Keith M. Drake; Meghan R. Longacre; Todd MacKenzie; Linda J. Titus; Michael L. Beach; Andrew G. Rundle; Madeline A. Dalton
Background: Among numerous health benefits, sports participation has been shown to reduce the risk of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Schools represent an ideal environment for increasing sports participation, but it is unclear how access and choice influence participation and whether characteristics of the school sports program differentially influence boys' and girls' participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of high school athletic pro...
Keith M. Drake
Conclusion: Sports participation has previously been shown to confer a number of health benefits; as such, school sports programs may be an important, effective, and underused target for public health efforts, including obesity prevention programs. Efforts to increase physical activity among youth should consider both access and choice in school athletic programs. Schools may need to use different strategies to increase sports participation in boys and girls.
Kanters, Michael A; Bocarro, Jason N; Edwards, Michael B; Casper, Jonathan M; Floyd, Myron F
School-based extracurricular sport remains an effective strategy to increase physical activity. However, school sport is often limited to a small number of elite athletes. Few schools provide more inclusive sport programs that offer a wider array of activities regardless of ability. The aim of this study was to examine school sport participation in middle schools (ages 11-14) with contrasting school sport delivery strategies (intramural vs. interscholastic). Data were obtained through an online survey administered to students at four public middle schools (grades 6-8) in a southeastern US city (n = 2,582). More students participated in school sports at intramural schools. Boys were more likely to participate in after-school sports at intramural schools. Low-income and Black children, two groups at greater risk of physical inactivity and other negative outcomes, had greater participation in intramural programs. After-school intramural sports in middle school is a promising strategy for increasing sport participation.
Background Extracurricular school-based sports are considered to be an ideal means of reaching children who are not active in community sports. The purposes of this study were to examine the extent to which pupils not engaging in community sports do participate in extracurricular school-based sports, and to assess whether extracurricular school-based sports participants are more physically active and/or more autonomously motivated towards sports in daily life than children who do not participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Methods One thousand forty-nine children (53.7% boys; M age = 11.02 years, SD = 0.02) out of 60 classes from 30 Flemish elementary schools, with an extracurricular school-based sports offer, completed validated questionnaires to assess physical activity (Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire) and motivation (Behavioral Regulations in Physical Education Questionnaire). Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the data generated from these questionnaires. Results More than three quarters of the children (76%) reported participating in extracurricular school-based sports during the current school year and 73% reported engaging in organized community sports. Almost two third of the children (65%) not participating in community sports stated that they did participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Extracurricular school-based sports participants were significantly more physically active than children not participating in extracurricular school-based sports (β = 157.62, p sports participation × community sports participation) were found for autonomous motivation, with boys engaging in extracurricular school-based sports but not in community sports being significantly more autonomously motivated towards sports than boys not engaging in community or extracurricular school-based sports (β = 0.58, p = 0.003). Such differences were not noted among girls. Conclusions If extracurricular school-based sports are offered
Balboni, Daniel C.
Researchers have conducted both theoretical and empirical research on the participation of youth in sports to understand the motivation to continue involvement. Researchers have further examined the positive effects of sports on youth who participate. Although information has been gathered in these areas regarding keeping middle school and high…
丸山, 富雄; Tomio, MARUYAMA; 仙台大学; SENDAI COLLEGE
The purpose of this study was to clarify a mechanism of sport participation of preschool children. Three items composed of parents' social achieved status, parents' interest in sport and parents' educational eagerness were investigated. Data were collected from 271 parents whose children attended kindergarten at Tokyo (sport-school participants 129, non-participants 142). As the results, participants' group was higher than non-participants' at all three items. Thus, it seems that sport partic...
Karr, Trisha M; Davidson, Denise; Bryant, Fred B; Balague, Gloria; Bohnert, Amy M
Through multiple group structural equation modeling analyses, path models were used to test the predictive effects of sport type and both interpersonal (i.e., mothers' body dissatisfaction, family dynamics) and intrapersonal factors (i.e., athletic self-efficacy, body mass index [BMI]) on high school female sport participants' (N=627) body dissatisfaction. Sport types were classified as esthetic/lean (i.e., gymnastics), non-esthetic/lean (i.e., cross-country), or non-esthetic/non-lean (i.e., softball). Most participants reported low body dissatisfaction, and body dissatisfaction did not differ across sport types. Nevertheless, mothers' body dissatisfaction was positively associated with daughters' body dissatisfaction for non-esthetic/lean and non-esthetic/non-lean sport participants, and high family cohesion was predictive of body dissatisfaction among non-esthetic/lean sport participants. Across sport types, higher BMI was associated with greater body dissatisfaction, whereas greater athletic self-efficacy was associated with lower body dissatisfaction. These findings highlight the complex relationship between interpersonal and intrapersonal factors and body dissatisfaction in adolescent female sport participants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... These results provide information for planning and effective delivery of sports programmes in schools.
Erkut, Sumru; Tracy, Allison J.
Data from a national longitudinal survey of secondary school students showed that participation in a school sport was associated with self-esteem among Mexican American boys and girls, Puerto Rican girls, and Cuban American boys. School attachment and physical well-being mediated the relationship between sports participation and self-esteem.…
Kubayi Ntwanano Alliance
Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine constraints to sport participation among female secondary school students in Hlanganani rural area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 101 female students aged 17–24 years from four secondary schools were recruited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results indicated that the dress code, lack of energy, lack of family support and family commitment were identified as major constraints to sport participation among female students. The results of this study provide practical implications for promoting and developing female sports programmes in rural schools. This study suggests that stakeholders such as parents, peers, and teachers should motivate and encourage female students to participate in school sport. Additionally, the study recommended that in order to promote sport participation in rural areas, the values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and customs that restrict females from participating in sport and physical activity should be dissented.
Jewett, Rachel; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Scarapicchia, Tanya; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
This longitudinal study examined the association between participation in school sport during adolescence and mental health in early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 853) reported participation in school sport in each grade throughout the 5 years of secondary school. In early adulthood, participants reported depressive symptoms, level of stress, and self-rated mental health. Involvement in school sport during adolescence was a statistically significant predictor of lower depression symptoms, lower perceived stress, and higher self-rated mental health in young adulthood. School sport participation may protect against poor mental health in early adulthood. Policies to increase school sport participation may be warranted as part of public health strategies to promote mental health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Browne, B A; Francis, S K
Sports are believed to contribute to physical well-being, social adjustment, and self-esteem. In this study, perceptions of social competence and family dynamics were examined among adolescent participants in school-sponsored and independent sports (baseball and skateboarding). Subjects, aged 12 to 19 years, completed a questionnaire consisting of FACES III, a social competence scale, and miscellaneous items concerning school performance, sports commitment, and perceptions of adult attitudes. Perceptions of social competence were differentially related to degree of sports involvement and perceived skill but were not related to the social acceptability of the sport. Adolescents in both groups depicted their families as demonstrating low levels of cohesion but high adaptability.
Knowles, Alex; Wallhead, Tristan L.; Readdy, Tucker
One of the primary goals of physical education is for students to gain the motivation to continue to be physically active outside of curriculum time. The purpose of this study was to use a case study approach to examine elementary students' responses to Sport Education and how it influenced their choice to participate in the same sports during…
Browne, Beverly A.; Francis, Sally K.
Examined perceptions of social competence and family dynamics among adolescent participants in school-sponsored and independent sports (baseball and skateboarding). Findings from 271 adolescents revealed that perceptions of social competence were differentially related to degree of sports involvement and perceived skill but were not related to…
Debate exists as to whether male athletes are more prone to commit acts of sexual violence and maintain problematic attitudes about sexual assault. To contribute to the literature on this relationship, this study posed the following research questions: (1) Do those students who participated in high school sports and those who did not differ significantly in their attitudes about sexual violence and willingness to intervene as a bystander? Do these differ among types of rape myths and bystander intervention situations? (2) Within a group of athletes, are there significant differences by gender or type of sport (contact sport vs. non-contact?) To answer these questions, surveys were analyzed with a sample of recent high school graduates the summer before entering college (N = 3,588). Results indicate that there were only minor differences between those students who participated in high school varsity sports and those who did not. Students who participated in sports had greater acceptance of three out of five types of rape myths, and less willingness to intervene with perpetrators after an assault; however, the effect sizes were small. There were no significant differences for bystander efficacy. The interaction between sport and gender was significant, but contact sport was not. The findings suggest that there may be aspects of male athletic participation in sports that needs to be addressed, yet there also exists the potential for engaging athletes as leaders who can act as prosocial bystanders. © The Author(s) 2014.
Denham, Bryan E.
Drawing on data gathered in the 2009 Monitoring the Future study of American youth, and controlling for race and noncompetitive exercise frequency, this research examined the explanatory effects of competitive sports participation on alcohol consumption and marijuana use as well as the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers among American…
Participation in sports has been shown to decrease standardized body mass index (zBMI), especially in school settings. Few studies have examined the impact of sports participation in a Mexican American sample. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of sports participation on wei...
Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris
This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine self-concept in relation to sport participation among basic school children. The sample included 109 sixth grade students of different Slovenian basic schools. The participants completed the Slovenian version of the SelfPerception Profile for Children – SPPC. The results show significant gender differences in some specific components of self-concept. Boys exhibited higher scores in perceived physical appearance and athletic competence, whereas girls exhibited higher levels in perceived behavioural conduct. Mean values show that students, engaged in organized sport practice, reported higher scores in all self-concept subscales than their inactive peers, although significant differences between these two groups were found in perceived scholastic competence and athletic competence. The study offers a detailed insight into the multidimensional self-perceptions of sixth grade basic school students. The results highlight the importance of physical/sports activity in the self-concept development and can be useful in promoting an active lifestyle among youth.
Quinto Romani, Annette
In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate......, it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...... of sports dedication. Our results indicate that sports participation increases peer relations in sports, however less for pupils involved in ‘energy’ and especially ‘time’ demanding training. From a policy perspective, on the basis of our results, it can be argued that elite sports classes reduces pupils...
Quinto Romani, Annette
, it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...... of sports dedication. Our results indicate that sports participation increases peer relations in sports, however less for pupils involved in ‘energy’ and especially ‘time’ demanding training. From a policy perspective, on the basis of our results, it can be argued that elite sports classes reduces pupils......In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate...
King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Oluwoye, Oladunni A.
The study purpose was to examine the relationship between sports participation and recent alcohol and past-year alcohol use among students. A secondary data analysis of the PRIDE survey (N = 37,616) was performed. A series of chi-square analyses and odds ratios were conducted. Results indicated sports participation reduced the odds for past-year…
Scurr, Joanna; Brown, Nicola; Smith, Jenny; Brasher, Amanda; Risius, Debbie; Marczyk, Anna
Emerging evidence suggests that breasts may be a barrier to physical activity for adult females. With only 12% of the UK 14-year-old girls achieving exercise guidelines, to understand deterrents to exercise in this population, we should consider whether breasts may also influence sport and exercise participation in school girls. This survey-based study investigated the influence of the breast on sport and exercise participation and breast-specific concerns in the UK school girls. A survey was developed to assess demographics, breast characteristics, breast-specific concerns in sports, breast knowledge, views on breast education, and sport participation. Chi-squared tests assessed associations between participation and breast size, sports bra use, and breast concerns. Two thousand eighty-nine school girls aged 11-18 years completed the survey, for 97 their breasts had begun developing and 96% reported wearing breast support. Forty-six percent of girls reported that their breasts had some effect on their participation in compulsory sports and exercise, which was more prevalent in girls aged 13-14 years (51%) and in larger-breasted girls (63%). More than 50% reported never wearing a sports bra during sports. Breast concerns were high with 73% reporting ≥1 breast-specific concern in sports; with breast bounce being most prevalent (38%). As most of the breast concerns raised in this survey could be addressed via education and 87% of girls wanted to know more about breasts, this study demonstrates a need for breast education for school girls, which may reduce the influence of the breast on sport and exercise participation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.
Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…
Quinto Romani, Annette
In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate, it is rel......In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate......, it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...
Webb, Derwin L.
Participation in sports, in some instances, is considered a right which grants students the opportunity to be involved in extracurricular activities. Discusses the potential violation of home-schooled students' constitutional due process and equal protection rights and the pertinent laws regarding students and their ability to participate in…
Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu
We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Lankhorst, Kristel; van der Ende-Kastelijn, Karin; de Groot, Janke; Backx, Frank; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
Children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability have lower fitness levels compared to their non-disabled peers. Low physical fitness is associated with reduced physical activity, increased cardiovascular diseases, and lower levels of both cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Moreover, children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability participate less in both recreational and competitive sports. A variety of intervention studies have shown positive, but only temporary, effects of training programs. Next to issues related to the chronic condition itself, various personal and environmental factors play a key role in determining the extent to which they participate in sports or physical activities. Due to these barriers, sport participation in the immediate after-school hours seems to be a feasible solution to get these children and adolescents physical active structurally. To investigate if an after school sport program can sustain the positive effects of an intervention, a standardized interval training will be given to improve physical fitness levels. High-intensity Interval Training (HIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training in improving physical fitness in patients with chronic diseases. Therefore, the Sport-2-Stay-Fit study will investigate whether after school sport participation can increase the sustainability of a HIT program in children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability. The Sport-2-Stay-Fit study is a clinical controlled trial. A total of 74 children and adolescents in the age of 6-19 years with a chronic disease or physical disability will be included. This could be either a cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disorder. Both children and adolescents who are ambulatory or propelling a manual wheelchair will be included. All participants will follow a HIT program of eight weeks to improve their physical fitness level. Thereafter, the
Nicos Kartakoullis; Evan Webb; George Karlis; Stavros Pouloukas; Christina Loizou
This study contributes to the limited existing research on the participation patterns of Cypriots in leisure and sports. Leisure and sport are viewed collectively while adapting the notion put forth by The Council of Europe (2007) defining leisure sports as sports activities aimed at the preservation and improvement of physical condition, health and fun. The purpose of this paper is to examine the leisure sport participation patterns of Cypriots, specifically: (1) participation patterns in le...
Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.
The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…
Simpkins, Sandra D.; Vest, Andrea E.; Becnel, Jennifer N.
This investigation examined the precursors of adolescents' participation in sport and music activities in the United States by testing a developmental model across 7 years. Data were drawn from youth questionnaires in the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 594). Findings suggest that patterns of participation across a 3-year…
Harrison, Patricia A; Narayan, Gopalakrishnan
This study examined whether participation in school team sports, exclusively or in combination with other extracurricular activities, is associated with higher levels of psychosocial functioning and healthy behavior than participation in other extracurricular activities alone or nonparticipation. The study sample includes 50,168 ninth grade public school students who completed an anonymous, voluntary statewide survey in 2001. Students were classified into four groups based on their participation in sports and other activities (such as clubs, volunteer work, band, choir, or music lessons): neither, both, other activities only, and sports only. Odds ratios for the group involved in both types of activities were significantly higher than those for all the other groups for all healthy behaviors and measures of connectedness, and significantly lower for all but one of the unhealthy behaviors. Students involved in sports, alone or in combination with other activities, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for exercise, milk consumption, and healthy self-image, and significantly lower odds for emotional distress, suicidal behavior, family substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse victimization. Students involved in other activities, alone or in combination with sports, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for doing homework and significantly lower odds for alcohol consumption, marijuana use, and vandalism. The finding that abuse victims appeared to avoid sports but not other group activities raises concern and merits further research. Considering the potential benefits of participation in sports and other activities, more research is needed to identify and overcome barriers or deterrents, particularly for youth from low-income families.
Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Rienzo, Barbara A; Miller, M David; Pigg, R Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J
Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of hopelessness and suicidality associated with physical activity and sport participation. Data from the CDC's 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was used to compare the odds of hopelessness and suicidality in students who engaged in various levels of physical activity to inactive students. Similar analyses were performed comparing risks of athletes to nonathletes, and the risks of highly involved athletes to nonathletes. Findings showed that frequent, vigorous activity reduced the risk of hopelessness and suicidality among male adolescents. However, low levels of activity actually increased the risk of feeling hopeless among young females. Yet, for both males and females, sport participation protected against hopelessness and suicidality. These findings indicate that involvement in sport confers unique psychosocial benefits that protect adolescents against suicidality. Findings suggest that mechanisms other than physical activity contribute to the protective association between sport and reduced suicidality. Social support and integration may account for some of the differences found in suicidality between athletes and nonathletes.
Full Text Available Improving adolescents’ levels of sport and physical activity (PA is an official public health issue. French national government plans were launched in 2001, 2006, and 2011 to improve the participation levels of citizens. These plans should be monitored. To date, information on temporal trends in sports has come from the national population. However, no data are available to measure temporal trends in different territories across the country. Our study aimed to measure these trends among a representative sample of adolescent students of the third biggest French region (Bouches-du-Rhône, but also one of the poorest, between 2001 and 2015. Three surveys were conducted in 2001, 2008, and 2015 in high schools (n = 3218. Logistic regressions adjusted for age were used to determine the impact of socioeconomic status (SES on sports participation and to measure the changes in sport participation rates. Participation declined among all subgroups of adolescents: from 79.0% to 65.8%. The greatest decrease was observed for boys with a high SES, whilst the lowest was for the high-SES girls. We observed that SES inequalities in access to sport increased among the girls, whilst they reduced among the boys. National government plans seem to have had limited success in this territory. Next to national studies, there is a need to develop territory specific studies which could show important disparities across the national territory.
Shifrer, Dara; Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey
The long touted athlete advantage in college enrollment has been tempered by assertions that this advantage is actually due to characteristics that precede participation. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the benefits of sports extend into contemporary times and apply equally to female and racial minority athletes. This study uses three…
Mallinson, Sarah H.; Hill, Andrew P.; Hall, Howard K.; Gotwals, John K.
The authors adopted the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism to examine the unique and interactive effects of two dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards perfectionism [PSP] and evaluative concerns perfectionism [ECP]) on personal and interpersonal indicators of participant experience in youth sport (enjoyment, physical self-worth, and friendship…
Wroble, R R; Moxley, D R
In this study, football players (N = 57) in grades 9-11 from 3 high schools chose to participate in 1 of 2 groups. Group WC (N = 39) participated in off-season strength training only. Group SP (N = 18) participated in both a winter sport (either wrestling or basketball) and an identical strength training program. All participants were tested at the close of football season (Pre) and at the end of the winter sports season (Post), a period of 4 months. Body composition (weight [W] and body fat percentage [BF]), strength (calculated 1RM [1 repetition maximum] max for barbell bench press [BP] and squat [SQ]), power (vertical jump [VJ] and seated shot put [UP]), and agility (18.3-m agility run [AG]) were measured. Both groups WC and SP increased significantly in W and BF and improved significantly in BP and VJ (p training.
Höffler, Tim Niclas; Bonin, Victoria; Parchmann, Ilka
Competitions are discussed as a measure to foster students' interest, especially for highly gifted and talented students. In the current study, participants of a cognitive school competition in science were compared to non-participants of the same age group (14-15) who either did not participate in any competition or who participated in a…
Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in School sports, amateur, recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as the laboratories are to the scientists. Without facilities sports cannot take place. This does not however imply that sports facility is the only variable that is ...
Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O
OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.
Schüttoff, Ute; Pawlowski, Tim
This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most Americans are not active at recommended levels. Adolescence is a developmental period when physical activity (PA decreases markedly. Methods This study investigates whether access to environmental PA resources moderates the relationship between psychosocial resources (social support and perceived competence and PA among 192 adolescents. Results Environmental access to PA resources (determined via GIS-based assessment of the number of gyms, schools, trails, parks and athletic fields within 0.5 miles of each participant's home moderated the association between social support and PA; among adolescents with high levels of environmental resources, greater social support was associated with students participating in a greater number of sports in school, whereas no such relationship emerged among adolescents with low environmental resources. Conclusions PA-promotion interventions should aim to enhance both social and environmental resources; targeting either one alone may be insufficient.
The purpose of this study was to determine the violence tendencies of young people studying in high school in terms of their participation in sports, status of exposure to violence and socio-demographic variables. It was also aimed to evaluate whether the identified violence tendency differed significantly by gender, grade, school success,…
Two recent studies of interschool sports and physical education in Ontario secondary schools examine the issues of differences in interschool sports participation as a reflection of socioeconomic background, gender of the participants, degree of participation, and school size.
Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel
Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kristensen, Peter L; Olesen, Line G; Ried-Larsen, Mathias
Abstract A large proportion of a child's day is spent at school interacting with certain physical surroundings, teachers, and school friends. Thus, schools could have a marked impact on establishing physical activity habits. The aim of the present study was to assess between-school variation...... between-school variation in physical activity provides information about the extent to which children adjust their physical activity habits according to the social and environmental circumstances that they share, and helps to plan future school-based physical activity studies, especially in terms...... of sample size and power calculation....
Full Text Available According to Jessica (2012 paintball is recognised as one of the world's most exciting outdoor participation sports. Paintball is played in over 104 countries by millions of men and women of all ages and lifestyles. Whether homemakers or high-school students, professionals or retirees, all paintball players share in common a love for adventure and a strong competitive spirit. Some confusion exists in industry and amongst players on whether paintball is and adventure or extreme sport as well as terminologies used. The article serves to analyse and clarify the unique terminologies used in paintball and debate classification of paintball as either an adventure or extreme sport. A detailed description of equipment used, player categories as well as formats that are employed are discussed so as to elucidate for readers who are unfamiliar with paintball.
Wallhead, Tristan L.; Garn, Alex C.; Vidoni, Carla; Youngberg, Charli
Sport Education has embedded pedagogical strategies proposed to reduce the prevalence of amotivation in physical education. The purpose of this study was to provide an examination of the game play participation rates of amotivated students within a Sport Education season. A sample of 395 high school students participated in a season of team…
Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando; Rasciute, Simona
Based on the Eurobarometer data from 2009 (N = 26,788), this paper investigates the correlates of sports participation. In addition to examining standard socio-demographic, economic and lifestyle factors, the paper also focuses on the impact of motivational factors, the availability of sports infrastructure and government support, for the first time collectively at the European level. A further contribution of the paper is that it simultaneously investigates both the decision to participate in sport and the frequency of sports participation in this context. This is made possible through the application of a Zero-Inflated Ordered Probit estimator. This estimator also takes into account two types of non-participants: those who have never participated in sport and those who did not participate at the time of the survey. The results show that the decision to participate in sports and the frequency of sports participation of males and females are affected by different factors, therefore distinct government policies should be applied to attract new, and retain the existing, participants. For example, women are affected more by a need to improve self-esteem, while the men to produce social integration. The provision of sports facilities is of more importance for males, which may indicate a male-oriented nature of the sports facilities, for example, the gym. However, the number of adults and the number of children in the household reduce the probability of sports participation by females. Therefore, higher provision of childcare may be important if female participation is to be increased.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the frequency of participation in sport activity of Slovenes. The sample consisted of 1286 persons, 54% were women and 46% were men. To obtain the necessary data a questionnaire method was used. We focused on two groups of questions. The first group reffered to participation in sport activity in general (frequency of any sport activity and the second group reffered to participation in a particular sport. The results show that 33% of Slovenes were regularly active, 31% occasionally active and 36% non-active. They were the most active in the following sport activities: walking, swimming, cycling, alpine skiing and mountaineering.
Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Amemiya, Jamie
Although sport involvement has the potential to enhance psychological wellbeing, studies have suggested that motivation to participate in sports activities declines across childhood and adolescence. This study incorporated expectancy-value theory to model children's sport ability self-concept and subjective task values trajectories from first to twelfth grade. Additionally, it examined if sport motivation trajectories predicted individual and team-based sport participation and whether sport participation in turn reduced the development of depressive symptoms. Data were drawn from the Childhood and Beyond Study, a cross-sequential longitudinal study comprised of three cohorts (N = 1065; 49% male; 92% European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave were 6.42, 7.39, and 9.36 years, respectively). Results revealed four trajectories of students' co-development of sport self-concept and task values: congruent stable high, incongruent stable high, middle school decreasing, and decreasing. Trajectory membership predicted individual and team-based sports participation, but only team-based sport participation predicted faster declines in depressive symptoms. The use of a person-centered approach enabled us to identify heterogeneity in trajectories of sport motivation that can aid in the development of nuanced strategies to increase students' motivation to participate in sports.
Correlations between social class and specific types of sport participation have frequently been observed (Crook 1997; Ceron-Anaya 2010; Dollman and Lewis 2010; Stalsberg and Pedersen 2010). However, discrete associations between occupational class positions and specific sporting activities overlook the complex interrelationships amongst these sports. Until recently, understanding the relationality of sport has been constrained by a lack of available and appropriate data. Work by Bourdieu (19...
Pot, J.N.; Schenk, N.; van Hilvoorde, I.M.
It seems common knowledge that school sport participation leads to all kinds of social, educational and health outcomes. However, it may also be that students with a certain predisposition, sometimes referred to as sporting habitus, are more inclined to participate in school sports and that the
R. M. Eime
Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation in sport can contribute to health-enhancing levels of leisure-time physical activity. There are recent reports that participation in sport in Australia is decreasing. However, these studies are limited to ages 15 years and over. Methods This study integrates sports club membership data from five popular team sports and investigates sport participation across the lifespan (4–100 years by sex and region (metropolitan/non-metropolitan. Results Overall participant numbers per annum increased from 414,167 in 2010 to 465,403 in 2012 corresponding to a rise in the proportion of Victorian’s participating in these sports from 7.5 % in 2010 to 8.3 % in 2012. The highest proportion of participants was in the 10–14 year age range, with participation rates of 36 % in 2010 and 40 % in 2012. There was a considerably lower participation rate in the 15–19 year age group compared to the 10–14 age group, in all three years studied, and the decline continued progressively with increasing age. Male and female age profiles of participation were generally similar in shape, but the female peak at age 10–14 was sharper than for the males, and conversely there were very few 4 year old female participants. Participation rates were generally higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas; the difference increased with increasing age from 4 to 34 years, then steadily declined, reaching parity at around 60 years of age. Conclusions It is a positive sign that participation in these popular sports increased by over 50,000 participants from 2010 to 2012. Large proportions of the population aged 5–14 participate in club based sport. Participation rates decline sharply in late adolescence, particularly for females, and while this may not be a concern from a broad health perspective so long as they transition into other forms of physical activity, it is certainly a matter of concern for the sport sector. It is recommended
King, Katherine; Church, Andrew
Young people have been identified as a key target group for whom participation in sport and physical activity could have important benefits to health and wellbeing and consequently have been the focus of several government policies to increase participation in the UK. Lifestyle sports represent one such strategy for encouraging and sustaining new engagements in sport and physical activity in youth groups, however, there is at present a lack of understanding of the use of these activities with...
Pot, Niek; Schenk, Niels; van Hilvoorde, Ivo
It seems common knowledge that school sport participation leads to all kinds of social, educational and health outcomes. However, it may also be that students with a certain predisposition, sometimes referred to as sporting habitus, are more inclined to participate in school sports and that the 'outcomes' were already present before participation. Several studies indicated that identity formation mediates between sport participation and the outcomes described. Therefore, a longitudinal survey study was used to investigate whether participation in an elementary school sport competition brought about changes in the formation of sport identity and student identity of students. The results of the study showed that participation in the competition was not related to changes in the sport identity and student identity of the children. In contrast to commonplace assumptions about the socialising effects of school sport participation, the results indicate that participating in this school sport competition did not influence the student identity and sport identity of children. It may be that a selected, predisposed group of children with a strong sport identity participates in school sports, although future research is necessary to test this hypothesis.
Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Eys, Mark A; Emond, Michael; Buzdon, Michael
Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extra-curricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a) athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b) females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception.
Sports participation has been adjudged to enhance healthy living. This study described anthropometric and physiological (A-P) profiles of university athletes based on types of sports (ToS) and duration (in years) of participation (DoP). One hundred and twenty-nine athletes (69 males, 60 females), aged l5-36, who had ...
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky
This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome...... of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure...
Gadzic, Aleksandar; Vuckovic, Igor
Study aim: To examine the relationships between sport participation and sociometric status of adolescent youths. Material and methods: A group of 359 secondary school students from central Serbia (143 male and 216 female) aged 16-19 years participated in the study. The subjects were given questionnaires pertaining to their participation in sports…
Zorzi, A; Pelliccia, A; Corrado, D
Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death in adolescents and young adults with inherited cardiomyopathies. Many young subjects aspire to continue competitive sport after a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy and the clinician is frequently confronted with the problem of eligibility and the request of designing specific exercise programs. Since inherited cardiomyopathies are the leading cause of sudden cardiovascular death during sports performance, a conservative approach implying disqualification of affected athletes from most competitive athletic disciplines is recommended by all the available international guidelines. On the other hand, we know that the health benefits of practicing recreational sports activity can overcome the potential arrhythmic risk in these patients, provided that the type and level of exercise are tailored on the basis of the specific risk profile of the underlying cardiomyopathy. This article will review the available evidence on the sports-related risk of sudden cardiac death and the recommendations regarding eligibility of individuals affected by inherited cardiomyopathies for sports activities.
Dauty, M; Letenneur, J
To recommand sports activities after joint arthroplasty from the literature analysis, the French surgeon's opinion and wish patients. From the Medline data base interrogation according to keywords: Sports, Arthroplasty, Athletics, Physical training, two different readers, an orthopedic surgeon and a Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation physician selected articles in French or English language according to the level of proofs of the french classification of the Accreditation and Health Evaluation National Agency (Anaes). Professional practices were estimated by the interrogation of 30 orthopedic surgeons members of the french West Orthopaedics Society (SOO). The demand of sports practice was studied with patients recently operated for a primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after gonarthrosis. Twenty-two articles were selected from 305 articles obtained by the search according to keywords. Ten literature reviews are limited by the absence of prospective randomized study. A level II study and eleven level IV articles are reported. According to the subjective orthropedic surgeon's opinion, the objective results based on the joint load studied and the percentage of arthroplasty revision, sport is beneficial for the individual health but perhaps not for the arthroplasty survey. However, aerobic and leisure activities are recommended (walking, swimming, cycling) in agreement with the demand of the patients recently operated with a TKA. TKA differs from Total Hip Arthroplasty for jogging because of knee joint constraints during the knee flexion. A single study reports sports possibilities after shoulder arthroplasty and ankle arthroplasty and no study reports results after elbow arthroplasty.
Strahle, Jennifer; Geh, Ndi; Selzer, Béla J; Bower, Regina; Himedan, Mai; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Wetjen, Nicholas M; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O
OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with Chiari I malformation (CM-I). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with the imaging finding of CM-I. METHODS A prospective survey was administered to 503 CM-I patients at 2 sites over a 46-month period. Data were gathered on imaging characteristics, treatment, sports participation, and any sport-related injuries. Additionally, 81 patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry and were included in a prospective group, with a mean prospective follow-up period of 11 months. RESULTS Of the 503 CM-I patients, 328 participated in sports for a cumulative duration of 4641 seasons; 205 of these patients participated in contact sports. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. One patient had temporary extremity paresthesias that resolved within hours, and this was not definitely considered to be related to the CM-I. In the prospective cohort, there were no permanent neurological injuries. CONCLUSIONS No permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries were observed in CM-I patients participating in athletic activities. The authors believe that the risk of such injuries is low and that, in most cases, sports participation by children with CM-I is safe.
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 2016, ... question – what shapes the ethnic identity of immigrants in the context of sport participation? ... tends to be determined by the quality of experience they have when ..... International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(2): 203-229.
Habel, Melissa A; Dittus, Patricia J; De Rosa, Christine J; Chung, Emily Q; Kerndt, Peter R
Previous studies suggest that student athletes may be less likely than nonathletes to engage in sexual behavior. However, few have explored sexual risk behavior among athletes in early adolescence. In 2005, a sample of 10,487 students in 26 Los Angeles public middle and high schools completed a self-administered survey that asked about their demographic characteristics, sports participation, sexual behaviors and expectations, and parental relationships. Chi-square analyses compared reported levels of daily participation in sports, experience with intercourse, experience with oral sex and condom use at last intercourse by selected characteristics. Predictors of sexual experience and condom use were assessed in multivariate logistic regression analyses. One-third of students reported daily participation in sports. This group had higher odds of ever having had intercourse and ever having had oral sex than their peers who did not play a sport daily (odds ratios, 1.2 and 1.1, respectively). The increases in risk were greater for middle school sports participants than for their high school counterparts (1.5 and 1.6, respectively). Among sexually experienced students, daily sports participants also had elevated odds of reporting condom use at last intercourse (1.4). Students as young as middle school age who participate in sports daily may have an elevated risk for STDs and pregnancy. Health professionals should counsel middle school athletes about sexual risk reduction, given that young students may find it particularly difficult to obtain contraceptives, STD testing and prevention counseling. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Physical Education and sport has a natural place in education whether the approach is formal or informal. Providing learners with the opportunity to play sport at school and to participate in Physical Education ensure that they receive education that addresses the body, mind and spirit. Participation in sport and physical ...
McLain, Larry G.; Heldrich, Fred T.
Presents a case report of a 15-year-old boy with severe hemophilia who played soccer 1 school year but was denied continued participation following another screening examination. Before deciding about participation, physicians must assess the type and severity of hemophilia and risk factors for injury. Appropriate sports for hemophiliacs are…
People with epilepsy (PWE) have been discouraged from participating in exercise and sports because of the fear of inducing seizures or increasing seizure frequency, risks associated with such activities, stigma, and overprotection. Recently, there has been a shift in the medical recommendations toward encouraging, rather than restricting, participation. Cases of exercise-induced seizures are rare. Physical activity can exert beneficial actions, such as a reduction in seizure susceptibility and the number of seizures, improvement in quality of life (QOL), and better social integration. The antiepileptogenic and neuroprotective effects of exercise in epilepsy have been shown. The majority of sports are safe for PWE to participate in when special attention is paid to seizure control, direct supervision, etc. Human and animal studies have supported the use of exercise as a therapy for epilepsy, complementary to standard treatments. The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy offers general guidelines concerning the participation of PWE in sports activities. Sports are divided into three categories based on the potential risk of injury or death. Engaging in physical exercise and sports activities has positive effects for PWE. The ILAE propose to use the regulations governing the issuance of fitness certificates for driving as a possible guide. The decision to participate in sports is based on whether the benefit outweighs the risk.
Limperg, P F; Joosten, M M H; Fijnvandraat, K; Peters, M; Grootenhuis, M A; Haverman, L
This study assesses health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and variables associated with HRQOL, in children and adolescents with haemophilia and congenital bleeding disorders (CBD) in the Netherlands. Patients Differences and effect sizes in HRQOL compared to healthy peers, and between hemophilia severity groups, were tested using Mann Whitney U-tests. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess variables associated with HRQOL. Data of 145 patients (81%) were analyzed (N = 32 with severe haemophilia). Children (0-12 years) show no significant impairments in HRQOL compared to healthy peers. Adolescent boys (13-18 years) with CBD report a slightly higher HRQOL on the total and emotional functioning scales than healthy peers (small-moderate effect sizes). In contrast, adolescent girls experience lower HRQOL on total, social functioning and psychosocial health scales compared to healthy peers (moderate effect sizes). No differences between severity groups were found in HRQOL, but more problem behaviour was found in young boys (0-5 years) with severe haemophilia. Male gender, participation in sports and school attendance are positively associated with HRQOL. Parental country of birth, type of treatment and number of bleeds are not associated with HRQOL. Continuing monitoring HRQOL in daily clinical practice for children with CBD is important, since possible influencing psychosocial factors can change over time, with special focus on adolescent girls, sports participation and school absence. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Paakkari, Leena; Kokko, Sami; Villberg, Jari; Paakkari, Olli; Tynjälä, Jorma
The aim of this research was to compare the levels of perceived health literacy among adolescents who do or do not participate in sports club activities. Organized sport club activities reach a high proportion of adolescents, and have the potential to contribute to the development of their health literacy. The cross-sectional data on health literacy among school children in Finland (aged 13 and 15, n=3852) were measured, as a part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, using the Health Literacy for School-aged Children (HLSAC) instrument. Sports club participation and its association with health literacy were examined in relation to age, gender, family affluence, school achievement, and physical activity. The statistical analyses included cross-tabulation and the multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses. Perceived health literacy was higher among adolescents who participated in sports club activities. This conclusion was valid for boys and girls, for both age groups, among those who were physically active 6-7 days a week, had at least moderate school achievement, and those who belonged to the middle or high affluence families. From the health literacy perspective, participation in sports club activities was especially beneficial for those having low or moderate school achievement level. The sports club setting may work towards equalizing health literacy differences related to school achievement. However, the clubs should ensure that access is available to as many adolescents as possible; by this means they may spread beneficial influences, supporting the development of health literacy among broader population groups.
Dalene, Knut Eirik; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Andersen, Lars Bo; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Ekelund, Ulf; Hansen, Bjørge H; Kolle, Elin
The aim of this study was to investigate how sleep, screen time, active school travel and sport and/or exercise participation associates with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in nationally representative samples of Norwegian 9- and 15-y-olds, and whether these four behaviors at age nine predict change in MVPA from age nine to 15 years. We pooled cross-sectional accelerometer and questionnaire data from 9- (n = 2366) and 15-y-olds (n = 1554) that participated in the first (2005/06) and second (2011/12) wave of the Physical Activity among Norwegian Children Study to investigate cross-sectional associations. To investigate prospective associations, we used data from a sub-sample that participated in both waves (at age nine and 15 years, n = 517). Cross-sectional analyses indicated a modest, inverse association between screen time and MVPA among 9- (- 2.2 min/d (95% CI: -3.1, - 1.3)) and 15-y-olds (- 1.7 min/d (95% CI: -2.7, - 0.8)). Compared to their peers with 0-5 min/d of active travel to school, 9- and 15-y-olds with ≥16 min/d accumulated 7.2 (95% CI: 4.0, 10.4) and 9.0 (95% CI: 3.8, 14.1) more min/d of MVPA, respectively. Nine-y-old boys and 15-y-olds reporting ≥8 h/week of sports and/or exercise participation accumulated 14.7 (95% CI: 8.2, 21.3) and 17.9 (95% CI: 14.0, 21.8) more min/d of MVPA, respectively, than those reporting ≤2 h/week. We found no cross-sectional association between sleep duration and MVPA in either age group. None of the four behaviors predicted change in MVPA from age nine to 15 years (p ≥ 0.102). Active travel to school and sport/exercise participation may be important targets for future interventions aimed at increasing MVPA in children and adolescents. However, future studies are needed to determine causality.
Burrows, Lisette; McCormack, Jaleh
This article draws on ethnographic work undertaken with 21 students and several members of staff at an elite girls' school in New Zealand to investigate the relation between school culture, pedagogical practices and discourses of physical education and school sport. It explores what and who contours the participation of these young women in sport,…
Priest, Naomi; Armstrong, Rebecca; Doyle, Jodie; Waters, Elizabeth
There is now compelling scientific evidence that increased levels of physical activity can bring wide-ranging health benefits. These benefits can extend beyond physical health to include other positive impacts relating to mental health and personal development. The sport and recreation sector is viewed as a priority area for increasing rates of physical activity. Participation rates in organised sport have been shown to be lower in females and to decline with age, and are reduced in lower socio-economic and minority groups including people from non-English speaking and Indigenous backgrounds. It is important to determine the most effective interventions that sporting organisations can use to increase people's participation. To update a review of all controlled studies evaluating interventions implemented through sporting organisations to increase participation. We updated the original (2004) searches in May 2007. We searched: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2007); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations (2004 to Week 3 April 2007); EMBASE (2004 to Week 17 2007); PsyclNFO (2004 to April Week 1 2007); CINAHL (2004 to Week 1 May 2007); SPORTDiscus (2004 to April 2007); Sociological Abstracts (2004 to 2007); Dissertation Abstracts (2004 to May 2007), and a number of freely-available online health promotion and sports-related databases. We used the internet extensively to search for studies and locate information generated by sporting bodies throughout the world. Controlled studies evaluating any intervention designed to increase active and/ or non-active participation in sport by people of all ages. Interventions could include: mass media campaigns; information or education sessions; management or organisational change strategies; policy changes, for example to improve the socio-cultural environment to encourage people of specific age, gender or ethnicity to participate; changes to
Harris, Paul C.
