulk powder samples of mass = 5 × 10(-3) g. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations on models that represent the bulk powder and the ultra-thin films have been carried out to provide understanding and rationalization of this feature. Simulations indicate that the film-air interface plays a crucial role in films with very small thickness, affecting both the organization of the molecular chains and the response of the molecules against the temperature.
Howard, Andrea L; Strickland, Noelle J; Murray, Desiree W; Tamm, Leanne; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G
Long-term, prospective follow-up studies of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that symptoms tend to decline with age, but impairments in daily life functioning often persist into adulthood. We examined the developmental progression of impairments before and after the transition out of high school in relation to parent involvement during adolescence, parent support during adulthood, and college attendance, using 8 waves of data from the prospective 16-year follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study. Participants were 548 proband children diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) ADHD Combined Type and 258 age- and sex-matched comparison children (Local Normative Comparison Group; LNCG) randomly sampled from probands' schools. Impairment was assessed consistently by parent report from childhood through adulthood. Results showed that impairment worsens over time both before and after the transition to adulthood for those with ADHD histories, in contrast to non-ADHD peers, whose impairments remained stably low over time. However, impairment stabilized after leaving high school for young adults with ADHD histories who attended college. Involved parenting in adolescence was associated with less impairment overall. Attending college was associated with a stable post-high school trajectory of impairment regardless of parents' involvement during adolescence, but young adults with histories of involved parenting and who attended college were the least impaired overall. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Crotti, C; Celestino, T; Fontana, S
The aim of this research was to identify a sample preparation method suitable for the study of transition metal complexes by photoemission spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation as the X-ray source, even in the case where the compound is not evaporable. Solid-phase samples of W(CO) sub 4 (dppe) [dppe=1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane] were prepared according to different methods and their synchrotron radiation XPS spectra measured. The spectra acquired from samples prepared by spin coating show core level peaks only slightly broader than the spectrum recorded from UHV evaporated samples. Moreover, for these samples the reproducibility of the binding energy values is excellent. The dependence of the spin coating technique on parameters such as solvent and solution concentration, spinning speed and support material was studied. The same preparation method also allowed the acquisition of valence band spectra, the main peaks of which were clearly resolved. The results suggest that use of the spin coating techniqu...
Swenson, David W. H.; Bolhuis, Peter G.
The multiple state transition interface sampling (TIS) framework in principle allows the simulation of a large network of complex rare event transitions, but in practice suffers from convergence problems. To improve convergence, we combine multiple state TIS [J. Rogal and P. G. Bolhuis, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 224107 (2008)] with replica exchange TIS [T. S. van Erp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 268301 (2007)]. In addition, we introduce multiple interface sets, which allow more than one order parameter to be defined for each state. We illustrate the methodology on a model system of multiple independent dimers, each with two states. For reaction networks with up to 64 microstates, we determine the kinetics in the microcanonical ensemble, and discuss the convergence properties of the sampling scheme. For this model, we find that the kinetics depend on the instantaneous composition of the system. We explain this dependence in terms of the system's potential and kinetic energy.
Gross, Thomas J; Fleming, Charles B; Mason, W Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P
The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire nine-item short form (APQ-9) is an often used assessment of parenting in research and applied settings. It uses parent and youth ratings for three scales: Positive Parenting, Inconsistent Discipline, and Poor Supervision. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal invariance of the APQ-9 for both parents and youth, and the multigroup invariance between parents and youth during the transition from middle school to high school. Parent and youth longitudinal configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the APQ-9 were supported when tested separately. However, the multigroup invariance tests indicated that scalar invariance was not achieved between parent and youth ratings. Essentially, parent and youth mean scores for Positive Parenting, Inconsistent Discipline, and Poor Supervision can be independently compared across the transition from middle school to high school. However, comparing parent and youth scores across the APQ-9 scales may not be meaningful.
Sadeghi, Ahmad; Baghban, Iran; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Creed, Peter
A short 33-item form of the Career Development Inventory was validated on a sample of 310 Iranian high school students. Factor analysis indicated that attitude and cognitive subscale items loaded on their respective factors, and that internal reliability coefficients at all levels were satisfactory to good. Support for validity was demonstrated by…
Albeg, Loren J.; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.
This study evaluated the relationship between acculturative stress, symptoms of internalizing mental health problems, and academic performance in a sample of 94 Latino middle school students. Students reported on symptoms indicative of depression and anxiety related problems and acculturative stress. Teachers reported on students' academic…
Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong
From a large school-based sample (N = 3,084), 49 Mainland Chinese adolescents (31 girls, 18 boys) who endorsed all DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or sub-threshold BN and 49 matched controls (31 girls, 18 boys) completed measures of demographics and sociocultural experiences related to body image. Compared to less symptomatic peers, those…
Rocha, Ana Cristina; Duarte, Cidália
To share Portugal's experience with school-based sexuality education, and to describe its implementation at a local level, following an ecological model and using a mixed methodology approach. The study also examines the impact of the latest policies put into effect, identifying potential weaknesses and strengths affecting the effectiveness of sexuality education enforcement. A representative sample of 296 schools in Portugal was analysed. Teachers representing the school completed a questionnaire and were asked to share any kind of official document from their sexuality education project (such as curriculum content). A subsample of these documents was analysed by two coders. Quantitative analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics. The majority of Portuguese schools delivered sexuality education, in line with Portuguese technical guidelines and international recommendations. There were common procedures in planning, implementation and evaluation of sexuality education. Some strengths and weaknesses were identified. Results highlighted the impact of the various systems on the planning, enforcement and evaluation of sexuality education in school. The latest policies introduced valuable changes in school-based sexuality education. A way of assessing effectiveness of sexuality education is still needed.
Full Text Available This article focuses on the impact of practice and internship stages in order to facilitate transition from school to active life for Tourism higher education graduates in Romania, in the case of the project entitled: “The practice of students in Economics. An inter-regional partnership on the labour market between universities and business environment" (PRACTeam, implemented in partnership by Faculties of Economics and Business Administration from: University of Oradea, West University of Timişoara and „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava. The research carried out for this article is addressed to students, members of the PRACTeam project’s target groups, enrolled in Economics of Commerce, Tourism and Services as common Bachelor specialization and, also, to students from different Master degree specializations in the field of Tourism from universities mentioned above. The article presents the literature analysis about transition from university to active life, research methodology and characteristics of respondents, then the main findings and concludes that the practice and internship stages developed in PRACTeam project have generated both improving the students’ skills and abilities and their perception and attitude regarding work in Tourism.
J. O. Olowoyo
Full Text Available Potential health risks associated with trace metal pollution have necessitated the importance of monitoring their levels in the environment. The present study investigated the concentrations and compositions of trace metals in dust samples collected from classrooms and playing ground from the selected high schools In Pretoria. Schools were selected from Pretoria based on factors such as proximity to high traffic ways, industrial areas, and residential areas. Thirty-two dust samples were collected from inside and outside the classrooms, where learners often stay during recess period. The dust samples were analysed for trace metal concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The composition of the elements showed that the concentrations of Zn were more than all other elements except from one of the schools. There were significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals from the schools (p<0.05. Regular cleaning, proximity to busy road, and well maintained gardens seem to have positive effects on the concentrations of trace metals recorded from the classrooms dust. The result further revealed a positive correlation for elements such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Sb, indicating that the dust might have a common source.
Wundt, K.; Duschner, H.; Starke, K.
The anodic separation of cyanometallates of propanol -2/Water mixtures at high electrical field strengths was developed as new technique for sample preparation. The optimization of the parameters of the system (high voltage applied, current density, separation time and composition of the solution) resulted in quantitative precipitation of the metallates of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Ag in homogeneous, thin and strong-adhering layer with mass densities of between 1 nmol cm -2 and 1 μmol cm -2 on high-purity aluminium foils. Metals not forming anionic complexes remain in solution with simualtaneous quantitative multielement separation. The described technique is part of a method to determine heavy metal traces in water samples. It comprises the nonspecific sorption on cation exchangers, the elution of the transition metals as cyanometallates, their electrode position on aluminium foil and the determination by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Model experiments illustrate the possible applications of the method. (orig.) [de
Nuske, Heather Joy; McGhee Hassrick, Elizabeth; Bronstein, Briana; Hauptman, Lindsay; Aponte, Courtney; Levato, Lynne; Stahmer, Aubyn; Mandell, David S; Mundy, Peter; Kasari, Connie; Smith, Tristram
Transitioning to a new school is often challenging for students with autism spectrum disorder. Few studies have examined the transition needs of students with autism spectrum disorder or the benefits of specific supports. This review synthesizes research findings on the difficulties that school transitions pose for students with autism spectrum disorder and their parents and teachers, and the strategies used to support students and parents during school transition. The review included 27 studies (10 examining the transition to primary school, 17 the transition to secondary school), with data from 443 students with autism spectrum disorder, 453 parents, and 546 teachers, across four continents (North America, Europe, Africa, and Australia). Studies reported that children with autism spectrum disorder struggled with anxiety and increased social pressure, their parents felt overwhelmed with complex placement decisions and worried about the well-being of their children, and teachers strove to provide appropriate supports to their students with autism spectrum disorder, often with inadequate resources. Findings indicated that the most useful strategies involved helping the student adjust to the new school setting, individualizing transition supports, clarifying the transition process for parents, and fostering communication both between the sending and receiving schools, and school and home.
Do reciprocal relationships between academic workload and self-regulated learning predict medical freshmen's achievement? A longitudinal study on the educational transition from secondary school to medical school.
Barbosa, Joselina; Silva, Álvaro; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Severo, Milton
One of the most important factors that makes the transition from secondary school to medical school challenging is the inability to put in the study time that a medical school curriculum demands. The implementation of regulated learning is essential for students to cope with medical course environment and succeed. This study aimed to investigate the reciprocal relationships between self-regulated learning skills (SRLS) and academic workload (AW) across secondary school to medical school transition. Freshmen enrolled in medical school (N = 102) completed questionnaires at the beginning and at the end of their academic year, assessing AW (measured as study time hours and perceived workload), SRLS (planning and strategies for learning assessment, motivation and action to learning and self-directedness) and academic achievement. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a longitudinal path analysis were performed. According to the EFA, study time and perceived workload revealed two factors of AW: students who had a high perceived workload also demonstrated increased study time (tandem AW); and those who had a low perceived workload also demonstrated increased study time (inverse AW). Only a longitudinal relationship between SRLS and AW was found in the path analysis: prior self-directedness was related to later tandem AW. Moreover, success during the first year of medical school is dependent on exposure to motivation, self-directedness and high study time without overload during secondary school and medical school, and prior academic achievement. By better understanding these relationships, teachers can create conditions that support academic success during the first year medical school.
Bloemen, H.G.; Kalwij, A.S.
This paper develops a simultaneous analysis of the timing of births and labor market transitions of women in the Netherlands. The results show that an increase in the years of schooling of a woman causes her to schedule births later in life but it does not significantly affect her completed
Baay, Pieter E.; Van Aken, Marcel A G; De Ridder, Denise T D; Van der Lippe, Tanja
The school-to-work transition constitutes a central developmental task for adolescents. The role of Big Five personality traits in this has received some scientific attention, but prior research has been inconsistent and paid little attention to mechanisms through which personality traits influence
Bullis, Michael; And Others
Comparison of hearing (n=222) and deaf (n=217) young adults on employment, independent living, and social experience outcomes found that the hearing group was generally more successful than deaf persons from mainstream or residential schools. Gender differences did not uniformly favor men. Suggestions for improving transition programs for the deaf…
Davis, Cheryl; Bullis, Michael
This article summarizes 43 empirical studies of school-to-community transition of hearing-impaired persons with developmental disabilities; discusses data collection and interpretation issues; and recommends future research, development, and evaluation. The studies deal with such areas as career/vocational preparation, independent living skills,…
Traum, Linda C.; Moran, Mary Jane
This qualitative study considered values, beliefs, perspectives, and meanings of 7 parents and 3 teachers within the context of daily home-to-child care transitions in one infant-toddler center in an early childhood laboratory school. Sociocultural and attachment theories anchored the study and the developmental niche framework informed…
Hawkins, Renee O.; Haydon, Todd; McCoy, Dacia; Howard, Andrea
An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components to improve the transition behavior of middle school students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) served in an alternative educational setting. The intervention was implemented by one teacher with three…
Wang, Yan; Ye, Feifei; Pilarzyk, Tom
This study used a strategic enrollment management (SEM) approach to studying high school students' transition to a two-year college and their initial college success. Path analyses suggested two important findings: (a) clear career choices among students, family influence, academic preparedness, and college recruitment efforts predicted earlier…
Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…
Williams, Susan G.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather
Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students (N = 233). Females…
Angulo, Kira Mahamud; Hernández Laina, Yovana
In this article we analyze knowledge about economics conveyed via primary school textbooks published during the late Franco dictatorship and the years of transition to democracy in Spain. Starting from the premise that the process of political socialization and identity construction is based partly on economic factors, we examine the evolution of…
Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S
The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions. Parents and teachers reported on adolescent prosocial behavior (i.e., social-behavioral skills), and adolescents reported on their social appraisals and social self-efficacy (i.e., social-cognitive skills). At T1 (before the first year of middle school) and Time 2 (approximately 10 months later, after the first year of middle school), parents and teachers rated adolescent peer acceptance. Analyses revealed that parents' prosocial behavioral advice and benign cognitive framing independently predicted adolescents' higher peer acceptance prospectively (controlling for earlier levels of peer acceptance). Furthermore, adolescent social skills moderated links between coaching and peer acceptance. Specifically, adolescents with higher, but not lower, social-cognitive skills became more accepted in the context of higher-quality coaching, supporting a "capitalization" pattern, such that these youth may be better able to utilize coaching suggestions. Results underscore the utility of parents' behavioral advice and cognitive framing for adolescent peer adjustment across the middle school transition and suggest that optimal social-coaching strategies may depend in part on adolescent social skill level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Aunola, Kaisa; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
It has been suggested that children's learning motivation and interest in a particular subject play an important role in their school performance, particularly in mathematics. However, few cross-lagged longitudinal studies have been carried out to investigate the prospective relationships between academic achievement and task motivation. Moreover, the role that the classroom context plays in this development is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental dynamics of maths-related motivation and mathematical performance during children's transition to primary school. The role of teachers' pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics on this development was also investigated. A total of 196 Finnish children were examined four times: (0) in October during their preschool year; (1) in October and (2) April during their first grade of primary school; and (3) in October during their second grade. Children's mathematical performance was tested at each measurement point. Task motivation was examined at measurement points 2, 3, and 4 using the Task-value scale for children. First-grade teachers were interviewed in November about their pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics. The results showed that children's mathematical performance and related task motivation formed a cumulative developmental cycle: a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the first grade increased subsequent task motivation towards mathematics, which further predicted a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the second grade. The level of maths-related task motivation increased in those classrooms where the teachers emphasized motivation or self-concept development as their most important pedagogical goal.
Full Text Available Background: Meeting changes can be very problematic for children with AutismSpectrum Disorders (ASDs whereas other children may take it for granted. As a result,they may cry, get upset, scream, do hand flapping or even self-harming that shows their inability to cope with the changes and their preference of sameness and routine activities. To understand the issue of changes in children with autism, people should know the complexity of the disorders. Purpose: This article will explain further about the strategies for successful transition into mainstream schools for young children with autism as illustrated in Jack’s case study in the appendices. Methods: A case study was conducted to one respondent. Firstly, the article will explain ASDs and its atypical characteristics of 6-years old Jack. Then it will discuss strategies to help Jack’s transition process, as well as strategies to support his learning process during schooling which finally comes up with conclusion to support Jack and his family’s transition into mainstream primary education. Results: Strategies for successful transition into mainstream schools for young children with autism include using visual information and activity schedules, managing sensory overload, and building literacy skills. Conclusion: Attractive playing can be effective strategies to build skills for successful transition of young children with autism.
Hansen, Hanne Hoff; Hasselgård, Cecilie Edh; Undheim, Anne Mari; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø
Few studies have focused the association between bullying and psychiatric disorders in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to examine if bullying behaviour was associated with psychiatric disorders and school well-being. The cross-sectional study was part of a health survey at St. Olav's University Hospital. The sample consisted of 685 adolescent patients aged 13-18 years who completed an electronic questionnaire. Clinical diagnoses were collected from clinical records. In this clinical psychiatric sample, 19% reported being bullied often or very often, and 51% reported being bullied from time to time. Logistic regression analyses showed associations between being a victim and having a mood disorder, and between being involved in bullying behaviour and reporting lower scores on school well-being. No difference was found in bullying behaviour on gender, age and SES. The risk of being a victim was high among adolescents in this clinical sample, especially among patients with mood disorders. Any involvement in bullying behaviour was associated with reduced school well-being.
Yu, Yuqi; Wang, Jinan; Shao, Qiang, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com, E-mail: email@example.com; Zhu, Weiliang, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com, E-mail: email@example.com [ACS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Shi, Jiye, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: Jiye.Shi@ucb.com, E-mail: email@example.com [UCB Pharma, 216 Bath Road, Slough SL1 4EN (United Kingdom)
The application of temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulation on protein motion is limited by its huge requirement of computational resource, particularly when explicit solvent model is implemented. In the previous study, we developed a velocity-scaling optimized hybrid explicit/implicit solvent REMD method with the hope to reduce the temperature (replica) number on the premise of maintaining high sampling efficiency. In this study, we utilized this method to characterize and energetically identify the conformational transition pathway of a protein model, the N-terminal domain of calmodulin. In comparison to the standard explicit solvent REMD simulation, the hybrid REMD is much less computationally expensive but, meanwhile, gives accurate evaluation of the structural and thermodynamic properties of the conformational transition which are in well agreement with the standard REMD simulation. Therefore, the hybrid REMD could highly increase the computational efficiency and thus expand the application of REMD simulation to larger-size protein systems.
McDonald, Rachel; Bobrowski, Adam; Drost, Leah; Rowbottom, Leigha; Pretti, Judene; Soliman, Hany; Chan, Stephanie; Chow, Edward
Work-integrated learning (WIL) is a form of education that integrates academic and workplace study. Such programs provide students the opportunity to concurrently develop cognitive and non-cognitive competencies. The purpose of this study is to explore which experiences and skills learned in a WIL placement are useful in applying to medical school and transitioning into the first year of a Doctor of Medicine program. All individuals who worked in the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program (RRRP; WIL placement) since 2004 and had completed at least 1 year of medical school were invited to participate. Semi-formal interviews were conducted and transcribed. A thematic analysis was completed to identify recurring concepts, and quotes were selected to represent them. Of 39 eligible individuals, 14 agreed to participate (36%). Students identified the volume of work, achieving a work-life balance, and time management as challenges in first-year medical school. Five themes emerged regarding the impact of the RRRP on applying and transitioning to medical school: time management skills, mentorship opportunities, research experience, clinical experience, and career choice. WIL placements present a unique opportunity for undergraduate students interested in pursuing medicine to acquire skills and experiences that will help them succeed in applying and transitioning to medical school.
DePalma, Renee; Matusov, Eugene; Smith, Mark
Context: What Varenne and McDermott described as "conventional schooling" is characterized by underlying values of competition and credentialism implicit in an unconscious, cultural framework for U.S. institutional schooling. Schools that define themselves in opposition to this cultural heritage consider themselves innovative schools and…
Gallagher-Brett, Angela; Canning, John
Discussions of student transition from the study of languages in UK high schools to the study of languages at university usually focus on the vertical transition, comparing the differences in curricula and approach to languages taken in each sector. Whilst acknowledging that this aspect of the student transition is important, this article explores…
Ian Alwyn Marshall
Full Text Available In Barbados, the issue of principal leadership and teacher productivity has occupied the attention of teacher unions and educational authorities alike. The teachers have been calling for principals to be removed while the principals have been arguing for greater autonomy to discipline teachers. This state of affairs has, understandably, adversely impacted teacher commitment levels. In the literature there is a clear correlation between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, however, it is important to know whether or not the relationship holds true in the context of Barbadian schools. This author is of the view that if teacher commitment levels are to return to those in evidence in effective schools, then attention must be given to the way in which principals exercise their leadership functions. This study was therefore designed to examine in greater detail the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment. The author employed purposive sampling to survey a cohort of ninety (90 teachers and eleven (11 principals drawn from eleven secondary schools. Results confirmed the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, and a statistically significant difference in the level of commitment reported by teachers at newer secondary schools and teachers at older secondary schools. Results also indicated that biographical variables moderated the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment. Additionally, the regression model indicated that the principal leadership style sub-variables, in combination, accounted for some variance in the commitment demonstrated by teachers.
PCBs were used extensively in school building materials (caulk and lighting fixture ballasts) during the approximate period of 1950-1978. Most of the schools built nationwide during this period have not had indoor air sampling conducted for PCBs. Passive air sampling holds promi...
Iannelli, Cristina; Smyth, Emer
David Raffe was a highly influential figure in the field of transitions research. His work carefully delineated how national institutional policies shape transition processes and outcomes. Curriculum structure and organisation were seen as key features of these transition systems, his work tracing the relative impact of vocational and academic…
History curriculum revisions post 1994 were followed by a range of new History textbooks intended to meet the needs of teachers seeking to implement the revised curriculum. I sought to establish whether or not a sample of these textbooks had built upon the gender equality initiatives introduced after 1994. A qualitative intrinsic case study was conducted to determine the extent of the representation of women in three South African school History textbooks. The results demonstrated that, despi...
Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo
This study focused on the peer and teacher relationships of deaf children and the effects of these relationships on well-being in school during the transition from elementary school to junior high school. Differences due to gender and educational context were also considered. In Study 1, the predictive effects of peer acceptance, popularity, and…
Quadrelli, Marco; Backes, Paul; Wilkie, Keats; Giersch, Lou; Quijano, Ubaldo; Scharf, Daniel; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan
This paper summarizes the modeling, simulation, and testing work related to the development of technology to investigate the potential that shape memory actuation has to provide mechanically simple and affordable solutions for delivering assets to a surface and for sample capture and possible return to Earth. We investigate the structural dynamics and controllability aspects of an adaptive beam carrying an end-effector which, by changing equilibrium phases is able to actively decouple the end-effector dynamics from the spacecraft dynamics during the surface contact phase. Asset delivery and sample capture and return are at the heart of several emerging potential missions to small bodies, such as asteroids and comets, and to the surface of large bodies, such as Titan.
Quadrelli, Marco; Backes, Paul; Wilkie, Keats; Giersch, Lou; Quijano, Ubaldo; Keim, Jason; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan
This paper summarizes the modeling, simulation, and testing work related to the development of technology to investigate the potential that shape memory actuation has to provide mechanically simple and affordable solutions for delivering assets to a surface and for sample capture and return. We investigate the structural dynamics and controllability aspects of an adaptive beam carrying an end-effector which, by changing equilibrium phases is able to actively decouple the end-effector dynamics from the spacecraft dynamics during the surface contact phase. Asset delivery and sample capture and return are at the heart of several emerging potential missions to small bodies, such as asteroids and comets, and to the surface of large bodies, such as Titan.
Dunham, Lisette; Dekhtyar, Michael; Gruener, Gregory; CichoskiKelly, Eileen; Deitz, Jennifer; Elliott, Donna; Stuber, Margaret L; Skochelak, Susan E
Phenomenon: The learning environment is the physical, social, and psychological context in which a student learns. A supportive learning environment contributes to student well-being and enhances student empathy, professionalism, and academic success, whereas an unsupportive learning environment may lead to burnout, exhaustion, and cynicism. Student perceptions of the medical school learning environment may change over time and be associated with students' year of training and may differ significantly depending on the student's gender or race/ethnicity. Understanding the changes in perceptions of the learning environment related to student characteristics and year of training could inform interventions that facilitate positive experiences in undergraduate medical education. The Medical School Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) was administered to 4,262 students who matriculated at one of 23 U.S. and Canadian medical schools in 2010 and 2011. Students completed the survey at the end of each year of medical school as part of a battery of surveys in the Learning Environment Study. A mixed-effects longitudinal model, t tests, Cohen's d effect size, and analysis of variance assessed the relationship between MSLES score, year of training, and demographic variables. After controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and school, students reported worsening perceptions toward the medical school learning environment, with the worst perceptions in the 3rd year of medical school as students begin their clinical experiences, and some recovery in the 4th year after Match Day. The drop in MSLES scores associated with the transition to the clinical learning environment (-0.26 point drop in addition to yearly change, effect size = 0.52, p effect size = 0.14, p work-life balance and informal student relationships. There was some, but not complete, recovery in perceptions of the medical school learning environment in the 4th year. Insights: Perceptions of the medical school learning
Dibner, Kenne Ann
Military recruiting is thoroughly integrated in American public schools. Federal legislation mandates that every public school receiving federal funding open its doors to military recruiters in the same capacity as any postsecondary university or job organization, lest that school risk losing all federal funds. This investigation examines the…
Bundy, Donald; Burbano, Carmen; Gelli, Aulo; Risley, Claire; Neeser, Kristie
The current food, fuel, and financial crises have highlighted the importance of school feeding programs both as a social safety net for children living in poverty and food insecurity, and as part of national educational policies and plans. To examine the costs of school feeding, in terms of both the absolute cost per child and the cost per child relative to overall education expenditure and gross domestic product (GDP) in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Data on the costs of school feeding in different countries were collected from multiple sources, including World Food Programme project data, reports from government ministries, and, where such searches failed, newspaper articles and other literature obtained from internet searches. Regression models were then used to analyze the relationships between school feeding costs, the per capita costs of primary education and GDP per capita. School feeding programs in low-income countries exhibit large variations in cost, with concomitant opportunities for cost containment. As countries get richer, however, school feeding costs become a much smaller proportion of the investment in education. The per capita costs of feeding relative to education decline nonlinearly with increasing GDP. These analyses suggest that the main reason for this decline in the relative cost of school feeding versus primary education is a greatly increased investment per child in primary education as GDP rises, but a fairly flat investment in food. The analyses also show that there appears to be a transitional discontinuity at the interface between the lower- and middle-income countries, which tends to coincide with changes in the capacity of governments to take over the management and funding of programs. Further analysis is required to define these relationships, but an initial conclusion is that supporting countries to maintain an investment in school feeding through this transition may emerge as a key role for development partners.
Yap, C.K.; Krishnan, T.; Chew, W.
In this study, ceiling fan dust samples were collected from three schools in the district of Serdang Selangor, Malaysia. The sampled dust were analysed for the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn. The heavy metal ranges found in all the schools were 2.96-7.74 μg/ g dry weight for Cd, 75-442 μg/ g dry weight for Cu, 3445-3852 μg/ g dry weight for Fe, 24-66 μg/ g dry weight for Ni, 140-734 μg/ g dry weight for Pb and 439-880 μg/ g dry weight for Zn. SMK Seri Serdang School was found to have elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn which indicated the anthropogenic sources of the study sites. In comparison to other reported studies in the literature, the maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were comparable or higher to those cities reported. Therefore, more monitoring studies should be conducted in future since dusts could be related to human health hazards and the dusts can be used as a potential monitoring tool for heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere. (author)
Massey, Anne R; Steele, Janet E
Studies in Philadelphia, New York City, Houston, Washington, DC, and Greenville, North Carolina, have revealed high lead levels in drinking water. Unlike urban areas, lead levels in drinking water in suburban and rural areas have not been adequately studied. In the study described in this article, drinking water in primary schools and preschools in five suburban and rural south central Kansas towns was sampled to determine if any exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) guidance level for schools and child care facilities of 20 parts per billion (ppb). The results showed a total of 32.1% of the samples had detectable lead levels and 3.6% exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance level for schools and child care providers of 20 ppb. These results indicate that about one-third of the drinking water consumed by children age six and under in the five suburban and rural south central Kansas towns studied has some lead contamination, exposing these children to both short-term and long-term health risks. The authors suggest a need for increased surveillance of children's drinking water in these facilities.
Thompson, Steven K
Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat
The aim of this research is to determine high school students' opinions regarding the necessity of private courses in the transition to higher education. For this purpose, the descriptive research method has been applied. As a data collection tool, an interview which has both quantitative and qualitative structure in other words a hybrid structure…
Muthuri, Stella K.; Francis, Claire E.; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M.; LeBlanc, Allana G.; Sampson, Margaret; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.
Background Prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased considerably in recent years. The transition to higher rates of overweight/obesity has been well documented in high income countries; however, consistent or representative data from lower income countries is scarce. It is therefore pertinent to assess if rates of overweight/obesity are also increasing in lower income countries, to inform public health efforts. Objective This systematic review aimed to investigate the evidence for an overweight/obesity transition occurring in school-aged children and youth in Sub Saharan Africa. Methods Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Africa Index Medicus, Global Health, Geobase, and EPPI-Centre electronic databases. Studies that used subjective or objective metrics to assess body composition in apparently healthy or population-based samples of children and youth aged 5 to 17 years were included. Results A total of 283 articles met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 68 were used for quantitative synthesis. The four regions (West, Central, East, and South) of Sub Saharan Africa were well represented, though only 11 (3.9%) studies were nationally representative. Quantitative synthesis revealed a trend towards increasing proportions of overweight/obesity over time in school-aged children in this region, as well as a persistent problem of underweight. Weighted averages of overweight/obesity and obesity for the entire time period captured were 10.6% and 2.5% respectively. Body composition measures were found to be higher in girls than boys, and higher in urban living and higher socioeconomic status children compared to rural populations or those of lower socioeconomic status. Conclusions This review provides evidence for an overweight/obesity transition in school-aged children in Sub Saharan Africa. The findings of this review serve to describe the region with respect to the growing concern of childhood overweight/obesity, highlight research
Stella K Muthuri
Full Text Available Prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased considerably in recent years. The transition to higher rates of overweight/obesity has been well documented in high income countries; however, consistent or representative data from lower income countries is scarce. It is therefore pertinent to assess if rates of overweight/obesity are also increasing in lower income countries, to inform public health efforts.This systematic review aimed to investigate the evidence for an overweight/obesity transition occurring in school-aged children and youth in Sub Saharan Africa.Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Africa Index Medicus, Global Health, Geobase, and EPPI-Centre electronic databases. Studies that used subjective or objective metrics to assess body composition in apparently healthy or population-based samples of children and youth aged 5 to 17 years were included.A total of 283 articles met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 68 were used for quantitative synthesis. The four regions (West, Central, East, and South of Sub Saharan Africa were well represented, though only 11 (3.9% studies were nationally representative. Quantitative synthesis revealed a trend towards increasing proportions of overweight/obesity over time in school-aged children in this region, as well as a persistent problem of underweight. Weighted averages of overweight/obesity and obesity for the entire time period captured were 10.6% and 2.5% respectively. Body composition measures were found to be higher in girls than boys, and higher in urban living and higher socioeconomic status children compared to rural populations or those of lower socioeconomic status.This review provides evidence for an overweight/obesity transition in school-aged children in Sub Saharan Africa. The findings of this review serve to describe the region with respect to the growing concern of childhood overweight/obesity, highlight research gaps, and inform interventions
Li Yingwai; Landau, David P; Wüst, Thomas
Wang-Landau sampling has been applied to investigate the thermodynamics and structural properties of a lattice hydrophobic-polar heteropolymer (the HP protein model) interacting with an attractive substrate. For simplicity, we consider a short HP sequence consisting of only 36 monomers interacting with a substrate which attracts all monomers in the sequence. The conformational “phase transitions” have been identified by a canonical analysis of the specific heat and suitable structural observables. Three major “transitions”, namely, adsorption, hydrophobic core formation and “flattening” of adsorbed structures, are observed. Depending on the surface attractive strength relative to the intra-protein attraction among the H monomers, these processes take place in different sequences upon cooling.
Turner, Lindsey; Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J
With the continued threat of childhood obesity, many public health intervention efforts focus on school settings. The current study sought to document administrator attitudes regarding obesity and interest in improving relevant school practices (i.e., nutrition and physical activity) in elementary schools. Mail-back surveys were used to gather data from public and private elementary schools during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 school years. In each year, a different set of items pertaining to administrator attitudes was included. Numbers of responding schools annually ranged from 259 to 336 private schools, and from 578 to 748 public schools. The vast majority of elementary school administrators (>90%) agreed that schools can play a role in addressing childhood obesity, physical education improves a variety of academic outcomes, and they were interested in improving practices at their school. Concern about childhood obesity and perceiving that schools can play a role in addressing obesity were both associated with more interest in improving school practices. However, only one-third of administrators agreed that parents were interested in participating in improving nutrition and physical activity practices, suggesting opportunities for efforts to improve collaboration. Administrators are generally very supportive of school-based efforts to improve nutrition and physical activity practices and see the value in doing so. Given the amount of time children spend in school, schools are an essential venue for efforts to address childhood obesity.
Yeager, David S.; Romero, Carissa; Paunesku, Dave; Hulleman, Christopher S.; Schneider, Barbara; Hinojosa, Cintia; Lee, Hae Yeon; O’Brien, Joseph; Flint, Kate; Roberts, Alice; Trott, Jill; Greene, Daniel; Walton, Gregory M.; Dweck, Carol S.
There are many promising psychological interventions on the horizon, but there is no clear methodology for preparing them to be scaled up. Drawing on design thinking, the present research formalizes a methodology for redesigning and tailoring initial interventions. We test the methodology using the case of fixed versus growth mindsets during the transition to high school. Qualitative inquiry and rapid, iterative, randomized “A/B” experiments were conducted with ~3,000 participants to inform i...
Ricardo Jorquera Gutiérrez
Full Text Available The present investigation sought to establish a relationship between burnout and a number of demographic and organizational variables. The sample consisted of 191 primary school teachers of municipal, subsidized and private educational institutions of Copiapó. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and the Cuestionario de Evaluación del Sindrome de Quemarse en el Trabajo (CESQT were used as tools to gather information from burnout levels presented by teachers. Two of them demonstrated an adequate reliability and concurrent validity. The results show a statistically significant relationship between absenteeism variable and all dimensions of burnout as measured by both instruments. No statistically significant differences between variables MBI and CESQT compared by sex, type of contract and income level were observed. When comparing the different dimensions of burnout by type of holder, statistically significant differences were detected in all of them. The results favor the private schools, showing the worst results in municipal schools. Alongside this, a negative correlation between levels of emotional exhaustion and psychological wear developed by teams of teachers and the results of the tests SIMCE [Sistema de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación] for second and fourth grade is observed.
This study was carried out to determine high school students' perceptions of the courses of Physics and the factors influential on their perceptions with respect to gender. The research sample included 154 high school students (F:78; M:76). In the study, as the data collection tool, a structured interview form was used. The data collected in the…
Full Text Available History curriculum revisions post 1994 were followed by a range of new History textbooks intended to meet the needs of teachers seeking to implement the revised curriculum. I sought to establish whether or not a sample of these textbooks had built upon the gender equality initiatives introduced after 1994. A qualitative intrinsic case study was conducted to determine the extent of the representation of women in three South African school History textbooks. The results demonstrated that, despite the introduction of gender equality initiatives, in the sample selected the role of men in history continued to receive emphasis. In South African history men have indeed been more prominent than women, and have been viewed as the decision-makers, yet there is room in standard South African History textbooks for the inclusion of the ordinary daily events in which women participated or through which they exercised an influence on decision- making by men. Shepherd's media literacy curriculum model, incorporating the Department of Education's approaches to critical media education, is proposed as a tool to empower in-service History teachers to teach learners to deconstruct patriarchal or hegemonic power relations in school History textbooks.
Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%). PMID:23971432
Nils Breilid; Eva Dyrnes
Introduction: This study deals with young people receiving special needs education in schools and their transition to lasting employment in private or public sector. Through a qualitative approach, the article aims at “identifying significant factors which can, contribute to successful transitions from school to lasting employment affiliation for pupils in vocational training programs”Theoretical approach: The theoretical approach of this article is descriptions and interpretation of the Norw...
MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.
Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, mult...
Cook, J.W. Jr.; Davis, W.T.; Chandler, J.H.; Skove, M.J.
The dependence of the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/) on stress (sigma) for pure In and Sn samples was found to be in qualitative agreement with earlier work. For convenience T/sub c/ is expressed as a function of the experimentally measured strain (epsilon), which is proportional to sigma. The effect of alloying on the initial dependence of the T/sub c/-vs-epsilon curves, (per. delta T/sub c//per. delta epsilon)/sub epsilon = 0/ = eta, was quite different for the In and Sn alloys. The In samples were alloyed with a maximum of 4.8 at.% Tl, 7.9 at.% Sn, and 6.7 at.% Pd; the Sn samples were alloyed with a maximum of 0.3 at.% Cd, 6.0 at.% In, 0.3 at.% Sb, and 2.2 at.% Bi. The addition of impurities had a large effect on eta for the In alloys, with eta reversing sign for some Sn and Pb alloy contents (chi). The T/sub c/-vs-epsilon curves also became nonlinear for some chi. The possible relationship of the In alloy results to changes in the Fermi surface due to the addition of impurities is discussed. For the Sn alloy samples, there was no change in eta with any impurity. The change in room-temperature resistivity with strain was also measured. There was only a slight decrease in the dependence of resistivity on strain for the In--Sn and In--Pb data and no effect on the In--Tl or Sn alloy data
For many students with disabilities, their school experience began or quickly became non-inclusive. As schools increasingly adopt inclusive practices, these students and their families may have questions or concerns. This brief provides strategies, suggestions, and resources for schools to help families understand and become a vital part of the…
PACER Center, 2005
Moving from middle school to high school can be challenging and exciting, but students with special needs may need to begin preparing for the move earlier than other students. As with other major changes in a child's life, the move to high school will go more smoothly if parents gather information and do some planning. A good time to begin…
Full Text Available This paper uses evidence from a series of studies of young people in a total of 12 excommunist countries, but mainly from surveys in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in 2007, and discusses changes and continuities since the early-1990s in typical labour market experiences. It is argued that the continuities outweigh the changes. In the early years of transition new career groups were created during the undermining of old types of employment and the emergence of new market-led employment opportunities. There have always been differences between countries, and between regions within countries, in the proportions of young people following different career routes. Similarly, there have been changes over time in some places in the proportions following the different career paths. Yet the evidence indicates that the career paths themselves have remained remarkably constant over time, and across different territories. The main career groups are: i. A small group who obtain jobs paying salaries that will support a western-type lifestyle. ii. Continuous regular private or public sector employment. iii. Business. iv. Under-employment. v. Unemployment. The paper discusses the processes that have created and which are maintaining the divisions between these groups
There is a global crisis due to a lack of qualified applicants entering STEM careers, especially in science. Add the fact that women are greatly underrepresented in science, and the solution becomes obvious. Go to the source, and find out why girls as young as 12 years old are losing an interest in scientific endeavors that they once found to be captivating. This action research project sought to find out if the implementation of aerospace science, embedded both in the classroom and in an after school Space Club, could assist girls in maintaining their confidence and engagement in science overall as they transition to middle school. Furthermore, girls in fifth through seventh grade, who had previously been the teacher researcher's students, were included in the study in order to discover if their previous participation in a variety of authentic and ongoing aerospace activities had any impact upon their engagement in science as they entered the notable years of declined interest. The research took place at an international American school, Academia Cotopaxi, in Quito, Ecuador from September 2015 through April 2016. Data was collected through both qualitative and quantitative sources, and included attitude surveys, parent questionnaires, a writing prompt, photos, video, interviews and observations. Additionally, a control group was utilized in grades five to seven for purposes of comparison. Innovative activities included engaging and first-hand experiences with the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA), the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA), Space X and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). Inquiry-based activities included, but were not limited to, experiences with: speaking live with both astronauts and cosmonauts on the International Space Station, robotics, rocketry, Skype chats with aerospace professionals, utilizing the Design Process, online resources and more. Findings suggested that embedding aerospace science in grade four, both during and after
Arndt, Ann-Kathrin; Rothe, Antje; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf
When children move from preschool to primary school in Germany, this involves a transition between two distinct systems with regard to political responsibility. Following Rimm-Kaufman and Pianta's (2000) ecological and dynamic model of transition, the research project focuses on the perspectives of parents and professionals on the learning…
McAvoy, Karen; Eagan-Johnson, Brenda; Halstead, Mark
The purpose of this article is to familiarize healthcare providers and parents with educational language, laws, and processes as they relate to a comprehensive ascending level of academic supports as it pertains to promoting a smooth and supported transition to school following a concussion. Returning to learn (RTL) following a concussion is of parallel importance to returning to sport (RTS). A successful RTL is a critical part of concussion management. Many RTL articles advise healthcare providers and parents to request formalized educational supports, also known as Tier 2 or Tier 3 services, for children with concussion as they return to school. Premature requests for formal (Tier 2 or 3) educational services, rather than allowing for immediate informal educational supports (known as Tier 1), can actually delay academic supports and have the potential to cause adversarial relationships between parents and schools. Additionally, this practice contradicts current research demonstrating the need for fast, flexible, temporary academic supports within the first month post-injury. Allowing school districts to direct the application of existing ascending levels of educational support for students with concussion as they return to school can promote robust and positive outcomes.
Yu, Tang-Qing; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Tuckerman, Mark
The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency
Marshall, Sheila K; Young, Richard A; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Lollis, Susan; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree; Nelson, Margo; Goessling, Kristen
Leisure research to date has generally overlooked planning and organizing of leisure time and activities between parents and adolescents. This investigation examined how a sample of Canadian adolescents and their parents jointly constructed and acted on goals related to adolescents' leisure time during the move from elementary to high school. Using the Qualitative Action-Project Method, data were collected over an 8-10 month period from 26 parent-adolescent dyads located in two urban sites, through video-taped conversations about leisure time, video recall interviews, and telephone monitoring interviews. Analysis of the data revealed that the joint projects of the 26 dyads could be grouped into three clusters: a) governance transfer or attempts to shift, from parent to adolescent, responsibility over academic demands, organizing leisure time, and safety with peers, b) balancing extra-curricular activities with family life, academics, and social activities, and c) relationship adjustment or maintenance. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sendelbaugh, Joseph; Bullis, Michael
The national survey to determine what state level transition provisions exist between special education and rehabilitation services for hearing-impaired students found that half of the vocational rehabilitation and one-fourth of the special education agencies have a formal state-level transition plan in place. (DB)
Hine, Jeffrey F.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Foster, Tori E.
Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined…
Casian, Desiree Campbell
For typically developing adolescents, Piaget (1932/1965), Kohlberg (1971), Vygotsky (1935/2011), and Erikson (1964) described key transitions as having happened naturally as the child aged. In adolescents with visual impairments, key transitions are often reached much later than are developmentally appropriate due to the lack of specific…
Chiu, S.F.; Wang, P.C.; Kao, P.F.; Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Lin, J.B.; Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Lin, D.B.; Chen, C.Y.