The purpose of this study is to explore the direct, indirect, and total effects of high school sports participation on educational attainment for Black males using the Educational Longitudinal Study (2002/2006), a large, nationally representative, database. A path analysis procedure for determining underlying causal relationships between variables…
Cloes, Marc; Emond, Catherine; Ledent, Maryse; Piéron, Maurice
Considering their sociocultural and economic impact, sport events represent a pertinent centre of interest for sport management research. Considering their frequent occurrence and importance to the survival of many associations such as sport clubs, schools, youth or neighbourhood committees, mass sport events could receive more attention than they actually do. In this paper attention was focused on participants and spectators attending the following five mass sport events organised in Walloni...
Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.
Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Sean Esteban; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J
Although sport participation among adolescents has been found to lower the risk of traditional cigarette smoking, no studies to date have assessed if this type of physical activity lowers the risk of e-cigarette use among adolescents. National data from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future study of 12th-grade students were used and analyses were conducted in 2016. Measures for past 30-day e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were used to assess differences between adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the past year and adolescents who did not. Differences in e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were assessed between 13 different sports to determine which sports were associated with a greater or lower risk of these behaviors. Adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport were less likely to engage in past 30-day traditional cigarette smoking (AOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.538, 0.973) and past 30-day dual use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.438, 0.982) when compared with their nonparticipating peers. Adolescents who participated in baseball/softball and wrestling were at greatest risk of e-cigarette use. Of the 13 assessed sports, none were found to lower the odds of e-cigarette use. No significant evidence was found that participation in a sport was a protective factor against e-cigarette use. Certain types of athletes are at an elevated risk of e-cigarette use, and prevention efforts targeted at these specific sports should be considered by school administrators. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kondric, Miran; Sindik, Joško; Furjan-Mandic, Gordana; Schiefler, Bernd
The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in motivation to participate in sport activities among sports students from three different countries. On a sample of 390 sports students from Slovenia, Croatia and Germany we studied what motivates an interest in being sports active. The sample was stratified across the choice to attend table tennis lessons at all three institutions and all students have completed the Participation Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ). The results revealed that the latent structure of the types of sports students' motives consisted of six factors (sport action with friend, popularity, fitness & health, social status, sports events, relaxation through sports). We also found significant sex differences in motivation to participate in sport activities for all sports students from the three different countries. We did not find relevant age-based differences among the students, and this is the only initial hypothesis that we can reject. Key pointsThe potential implications of the result can be in better understanding the relationship between different motivational orientations - in particular, extrinsic motivation - and sport motivation among school-aged individuals.In the context of Self Determination Theory, students can be encouraged in developing more autonomous orientations for sport activity, rather than controlled and impersonal, especially in certain countries.Significant factors of differences have been found in motivation to participate in sport activities among sports students from three different countries and also some significant sex differences have been found in motivation to participate in sport activities for all sports students.
Gorman, Paul P; Butler, Robert J; Rauh, Mitchell J; Kiesel, Kyle; Plisky, Phillip J
Researchers have previously reported on the importance of dynamic balance in assessing an individual's risk for injury during sport. However, to date there is no research on whether multiple sport participation affects dynamic balance ability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in dynamic balance scores in high school athletes that competed in one sport only as compared athletes who competed in multiple sports, as tested by the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ). Ninety-two high school athletes who participated in one sport were matched, by age, gender and sport played, to athletes who participated in the same sport as well as additional sports. All individuals were assessed using the YBT-LQ to examine differences in composite reach score and reach direction asymmetry between single sport and multiple sport athletes. The greatest reach distance of three trials in each reach direction for right and left lower-extremities was normalized by limb length and used for analysis. A two-way ANOVA (gender x number of sports played) was used to statistically analyze the variables in the study. No significant interactions or main effects related to number of sports played were observed for any YBT-LQ score (p>0.05). Male athletes exhibited significantly greater normalized reach values for the posteromedial, posterolateral, and composite reach while also exhibiting a larger anterior reach difference when compared to the females. Athletes who participated in multiple sports had similar performances on the YBT-LQ when compared to athletes who participated in a single sport. The findings of this study suggest that the number of sports played by a high school athlete does not need to be controlled for when evaluating dynamic balance with the YBT-LQ.
de Groot, Wouter; Moolenaar, Ben; Mombarg, Remo
Introduction In elementary school, children have to learn fundamental motor skills to ensure a lifetime participation in sports. An essential part of this learning process is organized in physical education lessons and other sport activities during or after school time. The quality and quantity of
Solomon, Nancy M.
This policy brief highlights the interrelationship between sports participation and teen pregnancy prevention, noting barriers that have prevented sports from being utilized in teen pregnancy prevention. Discrimination against girls and women in school sports persists 30 years after Congress enacted Title IX, and this prevents girls and young…
Egan, Elizabeth; Reilly, Thomas; Giacomoni, Magali; Redmond, Louise; Turner, Clare
Training for and participation in impact-loading sports are associated with alterations in bone strength which are specific to anatomical site and type of strain. The effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) depends on the type of activity engaged in. Sports with high impact loading seem to have a positive effect in promoting bone mineralisation, whereas those with low impacts may have negative or no effects. The aims of the present study were to compare BMD and body composition measures among female participants in three distinctly different sports and investigate differences from sedentary control subjects. Participants were club and university level Rugby Union football players (n = 30, age: 21.4 +/- 1.9 years, height: 1.67 +/- 0.05 m, mass: 73.3 +/- 10.7 kg), netball players (n = 20, 20.7 +/- 1.3 years, 1.68 +/- 0.07 m, 64.3 +/- 7.2 kg), distance runners (n = 11, 21.5 +/- 2.6 years, 1.68 +/- 0.04 m, 57.1 +/- 6.1 kg), and sedentary controls (n = 25, 21.4 +/- 1.1 years; 1.64 +/- 0.07 m, 56.8 +/- 6.8 kg). With the exception of three distance runners, all participants were eumenorrhoeic. Bone mineral density scans were performed for whole-body, left proximal femur, and lumbar spine (L1-4) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat mass, percent body fat, and fat-free soft tissue mass were assessed from whole-body scans. Regional and segmental analysis was also carried out on whole-body BMD data using standard procedures. The runners had a lower fat mass and percent body fat compared to the other sports participants and the controls. All sports groups had higher BMD values than had the controls. Density of bone in the upper body was most pronounced in the rugby football players and least pronounced in the runners. Positive effects were evident at all sites for the rugby players. There were significant correlations between BMD and fat-free soft tissue mass, BMD and body mass, and BMD and training volume. It is concluded that sports participation has positive
... submit" value="Submit" /> HEADS UP to School Sports Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir To help ... organizations, developed the HEADS UP: Concussion in School Sports initiative and materials. Specific Concussion Information for... Coaches ...
M.S. Omar-Fauzee; Mohd Nizam Nazarudin; Yudha M. Saputra; Nina Sutresna; Duangkrai Taweesuk; Wipoj Chansem; Rozita Abd. Latif; Soh Kim Geok
The sport participation has been a major part of our life in the societies. Studies on sports participation have found that sports have both positive and negative influence on character buildings. It has been on-going debate on whether ‘sports build character’ but through literature analysis, author had found that ‘with the intention, sports do build character.’ Therefore, strategies of building character through sports are suggested in this paper.
McVeigh, Sonja A; Hitzig, Sander L; Craven, B Cathy
To determine whether community integration and/or quality of life (QoL) among people living with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are superior among sport participants vs non-sport participants. Cross-sectional study. Persons (n=90) living in the community with SCI (ASIA Impairment Scale A-D), level C5 or below, > 15 years of age, >12 months postinjury, and requiring a wheelchair for >1 hours/day were divided into 2 groups based on their self-reported sport participation at interview: sport participants (n=45) and non-sport participants (n 5). Independent-sample t tests revealed that both Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) and Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNL) total mean scores were higher among sport participants vs nonsport participants (P sport participants. Similarly, the unadjusted odds ratio of a high RNL score was 7.00 (95% CI 2.3, 21.0) among current sport participants. Regression-adjusted odds ratios of high CIQ and high RNL scores were 1.36 (95% CI 0.09, 1.45) and 0.15 (95% CI 0.04, 0.55), respectively. The odds ratio for pre-SCI sport participation predicting post-SCI sport participation was 3.06 (95% CI 1.23, 7.65). CIQ and QoL scores were higher among sport participants compared to non-sport participants. There was an association between mean CIQ and RNL scores for both groups. Sport participants were 4.75 and 7.00 times as likely to have high CIQ and QoL scores. Both groups had a similar likelihood of high CIQ and RNL scores after adjusting for important confounders. Individuals who participated in sports prior to SCI were more likely to participate in sports post-SCI.
Every country around the world enjoys some sort of sport. The Olympics sees countries from all over the globe participate in elite sport, in both winter and summer competitions. Australia is widely known for cricket and rugby; America is known for baseball and gridiron football (among others). These sports are played at an elite level as well as beginners from early ages as young as 4 years in the backyard. Yet, it is also these sports that can deliver a ball at the speed of 100 km/h (football), 105 km/h (baseball), 112 km/h (rugby), 150 km/h (cricket), and 211 km/h (soccer). This is the same force that a car collision can produce. That force eventually finds a target, and in some cases, unfortunately, it is a head. Damage to the brain is not only from the impact of the ball hitting its target but rather also the shearing forces of acceleration-deceleration injury that can cause extensive injuries. There has been much discussion of late regarding concussion in sport and the accumulative effects of head blows resulting in varying degrees of memory loss and dementia later in life. The media have been saturated with heightened awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. This, however, is still being researched. It is true that each concussion compounds the one before, but rather than focus on the injury, managers/coaches and sporting codes should be focusing on the identification and proper management of a suspected concussion and the return-to-play protocols. This is especially important in our schools where growing brains need nurturing. Neuroscience nurses are at the forefront of educating school children, teachers, and coaches through partnering with local schools. This article will focus on concussion recognition and management in school sport.
Brooks, M. Alison; Post, Eric G.; Trigsted, Stephanie M.; Schaefer, Daniel A.; Wichman, Daniel M.; Watson, Andrew M.; McGuine, Timothy A.; Bell, David R.
Background: There are a variety of proposed motivations for sport specialization, such as improving sport skills to an elite level, making all-star or travel teams, or receiving a scholarship or professional contract. However, there has not been a quantitative examination of the attitudes and beliefs that may be contributing to the trend of sport specialization and year-round sport participation. Purpose: The primary aim was to describe the attitudes and beliefs of youth club sport athletes regarding sport specialization and sport participation. A secondary objective was to investigate whether an association exists between the level of sport specialization and the belief in receiving a college scholarship. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 974 youth athletes (578 female; mean age, 14.2 ± 1.6 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire that focused on attitudes and beliefs toward sport specialization and sport participation. Questions were developed utilizing the feedback of a panel of content area experts and the University of Wisconsin Survey Center. Data were summarized using frequencies, proportions (%), and means ± SDs. Results: Fewer than half of all athletes (45.8%) believed that specialization increased their chances of getting injured either “quite a bit” or “a great deal.” However, 91% of athletes believed that specialization increased their chances of getting better at their sport either “quite a bit” or “a great deal.” Similarly, the majority of athletes believed that specialization increased their chances of making their high school team (80.9%) or a college team (66.9%) either “quite a bit” or “a great deal.” Overall, 15.7% of athletes believed that they were either “very” or “extremely” likely to receive a college scholarship based on athletic performance. Highly specialized athletes were nearly twice as likely to have a high belief in receiving a college scholarship
Nurullah Emir Ekinci
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate self-confidence levels of high school students, who do sport, in the extent of their gender, sport branch (individual/team sports and aim for participating in sport (professional/amateur. 185 active high school students from Kutahya voluntarily participated for the study. In the study as data gathering tool self-confidence scale was used. In the evaluation of the data as a hypothesis test Mann Whitney U non parametric test was used. As a result self-confidence levels of participants showed significant differences according to their gender and sport branch but there was no significant difference according to aim for participating in sport.
Kramer, D; Stronks, K; Maas, J; Wingen, M; Kunst, A E
Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social neighborhood environment and three location-specific sports outcomes. Repeated cross-sectional data on sports participation (any type of sports, sports at indoor sports clubs, sports at outdoor sports clubs, sports on streets) were obtained from 20 600 adults using the Dutch national health survey 2006-2009. Data on neighborhood social safety and social capital were obtained using the Dutch Housing Research 2006. Over 40% of Dutch adults participated in any type of sports. Indoor sports clubs were most popular. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that neighborhood social safety was positively associated with sports at indoor sports clubs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.48), but not with the other sports outcomes. Contrary, neighborhood social capital was positively associated with sports on streets only (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17-2.44). The results suggest that a positive social neighborhood environment enhances sports participation, but that this impact depends on the location of the sports activity. This study highlights the importance of using location-specific sports outcomes when assessing environmental determinants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Heidemann, Malene; Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René
lessons per week) were compared to children at "traditional" schools (2×45min of PE lessons per week) in Svendborg, Denmark. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline (2008) and at a two-year follow-up (2010). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and bone area (BA) were measured...
Full Text Available Sport involvement among children and adolescents has been a central field of research in sport science since years. This paper documents the participation of 11- to 15-year-olds in sport clubs and informal sport activities in Liechtenstein and examines possible gender- and age-specific differences. The analysis is based on four cross-sectional studies from 2004 to 2015 and includes the data of 1’262 children in primary (5th grade and secondary (7th and 9th grades school. According to our findings sports and exercise are considered to be one of the main leisure-time activities for all school levels (irrespective of gender. The percentage of fully sport-abstinent adolescents by 11- and 13-year-olds is about 5 %; by 15-year-olds is around 10 %. The culmination of sports club membership (with current 84.7 % appears to be at the age of 11 (5th grade. After the switch to secondary school the sports club commitment tends to decrease, while the high attendance of the informal sport activities (>85 % shows relatively stable age development. In contrast to other child and youth studies, our data indicates a levelling tendency and dissolution of classic gender differences not only in sports club commitment but also in informal sports among girls and boys.
Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; van der Sluis, Corry K
The aim of this study was to analyse sports participation of individuals with upper limb deficiency (ULD) and associated factors. Individuals with ULD originating from the Netherlands were invited, via their attending physiatrist or prosthetist, to answer a digital or paper questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 34 items related to personal characteristics, type of deficiency and participation in sports. Of the 175 respondents, 57% participated in sports for at least 60 min/week (athletes). Results of logistic regression analyses indicated that the presence of an additional health problem hindering sports participation (β=-1.31, psports participation. For individuals with an acquired ULD, a medium education level (β=0 0.77, p=0.108) and participation in sports before their amputation (β=1.11, p=0.007) had a positive influence on sports participation. The desire to stay healthy and the pleasure derived from sports participation represented the main reasons for participation in sports according to athletes. The presence of an additional medical problem and a lack of motivation were reasons for non-athletes to not participate in sports. The majority of individuals with ULD participate in sports regularly. The presence of an additional medical problem, as well as the level of ULD, educational level and participation in sports before amputation, was related to participation in sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
In this study; the perceptions of the students studying at sport high schools about democratic school culture were analysed in accordance with different variables. Participants of the research consisted of 216 students studying at Sport High Schools in Sakarya and Batman Provinces of Turkey. The data were collected with the Democratic School…
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter
This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.
Wahl-Alexander, Zachary; Sinelnikov, Oleg; Curtner-Smith, Matthew
The purpose of this study was to examine middle school students' recollections of their participation in a significant number of Sport Education seasons over a period of five years. Thirty-one (18 boys and 13 girls) eighth-grade students (average age at data collection = 13 years) who had all participated in at least 17 Sport Education seasons…
Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin
Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…
Pharr, Jennifer; Lough, Nancy L
Studies have shown participation in sport is lower among girls than boys, decreases as students matriculate through high school, is lowest among Black and Hispanic girls and has a positive relationship with SES. With sport recognized as a contributor to physical activity and health in adolescents, consideration of diminishing rates of participation appears warranted. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns related to differences in self-reported sport participation between genders, ethnic groups, grades and SES. This study was a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of data collected for a sport interest survey. All students in grades 8-11 attending middle and high schools were provided an opportunity to participate in the survey. Data from 49,832 students were analyzed. Among the participants, Black girls participated more and White girls participated less than expected. Black boys participated more while White and Asian boys participated less than expected. Reported sport participation was high compared with national data when analyzed by gender and ethnic group. Sport participation was higher in low SES schools compared with high SES schools. The importance of sport as a source of physical activity in underserved groups is significant.
Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A
Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.
Eime, Rochelle M; Casey, Meghan M; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Young, Janet A; Payne, Warren R
Many children are not physically active enough for a health benefit. One avenue of physical activity is modified sport programs, designed as an introduction to sport for young children. This longitudinal study identified trends in participation among children aged 4-12 years. Outcomes included continuation in the modified sports program, withdrawal from the program or transition to club sport competition. De-identified data on participant membership registrations in three popular sports in the Australian state of Victoria were obtained from each sport's state governing body over a 4-year period (2009-2012 for Sport A and 2010-2013 for Sports B and C). From the membership registrations, those who were enrolled in a modified sports program in the first year were tracked over the subsequent three years and classified as one of: transition (member transitioned from a modified sport program to a club competition); continue (member continued participation in a modified sport program; or withdraw (member discontinued a modified program and did not transition to club competition). Many modified sports participants were very young, especially males aged 4-6 years. More children withdrew from their modified sport program rather than transitioning. There were age differences between when boys and girls started, withdrew and transitioned from the modified sports programs. If we can retain children in sport it is likely to be beneficial for their health. This study highlights considerations for the development and implementation of sport policies and programming to ensure lifelong participation is encouraged for both males and females.
Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B; Andersen, L B
Despite the well-documented health effects of physical activity, few studies focus on the correlates of leisure-time sports and exercise participation. The present study examined correlations between adolescent sports participation and demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES) and sociocultural factors. A school-based cross-sectional cluster sample including 6356 Danish fifth- and ninth-grade adolescents from four municipalities were included. Age (younger) and gender (boy) were associated with adolescents' sports participation. Girls were half as likely [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.55] to participate in sports than boys. Adolescents were more likely to participate in sports if they perceived their parents as active in exercise or sports. Adolescents with one or two unemployed parents were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62-0.89) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.56-1.00), respectively, less likely to participate in sports than adolescents with two employed parents. In a gender-stratified analysis, parents' occupational status was only a predictor of sports participation in girls. Differences between municipalities in adolescents' sports participation remained significant when controlled for individual factors such as gender, age, parents' background or parents' physical activity. The association between sociocultural and SES was stronger for girls than boys. In conclusion, demographics, SES and sociocultural factors were the best determinants of adolescent sport participation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Mackintosh, Chris; Liddle, Joyce
International interest in developing mass sports participation through systems of school and community sports development has become a growing field of public leisure policy interest. This research paper considers the policy change from School Sport Partnerships to the new 2012 School Games model of networked partnerships to establish…
The World Summit on Physical Education, held in Berlin in November 1999, called attention to the serious decline in the state and status of physical education and school sport, all over the world. This report outlines the methods of the Sport in Education Project (SpinEd), an international research project, funded by the ...
... University of Nigeria, Nsukka and University of Benin. The findings were that students' personal attributes significantly determine their sport participation. Grounded on these findings, recommendations for the improved participation of undergraduates in sports are discussed. Keywords: Student affairs management; Sports; ...
Provence, Jeremy E.
The purpose of Russell and Limle's (2013) study was to determine whether youth-sport specialization and retrospective recall of youth-sport experiences were related to participants' perceptions of and participation in sport and physical activity as young adults. A significant number of participants (76 percent) reported specializing in…
Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports as Perceived by Female Students of the University of Ilorin. ... sports competition while mass media should organize enlightenment programmes that will mitigate the ...
Passer, Michael W.
Research on children's sport participation motives is examined to provide insight about potential sources of stress in organized youth sports. A four-stage model of stress is outlined, and topics that deserve further research are discussed. (CJ)
As the pressure to win in select collegiate sports escalates, financial pressures mount, and the need to comply with Title IX regulations and gender equity policies continues, athletics administrators are faced with having to make difficult decisions regarding their sport programs. To assist in the decision-making process regarding sport programs,…
Lunde, Carolina; Gattario, Kristina Holmqvist
The aim of this qualitative study was to examine young female sport participants' experiences and thoughts in terms of sport, their bodies, and social appearance norms. Six focus groups with female sport participants (N=25) from Sweden were conducted. Participants raised many positive experiences in relation to their sport participation, but they also witnessed a conflict in the intersection between the culture within their sport (emphasizing physical performance) and the culture outside their sport (emphasizing physical appearance). Through thematic analysis, four themes illustrating the balancing act between these two cultures were formed: (a) the performing body versus the objectified body, (b) food as fuel versus source of shame, (c) appreciation of body type diversity versus appearance prejudice, and (d) empowerment and agency versus disempowerment and restraints. The findings of this study indicate that young women who engage in sport have to face complex, ambiguous, and restricting norms and notions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
R.G. Prins (Richard); P. van Empelen (Pepijn); S.J. te Velde (Saskia); A. Timperio (Anna); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); N.I. Tak (Nannah); D. Crawford (David); J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke)
textabstractThis longitudinal study aimed to identify individual and environmental predictors of adolescents' sports participation and to examine whether availability of sports facilities moderated the intention-behaviour relation. Data were obtained from the ENvironmental Determinants of Obesity in
McDonald, Mark A.; Milne, George R.; Hong, JinBae
Suggests a motivations framework to organize constructs for evaluating sport consumption. Researchers developed scales to measure motivations for spectating and participant markets, then surveyed 1,611 sports enthusiasts nationwide, profiling sports using motivational constructs. The proposed constructs are shown to have implications for marketing…
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between birth order and sport participation in terms of the inherent dangers associated with different sport codes. Data collected from 1310 sport science students over a period of more than 15 years failed to support the popular birth-order hypothesis. Keywords: ...
Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William D.; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.
Objectives: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. There is considerable debate regarding the rationale, optimal timing, injury risk, and the psychosocial health of a young athlete specializing early in a single sport. The purpose of our study was to compare youth single sport specialization in high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with respect to the age of special...
American Games , Olympic Games , and other authorized national and international sports competitions (to include qualifying and preparatory events) as long...concerning the participation of Armed Forces personnel in Armed Forces, national, and international sports competitions ; establishes a Senior Military Sports ...program is to ensure that the U.S. Armed Forces are appropriately represented in national and international sports competitions . 3. The purpose of this
Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B
.56-1.00), respectively, less likely to participate in sports than adolescents with two employed parents. In a gender-stratified analysis, parents' occupational status was only a predictor of sports participation in girls. Differences between municipalities in adolescents' sports participation remained significant when......) and sociocultural factors. A school-based cross-sectional cluster sample including 6356 Danish fifth- and ninth-grade adolescents from four municipalities were included. Age (younger) and gender (boy) were associated with adolescents' sports participation. Girls were half as likely [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 95...... controlled for individual factors such as gender, age, parents' background or parents' physical activity. The association between sociocultural and SES was stronger for girls than boys. In conclusion, demographics, SES and sociocultural factors were the best determinants of adolescent sport participation....
Cohen, Deborah A; Taylor, Stephanie L; Zonta, Michela; Vestal, Katherine D; Schuster, Mark A
The Surgeon General has called for an expansion of school-based extracurricular sports programs to address the obesity epidemic. However, little is known about the availability of and participation in high school extracurricular sports and how participation in these sports is related to high-risk behaviors. We surveyed Los Angeles County public high schools in 2002 to determine the number of extracurricular sports programs offered and the percentage of students participating in those programs. We used community data on rates of arrests, births, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among youth to examine associations between risk behaviors and participation in sports programs. The average school offered 14 sports programs, and the average participation rate was 39% for boys and 30% for girls. Smaller schools and schools with higher percentages of disadvantaged students offered fewer programs. The average school offering 13 or fewer programs had 14% of its students participating, while the average school offering 16 or more programs had 31% of its students participating in sports. Controlling for area-level demographics, juvenile arrest rates and teen birth rates, but not STD rates, were lower in areas where schools offered more extracurricular sports. Opportunities for participation in high school extracurricular sports are limited. Future studies should test whether increased opportunities will increase physical activity and impact the increasing overweight problem in youths.
Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.
It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…
Megan A. Horst
Full Text Available This study addressed the research question, “What is meaningful to Hispanic girls about their organized sports participation during the first year of high school?” Purposeful sampling (Maxwell, 1996 was used to select 15 9th-grade girls to participate in individual interviews about their organized sport participation. Transcripts were analyzed via inductive coding. Findings showed that organized sports offered Hispanic girls in this sample a venue for healthy youth development, including opportunities for the “5 C’s” – competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring (Lerner, Fisher, & Weinberg, 2000. This article highlights the salience of connection, caring, and competence in adolescent Hispanic girls’ organized sports experiences. Insights from girls’ narratives may help coaches and other educators structure athletic programs to best meet the needs of Hispanic girls during adolescence (AAUW, 1991; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Erkut, Fields, Sing, & Marx, 1996; Gil & Vazquez, 1996; Sadker & Sadker, 1994.
A total of 450 physical education (PE) teachers in 34 secondary schools drawn from six districts in Tianjin participated in the study. ... schools in Tianjin met the official requirement for teaching sunshine sports, except during examination period in which 80% of PE classes were substituted by other 'academic' lessons. A total ...
Hogan, Anna; Stylianou, Michalis
The focus of this paper is on "Sporting Schools", a $100 million policy initiative intended to increase children's sport participation in Australia. Our account seeks to proffer a critical analysis of this federal policy, and the way it functions as part of the new heterarchical or networked form of sports governance in Australia. Using…
Somerset, Sarah; Hoare, Derek J
Numerous studies have detailed the physical health benefits of children's participation in sport and a growing body of research also highlights the benefits for mental health. Children who participate in sport have also been shown to be advantaged academically. However, despite the benefits there is evidence that children are leading increasingly sedentary lifestyles and are at greater risk of chronic disease than those with active lifestyles. Sport provides an important means for children to achieve their recommended amount of daily physical activity. This systematic review asks 'what are those barriers to children's participation in sport?' Literature searches were carried out in June 2015 using; EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and SportDiscus using the search terms barrier*, stop*, prevent*, participat*, taking part, Sports/, sport*, "physical education", PE, child*, young person*, adolescen*. These were supplemented with hand searches. A total of 3434 records were identified of which 22 were suitable for inclusion in the review, two additional studies were identified from Google Scholar in November 2016. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were included. Study's included in the review assessed children up to 18 years of age. Study quality was assessed using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools. Studies took place in the school environment (n = 14), sports club (n = 1), community setting (n = 8) and adolescent care setting (n = 1). Frequently reported barriers across quantitative studies were 'time' (n = 4), 'cost' (n = 3), 'opportunity/accessibility' (n = 3) and 'friends' (n = 2). Frequently reported barriers across qualitative studies were 'time' (n = 6), 'cost' (n = 5), 'not being good at sport' (n = 6) and 'fear of being judged/embarrassed' (n = 6). Policy makers, parents and teachers should all be aware that 'cost' and 'time' are key barriers to participation in sport. More local sports opportunities are needed where costs are reduced. Schools
Kramer, D.; Stronks, K.; Maas, J.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A.E.
Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social
Kramer, D.; Stronks, K.; Maas, J.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A. E.
Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social
Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu
This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, f...
Anne K Reimers
Full Text Available To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany.A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11-17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities.The logistic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively.Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas.
Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander
Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689
The primary aim of this study was to examine factors affecting sport participation among resident and non- resident female students at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), Pretoria, South Africa. The study targeted all students participating in 12 registered sports but due to the fact that only a limited number of the total ...
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of occurrence of sports - related dentofacial injuries among athletes participating in Rugby and Football in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Seventeen Secondary schools participating in either or both Rugby tournaments and the ...
Toselli, S; Belcastro, M G
Participation in sports has important implications, being associated with health and social features. The objectives of this study were to verify whether there were any differences in sport participation between immigrant and Italian children and whether there was any relation with their body composition and fitness characteristics. A survey was conducted on 1432 children attending primary school in the Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy). Anthropometric measurements, fitness characteristics, and data about participation in sports were considered. Italian children were more likely to participate in sports than immigrants and boys than girls. Among immigrants, the lowest values were observed in Asians. Eastern European males and Latin American females displayed the widest dimensions. Eastern Europeans generally showed the highest values of strength, while Latin Americans had the highest values of flexibility. Asian children showed the highest values of centripetal fat, and a high percentage of them exceeded the %F reference. These aspects, together with the low frequency of practicing sports, place Asians at greater risks for health. Sex and ethnic group are the most informative variables associated with participation in sports by children. Interventions including health education lessons and promoting the participation in sports for immigrant children attending schools need to be encouraged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lopez, Mark Hugo; Moore, Kimberlee
One reason to offer sports in school is to teach youth the values, skills, and habits that will make them more active, engaged, and responsible citizens. Past evidence on the civic effects of sports is mixed, but points to some potential positive civic effects. This fact sheet uses recent data from the 2002 National Youth Survey of Civic…
Warren Pedersen, Lise; Trangbæk, Else
In 2005, Copenhagen municipality decided to develop and implement a sport and movement profile at a local elementary school. The overall development is discussed as are specific results and consequences of the decision. The role of physical education and teachers in relation to a health discourse......, sport and school sports viewed as an arena for talent identification and development will be discussed. In addition, a question of inequality raised, as a group of talented athletes are accepted into specific sports classes, focusing on cultural capital and the possibility of the educational system...... as reproducing or as an arena for social mobility. Finally a discussion of the possibilities for either sports policy development or school policy development through single initiatives is presented....
Full Text Available This study focuses on personal attributes of undergraduates as determinants of sport participation in selected Nigerian universities which include age, gender and marital status. The instrument for the study is a self - developed, validated questionnaire. The subjects of the study are undergraduates in selected Nigerian universities. Analysis is the use of percentages and inferential statistics of chi square X 2 at 0.05 level of significance. The results derived from the study reveal that students’ personal attributes significantly determine their sport participation. Among other recommendations made is that it is highly imperative for university authorities to make frantic efforts to develop modalities capable of enco uraging students’ sport participation since most of them have sport potentials as evident in their post - primary school sport records. This will enable our universities groom healthy and academically sound graduates.
Eime, Rochelle M; Harvey, Jack; Charity, Melanie J; Casey, Meghan; Westerbeek, Hans; Payne, Warren R
Ecological models have been applied to investigate multiple domains influencing physical activity behaviour, including individual, social, organisational, community, environmental and policy factors. With regard to the built environment, research to date has been limited to small geographical areas and/or small samples of participants. This study examined the geographical association between provision of sport facilities and participation in sport across an entire Australian state, using objective total enumerations of both, for a group of sports, with adjustment for the effect of socioeconomic status (SES). De-identified membership registration data were obtained from state sport governing bodies of four popular team sports. Associations between participation rate, facility provision rate and SES were investigated using correlation and regression methods. Participation rate was positively associated with provision of facilities, although this was complicated by SES and region effects. The non-metropolitan region generally had higher participation rates and better provision of facilities than the metropolitan region. Better provision of sports facilities is generally associated with increased sport participation, but SES and region are also contributing factors. Implications for public health: Community-level analysis of the population, sport participation and provision of facilities should be used to inform decisions of investments in sports facilities. © 2017 The Authors.
Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma
Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to sport participation or competitive sport policies in transgender people. Therefore, this review aimed to address this gap in the literature. Eight research articles and 31 sport policies were reviewed. In relation to sport-related physical activity, this review found the lack of inclusive and comfortable environments to be the primary barrier to participation for transgender people. This review also found transgender people had a mostly negative experience in competitive sports because of the restrictions the sport's policy placed on them. The majority of transgender competitive sport policies that were reviewed were not evidence based. Currently, there is no direct or consistent research suggesting transgender female individuals (or male individuals) have an athletic advantage at any stage of their transition (e.g. cross-sex hormones, gender-confirming surgery) and, therefore, competitive sport policies that place restrictions on transgender people need to be considered and potentially revised.
Spruit, Anouk; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; van der Stouwe, Trudy; Stams, Geert-Jan
Participation in sports activities is very popular among adolescents, and is frequently encouraged among youth. Many psychosocial health benefits in youth are attributed to sports participation, but to what extent this positive influence holds for juvenile delinquency is still not clear on both the theoretical and empirical level. There is much controversy on whether sports participation should be perceived as a protective or a risk factor for the development of juvenile delinquency. A multilevel meta-analysis of 51 published and unpublished studies, with 48 independent samples containing 431 effect sizes and N = 132,366 adolescents, was conducted to examine the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency and possible moderating factors of this association. The results showed that there is no overall significant association between sports participation and juvenile delinquency, indicating that adolescent athletes are neither more nor less delinquent than non-athletes. Some study, sample and sports characteristics significantly moderated the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency. However, this moderating influence was modest. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of sports to prevent juvenile delinquency are discussed.
Yazicioglu, Kamil; Yavuz, Ferdi; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim; Tan, Arif Kenan
The lack of controlled trials in the relationship between participation in adapted sports, and quality of life (QoL) and life satisfaction in people with physical disabilities encouraged us to consider conducting this study. The aim of this study was to compare the QoL and life satisfaction scores between people with physical disabilities who participated in adapted sports and those who did not participate in any adapted sports. This cross-sectional controlled study included 60 individuals with physical disabilities (paraplegia and amputee). Participants were divided into two groups based on sports participation and non-sports participation. Group one included 30 disabled elite athletes who participated in adapted sports. The control group included 30 disabled individuals not involved in any adapted sports. We compared scores on the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Scale (WHOQoL-BREF) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) between the two groups. Participation in the community and QoL was examined as a reflection of participant's priority on sports participation. We found that WHOQoL-BREF physical, psychological, and social domain scores were significantly higher in group one than in the control group (p sports had significantly higher QoL and life satisfaction scores compared to people with physical disabilities not involved in any adapted sports. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kokko, Sami; Selänne, Harri; Alanko, Lauri; Heinonen, Olli J; Korpelainen, Raija; Savonen, Kai; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannas, Lasse; Kujala, Urho M; Aira, Tuula; Villberg, Jari; Parkkari, Jari
Introduction Sports clubs form a potential setting for health promotion, but the research is limited. The aim of the Health Promoting Sports Club (HPSC) study was to elucidate the current health promotion activities of youth sports clubs and coaches, and to investigate the health behaviours and health status of youth participating in sports clubs compared to non-participants. Methods and analysis The study design employs cross-sectional multilevel and multimethod research with aspirations to a prospective cohort study in the next phase. The setting-based variables at sports clubs and coaching levels, and health behaviour variables at the individual level, are investigated using surveys; and total levels of physical activity are assessed using objective accelerometer measurements. Health status variables will be measured by preparticipation screening. The health promotion activity of sports clubs (n=154) is evaluated by club officials (n=313) and coaches (n=281). Coaches and young athletes aged 14–16 (n=759) years evaluate the coaches’ health promotion activity. The survey of the adolescents’ health behaviours consist of two data sets—the first is on their health behaviours and the second is on musculoskeletal complaints and injuries. Data are collected via sports clubs (759 participants) and schools 1650 (665 participants and 983 non-participants). 591 (418 athletes and 173 non-athletes) youth, have already participated in preparticipation screening. Screening consists of detailed personal medical history, electrocardiography, flow-volume spirometry, basic laboratory analyses and health status screening, including posture, muscle balance, and static and dynamic postural control tests, conducted by sports and exercise medicine specialists. Ethics and dissemination The HPSC study is carried out conforming with the declaration of Helsinki. Ethical approval was received from the Ethics Committee of Health Care District of Central Finland. The HPSC study is
Kokko, Sami; Selänne, Harri; Alanko, Lauri; Heinonen, Olli J; Korpelainen, Raija; Savonen, Kai; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannas, Lasse; Kujala, Urho M; Aira, Tuula; Villberg, Jari; Parkkari, Jari
Sports clubs form a potential setting for health promotion, but the research is limited. The aim of the Health Promoting Sports Club (HPSC) study was to elucidate the current health promotion activities of youth sports clubs and coaches, and to investigate the health behaviours and health status of youth participating in sports clubs compared to non-participants. The study design employs cross-sectional multilevel and multimethod research with aspirations to a prospective cohort study in the next phase. The setting-based variables at sports clubs and coaching levels, and health behaviour variables at the individual level, are investigated using surveys; and total levels of physical activity are assessed using objective accelerometer measurements. Health status variables will be measured by preparticipation screening. The health promotion activity of sports clubs (n=154) is evaluated by club officials (n=313) and coaches (n=281). Coaches and young athletes aged 14-16 (n=759) years evaluate the coaches' health promotion activity. The survey of the adolescents' health behaviours consist of two data sets-the first is on their health behaviours and the second is on musculoskeletal complaints and injuries. Data are collected via sports clubs (759 participants) and schools 1650 (665 participants and 983 non-participants). 591 (418 athletes and 173 non-athletes) youth, have already participated in preparticipation screening. Screening consists of detailed personal medical history, electrocardiography, flow-volume spirometry, basic laboratory analyses and health status screening, including posture, muscle balance, and static and dynamic postural control tests, conducted by sports and exercise medicine specialists. The HPSC study is carried out conforming with the declaration of Helsinki. Ethical approval was received from the Ethics Committee of Health Care District of Central Finland. The HPSC study is close-to-practice, which generates foundations for development work
Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu
This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies.
Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu
This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374
Full Text Available This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced time dedicated to physical education and free play in recent decades emphasizes the need to promote opportunities for sport participation in adolescents in order to increase physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of sociodemographic and biological characteristics, behavioural patterns, and school-related and sport-specific variables with time spent participating in sport. Methods A total of 1837 secondary school students (age: 14.6 ± 1.2 years; 50.9 % boys from 19 of 23 schools in the Otago Region (New Zealand completed an online sport survey and Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire in 2009. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the association of individual-, school- and sport-related variables on sport participation and the amount of time spent in sports. Results Higher rates of sport participation were associated with lower neighbourhood deprivation scores (OR (95%CI: 0.75 (0.49-1.14, 0.57 (0.38-0.86, 0.48 (0.28-0.81, higher quintiles of physical activity (2.89 (2.10-3.96, 2.81 (1.68-4.70, 3.54 (2.24-5.57, 3.97 (1.99-7.95, highest quintiles of screen time (1.58 (0.94-2.65, 1.99 (1.42-2.80, 2.17 (1.43-3.30, 1.88 (1.37-2.57 and boys only school status (2.21 (1.57-3.10. Greater amount of time spent in sports was associated with male gender (0.56 (0.43-0.74, lower neighbourhood deprivation scores (0.72 (0.59-0.93, 0.78 (0.58-1.04, 0.62 (0.39-1.00, higher quintiles of physical activity (3.18 (2.29-4.41, 4.25 (2.91-6.20, 8.33 (5.58-12.44, 6.58 (4.07-10.64, highest quintile of screen time (1.83 (1.31-2.56, greater availability of sports outside school (1.68 (1.22-2.32, better sport management (2.57 (1.63-4.07 and provision of sport courts at school (0.57 (0.40-0.81. Conversely, obesity was associated with less time spent participating in sport (0.50 (0.31-0.80. Conclusion Results support the use of sport participation as an effective strategy to increase physical
Background Reduced time dedicated to physical education and free play in recent decades emphasizes the need to promote opportunities for sport participation in adolescents in order to increase physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of sociodemographic and biological characteristics, behavioural patterns, and school-related and sport-specific variables with time spent participating in sport. Methods A total of 1837 secondary school students (age: 14.6 ± 1.2 years; 50.9 % boys) from 19 of 23 schools in the Otago Region (New Zealand) completed an online sport survey and Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire in 2009. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the association of individual-, school- and sport-related variables on sport participation and the amount of time spent in sports. Results Higher rates of sport participation were associated with lower neighbourhood deprivation scores (OR (95%CI): 0.75 (0.49-1.14), 0.57 (0.38-0.86), 0.48 (0.28-0.81)), higher quintiles of physical activity (2.89 (2.10-3.96), 2.81 (1.68-4.70), 3.54 (2.24-5.57), 3.97 (1.99-7.95)), highest quintiles of screen time (1.58 (0.94-2.65), 1.99 (1.42-2.80), 2.17 (1.43-3.30), 1.88 (1.37-2.57)) and boys only school status (2.21 (1.57-3.10)). Greater amount of time spent in sports was associated with male gender (0.56 (0.43-0.74), lower neighbourhood deprivation scores (0.72 (0.59-0.93), 0.78 (0.58-1.04), 0.62 (0.39-1.00)), higher quintiles of physical activity (3.18 (2.29-4.41), 4.25 (2.91-6.20), 8.33 (5.58-12.44), 6.58 (4.07-10.64)), highest quintile of screen time (1.83 (1.31-2.56), greater availability of sports outside school (1.68 (1.22-2.32)), better sport management (2.57 (1.63-4.07)) and provision of sport courts at school (0.57 (0.40-0.81)). Conversely, obesity was associated with less time spent participating in sport (0.50 (0.31-0.80)). Conclusion Results support the use of sport participation as an effective strategy to increase
Mandic, Sandra; Bengoechea, Enrique García; Stevens, Emily; de la Barra, Sophia Leon; Skidmore, Paula
Reduced time dedicated to physical education and free play in recent decades emphasizes the need to promote opportunities for sport participation in adolescents in order to increase physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of sociodemographic and biological characteristics, behavioural patterns, and school-related and sport-specific variables with time spent participating in sport. A total of 1837 secondary school students (age: 14.6 ± 1.2 years; 50.9 % boys) from 19 of 23 schools in the Otago Region (New Zealand) completed an online sport survey and Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire in 2009. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the association of individual-, school- and sport-related variables on sport participation and the amount of time spent in sports. Higher rates of sport participation were associated with lower neighbourhood deprivation scores (OR (95%CI): 0.75 (0.49-1.14), 0.57 (0.38-0.86), 0.48 (0.28-0.81)), higher quintiles of physical activity (2.89 (2.10-3.96), 2.81 (1.68-4.70), 3.54 (2.24-5.57), 3.97 (1.99-7.95)), highest quintiles of screen time (1.58 (0.94-2.65), 1.99 (1.42-2.80), 2.17 (1.43-3.30), 1.88 (1.37-2.57)) and boys only school status (2.21 (1.57-3.10)). Greater amount of time spent in sports was associated with male gender (0.56 (0.43-0.74), lower neighbourhood deprivation scores (0.72 (0.59-0.93), 0.78 (0.58-1.04), 0.62 (0.39-1.00)), higher quintiles of physical activity (3.18 (2.29-4.41), 4.25 (2.91-6.20), 8.33 (5.58-12.44), 6.58 (4.07-10.64)), highest quintile of screen time (1.83 (1.31-2.56), greater availability of sports outside school (1.68 (1.22-2.32)), better sport management (2.57 (1.63-4.07)) and provision of sport courts at school (0.57 (0.40-0.81)). Conversely, obesity was associated with less time spent participating in sport (0.50 (0.31-0.80)). Results support the use of sport participation as an effective strategy to increase physical activity levels and identify target
Alley, Thomas R; Hicks, Catherine M
This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in one of three sports. A total of 12 different descriptive paragraphs were used in a 2 (race) x 2 (sex) x 3 (sport) design. Each of these paragraphs, although short, ascribed a variety of traits that could be seen by raters as the independent variables: name (initials only), age, race, gender, hours of practice per week, number of competitions/performances per year, sport, and self-confidence. For this reason, raters were highly unlikely to surmise that sex and sport were the primary independent variables in the study. As predicted, there was a consistent decrease in rated femininity and increase in masculinity for both male and female adolescent targets as they switched from participating in a "feminine" (ballet) to a neutral (tennis) to a "masculine" (karate) sport. These results suggest that sex stereotypes for certain sports may influence who elects to participate and how participants are viewed by others.
Hom, Larry L.
Examines the nature of adolescents' sports involvement as reflected in reasons for participation and withdrawal. Claims that the degree of fun, the motivation to attain competence, and the capacity to distinguish ability from effort are important. Concludes that if the goal of sports is to foster a healthy lifestyle, the issue of maximizing…
Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol
This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.
Dartagnan Pinto Guedes
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young judo athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 392 subjects aged 12 to 18 years old participated in the study. Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sports participation. Boys reported giving significantly more importance to sports participation in terms of Competition and Skill Development, whereas girls presented significantly higher ratings for Teamwork and Friendship. Motivational factors related to Achievement/Status and Fun presented significantly higher average ratings in younger judo athletes, whereas average ratings of Competition significantly increased with increasing age. Average ratings related to Fitness, Competition and Skill Development were proportionally and significantly higher according to training experience and training volume. These results will contribute to establishing intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young judo athletes.
Costa E Silva, Lara; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia
It is becoming increasingly apparent that sports can present danger in the form of injuries. The extent of this problem calls for preventive actions based on epidemiological research. Two questionnaires (LESADO and RAPIL II) were distributed in four schools to 651 subjects aged between 10 and 18 years, involved in different levels of physical activity (PA) - recreative sports, school sports, federated sports and no sports participation (except physical education classes). Bone age was evaluated through Tanner-Whitehouse III method and anthropometric measures according to ISAK. From 247 subjects (37.9%) it was reported a sports injury during the previous six months. The most injured body areas were lower limbs (53.8%), followed by upper limbs (29.0%) and the type of injuries found was strains (33.7%), sprains (27.1%) and fractures (23.1%). The most frequent causes were direct trauma (51.9%), indirect trauma (29.5%) and overuse (12.7%). A high percentage was relapses and chronic injuries (40.9%). The OR for age group ≥16 years was 2.26 suggesting that those ≥16 years were 2.26 times more likely to have an injury than the younger subjects and concerning the PA level, school and federated sports subjects were 4.21 and 4.44 times more likely to have an injury than no sports participation subjects. Sports injuries in school age subjects were predominantly minor conditions where sprains and strains were the major injuries. They resulted mostly of trauma situations and lower and upper limbs were the most affected areas. Injury occurrence increased with age and was higher in school and federated athletes.
Full Text Available This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes toward sport advertising among the question how often consumers participate in sports activities The sample included 433 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not participate in sport activities at all, then consumers who participate in sport activities less than ones a month, next 1–4 a month, 5–10 a month, 11–20 a month, as well as consumers participate in sport activities more than 20 times a months. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modeled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the results it was concluded that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.05. It is interesting to highlight that it was found that the significant differences showed up between the consumers who participate in sports activities less than four times a months with negative attitudes and consumers who participate in sports activities more than five times a months with positive attitudes toward sport advertising
Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstream schools participated. The results showed that…
Lera-López, Fernando; Marco, Rocio
In a context of stagnation of the level of health-enhancing physical activity in Europe, this study examines the geographical stratification of sports participation and physical activity (PA) at the regional level in 28 European countries. While previous research has focused on the national approach, this study considers the regional level across 208 European regions. Individual survey data from the Eurobarometer 80.2 is combined with a regional-level approach to the 208 regions to quantify sports participation and PA at the regional level. The results show important differences and a geographical stratification of sports participation and PA among the European regions, albeit following different patterns. In particular, a north-south gap is identified in terms of PA rates and an east-west gap is detected in terms of sports participation levels. Applying the cluster technique, a taxonomy of four different European regions is developed considering both types of indicators. Finally, the existence of sports spatial spillovers among regions is verified, obtaining a positive autocorrelation among neighbouring regions for being involved in PA and sporting activities. The results may have significant implications in terms of policy measures to improve health through PA and sports participation at the regional level in Europe.
Walters, Stephanie; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between socioeconomic status (SES), gender, sports participation and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adolescents. Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based longitudinal study followed a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of 1709 adolescents in 1998-1999 (Time 1) and 2003-2004 (Time 2). Mixed model regression analyses were used to examine longitudinal trends in MVPA as a function of SES and previous sports involvement. For both genders, participation in organized sports and weekly hours of MVPA were positively associated with SES. On average, MVPA decreased between high school and young adulthood for both genders. Adolescents who participated in sports during high school showed a steeper decline in weekly hours of MVPA than their non-sports-participating counterparts. SES had a significant moderating effect on the change in MVPA over time for boys who participated in organized sports, with low SES boys showing a steeper decline in MVPA between time periods than higher SES boys. Although on average, a statistically significant difference in MVPA between previous sports participants and nonparticipants remained at Time 2, for all SES groups and both genders, the gap between hours of MVPA was either overcome or significantly narrowed by young adulthood. Increased dependence on organized sports for MVPA may be insufficient to meet the needs of youth following high school, especially for low SES youth. Designing physical activity promotions that reach and address the unique needs of lower SES youth and families is a public health priority.
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The main reasons for non-participation were: 'no time' (68%), transport problems (8%) ... The university management should address the constraints to promote ...
Attitudes of female university students towards participation in sports. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... linked to attitude but no studies to date have explored such links, particularly in respect of black undergraduate ...
María de la Caridad Veloso Pérez
Full Text Available The proposal to the problematic solution dealt with in the present investigation is constituted by competitive sport activities, which respond to its totality to the integral diagnosis and therefore, to the individual and group characteristics of the selected students as it is shown, being of this form in the heat of correspondence with their real necessities. This activities were developed during the partaking sport time and three stages framed during the course to the competitions. Its organization was based on the same principles on which the Program of the Special Olympic Games is fomented, extracting from the quarries of the base sport the sport talent, it is for that reason so important the work of preparation and participation in the bases, as from the whole scale practice it is that the quality is obtained or the sport talent within the ample range of sport disciplines. The work's objective is to apply competitive sport activities to improve the participation of late mental development children in the systematic training. These activities, proposed as solution, were very effective, since it was obtained a favorable atmosphere in all the school in students, teachers, specialists, family, community, making possible these children to improved their participation in the systematic training, their technical level improved a lot and, mainly, they demonstrated that the sport is one of the fundamental routes to the formation of values in this population group. The results thrown by the investigation are considered valuable since it is the base for the profit of good results in the competence.
sports policies and implementations of these policies in Primary and ... time assumed an influential status. In the .... Management of sports facilities and equipment d. .... Youth and Sports scarcely provide funds, the schools usually turn to the.
Reverdito, Riller S; Galatti, Larissa R; Carvalho, Humberto M; Scaglia, Alcides J; Côté, Jean; Gonçalves, Carlos E; Paes, Roberto R
Youth sporting activities have been explored as a way to impact positive personal transformation and development, glaringly demonstrated by world-wide investments in public policies, programs, and projects. We studied positive effects of participation in sports on the developmental assets of 614 adolescents (13.1 ± 1.7 years) actively engaged in extracurricular sport programs targeted at socially disadvantaged youths, from five municipalities across five states of the southern, south-eastern and north-eastern regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a developmental assets questionnaire designed to capture sociodemographic and human development data. Multilevel logistic regression was used to explore associations between years of participation in sport and human development indicators, controlling for age and sex. Our results showed that the quality of the young people's support network and duration of program participation positively influenced sport participation, which, in turn, was associated with willingness to learn. A strong association was also observed between sport participation and developmental assets. Thus, we offer new evidence of a relationship between positive development and environmental factors in which individual and contextual forces can be aligned, and we provide new reference data for developing countries.
R. Prins (Remco); S.M. Mohnen (Sigrid); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke)
textabstractBackground: The aim of this study is to explore whether availability of sports facilities, parks, and neighbourhood social capital (NSC) and their interaction are associated with leisure time sports participation among Dutch adolescents.Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on
Prins, R.G.; Mohnen, S.M.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.; Oenema, A.
Background: The aim of this study is to explore whether availability of sports facilities, parks, and neighbourhood social capital (NSC) and their interaction are associated with leisure time sports participation among Dutch adolescents.Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on complete
Balaguer, Isabel; Atienza, Francisco L; Duda, Joan L
The purpose of this study was to study the associations between specific self-perceptions and global self-worth with different frequency levels of sport participation among Spanish boys and girls adolescents. Students (457 boys and 460 girls) completed the Self Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985) and items assessing sport engagement from The Health Behavior in School Children Questionnaire (Wold, 1995). Results showed that some specific dimensions of self-perception were related to different frequency of sport participation whereas overall judgments of self-worth did not. Specifically, for boys and girls, higher levels of sport participation were positively associated to Athletic Competence, and for boys were also associated with Physical Appearance and Social Acceptance. The potential implications of domain specific socialisation processes on the configuration of self-perceptions are highlighted.
Kwan, Matthew; Bobko, Sarah; Faulkner, Guy; Donnelly, Peter; Cairney, John
Sport participation can play an important and positive role in the health and development of children and youth. One area that has recently been receiving greater attention is the role that sport participation might play in preventing drug and alcohol use among youth. The current study is a systematic review of 17 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Results indicated that sport participation is associated with alcohol use, with 82% of the included studies (14/17) showing a significant positive relationship. Sport participation, however, appears to be related to reduced illicit drug use, especially use of non-cannabis related drugs. Eighty percent of the studies found sport participation associated with decreased illicit drug use, while 50% of the studies found negative association between sport participation and marijuana use. Further investigation revealed that participation in sports reduced the risk of overall illicit drug use, but particularly during high school; suggesting that this may be a critical period to reduce or prevent the use of drugs through sport. Future research must better understand what conditions are necessary for sport participation to have beneficial outcomes in terms of preventing alcohol and/or illicit drug use. This has been absent in the extent literature and will be central to intervention efforts in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crutchfield, Kevin E
Patients with neurologic conditions have been discouraged from participating in organized sports because of theoretical detrimental effects of these activities to their underlying conditions. The purpose of this article is to review known risks associated with three specific clinical conditions most commonly encountered in a sports neurology clinic (epilepsy, migraines, and multiple sclerosis and to add to the neurologist's toolkit suggested interventions regarding management of athletes with these disorders. Increased participation in sports and athletics has positive benefits for patients with neurologic conditions and can be safely integrated into the lives of these patients with proper supervision from their treating neurologists. Patients with neurologic conditions can and should be encouraged to participate in organized sports as a method of maintaining their overall fitness, improving their overall level of function, and reaping the physical and psychological benefits that athletic competition has to offer.
Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry
While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Full Text Available Recreational sports are important leisure activities. However, most studies investigating barrier factors and motivation for participation in recreational sports have been limited to specific areas (e.g., a city or school or demographic groups (e.g., adolescents. Therefore, this study set out to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the behavioral and socioeconomic factors influencing interest in recreational sports participation in Taiwan, as well as to evaluate the effect of any urban-rural divide.This study analyzed data collected by the "Taiwan Social Change Survey" (program five, wave 3 "Leisure Life" questionnaire. We used hierarchical linear modeling to assess respondent interest in recreational sports participation and evaluated the influence of behavioral factors, socioeconomic factors, and residence location (urban/rural.Of the 2,146 participants in this study, 50.3% were male, and the average age was 43.9 years. Location of residence (urban/rural accounted for 35.3% of the variation in interest in recreational sports participation, while the remaining 64.7% came from the individual level. Participants who lived in rural settings were less interested in recreational sports than their urban counterparts. Gender, educational attainment, participation frequency, health-motivated interest, and appearance-motivated interest were also associated with interest in recreational sports participation.Different communication strategies may be needed to effectively reach different demographic groups. We suggest that future public health campaigns aiming to increase recreational sports participation include tailored interventions and messages to effectively encourage leisure physical activities among all, regardless of demographic boundaries.
Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Scully, Maree L; Morley, Belinda C
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organized sports participation, weight status, physical activity, screen time, and important food habits in a large nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents. Nationally representative cross-sectional study of 12,188 adolescents from 238 secondary schools aged between 12 and 17 years (14.47 ± 1.25 y, 53% male, 23% overweight/obese). Participation in organized sports, compliance with national physical activity, screen time, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods were self-reported. Weight status and adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) were measured. Organized sports participation was higher among males and those residing in rural/remote areas. Underweight adolescents reported the lowest levels of participation. Higher levels of participation were associated with an increased likelihood of complying with national physical activity (OR = 2.07 [1.67-2.58]), screen time (OR = 1.48 [1.19-1.84]), and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines (OR = 1.32 [1.05-1.67]). There was no association between organized sport participation and weight status, adiposity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages or high-fat foods. Participation in organized sports was associated with a greater likelihood to engage in a cluster of health behaviors, including meeting physical activity guidelines, electronic screen time recommendations, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines. However, participation in organized sports was not associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors including the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods. There is no association between participation in organized sports and likelihood to be overweight or obese. The role of sports in promoting healthy weight and energy balance is unclear.
Borgers, J.; Vanreusel, B.; Vos, S.; Forsberg, P.; Scheerder, J.
An increasing share of light sports participants (e.g. self-organised runners) challenge traditional ‘Sport for All’ policy systems to target a more diversified array of people participating in sport and physical activity. The main aim of this article is to analyse whether light sport facilities, as
Shephard Roy J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE, free school physical activity (PA and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007, PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007, SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA, and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.
Landry, Cameron H; Allan, Katherine S; Connelly, Kim A; Cunningham, Kris; Morrison, Laurie J; Dorian, Paul
The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during participation in sports activities remains unknown. Preparticipation screening programs aimed at preventing sudden cardiac arrest during sports activities are thought to be able to identify at-risk athletes; however, the efficacy of these programs remains controversial. We sought to identify all sudden cardiac arrests that occurred during participation in sports activities within a specific region of Canada and to determine their causes. In this retrospective study, we used the Rescu Epistry cardiac arrest database (which contains records of every cardiac arrest attended by paramedics in the network region) to identify all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred from 2009 through 2014 in persons 12 to 45 years of age during participation in a sport. Cases were adjudicated as sudden cardiac arrest (i.e., having a cardiac cause) or as an event resulting from a noncardiac cause, on the basis of records from multiple sources, including ambulance call reports, autopsy reports, in-hospital data, and records of direct interviews with patients or family members. Over the course of 18.5 million person-years of observation, 74 sudden cardiac arrests occurred during participation in a sport; of these, 16 occurred during competitive sports and 58 occurred during noncompetitive sports. The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during competitive sports was 0.76 cases per 100,000 athlete-years, with 43.8% of the athletes surviving until they were discharged from the hospital. Among the competitive athletes, two deaths were attributed to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and none to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Three cases of sudden cardiac arrest that occurred during participation in competitive sports were determined to have been potentially identifiable if the athletes had undergone preparticipation screening. In our study involving persons who had out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the incidence of sudden cardiac
Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.
Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.
Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete?s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional s...
In total, 106 youths with and without intellectual disabilities participated in the ... teaching motor skills to an inclusive group of learners with and without disability. ... noted in motor performance for both participants with and without disabilities.
Hebert, Jeffrey J.; Møller, Niels C.; Andersen, Lars Bo
leisure-time sport participation with overall physical activity levels and health-related physical activity guideline concordance. Methods This prospective cohort study was nested in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Study participants were a representative sample...... of 1124 primary school students. Organized leisure-time sport participation was reported via text messaging and physical activity was objectively measured over seven days with accelerometry. Associations between sport participation and physical activity level were explored with multilevel mixed...
McMillan, Rachel; McIsaac, Michael; Janssen, Ian
Organized sport is one way that youth participate in physical activity. There are disparities in organized sport participation by family-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-traditional family structure and physical custody arrangements are associated with organized sport participation in youth, and if so whether this relationship is mediated by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 2009-10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative cross-section of Canadian youth in grades 6-10 (N = 21,201). Information on family structure was derived from three survey items that asked participants the number of adults they lived with, their relationship to these adults, and if applicable, how often they visited another parent outside their home. Participants were asked whether or not they were currently involved in an organized sport. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of organized sport participation according to family structure. Bootstrap-based mediation analysis was used to assess mediation by perceived family wealth. The results indicated that by comparison to traditional families, boys and girls from reconstituted families with irregular visitation of a second parent, reconstituted families with regular visitation of a second parent, single-parent families with irregular visitation of a second parent, and single-parent families with regular visitation of a second parent were less likely to participate in organized sport than those from traditional families, with odds ratios ranging from 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.61) to 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.08). The relationship between family structure and organized sport was significantly mediated by perceived family wealth, although the magnitude of the mediation was modest (ie, reconstituted families experienced significant disparities in organized sport participation that was partially mediated by perceived family wealth.
Full Text Available Organized sport is one way that youth participate in physical activity. There are disparities in organized sport participation by family-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-traditional family structure and physical custody arrangements are associated with organized sport participation in youth, and if so whether this relationship is mediated by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 2009-10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative cross-section of Canadian youth in grades 6-10 (N = 21,201. Information on family structure was derived from three survey items that asked participants the number of adults they lived with, their relationship to these adults, and if applicable, how often they visited another parent outside their home. Participants were asked whether or not they were currently involved in an organized sport. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of organized sport participation according to family structure. Bootstrap-based mediation analysis was used to assess mediation by perceived family wealth. The results indicated that by comparison to traditional families, boys and girls from reconstituted families with irregular visitation of a second parent, reconstituted families with regular visitation of a second parent, single-parent families with irregular visitation of a second parent, and single-parent families with regular visitation of a second parent were less likely to participate in organized sport than those from traditional families, with odds ratios ranging from 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.61 to 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.08. The relationship between family structure and organized sport was significantly mediated by perceived family wealth, although the magnitude of the mediation was modest (ie, <20% change in effect estimate. In conclusion, youth living in both single-parent and reconstituted families experienced significant
Johansen, Patrick Foss
Master i folkehelsevitenskap med vekt på endringer av livsstilsvaner, 2017 Background: Sports, in form of organized and unorganized physical activity, is an important pastime for Norwegian youth and trends in participation is increasing in terms of rates and frequencies. At the same time, there is increasing evidence that childhood is a crucial stage of life for forming predispositions for lifelong participation in sports, while parents have been demonstrated to be increasingly invested in...
Takahashi, H; Sassa, T; Shibuya, T; Kato, M; Koeda, M; Murai, T; Matsuura, M; Asai, K; Suhara, T; Okubo, Y
Weight gain has been identified as being responsible for increased morbidity and mortality rates of schizophrenia patients. For the management of weight gain, exercise is one of the most acknowledged interventions. At the same time, exercise and sports have been recognized for their positive impact on psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological basis for this remains poorly understood. We aimed to examine the effect of sports participation on weight gain, psychiatric symptoms and brain activation during sports observation in schizophrenia patients. Thirteen schizophrenia patients who participated in a 3-month program, including sports participation and 10 control schizophrenia patients were studied. In both groups, body mass index (BMI), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and brain activation during observation of sports-related actions measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging were accessed before and after a 3-month interval. BMI and general psychopathology scale of PANSS were significantly reduced in the program group but not in the control group after a 3-month interval. Compared with baseline, activation of the body-selective extrastriate body area (EBA) in the posterior temporal-occipital cortex during observation of sports-related actions was increased in the program group. In this group, increase in EBA activation was associated with improvement in the general psychopathology scale of PANSS. Sports participation had a positive effect not only on weight gain but also on psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia. EBA might mediate these beneficial effects of sports participation. Our findings merit further investigation of neurobiological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of sports for schizophrenia.
López-Vicente, Mónica; Tiemeier, Henning; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Sunyer, Jordi; White, Tonya
We studied cortical morphology in relation to sports participation and type of sport using a large sample of healthy children (n = 911). Sports participation data was collected through a parent-reported questionnaire. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired, and different morphological brain features were quantified. Global volumetric measures were not associated with sports participation. We observed thicker cortex in motor and premotor areas associated with sports participation. In boys, team sports participation, relative to individual sports, was related to thinner cortex in prefrontal brain areas involved in the regulation of behaviors. This study showed a relationship between sports participation and brain maturation.
Manore, Melinda M.; Patton-Lopez, Megan M.; Meng, Yu; Wong, Siew Sun
For adolescent athletes (14–18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p <...
the players obtained. The participants were ... 4.7%), Table Tennis (11, 8.5%) and Badminton (9,. 7.0%)]. Measurements ..... cramps, heat exhaustion or heat stroke and influence .... Physique and Performance for Track and Field. Events.
First a brief overview of multi-coded school sport organization in Cape Town is present ed. Next, the emergence of the Western Province Senior Schools Sport Union (WPSSSU) and how this organization differed with all existing patterns of school sport management is explored. The ideology underpinning this organization, ...
McEwin, C. Kenneth; Dickinson, Thomas S.
Safe, developmentally appropriate play is difficult to achieve when middle schools move into the competitive interscholastic arena. Problems associated with middle-level sports programs include students' predisposition to physical injury, psychological unreadiness, high attrition rates, improper coaching, and liability issues. Improving…
Hara, Daisuke; Hamai, Satoshi; Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Kawaguchi, Ken-Ichi; Motomura, Goro; Ikemura, Satoshi; Komiyama, Keisuke; Nakashima, Yasuharu
Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is an effective treatment for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. However, whether postoperative participation in sports leads to progression of the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade of osteoarthritis (OA) in these patients is unclear. To investigate (1) participation in sports before and after PAO and (2) whether postoperative participation in sports leads to progression of the KL grade. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The authors retrospectively reviewed data on 161 patients (183 hips) who underwent PAO for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia with preoperative KL grade 1 or 2 between 1998 and 2011. The mean age at the time of surgery was 42.0 ± 10.9 years (range, 12-64 years), and the mean follow-up duration was 100 months (range, 13-180 months). Data included participation in sports, the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity scale score, age at the time of surgery, body mass index, follow-up duration, history of treatment for developmental hip dislocations, Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score, Oxford Hip Score, center-edge angle, and KL grade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to determine which factors were associated with progression to KL grade 3 or 4 after PAO. The number of patients who participated in sports significantly increased from 50 (31.1%) preoperatively to 89 (55.3%) postoperatively. The mean UCLA score significantly increased from 4.7 ± 2.1 preoperatively to 5.5 ± 2.0 postoperatively. The KL grade progressed to grade 3 or 4 in 16 hips, including 4 hips that underwent conversion to total hip arthroplasty. No significant differences were found in postoperative participation in sports (89 hips [53.3%] vs 11 hips [68.8%], respectively; P = .24) and the UCLA score (5.6 ± 2.0 vs 5.1 ± 2.0, respectively; P = .30) between hips with KL grade 1 or 2 and KL grade 3 or 4. A multivariate analysis revealed that no factors, including postoperative participation in sports, were significantly
Takahashi, H; Sassa, T; Shibuya, T; Kato, M; Koeda, M; Murai, T; Matsuura, M; Asai, K; Suhara, T; Okubo, Y
Weight gain has been identified as being responsible for increased morbidity and mortality rates of schizophrenia patients. For the management of weight gain, exercise is one of the most acknowledged interventions. At the same time, exercise and sports have been recognized for their positive impact on psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological basis for this remains poorly understood. We aimed to examine the effect of sports participation on weight gain, psychiatric s...
Quinto Romani, Annette
Aims: Literature dealing with the impact of organized sports on children’s weight has been marked by a lack of consensus. A major weakness characterizing most of this research is a lack of proper measurement methods. This paper seeks to fill an important knowledge gap through careful application...... of econometric methods. Methods: Estimations are carried out using data on 1,400 children attending 6th grade in 2008 in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark.We use standard ordinary least squares (OLS) and class fixed effects to explore the effect of sports participation on body mass index (BMI) as well...... as underweight, overweight and obesity. Results: Results indicate that participation in organized sports reduced BMI by 2.1%. Likewise it reduced the likelihood of being overweight by 8.2 percentage points and obese by 3.1 percentage points. Conclusions: It is the unique dataset combined with econometric methods...
Daniel da Rocha Queiroz
Full Text Available Recent theoretical model suggests that motor competence during early childhood is related to one's current and future health status and that practicing sports seems to be playing a special role in creating such competence. This study aimed to compare performance in gross motor skills among preschoolers participating in regular sports practice (SP and those not participating (NSP, including comparisons by gender. The study uses secondary data from a population-based study of performance regarding the locomotor and object control skills of preschoolers (3 to 5 years old. Preschoolers were assigned to groups SP or NSP, paired by age and sex according to skills: locomotor (n = 54; 30 boys or object control (n = 37; 17 boys. Analysis of variance showed that the SP group outperformed the NSP one, and there were gender differences only within SP group. Starting to practice sports during early childhood helps to build motor competence and benefits both genders.
Zhou, Jin; Heim, Derek; Levy, Andrew
Studies indicate that those participating in sports are a high-risk population for hazardous alcohol use. Previous research identifies psychosocial drivers underpinning this link between sports participation and risky drinking behavior; however, the evidence is restricted to cross-sectional prevalence studies. Theoretical evaluations suggest that psychologically constructed identities are a defining factor for behaviors in this context. Therefore, the present study sought to examine longitudinally the relationships among sports-related identities, well-being, and alcohol behaviors in those participating in sports. Respondents completed self-report questionnaires on their alcohol consumption, drinking motives, athlete identity (personal identity), sports group identification (social identity), and general well-being. A sample of 475 participants (male = 55.6%; mean age = 20.2 years) provided data at Time 1 for cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal associations were conducted with 92 participants (male = 42.4%; mean age = 20.8 years) who provided follow-up data (Time 1 and 6 months later). Cross-sectional results revealed an association between social identity and alcohol consumption, which was fully mediated by positive reinforcement drinking motives. Correlation analysis found a significant positive relationship between Time 1 alcohol consumption and social identity 6 months later. Furthermore, social identity was positively associated with consumption, whereas athlete identity was negatively associated therewith. Finally, well-being was positively associated only with sports group identification over time. Our findings suggest that sport-related drinking may be an avenue for building group identification, and this identification is linked to well-being.
The participation figures of sixteen universities obtained through two questionnaires, six interviews and nineteen focus groups reveal high success rates in league competitions, ranging between 62.1 per ... Issues of inclusion and gender equality should be addressed, as the majority of sports uphold the ethos of masculinity.
In order to determine perceived barriers to sport and recreation participation in Botswana the modified Crawford, Jackson and Godbey\\'s (1991) constraint assessment questionnaire which focused on five barrier categories, i.e. aptitude, socio-economic, socio-cultural, facility-awareness and facility constraint, was used.
Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse sports participation of individuals with upper limb deficiency (ULD) and associated factors. METHODS: Individuals with ULD originating from the Netherlands were invited, via their attending physiatrist or prosthetist, to answer a digital or paper
Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.
This study examines the recollections of the Sport Education experiences of a cohort of students (15 boys and 19 girls) who had participated in seasons of basketball, soccer and badminton across grades six through eight (average age at data collection = 15.6 years). Using autobiographic memory theory techniques, the students completed surveys and…
Agans, Jennifer P.; Geldhof, G. John
In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation,…
Tiggelman, Dana; van de Ven, Monique O M; van Schayck, Onno C P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E
Sport participation is especially important for patients with asthma in that it decreases psychosocial and physiological problems associated with inactivity. However, adolescents with asthma seem to participate less in sports compared to their non-asthmatic peers. The current study tested the direct associations between maternal sport-specific factors and sport club participation of early adolescents with asthma and the indirect effect through adolescent's sport-specific cognitions. During home visits, 261 adolescents (aged 10-15) completed questionnaires about self-efficacy, beliefs regarding sport participation, and their actual sport club participation. Their mothers reported their sport-specific support, beliefs about offspring's and own sport participation, their own levels of physical activity, and their self-efficacy to stimulate offspring to participate in sports. Path analyses were used to examine the direct and indirect associations of maternal sport-specific factors with adolescents sport club participation via adolescent sport-specific cognitions. Analyses showed that maternal sport-specific support (β = 0.20, P = 0.007) and self-efficacy to stimulate offspring to participate in sports (β = 0.20, P = 0.027) related positively to adolescents' sport club participation. Adolescents' self-efficacy (indirect effect = 0.09, SE = 3.01, P adolescents' participation in sport clubs. Maternal sport-specific factors related to adolescents' sport club participation directly and indirectly through adolescents' sport-specific cognitions. Intervention programs should focus on maternal sport-specific support and self-efficacy and adolescents' self-efficacy to increase sport participation of adolescents with asthma. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Solmon, Melinda A
The benefits associated with engaging in regular physical activity are well documented, but a large segment of the population is not sufficiently active. School physical educa tion and sport programs are identified as important components in efforts to promote physical activity. Girls are less active than boys, and there is evidence that physical education programs are not effectively meeting their needs. The focus of this chapter is to examine gender as a construct in the domains of physical education and sport, clarifying the reasons girls tend to be less active and less involved in physical education. Following an historical overview, curricular issues and motivational aspects are considered. Implications are focused on ways that educators can provide positive experiences for all students in physical education and sport that will encourage them to adopt and maintain healthy active lifestyles and enhance their quality of life across the life span.
Jae-Ahm Park; Mi-Hyang Park; Ji-Hye Shin; Bo Li; David Thomas Rolfe; Jong-Yeol Yoo; Stephen W. Dittmore
Internet addiction among adolescents has become a major social problem. Thus, more effective Internet addiction treatment programs through sports are required. This study tried to identify the relationship among sports participation, self-control, and Internet addiction among Korean adolescents. In total, 345 students (aged 15–18 years) from two middle schools and two high schools in South Korea were analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). ...
Full Text Available Sport activities, the same like professional preparation, must be seeing, knowledge, accepted, like a activity focus on building human personality for bring in integartive type, amusing, recreational, aestetically, social. The performance not be must to became a target who will be must achieved throught any tools. The succeses will be not considered like steps in power and affirmation who gives full rights and unsucceses like abjections from fainting, from slight. (A.Larion, 2007.Aim: The research focus on the schoolboys and schoolgirls option from the gymnasium about performing sport practice in leisure time, to what extent relation between shoolgirls and schoolboys practice insportive training and the results in national competitions, for to emphasize the eficiency for preparation in sport activities. The intelectual performance and the sportive performance is a resultant from yesterday, resulting from today and the sacrifice from tomorrow, the happines to will be more good in a period of life, not be forgeted the situation that instructive-educational process is subordinated to obtain the results throw the classrom / sportspupilis trained and it is amenable to corporeal and physical violences, who appear in preparation process and in competitional and evaluation process. Sport exercise practice in free time period (leisure time is an esential element in competitional activity.The research scope is identical for the name of our project. Methods: the 1233 subjects have answer to 10th questions for make a comparation between the children who leaves in block schools and streets house without blocks. Results: 78,68%(107 of 826 children from the blocks house was participated to competition and 21,32% (29 of 407 children from streets house was participate to competions. Our main conclusion is refeer at in point of fact the children from the blocks houses street make more sport activities and more pupils participate at sport activities than
Manore, Melinda M; Patton-Lopez, Megan M; Meng, Yu; Wong, Siew Sun
For adolescent athletes (14-18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players ( n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos ( p nutritional requirements, but more than twice as likely to report that nutritional supplements were necessary for training ( p nutrition education that enhances food selection skills for health and sport performance.
Kurková, Petra; Válková, Hana; Scheetz, Nanci
This study examine 53 European elite deaf athletes for their family's hearing status, use of hearing aids, communication preference, education in integrated or segregated settings, family members' encouragement for participation in sports, coach preference (hearing or deaf), and conditions for competitive events with deaf or hearing athletes. These data were gathered through semi-structured interviews administered in the athlete's native language. Deaf athletes reported that when given the opportunity to compete with hearing athletes, it enhanced their opportunity for competition. Participating in sports with hearing athletes played an important role in the integration of deaf athletes into mainstream society. If adaptations to communication can be made in these integrated settings, the ability of deaf athletes to participate in such settings will increase.
Markus Klein; Michael Fröhlich; Eike Emrich
The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female) in school years 7 (12.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 (15.8 ± 0.6 years) to measure the extent of a relationship between physical self-concept (self-developed short scale) and sporting activity, measured motor performance (Germa...
Full Text Available Sports law can be regarded as one of the latest developments in law. As applied to the school setting, and with special reference to sport coaching, this article deals with the five fundamental elements of the law of delict that influence and inform the execution of the duty of care of the educator-coach. This article pays special attention to the legal aspects related to the security, on the one hand, of the learners as participants, but also the educator-coach in his or her respective roles as coach, organiser of sport events, referee and sport official on the other.The basic research question is: To what extent can educator-coaches increase their own security by ensuring safer participation of learners? How can these educators prevent or minimise the occurrence of serious injuries during practices (as coaches and during meetings, contests or matches (as officials, such as being referees? A certain amount of risk is typical of and inherent to most types of sports, especially those that involve physical contact or in which potentially dangerous implements are used. In contrast, many learners are coached by educators that do not necessarily have enough experience, skills or knowledge regarding the more advanced techniques of the specific sports code. This contrast between the inherent risks and the lack of expertise of many educator-coaches creates an amount of insecurity for both the participants and the coaches.This article includes a discussion of the application of the five fundamental elements of the South African law of delict to school sports coaching. To illustrate the ways in which courts consider sports law issues, examples from court cases related to different types of sports are analysed, and, where applicable, cases from other countries and from outside the sphere of education are also included. This discussion is followed by an overview of those legal provisions that impact on sports participation at school.The legal duty of care
S. Arghami; G. Zahirian; T. Allahverdi
Introduction: Nowadays in all human societies, sport is considered as a human-training matter, which often occurs in sport fields. Many people, including students in schools, occasionally deal with these fields. Therefore, a standard tool is required to frequently inspection of sport fields. The aim of this study was to standardize checklists for sport fields in schools. .Material and Method: This study is a kind of tool and technique evaluation was done in Zanjan in 2013. The studied populat...
Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.
Full Text Available Former researches on the contribution of organized sport to antisocial and pro-social behavior of the young have yielded discordant and contradictory results. However, in the majority of researches, it was determined that active practice of sport has a different effect on psycho-social development of male and female participants. We have undertaken the research with the aim of examining whether there is a connection between the participation of the pupils of secondary school age in organized sport activities and their pro-social value orientation and aggressiveness, and, if there is, whether there are gender differences in that connection. The sample consisted of 300 pupils of secondary school (Mathematical High School in Belgrade, out of which 150 (49 female and 101 male regularly practice sport for more than two years, and 150 pupils (84 male and 66 female do not practice organized sport. The indicators of practicing sport are: the length of practicing sport activities, regularity and intensity of training, participation in contests and the kind of sport (individual or team sport. The following variables of pro-social orientation were examined: readiness for cooperation, caring for other people, social responsibility and empathy. Aggressiveness was examined through aggressive tendencies towards others. All variables were examined by the application of appropriate questionnaires and evaluation scales which were answered by the pupils themselves. The results have shown significant (although low, positive correlations between practicing sport and pro-social values, as well as the negative (low correlation between practicing sport and aggression, for both genders of students. Statistically significant differences were found between boys and girls regarding pro-social orientation (higher level in girls, as well as aggressiveness (higher levels in boys. Significant correlations were lower and more numerous in male than in female respondents.
Wagnsson, Stefan; Lindwall, Magnus; Gustafsson, Henrik
The purpose of the study was to test longitudinal (2 years across three occasions) associations between sport participation (SP) and self-esteem (SE) across adolescence (10-18 years), addressing the mediating role of perceived sport competence (PSC) from a developmental perspective. Three waves of data were collected from three age cohorts (10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 years) of school-aged youth (N = 1358). The results demonstrate that SP and SE are related across time and that PSC has an important mediating role in this relationship, both from a skill development and a self-enhancement perspective. In the skill development model, the mediating role of PSC was significantly stronger in the youngest cohort whereas the effect of PSC on subsequent SP in the self-enhancement model was significantly stronger in the 13-15 age group compared with the youngest age group.
... in sport, the effect of motivation in sport on academic performance, the fundamental cause of anxiety in sport, the fact that female athletes are likely to be relatively more comfortable with male authority figures as coaches, etcetera. The empirical research revealed that discrepancies exist between the perceptions of teacher ...