Hair samples from junior high school students in metropolitan areas of Taichung, Taiwan were tested for a total of 13 elements, Al, Ag, Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Se, and Zn by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to establish seasonal variations, gender and environmental exposures. The seasonal variations of hairs in 39 healthy students (18 males and 21 females; age 13.3 ± 0.4 years; height, 158.0 ± 4.1 cm; weight, 53.4 ± 5.7 kg) were collected at 1.5-month intervals for 1 year starting from late August, 2008. The concentrations of the above elements varied from 10 3 to 10 -2 μg g -1 at different sampling times. A quantified index of agreement (AT) was introduced to help classify the elements. A smaller AT indicated highly consistent quantities of specific metals in the hair while a larger AT indicated increased fluctuation, i.e., less agreement. The different ATs in various hair samples were discussed. The concentrations of these elements are compared with the data in the literature. (author)
Başer, Mürüvvet; Coban, Sibel; Taşci, Sultan; Sungur, Gönül; Bayat, Meral
Knowledge of first aid, which constitutes life-saving treatments for injuries or unexpected illnesses, is important for every individual at every age. First aid and basic life support are so important that teaching basic first aid should be compulsory in all schools. The goal of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of a sample of Turkish teachers regarding the administration of first aid. Three hundred twelve teachers took part in this study to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of teachers in primary schools about first aid. Data were obtained using a questionnaire. It included 30 questions that help identify the teachers and determine their knowledge and attitudes about first aid. Data were analyzed by chi-square test. In this study, it was determined that most of the teachers do not have correct knowledge and attitudes about first aid. For example, 65.1% of teachers gave incorrect answers regarding epistaxis, 63.5% for bee stings, and 88.5% for abrasion. It was found out that as the age of the teachers increases, appropriate first-aid practice becomes more and more unlikely. The results of this study showed that teachers did not have enough knowledge about first aid.
Kent, Michael S; Zwingenberger, Allison; Westropp, Jodi L; Barrett, Laura E; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Ghosh, Paramita; Vinall, Ruth L
Early signs of canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are frequently assumed to be caused by other lower urinary tract diseases (LUTD) such as urinary tract infections, resulting in late diagnosis of TCC which could be fatal. The development of a non-invasive clinical test for TCC could dramatically reduce mortality. To determine whether microRNAs (miRNAs) can be used as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers, we assessed miRNA expression in blood and/or urine from dogs with clinically normal bladders (n = 28), LUTD (n = 25), and TCC (n = 17). Expression levels of 5 miRNA associated with TCC pathophysiology (miR-34a, let-7c, miR-16, miR-103b, and miR-106b) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Statistical analyses using ranked ANOVA identified significant differences in miR-103b and miR-16 levels between urine samples from LUTD and TCC patients (miR-103b, p = 0.002; and miR-16, p = 0.016). No statistically significant differences in miRNA levels were observed between blood samples from LUTD versus TCC patients. Expression levels of miR-34a trended with miR-16, let-7c, and miR-103b levels in individual normal urine samples, however, this coordination was completely lost in TCC urine samples. In contrast, co-ordination of miR-34a, miR-16, let-7c, and miR-103b expression levels was maintained in blood samples from TCC patients. Our combined data indicate a potential role for miR-103b and miR-16 as diagnostic urine biomarkers for TCC, and that further investigation of miR-103b and miR-16 in the dysregulation of coordinated miRNA expression in bladder carcinogenesis is warranted.
Full Text Available This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001 in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to “Felt Pressure” and “Intergroup Bias” in the original model. The third factor “Gender Compatibility” appeared to be a combination of “Gender Typicality” and “Gender Contentment” in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.
Wajuihian, Samuel Otabor; Hansraj, Rekha
This study focused on a cohort that has not been studied and who currently have limited access to eye care services. The findings, while improving the understanding of the distribution of refractive errors, also enabled identification of children requiring intervention and provided a guide for future resource allocation. The aim of conducting the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of refractive error and its association with gender, age, and school grade level. Using a multistage random cluster sampling, 1586 children, 632 males (40%) and 954 females (60%), were selected. Their ages ranged between 13 and 18 years with a mean of 15.81 ± 1.56 years. The visual functions evaluated included visual acuity using the logarithm of minimum angle of resolution chart and refractive error measured using the autorefractor and then refined subjectively. Axis astigmatism was presented in the vector method where positive values of J0 indicated with-the-rule astigmatism, negative values indicated against-the-rule astigmatism, whereas J45 represented oblique astigmatism. Overall, patients were myopic with a mean spherical power for right eye of -0.02 ± 0.47; mean astigmatic cylinder power was -0.09 ± 0.27 with mainly with-the-rule astigmatism (J0 = 0.01 ± 0.11). The prevalence estimates were as follows: myopia (at least -0.50) 7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 9%), hyperopia (at least 0.5) 5% (95% CI, 4 to 6%), astigmatism (at least -0.75 cylinder) 3% (95% CI, 2 to 4%), and anisometropia 3% (95% CI, 2 to 4%). There was no significant association between refractive error and any of the categories (gender, age, and grade levels). The prevalence of refractive error in the sample of high school children was relatively low. Myopia was the most prevalent, and findings on its association with age suggest that the prevalence of myopia may be stabilizing at late teenage years.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI in adolescent has drawn increasing attention because it is associated with subsequent depression, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, and suicide. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI in a school-based sample of Chinese adolescents and to explore the association between aggression and NSSI. METHODS: This study was part of a nationwide study on aggression among adolescents in urban areas of China. A sample of 2907 school students including 1436 boys and 1471 girls were randomly selected in Guangdong Province, with their age ranging from 10 to 18 years old. NSSI, aggression, emotional management and other factors were measured by self-administrated questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between aggression and NSSI, after adjustment for participants' emotional management, and other potential confounding variables. RESULTS: The one year self-reported prevalence of NSSI was 33.6%. Of them, 21.7% engaged in 'minor NSSI', 11.9% in 'moderate/severe NSSI'. 96.9% of self-injuries engaged in one to five different types of NSSI in the past year. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with self-reported NSSI after adjusting for other potential factors both in 'minor NSSI' and 'moderate/severe NSSI'. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with greater risk of 'minor NSSI' and 'moderate/severe NSSI' in those who had poor emotional management ability. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight a high prevalence of NSSI and indicate the importance of hostility, verbal and indirect aggression as potentially risk factor for NSSI among Chinese adolescents.
DelViscio, James J.
At the beginning of the 20th century, there were essentially two types of organizational structures for primary and secondary education in the United States. There were either one-room K-12 schools or in larger systems K-8 buildings feeding into four-year high schools. Despite numerous experiments since then in reconfiguring schools resulting in a…
Full Text Available Francesco Pastore is qualified as full professor of Economic Policy. Currently, he is Assistant Professor of Economics at Seconda Universita di Napoli. He is also secretary of the Italian Association of Labor Economics (AIEL and a member of the executive board of the Italian Association of Comparative Economic Studies (AISSEC. His main research interests are in labor and education economics. He is also interested in development and transition economics. He has contributed extensively in several such fields as regional unemployment differentials, school-to-work transitions, labor market dynamics, gender discrimination, human capital investment, public employment services and passive as well as active labor market policy, labor market consequences of international trade and nonprofit organization.
Rea, Mark S.; Brons, Jennifer A.; Figueiro, Mariana G.
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between rotating shiftwork and breast cancer (BC) risk. Recently, light at night (LAN) measured by satellite photometry and by self-reports of bedroom brightness has been shown to be associated with BC risk, irrespective of shiftwork history. Importance has been placed on these associations because retinal light exposures at night can suppress the hormone melatonin and/or disrupt circadian entrainment to the local 24-h light-dark cycle. The present study examined whether it was valid to use satellite photometry and self-reports of brightness to characterize light, as it might stimulate the circadian system and thereby affect BC incidence. Calibrated photometric measurements were made at the bedroom windows and in the bedrooms of a sample of female school teachers, who worked regular dayshifts and lived in a variety of satellite-measured sky brightness categories. The light levels at both locations were usually very low and were independent of the amount of satellite-measured light. Calibrated photometric measurements were also obtained at the corneas of these female school teachers together with calibrated accelerometer measurements for seven consecutive days and evenings. Based upon these personal light exposure and activity measurements, the female teachers who participated in this study did not have disrupted light-dark cycles like those associated with rotating shiftworkers who do exhibit a higher risk for BC. Rather, this sample of female school teachers had 24-h light-dark and activity-rest patterns very much like those experienced by dayshift nurses examined in an earlier study who are not at an elevated risk of BC. No relationship was found between the amount of satellite-measured light levels and the 24-h light-dark patterns these women experienced. It was concluded from the present study that satellite photometry is unrelated to personal light exposures as they might affect melatonin suppression and
Van Ryzin, Mark J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Dishion, Thomas J
Adolescence is a time of significant developmental change. During this period, levels of problem behavior that had been relatively innocuous may escalate in the company of peers, with simultaneous reductions in parental monitoring and involvement. In this article, we report the results of a randomized controlled trial of the Family Check-Up (FCU), a family-centered, school-based intervention designed to forestall the escalation of adolescent problem behavior by promoting and motivating skillful parenting through the transition to high school. In this study, 593 ethnically diverse families were randomized to be offered the FCU when their youth were in seventh and eighth grades of middle school. We used complier average causal effect analysis to examine change in family conflict, antisocial behavior, involvement with deviant peers, and alcohol use from sixth through ninth grades. Analyses revealed that when compared with a matched control group, youths whose parents had engaged in the FCU demonstrated significantly lower rates of growth in family conflict (p = .052), antisocial behavior, involvement with deviant peers, and alcohol use. Our results extend current research on the FCU and provide support for theory that links family conflict with a variety of youth problem behavior. These results and the extant research on the FCU suggest that traditional school-based service delivery models that focus on the individual child may benefit from a shift in perspective to engage parents and families. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fernández-Suárez, Asunción; Herrero, Juan; Pérez, Beatriz; Juarros-Basterretxea, Joel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Francisco J.
Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout. Method: Judicial files of all juvenile offenders (218 males and 46 females) with a judicial penal measure in Asturias (Spain) in the year 2012 were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationships between school dropout and individual, family and school variables. Results: As for the individual characteristics, results showed that school dropouts were more irresponsible than non-dropouts. Also they had higher rates of illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Moreover, lack of parental monitoring emerged as a key predictive factor of school dropout, beyond the type of family structure in terms of the presence of both or only one educational figure. Finally, school factors did not show a significant relationship to school dropout. Conclusions: These findings indicate that school dropout is a multidimensional process. School and family policies that emphasize the role of parental monitoring and prevent alcohol and substance abuse are recommended. PMID:28082934
Fernández-Suárez, Asunción; Herrero, Juan; Pérez, Beatriz; Juarros-Basterretxea, Joel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Francisco J
Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout. Method: Judicial files of all juvenile offenders (218 males and 46 females) with a judicial penal measure in Asturias (Spain) in the year 2012 were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationships between school dropout and individual, family and school variables. Results: As for the individual characteristics, results showed that school dropouts were more irresponsible than non-dropouts. Also they had higher rates of illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Moreover, lack of parental monitoring emerged as a key predictive factor of school dropout, beyond the type of family structure in terms of the presence of both or only one educational figure. Finally, school factors did not show a significant relationship to school dropout. Conclusions : These findings indicate that school dropout is a multidimensional process. School and family policies that emphasize the role of parental monitoring and prevent alcohol and substance abuse are recommended.
Arsenault, Chelsea E; Fisher, Sycarah; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Barnes-Najor, Jessica
African American marijuana use is associated with many negative social, emotional, and health-related consequences. Of significance, over recent years this population has shown an increase in use. In the literature, ethnic identity and school engagement are prominent protective factors against substance use. This study will examine how these protective factors are related, specifically whether ethnic identity mitigates risk through school engagement to reduce marijuana use. A path analysis was conducted with 437 African American high school students (41% male) from Midwestern schools to examine the role of school engagement in the relationship between ethnic identity and marijuana use. The results revealed that students high in ethnic identity have higher school engagement, which lessens their frequency of marijuana use. Therefore, ethnic identity reduces marijuana use by increasing student's school engagement. Conclusions/Importance: The results offer a clearer picture of how ethnic identity and school engagement protect against marijuana use. The results also present insight into how to protect students who are low in ethnic identity.
Hobden, Sally; Hobden, Paul
School-level educational interventions targeting learners from low socioeconomic backgrounds often have the long-term goal of enabling access to, and successful completion of tertiary studies. This study tracked the progress of alumni of an educational intervention two or three years post school, in order to investigate their pathways to their…
Skov, Peter Rohde
In this paper, I investigate whether a social comparison mechanism affects the choice of secondary schooling. I investigate the theory of frog pond effects on choice of upper secondary education using school-by-grade fixed effects models and comprehensive administrative data. I examine the non...
Baer, Robert M.; Flexer, Robert W.; Beck, Suzanne; Amstutz, Nancy; Hoffman, Lynn; Brothers, Judy; Stelzer, Donna; Zechman, Christine
A follow-up study involving 140 special education graduates found vocational education, work-study participation, attending a rural school, and having a learning disability were the best predictors of full-time employment after graduation. Participation in regular academics and attending a suburban school were the best predictors of postsecondary…
Heimbecker, Connie; Bradley-Wilkinson, Evangeline; Begay, Mary Helen; Bradley, Brian; McCarty, Nellie; Nelson, Jacob; Gamble, Armanda; Medina, Catherine; Nelson, Bernita; Pettigrew, Bobbie; Sealander, Karen; Smith, Jody; Snyder, Maria; White, Sherri; Whitehair, Marsha; Redsteer, Denise; Prater, Greg
A study examined the challenges faced by Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD) and outlying communities on the Navajo Reservation in their efforts to adequately provide educational opportunities for their transfer students with special needs. Interviews were conducted with six students from 4th grade through high school; seven parents; special…
MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.
Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se. PMID:29354017
MacLeod, Andrea A N; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R
Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se.
Porter, Mahlone E.; Stodden, Robert A.
Curriculum-based vocational assessment procedures as implemented in the United States Department of Defense Dependents Schools in Germany are assessing a match of handicapped students' interests and strengths in terms of career and vocational instructional options. The model is described, with emphasis on project planning and design and…
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Chen, Pan; Jenkins, Lyndsay N; Choe, Hyung Joon
The transition to middle school can be a significant stressor for young adolescents, leading to increases in depression for those who are vulnerable. The current study examined how perceived support from mothers, fathers, and teachers independently and interactively predicted developmental patterns of depressive symptoms during adolescents' transition to middle school, and gender differences in these effects of social support. Four timepoints of data were collected from 1,163 participants (48.5 % boys) enrolled in an ethnically diverse suburban middle school in the Midwest between 1.25 and 20.50 months after these participants entered the 7th grade. The results from growth curve modeling indicated that levels of depressive symptoms decreased over time for boys but remained stable for girls during the developmental period examined. There is also evidence that support from mothers, fathers, and teachers independently and inversely predicted levels of depressive symptoms at the beginning of the 7th grade, and support from both mothers and fathers predicted changes in these symptoms. Effects of mothers' support and teachers' support, but not the effect of fathers' support, remained significant in reducing levels of depressive symptoms at 20.50 months from middle school entry. Furthermore, the protective effect of mothers' support was stronger for girls than for boys. Finally, mothers' support interacted with fathers' support and teachers' support to predict levels of depressive symptoms. Specifically, the protective effect of mothers' support was more salient when fathers' support was low, and vice versa. In contrast, support from mothers and teachers had an amplifying, synergistic effect.
Song Wang; Ming Zhou; Taolin Chen; Xun Yang; Guangxiang Chen; Meiyun Wang; Qiyong Gong
Achievement in school is crucial for students to be able to pursue successful careers and lead happy lives in the future. Although many psychological attributes have been found to be associated with academic performance, the neural substrates of academic performance remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between brain structure and academic performance in a large sample of high school students via structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI) using voxel-based morphome...
Internationally, there is growing interest in children's transition to school and their readiness for formal education. Parents' memories of school offer important insights into children's preparation for school and how families view schools; however, few studies consider the influence of educational histories. To address this gap, a sample of 24…
Daycare professionals’ expertise in Denmark is rooted in ways of solving problems of children’s care and development prior to school. In daycare, children are seen as agents in their own learning activity and care, and play and creativity are important for children’s development. The question....... This demand may raise questions for parents and practitioners about the implications for child development, while for practitioners it also creates challenges for practice development (Hedegaard & Fleer, 2013)....
Full Text Available The transition from primary to secondary education signals a process of developing and maturing physically and mentally, but this ‘rite of passage’ for some young adolescents is often associated with a drifting interest in school education. This phenomenon, caused by a decreased motivation for learning, has been observed by many relevant studies. This article adopts the psychological approach to study this long-lasting educational phenomenon while employing ‘intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theory’ and ‘goal theory’ to investigate the gap between primary and secondary schools as well as what possible pedagogies there are to maintain or stimulate the pupils’ motivation. An intrinsically motivated student acquires knowledge out of curiosity and interest, and they are willing to face the more difficult challenges that secondary education provides. As identified in the conclusion, the creation of a more integral educational system can alleviate the decrease in motivation while pupils undergo this period. A more amiable educational environment can be maintained that enhances the pupils’ self-concept, learning efficacy, and a sense of volition as well as self-determination to circumvent this transitional crisis.
Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa; Fawkner, Samantha
Quantitative research has suggested that the decline in physical activity levels for adolescent girls is most marked during the transition from primary school to secondary school yet understanding the contributing factors for this decline may be advanced through qualitative research methods to gain an individual perspective of the girls' school transition experience. This study explored factors related to the decrease in physical activity behavior in 14 adolescent girls (mean age = 13.6 ± 0.3 years) during the transition between primary and secondary school through the use of narrative interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis. The findings suggested that a change in the environment was central to understanding the decline in physical activity levels since primary school. During secondary school, a positive environment can be created by ensuring a choice of activities in Physical Education lessons; allowing a girls-only environment, to reduce the focus on competence and competition, and recognizing the importance of social support. These could enhance self-perceptions, reduce self-presentational concerns, increase enjoyment, and subsequently reduce the decrease in physical activity behavior during this key transitional period.
Palamar, Joseph J; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Ompad, Danielle C
The popularity of electronic dance music and rave parties such as dance festivals has increased in recent years. Targeted samples of party-goers suggest high rates of drug use among attendees, but few nationally representative studies have examined these associations. We examined sociodemographic correlates of rave attendance and relationships between rave attendance and recent (12-month) use of various drugs in a representative sample of US high school seniors (modal age: 18) from the Monitoring the Future study (2011-2013; Weighted N=7373). One out of five students (19.8%) reported ever attending a rave, and 7.7% reported attending at least monthly. Females and highly religious students were less likely to attend raves, and Hispanics, students residing in cities, students with higher income and those who go out for fun multiple times per week were more likely to attend. Rave attendees were more likely than non-attendees to report use of an illicit drug other than marijuana (35.5% vs. 15.6%, p<0.0001). Attendees were more likely to report use of each of the 18 drugs assessed, and attendees were more likely to report more frequent use (≥6 times) of each drug (ps<0.0001). Controlling for sociodemographic covariates, frequent attendance (monthly or more often) was associated with higher odds of use of each drug (ps<0.0001). Frequent attendees were at highest risk for use of "club drugs." Findings from this study can help inform prevention and harm reduction among rave attendees at greatest risk for drug use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taranto, Francesco; Goracci, Arianna; Bolognesi, Simone; Borghini, Elisa; Fagiolini, Andrea
Internet Addiction Disorder can be defined as "the inability of individuals to control their internet use, resulting in marked distress and/or functional impairment in daily life." It carries the same social aftermath of impulse control and substance misuse disorders such as loss of control, craving and withdrawal symptoms. In this paper, we aimed to assess the prevalence of IAD in an Italian sample of high-school students. We also explored the relationship between Social Phobia and IAD diagnosis; lastly, we investigated the association between IAD and substance misuse. The research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. Assessments administered in this study consisted of three parts: 1) collecting information about general and personal data of the subjects; 2) the Internet Addiction questionnaire proposed by Ko, composed by 9 different areas; 3) the Social Anxiety Spectrum Self-Report (SHY-SR) Lifetime Questionnaire. 19 of 402 subjects (i.e. 4.7% of the sample) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for IAD, showing a slight predominance of males. 10.9% of subjects met diagnostic criteria for a Social Phobia Spectrum disorder. Six IAD subjects (31.8%) were also diagnosed with a social phobia spectrum condition. Within the group of students diagnosed with IAD, 4 (21.05%) subjects reported current or past use of drugs. Our results suggest that there is a sizable population of youth already showing or at risk of developing some kind of problematic relationship with the web. Social Anxiety Disorder seems to be both a risk factor and a frequent co-morbid disorder of internet misuse. Further studies along with shared diagnostic criteria and tools will facilitate research on treatments for these rapidly expanding and disabling conditions.
Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel
Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.
Lisa M D Archibald
Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.