Allison, Rosalie; Bird, Emma L; McClean, Stuart
It is estimated that 21% of boys and 16% of girls in England meet recommended physical activity guidelines. Team sport has the potential to increase physical activity levels; however, studies show that gender-based factors can influence girls' participation in team sport. Furthermore, evidence for the effectiveness of interventions promoting team sport among girls is limited. This systematic review aimed to assess the impact of physical activity interventions on secondary school-aged girls' (aged 11-18 years) participation in team sport and to identify potential strategies for increasing participation. Electronic databases and grey literature were systematically searched for studies of interventions targeting team sport participation among girls in the UK. Results were exported to Refworks, duplicates removed and eligible studies identified. Extracted data included: participant details, such as sample size and age; components of the intervention; outcomes assessed; and each study was quality appraised. Due to heterogeneity across studies, results were presented narratively. Four studies sourced from the grey literature met the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that physical activity interventions can encourage girls to try new sports, but evidence is limited in relation to sustained participation. Potential strategies for promoting participation included: consultation with girls, implementation of appropriate peer-leaders and friendship group strategies, early intervention and consideration of intervention setting. This review highlights the limited availability of evidence on the effectiveness of physical activity interventions for promoting team sport participation among girls in the UK. Findings indicate that future research is needed to improve the methodological quality of complex intervention evaluation. Physical activity interventions may have the potential to encourage girls to try team sport, but their impact on sustained participation, and subsequent
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the participation motives of youth from different sport branches and examine the differences with respect to different demographic variables. The study was conducted on 85 girls and 202 boys from different sport branches in Turkey. The average age of the participants were 14.29 years (SD=1.1. The “Participation Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ” (Gill, Gross and Huddleston (1983 was administered on the participants. The reliability and validity of the PMQ was tested by Oyar, Aşçı, Çelebi and Mülazımoğlu (2001. The scale consisted of 30 items and 8 subscales. All items were measured and sorted using a three-point Likert scale. Descriptive statistics and were performed on all variables including means and standard deviations. Independent Samples t-test was also used to determine differences between the scores acquired from the scale and some independent variables. Analysis indicated significant differences in achievement/status (t= 2.71; p < 0.05, team affiliation (t= 2.12; p < 0.05 and friendship (t= 3.81; p < 0.01 subscales between girls and boys. Boys had higher scores than the girls. There were significant differences in achievement/status (t= 2.52; p < 0.01, team affiliation (t= 2.33; p < 0.01, energy release/fitness (t= 2.33; p < 0.05 and competition (t= 2.50; p < 0.01 subscales with regard to sport experience. Less experienced participants had lower scores than the more experienced. As a result, it can be concluded that based on the mean ratings of each of the 30 participation motives, “improve my skills” and “to raise my sport branch” were the most important participation motives for the participants.
Mohammad Younis Khan; Asif Jamil; Umar Ali Khan; Uzma Kareem; Ghazanfar Imran
A research study was conducted to know about the participation of Muslim girls and women in sports and philosophy of Islam in this regard. The population of this study was all female students of Government Girls Degree Colleges of District Dera Ismail Khan. Total 100 respondents selected from within the population through convenient or available sampling technique. For the purpose of collection of data a structured questionnaire on three point Likert scale, ranging from disagree (DA= 1 point)...
The purpose of this study was to examine the safety environment under which school sports programme is organized in Nigeria schools. The paper noted that poor environment under which PES is administered militated against smooth attainment of physical education and sports in schools. In this regard the paper explored ...
Moeijes, Janet; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Twisk, Jos W R
BACKGROUND: It is well known that sports participation is positively associated with psychosocial health in children, but details about this association over time are lacking. This study aimed to explore longitudinal associations between several characteristics of sports participation and three
Ferry, Magnus; Lund, Stefan
In the fields of both education and sport, the possession of capital and habitus influences an individual's lifestyles and choices, which in turn affects the social selection within these fields. In this article, we will study the Swedish system of school sports as an overlap between the fields of education and sport, and thus viewed as a double…
Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah
Participation in fantasy sports increases annually. Wagering on fantasy sports is a form of gambling and researchers have found that fantasy sports participants are more likely to engage in other forms of sports betting than non-fantasy players; however, no published studies have examined whether there is a relationship between fantasy sports participation and gambling-related problems. Our study examined whether fantasy sports participation is associated with gambling-related problems among college students. We assessed fantasy sports participation and endorsement of DSM-5 gambling disorder (GD) criteria among a large convenience sample (N=1556) of college students via an online health survey. We found that 11.5% of respondents participated in fantasy sports in the past year, the majority of which were males. Logistic regression analyses indicated that males who play fantasy sports for money and females who play fantasy sports (for money or not) were more likely to experience gambling-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A; Laborde, Sylvain
This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24 months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of an increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young children who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active lifestyle might help to facilitate desirable personality trait stability and change during childhood. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
The study on University Teachers ' sports participation and their job satisfaction relationship for empirical research, mainly from the group to participate in sports activities situation on the object of study, investigation and mathematical statistics analysis SPSS. Results show that sports groups participate in job satisfaction higher than those in groups of job satisfaction; sports participation, different job satisfaction is also different. Recommendations for college teachers to address...
Al-Rimawi, Hala; Jallad, Samer
Adolescents with blood diseases should be encouraged to participate in exercise. Physical activity helps to build stronger muscles, to give better support to the joints, and to improve the patient's overall health and fitness. It also improves emotional well being by improving self-esteem and providing social interaction. Sports and exercise in sickle cell anemia and sickle cell trait need special consideration. Young athletes with sickle cell disease are at high risk of dehydration, heat-related injury, exhaustion, painful episodes, and hip joint problems. Gradual acclimatization to heat, humidity and high altitude, slow conditioning over weeks and avoidance of dehydration are recommended for all adolescents with sickle cell disease to make their sport activity safe. Effort should be made to educate those with sickle cell disease that their condition is not a handicap and that they are fit to lead a normal life.
Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in motivation to participate in sport activities among sports students from three different countries. On a sample of 390 sports students from Slovenia, Croatia and Germany we studied what motivates an interest in being sports active. The sample was stratified across the choice to attend table tennis lessons at all three institutions and all students have completed the Participation Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ. The results revealed that the latent structure of the types of sports students' motives consisted of six factors (sport action with friend, popularity, fitness & health, social status, sports events, relaxation through sports. We also found significant sex differences in motivation to participate in sport activities for all sports students from the three different countries. We did not find relevant age-based differences among the students, and this is the only initial hypothesis that we can reject.
Guerriero, Réjean M; Proctor, Mark R; Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P
Sport-related concussion affects athletes at every level of participation. The short and long-term effects of concussions that occur during childhood and adolescence are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to describe the current burden of disease, current practice patterns and current recommendations for the assessment and management of sport-related concussions sustained by United States high school athletes. Millions of high school students participate in organized sports in the United States. Current estimates suggest that, across all sports, approximately 2.5 concussions occur for every 10 000 athletic exposures, in which an athletic exposure is defined as one athlete participating in one game or practice. At schools that employ at least one athletic trainer, most high school athletes who sustain sport-related concussions will be cared for by athletic trainers and primary care physicians. Approximately 40% will undergo computerized neurocognitive assessment. The number of high school athletes being diagnosed with sport-related concussions is rising. American football has the highest number of concussions in high school with girls' soccer having the second highest total number. Fortunately, coaches are becoming increasingly aware of these injuries and return-to-play guidelines are being implemented.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the factorial structure and validity of Behavioral Regulation in Sports Questionnaire (BRSQ – Lonsdale Hodge & Rose, 2008. The proposed nine dimensional motivation model by Lonsdale et al. (2008 investigated: i amotivation, ii external regulation, iii introjected regulation, iv identified regulation, v integrated regulation, vi IM-general, vii IM to know, viii IM to experience stimulation and ix IM to accomplish. One hundred and fifty-eight children aged 10 to 13 years old, all active members of private volleyball, football and basketball sport academies in a Greek city, completed the questionnaire. The age groups were chosen based on the early period of adolescence when a person seems to formulate his/her decision about whether to continue participating in a sport, choose another or abandon exercise in general. The scale was translated into Greek using the back-translation procedure. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA did not provide adequate support for the factorial validity of the motivational model. The data were then analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency through Cronbach alpha. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed six out of the initial nine motivational factors. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
Veenhof, C.; Perry, S.; Lucas, C.
Introduction: The objectives of this study were to investigate 1) in which sports activities patients with osteoarthritis (OA) participate, 2) the cross sectional differences in functional outcome between sports participants and nonsports participants and 3) the influence of regular sports
Richman, Erin L.; Shaffer, David R.
Investigated links between female precollege sport participation and college self-esteem. Students surveys indicated that participation in sports positively correlated with body image, perceived physical competencies, gender identity, global self-esteem, and other psychosocial variables, thus predicting college self-esteem. In the absence of such…
Post, Eric G.; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Stiffler, Mikel R.; Brooks, M. Alison; Bell, David R.; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L.; Trigsted, Stephanie M.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; McGuine, Timothy A.
Background: Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. Hypothesis: College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) rep...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An effort to promote participation in any type of PA is more effective when it is aimed at needs, interests and preferences of particular target group. Current evidence emphasizes the insufficiency of PA in all age groups. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to analyze and describe the structure of sport activity preferences of high school students and to contribute to prospective improvement of sports and physical activity programs. METHODS: Two standardized questionnaires were used – 1. sport preferences questionnaire, 2. international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ. The research sample (N = 333 consisted of high school students from the Czech Republic. RESULTS: Our results confirm that the differences between girls and boys are not as great as they were few decades ago. There is a visible dynamic in the development of sport preferences structure. Despite this fact there is a spectrum of sports that are constantly preferred – soccer, volleyball, aerobics and swimming. Acquired results indicate that the range of PA amount in girls varies from 2,372 MET-min/week (15 year old girls to 4,467 MET-min/week (17 year old girls, while acquired results in boys varies from 2,535 MET-min/week (16 year old boys to 4,973 MET-min/week (17 year old boys. The results, if properly applied, could increase the total amount of PA in high school students and improve the effectiveness of school PE.
Kerpanova, Viera; Borodankova, Olga
"Physical Education and Sport at School in Europe" maps the state of play of physical education and sport activities at school in 30 European countries. The report covers primary and lower secondary education and provides an insight into the following topics: national strategies and large-scale initiatives where they exist, the status of…
Malinauskas, Romualdas K.; Juodsnukis, Dalius R.
Research aim was to analyze peculiarities of education of social responsibility among football sports school students. We hypothesized that after the educational program sport school students will have more developed social responsibility. The total sample comprised 52 male students. Experimental group consisted of 26 and the control group of 26…
Alfonso Murillo Fuentes
Full Text Available The school is becoming the focus of policies on sport at school age in their educational aspect, placing teachers as responsible not only for planning, but management of school resources. This study aims to determine the degree of satisfaction of teachers-managers of Escuelas Deportivas that educational centers develop, according to different ways of management (municipalities, utility companies or associations of parents of students. The research was conducted with the participation of 440 subjects who were administered a questionnaire designed specifically to know their satisfaction. The results show significant differences in indicators of Technical Staff (p = .004, with a better appreciation for the councils, and Monitoring and Control by the Administration (p = .017, reflecting greater satisfaction in those cases where management was performed by utility companies.
Casey, Meghan M; Eime, Rochelle M; Payne, Warren R; Harvey, Jack T
Adolescence is a critical time for developing lifelong healthy behaviors, including active lifestyles. Participation in sport and physical activity, however, declines during adolescence, and few studies have comprehensively identified why, particularly among rural girls. This article identifies a range of independent and interacting factors that influence sport and physical activity participation of rural adolescent girls. The socioecological model of health was used to guide four focus group discussions with Grade 7 girls (n = 34). The results showed that adolescent girls were positively influenced when sports or physical activities were fun, when they involved being with friends, and when they were supported by families and teachers through role modeling and positive feedback. A range of intrapersonal and organizational factors affected perceived self-competence, particularly the coeducational nature of school physical education classes and peer teasing, which supported social comparisons of skill level. In promoting sport and physical activity to rural adolescent girls, focus must be directed on developmentally appropriate activities that are fun, offering opportunities for single-sex classes, and generating cultural changes that encourage noncompetitive and self-referencing activities.
This paper analyzes the distribution of education and labor market benefits from sports participation. Results show that effects are similar across gender, but differ on other dimensions. In particular, participants in team sports show greater gains than those in individual sports. Quantile regressions show that educational gains are larger for…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between parental physical activity and children's physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness has not been well studied in the Australian context. Given the increasing focus on physical activity and childhood obesity, it is important to understand correlates of children's physical activity. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exercise was associated with children's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods The data were drawn from a nationally representative sample (n = 8,484 of 7–15 year old Australian schoolchildren, surveyed as part of the Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey in 1985. A subset of 5,929 children aged 9–15 years reported their participation in extracurricular sports and their parents' exercise. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the 1.6 km (1-mile run/walk and in addition for children aged 9, 12 or 15 years, using a physical work capacity test (PWC170. Results While the magnitude of the differences were small, parental exercise was positively associated with children's extracurricular sports participation (p p 170 (p = 0.013. In most instances, when only one parent was active, the sex of that parent was not an independent predictor of the child's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion Parental exercise may influence their children's participation in extracurricular sports and their cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Understanding the correlates of children's extracurricular sport participation is important for the targeting of health promotion and public health interventions, and may influence children's future health status.
Henrique, Rafael S; Ré, Alessandro H N; Stodden, David F; Fransen, Job; Campos, Carolina M C; Queiroz, Daniel R; Cattuzzo, Maria T
The aim of this study was to investigate if baseline motor competence, weight status and sports participation in early childhood predict sports participation two years later. longitudinal study. In 2010, motor competence (object control and locomotor skills), weight status and sports participation were assessed in 292 children between three and five years-of-age. In 2012, sports participation was re-evaluated in 206 of the original 292 children. Logistic regression was implemented to examine if initial sports participation, motor competence and weight status would predict sports participation two years later. In the final model, sports participation in 2010 (OR=9.68, CI: 3.46 to 27.13) and locomotor skills (OR=1.21, CI: 1.01 to 1.46) significantly predicted sports participation after two years. These results suggest that initial sports participation and more advanced locomotor skills in preschool years may be important to promote continued participation in sports across childhood. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turner, Robert W; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Peterson, Camilla J; Skinner, Asheley C
Objective. To understand the relationships between participation in different types of leisure time sport activity and adolescent obesity, and how those relationships might differ based on race, gender, and household income. Methods. Data consisted of 6667 students that took part in the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The authors used adjusted Wald tests to examine differences in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) by sport for boys and girls separately. Results. Among adolescent youth age 12 to 19 years, 16.6% of male leisure time sport participants and 15.3% of female sport participants were obese, compared with 23.6% for male nonathlete participant-in-other-activities and 17.0% obesity rate for female nonathlete/participant-in-other-activities. For both males and females, reported participation in leisure time sports decreased between middle school and high school, and this reduction was associated with higher body mass index.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays in all human societies, sport is considered as a human-training matter, which often occurs in sport fields. Many people, including students in schools, occasionally deal with these fields. Therefore, a standard tool is required to frequently inspection of sport fields. The aim of this study was to standardize checklists for sport fields in schools. .Material and Method: This study is a kind of tool and technique evaluation was done in Zanjan in 2013. The studied population included indoor and outdoor sport fields in governmental boys’ high schools in Zanjan city. The checklists’ items selected based on existing regulations, standards and relevant studies. Standardization of all tools was done applying the face and content validity and reliability tests. .Result: The primary checklist for outdoor sport fields in high schools, which considered by the expert panel, consisted of 75 items. Based on CVI (2 to 3.9 and CVR (.5 to .78, modifications were done and 6 more items were added. And the same process for the primary checklist for outdoor sports fields (85 items was repeated. Based on CVI (2 to 3.9 and CVR (.5 to .78, items increased to 92. .Conclusion: The safety checklist for sport fields in schools are matched with the properties of them. The safety checklist developed in this study has an acceptable reliability and validity for useful applying in sport field inspections.
McGowan, Erin L; Speed-Andrews, Amy E; Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Culos-Reed, S Nicole; Friedenreich, Christine M; Courneya, Kerry S
Physical activity improves health outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, but participation rates are low. One understudied strategy for increasing physical activity in CRC survivors may be sport participation. Here, we report the sport participation rate, sport preferences, and correlates of sport participation among CRC survivors. A provincial, population-based mailed survey of CRC survivors in Alberta, Canada was performed and included measures of sport participation, sport preferences, sport benefits and barriers, and medical and demographic variables. A total of 600 CRC survivors completed the survey (34 % response rate). Almost a quarter (23.0 %) of CRC survivors reported participating in a sport in the past month, with the most common sport being golf (58.7 %). In multivariate regression analysis, 33.0 % (p = 0.001) of the variance in sport participation was explained by being male (β = 0.12; p = 0.006), in better general health (β = 0.12; p = 0.006), and ≥ 5 years post-diagnosis (β = 0.09; p = 0.031). The most common barriers to sport participation were time, age/agility, and no interest/dislike of sports. The most common anticipated benefits of sport participation were improved physical fitness, meeting people, and improved health. Over half (57.2 %) of CRC survivors were possibly interested in learning about sport participation opportunities. Promotion of sport participation may be a potentially fruitful strategy for increasing physical activity in CRC survivors.
Kobel, S; Kettner, S; Kesztyüs, D; Erkelenz, N; Drenowatz, C; Steinacker, J M
The increased prevalence of childhood obesity has also been attributed to low physical activity (PA) levels. Understanding factors affecting child PA levels is especially important considering the benefits PA offers to youth. This study therefore examined different correlates affecting habitual PA and sports participation in primary school children. Height and weight were measured during a school visit in 1714 children (7.1 ± .6 years). PA and behavioural correlates were assessed by parental questionnaire. The effect of various correlates on PA as well as participation in organized sports was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Significant correlates of PA and sports participation were engagement in sporting activities outside of clubs and children's weight status. Playing outdoors for more than 60 min/day was significant for PA, having well educated parents and being male. Participation in sports was influenced by children's media consumption, active travel to school and having active parents. No influence was found for migration, income, parental weight status and health consciousness. In this study, a multiplicity of independent correlates of PA and sports participation, which require a broad approach to promote an active lifestyle, have been considered. Understanding these factors might support the development of effective health-promoting interventions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available School sport is defined both by legal solutions giving form to the educational process of primary and secondary schools and by those dealing with sport issues directly. Importance of school is indicated by the fact that it is the place where sport is realized within a mass-like and humanist framework with non-commercial base. In view of high decade-long investments of institutions of the Republic and Province, especially the City of Novi Sad, into outdoor and indoor facilities for practicing physical education (sport, as well as high professional and educational level of the personnel directly involved in this process, one can rightly ask a question: IS SCHOOL A PLACE OFFERING EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS TO CHILDREN AND YOUTH?
Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to analyse the gender differences among students at the University of Ljubljana in the importance of sport in their lives and the frequency of sport participation. The research was done in the 2013 academic year on a random sample of 3% of the students (N = 1390; a questionnaire about students’ lifestyles was used (Majerič, 2013. In this study, two variables were analysed: the importance of sport in students’ lives and the frequency of sport participation; the data were analysed with SPSS for Windows. The basic statistical parameters for both variables were calculated. To calculate the gender differences, a t-test for independent samples and the Mann-Whitney U test were run. For the variable ‘importance of sport in students’ lives’, 61.95% of male and 53.20% of female respondents reported that sport is important and very important in their lives. The gender differences were small but statistically significant (p=0.013. For the variable ‘frequency of participation in sport activity’, 79.61% of male and 77.10% of female respondents reported that they were sport active every day, 4 to 6 times a week or 2 to 3 times a week. The gender differences in this variable were also statistically significant (p=0.000. Our findings and conclusions provide useful guidance to the closer and wider professional public who organize sport programmes for students.
Morgan, Haydn J.; Bush, Anthony J.
Reducing social exclusion through interventions designed to sustain school engagement is a key aim of the education and social policy of any government. This paper is a response to the call for there to be more focused empirical sports coaching research through examining the transformative potential of community-based sports coaches to support…
Couture, Steven; Lamarche, Benoit; Morissette, Eliane; Provencher, Veronique; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Drapeau, Vicky
The objectives of this study were to evaluate high school coaches' knowledge in sports nutrition and the nutritional practices they recommend to their athletes. Forty-seven high school coaches in "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports from the greater region of Quebec (women = 44.7%) completed a questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and practices. "Leanness sports" were defined as sports where leanness or/and low bodyweight were considered important (e.g., cheerleading, swimming and gymnastics), and "non-leanness sports" were defined as sports where these factors are less important (e.g., football). Participants obtained a total mean score of 68.4% for the nutrition knowledge part of the questionnaire. More specifically, less than 30% of the coaches could answer correctly some general nutrition questions regarding carbohydrates and lipids. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge was observed between coaches from "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports or between men and women. Respondents with a university education scored higher than the others (73.3% vs. 63.3%, p protein-rich foods. Recommendation for nutritional supplements use was extremely rare and was suggested only by football coaches, a nonleanness sport. Findings from this study indicate that coaches need sports nutrition education and specific training.
Laborde, Sylvain; Guillén, Félix; Dosseville, Fabrice; Allen, Mark S
Chronotype and sport participation have been found to relate to positive personality-trait-like individual differences (PTLID). To date, research has focused exclusively on the morningness-eveningness dimension of chronotype, and little is known about the relationship between chronotype and various characteristics of sport participation (e.g. training time). This investigation had three primary objectives: (1) to extend the current evidence base by exploring how sport participation and PTLID relate to chronotype amplitude, (2) to explore how chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) relates to various characteristics of sport training and competition, and (3) to explore the independent and interrelated contribution of sport participation and chronotype to PTLID. The sample included 976 non-athletes (493 women and 483 men) and 974 athletes (478 women and 496 men). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires targeting sport participation characteristics, six positive PTLID (hope, optimism, perseverance, resilience, self-efficacy and trait emotional intelligence) and chronotype dimensions. Results showed that morningness-eveningness was negatively related to positive PTLID but was unrelated to sport participation. Greater diurnal fluctuations (amplitude dimension) were associated with lower positive PTLID values, lower sport participation, and shorter training durations. Positive PTLID were also associated with better sleep quality and a shorter sleep duration. Chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) and sport participation had independent associations with PTLID. These findings suggest that changes in sport participation and activity times might be a useful approach to developing positive PTLID.
Jenkin, Claire R; Eime, Rochelle M; Westerbeek, Hans; O'Sullivan, Grant; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z
The global population is ageing. As ageing is often associated with a decline in health, there is a need to further develop preventative health measures. Physical activity can positively influence older adults' (aged 50 years and older) health. Previous research on the relationship between physical activity and health for older adults has mainly focused on physical activity in general, and not specific types of exercise. Due to the social nature of sport, it may assist in improving physical, mental and social health for older adults. Sport, as a form of physical activity, has not been widely explored as a physical activity opportunity for older adults. This review concurrently explored two research questions: the determinants and the trends of sport participation for community dwelling older adults. Two parallel systematic searches of nine electronic databases were conducted in December 2015 for the two research questions. English language quantitative and qualitative studies that provided specific results for community dwelling older adults' sport participation were included and a quality ratings assessment was undertaken. There were 10,171 studies initially identified for the first research question and 1992 studies for the second research question. This culminated in 18 and 8 studies respectively that met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently mentioned determinants of participation were health and using sport to negotiate the ageing process. The most frequently mentioned trends of sport participation were the effect of historical sport participation on current participation, and sport participation across the lifespan. The main themes for both research questions had contrasting results, for example, participation in sport could improve health, but poor health was also a limitation of sport participation. This review demonstrates that older adults are a heterogeneous age group, and therefore require different strategies than other age groups to
Steiner, Ronald P.; Brandstetter, Susanne; Klenk, Jochen; Wabitsch, Martin; Steinacker, Jürgen M.
Physical inactivity is associated with poor physical fitness and increased body weight. This study examined the relationship between participation in organized sports and overweight as well as physical fitness in primary school children in southern Germany. Height, weight, and various components of physical fitness were measured in 995 children (7.6 ± 0.4 years). Sports participation and confounding variables such as migration background, parental education, parental body weight, and parental sports participation were assessed via parent questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression as well as multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to determine associations between physical fitness, participation in organized sports, and body weight. Participation in organized sports less than once a week was prevalent in 29.2%, once or twice in 60.2%, and more often in 10.6% of the children. Overweight was found in 12.4% of the children. Children participating in organized sports more than once per week displayed higher physical fitness and were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.52, P sports may be a crucial aspect in public health efforts addressing the growing problems associated with overweight and obesity. PMID:23533728
Findlay, Leanne C.; Bowker, Anne
The current study explored specific aspects of sports and individuals on 4 domains of the self-system (physical competence and physical appearance self-concept, global physical and general self-esteem). Participants were 351 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.45, SD = 1.25 years, males n = 132) recruited from elite sports and regular school…
Thibaut, E.; Eakins, J.; Vos, S.B.; Scheerder, J.
Given the recent economic crisis and the risen poverty rates, sports managers need to get insight in the effect of income and other socio-economic determinants on the household time and money that is spent on sports participation. By means of a Tobit regression, this study analyses the magnitude of
The main purpose of this research was to analyse the gender differences among students at the University of Ljubljana in the importance of sport in their lives and the frequency of sport participation. The research was done in the 2013 academic year on a random sample of 3% of the students (N = 1390); a questionnaire about students’ lifestyles was used (Majerič, 2013). In this study, two variables were analysed: the importance of sport in students’ lives and the frequency of sport participati...
Domazet, Sidsel L; Tarp, Jakob; Huang, Tao
OBJECTIVES: To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. METHODS: The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh gra...
Full Text Available This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Podgorica consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often they participate in sports activities. The sample included 330 students from Faculty of Economics in Podgorica, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not participate in sport activities at all, then consumers who participate in sport activities less than ones a month, next 1–4 a month, 5–10 a month, 11–20 a month, as well as consumers participate in sport activities more than 20 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.000. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are significant differences showed up between the consumers who participate in various sports activities. The significant differences were found in one of three variables, while the consumers who participate less than 4 times a moths had much more negative attitudes toward advertising though sport.
John Robert Evans
Full Text Available The argument that participation in sport among disadvantaged populations can produce positive outcomes in wide range of areas has been a consistent theme in academic literature. It is argued that sport participation can promote women’s empowerment, sexuality, lifestyle, peacemaking, youth development, poverty reduction and conflict resolution. Similarly, in Australia, participation in sport among Indigenous Australians has been proffered as a ‘panacea’ for many Indigenous problems; from promoting better health and education outcomes, to encouraging community building, good citizenship and entrepreneurship. Parallel to this has been a focus on documenting and analysing sport participation among Indigenous Australians in elite sport which often concludes that Indigenous Australians have an innate and ‘natural ability’ in sports. These two assumptions, first, that sport participation can help realise a wide range of positive social outcomes; and second, that Indigenous Australians are natural athletes, have driven significant public investment in numerous sport focused programs. This paper questions these assumptions and outlines some of the challenges inherent with an emphasis on sport as a solution to Indigenous disadvantage. We highlight how participation in sport has often been tied to ambitious, ill-defined and, in terms of evaluation, often elusive social outcome goals. Second, we also argue that there is limited research to indicate that participation in either elite or grassroots level sport has led to any discernible social progress in addressing inequality. We contrast historical Indigenous participation in a range of sporting codes to demonstrate the influence of factors beyond the ‘natural ability’ and ‘born to play’ propositions. Finally, we outline six ‘perils’ associated with viewing sport as a panacea; including how privileging sport can not only perpetuate disadvantage by reinforcing stereotypes and also
This autoethnography explores challenging and ethically sensitive issues around sexual orientation, sexual identity and masculinity in the context of school sport. Through storytelling, I aim to show how sometimes ambiguous encounters with heterosexism, homophobia and hegemonic masculinity through sport problematise identity development for young…
Sports law can be regarded as one of the latest developments in law. As applied to the school setting, and with special reference to sport coaching, this article deals with the five fundamental elements of the law of delict that influence and inform the execution of the duty of care of the educator-coach. This article pays special ...
Dean, Peter N; Gillespie, Catherine W; Greene, Elizabeth Anne; Pearson, Gail D; Robb, Adelaide S; Berul, Charles I; Kaltman, Jonathan R
Adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are often restricted from physical activity and sports participation, which may have adverse effects. To determine the amount of physical activity, type of sports participation, and reasons for sports restrictions, and to evaluate the effect of sports participation on quality of life (QoL) in a cohort of patients with CHD. Individuals with CHD aged 13-30 years were recruited at outpatient visits or via mailings. They completed a questionnaire addressing physical activity, sports participation, sports restrictions, and QoL (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory). We also reviewed the patient's medical record. Of the 177 patients who responded (mean age 20 years), 31% have mild CHD, 40% have moderate CHD, and 29% have severe CHD. In the cohort, 52% participate in competitive sports, 25% recreational sports, and 23% no sports. Among patients with severe CHD, 29% participate in competitive sports that would be restricted by published guidelines (36th Bethesda Conference). After controlling for age, sex, CHD severity, residual hemodynamic disease, and comorbidities, participation in competitive sports and increased frequency of physical activity are independently associated with a higher QoL (P = .003 and P = .001, respectively). In an identical model, competitive sports participation and frequency of physical activity are associated with higher maximum predicted oxygen consumption (VO2 ) (n = 40; P = .002 and .02) and slightly lower body mass index (BMI) (P = .02 and .01). All findings were similar when analyses were stratified by recruitment method. Patients with CHD commonly participate in competitive sports, and such participation is associated with higher QoL, improved exercise capacity, and lower BMI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Slater, Daniel; Meade, Michelle A
Recreation and sports following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) are beneficial, but under-studied, aspects of community integration. Previous studies have shown that sports and recreation can offer numerous physiological and psychological benefits to those who participate. This manuscript critically reviews available literature focused upon participation in recreation and sports among persons with SCI. Issues of participation, technology and safety are discussed and recommendations are provided.
Wilhite, Barbara; Shank, John
Achieving and maintaining health are no less important to people with a disability than they are to anyone else; it is just typically more challenging. This report explores sport as a mechanism of health for people with a disability. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is used to frame the analysis and discussion of the narratives of 12 women and men with a disability who participate in sport. The goal was to describe how participating in sport, broadly defined, helps persons with a disability achieve and maintain health and health-related components of well-being. The ICF was used to frame a secondary analysis and discussion of participant narratives. Participants with physical or sensory disabilities responded to a request for participation in in-depth interviews to explore their sport participation; snowball sampling was used to ensure maximum variation in demographic characteristics. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. A secondary analysis was conducted that focused on the relationship of the data categories to the ICF. Sport benefits included enhanced functional capacity, health promotion, relationship development, increased optimism, and inclusion in meaningful life activities and roles. Health professionals were vital in introducing and encouraging people with disabilities to participate in sport. Sport is a valuable and promising mechanism for fostering physical and emotional health and building valuable social connections. Health professionals, in concert with individual, family, and community members, may use the framework of the ICF to guide their clinical and educational reasoning for enhancing sport participation among persons with a disability.
Full Text Available Disclosed aspects of the marketing approach in the activities of youth sports schools. The degree of use of marketing in the organization and management of youth sports schools. Identified constraints and the possible consequences of the use of marketing in youth sports schools. The study involved 127 employees with 15 youth sports schools. The respondents were the director and deputy instructor methodists that senior coaches offices youth sports schools. It is certain that in their professional activities only 36.0% of workers in youth sports schools use marketing is the marketing research, 73.2% of respondents believe that the use of marketing to promote the image of youth sports schools. The absence of a marketing specialist in the management bodies of physical education and sport is one of the main problems for the efficient functioning of the market of sports schools sports and sports services.
Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Magee, Christopher A; Okely, Anthony D
This paper assessed the associations between sports participation and the development of psychological strengths and difficulties during childhood. Two-year follow up study of a sample of 4042 Australian children who were followed from age 8 years to 10 years. Parents reported children's participation in organised sports, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Univariate general linear models were used to examine the association between changes in sports participation and psychological strengths and difficulties at 10 years, adjusting for psychological strengths and difficulties at age 8. Children who maintained participation in sport had lower rates of parent-reported psychological difficulties at 10 years compared with children who dropped out of sport. Less internalising problems were also reported for children who participated in organised sports compared to children who dropped out of sports and children who did not participate in sports. These relationships did not differ by BMI, socioeconomic status, or parental education. Greater psychological difficulties are experienced by children who drop out of sports, and greater social and emotional problems are experienced by children who drop out of sports and who do not participate in organised sports. Due consideration should be given to the quality and implementation of sporting programs to ensure that they provide benefits to mental health. Due consideration should also be given to the potential psychological difficulties being experienced by children who drop out of organised sports as a higher level of psychological difficulties may be experienced prior to or subsequent to dropout. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This research paper aims to see to what extent a project of revitalization of playgrounds contributes to improving coexistence, conflict resolution, and the participation of boys and girls in sport and physical activities. The paper also aims to know the level of motivation and interest the project could have for the students. For this, after initial assessment, a project of revitalization of recreations was designed, and after a few days of training, it was implemented for a month in a primary school in Spain, with 179 students (98 boys and 81 girls from 1 to 6 grades; it was carried out in the school playground during a 30-minute recess period. The project consisted of two phases of training; the first one explained different games through training days; the second phase featured free recreation and independent work. The project opted for a mixed methodology of collecting information; this methodology included an information questionnaire and participant observation. The study concludes by highlighting the students’ high interest and motivation, the increasing participation, both boys and girls in physical and sports activities, and the reduction of conflicts between students of the center.
Borgers, J.; Breedveld, K.; Tienen-Raaphorst, A.; Thibaut, E.; Vandermeerschen, H.; Vos, S.B.; Scheerder, J.
Research question: As a result of the expansion of opportunities for leisure-time sport participation (LTSP), the question arises if differing organisational settings relate to differences in participation behaviour. This paper compares participation frequency and time spent on sport between
Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Alexandris, Konstantinos; Zahariadis, Panagiotis; Grouios, George
This study aimed at investigating the effect of motivational dimensions proposed by Pelletier, et al. in 1995, both on sport participation levels and on intention for continuing participation among adult recreational sport participants. Two hundred and fifty-seven adult individuals, who reported participation in some type of sport and physical activity, completed the Sport Motivation Scale and a scale measuring intention. The study provided evidence to suggest that increased motivation leads to increased participation. Amotivation significantly decreased from the least to the most frequent participant groups, while both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation followed the reverse pattern. The results also indicated that increased intrinsic motivation to gain knowledge and accomplishment and extrinsic motivation (introjected regulation) are positively correlated with individuals' intentions to continue participation, while amotivation is negatively related. These results provide limited support for the self-determination theory. Implications for sport participation promotion are discussed.
Greier, K; Riechelmann, H
A high percentage of all sports injuries occur during school sports. It was analysed whether there are differences in frequency, nature and distribution of school sport injuries at two different types of schools. School sport injuries of all secondary modern schools (n = 106) and in lower classes of grammar Schools (n = 17) in the federal state of Tyrol, Austria, from the ten school years 2001/02 to 2010/11 were analysed. All physical injuries occurring during school sports and resulting in the consultation of a medical doctor and therefore being reported to the general accident department (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt [AUVA]) were assessed. During the evaluation period an average number of 32,935 (±1584) school children attended the two types of schools in Tyrol per year. The average incidence of school sports injuries in this ten-year period in both types of schools was 36.4/1,000 (mean) with a standard deviation of 4.4/1,000 per school child per year. The incidence increased from 30.3 in the school year 2001/02 to 40.4 in the school year 2010/11 (r = 0.91; b = 1.34; p school sport injuries at secondary modern schools (37.4 ± 4.9 per 1,000 school children per year) was higher than at the lower classes of grammar schools (32.9 ± 4.0 per 1,000 school children per year; relative risk 1.138; 95% CI = 1.09-1.19; p = 1.8 × 10-8). In addition, the sports injuries of the school year 2010/11 were analysed in detail and a comparison was made between the two types of schools. The distribution pattern of school sports injuries did not show any significant differences between both school types. At the secondary modern schools, as well as in the lower classes of grammar schools, injuries to the upper extremities prevailed (>50%). Ball sports were responsible for every second injury. Secondary modern school pupils had a significantly higher risk of suffering a school sports injury than pupils in the lower classes of grammar schools. The injury pattern did not show
Ooms, L.; Veenhof, C.
Introduction: The Dutch government stimulates sport and physical activity opportunities in the neighborhood to make it easier for people to adopt a physically active lifestyle. Seven National Sports Federations (NSFs) were funded to develop easily accessible sporting programs, targeted at groups
Perry, S.; Lucas, C.; Veenhof, C.
Purpose: The objectives of this study were 1. to investigate in which sports activities patients with osteoarthritis (OA) participate, 2. the cross sectional differences in functional outcome between sport participators (SP) and non-sport participators (N-SP) and 3. the influence of sport
Nielsen, Glen; Grønfeldt, Vivian; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard
and the amounts of general physical activity in children. This reflected the tendencies for club-organized sport to contribute a relatively small amount to the overall amount of physical activity in children, and for children of low SEP to be equally active in other settings such as school-breaks, day care...... questionnaire data and accelerometer measures. Family socio-economic position (SEP) was found to be positively associated with children’s participation in organized sport, which could be explained by differences in family capitals. By contrast, this study found no relationship between families’ SEP...
Sport tourism has emerged as one of the fastest-growing spheres of the leisure travel market and has become a subject of interest at academic and governmental levels alike. Sport, together with arts festivals, has made an effective contribution to the economic development of towns, cities and regions. This article examines ...
Van Hoye, Aurélie; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Sarrazin, Philippe
As major actors in sports activities, sports coaches can play a significant role in health education and contribute to the psychological well-being of young people. However, not all participants in sports activities experience sports positively, which reduces the potential benefits for health. The present study investigates if coaches' efforts to promote health increase young athletes' enjoyment, self-esteem and perceived health in daily life and decrease sport dropout. To control for the variability between teams and between clubs, multilevel modeling was applied. A sample of 342 young football players completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of coaches' Health Promotion (HP) activities, enjoyment of sports, dropout intentions, self-esteem and perceived health in daily life. HP general score was positively related to enjoyment and perceived health as well as negatively dropout intentions. Players perceiving their coaches as promoting fair and play (Respect for oneself and others) scored higher on their perceptions of enjoyment in sport, self-esteem and self-reported health, and lower on dropout intentions. Moreover, players recognizing their coaches as encouraging their healthy lifestyle also reported higher perceptions of sport enjoyment, whereas player's perceived coaches' activities on substance use were associated with lower participants' enjoyment. These results support the importance of developing HP in sports clubs. Especially, promoting respect of oneself and others seems to be the more beneficial to sport participants. Copyright Â© 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ERASLAN, Meric; ATAY, Emrah; YUKSEL, Yılmaz
This study' purpose was to examine relationship among self-esteem with obesity, physical fitness level and participation situation to sport. 115 male and 124 female participated to study. Participants' mean age is 12.98±1.04 year, mean height 157.38±9.21 cm, mean BMI value 19.37±3.63 kg/m2. Only %28 of participants participates to sport. Besides, their %73.6 participates to sporting activities out of lesson. Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as data collection material at s...
Full Text Available While total physical activity decreases over the life course, sports and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA have shown to increase after transition to retirement. This paper aimed to investigate whether this change in sports participation differs (1 between non-migrant persons (NMP versus persons with a migrant background (PMB, and (2 by acculturation status. Data was drawn from 16 waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP including 2664 NMP and 569 PMB. PMB were grouped according to acculturation status (integrated, assimilated, marginalised, separated, assessed regarding three dimensions (language, social interaction and identification. We applied multilevel logistic regression models, adjusting for sex, retirement age, socioeconomic status, health status and body mass index. Our results show that (1 transition to retirement led to an increase in the sports participation of NMP during the first 5 years and the subsequent 5 years after retirement. Changes in sports participation were modified by migration status: In PMB sports participation increased to a lesser extent than in NMP. (2 While sports participation of integrated PMB was not significantly different from NMP in the preretirement phase, sports participation among integrated PMB increased less after retirement compared with NMP. Marginalized and assimilated PMB did not show consistent sports participation patterns before retirement, but seemingly increased their sports participation less than NMP over the retirement transition. Separated PMB had particularly low levels of sports participation. Considering that LTPA is a key factor for healthy ageing, the increasing gap in levels of sports participation after transition to retirement indicates the need for interventions targeting physical activity of the older migrant population.