Chen, QiQi; Lo, Camilla K M; Zhu, Yuhong; Cheung, Anne; Chan, Ko Ling; Ip, Patrick
The sustained increase in their use of social networking facilitates the development of adolescents but comes with the risk of cyberbullying, which creates new challenges in regard to adolescent protection. Past evidence shows that family victimization may play an essential role in the way adolescents learn cyberbullying behaviors. Yet, research on the co-occurrence of family victimization and cyberbullying is limited. This study aims to investigate the associations between cyberbullying and family victimization among adolescents, and to examine the health correlates of cyberbullying and family poly-victimization. A large sample of 18,341 students, aged 15-17, from six cities in China, collected between 2009 and 2010 is employed in the present study, which investigated the association between various kinds of family victimization and adolescent cyberbullying. Data analysis was conducted in 2017. In-law conflict, intimate partner violence, elder abuse and neglect, and child maltreatment were associated with a higher possibility of children becoming internet victims. Parents' divorce and separation, low family income, mother's low level of education, and father's unemployment were all associated with cyberbullying victimization. Cyber victimization was positively correlated to symptoms of PTSD and depression, self-harm, and other physical and mental health variables. Possible explanations for the relationships found in this study are discussed and implications for future research and services are provided. Proactive screening for family poly-victimization and cyberbullying is suggested. Schools are highly recommended to cooperate with parents to promote cyber safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Astri J. Lundervold
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate parent reports of childhood symptoms of inattention as a predictor of adolescent academic achievement, taking into account the impact of the child’s intellectual functioning, in two diagnostically and culturally diverse samples.Method: Samples: (a an all-female sample in the U.S. predominated by youth with ADHD (Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study [BGALS], N = 202, and (b a mixed-sex sample recruited from a Norwegian population-based sample (the Bergen Child Study [BCS], N = 93. Inattention and intellectual function were assessed via the same measures in the two samples; academic achievement scores during and beyond high school and demographic covariates were country-specific.Results: Childhood inattention predicted subsequent academic achievement in both samples, with a somewhat stronger effect in the BGALS sample, which included a large subgroup of children with ADHD. Intellectual function was another strong predictor, but the effect of early inattention remained statistically significant in both samples when intellectual function was covaried.Conclusion: The effect of early indicators of inattention on future academic success was robust across the two samples. These results support the use of remediation procedures broadly applied. Future longitudinal multicenter studies with pre-planned common inclusion criteria should be performed to increase our understanding of the importance of inattention in primary school children for concurrent and prospective functioning.
Claussen, Angelika H.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Holbrook, Joseph R.; Bloomfield, Jeanette; Giordano, Kathy
Objective Children with Tourette syndrome (TS) are at risk for a variety of co-occurring conditions and learning and school problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of TS and co-occurring conditions on school measures. Methods Parent-reported data from the 2007–2008 and 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health were combined (n = 129,353 children aged 6–17 yrs). Parent report of health care provider diagnosis of TS; co-occurring mental, emotional, and behavioral conditions; learning and language conditions; and school measures were assessed. School measures included type of school, individual education plan (IEP), number of school days missed, school problems, doing well in school, doing homework, and repeating a grade. Children with TS were compared with those who never had TS on school measures accounting for co-occurring conditions. Results After adjusting for demographics, compared with children without TS, children currently with TS were more likely to have an IEP, have a parent contacted about school problems, and not complete homework. After further adjusting for co-occurring conditions, only IEP status remained statistically significant. Compared with children with mild TS, children with moderate or severe TS were more likely to have an IEP, repeat a grade, encounter school problems, and not care about doing well in school. Conclusion Tourette syndrome severity and co-occurring conditions are associated with school challenges and educational service needs. Awareness among health care providers, teachers and parents of the potential challenges related to both TS and co-occurring conditions would help to best support the child’s education. PMID:29432328
Claussen, Angelika H; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Holbrook, Joseph R; Bloomfield, Jeanette; Giordano, Kathy
Children with Tourette syndrome (TS) are at risk for a variety of co-occurring conditions and learning and school problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of TS and co-occurring conditions on school measures. Parent-reported data from the 2007-2008 and 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health were combined (n = 129,353 children aged 6-17 yrs). Parent report of health care provider diagnosis of TS; co-occurring mental, emotional, and behavioral conditions; learning and language conditions; and school measures were assessed. School measures included type of school, individual education plan (IEP), number of school days missed, school problems, doing well in school, doing homework, and repeating a grade. Children with TS were compared with those who never had TS on school measures accounting for co-occurring conditions. After adjusting for demographics, compared with children without TS, children currently with TS were more likely to have an IEP, have a parent contacted about school problems, and not complete homework. After further adjusting for co-occurring conditions, only IEP status remained statistically significant. Compared with children with mild TS, children with moderate or severe TS were more likely to have an IEP, repeat a grade, encounter school problems, and not care about doing well in school. Tourette syndrome severity and co-occurring conditions are associated with school challenges and educational service needs. Awareness among health care providers, teachers and parents of the potential challenges related to both TS and co-occurring conditions would help to best support the child's education.
Inês Maria Crespo Gutierres Pardo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE Bullying is a frequent form of violence among adolescent students, leading to serious physical and psychological damages. This study's objective is to identify the prevalence and factors associated with bullying among adolescents in public high schools. Methods: This is an observational, transversal study, with the participation of 47 14 - to 17-year old male and female adolescents from a public high school. Subjects answered a standardized questionnaire to assess the behavioral characteristics of victims, perpetrators and witnesses of bullying. Victimization was classified as either verbal or physical. This study was authorized by the local Ethics Committee, and both parents and adolescents signed a consent form. Results: 47 adolescents with an average age of 15,6 ± 0,9 years old participated in the study. The average age of girls was 15.5 ± 0.7 and boys 15.6 ± 0.9 years (p > 0.05. Approximately 13% of respondents reported having been verbally bullied, with no difference between genders. About 28% of the total reported having witnessed some form of verbal abuse at school. With regard to offenders, 19.1% of respondents,all of the male, reported having been verbal bullies. All of the attackers said that there was no penalty for their act of bullying. Conclusion: two in every ten adolescents reported having verbally bullied someone at high school, whereas about 28% of respondents reported at some point having been witnesses of physical or psychological bullying at school.
Odgaard, Ane Bjerre
connections between the different contexts which the children traverse during this transition. At several occasions, the participating 5- to 7-year-old children are invited to use tablets for producing photos, photo-collages and e-books about their everyday institutional environments, thus aiming at mediating...
Peterson, Randolph L.; Roessler, Richard T.
Describes the development and components of a referral database management system developed by the Arkansas Transition Project. The system enables individualized-education-plan team members to refer students with disabilities directly to adult agencies and to receive a monitoring report describing the agency response to the referral. The system is…
Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Pyle, Angela; Villeneuve, Michelle; Dods, Jennifer; Dalton, C. J.; Minnes, Patricia
Research has shown the benefits of parent involvement for student participation in education. Parent advocacy is a critical form of involvement by parents for children who are young, have disabilities, and are making transitions. Studies have classified forms of parent advocacy but have not illuminated the components necessary for effective parent…
High unemployment among the young is a concern in many OECD countries. A key issue for policy makers is whether the education system has a role to play in assisting the transition from education to work or whether economic issues dominate. This paper uses OECD country-level data to see whether the structure of countries' education systems,…
Martinez, Rebecca S.; Aricak, O. Tolga; Graves, Misha N.; Peters-Myszak, Jessica; Nellis, Leah
One of the most fundamental factors related to psychological well being across the lifespan is whether a person perceives social support from important others in his or her life. The current study explored changes in and relationships among perceived social support (SS) and socioemotional adjustment (SEA) across the 1-year transition from…
Pfenninger, Simone E.; Lendl, Johanna
In this paper, we discuss the problem of articulation between levels in the educational system, as the transition from a rather more communicative, content-based and holistic approach to English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching at primary level to more formal and explicit ways of foreign language (FL) teaching at secondary is often experienced…
Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Angel
Background: This article engages with the tradition of educational transitions research, particularly with its attempt to evaluate the effect of exogenous variables on educational attainment. The study revisits a number of hypotheses that have attempted to explain the changing patterns of such effects throughout students' educational career,…
Griffin, Megan M.; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.
Although students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are least likely to attend and participate in transition planning meetings, little is known about factors related to their involvement. Using a national data set, we conducted regressions to identify predictors of the involvement of 320 youth with ASD. Attendance positively related to higher…
Collins, Mary H.
The transition to college is considered to be a stressful time. Nearly all first year students experience loneliness, but many also experience stress, anxiety, depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, and suicidal thoughts (Compas, Wagner, Slavia, & Vannatta, 1986; Nicpon, Huser, Blanks, Sollenberger, Befort, & Robinson Kurpius, 2006-2007;…
Igarashi, Toru; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka
Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1 ± 0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7 ± 0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during
Igarashi, Toru; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka
Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1±0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7±0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during evaluation of Hb
Zullig, Keith J; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M; Scott Huebner, E; Ajamie, Jean
The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships, academic support, order and discipline, and physical environment) were available for the analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were established to construct validity, and criterion-related validity was assessed via selected Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) school safety items and self-reported grade (GPA) point average. Analyses confirmed the 4 SCM school climate domains explained approximately 63% of the variance (factor loading range .45-.92). Structural equation models fit the data well χ(2) = 14,325 (df = 293, p < .001), comparative fit index (CFI) = .951, Tuker-Lewis index (TLI) = .952, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .05). The goodness-of-fit index was .940. Coefficient alphas ranged from .82 to .93. Analyses of variance with post hoc comparisons suggested the SCM domains related in hypothesized directions with the school safety items and GPA. Additional evidence supports the validity and reliability of the SCM. Measures, such as the SCM, can facilitate data-driven decisions and may be incorporated into evidenced-based processes designed to improve student outcomes. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Ebesutani, Chad; Okamura, Kelsie; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Chorpita, Bruce F.
The current study was the 1st to examine the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version (PANAS-C-P) using a large school-based sample of children and adolescents ages 8 to 18 (N = 606). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor (correlated) model of positive affect (PA) and negative…
Mulder, Saskia F.; Hutteman, Roos; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
This longitudinal study focused on clarifying the direction of effects between social anxiety and victimization in a community-based sample. In addition, we studied the moderating effect of gender on this association. A total of 1,649 children (45% boys, approximately 12 years old) of 65 secondary-school classes participated in the study.…
Page, Randy M.; Yanagishita, Jun; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Zarco, Emilia Patricia; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang
The aim of this study was to assess the level of suicide attempts in three school-based samples of Southeast Asian adolescents (Taipei, Taiwan; the Philippines; Chiang Mai, Thailand) and determine whether adolescent suicide attempters score higher on measures of hopelessness and loneliness relative to nonattempters. It was hypothesized that…
Sanchez, Emelyn Y.; Velarde, Silvia; Britton, Gabrielle B.
The present study investigated the prevalence of ADHD in a school sample of children ages 6-11 years in the city of Panama. The assessment battery included the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales, the Structured Developmental History of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children…
Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
SES has long interested researchers investigating school achievement. Its effects are often addressed by studying predictors of achievement in economically disadvantaged samples living primarily in biological families, confounding genetic and environmental influences. Little is known about SES's purely environmental effects. We measured them in…
Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita
The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S.-born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites,…
Basch, Charles E; Basch, Corey H; Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali
Consistency, quality, and duration of sleep are important determinants of health. We describe sleep patterns among demographically defined subgroups from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System reported in 4 successive biennial representative samples of American high school students (2007 to 2013). Across the 4 waves of data collection, 6.2% to 7.7% of females and 8.0% to 9.4% of males reported obtaining 9 or more hours of sleep. Insufficient duration of sleep is pervasive among American high school students. Despite substantive public health implications, intervention research on this topic has received little attention.
Ascherman, Lee I; Shaftel, Julia
Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings. The role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist and the importance of advocacy for these youth are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel
Compared adolescents attending college to adolescent nonenrollees and found that (1) college attendees experienced improved means of perceived security to parents, decreased perceptions of social support, and increased feelings of loneliness and social anxiety; and (2) perceived security to parents at end of high school predicted positive changes…
Australian secondary school systems offer three levels of senior (year 12) mathematics studies, none of them compulsory: elementary, intermediate and advanced. The intermediate and advanced studies prepare students for further mathematics studies at university level. In the state of Victoria, there are two versions of intermediate mathematics: one…
Samuels, Peter; Haapasalo, Lenni
LOGO and turtle graphics were an influential movement in primary school mathematics education in the 1980s and 1990s. Since then, technology has moved forward, both in terms of its sophistication and pedagogical potential; and learner experiences, preferences and ways of thinking have changed dramatically. Based on the authors' previous work and a…
Nielsen, Helena Skyt
by youths after high school graduation. It is assumed that the decision is taken year by year, and it is analyzed in a discrete choice dynamic programming model. In this forward-looking behavioral model, it is shown that a small bonus would remove interruptions of the educational careers just after high...
Vondracek, Fred W.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva
Encouragement of entrepreneurship, while being a viable method of addressing unemployment concerns, would contradict the usual educational establishment's initiatives of many industrialized nations, such as the School-to-Work Opportunities Act in the United States, which focus on creating an employee mentality. This paper discusses the ways in…
For nearly a decade, states have had flexibility in collecting and reporting graduation rate data for state and federal accountability purposes. But in 2008, the U.S. Department of Education issued new guidelines that require all states to report a new rate--the four-year adjusted cohort graduation rate--beginning in the 2011-2012 school year.…
There is dissonance between the lives of adult students in rural Nepal in a subsistence-level agrarian community and their participation in school. The concept of "transfer" has several shortcomings from the standpoint of understanding relations between mathematical reasoning in the classroom and in the workplace. It is more helpful to…
Adolescents suffering from mental health problems are at risk of dropping out from high school without a basic educational level (BEL) or to be in NEET (Neither in Education, Employment nor Training), and when having entered the labor market in adulthood, to be unemployed and earn lower wages. This
Spillman, Mary; Kuban, Adam J.; Smith, Suzy J.
Journalism education may be at a tipping point. It is unclear, however, what new form curricula might take. Through an analysis of individual course titles and descriptions that appeared in the 2013-2014 undergraduate catalogs of 68 selected universities, this exploratory study finds that most departments/schools are not offering classes that…
Danzig, Arnold; Vandegrift, Judith A.
Public policy implications for Arizona of the School-to-Work Opportunities Act are explored, specifically with regard to rural areas. It is argued that should additional resources become available to the state, population-based allocations to rural areas are likely to be insufficient for meaningful educational and economic-development reform. (SLD)
Education is a complex social practice. In the United Kingdom context, schooling is further nested within the complex social practices of community governance, quasi-market public choice, and religion. This essay explores the shifting definitions of community and education in the context of the Counter Terrorism and Security Act 2015, which places…
Currently there is an international shift towards inclusive education, a means of education according to which the learner is schooled in the least restrictive environment possible, to overcome his or her challenges to learning and development. Bearing this in mind we considered the experiences of a learner with learning ...
Wijnen-Meijer, Marjo; ten Cate, Olle Th J.; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.
Objectives Recently, many medical schools' curricula have been revised so that they represent vertically integrated (VI) curricula. Important changes include: the provision of earlier clinical experience; longer clerkships, and the fostering of increasing levels of responsibility. One of the aims of
Thirty-three employers in rural Arizona were interviewed concerning employer expectations, workplace opportunities, authority patterns, rewards, and social interaction at work regarding entry level workers directly out of high school. Available work was low skill with few rewards, yet demanded strong social skills and work ethic. Discusses…
Moffett, Ann-Thomas; Sorensen, Gina Bolles; Ifill, Valerie
The Master of Fine Arts (MFA) is a terminal, practice-oriented degree in dance. Approximately 30 institutions in the United States offer MFA degrees in dance (National Association of Schools of Dance 2014). The degree was "designed historically to offer a broad education with a content specialization, 'without the latter overpowering the…
Klein, Elizabeth G; Lytle, Leslie A; Chen, Vincent
To explore the social ecological predictors of the transition to overweight in youth, as shown in results from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools study. Longitudinal data from a school-based intervention trial. Adolescents who were involved in the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools intervention study who reported a healthful weight at baseline in 1998 (n=1,728). Transition to overweight status (body mass index > or =85th percentile) at follow-up in eighth grade. Generalized linear mixed model regression. Factors in the social, environmental, individual, and behavioral domains had significant unadjusted relationships with a transition to overweight status. In the multivariate analysis, adolescents who perceived themselves to be overweight at baseline were 2.3 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up compared to those with a normal weight self-perception. Compared to nondieters, current dieters were 2.6 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up, and boys were nearly three times more likely to transition to overweight status at follow-up compared with girls. Individual factors, primarily related to a self-perception of being overweight, were the strongest predictors of transitioning to overweight as adolescents progressed from seventh through eighth grade. A better understanding of the relationship between weight concern and transition to overweight is needed.
De Lasson, Lydia; Just, Eva; Stegeager, Nikolaj W.M.
Background The transition from student to medical doctor is challenging and stressful to many junior doctors. To practice with confidence and professionalism the junior doctors have to develop a strong professional identity. Various suggestions on how to facilitate formation of professional ident...... and acting as a doctor), adoption to medical culture, career planning and managing a healthy work/life-balance. Further studies in different contexts are recommended as well as studies using other methods to test the results of this qualitative study....
Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…
Yang, Raymond K.; Burrola, Kimberly S.; Bryan, Carey H.
This exploratory study examined differences between elementary-age youth who have considered suicide and their peers using a data set that was collected from elementary school-age children (N = 51) who participated in an after-school program. Data were collected using a standardized survey assessing daily activities, social support, self-esteem,…
Chalita, Pablo J; Palacios, Lino; Cortes, Jose F; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Bloch, Michael H
School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odds ratio (OR) of school dropout associated with students' self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty-seven students participated in the study. Psychosis [OR = 8.0 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.7-37.2)], depression [OR = 4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7)], tic disorders [OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.5)], ADHD [OR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.5-6.4)], and social phobia [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.8)] were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students' self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico. ADHD and depression may be particularly useful childhood psychiatric disorders to target with public health interventions because they explain the greatest amount of the variance in school dropout of child psychiatric disorders.
Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic…
Full Text Available Bullying is a social phenomenon that impacts a large number of children and young people, worldwide. This study aimed to longitudinally examine the development of bullying and victimization in Chinese students in grades 4, 5, and 6. We used latent class analysis to empirically identify groups of youth with different bullying and victimization patterns, and then used latent transition analysis to explore the movement of children between these latent classes over time. Results showed that: (1 across the three time points, students could be classified into four classes: bullies, victims, bully-victims, and non-involved children; and (2 students in the non-involved class tended to remain in that class when moving to higher grades, students in the bully and victims classes tended to transition to the non-involved class, while students in the bully-victims class tended to transition to the bullies class. Thus, future intervention should be implemented to prevent bully-victims from bullying behaviors.
Korpershoek, Hanke; Xu, Kun; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; McInerney, Dennis M; van der Werf, Greetje
A factor analytic and a Rasch measurement approach were applied to evaluate the multidimensional nature of the school motivation construct among more than 7,000 Dutch secondary school students. The Inventory of School Motivation (McInerney and Ali, 2006) was used, which intends to measure four motivation dimensions (mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic motivation), each comprising of two first-order factors. One unidimensional model and three multidimensional models (4-factor, 8-factor, higher order) were fit to the data. Results of both approaches showed that the multidimensional models validly represented the school motivation among Dutch secondary school pupils, whereas model fit of the unidimensional model was poor. The differences in model fit between the three multidimensional models were small, although a different model was favoured by the two approaches. The need for improvement of some of the items and the need to increase measurement precision of several first-order factors are discussed.
Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral playing a vital role to maintain bone health. Calcium intake is considered as one of the most important determinants to assess the calcium status and to evaluate the calcium deficiency in the human body. Our study aims at estimating calcium intake in a sample of children and adolescent to be used in the global strategy to reduce calcium deficiency disorders in Morocco. Thus, 131 children and adolescents were recruited from public schools at Rabat and its regions in the framework of a descriptive cross-sectional study. For each participant, anthropometric parameters were measured. Calcium status was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate children’s nutritional habits and to assess the consumption of calcium-rich food. Overall, the mean calcium intake was 522.0 ± 297.0 mg/day, and 85.5% of subjects highlighted calcium deficiency, with no significant difference between boys and girls. Calcium intake was significantly different according to age groups, and high consumption of calcium was found in subjects aged from 14 to 18 years (776.86 ±290.07 mg/day, giving evidence of the low calcium status of the studied population. Daily food intake and food frequency analysis showed that bread, vegetables, and fruits are the most consumed food and the main source of daily calcium intake. Consumption of dairy products, considered as the best source of calcium, is lower and represents only 14% of total calcium intake. Our study clearly showed that calcium status is very lower in Moroccan children and adolescents and a large proportion of this population have inadequate calcium intake. Hence, there’s an urgent need of specific strategies, including children sensitisation and nutritional education, to increase calcium intake and therefore reduce calcium deficiency disorders impacting the whole body during childhood and in adult age.
Full Text Available This study presents the different ways in which two Greek composers, Leonidas Zoras and Jani Christou, viewed modernism. The songs of Zoras are typical example of the gradual withdrawal from the aesthetic framework of the National School which dominated during the first decades of the twentieth century. In contrast, Jani Christou, who spent his childhood in Alexandria and received an exclusively Western-type education, remained untouched by Greek traditional music or the Greek National School. His work was moulded by the ancient Greek philosophical belief in the elation of the listener through the transcendental power of Art. By his Six T. S. Eliot Songs Christou offered some of the best examples of twentieth-century expressionistic vocal music.
By the time the reader reads this line, billions of protein association events just occurred in our body, such as the ones regulating cell communication, signaling pathways, or in initiating a self-assembly processes, such as tissue fabrication, etc. The timescale of such transitions is slow,
Alseddiqi, M; Mishra, R; Pislaru, C
The paper presents the results from a quality framework to measure the effectiveness of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain. The framework is an extended version of existing information quality frameworks with respect to pedagogical and technological contexts. It incorporates specific pedagogical and technological dimensions as per the Bahrain modern industry requirements. Users' views questionnaire on the effectiveness of the new transition module was distributed to various stakeholders including TVE teachers and students. The aim was to receive critical information in diagnosing, monitoring and evaluating different views and perceptions about the effectiveness of the new module. The analysis categorised the quality dimensions by their relative importance. This was carried out using the principal component analysis available in SPSS. The analysis clearly identified the most important quality dimensions integrated in the new module for SBL-to-WBL transition. It was also apparent that the new module contains workplace proficiencies, prepares TVE students for work placement, provides effective teaching and learning methodologies, integrates innovative technology in the process of learning, meets modern industrial needs, and presents a cooperative learning environment for TVE students. From the principal component analysis finding, to calculate the percentage of relative importance of each factor and its quality dimensions, was significant. The percentage comparison would justify the most important factor as well as the most important quality dimensions. Also, the new, re-arranged quality dimensions from the finding with an extended number of factors tended to improve the extended version of the quality information framework to a revised quality framework.
Piazza, S; Gulino, A; Pulvirenti, S; Vercelli, F; Carrer, P
The management of indoor air quality in schools needs special attention because it has a strong impact on respiratory health of children with effects also on performance and social development. In Italy a prevention program for indoor environments is provided in the "Guidelines for the prevention of indoor risk factors for allergies and asthma in the school", developed by the Ministry of Health (G.U n. 9 del 13.01.11). In this context, the Ministry of Health has promoted the "Indoor school" project (CCM2010). The main objective of the project is the implementation of these guidelines. In this paper we report the results of the first phase of the project which assessed the knowledge of school principals on issues related to IAQ and building characteristics of the school.
Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Palardy, Gregory J.; Albeg, Loren; Williamson, Ariel A.
The psychometric properties of the Coping With Acculturative Stress in American Schools (CASAS-A) scale were examined using a sample of 148 Latino middle school students. CASAS-A is a self-report scale designed to identify students in need of culturally responsive social-emotional interventions due to having high levels of school-related…
Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Müller, Nora; Metzke, Christa Winkler
Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS) at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Comp...
Jacob, Marita; Kleinert, Corinna; Kuhhirt, Michael
This paper examines trends in school-to-work transitions of young men and women with lower and higher secondary education in West Germany between 1984 and 2005. This period was marked by an increase in young women's educational attainment and a continuous growth of the service sector. We assume that both developments have benefited women more than…
This paper explores the transitional experiences and challenges faced by girls from the Torres Strait Islands when they leave individual communities to attend boarding school in regional Queensland. The paper presents original ethnographic research using a narrative enquiry approach, capturing stories as narrated by a broad cohort of girls from…
Fayette, Rainart; Bond, Caroline
Government legislation and research literature highlight the importance of the participation of pupils with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in planning for their transition to adulthood. However, effective processes which enable their participation are under-researched. In this study, nine teaching staff from two specialist schools in the…
Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.
An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…
Povenmire-Kirk, Tiana C.; Lindstrom, Lauren; Bullis, Michael
Postschool outcomes for youth with disabilities vary depending on culture, ethnicity, race, gender, and socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the needs of youth with disabilities from Latino backgrounds who are transitioning from school to adulthood in Oregon. Using a conceptual model that included community…
Hanvold, T.N.; Warsted, M.; Mengshoel, A.M.; Bjertness, E.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Veiersted, K.B.
Objectives The study examined the course of neck and shoulder pain among a cohort of technical school students entering working life. We also aimed to identify work-related and individual risk factors for neck and shoulder pain during this transition period. Methods The study was designed as a
This paper explores the influence of marital disruption and family environment on three major events that mark the transition from adolescence to young adulthood for children between the ages of 16 and 25, these being leaving school, entering the labor market and obtaining permanent employment. This is a gender approach, given that the two sexes…
Marsh, Herbert W.; And Others
Self-concept measures and state certificate program achievement grades were used to determine the effects on 7th through 11th graders in Sydney (Australia) of converting two single-sex high schools to coeducational institutions. Pre- to post-transition data were collected from 1982 to 1985. Coeducational organizations benefit self-concept, while…
Bejarano-Sanabria, Henry Camilo; Corporación de educación tecnológica Colsubsidio-Airbus Group, CET; Delgado-Salazar, Ricardo Mauricio; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
This article examines how the models of social recognition contribute to the school practices of demobilized young people from the organizations involved in the armed conflict in Colombia, who decide to return to the educational system. Results of this reflection are presented in four sections. The first section deals with the structure of social recognition through three models or stages of intersubjective recognition according to Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Axel Honneth and Paul Ricoeur....
Full Text Available Turkish aviation has started as a military entity. The foundation of ‘’Tayyare Komisyonu’’ (Airplane Comission in June 1, 1911 has been accepted as the official starting point. The organization of aviation includes pilot training, airplane supply, fondation of aviation school, establishment of combatant units, and building the air vehicles with local and national endeavour. Later, air defense systems, meteorology, training observers, machine specialist and technicians has gained importance as well. Turkish aviation has been built upon the ruins of the last wars of Ottoman Empire. After the invasion of the British and the French, Ottoman aviators moved to Maltepe and then to various parts of Anatolia eventually. During the Independence War, aviation school was founded in Eskişehir, moved to Adana, Konya, and came back to Adana again. After the Greek forces were expelled from Anatolia via İzmir, aviation school was moved to İzmir. In 1925, it was brought back to Eskişehir on October 1, 1951. After WWII, the duration of training in order to be a pilot was six years. In 1929, aviation school turned out to be an academic institution as well. On October 1, 1951, Air Force Academy was established in Eskişehir. Due to high sound of jet air planes, the academy was moved to İzmir in 1954. Education and training were restructured there and the quality was raised. In 1967, Air Force Academy was moved back to Yeşilköy where Turkish aviation was born some 47 years ago. Due to academic diversity and rich culture heritage, a productive period has started in Istanbul. Air Force Academy has been an institution offering BA level education since 2001 whose process goes back to 1990s. Around 90 civilian and 50 military academicians conduct education and research per year. Military training including Yalova encampment site, affective domain training, and sports activities are also conducted as well. With a 103 years history and around 16.000 graduates
Velusamy, T.; Pineda, J. L.; Langer, W. D.; Willacy, K.; Goldsmith, P. F.
Our knowledge of interstellar gas has been limited primarily to the diffuse atomic phase traced by HI and the well-shielded molecular phase traced by CO. Recently, using the first results of the Herschel Key Project GOT C+, a HIFI C+ survey of the Galactic plane, Velusamy, Langer, Pineda et al. (A&A 521, L18, 2010) have shown that in the diffuse interstellar transition clouds a significant fraction of the carbon exists primarily as C^+ with little C^0 and CO in a warm 'dark gas' layer in which hydrogen is mostly H_2 with little atomic H, surrounding a modest 12CO-emitting core. The [CII] fine structure transition, at 1.9 THz (158 μm) is the best tracer of this component of the interstellar medium, which is critical to our understanding of the atomic to molecular cloud transitions. The Herschel Key Project GOT C+ is designed to study such clouds by observing with HIFI the [CII] line emission along 500 lines of sight (LOSs) throughout the Galactic disk. Here we present the identification and chemical status of a few hundred diffuse and transition clouds traced by [CII], along with auxiliary HI and CO data covering ~100 LOSs in the inner Galaxy between l= -30° and 30°. We identify transition clouds as [CII] components that are characterized by the presence of both HI and 12CO, but no 13CO emission. The intensities, I(CII) and I(HI), are used as measures of the visual extinction, AV, in the cloud up to the C^+/C^0/CO transition layer and a comparison with I(12CO) yields a more complete H_2 molecular inventory. Our results show that [CII] emission is an excellent tool to study transition clouds and their carbon chemistry in the ISM, in particular as a unique tracer of molecular H_2, which is not easily observed by other means. The large sample presented here will serve as a resource to study the chemical and physical status of diffuse transition clouds in a wide range of Galactic environments and constrain the physical parameters such as the FUV intensity and cosmic
Lin, A; Yung, A R; Nelson, B; Brewer, W J; Riley, R; Simmons, M; Pantelis, C; Wood, S J
Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show reduced neurocognitive performance across domains but it is unclear which reductions are associated with transition to frank psychosis. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in baseline neurocognitive performance between UHR participants with (UHR-P) and without transition to psychosis (UHR-NP) and a healthy control (HC) group and examine neurocognitive predictors of transition over the medium to long term. A sample of 325 UHR participants recruited consecutively from the Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation (PACE) Clinic in Melbourne and 66 HCs completed a neurocognitive assessment at baseline. The UHR group was followed up between 2.39 and 14.86 (median = 6.45) years later. Cox regression was used to investigate candidate neurocognitive predictors of psychosis onset. The UHR group performed more poorly than the HC group across a range of neurocognitive domains but only performance on digit symbol coding and picture completion differed between the groups. The risk of transition was only significantly associated with poorer performance on visual reproduction [hazard ratio (HR) 0.919, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.876-0.965, p = 0.001] and matrix reasoning (HR 0.938, 95% CI 0.883-0.996, p = 0.037). These remained significant even after controlling for psychopathology at baseline. This study is the longest follow-up of an UHR sample to date. UHR status was associated with poorer neurocognitive performance compared to HCs on some tasks. Cognition at identification as UHR was not a strong predictor of risk for transition to psychosis. The results suggests the need to include more experimental paradigms that isolate discrete cognitive processes to better understand neurocognition at this early stage of illness.
Doré, Evelyne; Deshommes, Elise; Andrews, Robert C; Nour, Shokoufeh; Prévost, Michèle
Legacy lead and copper components are ubiquitous in plumbing of large buildings including schools that serve children most vulnerable to lead exposure. Lead and copper samples must be collected after varying stagnation times and interpreted in reference to different thresholds. A total of 130 outlets (fountains, bathroom and kitchen taps) were sampled for dissolved and particulate lead as well as copper. Sampling was conducted at 8 schools and 3 institutional (non-residential) buildings served by municipal water of varying corrosivity, with and without corrosion control (CC), and without a lead service line. Samples included first draw following overnight stagnation (>8h), partial (30 s) and fully (5 min) flushed, and first draw after 30 min of stagnation. Total lead concentrations in first draw samples after overnight stagnation varied widely from 0.07 to 19.9 μg Pb/L (median: 1.7 μg Pb/L) for large buildings served with non-corrosive water. Higher concentrations were observed in schools with corrosive water without CC (0.9-201 μg Pb/L, median: 14.3 μg Pb/L), while levels in schools with CC ranged from 0.2 to 45.1 μg Pb/L (median: 2.1 μg Pb/L). Partial flushing (30 s) and full flushing (5 min) reduced concentrations by 88% and 92% respectively for corrosive waters without CC. Lead concentrations were 45% than values in 1st draw samples collected after overnight stagnation. Concentrations of particulate Pb varied widely (≥0.02-846 μg Pb/L) and was found to be the cause of very high total Pb concentrations in the 2% of samples exceeding 50 μg Pb/L. Pb levels across outlets within the same building varied widely (up to 1000X) especially in corrosive water (0.85-851 μg Pb/L after 30MS) confirming the need to sample at each outlet to identify high risk taps. Based on the much higher concentrations observed in first draw samples, even after a short stagnation, the first 250mL should be discarded unless no sources
Danahy Ebert, Kerry; Scott, Cheryl M
Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from 73 school-age children. Participants had completed an oral narrative language sample and at least one norm-referenced language test. Correlations between microstructural language sample measures and norm-referenced test scores were compared for younger (6- to 8-year-old) and older (9- to 12-year-old) children. Contingency tables were constructed to compare the 2 types of tools, at 2 different cutpoints, in terms of which children were identified as having a language disorder. Correlations between narrative language sample measures and norm-referenced tests were stronger for the younger group than the older group. Within the younger group, the level of language assessed by each measure contributed to associations among measures. Contingency analyses revealed moderate overlap in the children identified by each tool, with agreement affected by the cutpoint used. Narrative language samples may complement norm-referenced tests well, but age combined with narrative task can be expected to influence the nature of the relationship.
This study was conducted to investigate the moral development of one hundred Kuwaiti high school teachers. They ranged in age from 23 to 48 years with a mean of 28.6 years and a standard deviation of 8.3 years. The teachers' individual moral judgment levels were assessed by the Defining Issues Test (DIT)--an objective test designed by James Rest…
Gumpel, Thomas P.
Antisocial behavior and school aggression in youth has been linked with affective, interpersonal, self-attributional, and behavioral characteristics; these traits have often been associated with psychopathic behaviors among adults. Psychopathic traits were examined in nonclinically-referred youth exhibiting antisocial and aggressive behavior.…
Kutlu, M. Oguz; Korkmaz, Sadiye
The primary aim of this study was to examine the preferences of 8th grade students who had high academic grades in several study skills categories. The study group consisted of 23 8th grade students who were attending a state secondary school in the province of Adana, Turkey, during the 2012-2013 academic year. The research method was qualitative.…
Epstein, Jennifer A.; Spirito, Anthony
Using the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (n = 13,917) of high school students, we examined the association between four domains of risk factors (alcohol/drug use, aggression, HIV risk-related behaviors, and health problems) and indicators of suicidality (considering a suicide attempt, making a plan to attempt suicide, and actually…
Linares, Jose Jesus Gazquez; Diaz, Adolfo Javier Cangas; Fuentes, Maria del Carmen Perez; Acien, Francisca Lucas
The objective of the present study was to explore, in three European countries (Spain, Hungary and the Czech Republic), teachers' perception of the prevalence of different problematic aspects related to coexistence in schools, and of how they are personally affected by these aspects. The results reveal a high prevalence of fights, insults and…
Simonds, John F.; Simonds, M. Patricia
Mothers of children attending nursery schools completed the Behavior Style Questionnaire (BSQ) from which scores for nine temperament categories were derived. Found membership in groups based on factor scores independent of sex, socioeconomic class, age but not ordinal birth position. (Author)
Full Text Available The modernization of the vocational education system in Spain dates back to the 90s. Since then, it has evolved significantly, taking the European directives as a frame of reference. With the extension of compulsory schooling until the age of 16, in 1994 a vocational training scheme was introduced within the education system at a very low level of qualification, particularly designed for adolescents classified as low academic performers in secondary education and for adolescents in situation of social vulnerability. Such training scheme was reshaped in 2006 and 2013. Our contribution is framed in a wider research developed within a European Project, aiming to provide a review of the literature produced around these programs, in order to compare the evolution of those 3 types of training provision in terms of the educational possibilities each one has provided for the adolescents that have participated in them. In light of these data and those produced by our research, in this paper we argue how adolescent subjectivities are produced. We rely upon the speech of teachers, head teachers and guidance teams that deal with young people in such training provision in the city of Valencia.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metastases remain the primary cause of cancer-related death. The acquisition of invasive tumour cell behaviour is thought to be a cornerstone of the metastatic cascade. Therefore, gene signatures related to invasiveness could aid in stratifying patients according to their prognostic profile. In the present study we aimed at identifying an invasiveness gene signature and investigated its biological relevance in breast cancer. METHODS & RESULTS: We collected a set of published gene signatures related to cell motility and invasion. Using this collection, we identified 16 genes that were represented at a higher frequency than observed by coincidence, hereafter named the core invasiveness gene signature. Principal component analysis showed that these overrepresented genes were able to segregate invasive and non-invasive breast cancer cell lines, outperforming sets of 16 randomly selected genes (all P<0.001. When applied onto additional data sets, the expression of the core invasiveness gene signature was significantly elevated in cell lines forced to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The link between core invasiveness gene expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition was also confirmed in a dataset consisting of 2420 human breast cancer samples. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that CIG expression is not associated with a shorter distant metastasis free survival interval (HR = 0.956, 95%C.I. = 0.896-1.019, P = 0.186. DISCUSSION: These data demonstrate that we have identified a set of core invasiveness genes, the expression of which is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines and in human tissue samples. Despite the connection between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasive tumour cell behaviour, we were unable to demonstrate a link between the core invasiveness gene signature and enhanced metastatic potential.
Full Text Available Introduction: This study deals with young people receiving special needs education in schools and their transition to lasting employment in private or public sector. Through a qualitative approach, the article aims at “identifying significant factors which can, contribute to successful transitions from school to lasting employment affiliation for pupils in vocational training programs”Theoretical approach: The theoretical approach of this article is descriptions and interpretation of the Norwegian educational legislation and the theory of «empowerment». These theoretical perspectives will be included in the empirical discussion. Method: The methodological approach is qualitative. Through four semi-structured interviews of young informants who have completed upper secondary school in a vocational education program, and have had a minimum of one-year training in an enterprise. Thematic analysis of the data is conducted with the application of NVivo 11, a computer program that is suitable for qualitative data-analysis and mixed research methods.Results and discussion: Through thematic analysis of the data, we found three significant factors contributing to successful transitions from school to lasting employment: a Application and development of the pupil’s competence - mastery and meaning b The significance of relations, communication and well-functioning socio-ecological networks c The importance of pupil participation and involvement in decision making
Frisch, Kayt E.; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay
Background: Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. Purpose: To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Results: Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. Conclusion: When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain
Frisch, Kayt E; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay
Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Descriptive epidemiology study. A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball ( P = .01) and lifting weights out of season ( P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain may be correlated with volume of previous volleyball experience.
Shweikani, R.; Abukassem, I.; Raja, G.; Algamdi, H.
The aim of this work is to determine radon concentration and natural gamma dose rate, and to measure the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) level produced by electric power lines and also mobile phone base station inside some elementary and preparatory schools in old town during two terms (studding terms and summer break). Results showed that most of the obtained values were less than 200 Bq/m 3 the action levels, but there were some classrooms concentrations which are more than 200 Bq/m 3 . These high values may be due to building materials, radon concentration in the soil and poor ventilation. It has been noticed that radon concentrations during the second term (summer) were higher than the first term. This may be due to the poor ventilation as schools are closed during summer break. The results showed also decreasing in radon concentration with increasing height of the floor, and radon concentration in old schools is higher than modern ones. EMFs levels in ground and first floors were higher than second floor; the maximum detected values exceeded 50 V/m and 270 mA/m for electric and magnetic field strength respectively, and 0.5 μT for magnetic flux density. Mobile microwave radiation level was relatively low in all positions, and signal increases with floor height. Finally, no observable correlation between the measured electromagnetic fields and the radon concentration were established.
Vanwolleghem, Griet; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Meester, Femke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Gheysen, Freja
The aim was to investigate which individual, psychosocial and physical neighborhood environmental factors associate with children's switch to or maintenance of active/passive transport to school and to leisure time destinations during the transition from primary to secondary school. Children (n = 313) filled out a questionnaire in the last year of primary school and 2 years later to assess socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported transport. One of their parents completed a questionnaire to assess parental perceptions of psychosocial and physical neighborhood environmental factors. The increase of the home-school distance was significantly associated with children's switch to or maintenance of passive transport to school compared to a switch to (OR = 0.81; p = 0.03) and maintenance (OR = 0.87; p = 0.03) of active transport to school. Low SES was associated with children's switch to active transport to school compared to maintenance of active transport (OR = 3.67; p = 0.07). For transport to leisure time destinations, other factors such as parental perceived neighborhood safety from traffic and crime (OR = 2.78; p = 0.004), a positive social norm (OR = 1.49; p = 0.08), positive attitudes (OR = 1.39; p = 0.08) (i.e. more benefits, less barriers) towards their children's physical activity and poor walking/cycling facilities in the neighborhood (OR = 0.70; p = 0.06) were associated with children's maintenance of active transport to leisure time destinations compared to a switch to or maintenance of passive transport. This longitudinal study can give directions for interventions promoting children's active transport during the transition to secondary school. It is necessary to promote different possibilities at primary school for children to use active transport when going to secondary school. Walking/cycling a part of the home-school trip can be a possible solution for children who will be living at non-feasible distances from secondary school. Providing safe
Sönmez, Yonca; Uskun, Ersin; Pehlivan, Azize
The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of knowledge of pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta related with basic first-aid practices and some factors which affected these levels of knowledge. In this cross-sectional, analytic study, 110 pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta constituted the population. A questionnaire questioning sociodemographic properties and the level of knowledge related with first-aid practices was applied under supervision. The level of knowledge was evaluated on a 20-point scale. In the analyses, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman's rank correlation were used. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Clinical Studies of Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine (registration number: 105). The mean score of first-aid knowledge of the pre-school teachers was found to be 11.9±2.9. The least known issues included washing the wound by soap and water after a dog bite, information related with the necessity of immobilization of a child who has fallen from a high level and the phone number of National Poison Information Center (16.4%, 20.9% and 22.7%, respectively). The scores of the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be well were higher compared to the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be moderate (p=0.009) and poor (p=0.001). It was found that first-aid scores did not show significant difference in terms of age, working period, having received first-aid training and having faced with a condition requiring first-aid previously (p>0.05, for all comparisons). It was found that pre-school teachers had insufficient first-aid knowledge. Since the first-aid knowledge scores of the subjects who reported that they received first-aid training before did not show significant difference, it was thought that the quality of training was as important as receiving training.
Baay, Pieter E; van Aken, Marcel A G; de Ridder, Denise T D; van der Lippe, Tanja
The school-to-work transition constitutes a central developmental task for adolescents. The role of Big Five personality traits in this has received some scientific attention, but prior research has been inconsistent and paid little attention to mechanisms through which personality traits influence job-search outcomes. The current study proposed that the joint effects of Big Five personality traits and social capital (i.e., available resources through social relations) would shed more light on adolescents' job-search outcomes. Analyses on 685 Dutch vocational training graduates showed that extraversion and emotional stability were related to better job-search outcomes after graduation. Some relations between Big Five personality traits and job-search outcomes were explained by social capital, but no relations were dependent on social capital. Social capital had a direct relation with the number of job offers. Contrary to popular belief, this study shows that Big Five personality traits and social capital relate to job-search outcomes largely independently. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita
The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S. born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites, including 2532 young adults, ages 21 to 29. The dropout prevalence rate was 16% overall, with variation by childhood trauma, childhood psychiatric diagnosis, race/ethnicity, and nativity. Childhood substance and conduct disorders mediated the relationship between trauma and school dropout. Likelihood of dropout was decreased for Asians, and increased for African Americans and Latinos, compared to non-Latino Whites as a function of psychiatric disorders and trauma. Timing of U.S. immigration during adolescence increased risk of dropout. PMID:21410919
Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Kingdon, Danielle
Successful academic performance during adolescence is a key predictor of lifetime achievement, including occupational and social success. The present study investigated the important transition from primary to secondary schooling during early adolescence, when academic performance among youth often declines. The goal of the study was to understand how risk factors, specifically lower family resources and male gender, threaten academic success following this "critical transition" in schooling. The study involved a longitudinal examination of the predictors of academic performance in grades 7-8 among 127 (56 % girls) French-speaking Quebec (Canada) adolescents from lower-income backgrounds. As hypothesized based on transition theory, hierarchical regression analyses showed that supportive parenting and specific academic, social and behavioral competencies (including spelling ability, social skills, and lower levels of attention problems) predicted success across this transition among at-risk youth. Multiple-mediation procedures demonstrated that the set of compensatory factors fully mediated the negative impact of lower family resources on academic success in grades 7-8. Unique mediators (social skills, spelling ability, supportive parenting) also were identified. In addition, the "gender gap" in performance across the transition could be attributed statistically to differences between boys and girls in specific competencies observed prior to the transition, as well as differential parenting (i.e., support from mother) towards girls and boys. The present results contribute to our understanding of the processes by which established risk factors, such as low family income and gender impact development and academic performance during early adolescence. These "transitional" processes and subsequent academic performance may have consequences across adolescence and beyond, with an impact on lifetime patterns of achievement and occupational success.