Schönbach, Johanna-Katharina; Pfinder, Manuela; Börnhorst, Claudia; Zeeb, Hajo; Brand, Tilman
While total physical activity decreases over the life course, sports and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) have shown to increase after transition to retirement. This paper aimed to investigate whether this change in sports participation differs (1) between non-migrant persons (NMP) versus persons with a migrant background (PMB), and (2) by acculturation status. Data was drawn from 16 waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) including 2664 NMP and 569 PMB. PMB were grouped according to acculturation status (integrated, assimilated, marginalised, separated), assessed regarding three dimensions (language, social interaction and identification). We applied multilevel logistic regression models, adjusting for sex, retirement age, socioeconomic status, health status and body mass index. Our results show that (1) transition to retirement led to an increase in the sports participation of NMP during the first 5 years and the subsequent 5 years after retirement. Changes in sports participation were modified by migration status: In PMB sports participation increased to a lesser extent than in NMP. (2) While sports participation of integrated PMB was not significantly different from NMP in the preretirement phase, sports participation among integrated PMB increased less after retirement compared with NMP. Marginalized and assimilated PMB did not show consistent sports participation patterns before retirement, but seemingly increased their sports participation less than NMP over the retirement transition. Separated PMB had particularly low levels of sports participation. Considering that LTPA is a key factor for healthy ageing, the increasing gap in levels of sports participation after transition to retirement indicates the need for interventions targeting physical activity of the older migrant population.
Vandermeerschen, H.; Meganck, J.; Seghers, J.; Vos, S.B.; Scheerder, J.
Despite several decades of Sport for All policies, opportunities for sports participation are still unequally divided, with certain socially disadvantaged groups having less access to sports. To reduce this gap, structural efforts are needed. A question that arises is what role nonprofit sports
Golle, Kathleen; Granacher, Urs; Hoffmann, Martin; Wick, Ditmar; Muehlbauer, Thomas
Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9-12 years; sex: 69 girls, 103 boys) were tested for their physical fitness (i.e., endurance [9-min run], speed [50-m sprint], lower- [triple hop] and upper-extremity muscle strength [1-kg ball push], flexibility [stand-and-reach], and coordination [star coordination run]). Living area (i.e., urban or rural) and sports club participation were assessed using parent questionnaire. Over the 4 year study period, urban compared to rural children showed significantly better performance development for upper- (p = 0.009, ES = 0.16) and lower-extremity strength (p sports clubs compared to their non-participating peers. Our findings suggest that sport club programs with appealing arrangements appear to represent a good means to promote physical fitness in children living in rural areas.
Background Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. Methods One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9–12 years; sex: 69 girls, 103 boys) were tested for their physical fitness (i.e., endurance [9-min run], speed [50-m sprint], lower- [triple hop] and upper-extremity muscle strength [1-kg ball push], flexibility [stand-and-reach], and coordination [star coordination run]). Living area (i.e., urban or rural) and sports club participation were assessed using parent questionnaire. Results Over the 4 year study period, urban compared to rural children showed significantly better performance development for upper- (p = 0.009, ES = 0.16) and lower-extremity strength (p sports clubs compared to their non-participating peers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sport club programs with appealing arrangements appear to represent a good means to promote physical fitness in children living in rural areas. PMID:24886425
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Balemans, Astrid; Lankhorst, Kristel; Te Velde, Saskia; van Gaalen, Leendert; de Groot, Janke; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
To investigate the effects of a school-based once-a-week sports program on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents with a physical disability. This controlled clinical trial included 71 children and adolescents from four schools for special education [mean age 13.7 (2.9) years, range 8-19, 55% boys]. Participants had various chronic health conditions including cerebral palsy (37%), other neuromuscular (44%), metabolic (8%), musculoskeletal (7%), and cardiovascular (4%) disorders. Before recruitment and based on the presence of school-based sports, schools were assigned as sport or control group. School-based sports were initiated and provided by motivated experienced physical educators. The sport group ( n = 31) participated in a once-a-week school-based sports program for 6 months, which included team sports. The control group ( n = 40) followed the regular curriculum. Anaerobic performance was assessed by the Muscle Power Sprint Test. Secondary outcome measures included aerobic performance, VO 2 peak, strength, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, body composition, and the metabolic profile. A significant improvement of 16% in favor of the sport group was found for anaerobic performance ( p = 0.003). In addition, the sport group lost 2.8% more fat mass compared to the control group ( p = 0.007). No changes were found for aerobic performance, VO 2 peak, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and the metabolic profile. Anaerobic performance and fat mass improved following a school-based sports program. These effects are promising for long-term fitness and health promotion, because sports sessions at school eliminate certain barriers for sports participation and adding a once-a-week sports session showed already positive effects for 6 months. This trial was registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR4698).
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of a school-based once-a-week sports program on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents with a physical disability.MethodsThis controlled clinical trial included 71 children and adolescents from four schools for special education [mean age 13.7 (2.9 years, range 8–19, 55% boys]. Participants had various chronic health conditions including cerebral palsy (37%, other neuromuscular (44%, metabolic (8%, musculoskeletal (7%, and cardiovascular (4% disorders. Before recruitment and based on the presence of school-based sports, schools were assigned as sport or control group. School-based sports were initiated and provided by motivated experienced physical educators. The sport group (n = 31 participated in a once-a-week school-based sports program for 6 months, which included team sports. The control group (n = 40 followed the regular curriculum. Anaerobic performance was assessed by the Muscle Power Sprint Test. Secondary outcome measures included aerobic performance, VO2 peak, strength, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, body composition, and the metabolic profile.ResultsA significant improvement of 16% in favor of the sport group was found for anaerobic performance (p = 0.003. In addition, the sport group lost 2.8% more fat mass compared to the control group (p = 0.007. No changes were found for aerobic performance, VO2 peak, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and the metabolic profile.ConclusionAnaerobic performance and fat mass improved following a school-based sports program. These effects are promising for long-term fitness and health promotion, because sports sessions at school eliminate certain barriers for sports participation and adding a once-a-week sports session showed already positive effects for 6 months.Clinical Trial RegistrationThis trial was registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR
Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori
Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future
Full Text Available Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults' participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults.Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population-based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups.Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors.Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults' participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future longitudinal studies to elucidate
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David J.
Considers whether cultural capital, household educational resources, family structure, and race relate to participation in football, basketball, or other sports and whether the effects of participation on academic achievement differ by race and sport. Suggests that cultural disadvantage contributes to increased interest in basketball and football…
Boomsma, D.I.; van den Bree, M.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; Molenaar, P.C.M.
A model to analyze resemblances of twins and parents using LISREL is outlined and applied to sports participation and heart-rate data. Sports participation and heart rate were measured in 44 monozygotic and 46 dizygotic adolescent twin pairs and in their parents. Genetic factors influence variation
Mark S. Allen
Conclusion: Our findings show that demographic, socioeconomic and environmental factors measured at age 4 predict sport participation and screen time at age 12, and that the correlates of childhood sport participation and childhood sedentary behavior may be more similar than previously estimated.
Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
Background: International studies have revealed that young people engage in sports because of friends, the enjoyment of participation, and the ability to feel healthy. Furthermore, it is often argued that sports should be characterized as joyful and provide both recreational and elite investment. In Sweden, many children participate in club sports…
Mays, Darren; Gatti, Margaret E; Thompson, Nancy J
Sports participation, while offering numerous developmental benefits for adolescents, has been associated with alcohol use in prior research. However, the relationship between sports participation and alcohol use among adolescents remains unclear, particularly how research design elements impact evidence of this relationship. We reviewed the evidence regarding sports participation and alcohol use among adolescents, with a focus on examining the potential impact of research design elements on this evidence. Studies were assessed for eligibility and coded based on research design elements including: study design, sampling method, sample size, and measures of sports participation and alcohol use. Fifty-four studies were assessed for eligibility, 29 of which were included in the review. Nearly two-thirds used a cross-sectional design and a random sampling method, with sample sizes ranging from 178 to 50,168 adolescents (Median = 1,769). Sixteen studies used a categorical measure of sports participation, while 7 applied an index-type measure and 6 employed some other measure of sports participation. Most studies assessed alcohol-related behaviors (n = 18) through categorical measures, while only 6 applied frequency only measures of alcohol use, 1 study applied quantity only measures, and 3 studies used quantity and frequency measures. Sports participation has been defined and measured in various ways, most of which do not differentiate between interscholastic and community-based contexts, confounding this relationship. Stronger measures of both sports participation and alcohol use need to be applied in future studies to advance our understanding of this relationship among youths.
Milone, Joseph P.
The phenomenon of interest in this exploratory case study was the self-reported leadership skills of first-generation college students who were actively participating in intramural sports. Specifically, the purpose was to describe participants' reports of engaging in behaviors or actions, during intramural sports, that are aligned with the…
Lindberg, Ola; Rantatalo, Oscar; Stenling, Cecilia
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature concerned with bodily perspectives on professional learning by reporting on a study of Swedish police officers' sport participation as a form of occupational learning. The study seeks to answer how ideals of work practice and sport participation intersect, how professional learning is…
Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Sport participation is especially important for patients with asthma in that it decreases psychosocial and physiological problems associated with inactivity. However, adolescents with asthma seem to participate less in sports compared to their non-asthmatic peers. The current study tested the direct
Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J.
Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for American youth. Researchers examining sport participation and suicidal behavior have regularly found inverse relationships. This study represents the first effort to test a model depicting potential mechanisms through which sport participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal ideation. The…
Full Text Available Advertising is an attractive promotional tool for marketers who can use it to strengthen communication with consumers and persuade them to purchasing certain product or service (Bjelica et al., 2014; Muratović et al., 2014. Hence, there is nececity to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, while this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Serbian consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often they participate in sports activities. Methods: The sample included 127 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not participate in sport activities at all, then consumers who participate in sport activities less than ones a month, next 1–4 a month, 5–10 a month, 11–20 a month, as well as consumers participate in sport activities more than 20 times a months. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modeled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Results: Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences didn’t occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.05. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are no significant differences showed up between the consumers who participate in various sports activities. Discussion: These results are so important for the marketers, mostly due to the reason they can merge all the potential consumers who participate in various sports activities into one homogenious group. This wasn’t the case in previous investigations (Popović et al., 2011 and this observation presents relevant information.
Rugg, Caitlin; Kadoor, Adarsh; Feeley, Brian T; Pandya, Nirav K
Athletes who specialize in their sport at an early age may be at risk for burnout, overuse injury, and reduced attainment of elite status. Timing of sport specialization has not been studied in elite basketball athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who played multiple sports during adolescence would be less likely to experience injury and would have higher participation rates in terms of games played and career length compared with single-sport athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. First-round draft picks from 2008 to 2015 in the NBA were included in the study. From publically available records from the internet, the following data were collected for each athlete: participation in high school sports, major injuries sustained in the NBA, percentage of games played in the NBA, and whether the athlete was still active in the NBA. Athletes who participated in sports in addition to basketball during high school were defined as multisport athletes and were compared with athletes who participated only in basketball in high school. Two hundred thirty-seven athletes were included in the study, of which 36 (15%) were multisport athletes and 201 (85%) were single-sport athletes in high school. The multisport cohort played in a statistically significantly greater percentage of total games (78.4% vs 72.8%; P NBA (94% vs 81.1%; P = .03). While a minority of professional basketball athletes participated in multiple sports in high school, those who were multisport athletes participated in more games, experienced fewer major injuries, and had longer careers than those who participated in a single sport. Further research is needed to determine the reasons behind these differences.
This article focuses on the inequalities experienced particularly by girls who attend co-educational secondary schools where specific male sports dominate school life. The research was undertaken in the Republic of Ireland in three schools known for the participation and success of boys' teams in Gaelic football, hurling and rugby. Through a…
Lambrecht, Jeanne L; Cuevas, Jacqueline L
To estimate association between field dependence-independence measured by scores on the Group Embedded Figures Test and young women's participation in sports activity. Participants were 37 undergraduate college women between the ages of 18 and 25 years (M=21). Participants were categorized into two groups, one high in participation in sports activity and one low. A one-tailed independent samples t test yielded no significant difference. Correlations of .36 and .18 were significant but account for little common variance. An ad hoc analysis performed without participants who reported softball activity but who were highly involved in sport activities was significant.
Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Cerin, Ester
Findings regarding gender differences in achievement goal orientations and attributional style have been somewhat inconsistent. One possible explanation for varied findings is that potentially confounding variables such as level of participation and type of sport have not been considered. Athletes (108 males and 164 females) from team and individual sports, competing at recreational and competitive levels, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Sport Attributional Style Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Athletes competing in individual sports had a higher ego orientation than those from team sports, and females scored higher in task orientation than males. Individual sport athletes made more internal, stable, and global, and less externally controllable attributions for positive events, and more internal attributions for negative events than team sport athletes. Competitive female athletes made less global attributions for positive events than did recreational female athletes. This difference was not observed in male athletes. Competitive individual, but not team, athletes made less global attributions than recreational individual athletes. The significant interactions regarding globality suggest that the tradition in sport psychology attribution research to focus solely on internality, stability, and controllability may be inadequate. From an applied perspective, sport psychologists and coaches may find it beneficial to target individual sport athletes and males for interventions designed to enhance task orientation. Similarly, team sport athletes may be appropriate as a focus for attribution retraining programs.
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of burnout, academic self-efficacy and academic success in predicting procrastination and university life satisfaction among sports schools students. The study sample comprised of 224 participants aged from 18 to 30 years with a mean age of 21.71 (SD = 1.94) who were attending various departments…
Mithoefer, Kai; Hambly, Karen; Della Villa, Stefano; Silvers, Holly; Mandelbaum, Bert R
Articular cartilage injury in the athlete's knee presents a difficult clinical challenge. Despite the importance of returning injured athletes to sports, information is limited on whether full sports participation can be successfully achieved after articular cartilage repair in the knee. Systematic analysis of athletic participation after articular cartilage repair will demonstrate the efficacy of joint surface restoration in high-demand patients and help to optimize outcomes in athletes with articular cartilage injury of the knee. Systematic review. A comprehensive literature review of original studies was performed to provide information about athletic participation after articular cartilage repair. The athlete's ability to perform sports postoperatively was assessed by activity outcome scores, rate of return to sport, timing of the return, level of postoperative sports participation, and the continuation of athletic activity over time. Twenty studies describing 1363 patients were included in the review, with an average follow-up of 42 months. Return to sports was possible in 73% overall, with highest return rates after osteochondral autograft transplantation. Time to return to sports varied between 7 and 18 months, depending on the cartilage repair technique. Initial return to sports at the preinjury level was possible in 68% and did not significantly vary between surgical techniques. Continued sports participation at the preinjury level was possible in 65%, with the best durability after autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Several factors affected the ability to return to sport: athlete's age, preoperative duration of symptoms, level of play, lesion size, and repair tissue morphology. Articular cartilage repair in the athletic population allows for a high rate of return to sports, often at the preinjury level. Return to sports participation is influenced by several independent factors. The findings provide pertinent information that is helpful for the
Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma
Background\\ud \\ud Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In add...
Johnson, Samuel T; Norcross, Marc F; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Hoffman, Mark A; Chang, Eunwook; Koester, Michael C
Best practice recommendations for sports-related emergency preparation include implementation of venue-specific emergency action plans (EAPs), access to early defibrillation, and first responders-specifically coaches-trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator (AED) use. The objective was to determine whether high schools had implemented these 3 recommendations and whether schools with a certified athletic trainer (AT) were more likely to have done so. Schools with an AT were more likely to have implemented the recommendations. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. All Oregon School Activities Association member school athletic directors were invited to complete a survey on sports-related emergency preparedness and AT availability at their school. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the associations between emergency preparedness and AT availability. In total, 108 respondents (37% response rate) completed the survey. Exactly half reported having an AT available. Only 11% (95% CI, 6%-19%) of the schools had implemented all 3 recommendations, 29% (95% CI, 21%-39%) had implemented 2, 32% (95% CI, 24%-42%) had implemented 1, and 27% (95% CI, 19%-36%) had not implemented any of the recommendations. AT availability was associated with implementation of the recommendations (χ 2 = 10.3, P = 0.02), and the proportion of schools with ATs increased with the number of recommendations implemented (χ 2 = 9.3, P Schools with an AT were more likely to implement venue-specific EAPs (52% vs 24%, P schools were inadequately prepared for sports-related emergencies. Schools with an AT were more likely to implement some, but not all, of the recommendations. Policy changes may be needed to improve implementation. Most Oregon high schools need to do more to prepare for sports-related emergencies. The results provide evidence for sports medicine professionals and administrators to inform policy changes that ensure the safety of athletes.
The aim of this study was to determine the current state of teacher coaches' sport specific training, playing- and coaching experience regarding sport coaching. Fifty five (55) schools from the Kenneth Kaunda district in the Northwest province of South Africa were selected. Vosloo and Trudel and Camiré's questionnaires ...
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine motives of young athletes with regard to gender and sport type. Method: The sample of this study constituted 419 females (M age =12.23±1.88 and 477 males (M age =11.93±1.99 totally 896 athletes (M age =12.07±1.94 participants from variety of physical activity and sport settings. “Participation Motivation Ques tionnaire” (Gill et al., 1983 was administered to participants. P articipants were classified into two groups with respect to type of sports (individual/team sport. An independent t - test was used to determined differences in motivation orientations with r egard to gender and sport type. Results: Results showed that there were no significant differences in participation motives of athletes with regard to gender (p>.05. T - test results also revealed that significant differences in team and friendship motives between participants with regard to sport type (p< 0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, the participants who participate in team sports have higher scores in team and friendship subscales. In other words, they want to be part of a team and make friends with team sports.
Al-Arfaj, Ibrahim; Al-Shammari, Ahmad; Al-Subai, Turki; Al-Absi, Ghanim; AlJaffari, Mohammad; Al-Kadi, Ahmad; El Tantawi, Maha; Al-Ansari, Asim
The risk of dental trauma may increase during sports participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of sports participants concerning sports-related dental trauma and associated emergency/preventive practices. The study included 124 male subjects over 18 years of age participating in contact and non-contact sports in three clubs in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was used to assess past experience of dental trauma related to...
Howie, Lajeana D; Lukacs, Susan L; Pastor, Patricia N; Reuben, Cynthia A; Mendola, Pauline
Research has shown that participating in activities outside of school hours is associated with lower dropout rates, enhanced school performance, improved social skills, and reduced problem behaviors. However, most prior studies have been limited to small populations of older children (>12 years). This analysis focuses on children aged 6 to 11 to assess the potential association between participation in activities outside of school hours and behavior in middle childhood in a nationally representative survey. Estimates were based on 25,797 children from the 2003-2004 National Survey of Children's Health. Outside of school activity was defined as participating in sports teams/lessons, clubs/organizations, or both at least once in the past year. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the differences in behavior problems and social skills adjusting for sociodemographic factors, among children classified by participation in outside of school activities. Seventy-five percent of children participated in outside of school activities: 23% in sports, 16% in clubs, and 36% in both clubs and sports. Activity participation differed by gender, race/ethnicity, type of school, poverty status, family structure, household education, and school and community safety. Children participating in both sports and clubs had higher social skills index scores, but no significant difference in problem behavior scores compared with children who did not participate in any outside of school activity. Children participating in both sports and clubs had greater social competence during middle childhood compared with children who did not participate in any outside of school activities.
Sayed Ahmed, Batoul; Lamy, Marena; Cameron, Debra; Artero, Lisa; Ramdial, Sandra; Leineweber, Matthew; Andrysek, Jan
Individuals with limb absence benefit from participating in sports. While barriers and facilitators affecting sport participation are well documented for adults, they have not been explored for children with limb absence. To identify the perceived factors impacting participation in sports according to children with limb absence and their parents. This study uses a descriptive qualitative study design. Nineteen participants, consisting of children and their parents, were recruited from an outpatient hospital clinic for semi-structured interviews. The 11 interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were then coded and analyzed using the DEPICT model. The thematic analysis was guided by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Analysis of our participant interviews identified six themes as having an influence on sport participation: "functionality of prosthesis", "plan in advance", "know what I can do" (understanding capabilities), "it's like every stroke, 2 million questions" (stigma and the social environment), "love for the game" (love for sport), and "these things are an investment" (the investment involved). The findings have the potential to inform the development and implementation of strategies to increase levels of participation in sports among children with limb absence. Information from this study may help to deepen the rehabilitation team's understanding of factors that impact engagement in sports among children with limb absence. Implications for Rehabilitation Children with limb absence present with unique barriers and facilitators to participating in sports, thus, what may be a facilitator or barrier for one child may not for another. Strategies to increase a child's participation in sports should consider both person and environmental factors. Rehabilitation professionals can play a crucial role in educating both families and the community on living and coping with a limb difference, services and
More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more
Knobloch, K; Jagodzinski, M; Haasper, C; Zeichen, J; Krettek, C
Gymnastic school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. Preventive issues may be derived from a thorough in-depth analysis of the pattern and circumstances of gymnastic injuries. During a school year among 3993 schools in 43 889 classes with 993 056 pupils 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Gymnastic sport injuries account for 18 % (403 accidents), which is second after ball sports injuries. Regarding the distribution of the gymnastic disciplines, vault was the major discipline with 34 %, followed by floor exercise (21.3 %), mini- and competition trampoline (16.8 %), and parallel bars (8.2 %). The analysis of the type of injury during vault accidents revealed contusion (31 %) as the predominant injury, followed by sprains (15.4 %), and fractures (15.4 %). Floor exercise injuries distributed among distorsions (26.7 %), contusions (18.6 %), muscle tears (14 %). Back injuries especially of the cervical and thoracic spine, accounted for 40 % of all their injuries. Minor head injuries account for 4.7 % of all floor exercise injuries. Mini-trampoline injuries distribute among contusions (30 %), fractures (22.5 %), distorsions (7.5 %). 21.8 % collisions were noted against a box in comparison to 6.8 % in case of the horse. Gymnast injuries account for a significant number of all school sport related injuries. Vault and floor exercise account for the vast majority of all injuries, with alarming high numbers of spine injuries during floor exercise and mini-trampoline. A preservation of a high level of attention during a sport lesson, safety measures including appropriate mats and landing zones are mandatory to reduce injuries. Muscle injuries and ankle sprains can be prevented by a prospective proprioceptive training intervention to be implemented in school sports.
Full Text Available Drawing on expectancy-value theory, this study examines children’s motivational attributes and parental influences on how children spend their leisure time in middle childhood and adolescence. Specifically, the study examined if parent encouragement and beliefs (i.e., perceived importance of sports and perceived child ability and child motivation (expectancy and value for sports are predictive of sports participation over the course of middle childhood and adolescence. Parent and child reports are compared using data from the Childhood and Beyond (CAB longitudinal study. Findings reveal that parent beliefs and encouragement and child motivation were positively associated with sports participation in middle childhood. Both parental influences and children’s motivation measured in middle childhood were predictive of time spent participating in adolescence. However, only parent influences were predictive of whether the child continued to participate in sports in adolescence.
çakoyun, Fahri Ak
The purpose of this study is to examine the self-esteem levels of the students at Balikesir University Physical Education and Sports High School according to the variables such; gender, age, body-mass index (BMI), education department, class, sporting situation and sport branch (individual sport-team sport). While the universe of the study has…
Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Rienzo, Barbara A; Miller, M David; Pigg, R Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J
Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for American youth. Researchers examining sport participation and suicidal behavior have regularly found inverse relationships. This study represents the first effort to test a model depicting potential mechanisms through which sport participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal ideation. The participants were 450 undergraduate students. Measures assessed participants' involvement in university-run sports and other activities; frequency of physical activity; and perceived social support, self-esteem, depression, hopelessness, loneliness, and suicidal ideation. Regression analyses confirmed a path model and tested for mediation effects. Vigorous activity mediated relationships between sport participation and self-esteem and depression; and self-esteem and depression mediated the relationship between vigorous activity and suicidal ideation. Social support mediated relationships between sport participation and depression, hopelessness, and loneliness; and each of these risk factors partially mediated the relationship between social support and suicidal ideation. However no variable fully mediated the relationship between sport participation and suicidal ideation. This study provides a foundation for research designed to examine pathways through which sport participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal behavior.
Marar, Mallika; McIlvain, Natalie M; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn
In the United States (US), an estimated 300,000 sports-related concussions occur annually. Among individuals 15 to 24 years of age, sports are second only to motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of concussions. To investigate the epidemiology of concussions in high school athletes by comparing rates and patterns of concussion among 20 sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using an Internet-based data collection tool, RIO, certified athletic trainers from a large, nationally disperse sample of US high schools reported athlete exposure and injury data for 20 sports during the 2008-2010 academic years. During the study period, 1936 concussions were reported during 7,780,064 athlete-exposures (AEs) for an overall injury rate of 2.5 per 10,000 AEs. The injury rate was higher in competition (6.4) than practice (1.1) (rate ratio [RR], 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2-6.3). The majority of concussions resulted from participation in football (47.1%, n = 912), followed by girls' soccer (8.2%, n = 159), boys' wrestling (5.8%, n = 112), and girls' basketball (5.5%, n = 107). Football had the highest concussion rate (6.4), followed by boys' ice hockey (5.4) and boys' lacrosse (4.0). Concussions represented a greater proportion of total injuries among boys' ice hockey (22.2%) than all other sports studied (13.0%) (injury proportion ratio [IPR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1; P sports, girls had a higher concussion rate (1.7) than boys (1.0) (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.0). The most common mechanisms of injury were player-player contact (70.3%) and player-playing surface contact (17.2%). In more than 40% of athletes in sports other than girls' swimming and girls' track, concussion symptoms resolved in 3 days or less. Athletes most commonly returned to play in 1 to 3 weeks (55.3%), with 22.8% returning in less than 1 week and 2.0% returning in less than 1 day. Although interest in sports-related concussions is usually focused on full-contact sports like football and ice hockey
Jaarsma, E A; Dijkstra, P U; Geertzen, J H B; Dekker, R
Most people with physical disabilities do not participate in sports regularly, which could increase the chances of developing secondary health conditions. Therefore, knowledge about barriers to and facilitators of sports participation is needed. Barriers and facilitators for people with physical disabilities other than amputation or spinal cord injuries (SCI) are unknown. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature focusing on barriers to and facilitators of sports participation for all people with various physical disabilities. Four databases were searched using MeSH terms and free texts up to April 2012. The inclusion criteria were articles focusing on people with physical disabilities, sports and barriers and/or facilitators. The exclusion criteria were articles solely focusing on people with cognitive disabilities, sensory impairments or disabilities related to a recent organ transplant or similar condition. Fifty-two articles were included in this review, with 27 focusing on people with SCI. Personal barriers were disability and health; environmental barriers were lack of facilities, transport and difficulties with accessibility. Personal facilitators were fun and health, and the environmental facilitator was social contacts. Experiencing barriers to and facilitators of sports participation depends on age and type of disability and should be considered when advising people about sports. The extent of sports participation for people with physical disabilities also increases with the selection of the most appropriate sport. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Martha, C; Grélot, L; Peretti-Watel, P
The relationships between involvement in sports and alcohol consumption appear to be complex in the alcohol literature. In this study we aimed to examine this link among French students, taking into account their sports characteristics. We also examined variations in alcohol use among sport sciences students between 2002 and 2006, and the difference in alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking among sport sciences, law and pharmacy students. repeated survey; cross-sectional study; self-questionnaire survey; French (south-east France) sport sciences (n=693), law (n=325) and pharmacy (n=338) students (females=58%). In 2002, 38% of the male sport sciences students reported repeated heavy episodic drinking, and this proportion has risen to 48% in 2006 (psport sciences students were less likely to report repeated heavy episodic drinking (part were negatively related to heavy episodic drinking (psport in a formal context, team sports, and competitive participation at a departmental or regional level represented risk factors (psport was a protective factor among females (psport practised to examine the link between sport participation and alcohol consumption. The normative context of peer socialization among competitive and team sports participants seemed to play a role in alcohol use. Further studies are needed to confirm the role of this putative factor.
Ling, Fiona C.M.; Farrow, A.; Farrow, D.; Berry, J.; Polman, Remco C.J.
The Playing for Life (P4L) philosophy was developed based on the concept of game play. It emphasizes learning through games within the sporting context to promote sports participation. The main aim of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the effectiveness of the P4L philosophy in contributing to enjoyment and in encouraging continued participation in sports. A total of 97 children (aged 5–12 years), who participated in the Active After-school Communities program that adopted the P4L philos...
Loprinzi, Paul D; Cardinal, Bradley J; Cardinal, Marita K; Corbin, Charles B
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between physical education (PE) and sports involvement with physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and beliefs about PA among a national sample of adolescents. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey were used. A total of 459 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. Adolescents self-reported engagement in the above parameters; muscular fitness objectively determined. Multivariable linear regression. Adolescents who had PE during school days had a higher enjoyment of participating in PE (β = 0.32; P = .01), engaged in more days of being physically active for ≥60 min/d (β = 1.02; P sports reported that more PA was needed for good health (β = 0.23; P = .04), had a higher enjoyment of participating in PE (β = 0.31; P = .003), engaged in more days of being physically active for ≥60 min/d (β = 0.70; P = .01), performed more pull-ups (β = 2.33; P = .008), had a stronger grip strength (β = 2.5; P = .01), and performed the plank fitness test longer (β = 11.6; P = .04). Adolescents who had PE during school, who had more frequent and long-lasting PE, and who played school sports generally had more accurate perceptions of the amount of PA needed for good health, had greater enjoyment of PE, were more physically active, and performed better on several muscular fitness-related tests. This underscores the importance of PE integration in the schools and encouragement of school sports participation.
Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna
The current methods measuring sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are commonly restricted to the most knee-demanding sports, and do not consider participation in multiple sports. We therefore developed an online activity survey to prospectively record the monthly participation in all major sports relevant to our patient-group. To assess the reliability, content validity and concurrent validity of the survey and to evaluate if it provided more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. 145 consecutively included ACL-injured patients were eligible for the reliability study. The retest of the online activity survey was performed 2 days after the test response had been recorded. A subsample of 88 ACL-reconstructed patients was included in the validity study. The ACL-reconstructed patients completed the online activity survey from the first to the 12th postoperative month, and a routine activity questionnaire 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The online activity survey was highly reliable (κ ranging from 0.81 to 1). It contained all the common sports reported on the routine activity questionnaire. There was a substantial agreement between the two methods on return to preinjury main sport (κ=0.71 and 0.74 at 6 and 12 months postoperatively). The online activity survey revealed that a significantly higher number of patients reported to participate in running, cycling and strength training, and patients reported to participate in a greater number of sports. The online activity survey is a highly reliable way of recording detailed changes in sports participation after ACL injury. The findings of this study support the content and concurrent validity of the survey, and suggest that the online activity survey can provide more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire.
Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna
Background Current methods measuring sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are commonly restricted to the most knee-demanding sport, and do not consider participation in multiple sports. We therefore developed an online activity survey to prospectively record monthly participation in all major sports relevant to our patient-group. Objective To assess the reliability, content validity, and concurrent validity of the survey, and evaluate if it provided more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. Methods One hundred and forty-five consecutively included ACL-injured patients were eligible for the reliability study. The retest of the online activity survey was performed two days after the test response had been recorded. A subsample of 88 ACL-reconstructed patients were included in the validity study. The ACL-reconstructed patients completed the online activity survey from the first to the twelfth postoperative month, and a routine activity questionnaire 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Results The online activity survey was highly reliable (κ ranging from 0.81 to 1). It contained all the common sports reported on the routine activity questionnaire. There was substantial agreement between the two methods on return to preinjury main sport (κ = 0.71 and 0.74 at 6 and 12 months postoperatively). The online activity survey revealed that a significantly higher number of patients reported to participate in running, cycling and strength training, and patients reported to participate in a greater number of sports. Conclusion The online activity survey is a highly reliable way of recording detailed changes in sports participation after ACL injury. The findings of this study support the content and concurrent validity of the survey, and suggest that the online activity survey can provide more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. PMID:23645830
Jeckell, Aaron S; Brett, Benjamin L; Totten, Douglas J; Solomon, Gary S
Identification of modifying factors that influence the development of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) following sport-related concussion (SRC) has drawn considerable interest. In this pilot study, we investigate the effect of team vs. individual sport participation on the development of PCS in a sample of 136 high school and college student-athletes. Controlling for several confounding variables, we employed a binary logistic regression and chi-squared test. Results of this pilot study indicate that participation in team versus individual sport is not a significant factor in the development of PCS. The identification of other forms of protective mechanisms is discussed.
Nadson Santana Reis
Full Text Available This study is an initial attempt to assess the "Sports Training Program at School - Athlete at School" and is structured according to its wide three "lines of action", namely: encouragement and democratization of sports practices at school; development and dissemination of the Olympic and Paralympic values among students of basic education; and identification and guidance of young talents. In the case of the first two lines, the results show weaknesses, mismatches, and inaccuracies between the theoretical conceptual framework and the technical operational design. On the other hand, the last line confers identity and compliancy to the program, (redirecting the school and physical education to the old "game" of sports massification, and identification and selection of talents. Therefore, the considerations indicate the need to counteract the renewed risk of using the school, physical education, and educational sports policies in accordance with the desires and prerogatives of the sports sector stricto sensu.
Trussell, Dawn E.
This article presents findings from an interpretive study that sought to understand how organized sport at the community level influences sibling relationships and interactions. The meanings of the participants' sport involvement, in relation to their siblings', was also examined using a constructivist approach to grounded theory. Nineteen youth…
Lundvall, Suzanne; Meckbach, Susanne
This paper focuses on widening participation in higher education and the low recruitment of students from diverse backgrounds within sport-related programs. The purpose of the study has been to describe and increase the understanding of how the preconditions and premises for choosing to study "sport" appear to students from diverse…
Allbaugh, Chelsea N.; Bolter, Nicole D.; Shimon, Jane M.
Sibling relationships are some of the most influential throughout one's life. While family influences have often been examined in sports settings, less has been studied regarding the specific roles siblings may play. Research suggests that the way athletes view sport participation can be shaped by their experiences and relationships with siblings.…
Bowers, Matthew T.; Green, B. Christine; Hemme, Florian; Chalip, Laurence
This article presents an assessment of the relative influences of time spent participating in organized sports and informal sports during childhood with respect to the development of general creativity. In this study, 99 upper-division undergraduate and graduate students completed a comprehensive childhood leisure activities questionnaire and the…
Guiliano, Traci A.; Popp, Kathryn E.; Knight, Jennifer L.
Examined the extent to which women's childhood play activities predicted future sport participation. College athletes and nonathletes completed a survey on childhood play and adult sports experiences. Playing with masculine toys and games, playing in predominantly male or mixed groups, and being a tomboy characterized women who later became…
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 38, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Sport and recreation are used as vehicles to create military readiness. Botswana Defence Force (BDF) soldiers are constantly deployed to border posts and other areas where their missions involve anti-poaching activities, disaster management and foreign peace-keeping. When not deployed, they reside with their families ...
DeSensi, Joy T.
This study explored the model of feminist frameworks offered by Jagger and Struhl (1978) in the women's sport setting. The framework offers a classification of models of feminism (Liberalism, Marxism, Radicalism, and Socialism) describing the forms of women's oppression and offers a solution for eliminating such oppression. The Jaggen and Struhl's…
Epidemiological data suggest that activity levels generally increase from middle childhood into early adolescence, and then they tend to decline. Adolescence is a critical period in which initiation and formation of health behaviours occur, which can continue into adulthood. The purpose of the study is thus to investigate sport ...
Full Text Available Intramural programs provide competition and recreation during the academic year for the diverse college populations of faculty, staff, and currently enrolled students and their spouses/partners who do not participate in other organized sports on campus. Sport psychologists, physical activity leaders, and others have shown an increased interest in the psychological factors that motivate college students to consume sport and physical activity (Rickel, Stoll, &Beller, 2005, 2006; Harkema, Dieser, Lankford, & Scholl, 2006; Yue-de, Wen-hao, & Ying-chun, 2009. Little research has been done with regard to the motivational factors affecting individuals’ decisions about participating specifically in intramural sports such as flag football, basketball, and soccer, etc. The purpose of this study was to independently test the measurement model of the Participant Motivations Questionnaire (PMQ assumed to underlie the motivational factors of the intramural sport participation by male and female college students. In addition, this study also examined whether or not PMQ was valid for the intramural sport participants in a northwestern university of the USA. Based on the results of the CFA, the one-factor model does fit both male and female college students. However, the factor loadings are not equivalent across the two groups. In summary, it is noted that the regenerated 24-item PMQ for the intramural sport participants is unequally valid for the current subjects of male and female college students.
Mays, Darren; Luta, George; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.
Adolescent sports participants are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and sports participation may prevent young people from smoking. Research suggests that the relationship between sports participation and smoking may vary by race/ethnicity and is also possibly moderated by exposure to peer smoking. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 311 adolescents ages 13 – 21 presenting for well-visit medical appointments. Participants completed valid assessments of demographics, sports part...
Kovács, Viktória Anna; Gábor, Anita; Fajcsák, Zsuzsanna; Martos, Eva
Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. Declining physical activity is one of the major contributors. To obtain data on Hungarian primary school students' weight status, sport club participation and sedentary behaviors. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to all primary schools (n=18) in Obuda, Budapest. Children (1648 boys, 1654 girls; 11.3+/-2.3 years) completed questionnaires about sedentary behaviors and sport participation. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. According to the IOTF criteria, 14.5% of the children were overweight and 4.6% were obese. The rate of those children who did not attend any extracurricular sport increased parallel with age in both gender. At the lower end of the range, 15.3% of the 9-year-old boys and 21% of the 10-year old girls did not sport. These numbers increased up to 31.0% in boys and 53.8% in girls by the age of 15 years. Screening time on weekdays and on weekends was 2.2+/-1.9 and 3.6+/-2.6 hours/day, respectively. One third of participants (32.2%) spent >2 h/day in front of a screen on weekdays, whereas 61.8% did on weekends. The frequency of sedentary behaviors was high among urban Hungarian school children. Health promotion strategies should start in early ages.
de Bruin, A.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Bakker, F.C.
Objectives: To examine the relationship between dieting behavior and body image in female aesthetic athletes. Methods: Seventeen elite gymnasts, 51 non-elite gymnasts and a control group of 85 schoolgirls, participating in non-elite, merely recreational non-aesthetic sports, completed self-report
Cerar, Katja; Kondrič, Miran; Ochiana, Nicolae; Sindik, Joško
AIM: The main aim of this study was to examine differences in sport participation motives, the frequency of engaging in sports activities according to gender, region and field of study, but also the association between the incidence of engaging in sports activity and the motivation for sports activity of students at the University of Ljubljana. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five thousand two hundred seventy-one students completed The Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2), with additional questions about 12 socio-demographic parameters. RESULTS: The results reveal that most of the students are engaged in unorganized sports activities. Male students engage in sports activity more often than female students do. For male students, dominant participation motives are enjoyment, challenge, social recognition, affiliation, competition and strength but also endurance, for female students these are: stress and weight management, revitalisation, ill-health avoidance, positive health, appearance and nimbleness. Gender differences in participation motives are partly reflected also in differences according to the field of study. The correlations between the frequency of engaging in sports activity and the participation motives are mainly statistically significant. We did not find any significant differences in participation motives by region. CONCLUSION: In spite of these discouraging findings, increasing physical activity among students continues to be a national priority. PMID:29104693
Erik Thibaut; Jeroen Scheerder; Hanne Vandermeerschen; Julie Borgers; Steven Vos; Bart Vanreusel
Social changes have been influencing determinants for sports participation since the introduction of the Sport for All ideology in the early 1970s. Consistent with Crum’s sportisation theory, today’s modes of sports practices, as well as the network of sport services, have diversified and
Borgers, J.; Thibaut, E.; Vandermeerschen, H.; Vanreusel, B.; Vos, S.B.; Scheerder, J.