Zendarski, Nardia; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona; Hiscock, Harriet
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has a significant impact on child and adolescent development, especially in relation to school functioning and academic outcomes. Despite the transition to high school being a potentially critical period for children with ADHD, most research in this period has focused on academic outcomes. This study aims to extend previous research by describing academic, school engagement, behaviour and social-emotional outcomes for young people with ADHD in the first and third years of high school and to identify risk and protective factors predictive of differing outcomes across these four domains. The Moving Up study is a longitudinal, prospective cohort study of children with ADHD as they transition and adjust to high school (age 12-15 years). Data are collected through direct assessment and child, parent and teacher surveys. The primary outcome is academic achievement, obtained by linking to standardised test results. Secondary outcomes include measures of behaviour, ADHD symptoms, school engagement (attitudes and attendance), and social and emotional functioning, including depressive symptoms. The mean performance of the study cohort on each outcome measure will be compared to the population mean for same aged children, using t-tests. Risk and protective factors to be examined using multiple regression include a child, family and school factors know to impact academic and school functioning. The Moving up study is the first Australian study prospectively designed to measure a broad range of student outcomes for children with ADHD during the high school transition period. Examining both current (cross sectional) and earlier childhood (longitudinal) factors gives us the potential to learn more about risk and protective factors associated with school functioning in young people with ADHD. The richness and depth of this information could lead to more targeted and effective interventions that may alter academic and wellbeing
Zhang, Xinghui; Li, Yajun; Zhang, Qin; Lu, Furong; Wang, Yun
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of smoking in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate its risk factors from families and schools. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC), in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to analyze the relationships between smoking and the risk factors. Logistic regressions were used to calculate odds ratios. The prevalence of ever smokers and current smokers were 19.0% and 5.4%. Focusing on current smokers, boys, middle school students, rural students, boarding students, non-only children and those owning parents with low educational levels reported smoking significantly more than girls, elementary school students, urban students, non-boarding students, only children and those owning parents with high educational levels. Lower trust and support from teachers and higher parent-child conflict positively predicted both smoking and smoking frequency. Lower trust and support from classmates was associated with higher possibility of smoking. However, higher trust and support from classmates was associated with higher smoking frequency. Teacher smoking and friend smoking were only predictive of smoking, but not of smoking frequency. Boys, middle school students, rural students, boarding students, non-only children and those owning parents with low educational levels need special attention. The most risk factors for smoking and smoking frequency were lower trust and support from teachers and higher parent-child conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ang, Rebecca P; Lowe, Patricia A; Yusof, Noradlin
The present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and U.S. norms of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (RCMAS-2; C. R. Reynolds & B. O. Richmond, 2008a) scores in a Singapore sample of 1,618 school-age children and adolescents. Although there were small statistically significant differences in the average RCMAS-2 T scores found across various demographic groupings, on the whole, the U.S. norms appear adequate for use in the Asian Singapore sample. Results from item bias analyses suggested that biased items detected had small effects and were counterbalanced across gender and ethnicity, and hence, their relative impact on test score variation appears to be minimal. Results of factor analyses on the RCMAS-2 scores supported the presence of a large general anxiety factor, the Total Anxiety factor, and the 5-factor structure found in U.S. samples was replicated. Both the large general anxiety factor and the 5-factor solution were invariant across gender and ethnic background. Internal consistency estimates ranged from adequate to good, and 2-week test-retest reliability estimates were comparable to previous studies. Evidence providing support for convergent and discriminant validity of the RCMAS-2 scores was also found. Taken together, findings provide additional cross-cultural evidence of the appropriateness and usefulness of the RCMAS-2 as a measure of anxiety in Asian Singaporean school-age children and adolescents.
Kloosterman, Rianne; Ruiter, Stijn; de Graaf, Paul M; Kraaykamp, Gerbert
According to Boudon, social background affects educational transitions as a result of differences in children's academic performance (primary effects) and differences in transition probabilities given children's level of academic performance (secondary effects). This study addresses historical changes in both primary and secondary effects on the educational transition from primary school to higher secondary education in The Netherlands. In addition, it considers changes over time in the relative importance of these effects. The study compares five cohorts of Dutch pupils, specifically those enrolling in secondary education in 1965, 1977, 1989, 1993 and 1999, and it employs counterfactual analyses. The main findings are that secondary effects have been stable and primary effects have fluctuated to some extent. As a result, the proportion of the total effect of social background accounted for by primary effects has increased somewhat, from 53 per cent to 58 per cent.
Adler, Paul; Scally, Andrew J; Barrett, Brendan T
To determine the test-retest reliability of the Randot stereoacuity test when used as part of vision screening in schools. Randot stereoacuity (graded-circles) and logMAR visual acuity measures were gathered in an unselected sample of 139 children (aged 4-12, mean 8.1±2.1 years) in two schools. Randot testing was repeated on two occasions (average interval between successive tests 8 days, range: 1-21 days). Three Randot scores were obtained in 97.8% of children. Randot stereoacuity improved by an average of one plate (ie, one test level) on repeat testing but was little changed when tested on the third occasion. Within-subject variability was up to three test levels on repeat testing. When stereoacuity was categorised as 'fine', 'intermediate' or 'coarse', the greatest variability was found among younger children who exhibited 'intermediate' or 'coarse'/nil stereopsis on initial testing. Whereas 90.8% of children with 'fine' stereopsis (≤50 arc-seconds) on the first test exhibited 'fine' stereopsis on both subsequent tests, only ∼16% of children with 'intermediate' (>50 but ≤140 arc-seconds) or 'coarse'/nil (≥200 arc-seconds) stereoacuity on initial testing exhibited stable test results on repeat testing. Children exhibiting abnormal stereoacuity on initial testing are very likely to exhibit a normal result when retested. The value of a single, abnormal Randot graded-circles stereoacuity measure from school screening is therefore questionable.
Potters, Max; Vaillant, Timothee; Bouchet, Freddy
The 2D Euler equations are basic examples of fluid models for which a microcanonical measure can be constructed from first principles. This measure is defined through finite-dimensional approximations and a limiting procedure. Creutz’s algorithm is a microcanonical generalization of the Metropolis–Hastings algorithm (to sample Gibbs measures, in the canonical ensemble). We prove that Creutz’s algorithm can sample finite-dimensional approximations of the 2D Euler microcanonical measures (incorporating fixed energy and other invariants). This is essential as microcanonical and canonical measures are known to be inequivalent at some values of energy and vorticity distribution. Creutz’s algorithm is used to check predictions from the mean-field statistical mechanics theory of the 2D Euler equations (the Robert–Sommeria–Miller theory). We find full agreement with theory. Three different ways to compute the temperature give consistent results. Using Creutz’s algorithm, a first-order phase transition never observed previously and a situation of statistical ensemble inequivalence are found and studied. Strikingly, and in contrast to the usual statistical mechanics interpretations, this phase transition appears from a disordered phase to an ordered phase (with fewer symmetries) when the energy is increased. We explain this paradox. (paper)
Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Schmidt, Nicole; Cohen, Juliana F W; Gorski, Mary; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Rimm, Eric B
During 2012, Massachusetts adopted comprehensive school competitive food and beverage standards that closely align with Institute of Medicine recommendations and Smart Snacks in School national standards. We examined the extent to which a sample of Massachusetts middle schools and high schools sold foods and beverages that were compliant with the state competitive food and beverage standards after the first year of implementation, and complied with four additional aspects of the regulations. Observational cohort study with data collected before implementation (Spring 2012) and 1 year after implementation (Spring 2013). School districts (N=37) with at least one middle school and one high school participated. Percent of competitive foods and beverages that were compliant with Massachusetts standards and compliance with four additional aspects of the regulations. Data were collected via school site visits and a foodservice director questionnaire. Multilevel models were used to examine change in food and beverage compliance over time. More products were available in high schools than middle schools at both time points. The number of competitive beverages and several categories of competitive food products sold in the sample of Massachusetts schools decreased following the implementation of the standards. Multilevel models demonstrated a 47-percentage-point increase in food and 46-percentage-point increase in beverage compliance in Massachusetts schools from 2012 to 2013. Overall, total compliance was higher for beverages than foods. This study of a group of Massachusetts schools demonstrated the feasibility of schools making substantial changes in response to requirements for healthier competitive foods, even in the first year of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alberti, G; Mondani, P M; Parodi, V
The aim of this epidemiological study was to describe the incidence and distribution of hyperdontia in the primary school population in Genoa (Italy) and to check its influence on the development of orthodontic problems in children. The collected data should also help to find out what is the best age range among children to direct a program for early diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion and oral diseases related to hyperdontia. The participating children (total number 1577, 814 males and 763 females, between 6 and 10 years of age) chosen in 19 public primary schools in Genoa have been examined by the same specialist through year 2004. Erupted permanent teeth, presence, position and form of supernumerary teeth, malocclusion presence and class, presence of orthodontic devices, age and sex have been noted down for each child. The global percentage of hyperdontia was 0.38%, more frequent in males (0.49%) than in females (0.26%). The most common kind of supernumerary tooth was mesiodens (83%). A significant increase of hyperdontia prevalence (from 0.64% to 1.06%) was noticed in children 9 years old. The incidence of malocclusion among children presenting hyperdontia was 83.3%, while the global incidence of malocclusion was 40%. An orthodontic treatment had been planned and started for 20% of children presenting malocclusion. The study has revealed an incidence of hyperdontia much more frequent in males than in females (2:1). The most common site of eruption of supernumerary teeth is maxillary anterior region. Hyperdontia is strictly related with dental malocclusion. The best age range to direct a program of early diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion and hyperdontia is 9 years old children.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Geological Samples Laboratory (MGSL) of the Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO), University of Rhode Island is a partner in the Index to Marine and...
Lee, Ai Noi; Nie, Youyan
Using a convenience sample of 289 teachers in Singapore, this study examined: (1) whether there were significant differences between teachers' perceptions of principal's and immediate supervisor's empowering behaviours; and (2) teachers' perceptions of principal's and immediate supervisor's empowering behaviours in relation to teachers'…
Inês Maria Crespo Gutierres Pardo
bjectives: self-medication is a practice that has been widely discussed around the world, becoming the target of several studies, including Brazil. Self-medication can cause harm. Children and adolescents are the group most inclined to irrational use of medications. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of high school students about self-medication. Methods: a cross-sectional sample of 79 high school teenagers, aged 14 - 18 years old of both genders. The questionnaire included the following variables: age, gender, grade, frequency of use of medications, who guided the consumption and self-medication, which were evaluated using dichotomous questions, specifying the(s drug(s used and their purpose. Results: the self-medication occurred in 96.2% of the sample, with no difference between genders (p = 0.19 or age (p = 0.61. Among those who self-medicated on their own, 55.88% based on old prescriptions. The most consumed pharmacological groups were analgesics, followed by medicines for colds or flu. Almost half (48.1% participants reported using nonprescription medicines. There was association between adolescents' self-medication and maternal self-medication (p = 0.02. Conclusion: it is extremely worrying the large percentage of adolescents who engage in self-medication, in view of the potential health risks. The consumption of drugs without medical advice by mothers proved to be an influencing factor in adolescents' self-medication.
Myrick, Melinda D.
This study examined the extent to which human sexuality topics are covered in Florida middle school science classrooms and the process by which curricular decisions are made regarding human sexuality education on a county-wide basis. Primary data included interviews with county-level administrators who oversee curricular decisions related to the middle-grades science curriculum or health curriculum in twelve school districts within the state. These districts represented four geographic locations and districts of various sizes. Administrators from four of the twelve studies in the sample chose to provide information regarding their human sexuality education curriculum. In two cases, teacher leads were identified and were interviewed to understand the implementation of the curriculum within the classroom. Additional data were collected from the district curriculum guides for human sexuality education and the adopted middle-grades science textbook for each county. The interview and documentary data were analyzed by comparison to established criteria for a comprehensive human sexuality education curriculum. The analysis revealed that the scope of human sexuality education varied considerably within the sample and that much of the curricula in place failed to include topics and activities that have been identified as important in a successful human sexuality education program. These findings are limited because few counties chose to fully participate. Additional research is clearly needed to examine the effectiveness of existing human sexuality education curricula in Florida. In addition, research is needed to understand the characteristics, values, and beliefs of successful human sexuality education instructors across the state.
The present study examined the impact of pubertal onset, race/ethnicity, and school racial/ethnic composition on girls' body image and perceived school climate (school safety, school liking, and loneliness in school) during the middle school transition. The sample (N = 1,626) included 6th grade Black, Mexican American, White, and Asian girls from 20 diverse middle schools. Hierarchical analyses supported both the early-timing and stressful change hypothesis. That is, experiencing pubertal ons...
Zender, Joe; Barnes, Rebecca; Zuidervaart, Huib; Benkhoff, Johannes; Martinez, Santa; Breitfellner, Michel; Almeida, Miguel
On 9 May 2016 an intriguing and rare event occurred. Seen from most countries in Europe, Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, crossed the Sun's surface. Such a phenomenon is better known for the moon, for during such an eclipse it gets dark (or darker), so everyone will notice that something special is going on. But as Mercury is very, very small compared to the Sun, one will never remark such a Mercury-eclipse by oneself. It was the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler who realized in 1601 that Mercury (or Venus) transits could be observed from the Earth. Later in 1691, Edmund Halley published a mathematical algorithm to compute the solar parallax (from which one can determine the distance from Earth to the Sun) from observations made during the transit. It is sad to note that neither of the both scientists had the chance to witness a Mercury transit during their lifetime. Well before the event, the ESA Communication Office announced a school competition to observe the Mercury transit and repeat the measurements proposed by Edmund Halley and other scientists since then. Several hints were given on the observation possibilities (telescope, binoculars, solar glasses), and examples of the algorithms in form of written formulae or excel sheet formulae were given. All schools were encouraged to share their data with each other and the needed support was provided by ESA. After the transit, all school teams were asked to provided their results and an accompanying report to allow us to get a picture of the team's technical, mathematical, and social activities in preparation of the event and the event itself. In our presentation, we will give a short overview of the participants and their efforts. We analyze our school competition expectations against the results as seen from a scientist point of view (1st and 3rd author) and a scientific communicator point of view (2nd author), and give our perspective towards upcoming planetary eclipse opportunities, i.e. the Mercury
Clay Sand Gravel Page | 63 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. Cleared, 88PA, # 2014-0577...solid/liquid, media will collect semi-liquid only. Not for high viscosity liquids. Dipper (or “pond sampler”) ASTM D5358 ASTM D5013 USEPA...decontamination may be difficult. Limited by length of sampler, small volume of sample collected, and viscosity of fluids. Page | 71
Muždalo, Anja; Saalfrank, Peter; Vreede, Jocelyne; Santer, Mark
Azobenzene-based molecular photoswitches are becoming increasingly important for the development of photoresponsive, functional soft-matter material systems. Upon illumination with light, fast interconversion between a more stable trans and a metastable cis configuration can be established resulting in pronounced changes in conformation, dipole moment or hydrophobicity. A rational design of functional photosensitive molecules with embedded azo moieties requires a thorough understanding of isomerization mechanisms and rates, especially the thermally activated relaxation. For small azo derivatives considered in the gas phase or simple solvents, Eyring's classical transition state theory (TST) approach yields useful predictions for trends in activation energies or corresponding half-life times of the cis isomer. However, TST or improved theories cannot easily be applied when the azo moiety is part of a larger molecular complex or embedded into a heterogeneous environment, where a multitude of possible reaction pathways may exist. In these cases, only the sampling of an ensemble of dynamic reactive trajectories (transition path sampling, TPS) with explicit models of the environment may reveal the nature of the processes involved. In the present work we show how a TPS approach can conveniently be implemented for the phenomenon of relaxation-isomerization of azobenzenes starting with the simple examples of pure azobenzene and a push-pull derivative immersed in a polar (DMSO) and apolar (toluene) solvent. The latter are represented explicitly at a molecular mechanical (MM) and the azo moiety at a quantum mechanical (QM) level. We demonstrate for the push-pull azobenzene that path sampling in combination with the chosen QM/MM scheme produces the expected change in isomerization pathway from inversion to rotation in going from a low to a high permittivity (explicit) solvent model. We discuss the potential of the simulation procedure presented for comparative calculation of
A Longitudinal Study into Indicators of Mental Health, Strengths and Difficulties Reported by Boarding Students as They Transition from Primary School to Secondary Boarding Schools in Perth, Western Australia
Mander, David J.; Lester, Leanne
This study examined indicators of mental health, as well as strengths and difficulties, as reported by same-age boarding and non-boarding students spanning four time points over a 2-year period as they transitioned from primary to boarding school in Western Australia (i.e., at the end of Grade 7, beginning of Grade 8, end of Grade 8, and end of…
Arizona Department of Education, 2007
Transition is movement or change without interruption. It should be a smooth flow from one place or condition to another. While the transition plan for a student receiving special education services is designed to prepare him or her for life after high school, transition can start when a child enters preschool. The second of six distinct stages of…
Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, N.
School leavers with learning disabilities often face difficulties in making a smooth transition from school to college, employment or more broadly, to adult life. The transition phase is traumatic for the young person with learning disabilities and their families as it often results in the loss of friendships, relationships and social networks. The aim of this chapter is to explore the issues of transition from adolescence to adulthood for young people with learning disabilities and its effe...
Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Siersma, Volkert D; Grandjean, Philippe; Knudsen, Lisbeth E
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are accumulating in our environment and human exposure to these potentially harmful chemicals are of growing concern. In the present study, 116 children aged 6-11 and 143 mothers in two locations in Denmark donated blood samples as a supplement to their participation in the large European human biomonitoring project, DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale). The blood samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the concentration of six PFASs: PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, br-PFOS and n-PFOS. All measured compounds were above the detection limit in both mothers and children except for PFHxS in one child. There was a significant correlation between the levels in children and their mothers, indicating a family-related exposure pattern. However, we also found that the levels of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, br-PFOS and total-PFOS were significantly higher in children compared to their mothers. This may be due to higher exposure in children through for example dust and soil, and due to the fact that children are smaller in body size and blood volume and hence have a lower storage capacity. Furthermore, we found an association between plasma levels and the age of the mothers and higher levels of plasma PFASs in mothers with low parity. There were no associations between PFAS concentrations and residential area, dietary habits of the participants or with respect to the birth order of the children. The levels are comparable to concentrations found in other Western countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teresa R. Granados-Luna
Full Text Available Battery charger is a key device in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. On-board and off-board topologies are available in the market. Lightweight, small, high performance, and simple control are desired characteristics for on-board chargers. Moreover, isolated single-phase topologies are the most common system in Level 1 battery charger topologies. Following this trend, this paper proposes a sampled-data modelling strategy of a zero voltage transition (ZVT DC-DC converter for an on-board battery charger. A piece-wise linear analysis of the converter is the basis of the technique presented such that a large-signal model and, therefore, a small-signal model of the converter are derived. Numerical and simulation results of a 250 W test rig validate the model.
Austin, S Bryn; Ziyadeh, Najat J; Vohra, Sameer; Forman, Sara; Gordon, Catherine M; Prokop, Lisa A; Keliher, Anne; Jacobs, Douglas
Using data from an eating disorders screening initiative conducted in high schools across the United States, we examined the relationship between vomiting frequency and irregular menses in a nonclinical sample of adolescent females. A self-report questionnaire was administered to students from U.S. high schools participating in the National Eating Disorders Screening Program in 2000. The questionnaire included items on frequency of vomiting for weight control in the past 3 months, other eating disorder symptoms, frequency of menses, height, and weight. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted using data from 2791 girls to estimate the risk of irregular menses (defined as menses less often than monthly) associated with vomiting frequency, adjusting for other eating disorder symptoms, weight status, age, race/ethnicity, and school clusters. Girls who vomited to control their weight one to three times per month were one and a half times more likely (risk ratio [RR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-2.2), and girls who vomited once per week or more often were more than three times more likely (RR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.3-4.4), to experience irregular menses than were girls who did not report vomiting for weight control. Vomiting for weight control remained a strong predictor of irregular menses even when overweight and underweight participants were excluded. Our study adds to the evidence that vomiting may have a direct effect on hormonal function in adolescent girls, and that vomiting for weight control may be a particularly deleterious component of eating disorders.
Wang, Song; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Xun; Chen, Guangxiang; Wang, Meiyun; Gong, Qiyong
Achievement in school is crucial for students to be able to pursue successful careers and lead happy lives in the future. Although many psychological attributes have been found to be associated with academic performance, the neural substrates of academic performance remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between brain structure and academic performance in a large sample of high school students via structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach. The whole-brain regression analyses showed that higher academic performance was related to greater regional gray matter density (rGMD) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which is considered a neural center at the intersection of cognitive and non-cognitive functions. Furthermore, mediation analyses suggested that general intelligence partially mediated the impact of the left DLPFC density on academic performance. These results persisted even after adjusting for the effect of family socioeconomic status (SES). In short, our findings reveal a potential neuroanatomical marker for academic performance and highlight the role of general intelligence in explaining the relationship between brain structure and academic performance.
Corliss, Heather L; Goodenow, Carol S; Nichols, Lauren; Austin, S Bryn
We compared the prevalence of current homelessness among adolescents reporting a minority sexual orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, unsure, or heterosexual with same-sex sexual partners) with that among exclusively heterosexual adolescents. We combined data from the 2005 and 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a representative sample of public school students in grades 9 though 12 (n = 6317). Approximately 25% of lesbian/gay, 15% of bisexual, and 3% of exclusively heterosexual Massachusetts public high school students were homeless. Sexual-minority males and females had an odds of reporting current homelessness that was between 4 and 13 times that of their exclusively heterosexual peers. Sexual-minority youths' greater likelihood of being homeless was driven by their increased risk of living separately from their parents or guardians. Youth homelessness is linked with numerous threats such as violence, substance use, and mental health problems. Although discrimination and victimization related to minority sexual orientation status are believed to be important causal factors, research is needed to improve our understanding of the risks and protective factors for homelessness and to determine effective strategies to prevent homelessness in this population.
Murray, Kantahyanee W; Haynie, Denise L; Howard, Donna E; Cheng, Tina L; Simons-Morton, Bruce
This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers' support and knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers' exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed.
Yılmaz, Savaş; Hergüner, Sabri; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Işık, Ümit
To assess the effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom dimensions on Internet addiction (IA) after controlling for Internet usage features among high school students. This study consisted of 640 students (331 females and 309 males) ranging from 14 to 19 years of age. The Internet Addiction Scale, the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale-Short Form, and a personal information form were completed by the participants. Statistical analyses were conducted for both sexes and the total sample. According to the logistic regression analysis, attention deficit and playing online games were significant predictors of IA in both sexes. Other predictors of IA included behavioral problems for females, total weekly Internet usage time, and lifelong total Internet use for males. Hyperactivity and other Internet usage features did not predict IA. These results suggest that attention deficit and playing online games are important determinants of IA in this age group.
Goodwin, Miki; Candela, Lori
The aim of this qualitative study was to explore if newly practicing nurses benefited from learning holistic comfort theory during their baccalaureate education, and to provide a conceptual framework to support the transition from school to practice. The study was conducted among graduates of an accelerated baccalaureate nursing program where holistic comfort theory was embedded as a learner-centered philosophy across the curriculum. A phenomenological process using van Manen's qualitative methodology in education involving semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis was used. The nurses recalled what holistic comfort meant to them in school, and described the lived experience of assimilating holistic comfort into their attitudes and behaviors in practice. Themes were established and a conceptual framework was developed to better understand the nurses' lived experiences. Results showed that holistic comfort was experienced as a constructive approach to transcend unavoidable difficulties during the transition from school to practice. Participants described meaningful learning and acquisition of self-strengthening behaviors using holistic comfort theory. Holistic comfort principles were credited for easing nurses into the realities of work and advocating for best patient outcomes. Patient safety and pride in patient care were incidental positive outcomes. The study offers new insights about applying holistic comfort to prepare nurses for the realities of practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
White, Henry; LaFleur, Jennifer; Houle, Katherine; Hyry-Dermith, Paul; Blake, Susan M.
In recent decades, increasing attention has been paid to the number of adolescents experiencing extended absences from school due to mental health crises. Upon returning to school, these students often face difficulties in functioning, risk of relapse, and vulnerability to academic failure and social isolation. This paper presents results of a…
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012
Every step in a student's life is important for future success. Schools are building stronger frameworks of curricula, instruction and assessments to prepare students to move from one learning environment to another with maximum results as they journey toward adulthood. This issue of "High Schools That Work" contains examples of…
Transicion de la Escuela a la Vida Adulta Manual de Informacion para la Provision de Servicios de Transicion a los Jovenes con Impedimentos (Transition from School to Adult Life. Manual of Information for the Provision of Transitional Services for Youth with Disabilities).
Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.
This manual has been prepared to orient school personnel in the development of programs for the transition of students with disabilities from school to adult life so that they can fulfill their responsibilities in planning and providing services. The laws under which such services are required are reviewed, and the services and planning are…
Full Text Available Sukhwinder Singh Sohal,1,* Amir Soltani,1,* David Reid,1,2 Chris Ward,1,3 Karen E Wills,1,4 H Konrad Muller,1 Eugene Haydn Walters1 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; 2Iron Metabolism Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 3Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, UK; 4Department of Biostatistics, Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: We recently reported that epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT is active in the airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, suggesting presence of an active profibrotic and promalignant stroma. With no data available on potential treatment effects, we undertook a blinded analysis of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS effects versus placebo on EMT markers in previously obtained endobronchial biopsies in COPD patients, as a “proof of concept” study.Methods: Assessment of the effects of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP; 500 µg twice daily for 6 months versus placebo in 34 COPD patients (23 on fluticasone propionate and eleven on placebo. The end points were epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; marker of epithelial activation and the biomarkers of EMT: reticular basement membrane (Rbm fragmentation (“hallmark” structural marker, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 cell expression, and S100A4 expression in basal epithelial and Rbm cells (mesenchymal transition markers.Results: Epithelial activation, “clefts/fragmentation” in the Rbm, and changes in the other biomarkers all regressed on ICS, at or close to conventional levels of statistical significance. From these data, we have been able to nominate primary and secondary end points and develop
Ayubi, Erfan; Sani, Mohadeseh; Safiri, Saeid; Khedmati Morasae, Esmaeil; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Nazarzadeh, Milad
The effect of socioeconomic status on adolescent smoking behaviors is unclear, and sparse studies are available about the potential association. The present study aimed to measure and explain socioeconomic inequality in smoking behavior among a sample of Iranian adolescents. In a cross-sectional survey, a multistage sample of adolescents ( n = 1,064) was recruited from high school students in Zanjan city, northwest of Iran. Principal component analysis was used to measure economic status of adolescents. Concentration index was used to measure socioeconomic inequality in smoking behavior, and then it was decomposed to reveal inequality contributors. Concentration index and its 95% confidence interval for never, experimental, and regular smoking behaviors were 0.004 [-0.03, 0.04], 0.05 [0.02, 0.11], and -0.10 [-0.04, -0.19], respectively. The contribution of economic status to measured inequality in experimental and regular smoking was 80.0% and 68.8%, respectively. Household economic status could be targeted as one of the relevant factors in the unequal distribution of smoking behavior among adolescents.
Ahmadi, Jamshid; Amiri, Amin; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Khademalhosseini, Mitra; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab; Gholami, Zeinab; Sharifian, Maryam
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of addiction to the Internet, computer games, DVD, and video and its relationship to anxiety and depression in a sample of Iranian high school students. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1020 high school students (males and females) were selected randomly from different areas of Shiraz city in southern Iran. They were interviewed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed (DSM-IV) crit...
Wade, Carol H.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Hazari, Zahra
Using data from the first National study on high school preparation for college calculus success, the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project, this article connects student high school instructional experiences to college calculus performance. The findings reported here reveal that students were better prepared for…
Dickinson, Pauline; Coggan, Carolyn; Bennett, Sara
This paper outlines the conceptual background and findings from the pilot phase of TRAVELLERS--an early intervention programme designed to enhance protective factors for young people experiencing change, loss and transition events and early signs of emotional distress. The pilot study aimed to determine whether TRAVELLERS was a feasible, acceptable and promising intervention for young people within secondary schools in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The conceptual origins of the TRAVELLERS programme are described in terms of: adolescent mental health concerns; emerging mental health promotion theory and practice; and prevention and early intervention models. The key elements of the TRAVELLERS programme are described. The programme was piloted in two secondary schools, one rural and one urban with 34 participants (females n = 24, males n = 10). Evaluation methods included: review of programme materials; identification of potential selection tools appropriate to Year 9 students; analysis of selection questionnaire; and conduct of feedback from participants, facilitators and parents/caregivers. The TRAVELLERS programme provides a means of identifying and selecting young people who may benefit from participating in an early intervention programme. The programme has achieved a statistically significant reduction in participants' distress (p Young people were overwhelmingly enthusiastic about most aspects of TRAVELLERS. School personnel reported that TRAVELLERS was an appropriate and acceptable programme to the school. Targeted interventions provided within a supportive school environment can contribute to enhancing protective factors such as personal and interpersonal coping strategies, increased help-seeking behaviour, and young people feeling more positive about themselves and their lives. The pilot programme has been amended and prepared for a two year trial phase in 10 secondary schools during 2002-2003.
Nkuba, Mabula; Hermenau, Katharin; Goessmann, Katharina; Hecker, Tobias
Little is known about the prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research consistently determined violence and maltreatment to be important risk factors. In this study, we examined the prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in Tanzania, as well as the association with exposure to violence and maltreatment. We administered a set of questionnaires (e.g., strength and difficulties questionnaire; conflict tactic scale) to a nationally representative sample of 700 Tanzanian secondary school children (52% girls; age 14.92 years, SD = 1.02) and 333 parents or primary caregivers (53% females; age 43.47 years, SD = 9.02). 41% of the students reported an elevated level of mental health problems (emotional problems 40%, peer problems 63%, conduct problems 45%, hyperactivity 17%) in the past 6 months. Concordantly, 31% of parents reported observing an elevated level of mental health problems in their children (emotional problems 37%, peer problems 54%, conduct problems 35%, hyperactivity 17%). After controlling for other risk factors, we found significant associations between physical violence by parents and adolescent's mental health problems reported by students (β = 0.15) and their parents (β = 0.33). Our findings suggest a high prevalence of mental health problems using screening tools among secondary school students in Tanzania as well as an association between physical violence by parents and adolescents' mental health problems. Our findings emphasize the need to inform the population at large about the potentially adverse consequences associated with violence against children and adolescents.
Morshed, Alexandra B; Becker, Haley V; Delnatus, Jacques Raymond; Wolff, Patricia B; Iannotti, Lora L
The primary aim was to examine the association of socio-economic factors and diet with overweight (including obesity) among school-aged children in Haiti. The secondary aim was to describe food availability and the physical activity built environment in participating schools. This cross-sectional study examined baseline data from the intervention Mamba study assessing the effectiveness of a fortified peanut butter paste in school-aged children. Logistic regression modelling was used to test hypothesized factors in association with overweight status. Six primary schools in Cap-Haitien, the second largest city in Haiti. Children (n 968) aged 3-13 years, in good health and enrolled in a participating school for the 2012/13 school year. Child age (adjusted OR (AOR); 95 % CI=0·25; 0·12, 0·56), child age squared (1·08; 1·03, 1·13), always purchasing food at school (3·52; 1·12, 11·08), mother's BMI (1·10; 1·04, 1·16) and household ownership of a bicycle (0·28; 0·11, 0·71) were significantly associated with overweight (likelihood ratio=36, Poverweight children in the binary analysis (P=0·033) and improved the fit of the model. Schools had limited time and space for physical activity and foods sold by vendors were predominantly high in sugar or fat. To our knowledge the present study is the first to examine the covariates of childhood overweight or describe school food availability and physical activity built environments in Haiti. Further research is necessary to identify intervention targets and feasible, cost-effective approaches for prevention of obesity in Haiti children.
Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L
We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Horstkotte, Burkhard; Jarošová, Patrícia; Chocholouš, Petr; Sklenářová, Hana; Solich, Petr
In this work, the applicability of Sequential Injection Chromatography for the determination of transition metals in water is evaluated for the separation of copper(II), zinc(II), and iron(II) cations. Separations were performed using a Dionex IonPAC™ guard column (50mm×2mm i.d., 9 µm). Mobile phase composition and post-column reaction were optimized by modified SIMPLEX method with subsequent study of the concentration of each component. The mobile phase consisted of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as analyte-selective compound, sodium sulfate, and formic acid/sodium formate buffer. Post-column addition of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol was carried out for spectrophotometric detection of the analytes׳ complexes at 530nm. Approaches to achieve higher robustness, baseline stability, and detection sensitivity by on-column stacking of the analytes and initial gradient implementation as well as air-cushion pressure damping for post-column reagent addition were studied. The method allowed the rapid separation of copper(II), zinc(II), and iron(II) within 6.5min including pump refilling and aspiration of sample and 1mmol HNO3 for analyte stacking on the separation column. High sensitivity was achieved applying an injection volume of up to 90µL. A signal repeatability of<2% RSD of peak height was found. Analyte recovery evaluated by spiking of different natural water samples was well suited for routine analysis with sub-micromolar limits of detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McDowall, Philippa S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Schaughency, Elizabeth
This study described the relations of parents' and teachers' beliefs and attitudes to forms of parents' involvement in children's first two years of primary school. Parents of children in their first year of primary school (age 5) were recruited from 12 classrooms within four schools in New Zealand; 196 families participated in their child's first year, and 124 families continued to participate in their child's second school year. Parents completed the Family-Involvement Questionnaire, New Zealand, and we archivally collected parent-documented children's oral reading homework. Teachers' rated helpfulness of parents' involvement at school (level 2) and parents' rated teacher invitations to be involved and their perceived time and energy (level 1) contributed to school-based involvement in Year 1 in multilevel models, with parents' rated teacher invitations for involvement also found to predict Year 1 home-school communication in regression analyses. Contributors to Year 1 child-parent reading in multilevel models included level 1 predictors of two or more adults in the home and parents' perceived time and energy. Longitudinal analyses suggested both consistency and change in each form of involvement from Year 1 to Year 2, with increases in each form of involvement found to be associated with increases in parents' and/or teachers' views about involvement in Year 2 in cross-sectional time-series analyses. Implications for schools wanting to engage families are that parents' involvement in children's schooling may be influenced by parents' perceptions of their capacity, teachers' engagement efforts, and the school's climate for involvement. This is a special issue paper "Family Engagement in Education and Intervention". Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lüdtke, Janine; Weizenegger, Benedict; Rauber, Rachel; Contin, Brigitte; In-Albon, Tina; Schmid, Marc
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among adolescents and associated with various mental health problems and suicidality. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits are related to NSSI behavior, however only few studies examined personality traits in adolescents with NSSI. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between personality traits and emotional and behavioral problems in predicting repetitive NSSI among adolescents from a school sample. Four hundred and forty-seven students (M=14.95years, SD=0.74, 52% male) completed self-report measures on NSSI, personality traits, and emotional and behavioral problems. The past year prevalence of occasional and repetitive NSSI was 4.9% and 6.3% respectively. Repetitive NSSI was significantly associated with female gender, higher levels of age, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-transcendence, antisocial behavior, and positive self and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness in univariate analyses. However, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only high levels of antisocial behavior and low levels of self-directedness significantly predicted repetitive NSSI. The association between a lack of self-directedness and NSSI emphasizes the significance of targeting self-directedness in psychotherapy by strengthening self-awareness, affect tolerance and emotion regulation, as well as establishing and pursuing long-term goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Castiello, Giuseppina; Magliano, Lorenza
Description of students' opinions about schizophrenia and depression. The study was carried out on a sample of 445 secondary school students, randomly allocated to a "schizophrenia" or a "depression" group (N = 221 and N = 224, respectively). Each respondent was asked to read a case-vignette describing a case of schizophrenia or depression, and then to fill the Questionnaire on the Opinions about Mental Illness--General Population's version (QO-GP). 35% of students in "schizophrenia" group vs. 85% in "depression" group attributed a correct diagnosis to case-vignette. 19% of students in the "schizophrenia" group vs. 39% in the "depression" group believed that these mental disorders can recover. Affective and civil rights were more frequently acknowledged to patients with depression than to those with schizophrenia. In both groups, the majority of students stated that mentally ill patients were unpredictable and socially dangerous. Students who reported TV stories on people with mentally ill were more frequently convinced on their unpredictability and social dangerousness. These results outline the need to: a) plan educational campaigns for students on mental disorders; b) alert media professionals on the impact that the way they present crimes committed by mentally ill patients may have on general population.
Badri, Masood; Yang, Guang; Al Mazroui, Karima; Mohaidat, Jihad; Al Rashedi, Asma; Al Housani, Najwa
This study employed the international Relevance of Science Education questionnaire to survey the interest in biology and the out-of-school experiences of Abu Dhabi secondary school students (median age 17, mean age 17.53 and mode age of 16) in the third semester of 2014. It included 3100 participants. An exploratory factor analysis was used to…
Tathiah, N; Moodley, I; Mubaiwa, V; Denny, L; Taylor, M
Malnutrition substantially impacts the health outcomes of children. Globally, the childhood prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, while underweight and stunting (though decreasing) continues to pose a major public health challenge. In low- to middle-income countries, a mixed pattern of over- and undernutrition (nutritional transition) can exist in communities. To describe the prevalence of malnutrition among female learners in the Nongoma and Ceza districts in Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). We performed a secondary analysis of anthropometric data collected during the 2011 HPV Vaccination Demonstration Project. School health teams, comprising trained nurses, measured the height (in cm) and weight (in kg) of 963 female learners in 31 primary schools. Internationally accepted standardised measures were used as cut-offs for defining overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting. We found evidence of both under- and overnutrition. Overall, 9% of female learners were overweight, 3.8% obese, 4% underweight and 9.2% stunted (using WHO/NCHS criteria). The highest levels of stunting were in the 11 - 12-year age groups, of underweight in the 10-year age group, of overweight and obesity in the 9 - 10-year age groups. Moreover, a proportion of underweight (17.4%), overweight (11.1%) and obese (22.9%) learners were also stunted. Our study describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity, wasting and stunting of female learners in KZN and suggests the presence of a nutritional transition in these rural communities; however, further studies are needed. Our findings emphasise the need for health promotion and education programs in schools.
Parveen Kaur Parmar
Full Text Available Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian parliamentary government in March 2011. Qualitative reports suggest that exposure to violence and displacement has declined while international assistance for health services has increased. An assessment of the impact of these changes on the health and human rights situation has not been published.Five community-based organizations conducted household surveys using two-stage cluster sampling in five states in eastern Myanmar from July 2013-September 2013. Data was collected from 6, 178 households on demographics, mortality, health outcomes, water and sanitation, food security and nutrition, malaria, and human rights violations (HRV. Among children aged 6-59 months screened, the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (representing moderate or severe malnutrition was 11.3% (8.0-14.7. A total of 250 deaths occurred during the year prior to the survey. Infant deaths accounted for 64 of these (IMR 94.2; 95% CI 66.5-133.5 and there were 94 child deaths (U5MR 141.9; 95% CI 94.8-189.0. 10.7% of households (95% CI 7.0-14.5 experienced at least one HRV in the past year, while four percent reported 2 or more HRVs. Household exposure to one or more HRVs was associated with moderate-severe malnutrition among children (14.9 vs. 6.8%; prevalence ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2. Household exposure to HRVs was associated with self-reported fair or poor health status among respondents (PR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5.This large survey of health and human rights demonstrates that two years after political transition, vulnerable populations of eastern Myanmar are less likely to experience human rights violations compared to previous surveys. However, access to health services remains constrained, and risk of disease and death remains higher than the country as a whole. Efforts to address these poor health indicators should prioritize support for populations that remain outside the scope of most formal government and donor programs.
Parmar, Parveen Kaur; Barina, Charlene C; Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Otterness, Conrad; Mhote, Pue P; Htoo, Saw Nay; Kyaw, Saw Win; Lwin, Nai Aye; Maung, Cynthia; Moo, Naw Merry; Oo, Eh Kalu Shwe; Reh, Daniel; Mon, Nai Chay; Singh, Nakul; Goyal, Ravi; Richards, Adam K
Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian parliamentary government in March 2011. Qualitative reports suggest that exposure to violence and displacement has declined while international assistance for health services has increased. An assessment of the impact of these changes on the health and human rights situation has not been published. Five community-based organizations conducted household surveys using two-stage cluster sampling in five states in eastern Myanmar from July 2013-September 2013. Data was collected from 6, 178 households on demographics, mortality, health outcomes, water and sanitation, food security and nutrition, malaria, and human rights violations (HRV). Among children aged 6-59 months screened, the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (representing moderate or severe malnutrition) was 11.3% (8.0-14.7). A total of 250 deaths occurred during the year prior to the survey. Infant deaths accounted for 64 of these (IMR 94.2; 95% CI 66.5-133.5) and there were 94 child deaths (U5MR 141.9; 95% CI 94.8-189.0). 10.7% of households (95% CI 7.0-14.5) experienced at least one HRV in the past year, while four percent reported 2 or more HRVs. Household exposure to one or more HRVs was associated with moderate-severe malnutrition among children (14.9 vs. 6.8%; prevalence ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2). Household exposure to HRVs was associated with self-reported fair or poor health status among respondents (PR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5). This large survey of health and human rights demonstrates that two years after political transition, vulnerable populations of eastern Myanmar are less likely to experience human rights violations compared to previous surveys. However, access to health services remains constrained, and risk of disease and death remains higher than the country as a whole. Efforts to address these poor health indicators should prioritize support for populations that remain outside the scope of most formal government and donor programs.
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.
This guide to family-directed transition planning is intended to help parents and students with disabilities take leading roles in the process of transition from school to post-school activities. First, a letter to families examines the challenge of change and the transition process. Section 2 examines regulations that affect transition planning,…
The transition from the primary to the secondary phase in education can be a pivotal moment for many students, but for students who have autism, their difficulties with socialisation and emotional regulation can make this time period especially challenging. This article explores the experiences of key stakeholders regarding the issue of students…
Lehrer, Joanne S.