Social changes have been influencing determinants for sports participation since the introduction of the Sport for All ideology in the early 1970s. Consistent with Crum’s sportisation theory, today’s modes of sports practices, as well as the network of sport services, have diversified and
Costa E Silva, Lara; Fragoso, Maria Isabel; Teles, Júlia
Physical activity (PA) is beneficial, enhancing healthy development. However, one-third of school-age children practicing sports regularly suffer from an injury. These injuries are associated with sex, chronological age, and PA level. To identify the importance of age, PA level, and maturity as predictors of injury in Portuguese youth. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 3. Information about injury and PA level was assessed via 2 questionnaires (LESADO RAPIL II) from 647 subjects aged 10 to 17 years. Maturity offset according to Mirwald (time before or after peak height velocity) and Tanner-Whitehouse III bone age estimates were used to evaluate maturation. Binary logistic regression and gamma regression were used to determine significant predictors of injury and injury rate. Injury occurrence was higher for both sexes in recreational, school, and federated athletes (athletes engaged in sports that are regulated by their respective federations, with formal competition). These injuries also increased with age in boys and in the higher maturity offset group in girls. Injury rate was higher for both sexes in the no sports participation group. Early-maturing girls, with higher bone age and lower maturity offset, showed higher injury rate. Injuries in Portuguese youth were related to PA level, age, and biological maturation. Recreational, school, and federated athletes had more injury ocurrences while subjects with no sports participation had higher injury risk. Older subjects had more injuries. Early-maturing girls that had just passed peak height velocity may be particularly vulnerable to risk of sports injury because of the growing process. Increased knowledge about injury with specific PA exposure data is important to an overall risk management strategy. This study has deepened the association between injury and biological maturation variables.
Domazet, S L; Møller, N C; Støckel, J T; Ried-Larsen, M
Inactivity and more sedentary time predominate the daily activity level of many of today's children. In Denmark, certified sport after-school cares have been established in order to increase children's daily physical activity (PA) level. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the activity level among participants in certified sport after-school cares vs regular after-school cares. The study was carried out in 2011 in 10 after-school cares (5 sport/5 regular) throughout Denmark, whereof 475 children aged 5-11 years participated. PA level was assessed using Actigraph GT3X and GT3X+ activity monitors worn by the children for at least 8 consecutive days. Anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured as well. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out to check for the differences in the PA level across the two care systems. However, there did not appear to be any differences in overall PA or in time-specific day parts (e.g., during after-school care). The activity levels were quite similar across after-school cares and were mutually high during time spent in the care facility. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smith, Stephanie; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine middle school students' satisfaction with the school lunch experience, using two validated surveys; the Middle/Junior High School Student Participation Survey and the Middle/Junior High School Student Non-Participation Survey, both developed by the National Food Service Management…
Kelm, J; Ahlhelm, F; Pape, D; Pitsch, W; Engel, C
About 5% of all school children are seriously injured during physical education every year. Because of its influence on children's attitude toward sports and the economic aspects, an evaluation of causes and medical consequences is necessary. In this study, 213 school sports accidents were investigated. Besides diagnosis, the localization of injuries, as well as the duration of the sick leave were documented. Average age of injured students was 13 years. Most of the injured students blamed themselves for the accident. The most common injuries were sprains, contusions, and fractures. Main reasons for the accidents were faults in basic motion training. Playing soccer and basketball were the most frequent reasons for injuries. The upper extremity was more frequently involved than the lower extremity. Sports physicians and teachers should work out a program outlining the individual needs and capabilities of the injured students to reintegrate them into physical education.
Thomas J. Aicher; Jessica Brenner
Using self-determination theory (SDT) as a conceptual framework, we utilized previous research to develop a conceptual model to better understand individuals’ motivation to participate in sport tourism and events. The model represents the six propositions we put forward that depict the relationships between motivational factors associated with sport tourism and event participation and individuals’ controlled or autonomous motivation. Specifically, organizational motivations are proposed to en...
Super, Sabina; Hermens, Niels; Verkooijen, Kirsten; Koelen, Maria
Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12-23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals, sport coaches and other
Background Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. Methods and design This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12–23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals
María del Pilar Vílchez, Cristina De Francisco
Full Text Available Understanding the motives that influence physical activity participation is important in order to orientate physical activity promotion and increase physical activity levels of practice of the population. Although many instruments been created and validated to measure motives to perform physical activity, one of the most frequently used scales during years is the Participation of Motives Questionnaire (PMQ by Gill et al. (1983. Unfortunately, despite being so used and translated into many languages, there is no psychometric support for some factors about due to a low internal consistency. The purpose of this research was to present a reduced model of the Spanish version of the PMQ and to analyze the motives for sports participation. The Spanish version of PMQ was applied to participants of both sexes with ages between 12 and 60 years (M = 19.20; SD = 6.37. Factorial validity of the questionnaire was checked using exploratory and confirmatory analyses. Analysis of items and internal consistency of the factors were carried out. Reduced version measures seven dimensions (competition, status, teamwork, energy release, family/peers, skill development and health/fitness with good values of validity and reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha were between 0.713 and 0.879. Different reasons for exercise and sport by sociodemographic variables were found. For example, females practice for exercise and sports for competition and teamwork than males Elite athletes practice more exercise and sport also for teamwork, skills development and health/fitness than amateurs. Finally those who have more experience, practice more physical activity and sport for competition, status and health/fitness.
Sporner, Michelle L; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Dicianno, Brad E; Collins, Diane; Teodorski, Emily; Pasquina, Paul F; Cooper, Rory A
The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of individuals who participate in the National Veterans Wheelchair Games (NVWG) and the Winter Sports Clinic (WSC) for veterans with disabilities. In addition, it was of interest to determine how these events had impacted their lives. Participants were recruited at the 20th Winter Sports Clinic, held in Snowmass Colorado and the 26th National Veterans Wheelchair Games held in Anchorage, Alaska. Data of interest included demographic, sport participation information, community integration, self-esteem, and quality of life. A secondary data analysis was completed to determine how comparable individuals who attended the NVWG/WSC were to individuals who did not participate in these events. The 132 participants were a mean age of 47.4 + 13.4 and lived with a disability for an average of 13.4 + 12.1. Participants felt that the NVWG/WSC increased their knowledge of sports equipment (92%), learning sports (89%), mobility skills (84%), and acceptance of disability (84%). The majority of participants stated that the NVWG/WSC improved their life. Of those who participated at the NVWG/WSC, they tended to be more mobile, but have increased physical and cognitive limitations as measured by the CHART when compared to the non-attendees. Recommending veterans participate in events such as the NVWG and WSC can provide psychosocial benefits to veterans with disabilities.
Domazet, Sidsel L; Tarp, Jakob; Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten; Bugge, Anna
To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive performance.
Sidsel L Domazet
Full Text Available To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents.The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer.Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance.Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive
Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Froberg, Karsten
Objectives To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12–14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Results Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Conclusions Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the
Bell, David R; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison
The prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes is unknown. This information is needed to determine the scope of this issue in an active population. To determine the prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes and to determine if specialization is influenced by classification method, year in school, sex, and school size. A secondary purpose was to determine if highly specialized athletes would be more likely to report a history of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. High school athletes between the ages of 13 and 18 years from 2 local high schools completed both a sport specialization survey and an injury history survey. Athletes were classified into low, moderate, or high specialization groups using a recently developed 3-point system and were also classified using a self-classification method. A total of 302 athletes completed the surveys and were classified as low specialization (n = 105, 34.8%), moderate specialization (n = 87, 28.8%), or high specialization (n = 110, 36.4%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to be classified in the low specialization group (low, 43%; moderate, 32%; high, 25%) compared with those from the large school (low, 26%; moderate, 26%; high, 48%) (P single sport (n = 89, 29.5%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to classify themselves as multisport (n = 128, 86%) (P school (n = 85, 56%). There were no differences in the history of hip, knee, or ankle injuries between athletes who self-classified as single sport (hip: n = 10, 3%; knee: n = 19, 6%; ankle: n = 35, 12%) versus those who self-classified as multisport (hip: n = 45, 8%; knee: n = 23, 15%; ankle: n = 98, 33%) (P > .370). Classification method and school size influenced the prevalence of specialization in high school athletes. Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a history of overuse knee or hip injuries. Participating in a single sport for more than 8 months per year
Tyrol (Austria) is one of the regions which pioneered skiing. Skiing is considered as a national sport and is deeply rooted within the school system. Thus most pupils partake in skiing courses in this period. It is clear that such a large group of pupils also leads to a significant number of skiing injuries. Preventive issues may be derived from an analysis of the pattern and circumstances of skiing injuries. During a period of ten years (2000 - 2009) 1522 school sports injuries have been reported to the health insurance agency (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt) from all secondary schools in Tyrol. The major disciplines were ski (48 %, n = 734) ice skateing (23 %, n = 349) and snowboard injuries (21 %, n = 315), followed by tobogganing (6 %, n = 91), cross-country skiing (1 %, n = 17) and other wintersports (1 %, n = 16). Fractures (31 %) dominated in skiing, followed by contusions (23 %), and sprains (22 %). In the analysis of the distribution of injuries during alpine skiing accidents, lower extremity injuries (39 %) dominated followed by upper extremity injuries (34 %). Head and spine injuries (13 %) were rare. Analysing the circumstances of the injuries, most injuries during skiing occurred without person to person collision (82 %), 81 % either shortly before lunch-break or in the afternoon. Skiing injuries account for a significant proportion of all school sport-related injuries in Tyrol. Lower extremity injuries account for the vast majority of all injuries. Overestimation and overtiredness may be responsible for skiing sport injuries. Preventive measures such as a fitness training (e. g., skiing exercises) prior to skiing courses, appropriate breaks and proper protective gear (i. e., helmet and spine protector) may reduce the injury rate in skiing school sport. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Soundy, Andrew; Roskell, Carolyn; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Vancampfort, Davy
The purpose of this review was to consider the impact of being introduced to a sport and sport participation on (a) weight loss and psychiatric symptoms, (b) any other health benefits in people with schizophrenia, supported by quantitative and qualitative findings. A systematic review in accordance with the PRISMA statement was conducted. Searches were undertaken in January 2014. Articles were eligible that (1) considered the effect (quantitative studies) and experience (qualitative and case studies) of either; being introduced to a 'sport' or undertaking a sport activity, (2) included >85% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective spectrum disorders according to recognised criteria. A total of 10 studies including 5 trials (2*pre-experimental, 2*controlled trials, 1*randomised control trial), 2 qualitative studies and 3 case studies were included (n=185). Two out of 3 studies that considered weight as an outcome measure reported significant reductions in weight and psychiatric symptoms following sports participation. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI) ranged from -0.7kg.m2 (pschizophrenia. Sport has the potential to improve an individual's quality of life through providing a meaningful normalizing activity that leads to achievement, success and satisfaction. Well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to fully determine the health effects of sports participation in schizophrenia.
Siroos Ahmadi; Saeed Kargar
Introduction Today, sport is considered as a basic need in all over the world. Participation in sport activities professionally, until recently was a male activity and women had no significant contribution in sport activities. After World War II, however, women's disposition to sport activities changed, because of factors such as improvements in leisure time, living standards, attention to health and fitness, mass media effects, paying more attention to sport achievements, and change in tr...
Hebert, Jeffrey J; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian; Grøntved, Anders; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels
To investigate the prospective association of organized leisure-time sports participation with cardiovascular risk in children. Students were recruited from 10 public primary schools. From July 2009 to October 2010, parents reported children's weekly organized leisure-time sports participation via text messaging. Clustered cardiovascular risk was estimated with a composite score comprising fasting serum triglyceride levels, homeostasis assessment model-estimated insulin resistance, total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and systolic blood pressure. Additional outcomes were body mass index categories and fasting serum insulin and glucose concentrations. Associations were explored with generalized estimating equations and reported with beta coefficients (β) and percent difference per weekly sports session or incidence rate ratios. All models were adjusted for baseline values and other potential confounders. In total, 1197 children (53% female) with a mean age of 8.4±1.4 years were included. Participating in sports for 53 weeks was associated with lower clustered cardiovascular risk (β, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.41 to -0.10; percent difference, 3.2%; 95% CI, 5.2%-1.3%). Similar outcomes were observed for log homeostasis assessment model-estimated insulin resistance (β, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.12 to -0.04; percent difference, 3.4%; 5.1%-1.7%) and log insulin (β, -0.07; 95% CI, -0.11 to -0.04; percent difference, 2.6%; 95% CI, 4.0%-1.5%). Sports participation was associated with a 20% decreased risk of overweight/obesity (incidence rate ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.96). Participating in organized leisure-time sports for approximately 1 year is associated with decreased clustered cardiovascular risk in children. These findings show that participating in youth sports may be an effective strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in children. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The objective of the study was to examine self-esteem, anxiety level and coping strategies among secondary school students in relation to their involvement in organized sports. The sample included 280 Slovenian male and female secondary school students aged between 15 and 19 years. The participants completed The Adolescent Coping Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the PSDQ Selfesteem Scale. Participants engaged in organized sports exhibited higher self-esteem scores and lower anxiety scores in comparison to non-sport participants. Differences between the two groups have also been identified with respect to the use of certain coping strategies. Sport participants reported more productive coping than non-sport participants, which represents an active and problem-focused approach to dealing with everyday problems. Gender differences in the referred variables have also been studied, with female athletes exhibiting higher levels of anxiety than male athletes. Female participants were also found to use more non-productive coping than males, focused mainly on reducing emotional effects of stress. Organized youth sports have an important role in improving and maintaining a favorable sense of self-worth, reducing anxiety, and promoting productive coping strategies in adolescents when dealing with everyday problems.
Briscoe, J H
A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football...
Vest, Andrea E.; Simpkins, Sandra D.
Little is known about how adolescents' peer relations might alter whether sport participation is associated with alcohol use. Consistent with social learning theory, we found that sport participation was protective against alcohol use if these peers had low alcohol use, but athletes were likely to use alcohol if their sport friends and teammates…
Sævarsson, Elvar Smari; Svansdottir, Erla; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn Arni; Johannsson, Erlingur
The aims of this study were to study the correlation between lifestyle-related factors, such as organized leisure-time sport participation (OLSP), cardiorespiratory fitness, and adiposity, and academic achievement among preadolescents. A cross-sectional study involving 248 nine-year-old school children was carried out. OLSP was self-reported with parental assistance, categorized as ≤ 1× a week, 2-3× a week, and ≥ 4× times a week or more. Academic achievement was estimated with results from standardized test scores in Icelandic and math. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using a maximal cycle ergometer test. The sum of four skinfolds was used to estimate adiposity. Tests of between-subjects effect indicated that OLSP significantly correlated with achievement in math only (F(2,235) = 3.81, p = 0.024). Further analysis showed that the two less active groups had significantly lower scores in math compared to the most active group with OLSP ≥ 4× times a week or more (2-3× times a week, unstandardized coefficient (b) = -4.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-7.09, -1.07]; ≤ 1× a week, b = -3.84, 95% CI [-7.59, -0.08]), independent of sex, age, maturity level (age to/from peak height velocity), family structure, and parental education. Neither cardiorespiratory fitness nor adiposity significantly correlated with academic achievements. The study's result indicates that frequent (four times per week or more often) sport participation is not harmful but may be beneficial to learning. However, further intervention-based study of this topic is needed to determine if this relationship is causal.
Maleš, Dubravka; Kuševic, Barbara; Širanovic, Ana
This paper discusses the cooperation between families and schools from the perspective of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). Given that the principal purpose of the cooperation between families and schools is children's well-being, it is reasonable to expect the child's participation in situations of direct parent-teacher…
Visek, Amanda J.; Achrati, Sara M.; Manning, Heather; McDonnell, Karen; Harris, Brandonn S.; DiPietro, Loretta
BACKGROUND Children cite ‘fun’ as the primary reason for participation in organized sport and its absence as the number one reason for youth sport attrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework of fun using a novel mixed-method assessment of participants in sport (FUN MAPS) via concept mapping. METHODS Youth soccer players (n = 142), coaches (n = 37), and parents (n = 57) were stratified by age, sex, and competition level and contributed their “fun” ideas through: (a) qualitative brainstorming, identifying all of the things that make playing sports fun for players; (b) sorting of ideas; and (c) rating each idea on its importance, frequency, and feasibility. RESULTS The FUN MAPS identify the four fundamental tenets of fun in youth sport within 11 fun-dimensions composed of 81 specific fun-determinants, while also establishing the youth sport ethos. CONCLUSION The FUN MAPS provide pictorial evidence-based blueprints for the fun integration theory (FIT), which is a multi-theoretical, multidimensional, and stakeholder derived framework that can be used to maximize fun for children and adolescents in order to promote and sustain an active and healthy lifestyle through sport. PMID:24770788
Visek, Amanda J; Achrati, Sara M; Mannix, Heather; McDonnell, Karen; Harris, Brandonn S; DiPietro, Loretta
Children cite "fun" as the primary reason for participation in organized sport and its absence as the number-one reason for youth sport attrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework of fun using a novel mixed-method assessment of participants in sport (FUN MAPS) via concept mapping. Youth soccer players (n = 142), coaches (n = 37), and parents (n = 57) were stratified by age, sex, and competition level and contributed their ideas through (a) qualitative brainstorming, identifying all of the things that make playing sports fun for players; (b) sorting of ideas; and (c) rating each idea on its importance, frequency, and feasibility. The FUN MAPS identify the 4 fundamental tenets of fun in youth sport within 11 fun-dimensions composed of 81 specific fun-determinants, while also establishing the youth sport ethos. The FUN MAPS provide pictorial evidence-based blueprints for the fun integration theory (FIT), which is a multitheoretical, multidimensional, and stakeholder derived framework that can be used to maximize fun for children and adolescents to promote and sustain an active and healthy lifestyle through sport.
Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E; Murphy, Rebecca C; Porcellato, Lorna A; Ussher, Michael; Garnham-Lee, Katy; Knowles, Zoe R; Foweather, Lawrence
SmokeFree Sports (SFS) was a multi-component sport-for-health intervention aiming at preventing smoking among nine to ten year old primary school children from North West England. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the process and implementation of SFS, examining intervention reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability and sustainability, in order to understand the feasibility and challenges of delivering such interventions and inform interpretations of intervention effectiveness. Process measures included: booking logs, 18 focus groups with children (n = 95), semi-structured interviews with teachers (n = 20) and SFS coaches (n = 7), intervention evaluation questionnaires (completed by children, n = 1097; teachers, n = 50), as well direct observations (by researchers, n = 50 observations) and self-evaluations (completed by teachers, n = 125) of intervention delivery (e.g. length of sessions, implementation of activities as intended, children's engagement and barriers). Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were applied to quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Overall, SFS reached 30.8% of eligible schools, with 1073 children participating in the intervention (across 32 schools). Thirty-one schools completed the intervention in full. Thirty-three teachers (55% female) and 11 SFS coaches (82% male) attended a bespoke SFS training workshop. Disparities in intervention duration (range = 126 to 201 days), uptake (only 25% of classes received optional intervention components in full), and the extent to which core (mean fidelity score of coaching sessions = 58%) and optional components (no adaptions made = 51% of sessions) were delivered as intended, were apparent. Barriers to intervention delivery included the school setting and children's behaviour and knowledge. SFS was viewed positively (85% and 82% of children and teachers, respectively, rated SFS five out of five) and recommendations to increase school engagement were provided. SFS was considered
Mackenbach Johan P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the interaction between individual and environmental determinants of physical activity, although this may be important information for the development of effective interventions. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether perceived neighborhood safety modifies associations between individual cognitions and sports participation. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from residents (age 25-75 of 87 neighborhoods in the city of Eindhoven, who participated in the Dutch GLOBE study in 2004 (N = 2474. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze the interactions between perceived neighborhood safety and individual cognitions (attitude, self-efficacy, social influence, and intention on sports participation (yes/no. Results In its association with sports participation, perceived neighborhood safety interacted significantly with self-efficacy and attitude (p Conclusions Associations between individual cognitions and sports participation depend on neighborhood circumstances, such as perceived neighborhood safety. Interventions to promote sports participation in adults should take the interaction between environmental and individual characteristics into account. More research is needed to find out the causal pathways in individual-environment interactions.
SEM indicated a significant effect of sports participation on Internet addiction mediated by self-control. The results suggest the effectiveness of and need for sport and physical activity in Internet addiction treatment programs and for other addictions as well. Moreover, sports participation has a wider variety of psychological and physical benefits unlike intervention strategies or pharmacological treatments. Thus, the adoption of sports needs to be broadened from physical development to treating diverse psychological problems among adolescents.
Hasan Aykut AYSAN
Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, effects of sports and science high school students’ sports activity levels on their body composition and bone development level were investigated. Material and Method: A total of 59 participants were voluntarily included in the study in which 29 people were the experimental group from Elazıg Kaya Karakaya Sports High School with a mean age of 17.10±1.25 (years and 30 people were the control group fr om Diyarbakır RekabetKurumu High School with a mean age of 17.70±1.67 (years . Sports activity of Sports High school students was found to include (in the first two years 384 hours, a total of 1088 hours in four years and sports activity of science high s chool students was found to include ( in the first 2 years 94, a total of 158 hours in four years. Those who had any disease that could have an effect on their bone mineral density and body compositions were not included in the study. Height and weight w ere measure with standardSecaStadiometre . Body Mass Index (BMI, Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR, Body Fat Percentage (BFP, Body Fat Mass (BFM, Fat - Free Body Mass (FBM, Total Body Water (TBW , which constitute body composition and are accepted as sub parame ters, were measured with Bioelectrical Impedance Analyser (BIA - Tanita BC 418 . Bone densitometry device (DEXA; Hologic Discovery 4500 QDR was used in the measurements of bone mineral density. SPSS 16.0 was used in the process of the raw data obtained and T - Test was applied for independent samples. Findings : HEIGHT, WEIGHT, BMI, BMR, %BFP, BFM, FBM, TBW measured mean values of the E xperimental group are 171.62±7.078 (cm, 58.88±8.679 (kg, 19.89±1.745 (kg/m², 3435.6 ± 2660.55 (kcal, 13.64±2.446 (%,8.100± 2.150 (kg, 50.81±7.165 (kg respectively. HEIGHT, WEIGHT, BMI, BMR, %BFP, BFM, FBM, TBW measured mean values of the Control group are 170.21±8.514 (cm, 59.77±9.749 (kg, 19.63±1.439 (kg/m², 2362.85 ± 2010.71 (kcal, 13.83±2.556 (%, 8.048±1.708 (kg, 5 0
Benn, Tansin; Pfister, Gertrud
This paper contains a sociocultural analysis of school sport experiences of Muslim girls in two countries with different gender policies in physical education (PE) classes: England and Denmark. In Denmark, PE lessons take place in co-educative classes, in England schools are more diverse, with predominantly co-educational but also single-sex and faith schools offering different learning contexts. Two case studies from Denmark and England are used to explore the experiences of migrant Muslim girls in these different settings. A social constructionist approach to gender underpins the interpretation of stakeholders' voices on the inclusion of Muslim girls and the analysis of PE discourses in these countries. Findings illustrate similarities and differences at the interface of cultural diversity, political rhetoric of inclusion and realities of sport experiences for Muslim girls in both countries. Complex influences on PE experiences include gender stereotypes, cultural and religious orientations and practices, as well as actions and expectations of parents, communities and coaches/teachers. The studies provide insights into the ways participants managed their identities as Muslim girls in different sport environments to enable participation and retention of their cultural identities. Highlighted throughout the paper are the ways in which school sport policy and practice, providers and gatekeepers, can include or exclude groups, in this case Muslim girls. Too often coaches and teachers are unaware of crucial facts about their learners, not only in terms of their physical development and capabilities but also in terms of their cultural needs. Mistakes in creating conducive learning environments leave young people to negotiate a way to participate or refrain from participation.
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of influence of factors of macro- and microenvironment on the development of sports tourism in Kharkiv region. Materials and Methods: the paper uses the methods of analysis of literary sources and documents, system and organizational analysis, methods of marketing analysis (PEST and SWOT analysis, methods of mathematical statistics. The study was conducted in 4 children and youth sports schools of Kharkiv region, where it is cultivated sports tourism, only 124 respondents. Results: the degree of dependence of the functioning and development of sports tourism from the marketing environment. Conclusions: sport tourism is a relatively new socio-economic phenomenon. Promotion of non-Olympic sports, develop relevant marketing programs for their development is necessary to attract more children and teenagers to a systematic practice of physical fitness and sports activities.
Dongwook Cho; Taryn Price
A primary objective of United States’ higher education institutions is the production of well-balanced citizens. Aside from awarded degrees, other primary offerings include leisure opportunities, from campus recreation programs. Campus recreation through intramural sport programs offers students an opportunity to participate in sport and physical fitness activities on campus with and against other collegiate students. Recognizing the continuous increase in collegiate enrollment of internation...
Briscoe, J H
A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football played at Eton--Rugby, Association and Eton--showed Rugby football to be the most dangerous and Eton football the safest game. Advice on the management and prevention of injury is given.
Benn, Tansin; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
influences on PE experiences include gender stereotypes, cultural and religious orientations and practices, as well as actions and expectations of parents, communities and coaches/teachers. The studies provide insights into the ways participants managed their identities as Muslim girls in different sport...
McGee, S; Raffini, L; Witmer, C
With the wide availability of factor and the routine use of prophylaxis boys with haemophilia are now able to participate in regular physical activity, including organized sports. Current guidelines vary regarding specific recommendations for sports participation and concerns remain regarding safety. To determine if participation in organized sports is associated with an increased risk for injury in paediatric subjects with haemophilia. Retrospective single-centre cohort study from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010 in male subjects ages 10-18 years with a factor VIII (FVIII) or FIX level sports was recorded. 48 male subjects with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.6 years (range: 10-18.8) were included; 64.6% (31/48) FVIII deficiency, 54.2% (26/48) severe haemophilia, 18.8% (9/48) moderate and 27.1% (13/48) mild. The majority [62.5% (30/48)] of subjects participated in at least one season of organized sport. There were 77 injuries in 36/48 (75%) subjects. The mean number of injuries per subject was 1.6 ± 1.5. There was no statistical difference in the mean number of injuries (P = 0.44) or target joint formation (P = 0.52) between the subjects who participated in organized sports compared to those who did not. In this study, participation in organized sports by boys with haemophilia, ages 10-18 years, is common and not associated with an increased number of injuries or the development of a target joint. As injuries occurred equally in both groups, concerted efforts should be directed at reducing injuries in all patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Paiement, Craig A.; Payment, Matthew P.
A professional sports event requires considerable planning in which years are devoted to the success of that single activity. School-based sports events do not have that luxury, because high schools across the country host athletic events nearly every day. It is not uncommon during the fall sports season for a combination of boys' and girls'…
Parents of pupils participate in the supervision and management of Spanish schools through the School Council ["Consejo Escolar"], which is the principal body through which such participation and oversight is channeled. Through it families, pupils, teachers and non-teaching staff contribute collectively to making the important decisions…
Sepet, Elif; Aren, Gamze; Dogan Onur, Ozen; Pinar Erdem, Arzu; Kuru, Sinem; Tolgay, Ceren Guney; Unal, Sinasi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of sports participants regarding emergency management of dental trauma and the awareness about mouthguards. A specific questionnaire regarding knowledge, experiences and behaviours after dental trauma and the use of mouthguard was distributed to 359 sports participants up to 18 years of age. The sports involved were basketball, swimming, volleyball, soccer, tennis, badminton, handball, athleticism, golf, gymnastics, water polo and karate. The questions were focused on personal experience, awareness of first aid and dental emergency procedures and knowledge about mouthguards. The results showed that 10.9% had experienced a kind of dental trauma, and 12.5% would look for a dentist for treatment in emergency. 34.5% would re-implant the avulsed tooth, 33.4% would maintain the avulsed tooth in handkerchief and 25.3% would maintain it in saline solution. 41.1% were aware of the possibility of oral injuries during sports practice, and 55.4% knew about mouthguards, but only 11.2% of the participants reported to use them. There was a statistically significant difference between the experienced participants (>5 years) and less-experienced group (aesthetic' was significantly high in experienced participants. The less-experienced participants significantly stated that they had never heard about mouthguards before. Our results showed a lack of knowledge of sports participants about management and prevention of traumatic dental injuries. Educational programs should be organized to give information about emergency treatment and promote the use of mouthguards to sport participants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thornton, Claire; Sheffield, David; Baird, Andrew
Athletes who choose to engage in contact sports do so with the knowledge that participation will bring pain in the form of contact with others, injury, and from exertion. Whilst athletes who play contact sports have been shown to have higher pain tolerance than those who do not, it is unclear whether this is a result of habituation over time, or as a result of individual differences at the outset. The aim was to compare pain responses over an athletic season in athletes who participated in contact sport and those who disengaged from it. One hundred and two new contact athletes completed measures of cold and ischaemic pain tolerance, perceived pain intensity, pain bothersomeness, pain coping styles and attendance at the start, middle (4 months) and end (8 months) of their season. The athletes were drawn from martial arts, rugby and American football. Cluster analysis placed 47 athletes into a participating category and 55 into a non-participating cluster. Participating athletes had higher ischaemic pain tolerance at the start (r=0.27, p=0.05), middle (r=0.41, pdirect coping, catastrophized less about injury pain and also found contact pain to be less bothersome physically and psychologically compared to non-participating athletes. Participating athletes were more tolerant of ischaemic pain at the end of the season compared to the start (r=0.28, p=0.04). Conversely non-participating athletes became significantly less tolerant to both pain stimuli by the end of the season (cold pressor; r=0.54, psports become less pain tolerant of experimental pain, possibly a result of catastrophizing. The results suggest that athletes who commit to contact sports find pain less bothersome over time, possibly as a result of experience and learning to cope with pain. Athletes who continue to participate in contact sports have a higher pain tolerance, report less bothersomeness and have higher direct coping than those who drop out. In addition, tolerance to ischaemic pain increased
Palomäki, S; Hirvensalo, M; Smith, K; Raitakari, O; Männistö, S; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Tammelin, T
Health behaviors in youth can predict the same behaviors later in life, but the role of sport participation in predicting healthy lifestyle habits is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between participation in organized youth sport and adult healthy lifestyle habits. Data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS) with a 28-year follow-up were used. The participation in sport-club training sessions was self-reported by 9-18-year-olds in 1983 and 1986 (n = 1285). During 2011, participants (aged 37-43-year old) reported their smoking status, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity. Odd ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression, to examine how participation in organized youth sport was associated with having three or four versus fewer (0-2) healthy habits in adulthood. Participants who were active in youth sport in both 1983 and 1986 had almost two times greater odds of having three or four healthy habits in adulthood than those who were not active at both time points (OR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11-2.76). When the analyses were stratified by sex, the findings were statistically significant among women (OR: 2.13, 95%Cl: 1.13-3.99) but not men (OR: 1.27, 95%CI: 0.63-2.58). The results suggest that participation in organized youth sport could promote healthy lifestyle choices. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
This study examined gender differences in adolescent participation in sport and physical activity, in teasing experiences specific to the physical activity domain, and the relationship between adolescent physical activity and body image. A sample of 714 adolescents (332 girls, 382 boys) aged between 12 and 16 years completed measures of participation in organised sport and other physical activities, experiences of teasing specific to sport, self-objectification and body image. Adolescent girls participated in organised sport at a lower rate than boys, but experienced higher levels of teasing. Both girls and boys reported being teased by same-sex peers, but in addition, girls also reported being teased by opposite-sex peers (i.e. boys). Time spent on aesthetic physical activities was related to disordered eating symptomatology for both girls and boys. It was concluded that teasing and body image concerns may contribute to adolescent girls' reduced rates of participation in sports and other physical activities. Copyright © 2010 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ham, Sandra A; Kruger, Judy; Tudor-Locke, Catrine
Given the evidence that regular physical activity produces substantial health benefits, participation in sports, exercise, and recreation is widely encouraged. The objective of this study was to describe participation in sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities among US adults. Data from 2 national surveys of respondents age 18 years and older were analyzed. Respondents to the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) from 2003 through 2005 (N=45,246) reported all activities on 1 randomly selected survey day. Respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 through 2004 (N=17,061) reported leisure-time physical activities in the 30 days before the interview. One-quarter of adults participated in any sport, exercise, or recreational activity on a random day, and 60.9% of adults participated in any leisure-time activity in the previous 30 days. The most common types of activities were walking, gardening and yard work, and other forms of exercise. The sports and recreational activities had typical durations of 1/2 to 3 hours per session, and the exercise activities typically lasted 1 hour or less. The prevalence of sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities is generally low among US adults; exercise is the most commonly reported type of activity.
Full Text Available This study examined the role of cultural capital sport oriented on workers' participation. The active presence of workers in different workplaces is very significant; additionally, consider their physical health is so imperative. Moreover, distinguishing the effective factors that can increase the amount of workers’ physical health and persuade them to exercise is essential; also, lack of attention to them leads to several difficulties. In the study, focused on 400 workers who worked for the newspaper in Tehran, Iran. One questionnaire for assessing demographic factors and cultural capital sport oriented were used. Findings of the study showed that cultural capital sport oriented have significant relationship with workers’ participation. Also, body image determined as the first reason for sport among workers. In overall, the sport has a noticeable role in workers’ life and it can grow their mind and body health. In this regard, the head of workers should be developed some methods for introducing workers to the sport; likewise, determined valuable programs for them to increase physical power and growing muscles.
Ryan, Stephanie; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Weiss, Jonathan A
Little is known about sport participation in youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study examined sport characteristics (frequency, diversity, positive social experiences [PSE]) for youth with ASD and intellectual disability compared to youth with intellectual disability alone and explored the personal and contextual correlates of involvement. Parents (N = 409) completed an online survey, and multiple mediation analyses were used to examine the factors that explained the relationships between sport involvement in youth with ASD and intellectual disability. No significant main effects of ASD status were found for frequency or diversity, but youth with intellectual disability alone had higher scores for PSE compared to youth with ASD and intellectual disability. Sociocommunicative abilities, coach relationship and resources mediated the relationship between ASD status and PSE. A better understanding of the factors related to sport is essential for allowing families, service providers and policy makers to improve involvement for youth with ASD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shachaf, Miri; Katz, Yaacov J.; Shoval, Ella
This study examined gender, participation in sport and academic achievement of Israeli high school students. The study examined the academic achievement of those who participated in competitive or non-competitive sport and those who did not participate in sport. Results indicate that female athletes who participated in competitive sport attained…
Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.
Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete’s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A survey was distributed to HS, collegiate, and professional athletes prior to their yearly preparticipation physical examination. Athletes were asked whether they had chosen to specialize in only 1 sport, and data were then collected pertaining to this decision. Results: A total of 3090 athletes completed the survey (503 HS, 856 collegiate, and 1731 professional athletes). A significantly greater percentage of current collegiate athletes specialized to play a single sport during their childhood/adolescence (45.2% of HS athletes, 67.7% of collegiate athletes, and 46.0% of professional athletes; P < .001). The age of single-sport specialization differed between groups and occurred at a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.4 (HS), 14.8 ± 2.5 (collegiate), and 14.1 ± 2.8 years (professional) (P < .001). Current HS (39.9%) and collegiate athletes (42.1%) recalled a statistically greater incidence of sport-related injury than current professional athletes (25.4%) (P < .001). The majority (61.7%) of professional athletes indicated that they believed specialization helps the athlete play at a higher level, compared with 79.7% of HS and 80.6% of collegiate athletes (P < .001). Notably, only 22.3% of professional athletes said they would want their own child to specialize to play only 1 sport during childhood/adolescence. Conclusion: This study provides a foundation for understanding current trends in single-sport specialization in all athletic levels. Current
Lampert, Rachel; Cannom, David; Olshansky, Brian
Safety of Sports for ICD Patients. The safety of sports participation for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is unknown, and recommendations among physicians may vary widely. The purposes of this study were to determine current practice among patients with ICDs and their physicians regarding sports participation, and to determine how many physicians have cared for patients who have sustained adverse events during sports participation. A survey was mailed to all 1,687 U.S. physician members of the Heart Rhythm Society. Among 614 respondent physicians, recommendations varied widely. Only 10% recommended avoidance of all sports more vigorous than golf. Seventy-six percent recommended avoidance of contact, and 45% recommend avoidance of competitive sports. Most (71%) based restrictions on patients' underlying heart disease. Regardless of recommendations, most physicians (71%) reported caring for patients who participated in sports, including many citing vigorous, competitive sports, most commonly cited were basketball, running, and skiing. ICD shocks during sports were common, cited by 40% of physicians. However, few adverse consequences were reported. One percent of physicians reported known injury to patient (all but 3 minor); 5%, injury to the ICD system, and weightlifting and golf. Physician recommendations for sports participation for patients with ICDs varies widely. Many patients with ICDs do participate in vigorous and even competitive sports. While shocks were common, significant adverse events were rare.
Kiluk, Brian D.; Weden, Sarah; Culotta, Vincent P.
Objective: Few studies have examined the psychological benefits of physical activity in children with ADHD who may be at higher risk for mood and anxiety problems. This study explores the relationship between participation in physical activity and emotional functioning in children with ADHD. Method: Scores on parent-reported measures of mood and…
Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Marcus, Frank; Estes, N A Mark
AIMS: It has been proposed that competitive sport increases the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) and death in patients with arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). However, it is unknown whether this only applies to competitive sport or if recreational sports activity also...... three categories of sports participation: competitive (n = 41), recreational (n = 48), and inactive (n = 19). Competitive sport was associated with a significantly higher risk of VTA/death when compared with both recreational sport [HR = 1.99 (1.21-3.28), P = 0.007] and inactive patients [HR = 2.05 (1.......07-3.91), P = 0.030]. No increased risk of VTA/death was associated with recreational sport when compared with patients who were inactive [HR = 1.03 (0.54-1.97), P = 0.930]. Symptoms developed at an earlier age in patients who participated in competitive sport (30 ± 12 years), when compared with patients who...
Pot, Niek; Keizer, Renske
Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA), including sport participation, is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Scholars have devoted considerable attention to understanding the impact of parenthood on MVPA, albeit only for women. As the impact of fatherhood on men's lives is drawing more and more scholarly and societal attention, the aim of the current article is to provide an systematic overview of studies examining the impact of fatherhood on MVPA. A systematic review was conducted in Google Scholar, Web of Science and Web of Knowledge, using (combinations of) the search terms: father(hood), parent(hood), exercise, physical activity, sport and leisure time. This resulted in 54 papers reporting differences in MVPA and/or sport between fathers and childless men or within men that became father, of which 13 were included. Our overview of findings suggested that fathers spent less time on MVPA compared with childless men, but that fathers did not differ from their childless counterparts on the subarea of sport participation. Differences in time spent on MVPA were strongest between childless men and fathers with young children (< 6 yrs). Our systematic review revealed that fathers spent less time on MVPA compared to childless men, especially when they had young children. Interestingly, linkages between parental status and the subarea of sport participation were not found, which suggests that fathers cut back on other areas of MVPA. Given the impact of MVPA on a healthy lifestyle, future research in this field is warranted.
Nielsen, Glen; Hermansen, Bianca; Bugge, Anna; Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Danish children from immigrant backgrounds are less physically active than children from the ethnic majority, and to investigate the possible reasons for any differences found. Accelerometer measures of physical activity as well as questionnaire data about organised sports, family demography, resources and values were collected from 594 children of whom 67 had other ethnic background than Danish. Data were collected when the children were 6-7 years old and again later when the children were 9-10 years old. It was found that children from immigrant backgrounds were not less physically active than other children when their amounts of daily physical activity were measured by direct objective measures, despite their participation rate in organised sports being much lower. Using multiple logistic regression modelling, this study showed that lack of parental experience with organised sports and lack of economic/material resources explained much of the difference in sports participation. Children of immigrant background had significant lower participation in club sports but this did not affect their overall physical activity level.
Huang, Haifang; Humphreys, Brad
We investigate the relationship between participation in physical activity and self reported happiness in the United States. IV estimates based on data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 2005 and 2009 and County Business Patterns indicate that individuals living in a county with greater access to sports facilities are more likely to participate in physical activity and also report higher life satisfaction. Both men and women gain happiness from participation, and men ...
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kremer, Peter J; Toumbourou, John W
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting a link between sport participation and violent behavior outside of the sporting context. However, there have been few studies that have investigated the basis of this relationship. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between sport participation, problem alcohol use, and various violent behaviors, and whether sport participation moderates relationships between problem alcohol use and violence. The sample comprised 2,262 young adults (55% female, age range at Time 1 = 17-24 years) from Victoria, Australia, surveyed in 2010 and 2012. When controlling for common risk factors, substance use, and past violence, sport participation was not associated with any violent behaviors 2 years later. However, sport participation moderated the relationship between problem alcohol use and fighting, whereby problem alcohol use was associated with engaging in fights 2 years later for sport participants, but not for nonparticipants. These findings suggest that it is not sport participation per se that influences later violence but the drinking norms or culture embedded within certain sporting contexts. Prevention approaches that address the drinking culture and social approval of excessive alcohol consumption within sporting contexts may reduce the incidence of violent behavior in the community. © The Author(s) 2015.
This study evaluates a model predicting that school size affects student participation in extracurricular activities and that these leisure interests will continue in young adult life. High school social participation, it is hypothesized, also is influenced by curriculum track placement and academic performance, which are affected by student…
Hebert, Jeffrey J.; Møller, Niels C.; Andersen, Lars B.; Wedderkopp, Niels
Introduction Many children fail to meet international guideline recommendations for health-related activity (≥60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]), and intervention studies to date have reported negligible effects. Objective Explore the associations of organized leisure-time sport participation with overall physical activity levels and health-related physical activity guideline concordance. Methods This prospective cohort study was nested in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Study participants were a representative sample of 1124 primary school students. Organized leisure-time sport participation was reported via text messaging and physical activity was objectively measured over seven days with accelerometry. Associations between sport participation and physical activity level were explored with multilevel mixed-effects regression models and reported with beta coefficients (b) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). Results Participants were 53% female, with mean(SD) age = 8.4(1.4) years. Boys were more active than girls (psports (gymnastics, basketball, volleyball) were inconsistent. Conclusions Many children, particularly girls and those in higher grade levels do not adhere to health-related physical activity recommendations. Organized leisure-time sport participation may be a viable strategy to increase overall health-related physical activity levels and international guideline concordance in children. PMID:26262678
Full Text Available Purpose: Sports participation and physical fitness are widely beneficial for young people, yet activity levels among young people are declining. Despite growing popular media attention on the participation of sexual minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in sports and various campaigns to improve the often homophobic climate of sports, there is limited evidence that sexual minority youth participate in sports. Our aim was to provide a current portrait of sports participation among 3 groups of sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual in British Columbia, Canada, as well as to document population trends. Methods: Pooled population-level data from British Columbia, Canada (n = 99,373 were used to examine trends and disparities in sports participation among sexual minority and heterosexual youth. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine changes in participation over time and disparities in participation over time (1998–2013. Results: We found an overall decline in sports participation and physical activity (PA for all youth. Sexual minority students were less likely to participate in formal sports (with a coach and informal sports (without a coach compared with their heterosexual peers. The disparity in participating in informal sports between heterosexual and sexual minority youth has narrowed over time for some sexual orientation groups, whereas the disparity in participating in formal sports has widened over time in some cases. Conclusion: This study provides a comprehensive examination of sports participation among sexual minority youth over the past 15 years. Despite changing societal attitudes and laudable efforts to reduce homophobia in sports, results suggest that there are continued barriers to participation for sexual minority youth. Further research is needed to understand the factors that limit sports participation for these youth and to inform program development. PA is critical to
Full Text Available Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participation in workplace team sport.Twenty-nine semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with office workers (58% female (36 ± 7.71 from manufacturing, public services, and educational services. Data was analysed through template analysis.Five sub-level (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, community and societal influences facilitate participation or create obstacles for participants. Participants were challenged by a lack of competence, self-efficacy, negative sporting ideals and amotivation. Unhealthy competition, an unstable work-life balance and unsupportive colleagues created obstacles to participation. An unsupportive organisation and workplace culture placed demands on workplace champions, funding, facilities and communication. Healthy competitions, high perceptions of competence and self-efficacy, and being motivated autonomously enabled participation. Further, relatedness and social support created a physical activity culture where flexible working was encouraged and team sport was promoted in accessible locations within the organisation. Researchers should consider accounting for complexity of these influences. A participatory approach may tailor interventions to individual organisations and the employees that work within them. Interventions whereby autonomy, competence and relatedness are supported are recommended. This may be achieved by adapting sports and training workplace champions.
Full Text Available Aim: The investigation has been made in order to define high school male and female students’ attitudes towards physical education and sports course. Material and Methods: The Research is in research screening model. The population of the study is consisted of Burdur province and high schools located in the selected district and the sample group consists of students studying at the 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th grade in these schools. The data have been obtained from the written sources and by using survey methods. The attitude scale of physical education and sports classes for secondary school students developed by Güllü and Güçlü (2007 has been used. Questionnaires have been applied to the sample group by being consulted with one to one by sampling method. 950 individuals in total, 522 women and 428 men, have answered to the questionnaire. The data obtained have been transferred to a computer for statistical process and as statistical procedures, frequency (% and Independent samples t- test, to determine the difference between variables, have been applied. In the detection of differences, reviews have been made by being adopting the significance level of 0.05 in compliance with the answer distributions given to each question and the averages. Results: According to the obtained data; according to the responses of the surveyed high school students studying in average, their attitudes are positive to physical education and sports lessons; it is seen that there is a significant relationship in the significance level of 0,05 in comparative statistical procedures (p <0.05 . Conclusion: As a result; we can say that students' attitudes towards physical education and sports classes participated in the survey are positive, but male students have more positive attitudes than female students.
Dove, Meghan K.; Zorotovich, Jennifer; Gregg, Katy
Family involvement in a child's education is a complex system that extends beyond the presence of partnerships between families, schools, and the community (Epstein, 2011). By measuring families' feelings of connectedness and membership to the school community, this study explores families' motivations for participating in their child's learning…
Patel, Angira; Webster, Gregory; Ward, Kendra; Lantos, John
Aim The aim of the present study was to determine general paediatrician knowledge, practices, and attitudes towards electrocardiogram (ECG) screening in school athletes during pre-participation screening exam (PPSE). Paediatricians affiliated with a tertiary children's hospital completed a survey about ECGs for PPSE. In total, 205/498 (41%) responded; 92% of the paediatricians did not include an ECG as part of PPSE; 56% were aware of a case in which a student athlete in their own community had died of sudden unexplained death; 4% had an athlete in their practice die. Only 16% of paediatricians perform all 12 American Heart Association recommended elements of the PPSE. If any of these screening elements are abnormal, 69% obtain an ECG, 36% an echocardiogram, and 30% restrict patients from sports activity; 73% of them refer the patient to a cardiologist. Most of the general paediatricians surveyed did not currently perform ECGs for PPSE. In addition, there was a low rate of adherence to performing the 12 screening elements recommended by the American Heart Association. They have trouble obtaining timely, accurate ECG interpretations, worry about potential unnecessary exercise restrictions, and cost-effectiveness. The practical hurdles to ECG implementation emphasise the need for a fresh look at PPSE, and not just ECG screening. Improvements in ECG performance/interpretation would be necessary for ECGs to be a useful part of PPSE.
Ozturk Ozden Tepekoylu
Full Text Available In Recent studies underline the fact that adolescents are, at many times, likely to experience serious communication problems with their families and close environments. So, the aim of this study is to determine positive impact of sport-related games, which are performed as extracurricular activities, on high school students’ communication skills. In the study, pre, & post-tests was utilized with the control group’s experimental patterns. Two participant groups were made up of totally 30 high school students, 15 of whom would be in the experimental group and the rest of whom were in the control group. The former group was given sport- related 20 applications for 10 weeks during which the latter group would not deal with any extracurricular activities. Meanwhile, before and after the applications, data was collected by means of “The Communication Skills Scale” which was developed by Korkut (1996 and then analysed through “two-way ANCOVA” test techniques. Results clarify that the considerable gap in scores of the students’ pre, & post-tests perception concerning their communication skills are clearly attributed to sport-related games and it was also established that scores of the students in the experimental group were meaningfully higher than ones in the control group. However, perception of communication skills in the both groups was not significantly different by sex of the students. Moreover, the common effect of sex and participation on sport- related games was not found statistically meaningful in terms of communication skills. Consequently, it could be said that sport-related games impact positively communication skills.
Melinda M. Manore
Full Text Available For adolescent athletes (14–18 years, data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP participants (80% Latino completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition. The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p < 0.01. Supplement knowledge differed by sex (16% lower in females; p = 0.047 and race/ethnicity (33% lower in Latinos; p < 0.001. Breakfast consumption was 57%; females ate breakfast less (50% than males (60%; p < 0.001; NSLP-participants ate breakfast less (47% than non-NSLP (62%; p < 0.001. Supplement use was 46%, with Latinos using more supplements than Whites do (p = 0.016. Overall, 30% used protein shakes, with females using less than males (p = 0.02, while use was twice as likely in Latino vs. White (p = 0.03. Overall, 45% reported their nutrient requirements were different from non-athlete peers. Latinos were less likely (p = 0.03 to report that their diet met nutritional requirements, but more than twice as likely to report that nutritional supplements were necessary for training (p < 0.001. Adolescent athletes, especially females and Latinos, would benefit from sport nutrition education that enhances food selection skills for health and sport performance.
AMADOR J. LARA-SÁNCHEZ
Full Text Available Physical Education teachers have been using some very classic team sports, like football, basketball, handball, volleyball, etc. for many years in order to develop their education work at school. As a consequence of this, the benefits of this kind of activities on Physical Education lessons have not been as notable as we mighthave expected, since, even if they are increasing, their development and application are still low. There are many and very varied new non-traditional sports that have emerged and extended across Spain in recent years. To mention an example, we could refer to a newly created non-traditional sport such as kin-ball. This sport wascreated for the purpose of achieving a way to combine several factors such as health, team-work and competitiveness. Three teams of four players each participate. This way, every player can participate to a great extent in all the moves of the match, for each of them must defend one area of their half in order to achieve a common objective. Besides, kin-ball helps to develop motor skills at school in an easy way; that is, coordination, balance and perception. There is a large variety of non-traditional games and sports that are similar to kin-ball, such as floorball, intercrosse, mazaball, tchoukball, ultimate, indiaca, shuttleball... All of them show many physical, psychic and social advantages, and can help us to make the Physical Education teaching-learning process more motivating, acquiring the recreational component that it showed some years ago and which hasnow disappeared
Borg-Stein, Joanne P; Fogelman, David J; Ackerman, Kathryn E
The benefits of rigorous physical activity have long been proclaimed by the medical community. However, consensus regarding exercise duration and intensity in pregnancy has been more difficult to achieve. Conservative exercise guidelines for pregnant women were issued broadly in the 1980s due to limited evidence regarding safety. More recent evidence has failed to demonstrate ill effects of physical activity during pregnancy, as any effects on the mother and the fetus have thus far shown to be positive. The physical discomfort experienced by virtually all women during pregnancy, nearly 25% of whom experience at least temporarily disabling symptoms, is often a barrier to participation in an exercise program. An approach to developing an exercise program during pregnancy will be discussed in this article, as well as the potential benefits of such a program for the maternal-fetal unit, and common pregnancy-related musculoskeletal conditions, including a discussion of the anatomy, physiology, diagnosis, and treatment of such disorders. © Thieme Medical Publishers.
Roy J. Shephard
Full Text Available Introduction: A growing number of Muslim athletes now engage in international competition. This raises the question of the advice they should be given if a major event occurs during the month of Ramadan. Methods: A narrative review has been based upon books and extensive reviews completed by the author and other investigators. Results: Practical considerations hamper assessment of the effects of Ramadan upon physical performance, but there seem small decreases in muscular strength and both anaerobic and aerobic capacity. Nevertheless, athletes who wish to observe Ramadan can reduce such effects by prior adjustment of diet and training plans, minimizing sleep loss, and careful management of fluid and food intake during the period of intermittent fasting. Conclusion: Competitors in most events can observe Ramadan with a small loss of athletic performance. However, intermittent fasting can endanger health for individuals with type I diabetes mellitus, and for participants in ultra-endurance events (particularly under hot conditions.
Immonen, Tuomas; Brymer, Eric; Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith; Feletti, Francesco; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jaakkola, Timo
Previous research has considered action and adventure sports using a variety of associated terms and definitions which has led to confusing discourse and contradictory research findings. Traditional narratives have typically considered participation exclusively as the pastime of young people with abnormal characteristics or personalities having unhealthy and pathological tendencies to take risks because of the need for thrill, excitement or an adrenaline 'rush'. Conversely, recent research has linked even the most extreme forms of action and adventure sports to positive physical and psychological health and well-being outcomes. Here, we argue that traditional frameworks have led to definitions, which, as currently used by researchers, ignore key elements constituting the essential merit of these sports. In this paper, we suggest that this lack of conceptual clarity in understanding cognitions, perception and action in action and adventure sports requires a comprehensive explanatory framework, ecological dynamics which considers person-environment interactions from a multidisciplinary perspective. Action and adventure sports can be fundamentally conceptualized as activities which flourish through creative exploration of novel movement experiences, continuously expanding and evolving beyond predetermined environmental, physical, psychological or sociocultural boundaries. The outcome is the emergence of a rich variety of participation styles and philosophical differences within and across activities. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to point out some limitations of existing research on action and adventure sports; (b) based on key ideas from emerging research and an ecological dynamics approach, to propose a holistic multidisciplinary model for defining and understanding action and adventure sports that may better guide future research and practical implications.
School leaders, parents and coaches are challenged to ensure the safety of athletes participating in interscholastic programs, including concussion management. With an estimated 300,000 sport-related concussions occurring annually in the United States and a public perception that bell ringers are not concussions, many head-injured children are…
Bar, Mustafa; Yaman, Menzure Sibel; Hergüner, Gülten
The study aimed to determine problems encountered by Religious Vocational Secondary School and other Secondary School students in physical education and sports activities and to compare these problems according to school type and gender. A questionnaire named "Problems encountered in attending to physical education and sports activities"…
Full Text Available This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery-approach (MAP and performance-approach (PAP goals depend on the extent to which they are motivated by autonomous or controlled motivation. A sample of 515 undergraduate students who participated in sport completed measures of achievement goals, motivation of achievement goals, perceived goal attainment, sport satisfaction, and both positive and negative affect. Results of moderated regression analyses revealed that the positive relations of both MAP and PAP goals with perceived goal attainment were stronger for athletes pursuing these goals with high level of autonomous goal motivation. Also, the positive relations between PAP goals and both sport satisfaction and positive affect were stronger at high levels of autonomous goal motivation and controlled goal motivation. The shape of all these significant interactions was consistent with tenets of Self-Determination Theory as controlled goal motivation was negatively associated with positive affect and sport satisfaction and positively associated with negative affect. Overall, these findings demonstrated the importance of considering goal motivation in order to better understand the conditions under which achievement goals are associated with better experiential and performance outcomes in the lives of sport participants.
Czyż, Stanisław H; Szmajke, Andrzej; Kruger, Ankebé; Kübler, Magdalena
The effect known as Ringelmann effect states that as group size increases, individual behavior may be less productive. If this decrease in productivity in groups is attributed to a decrement in individual motivation, it is called social loafing. We tested hypotheses that the collectivism associated with participation in team sports would reduce the level of social loafing compared to people who were not involved in team sports. In one experiment, participants (n = 72; M age = 21.7 years, SD = 2.0) had to pull a rope individually and collectively. Groups of two, three, four, and six persons were formed from among individuals with no previous sports experience, and of those who had engaged in individual and team sports. For each team, the sum of individual achievements of the individuals constituting a team was computed. This sum served as the anticipated result (expected value). The expected values were later compared to the actual achievements, i.e., the value achieved by the whole team. The results of the study suggested that previous experience in collective (team) sports eliminated the effect of social loafing. © The Author(s) 2016.
Blok, D.J.; Vlas, S.J. de; Empelen, P. van; Richardus, J.H.; Lenthe, F.J. van
We investigated whether the prevalence of health-related behaviors and overweight in neighborhoods is associated with changes in smoking, sports participation and overweight over 13 years of follow-up in Dutch adults residing in 86 neighborhoods of Eindhoven in 1991. We showed that living in
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
This study examined gender differences in adolescent participation in sport and physical activity, in teasing experiences specific to the physical activity domain, and the relationship between adolescent physical activity and body image. A sample of 714 adolescents (332 girls, 382 boys) aged between 12 and 16 years completed measures of…
Mikulec, Erin; McKinney, Kathleen
Learning takes place both inside and outside of the classroom. While there are a few studies that focus on the professional, developmental, and learning outcomes of participation in student organizations, there has been insufficient research on these outcomes in sport clubs. The paper reports on the results of an online, primarily qualitative…
The purpose of this study was to determine effects of child gender on parental and child beliefs and evaluate competitive sport participation as a modifier of child beliefs. Two age-groups of children and parents completed measures on child athletic appearance, competence, importance of physical act...
Van Lier, Jens; Moulds, Michelle L; Raes, Filip
Generalizing from a single failure or success to future performances and their self-concept could have an important impact on sport participants. This study examined the impact of the way sport participants think about success on positive generalization. Sport participants (N = 222) completed an online experimental study in which they were induced to think about meanings, causes and implications (i.e., abstract-"why"-thinking) or about more perceptual concrete aspects of their performance (i.e., concrete-"how"-thinking). We hypothesized that abstract-"why"-thinking would lead to greater positive generalization and that this effect would be moderated by self-esteem. Our results supported our hypothesis that abstract thinking increased positive generalization, and this effect was more clearly visible in sport participants with higher self-esteem. These results suggest that retrospective thinking about the "why" of a good performance may benefit athletes in the long run because they generalize the outcome to future performances and their self-concept which may boost their motivation and consequently their performance.
Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Sluijs, E.M.F. van
RATIONALE: Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…
Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.
Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from
Gardner, Lauren A; Magee, Christopher A; Vella, Stewart A
Dropout from organized youth sport has significant adverse health implications. Enjoyment and behavioral intentions have consistently been linked with participation and dropout; however, few studies have investigated these links using a prospective design. This study explored whether enjoyment and intentions to continue predicted dropout behavior at 1-year follow-up. Questionnaires were completed by 327 regular sport participants (mean age = 13.01 y at baseline). After 1 year, 247 individuals (75.5%) continued participating in their main sport and 26 individuals (8%) dropped out. A hierarchical logistic regression model estimated the probability of dropout. In step 1, the following covariates were included: age, sex, competition level, perceived competence, parental support, coach-athlete relationship, friendship quality, and peer acceptance. In step 2, enjoyment and intentions to continue were included. Step 1 indicated that age, parental support, coach-athlete relationship quality, and peer acceptance were significantly associated with dropout. Step 2 explained further variance in dropout, with both enjoyment and intentions inversely associated with dropout. Peer acceptance was the only covariate to remain significantly associated with dropout in step 2. Findings support the use of enjoyment and behavioral intentions as indicators of sport participation/dropout behavior and may aid the development of interventions aimed at preventing future dropout.
Schaperclaus, G; deGreef, M; Rispens, P; deCalonne, D; Landsman, M; Lie, KI; Oudhof, J
An experimental study was carried out to determine the influence of participation in Sports Groups for Patients with Cardiac Problems (SPCP) on physical and mental fitness and on risk factor level after myocardial infarction. SPCP members (n = 74; 67 men and 7 women) were compared with Nonsporting
Stubbe, J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, J.C.N.
Purpose: A twin design was used to assess the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on the variation in sports participation of Dutch male and female twins between the ages of 13 and 20 yr. Methods: Survey data from 2628 complete twin pairs were available (443 male and 652
Jens eVan Lier
Full Text Available Generalizing from a single failure or success to future performances and their self-concept could have an important impact on sport participants. This study examined the impact of the way sport participants think about success on positive generalization. Sport participants (N=222 completed an online experimental study in which they were induced to think about meanings, causes and implications (i.e., abstract-‘why’-thinking or about more perceptual concrete aspects of their performance (i.e., concrete-‘how’-thinking. We hypothesized that abstract-‘why’-thinking would lead to greater positive generalization and that this effect would be moderated by self-esteem. Our results supported our hypothesis that abstract thinking increased positive generalization, and this effect was more clearly visible in sport participants with higher self-esteem. These results suggest that retrospective thinking about the ‘why’ of a good performance may benefit athletes in the long run because they generalize the outcome to future performances and their self-concept which may boost their motivation and consequently their performance.
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 ≤ IQ ≥ 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in both groups. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and a self-report measure were used to assess children's gross motor skills and sports participation, respectively. The children with ID scored significantly lower on almost all specific motor skill items than the typically developing children. Children with mild ID scored lower on the locomotor skills than children with borderline ID. Furthermore, we found in all groups that children with higher object-control scores participated more in organized sports than children with lower object-control scores. Our results support the importance of attention for well-developed gross motor skills in children with borderline and mild ID, especially to object-control skills, which might contribute positively to their sports participation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study is aimed to determine the literacy levels of media and television and the level of addiction of sport consumers filtered out of the students of the School of Physical Education and Sports and to investigate the relationship between these two levels. Sport consumers studying in Mugla University, School of Physical Education and Sports…
Driban, Jeffrey B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Sitler, Michael R; Harris, Kyle P; Cattano, Nicole M
Information regarding the relative risks of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA) as a result of sport participation is critical for shaping public health messages and for informing knee-OA prevention strategies. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the association between participation in specific sports and knee OA. We completed a systematic literature search in September 2012 using 6 bibliographic databases (PubMed; Ovid MEDLINE; Journals@Ovid; American College of Physicians Journal Club; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; and Ovid HealthStar), manual searches (4 journals), and reference lists (56 articles). Studies were included if they met the following 4 criteria: (1) an aim was to investigate an association between sport participation and knee OA; (2) the outcome measure was radiographic knee OA, clinical knee OA, total knee replacement, self-reported diagnosis of knee OA, or placement on a waiting list for a total knee replacement; (3) the study design was case control or cohort; and (4) the study was written in English. Articles were excluded if the study population had an underlying condition other than knee OA. One investigator extracted data (eg, group descriptions, knee OA prevalence, source of nonexposed controls). The overall knee-OA prevalence in sport participants (n = 3759) was 7.7%, compared with 7.3% among nonexposed controls (referent group n = 4730, odds ratio [OR] = 1.1). Specific sports with a significantly higher prevalence of knee OA were soccer (OR = 3.5), elite-level long-distance running (OR = 3.3), competitive weight lifting (OR = 6.9), and wrestling (OR = 3.8). Elite-sport (soccer or orienteering) and nonelite-sport (soccer or American football) participants without a history of knee injury had a greater prevalence of knee OA than nonexposed participants. Participants in soccer (elite and nonelite
Mutlu, T. Osman
The aim of this study is to determine organisational culture of the students studying in School of Physical Education and Sports (SPES) in Turkey. The study group of the research is composed of 216 students studying in the third and fourth year of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Sports Administration, Coaching Education and Recreation…
The overgrowth of sports in our society has resulted in a host of potential problems for the young athletes who associate with the sport culture found in schools. Although the positive elements of sports are routinely touted, the negative aspects are oftentimes overlooked or trivialized. Most of the positive personal and social aspects attributed…
Tercan Kaas, Evren; Çerez, Haluk
The aim of this study was to analyze participation in campus recreational sport activities, leisure negotiation, self-esteem and life satisfaction in university students. Population of the study consisted of 3625 students from Akdeniz University who were attending elective physical education lectures. Sample of the study was 694 individuals with a mean age of 21.20±2.06. The questionnaire used for data collection consisted of demographic information, information about participation in recreat...
Hebert, Jeffrey J; Møller, Niels C; Andersen, Lars B; Wedderkopp, Niels
Many children fail to meet international guideline recommendations for health-related activity (≥60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]), and intervention studies to date have reported negligible effects. Explore the associations of organized leisure-time sport participation with overall physical activity levels and health-related physical activity guideline concordance. This prospective cohort study was nested in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Study participants were a representative sample of 1124 primary school students. Organized leisure-time sport participation was reported via text messaging and physical activity was objectively measured over seven days with accelerometry. Associations between sport participation and physical activity level were explored with multilevel mixed-effects regression models and reported with beta coefficients (b) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). Participants were 53% female, with mean(SD) age = 8.4(1.4) years. Boys were more active than girls (p<0.001), and physical activity levels and guideline concordance decreased with age (p<0.001). Soccer participation at any frequency was associated with greater overall MVPA (b[95% CI] = 0.66[0.20,1.13] to 2.44[1.44,3.44]). Depending on participation frequency, this equates to 5-20 minutes more MVPA on the average day and 3 to 15 fold increased odds of achieving recommended levels of health-related physical activity (aOR[95%CI] = 3.04[1.49,6.19] to 14.49[1.97,106.56]). Similar associations were identified among children playing handball at least twice per week. Relationships with other sports (gymnastics, basketball, volleyball) were inconsistent. Many children, particularly girls and those in higher grade levels do not adhere to health-related physical activity recommendations. Organized leisure-time sport participation may be a viable strategy to increase overall health-related physical activity levels and international
Mattila, V M; Parkkari, J; Koivusilta, L; Kannus, P; Rimpelä, A
The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the nature and risk factors of injuries leading to hospitalization. A cohort of 57 407 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed in the Hospital Discharge Register for an average of 10.6 years, totaling 608 990 person-years. We identified 5889 respondents (10.3%) with injury hospitalization. The most common anatomical location was the knee and shin (23.9%), followed by the head and neck (17.8%), and the ankle and foot (16.7%). Fractures (30.4%) and distortions (25.4%) were the most common injury types. The strongest risk factor for injury hospitalization was frequent participation in sports clubs [hazard ratio (HR) in males 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.0 and in females 2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7], followed by recurring drunkenness (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7 in males and 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6 in females) and daily smoking (HR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 in males and 1.43 95% CI: 1.2-1.5 in females). The association between injuries and sports clubs participation remained after adjusting for sociodemographic background, health, and health behaviors. Health behavior in adolescence, particularly sports club activity, predicted injury hospitalization. Preventive interventions directed toward adolescents who participate in sports clubs may decrease injury occurrence.
Julia Mara Pegoraro Silvestrin
Full Text Available Under the understanding that a moving body establishes gender relations that reflect intothe perception each individual has of yourself while moving and under the understandingthat sport and leisure (rights established by the State are important expressions ofthe culture of movement, we investigated, through semi-structured interviews andobservations, the participation of boys and girls as beneficiaries in social projects ofpublic policies of sport and leisure of the Municipal Sports Foundation of Florianópolis/SC. Concluding that the sport in the Foundation does not stay away from the meaningof the performance sport, we perceived elements that maintain the social relation ofthe power of man over woman.
Toole, Allison R; Ithurburn, Matthew P; Rauh, Mitchell J; Hewett, Timothy E; Paterno, Mark V; Schmitt, Laura C
Study Design Prospective cohort study. Background While meeting objective criterion cutoffs is recommended prior to return to sports following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the number of young athletes who meet recommended cutoffs and the impact of cutoffs on longitudinal sports participation are unknown. Objectives To test the hypothesis that a higher proportion of young athletes who meet recommended cutoffs will maintain the same level of sports participation over the year following return-to-sport clearance compared to those who do not meet recommended cutoffs. Methods At the time of return-to-sport clearance, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form (IKDC), quadriceps and hamstring strength limb symmetry index (LSI), and single-leg hop test LSI were assessed. Proportions of participants who met individual (IKDC score of 90 or greater; strength and hop test LSIs of 90% or greater) and combined cutoffs were calculated. Proportions of participants who continued at the same level of sports participation over the year following return-to-sport clearance (assessed using the Tegner activity scale) were compared between those who met and did not meet cutoffs. Results Participants included 115 young athletes (88 female). The proportions meeting individual cutoffs ranged from 43.5% to 78.3%. The proportions meeting cutoffs for all hop tests, all strength tests, and all combined measures were 53.0%, 27.8%, and 13.9%, respectively. A higher proportion of participants who met cutoffs for both strength tests maintained the same level of sports participation over the year following return-to-sport clearance than those who did not (81.3% versus 60.2%, P = .02). Conclusion The proportions of young athletes after ACL reconstruction recently cleared for return to sports who met the combined criterion cutoffs were low. Those who met the criterion cutoffs for both strength tests maintained the same level of sports
Taxter, Alysha; Foss, Kim Barber; Melson, Paula; Ford, Kevin R; Shaffer, Michael; Myer, Gregory D
Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) now have well-controlled disease due to improved therapies and management strategies. Children with JIA are more active than in the past and often participate in dynamic, high-loading sports. Standard measures of disease control include examination findings, laboratory values, and patient-directed surveys. However, these standards do not address the subtle deficits in biomechanics and neuromuscular control, which could place affected joints at higher risk for injury. Currently, there are limited evidence-based guidelines to structure conditioning recommendations as to the fitness and mechanics needed to provide safe integration into sports in this population; therefore, tools that objectively measure function with high accuracy and precision may be warranted. Previous work using 3-dimensional motion analysis demonstrated usefulness in guiding physical therapy treatment to correct these deficits. The use of a multidisciplinary team, including physical therapy, rheumatology, and sports medicine, is crucial for preparing these children to return to play. We suggest that the child transition into a sport preparatory-conditioning program to address any underlying deficits. A pediatric exercise specialist who is sensitive to the needs of this population can work with a physical therapist to then appropriately integrate the child safely into sport. Encouraging an active lifestyle is vital to the management of JIA and does not worsen the symptoms associated with childhood arthritis.
Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill
To compare the prevalence of acetabular labral tear in male and female professional ballet dancers with age-matched and sex-matched sporting participants and to determine the relationship to clinical findings and cartilage defects. Case-control study. Clinical and radiology practices. Forty-nine (98 hips) male and female professional ballet dancers (current and retired) with median age 30 years (range: 19-64 years) and 49 (98 hips) age-matched and sex-matched sporting participants. Group (ballet or sports), sex, age, hip cartilage defects, history of hip pain, Hip and Groin Outcome Score, passive hip internal rotation (IR), and external rotation range of movement (ROM). Labral tear identified with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Labral tears were identified in 51% of all 196 hips. The prevalence did not differ significantly between the ballet and sporting participants (P = 0.41) or between sexes (P = 0.34). Labral tear was not significantly associated with clinical measures, such as pain and function scores or rotation ROM (P > 0.01 for all). Pain provocation test using IR at 90° of hip flexion had excellent specificity [96%, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.77%-0.998%] but poor sensitivity (50%, 95% CI, 0.26%-0.74%) for identifying labral tear in participants reporting hip pain. Older age and cartilage defect presence were independently associated with an increased risk of labral tear (both P ballet dancers was similar to a sporting population. Labral tears were not associated with clinical findings but were related to cartilage defects, independent of aging. Caution is required when interpreting MRI findings as labral tear may not be the source of the ballet dancer's symptoms.
Hoekman, R.H.A.; Breedveld, K.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.
In this study, we investigated the intensity of sport participation in the Netherlands comparing urban and rural areas. Using a socio-ecological theoretical model, we focussed on the extent to which the rural–urban divide in sport participation is explained by micro-level (socio-demographics),
Hastie, P A
The purpose of this study was to gauge the extent to which students believed that the accountability strategies employed by their coaches had significant effects on their involvement in sports training sessions. Questionnaire data from 235 secondary school athletes were analyzed using linear structural relations to test a model of accountability hypothesized as operating in these coaching settings. The accountability strategy of active instruction was found to be a variable that significantly affected the students' valuing of their coaches as well as their task involvement. However, the rewards/consequences variable was not found to be a predictor of valuing or task involvement, suggesting that these athletes seemed more task oriented than reliant on external sanctions. The results of this study can only be generalized to team sport settings. Detailed examination needs to be made of the processes through which accountability factors operate for other contexts, including individual sports and competitive levels. Further research could also be undertaken into gender differences, especially in relation to the gender of coaches.
Coxe, Kathryn; Hamilton, Kelsey; Harvey, Hosea H; Xiang, Joe; Ramirez, Marizen R; Yang, Jingzhen
The purpose of the study was to examine the consistency and variation in content of high school written traumatic brain injury (TBI) policies in relation to the three key tenets of youth sports TBI laws. A content analysis was conducted on written TBI policies retrieved from 71 high schools currently participating in High School Reporting Information Online. Each policy was independently analyzed by two trained coders. The number and percent of the policies reflecting the three key tenets of state youth sports TBI laws were described and compared on policy enforcement (i.e., strictness of language), policy description (i.e., details and definitions of the requirements), and policy implementation steps (i.e., specific steps for implementing the requirements). Direct quotes were identified to support quantitative findings. All 71 high school TBI policies contained at least two of the three main TBI law tenets, where 98.6% (n = 70) included the return to play tenet, 83.1% (n = 59) included the removal from play tenet, and 59.2% (n = 42) specified the distribution of TBI information sheets to student-athletes and their parents. Nearly half of the policies (49.3%, n = 35) required parents' signature while only 39.4% (n = 28) required students' signature on the TBI information sheet. The language exhibited wide variance across the 71 TBI policies regarding policy enforcement, policy description, and policy implementation specifications. All 71 TBI policies covered at least two of the three youth sports TBI law tenets, but with considerable variation. Future research should assess variations by schools within the same state and their impact on TBI rates in school athletics. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper examines the learning experienced through participation by men in twoquite different two motor sports organisations in Western Australia. It relies oninterview data from volunteers about what they do and what they learn as aconsequence of their participation in staging complex but safe, competitive, publicevents. The paper provides evidence of a deep well of learning and wide range of skillsproduced as a consequence of participation. This learning would rarely be recognisedas education or training, illustrating the need for caution when concluding that adulteducation is not taking place and learning outcomes are not being achieved other thanthrough courses where teaching occurs, or in contexts that are regarded as literary.What men skills men learnt, though significant as outcomes, were not the object of themotor sport activity, supporting Biesta's (2006 view that the amassing of knowledgeand skills can be achieved in other valuable ways aside from through education.
Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel
The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36 took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning.
Full Text Available The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female in school years 7 (12.9 ± 0.6 years and 10 (15.8 ± 0.6 years to measure the extent of a relationship between physical self-concept (self-developed short scale and sporting activity, measured motor performance (German motor performance test DMT (Deutscher Motorik-Test 6–18 and report mark in physical education. Relationships were also analyzed between physical self-concept and general personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experiences, compatibility, and conscientiousness, measured with NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI. The assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism differs by sex (F(1, 962 = 35.21; p < 0.001, whereby girls assess themselves more critically. Weak significant relationships are displayed between motor performance and the assessment of own physical attractiveness (r(395 = 0.31; p < 0.01. Motor performance is given a higher predictive value with regard to a subject’s own self-concept, (physical attractiveness β = 0.37; t(249 = 5.24; p < 0.001; athleticism β = 0.40; t(248 = 6.81; p < 0.001 than the mark achieved in physical education (physical attractiveness β = −0.01; n.s.; athleticism β = −0.30; t(248 = 5.10; p < 0.001. Relationships were found overall between personality traits and physical self-concept. The influence of the ‘neuroticism’ trait is particularly strong (physical attractiveness β = −0.44; t(947 = −13.58; p < 0.001; athleticism β = −0.27; t(948 = −7.84; p < 0.001. The more pronounced this trait, the lower the assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism.
Background The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is
Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R
The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the cross
Lam, Virginia L; Corson, Eliza-Jane
In the run-up to the 2012 London Olympics, the sense of national identity was salient. We tested children (N = 401) aged 5-15 years living near the Olympic site on national (British) and ethnic identification, national ingroup and outgroup attitudes, and sport participation. It was found that the strength of British identification peaked at age 9 years, but the strength of ethnic identification remained stable with age. Both liking for, and stereotyping of, different national groups diverged from age 9 years, but whilst stereotyping remained diverged liking converged by 15 years. The in group was one of the most liked, but one of the least positively stereotyped groups. Sport participation declined with age and was higher among boys, whilst the lowest socio-economic group showed the greatest discrepancy between normal and recent reported participation. The strength of British identification was associated with liking for, and stereotyping of, the British as well as sport participation, but the degree of associations varied between different groups of children. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Rodríguez Celin, Mercedes; Fano, Virginia
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a group of hereditary connective tissue disorders that cause bone fragility, with a wide clinical variability resulting in varying degrees of motor disability. To describe the level of independence and of social, recreational and sports participation among adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta. Descriptive, analytical and crosssectional study conducted in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta older than 15 years old attending the Skeletal Dysplasia Office of Hospital "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" (May 2013 through December 2014). Self-administered survey. Short stature was an outcome measure that indicated severity. There were 18 patients; age: 19.17 (±3.4 sDE); 83% had moderate-severe forms of OI; median height: -7.9 sDE; 50% used a wheelchair. Average education years: 12.2; 56% participated in sporting activities; and 78% were involved in recreational and social activities. A high level of independence was observed. We found a correlation between short stature and use of wheelchair (r: -0.77) and between short stature and participation in sporting activities (r: 0.66). No correlation was observed with years of education (r: -0.15), participation in social activities (r: -0.22) or recreational activities (r: 0.35). Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
This study was carried out to detect the differences in submissive behaviors and communication skills of high school students in terms of sports activities and relationship between communication skills and properties of submissive behavior of high school students who are actively involved in sports activities. In this respect at the study, 728…
This article explains how and why stress mechanisms operate in students who participate in sports. Students respond to different sport situations with various physical, psychological, and social reactions. When developing and supervising sports, school personnel should take into consideration the physical and psychological development of…
Wong, Jen D; Son, Julie S; West, Stephanie T; Naar, Jill J; Liechty, Toni
This study contributes to the fields of aging and physical activity by applying the key principles of the life course perspective to investigate women's team sport participation experience in late adulthood. Through focus groups, data were collected from six competitive softball teams of women (N=64) ranging from 55 to 79 years old. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for themes related to the life course principles of historical context and place, social embeddedness, agency, as well as trajectories and timing. A key study finding was that the women experienced cultural lag and age-related barriers to resources when playing competitive softball in late adulthood. Additionally, the network of shared relationships occupied by these women had both positive and negative influences on their participation in competitive sports. Study findings can help inform services and programs at the local community level aimed at enhancing women's physical activity and health in late adulthood.
Sahlin, K Barbara; Lexell, Jan
Physical activity and exercise is the mainstay of chronic disease prevention and health maintenance for all people with and without a disability, and clear evidence exists of the benefits among various populations with neurologic disabilities. However, the potential benefits of organized sports for people with neurologic disabilities are not as well explored. In this narrative review, current evidence regarding the impact of organized sports on activity, participation, and quality of life in people with neurologic disabilities of all ages is summarized, and facilitators of and barriers to participation in sports for this population are discussed. The articles reviewed were divided into 2 sets: (1) children and adolescents and (2) adults. The subjects of almost all of the studies were persons with a spinal cord injury. Children and adolescents with a disability who engaged in sports reported self-concept scores close to those of able-bodied athletes, as well as higher levels of physical activity. Adults with a spinal cord injury who engaged in organized sports reported decreased depression and anxiety, increased life satisfaction, and increased opportunity for gainful employment compared with nonathletic persons with disabilities. General facilitators, regardless of age, were fitness, fun, health, competence, and social aspects, whereas overall barriers were lack of or inappropriate medical advice and facilities, decreased self-esteem, poor finances, dependency on others, and views held by others. The importance of this topic for further research is highlighted, and suggestions for future studies are proposed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrew Brinkley; Josie Freeman; Hilary McDermott; Fehmidah Munir
Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participa...
Larissa Rafaela Galatti
Full Text Available The overall aim of this article was to present a positive case study about how a sport club can foster both elite athlete development in parallel with offering a diverse range of sport activities to attract and maintain a greater number of children and youth for continued participation in a long term sport program. To this end, an in-depth case study was conducted of a model Spanish Basketball Club, considered an example of success in achieving consistent level of performance and high rates of participation among their youth. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with administrators, setting observation, and analysis of current and archived club documents. The results show that the club has created changes over the years that have led to a clear organizational structure with a philosophy that connects its youth development teams and elite teams. An increase focus on youth development, the addition of recreational activities, and the implementation of a coach education program have been linked to enhanced participation rate and performance.
Gjesdal, Siv; Appleton, Paul R; Ommundsen, Yngvar
This study builds on previous research combining achievement goal orientation from Achievement Goal Theory and motivational regulation from Self-Determination Theory. The aim was to assess the combination of the "what" and "why" of youth sport activity, and how it relates to the need for competence and self-esteem. Achievement goal orientation, specifically task and ego, was employed to represent the "what", whilst intrinsic and external regulation reflected the "why". Based on a sample of 496 youth sports participants, structural equation modeling with a bootstrapping procedure was used to examine whether the indirect relationship between achievement goal orientation and self-esteem was conditional to motivational regulation. The results show partial support for the conditional process models. Specifically, task orientation was indirectly linked with self-esteem through competence need, and the relationship was stronger with higher levels of intrinsic regulation for sport. Furthermore, ego orientation was negatively associated with self-esteem through a positive relationship with competence frustration. However, this relationship emerged only for those higher in intrinsic regulation. External regulation did not emerge as a moderator, but presented a positive relationship with competence frustration. Findings are discussed in light of both Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, and underline the importance of considering both the "what" and "why" when attempting to understand motivation in youth sport.