This article explores how documents play a role in shaping perceptions of children, professionals, and parents during the transition from childcare to kindergarten in Québec. Positioning analysis was used to explore governmentality, documentality, and interobjectivity in the communication agendas and child assessment documents of seven children.…
Animosa, Lydia Honesty; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Cheng, Tina L.
Public health practice involving adolescents is largely focused on preventing or delaying the initiation of risk behavior. However, given the experimental and exploratory nature of this developmental period, this is often impractical. This article focuses on behavioral transitions and the ways in which youth involved in risk behaviors shift to…
The Occupational Transition Process to Upper Secondary School, Further Education and/or Work in Sweden: As Described by Young Adults with Asperger Syndrome and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Baric, Vedrana Bolic; Hemmingsson, Helena; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette
The aim was to describe the occupational transition process to upper secondary school, further education and/or work, and to discover what support influences the process from the perspectives of young adults with Asperger syndrome or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This qualitative study was performed in Sweden and comprised interviews with 15 young adults recruited from community based day centres. Support influencing the process included: occupational transition preparation in compulsory school, practical work experience in a safe environment, and support beyond the workplace. The overall understanding shows that the occupational transition process was a longitudinal one starting as early as in middle school, and continuing until the young adults obtained and were able to remain in employment or further education.
Frank, Jennifer L.; Bose, Bidyut; Schrobenhauser-Clonan, Alex
This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a universal yoga-based social-emotional wellness promotion program, Transformative Life Skills, on indicators of adolescent emotional distress, prosocial behavior, and attitudes toward violence in a high-risk sample. Participants included 49 students attending an alternative education school in an…
Gulcan, Murat Gurkan
Any kind of practices at schools are made based on a planned and programmed process. There is a decision taken prior to every action and it is important at what level these decisions are taken. Development of participative management approach at schools positively affects the teaching process. Education staff participation in decisions causes…
Hart, Caroline O.; Mueller, Christian E.
School delinquency has been linked to an array of negative educational outcomes, and if left unchecked, may lead to more serious problems in adulthood. Identifying the risk and protective factors that influence school delinquency is therefore crucial to develop effective intervention programs. Utilizing Hirschi's social bond theory as a framework,…
Sim, Tick N.; Chin, Jeffery E. H.
Our study sought mainly to examine interactions between mothers' and fathers' authoritative and authoritarian parenting. A total of 284 adolescents (mean age 13.5) from 2 Singapore schools contributed self-report data on their parents' parenting and various schooling aspects. Prior to testing for interactions, adolescents with two authoritative…
Araneda, Jacqueline; Bustos, Patricia; Cerecera, Francisco; Amigo, Hugo
To estimate the association between the intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index (BMI) in Chilean school children. Food consumption frequency data were analyzed for school children aged 6 to 18. The association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI was estimated by multivariate lineal regression models. Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed on a daily basis by 92% (95%CI:90-94) of subjects with daily intake medians of 424 mL (p25-p75:212-707). Every extra daily portion of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed by school children aged 6 to 13 is associated with 0.13 BMI z-scores (95%CI:0.04-0.2;p=0.01). School children consume sugar-sweetened beverages daily with intake medians close to 0.5L. There is an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and higher BMI in Chilean school children.
Dulle, Paul J.; And Others
The paper examines the need and implementation of transitional employment programs for handicapped youth. Effects on the handicapped of future automation are considered along with the need for school-business cooperation to prepare for the future. The importance of initial success in any innovation is noted. A Chicago transitional employment…
period and provide recommendations to guide future research and policy development. 4 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL SECURITY GAP There have been...BRIDGING THE TRANSITION GAP A Monograph by MAJ J.D. Hansen United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704
Wilson, Frances; Child, Simon; Suto, Irenka
High stakes assessments are commonly used at the end of secondary school to select students for higher education. However, growing concerns about the preparedness of new undergraduates for university study have led to an increased focus on the form of assessments used at upper secondary level. This study compared the structure and format of…
Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Pierson, Melinda R.; Stang, Kristin K.
Recent developments in policy and practice have emphasized the importance of promoting self-determination and supporting access to the general curriculum for youth with disabilities. To understand how these trends align, we examined the efforts of 340 general and special educators to promote student self-determination in high school classrooms.…
Evans, Carl; Richardson, Mark
Models of accrediting work-based learning are now commonplace in universities. The purpose of this viewpoint article is to highlight an opportunity for universities not only to accredit students' part-time work against the degree award but also to extend the process into schools by accrediting the part-time work undertaken by year 12 and 13…
Van Acker, Teresa A.
Public Montessori schools have grown in number significantly in the United States. This case study chronicles the journey of teachers as they navigate the tension of balancing the Montessori approach with an accountability Standards model. Although Montessori may be in demand among parents in the nation, exhibited by the increase in public…
Moore, Sophie Sapp
This article examines the political and pedagogical role of the farm school in Haiti's largest and oldest peasants' movement, the Peasants' Movement of Papaye (MPP). It draws upon ongoing ethnographic research with MPP as well as documentary and historical analyses of agrarian politics in Haiti to situate the movement's land-based decolonial…
Roebers, Claudia M; Röthlisberger, Marianne; Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Michel, Eva; Jäger, Katja
Both theoretically and empirically there is a continuous interest in understanding the specific relation between cognitive and motor development in childhood. In the present longitudinal study including three measurement points, this relation was targeted. At the beginning of the study, the participating children were 5-6-year-olds. By assessing participants' fine motor skills, their executive functioning, and their non-verbal intelligence, their cross-sectional and cross-lagged interrelations were examined. Additionally, performance in these three areas was used to predict early school achievement (in terms of mathematics, reading, and spelling) at the end of participants' first grade. Correlational analyses and structural equation modeling revealed that fine motor skills, non-verbal intelligence and executive functioning were significantly interrelated. Both fine motor skills and intelligence had significant links to later school achievement. However, when executive functioning was additionally included into the prediction of early academic achievement, fine motor skills and non-verbal intelligence were no longer significantly associated with later school performance suggesting that executive functioning plays an important role for the motor-cognitive performance link. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This paper aims to exercise a rather recent trend in applied microeconometrics, namely the effect of sampling design on statistical inference, especially on binary outcome model. Many theoretical research in econometrics have shown the inappropriateness of applying i.i.dassumed statistical analysis on non-i.i.d data. These research have provided proofs showing that applying the iid-assumed analysis on a non-iid observations would result in an inflated standard errors which could make the esti...
Figueiredo, T. P.; Rocha, J. C. S.; Costa, B. V.
Although the topological Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition was for the first time described by 40 years ago, it is still a matter of discussion. It has been used to explain several experiments in the most diverse physical systems. In contrast with the ordinary continuous phase transitions the BKT-transition does not break any symmetry. However, in some contexts it can easily be confused with other continuous transitions, in general due to an insufficient data analysis. The two-dimensional XY (or sometimes called planar rotator) spin model is the fruit fly model describing the BKT transition. As demonstrated by Bramwell and Holdsworth (1993) the finite-size effects are more important in two-dimensions than in others due to the logarithmic system size dependence of the properties of the system. Closely related is the anisotropic two dimensional Heisenberg model (AH). Although they have the same Hamiltonian the spin variable in the former has only two degrees of freedom while the AH has three. Many works treat the AH model as undergoing a transition in the same universality class as the XY model. However, its characterization as being in the BKT class of universality deserve some investigation. This paper has two goals. First, we describe an analytical evidence showing that the AH model is in the BKT class of universality. Second, we make an extensive simulation, using the numerical Replica Exchange Wang-Landau method that corroborate our analytical calculations. From our simulation we obtain the BKT transition temperature as TBKT = 0 . 6980(10) by monitoring the susceptibility, the two point correlation function and the helicity modulus. We discuss the misuse of the fourth order Binder's cumulant to locate the transition temperature. The specific heat is shown to have a non-critical behavior as expected in the BKT transition. An analysis of the two point correlation function at low temperature, C(r) ∝r - η(T), shows that the exponent, η, is consistent
Sabatine, Elaina; Lippold, Melissa; Kainz, Kirsten
Parent and school bonds are protective against delinquency. This study used longitudinal data and multilevel Poisson regression models (MLM) to examine unique and interactive associations of parent and school bonds on youth delinquency in a sample of rural adolescents ( n = 945; 84% White). We investigated whether youth sex or transitioning to a new middle school moderated the linkages between parent and school bonds and later delinquency. Results indicated reduced delinquency was associated with positive parent and school relationships. Parent and school bonds interacted such that linkages between parent bonding and youth delinquency were stronger when youth also had high school bonding - suggesting an additive effect. However, interactive effects were only found when youth remained in the same school and became nonsignificant if they transitioned to a new school. Findings support prior evidence that parent and school bonds - and their interaction - play a unique role in reducing delinquency.
A Taxonomy of Instructional Objectives for Developmentally Disabled Persons: Personal Maintenance and Development: Homemaking and Community Life; Leisure; and Travel Domains. Working Paper 85-2. COMPETE: Community-Based Model for Public-School Exit and Transition to Employment.
Dever, Richard B.
The purpose of Project COMPETE is to use previous research and exemplary practices to develop and validate a model and training sequence to assist retarded youth to make the transition from school to employment in the most competitive environment possible. The taxonomy described in this project working paper focuses on instructional objectives in…
Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte
When students make the transition from high school to college or university, their physical activity (PA) levels decrease strongly. Consequently, it is of crucial importance to identify the determinants of this decline in PA. The study aims were to (1) examine changes in psychosocial factors in students during the transition from high school to college/university, (2) examine if changes in psychosocial factors and residency can predict changes in PA, and (3) investigate the moderating effects of residency on the relationship between changes in psychosocial factors and changes in PA. Between March 2008 and October 2010, 291 Flemish students participated in a longitudinal study, with baseline measurements during the final year of high school and follow-up measurements at the start of second year of college/university. At both time points, participants completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, active transportation, leisure-time sports, psychosocial variables, and residency. Repeated measures MANOVA analyses and multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted. Modeling, self-efficacy, competition-related benefits, and health-related, external and social barriers decreased, while health-related benefits and time-related barriers increased from baseline to follow-up. Decreases in modeling and time-related barriers were associated with a decrease in active transportation (adjusted R(2) = 3.2%); residency, decreases in self-efficacy, competition-related benefits, and increases in health- and time-related barriers predicted a decrease in leisure-time sports (adjusted R(2) = 29.3%). Residency only moderated two associations between psychosocial factors and changes in PA. Residency and changes in psychosocial factors were mainly important to explain the decrease in leisure-time sports. Other factors such as distance to college/university are likely more important to explain the decrease in active transportation; these are worth exploring in
Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the association between the intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index (BMI in Chilean school children. Materials and methods. Food consumption frequency data were analyzed for school children aged 6 to 18. The association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI was estimated by multivariate lineal regression models. Results. Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed on a daily basis by 92% (95%CI:90-94 of subjects with daily intake medians of 424 mL (p25-p75:212-707. Every extra daily portion of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed by school children aged 6 to 13 is associated with 0.13 BMI z-scores (95%CI:0.04- 0.2;p=0.01. Conclusions. School children consume sugarsweetened beverages daily with intake medians close to 0.5 L. There is an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and higher BMI in Chilean school children.
Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…
Basehore, Pamela M; Mortensen, Luke H; Katsaros, Emmanuel; Linsenmeyer, Machelle; McClain, Elizabeth K; Sexton, Patricia S; Wadsworth, Nicole
Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are measurable units of observable professional practice that can be entrusted to an unsupervised trainee. They were first introduced as a method of operationalizing competency-based medical education in graduate medical education. The American Association of Medical Colleges subsequently used EPAs to establish the core skills that medical students must be able to perform before they enter residency training. A recently published guide provides descriptions, guidelines, and rationale for implementing and assessing the core EPAs from an osteopathic approach. These osteopathically informed EPAs can allow schools to more appropriately assess a learner's whole-person approach to a patient, in alignment with the philosophy of the profession. As the single accreditation system for graduate medical education moves forward, it will be critical to integrate EPAs into osteopathic medical education to demonstrate entrustment of medical school graduates. The authors describe the collaborative process used to establish the osteopathic considerations added to EPAs and explores the challenges and opportunities for undergraduate osteopathic medical education.
Ana Conceição Norbim Prado Cunha
Full Text Available Summary Objective: This study aims to describe the profile of medical schools that introduced courses on Geriatrics and Elderly Health or Aging in their curriculum, and compare such information with the age distribution and health epidemiological data of the Brazilian population, using data until the year of 2013. Methods: 180 universities offering medical undergraduate courses and registered with the Ministry of Education and Culture of Brazil (MEC were found, as seen on the MEC website (www.emec.mec.gov.br in February 2013. Based on the list of institutions, the authors created a database. Results: Brazil's Southeast region is the one presenting most of the courses, both offered as core or elective subjects, in the area of Geriatrics. The Midwest region had the least offer of Geriatrics and Elderly Health and Care courses. The Southeast region presents the greater absolute number of institutions with elective subjects, followed by the South and Northeast regions, each with a single institution. The Southeast region was at the same time the one that presented the biggest absolute number of institutions offering core subjects in the area of Geriatrics, being followed by the Northeast, South, North, and Midwest regions. Conclusion: By analyzing the availability of courses that emphasize aging and Geriatrics in brazilian medical schools, the present study reveals that specialized training should be encouraged with respect to the specificities of health care given to the elderly population, which has a higher frequency of chronic and degenerative diseases.
Full Text Available The objective of two empirical studies is the analysis of the development of subjective well-being in kindergarten and elementary school students in the context of the educational transitions (1 from kindergarten to elementary school and (2 from elementary to secondary schools in two different national school systems. Semi-structured interviews on self-esteem and dysthymic mood (i.e., low spirits, feelings of depressiveness and of dejection were administered in 5 cohorts (two kindergarten and the first three elementary school years. Measurements were repeated three times each a year apart. Samples refer to 312 German and 244 Luxembourg children enrolled in educational systems with optional kindergarten, 4-year comprehensive elementary school, and educational placement thereafter (Germany versus obligatory kindergarten and 6-year comprehensive elementary school (Luxembourg. Time- and age-effects point to significant discontinuities in the development of subjective well-being. There are declines of self-esteem and increases of dysthymic mood just after school enrollment (“transition shock” in the Luxembourg sample, whereas quite similar developments are observed in the last elementary school year before educational placement for secondary education in the German sample. School enrollment and educational placement for secondary education are critical life events with significant impact on children’s well-being, which varies between different school systems.
Ana Paula Porto Noronha
Full Text Available Vocational interests can be defined as standards of preference, aversion or indifference to professional activities, but little is known about the factors involved in their development. From this perspective, this study attempted to clarify which variable, age or schooling, better fit comparisons of profile differentiation index. To this end, we analyzed the Escala de Aconselhamento Profissional (Professional Counseling Scale responses of 6,824 Brazilian students between 14 and 50 years old with various levels of education. Differentiation of the interest profile was observed by subtraction between dimensions with lower and higher scores. Normality of the distributions was verified and then Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s post hoc test were conducted in relation to groups of age and schooling. The results suggest that schooling is a more appropriate variable to compare the differentiation of interests. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, and suggestions for future studies are given.
Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun
A self-determination theory perspective on motivation assumes that basic need support is a prerequisite for motivation, achievement, and well-being in several domains of life. In the present cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 2.594 Norwegian students in their final year of lower secondary education and their first year of upper…
Allen, Jason Eugene
This study examines the treatment of the three most practiced monotheistic religions, Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, within the pages of High School World History Textbooks. The results find that within World History textbooks Christianity and Islam receive more coverage than Judaism in narrative content, word usage, illustrations, and…
Simsek, Alper; Ursavas, Omer Faruk
The aim of this study is to determine the level of the use of information technology at schools in Trabzon and some evaluations about the problems faced during this process were done considering the formative teachers' opinions. The question which is "What are the opinions of formative teachers about the process of popularizing the…
Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa; Barros, Luísa; Barrett, P.
The FRIENDS for Life program is a cognitive-behavioral group program that targets anxiety in children. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of the FRIENDS for Life Program, which was implemented in schools to reduce anxiety problems in a group of highly anxious children. The study used a…
Green-Demers, Isabelle; Legault, Lisa; Pelletier, Daniel; Pelletier, Luc G.
Motivation deficits are common in high school and constitute a significant problem for both students and teachers. The Academic Amotivation Inventory (AAI) was developed to measure the multidimensional nature of the academic amotivation construct (Legault, Green-Demers, & Pelletier, 2006). The present project further examined the consistency…
Many factors interact with each other in learning and internalizing a subject along with performing a new task. Attitudes and stress are the two of these factors. The aim of this study was to examine attitudes to learning and educational stress in third and fourth year students as prospective primary school teachers. The relational model was used…
Merrell, Christine; Styles, Irene; Jones, Paul; Tymms, Peter; Wildy, Helen
This paper uses the Rasch measurement model to analyse data collected on children's attention, activity and impulsiveness at the end of their first year at school by teachers in England, Scotland and Australia. The analysis offers insights into differences in teachers' perceptions of children's behaviour between countries and changes with age. The…
Mora, Toni; Oreopoulos, Philip
In this paper we investigate how schoolmates influence high school dropout intentions in Catalonia, Spain. Our analysis uses self-reported friends to identify possible peers by assuming that peer influence flows in one direction in cases where one student identifies another as a friend, but the other does not reciprocate. We first estimate the…
Brown, Jacqueline A.; Jimerson, Shane R.; Dowdy, Erin; Gonzalez, Victoria; Stewart, Kaitlyn
Because school violence is widespread, social and emotional competence must be targeted. "Second Step" is a social and emotional violence-prevention curriculum that teaches prosocial skills and reduces aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of "Second Step" implementation on students (N = 403) in preschool…
Dildy, Dennis R.
Special education students who graduate or age-out of school are often not successful in making the transition from school to work. Transition services in Texas are grounded in federal civil rights legislation and a Texas Senate concurrent resolution which calls for preparing and supporting the successful transition of handicapped students to the…
Ahmadi, Jamshid; Amiri, Amin; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Khademalhosseini, Mitra; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab; Gholami, Zeinab; Sharifian, Maryam
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of addiction to the Internet, computer games, DVD, and video and its relationship to anxiety and depression in a sample of Iranian high school students. In this cross-sectional study 1020 high school students (males and females) were selected randomly from different areas of Shiraz city in southern Iran. They were interviewed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4(th) ed (DSM-IV) criteria. About 50% of the students were females, 277 students (27.2%) were studying in the first year of high school, 242 (23.7%) were in the second year, and others in the third year. The prevalence of anxiety was significantly higher in females than in males (p video CD dependents (p addiction may cause depression and anxiety in high school students. It seems necessary to develop an Internet addiction prevention program for adolescents taking into account the psychological factors such as depression and Internet use habits.
Klein, Annette M; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Otto, Yvonne; White, Lars O; Andreas, Anna; Sierau, Susan; Bergmann, Sarah; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kai
Recent proposals suggest early adversity sets in motion particularly chronic and neurobiologically distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms. However, few prospective studies in high-risk samples delineate distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms from preschool age onward. We examined trajectories in a high-risk cohort, oversampled for internalizing symptoms, several preschool risk/maintenance factors, and school-age outcomes. Parents of 325 children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire on up to four waves of data collection from preschool (3-5 years) to school age (8-9 years) and Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interviews at both ages. Multi-informant data were collected on risk factors and symptoms. Growth mixture modelling identified four trajectory classes of internalizing symptoms with stable low, rising low-to-moderate, stable moderate, and stable high symptoms. Children in the stable high symptom trajectory manifested clinically relevant internalizing symptoms, mainly diagnosed with anxiety disorders/depression at preschool and school age. Trajectories differed regarding loss/separation experience, maltreatment, maternal psychopathology, temperament, and stress-hormone regulation with loss/separation, temperament, maternal psychopathology, and stress-hormone regulation (trend) significantly contributing to explained variance. At school age, trajectories continued to differ on symptoms, disorders, and impairment. Our study is among the first to show that severe early adversity may trigger a chronic and neurobiologically distinct internalizing trajectory from preschool age onward.
Pineda, Jorge; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Langer, William D.; Goldsmith, Paul; Li, Di; Yorke, Harold
The GOT C+ a HIFI Herschel Key Project, studies the diffuse ISM throughout the Galactic Plane, using C+ as cloud tracer. The C+ line at 1.9 THz traces a so-far poorly studied stage in ISM cloud evolution -the transitional clouds going from atomic HI to molecular H2. This transition cloud phase, which is difficult to observe in HI and CO alone, may be best characterized via CII emission or absorption. The C+ line is also an excellent tracer of the warm diffuse gas and the warm, dense gas in the Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). We can, therefore, use the CII emission as a probe to understand the effects of star formation on their interstellar environment. We present our first results on the transition between dense and hot gas (traced by CII) and dense and cold gas (traced by 12CO and 13CO) along a few representative lines of sight in the inner Galaxy from longitude 325 degrees to 25 degrees, taken during the HIFI Priority Science Phase. Comparisons of the high spectral resolution ( 1 km/s) HIFI data on C+ with HI, 12CO, and 13CO spectra allow us to separate out the different ISM components along each line of sight. Our results provide detailed information about the transition of diffuse atomic to molecular gas clouds needed to understand star formation and the lifecycle of the interstellar gas. These observations are being carried out with the Herschel Space Observatory, which is an ESA cornerstone mission, with contributions from NASA. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JLP was supported under the NASA Postdoctoral Program at JPL, Caltech, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA, and is currently supported as a Caltech-JPL Postdoctoral associate.