Perrier, Marie-Josée; Shirazipour, Celina H; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E
Despite numerous physical, social, and mental health benefits of engaging in moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities (e.g., sport), few individuals with acquired physical disabilities currently participate in adapted sport. Theory-based sport promotion interventions are one possible way to increase the amount of individuals who engage in sport. The primary objective of this study was to examine the profiles of three different sport participation groups with respect to demographic, injury, and Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) constructs. ANOVAs and Chi-square tests were used to determine group differences on demographic and disability-related constructs. A MANCOVA was conducted to determine differences between three sport participation groups (non-intenders, intenders, and actors) with age, years post-injury, mode of mobility, and sex included as covariates. A cohort of 201 individuals was recruited; 56 (27.9%) were non-intenders, 21 (10.4%) were intenders, and 124 (61.7%) were actors. The MANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the HAPA constructs, F(22,370) = 9.02, p sport intentions. These results provide an important framework that adapted sport organizations can use to tailor their sport promotion programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Michael, Shannon L; Coffield, Edward; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E
Federal guidelines state that youth should participate in a variety of physical activity (PA) they find enjoyable. Little is known, however, about how variety and enjoyment are associated with PA participation among adolescents. Data came from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative survey of adolescents. Path analysis was used to examine the association of a variety of self-reported PA, defined as the number of activities and activity types (ie, team sports/weightlifting, individual activities, and other competitive/recreational sports), on self-reported PA enjoyment and participation. The analysis also examined whether enjoyment mediates the association between a variety of PA and participation. Separate models were estimated for boys and girls. Number of activities was associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. For boys and girls, team sports/weightlifting was associated with increased participation, and individual activities were indirectly associated with increased participation through enjoyment. For boys, team sports/weightlifting was indirectly related with participation. These findings suggest that participation in a variety of PA is associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. Providing opportunities for adolescents to engage in a variety of activities might help them identify PA they enjoy and facilitate lifelong PA habits.
Schallmo, Michael S; Weiner, Joseph A; Hsu, Wellington K
Approximately 300,000 U.S. adolescents sustain concussions annually while participating in organized athletics. This study aimed to track sex and sport-specific trends among high school sports-related concussions over time, to identify whether a particular sport predisposes athletes to a higher risk, and to assess whether traumatic brain injury law enactments have been successful in improving recognition. Injury data for academic years 2005 to 2014 were collected from annual reports generated by High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). The relative proportions of total estimated concussions to total estimated injuries were compared using an injury proportion ratio. The concussion rate was defined as the number of concussions per 10,000 athlete exposures (1 athlete participating in 1 practice or competition), with rates compared using a rate ratio. To evaluate the impact of legislation on sports-related concussions in this population, trends in concussion rates and proportions were analyzed before enactment (academic years 2005-2009) and after enactment (academic years 2010-2014). Between 2005-2006 and 2014-2015, a significant increase (p concussions for all sports combined, the overall concussion rate (rate ratio, 2.30 [95% confidence interval, 2.04 to 2.59]), and the overall proportion of concussions (injury proportion ratio, 2.68 [95% confidence interval, 2.66 to 2.70]) was seen. Based on the injury proportion ratio, during the 2014-2015 academic year, concussions were more common in girls' soccer than in any other sport (p concussion prevention and recognition measures continue to be emphasized in high school contact sports. The data in our study suggest that significant increases in the overall rate and proportion of reported concussions during the past decade could have been affected by traumatic brain injury legislation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that girls' soccer players may have an even greater risk of sustaining a concussion
Steven Vos; Hanne Vandermeerschen; Jeroen Scheerder
Over the last 40 years, Sport for All policies – aiming at encouraging the sports participation of all citizens, regardless of age, sex, social class, ethnic origin, etc. – were implemented in a number of European countries. This study examines the extent to which a democratisation of club-organised
Adolescents with LTID need encouragement to be active daily. One possible way to achieve this is through sports club participation. Implementing adaptive motivating techniques in sports clubs is especially important for girls in clubs. More research is needed on the associations of daily MVPA with different educational aspirations for adolescents with LTID.
Full Text Available Advertising is an attractive promotional tool for marketers who can use it to strengthen communication with consumers and persuade them to purchasing certain product or service. Hence, there is necessity to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, while this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Mostar consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often they participate in sports activities. The sample included 228 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not participate in sport activities at all, then consumers who participate in sport activities less than ones a month, next 1–4 a month, 5–10 a month, 11–20 a month, as well as consumers participate in sport activities more than 20 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.000. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are significant differences showed up between the consumers who participate in various sports activities. These results are so important for the marketers, mostly due to the reason they can’t merge all the potential consumers who participate in various sports activities into one homogeneous group. This isthe case in previous investigations and this observation presents relevant information.
Elmose-Østerlund, Karsten; Van der Roest, Jan-Willem
A central claim in Robert Putnam’s theory of social capital is that participation in voluntary organizations can foster social trust among members that are active and engaged. Based on this claim, this article examines how duration of membership and member participation impacts upon levels...... of social trust among sports club members. The results show that neither participation nor duration impacts on levels of social trust – a result found in survey studies conducted in Denmark and the Netherlands. Sophisticated participation measures and the inclusion of duration of membership set this study...... apart from previous studies on social capital. The fact that no correlation can be identified between participation and duration on one side and social trust on the other adds weight to the claim that, even though numerous studies find higher levels of social trust among members of voluntary...
Marlier, Mathieu; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Babiak, Kathy; Willem, Annick
The Health through Sport conceptual model links sport participation with physical, social and psychological outcomes and stresses the need for more understanding between these outcomes. The present study aims to uncover how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated by examining these outcomes in one model. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine disadvantaged communities in Antwerp (Belgium). Two hundred adults (aged 18-56) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that sport participation (β = .095) and not total physical activity (β = .027) was associated with better mental health. No association was found between sport participation and community social capital (β = .009) or individual social capital (β = .045). Furthermore, only community social capital was linked with physical activity (β = .114), individual social capital was not (β = -.013). In contrast, only individual social capital was directly associated with mental health (β = .152), community social capital was not (β = .070). This study emphasizes the importance of sport participation and individual social capital to improve mental health in disadvantaged communities. It further gives a unique insight into the functionalities of how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated. Implications for policy are that cross-sector initiatives between the sport, social and health sector need to be supported as their outcomes are directly linked to one another.
Marlier, Mathieu; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Babiak, Kathy; Willem, Annick
Background The Health through Sport conceptual model links sport participation with physical, social and psychological outcomes and stresses the need for more understanding between these outcomes. The present study aims to uncover how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated by examining these outcomes in one model. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine disadvantaged communities in Antwerp (Belgium). Two hundred adults (aged 18–56) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Results Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that sport participation (β = .095) and not total physical activity (β = .027) was associated with better mental health. No association was found between sport participation and community social capital (β = .009) or individual social capital (β = .045). Furthermore, only community social capital was linked with physical activity (β = .114), individual social capital was not (β = -.013). In contrast, only individual social capital was directly associated with mental health (β = .152), community social capital was not (β = .070). Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of sport participation and individual social capital to improve mental health in disadvantaged communities. It further gives a unique insight into the functionalities of how sport participation, physical activity, social capital and mental health are interrelated. Implications for policy are that cross-sector initiatives between the sport, social and health sector need to be supported as their outcomes are directly linked to one another. PMID:26451731
Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Halldorsson, Vidar
This study investigates the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) among a national representative sample of high school students in Iceland. We test several hypotheses drawn from three perspectives. The first perspective focuses on the use of AAS as an individual phenomenon motivated by the desire to succeed in sport. The second perspective views the use of AAS as shaped by norms and values embedded in social relationships of formally organized sport. The third perspective suggests that factors outside sport, which have been shown to correlate with the use of other substances, predict the use of AAS. We use logistic regression and predicted probabilities to analyze data from a national representative survey of 11,031 Icelandic high school students. Our results indicated that the use of AAS is not significantly related to participation in formally organized sports. However, it positively relates to fitness and physical training in informal contexts. We found a relatively strong relationship between the use of AAS and the use of illicit substances and a moderate relationship between AAS use and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We also found a significant negative relationship between AAS use and school integration and school achievement, and a significant positive relationship between AAS use and school anomie. The relation between AAS use and family-related variables was weaker. Finally, we found that the relationship between sport participation, physical exercise, and AAS use varies across levels of anomie and integration. Our findings suggest that the use of AAS and especially illegal substances should be considered more as a social and a health problem rather than a sport specific issue. We found that high school students participating in fitness and informal training outside of formally organized sport clubs are the main risk group and should be the target of prevention efforts. However, this should not be done at the expense of general risk factors that
Santi, Giampaolo; Bruton, Adam; Pietrantoni, Luca; Mellalieu, Stephen
This study investigated how coach and teammates influence masters athletes' sport commitment, and the effect of functional and obligatory commitments on participation in masters swimming. The sample consisted of 523 masters swimmers (330 males and 193 females) aged between 22 and 83 years (M = 39.00, SD = 10.42). A bi-dimensional commitment scale was used to measure commitment dimensions and perceived influence from social agents. Structural equation modelling analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of social agents on functional and obligatory commitments, and the predictive capabilities of the two types of commitment towards sport participation. Support provided by coach and teammates increased functional commitment, constraints from these social agents determined higher obligatory commitment, and coach constraints negatively impacted functional commitment. In addition, both commitment types predicted training participation, with functional commitment increasing participation in team training sessions, and obligatory commitment increasing the hours of individual training. The findings suggest that in order to increase participation in masters swimming teams and reduce non-supervised training, coach and teammates should exhibit a supportive attitude and avoid over expectation.
Nielsen, Glen; Hermansen, Bianca; Bugge, Anna
immigrant backgrounds were not less physically active than other children when their amounts of daily physical activity were measured by direct objective measures, despite their participation rate in organised sports being much lower. Using multiple logistic regression modelling, this study showed that lack......Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Danish children from immigrant backgrounds are less physically active than children from the ethnic majority, and to investigate the possible reasons for any differences found. Accelerometer measures of physical activity as well...... as questionnaire data about organised sports, family demography, resources and values were collected from 594 children of whom 67 had other ethnic background than Danish. Data were collected when the children were 6-7 years old and again later when the children were 9-10 years old. It was found that children from...
Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew; Stano, Geoffrey; Molthan, Andrew
The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT s activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental
Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a
Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R
There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a form of leisure time PA for children
Nelson, Lindsay D; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Barr, William B; Hammeke, Thomas A; Randolph, Christopher; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Wang, Yanzhi; McCrea, Michael A
Younger age has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for prolonged recovery after sport-related concussion, yet few studies have directly evaluated age differences in acute recovery. To compare clinical recovery patterns for high school and collegiate athletes. Prospective cohort study. Large, multicenter prospective sample collected from 1999-2003 in a sports medicine setting. Concussed athletes (n = 621; 545 males and 76 females) and uninjured controls (n = 150) participating in high school and collegiate contact and collision sports (79% in football, 15.7% in soccer, and the remainder in lacrosse or ice hockey). Participants underwent evaluation of symptoms (Graded Symptom Checklist), cognition (Standardized Assessment of Concussion, paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests), and postural stability (Balance Error Scoring System). Athletes were evaluated preinjury and followed serially at several time points after concussive injury: immediately, 3 hours postinjury, and at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 45 or 90 (with neuropsychological measures administered at baseline and 3 postinjury time points). Comparisons of concussed high school and collegiate athletes with uninjured controls suggested that high school athletes took 1 to 2 days longer to recover on a cognitive (Standardized Assessment of Concussion) measure. Comparisons with the control group on other measures (symptoms, balance) as well as direct comparisons between concussed high school and collegiate samples revealed no differences in the recovery courses between the high school and collegiate groups on any measure. Group-level recovery occurred at or before 7 days postinjury on all assessment metrics. The findings suggest no clinically significant age differences exist in recovery after sport-related concussion, and therefore, separate injury-management protocols are not needed for high school and collegiate athletes.
Pelliccia, Antonio; Corrado, Domenico; Bjørnstad, Hans Halvor; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole; Urhausen, Axel; Carre, Francois; Anastasakis, Aris; Vanhees, Luc; Arbustini, Eloisa; Priori, Silvia
Several relatively uncommon, but important cardiovascular diseases are associated with increased risk for acute cardiac events during exercise (including sudden death), such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and myo-pericarditis. Practising cardiologists are frequently asked to advise on exercise programmes and sport participation in young individuals with these cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, many asymptomatic (or mildly symptomatic) patients with cardiomyopathies aspire to a physically active lifestyle to take advantage of the many documented benefits of exercise. While recommendations dictating the participation in competitive sport for athletes with cardiomyopathies and myo-pericarditis have recently been published as a consensus document of the European Society of Cardiology, no European guidelines have addressed the possible participation of patients with cardiomyopathies in recreational and amateur sport activities. The present document is intended to offer a comprehensive overview to practising cardiologists and sport physicians of the recommendations governing safe participation in different types of competitive sport, as well as the participation in a variety of recreational physical activities and amateur sports in individuals with cardiomyopathies and myo-pericarditis. These recommendations, based largely on the experience and insights of the expert panel appointed by the European Society of Cardiology, include the most up-to-date information concerning regular exercise and sports activity in patients with cardiomyopathies and myo-pericarditis.
Roessler, K K; Andersen, T E; Lohmander, S; Roos, E M
Aim of the study was to access how individual's motives for participation in sports impact on self-reported outcomes 2 years after an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Based on a longitudinal cohort study, this secondary analysis present data from the Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Nonsurgical versus Surgical Treatment (KANON) study, a randomized controlled trial. At baseline, 121 patients recorded in an initial questionnaire that their motives for sports participation fell into four categories: achievement, health, social integration, or fun and well-being. These four categories were used as variables in the analyses. All 121 subjects completed the 2-year follow-up. The largest improvement was seen in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscale sports and recreation function, with an effect size of 2.43. KOOS sports and recreation function was also the subscale score best predicted by the motives for sports participation. Baseline motives achievement and fun and well-being predicted worse levels of pain and function 2 years after the injury, even after adjusting for age, gender, treatment and baseline scores. Psychological aspects, such as motives for participation in sport, can be factors in predicting of patient-reported outcomes 2 years after injury. Evaluating motives for sports participation may help predict the outcome 2 years after ACL injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cetinkaya, Turan; Kirtepe, Abdurrahman; Ugurlu, Fatih Mehmet
The aim of this research is to determine the attitudes of the students who are studying in the physical education and sports departments towards the teaching profession. 244 students attending Ahi Evran University School of Physical Education and Sports and Firat University Sports Sciences Faculty Physical Education and Sport Teacher Training,…
Roessler, K K; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lohmander, S
predicted by the motives for sports participation. Baseline motives achievement and fun and well-being predicted worse levels of pain and function 2 years after the injury, even after adjusting for age, gender, treatment and baseline scores. Psychological aspects, such as motives for participation in sport......Aim of the study was to access how individual's motives for participation in sports impact on self-reported outcomes 2 years after an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Based on a longitudinal cohort study, this secondary analysis present data from the Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Nonsurgical...... versus Surgical Treatment (KANON) study, a randomized controlled trial. At baseline, 121 patients recorded in an initial questionnaire that their motives for sports participation fell into four categories: achievement, health, social integration, or fun and well-being. These four categories were used...
Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W.; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo
Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two...
Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F
Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ransom, Michael R.; Ransom, Tyler
We examine the extent to which participation in high school athletics has beneficial effects on future education, labor market, and health outcomes. Due to the absence of plausible instruments in observational data, we use recently developed methods that relate selection on observables with selection on unobservables to estimate bounds on the causal effect of athletics participation. We analyze these effects in the US separately for men and women using three different nationally representativ...
Månsson, Annegrete Gohr; Elmose, Mette; Dalsgaard, Søren; Roessler, Kirsten K
Practising target-shooting sport requires focused attention and motoric steadiness. A previous non-controlled pilot study suggests that children with impairing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) benefit from participating in target-shooting sport in local shooting associations, as rated by parents and teachers. This study aims at examining if, and to which extent, target-shooting sport reduces parent- and teacher-reported severity of inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children with attention difficulties, and if, and to which extend, target-shooting sport improves the children's wellbeing and quality of life. A mixed method approach is applied. A non-blinded, waiting list controlled study is combined with a case study, consisting of interviews and observations. The intervention consists of children practising target-shooting sport, by attending a local shooting association, once a week for six months, during regular school hours. Data from questionnaires (ADHD-RS, SDQ, Kidscreen-27), as well as a computerized continued performance test (Qb test), measure the children's activity and attention. The study includes 50 children in an intervention group and 50 children in a waiting list control group. The Qb test collects data from at least 20 children from the intervention group and at least 20 children from the waiting list control group. Data from the questionnaires and Qb-test is collected at baseline, and six months post intervention. In addition, a case study is carried out, consisting of interviews of at least five children from the intervention group, their parents, teachers and shooting instructors. Observations are carried out, when children are in school and while they are attending the local shooting association. The case study adds to an in-depth understanding of children's participation in target-shooting sports. At present, little is known about the effects and influence of practising target-shooting sport for
Dr. Hassan Bahrololoum
This study aims at studying the relationship between happiness and emotional intelligence among female students participating in the 10th Sport Olympiad of Iranian universities held in Semnan province. To do this survey, 302 female students were randomly selected from the total population of female students participating in the 10th sport Olympiad of Iranian Universities. To collect data, the study used three standardized questionnaires: Oxford's Happiness Questionnaire; Brodberry's Emotional...
This study examines the effectiveness of a summer school credit recovery program in the Sun Valley High School District. Using logistic regression I assess the relationship between race, gender, course failure, school of origin and summer school participation for a sample of students that failed one or more classes in their first year of high…
Van Tuyckom, Charlotte; Scheerder, Jeroen; Bracke, Piet
This article provides a unique opportunity to compare gender inequalities in sports participation across Europe, and the extent to which this varies by age using large, cross-sections of the population. The Eurobarometer Survey 62.0 (carried out in 2004 at the request of the European Commission and covering the adult population of 25 European member states, N = 23,909) was used to analyse differences in regular sports participation by gender and by age in the different countries. For the majority of countries, the occurrence of regular sporting activity was less than 40%. Additionally, binary logistic regression analyses identified significant gender differences in sports participation in 12 countries. In Belgium, France, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Spain, and the UK, men were more likely to report being regularly active in sports than women, whereas in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the Netherlands the opposite was true. Moreover, the extent to which these gender inequalities differ by age varies considerably across countries. The results imply that: (i) in some European countries more efforts must be undertaken to promote the original goals of the Sport for All Charter, and (ii) to achieve more female participation in sports will require different policy responses in the diverse European member states.
Julie C.S. Boiché
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate a large number of determinants of sport dropout among French adolescents, in order to reveal proximal and distal factors of dropout. 261 current and 106 dropout athletes (M = 14.6 participated to the study. The data were collected by a questionnaire assessing demographic information, athletes' perceptions on their experience, their parents, teammates and coach. t-tests revealed that current and former athletes were distinct on numerous variables. A discriminant function analysis showed three proximal predictors of sport dropout (perceived value of the activity, satisfaction, parents' investment. Subsequent regression analyses showed that perceived value was positively predicted by perceived competence, the value of the activity for teammates, coach's investment, and negatively by conflicts of interest and goal conflict with teammates; satisfaction was positively predicted by the coach's mastery climate, but negatively predicted by conflicts of interest and goal conflict with teammates and with the coach; parents investment was negatively predicted by the goal conflicts with them. This study permitted to discriminate between proximal and more distal psychological antecedents of the dropout behaviour. It brings information relative to the possible targets of interventions aiming at preventing dropout from organized sport
Telford, Rohan M; Telford, Richard D; Cochrane, Thomas; Cunningham, Ross B; Olive, Lisa S; Davey, Rachel
To investigate the longitudinal effect of sport participation in physical activity, fitness and body fat changes during childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal study (134 boys, 155 girls) of Australian youth aged 8-16 years. Physical activity was assessed by pedometers and accelerometers, fitness by the 20m shuttle-run, body fat by DEXA and club sport participation by questionnaire. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of sport participation and gender differences. Sports club participants were more physically active at all age groups than non-participants; boys took an extra 1800 steps (psports participants (boys 27% and girls 20% higher, both psport participant girls had 2.9% less body fat (psports participants but their greater PA diminished during adolescence, this being more evident among girls. Only 20% of sports club participants met the recommended daily average of 60min MVPA. Sport participants were more active, fitter and had less body fat (girls only) than non-sports participants. However, the associated benefits of sport with PA diminished during adolescence and the majority of sports participants did not meet recommended levels of PA. Strategies aiming to maximise the benefits of sports participation may be enhanced by providing special attention to the early adolescent period particularly among girls. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine leisure activi ty assessment modes of the university students studying at Bartın University School of Physical Education a nd Sport . The universe of the study was composed of 405 university students attending to School of Physical Education a nd Sport , and 291 of them were chosen randomly as the sample group who participated to the survey voluntarily. Questionnaire form was used as data collection tool. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 statistical software package , frequency (f and percentage (% distributions were interpreted presented in tables. According to analysis results, 43% of students who participated in the study have 3 - 4 hours leisure time and 33 % of students 5 - 6 hours leisure time. In addition, it was observed that families provide d adequate support for students about leisure. Moreover, a large majority of students found that leisure activities are educational and useful. 53.3% of students defined as leisure time left over from the work they have to do. Furthermore a ccording to the majority students , sports provides a regular life to people. The activities in students leisure time respectively shaped 1. listening to music, 2. sports bringing active participation, 3 . going to cinema and theater, 4. watchi ng TV, 5. monitoring sports competitions . As a result, it has been identified that social activities of the department they study are inadequate and they did not adequately use school facilities , even though a majority of students have sufficient time to join in an activity.
Larsen, Malte N; Nielsen, Claus M; Ørntoft, Christina Ø; Randers, Morten B; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Hansen, Peter R; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter
Larsen, MN, Nielsen, CM, Ørntoft, CØ, Randers, M, Manniche, V, Hansen, L, Hansen, PR, Bangsbo, J, and Krustrup, P. Physical fitness and body composition in 8-10-year-old Danish children are associated with sports club participation. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3425-3434, 2017-We investigated whether physical fitness and body composition in 8-10-year-old Danish children are associated with sports club participation. The study included 423 schoolchildren, comprising 209 girls and 214 boys, of whom 67 and 74%, respectively, were active in sports clubs. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 for children (YYIR1C), balance, jump and coordination tests, together with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, were used to determine exercise capacity and body composition. Children active in sports clubs had better (p sports clubs. Ball game players had better (p sports. The study showed that 8[FIGURE DASH]10-year-old Danish children engaged in sports-club activity, especially ball game players, have better exercise capacity and superior body composition compared with children not active in sports clubs.
The GlaxoSmithKline Scientists in Sport team have worked with 4science to provide resources and offer activities for use by schools to show the relevance of science in sport. Much of the content looks at anti-doping and the science involved with detecting the misuse of banned substances. Through the development of a website, this work can continue…
Gilbert, Jenelle N.
Coaches lacking a formal background in sport psychology may shy away from teaching these skills in favor of teaching physical skills with which they are more familiar. Other coaches may assume that athletes will learn sport psychology skills as a byproduct of their coaching pedagogy. Regardless, high school coaches are responsible for teaching…
Onifade, Ademola; Keinde, Idou; Kehinde, Eunice
The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction levels of sports officers and sports performance of secondary schools in Lagos State. Data were collected from 200 subjects across 10 Local Education Districts. Job Descriptive Index was used to determine job satisfaction while performance in the Principals' Soccer…
LeCrom, Carrie; Rufer, Lisa; Slavich, Mark; Dwyer, Brendan; Greenhalgh, Gregory
The following case study attempted to assess what factors contribute to graduate school and early-career success among sport management graduate students. As faculty members charged with admitting the next generation of leaders in the sport industry, how should admissions decisions be made and what factors should be considered? The authors…
Fry, Joan Marian; McNeill, Michael Charles
Since independence in 1965, education and sport have been instrumental in Singapore's nation building, with a rapid rise in education and economic status. This article examines the roles of physical education and school sport in the local context and makes comparison with global themes ("instrumentality" and "marginality"). It…
Results: Misconceptions about TBI were reported by participants, irrespective of gender, locality, occupation, or history of sports participation. There were no significant differences in knowledge scores across these demographic groups. In particular, healthcare and education workers did not score any higher than other occupations. At least 40% of respondents answered either incorrectly or “I don’t know” on items related to gender differences, the utility of neuroimaging, and patient insight into their impairments. For those in non-medical, professional occupations, the older they were the less they knew about TBI (r = -.299, p = 0.009. In contrast, a positive correlation (r = 0.268, p = 0.018 was found between age and TBI knowledge for workers in healthcare or education. Conclusions: Misconceptions about TBI are present in Australia and are consistent across genders, localities, occupations and sport participation groups. A concern is that risk for misconceptions is not lower in healthcare or education professions. This suggests that professional development for groups most likely to be the frontline referral resources and supports for head injured children and adults may require further training.
Smith, Laura J; Eichelberger, Tamara D; Kane, Edward J
In 2015-2016, over 214,000 female athletes competed at the collegiate level in the United States (U.S.). The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collects injury data; however, breast-related injuries do not have a specific reporting category. The exact sequelae of breast injury are unknown; however, a relationship between breast injury and fat necrosis, which mimics breast carcinoma, is documented outside of sports participation. Breast injuries related to motor vehicle collisions, seatbelt trauma, and blunt trauma have been reported. For these reasons, it is important to investigate female breast injuries in collegiate sports. The objectives of this study are to report the prevalence of self-reported breast injuries in female collegiate athletes, explore injury types and treatments, and investigate breast injury reporting and impact on sports participation. A cross-sectional study of female collegiate athletes at four U.S. universities participating in basketball, soccer, softball, or volleyball. Main outcome measure was a questionnaire regarding breast injuries during sports participation. Almost half of the 194 participants (47.9%) reported a breast injury during their collegiate career, less than 10% reported their injury to health personnel with 2.1% receiving treatment. Breast injuries reported by breast injuries reported by sport include softball (59.5%), basketball (48.8%), soccer (46.7%), and volleyball (34.6%). The long-term effects and sequelae of breast injuries reported by female collegiate athletes during sport play are unknown. Nearly 50% of participants had a breast injury during sports activities. Although 18.2% indicated that breast injury affected sports participation, only 9.6% of the injuries were reported to medical personnel with 2.1% receiving treatment.
Full Text Available The aims of present study was to (A compare and prioritizing the main six motivations of sport participation of youth athletes, (B compare and prioritize task and ego-orientation of youth athletes, and (C the role of parents' education level and its impact on the motivation of sport participation and goal-orientation youth athletes. In the study, descriptive-analytic design was applied. For the study 376 Iranian youth athletes were singled out by cluster-random sampling. They answered to participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ and task & ego-orientation in sport questionnaire (T.E.O.S.Q. Also data about parents' education level (PEL was obtained using questions about demographic features. The findings showed that those who participated in individual sports had more motivation for status than team sports athletes and they were more ego-orientation. Also it was found that more highly educated mothers came to induce internal motivation in youth athletes using Kruskal-Wallis test, whereas more highly educated fathers came to induce both internal and external motivation to them. It seems that those athletes who participated in individual and open-skilled sports are more ego-oriented than those who participated in team and open-skilled sports. The feedbacks which are based on task orientation are probably provided, along with promotion of mothers' education level; however with promotion of fathers' education level, both of these feedbacks and those based on ego-orientation will be provided, probably for their children to participation in sport activities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Independent mobility (IM and perceptions of the built environment may relate differentially to children's participation in various physical activity contexts. This cross-sectional study investigated whether independent mobility and perceptions of the built environment in boys and girls were related to physical activity in three different contexts (outdoor play, structured exercise/sport, active commuting. Methods Thirteen hundred and seven 10-11 year old boys and girls from 23 schools in a large UK city completed a computerised questionnaire. Independent variables in logistic regression analyses were weekly self-reported frequency of participation in outdoor play, structured exercise/sport and mode of travel home from school. Dependent variables were perceptions of the environment (aesthetics, nuisance, safety, social norm, constraint, play space, accessibility, local and area independent mobility and linear distance from home to school. Analyses were adjusted for body mass index, minutes of daylight after school, level of neighbourhood deprivation and pubertal status. Results For boys, local independent mobility (Local-IM was related to an increased likelihood of everyday participation in play (OR 1.58: 95% CI 1.19-2.10, structured exercise/sport (OR 1.42: 1.06-1.89 and active commuting (OR 1.40: 1.07-1.87 but was only related to active commuting for girls (OR1.49: 1.07-2.07. Boys and girls were more likely to report playing out every day if they had higher scores for Social Norm (Boys: OR 1.63 (1.12-2.37; Girls: OR 1.53 (1.01-2.31 and, for girls only, more positive perceptions of traffic safety (OR 1.63: 1.14-2.34. Easy access to a range of destinations was the dominant predictor for taking part in structured exercise/sport everyday (Boys: OR 1.62 (1.01-2.66; Girls: OR 1.65 (1.07-2.53. Shorter distance from home to school (OR 0.99: 0.98-0.99 and, for boys only, greater perceived accessibility (OR 1.87: 1.04-3.36 were
Priscila Missaki Nakamura
Full Text Available Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.
Priscila Missaki Nakamura
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n5p517 Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the theoretical basis for the formation of value orientations of pupils by means of school sports facilities abroad. Material: detailed analysis of 14 published sources. Results: found that in a foreign academic and journalistic literature dominates positive appreciation of cultural values of humanistic school sports in the formation of value orientations of pupils. Found that school sport abroad plays an important role not only as a means of forming the basic values - health, but also an important area of communication, the manifestations of social activity. As well as physical and mental form of organization and leisure facilities, excellent vehicle impacts on other values of human life: the authority and position in society, work, the structure of moral and volitional characteristics, aesthetic ideals and other value orientations. Conclusions: confirmed that the global experience of formation values pupil means school sports deserves attention and requires selective introduction into the domestic education system.
Timperio, Anna F; van Stralen, Maartje M; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling; Chinapaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Nataša; Maes, Lea; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis A; Salmon, Jo; Te Velde, Saskia J
Sport participation makes an important contribution to children's overall physical activity. Understanding influences on sports participation is important and the family environment is considered key, however few studies have explored the mechanisms by which the family environment influences children's sport participation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether attitude, perceived behavioural control, health belief and enjoyment mediate associations between the family environment and 10-12 year-old children's sports participation. Children aged 10-12 years ( = 7,234) and one of their parents (n = 6,002) were recruited from 175 schools in seven European countries in 2010. Children self-reported their weekly duration of sports participation, physical activity equipment items at home and the four potential mediator variables. Parents responded to items on financial, logistic and emotional support, reinforcement, modelling and co-participation in physical activity. Cross-sectional single and multiple mediation analyses were performed for 4952 children with complete data using multi-level regression analyses. Availability of equipment (OR = 1.16), financial (OR = 1.53), logistic (OR = 1.47) and emotional (OR = 1.51) support, and parental modelling (OR = 1.07) were positively associated with participation in ≥ 30 mins/wk of sport. Attitude, beliefs, perceived behavioural control and enjoyment mediated and explained between 21-34% of these associations. Perceived behavioural control contributed the most to the mediated effect for each aspect of the family environment. Both direct (unmediated) and indirect (mediated) associations were found between most family environment variables and children's sports participation. Thus, family-based physical activity interventions that focus on enhancing the family environment to support children's sport participation are warranted.
Spencer, Robert; Leach, Paul
Chiari type I malformation (CM-I) is characterised by caudal displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum, crowding the craniocervical junction. It is being increasingly diagnosed in asymptomatic patients due to the widespread availability of MRI, and there are case reports of these patients suffering sudden death or neurological injury following head or neck trauma, raising the issue of whether they should be prohibited from contact sport participation, given the likelihood of frequent trauma. General neurosurgical opinion is that patients who are symptomatic and those with an associated spinal cord syrinx should be offered foramen magnum decompression, however asymptomatic patients without syringomyelia are not offered this in the majority of cases. The authors performed a full review of the published literature, including all case reports, case series, studies and literature reviews regarding CM-I and either contact sports or trauma, excluding patients that had undergone surgical intervention and those becoming symptomatic in circumstances other than head or neck trauma. 21 case reports of CM-I patients deteriorating following trauma were identified, including four cases of sudden death following head or neck injury. However, studies of large samples of CM-I patients are yet to capture an incident of sudden death or acute neurological deterioration, suggesting that the risk is very low. CM-I patients may have an increased risk of concussion and post-concussion syndrome compared to the background population however. Overall, the authors feel that there should be no restriction of sports participation for CM-I patients, but a discussion to make them and their families aware of the possible increased risks is important.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate secondary school students’ tendency to violence, doing active sport or not. The sampling group of the study was consisted of 101 girls and 99 boys in the total 200 secondary school students in Kütahya city center of whose ages differs between of 12-14. In the study tendency to violence scale, developed by Göka and colleagues, was used as data gathering tool. In the evaluation of the data SPSS package program for Windows was used and after reliability of the scale was assessed One Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied for if the obtained data was showing normal distribution and also as hypotheses tests Independent Samples t Test was applied for pairwise comparisons and One Way ANOVA test was applied for triple or more comparisons. As a result of the study there were no significant differences between students’ tendency to violence according to their ages and sport participation situations, on the other hand there were significant differences according to their class and perceived success in class. This study showed that class and perceived success in class are predictors of tendency to violence.
Dinomais, M; Gambart, G; Bruneau, A; Bontoux, L; Deries, X; Tessiot, C; Richard, I
The aim of this study was to investigate social functioning quality of life and self-esteem in young people with disabilities taking part in adapted competitive sport. A sample of 496 athletes (mean age 16 years 4 months, range: 9 years to 20 years 9 months) was obtained from the 540 participants (91.8%) involved in a French national championship. The main outcome measurements were a social functioning inventory (PedsQL 4.0 social functioning) and a self-esteem inventory in physical areas (physical self inventory 6 PSI-6). The mean PedsQL SF score was 74.6 (SD: 17.7). Comparisons of PedsQL SF according to gender, age, self mobility and training revealed no significant differences between the groups. PedsQL SF was weakly but significantly correlated with all subscales of the PSI-6 in the total population. PSI-6 scores were significantly different between boys and girls, with better self-esteem for boys on general self-esteem (7.7 vs. 6.9, P=0.018), physical condition (6.8 vs. 6.0, P=0.023) and attractive body subscores (6.5 vs. 5.1, Pself-concept, social functioning quality of life and participation in adapted sport activities require further studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
Boden, Barry P
Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.
Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Thing, Lone Friis
In this paper we present results concerning how students in a Danish upper secondary school negotiate between sports culture and the prevailing norms of youth culture in a local school context. The study shows that it can be rather difficult for young people to combine sports culture with the local...... youth culture, because living a healthy and physically active life doesn’t fit very well with the prevailing norms of youth culture, which involve a dominant social arena characterized by parties and alcohol. By applying the figurational sociology of Norbert Elias, this article shows that being included...... in a sports figuration can result in exclusion from the youth figuration. Young athletic students are therefore in a constant process of negotiation, where they struggle to fit into both sport and non-sport related contexts, because it is important to belong within both. The study is based on 16 focus group...
Recommendations for participation in leisure-time physical activity and competitive sports in patients with arrhythmias and potentially arrhythmogenic conditions Part I: Supraventricular arrhythmias and pacemakers.
Heidbuchel, H.; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, N.M.; Corrado, D.; Hoffmann, E.; Biffi, A.; Delise, P.; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, C.; Vanhees, L.; Ivarhoff, P.; Dorwarth, U.; Pelliccia, A.
This document by the Study Group on Sports Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology extends on previous recommendations for sports participation for competitive athletes by also incorporating guidelines for those who want to perform recreational physical activity. For different
Campbell, Richard A; Gorman, Stephanie A; Thoma, Robert J; Annett, Robert D; McGrew, Christopher A; Yeo, Ronald A; Mayer, Andrew R; King, John H; Rowland, Andrew S
To measure the risk of concussion among New Mexico middle and high school students during both sports and physical education. Athletic directors or athletic trainers in 147 schools were asked to report the number of concussions occurring during sports and physical education in the 2013 to 2014 school year. We calculated 1-year cumulative incidence rates. Of the 147 schools, 99 responded (67%). During the school year, 598 students were removed from athletics because of a concussion, a 1-year cumulative incidence of 3.5 per 100. The concussion rate during sports was 3.0: 3.5 for boys and 2.4 for girls (relative risk [RR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 1.7). An additional 335 students experienced concussions during physical education. Concussion rates during physical education were 60% higher than during sports (RR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.4, 1.8). In our data, the risk of concussion was higher in physical education than in sports. This suggests that concussions should be tracked for a wide range of youth athletic activities, not just for sports. Monitoring cumulative incidence, in addition to other measures, may allow comparisons across schools and regions. More prevention efforts are needed.
Full Text Available Purpose: to work out conceptual principles for successful and dynamic development of fencing in children’s sports schools in Ukraine. Material: the researches were conducted on material of children’s sports school Dynamo in Kiev. In this work we used SWOT analysis - method of strategic planning, which implies determination of external and internal factors of organization and their dividing into four categories: strengths (strong sides, weaknesses (weak sides, opportunities and threats. For determination of experts’ opinion concordance in SWOT analysis we used concordance coefficient. Results: we worked out conception of fencing development in children’s sports schools in Ukraine in modern conditions. The specificity of this conception implies determination of strategic approaches to further fencing progressing in children’s sports schools in Ukraine. The conception can serve as bench mark for development and realization of program documents in sphere of fencing progressing or its different branches. Conclusions: we have worked out conception of fencing progressing in children’s sports schools in Ukraine, which is based on achievements and traditions of fencing in Ukraine and in the world. Its development is based on systemic analysis of internal and external factors, which influence on development of fencing in sports schools and on choice of its progressing strategy in new social economical conditions.
Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Oz, Mali; Barak, Sharon
Based on social-learning and self-determination motivational theories, the purpose of this study was to determine the sources of motivation in youth and young adults with intellectual disability (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO) competitions and those of typically developed (TD) age- and activity-matched athletes. A convenience sample of 63 SO (25 females and 38 males) and 59 TD (16 females and 43 males) athletes was retrieved through communication with local club coaches. Three sub-groups of SO athletes were identified based on disability, including non specified intellectual disability (NSID=39), Down syndrome (DS=17), and Autism (Aut=7). Mean SO and TD athlete ages were 20.35 (SD=7) and 18.8 (SD=8), respectively. For analysis purposes four age groups were created (20 years). Participants completed the 13-item, two-factor Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and a 16-item four-factor abridged version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). SO and TD athletes were active in swimming (54 and 48, respectively) and basketball (9 and 11, respectively). Groups with and without ID were compared by means of t-tests in the dichotomized variables gender and activity, as well as by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc comparisons across disability and age groups. Gender distribution was the same in both groups. Participants with DS and NSID scored significantly higher than TD athletes in most motivational scales. Participants with ID increased their external motivation with increasing age, while a reversed pattern was observed in TD. In summary, significant differences between motivational patterns of SO athletes with ID and TD athletes can be observed. These differences should be considered when developing training and competition programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dodge, Tonya; Lambert, Sharon F
The present study examined the relationship between participation in sports during adolescence and physical activity and subjective health in young adulthood. A sample of 8,152 (males = 50.8%, females = 49.2%) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Results of the study showed that participating in an organized sport during adolescence was associated with higher levels of physical activity and better subjective health during young adulthood after controlling for participation in general physical activities (e.g., jogging, biking, skateboarding) during adolescence. Participation in sports during adolescence was associated with more positive self-beliefs 1 year later that, in turn, were associated with higher levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and better subjective health 6 years later. Results suggest that positive self-beliefs partially mediate the relationship between adolescents' participation in sports and two health outcomes in young adulthood: moderate to vigorous physical activity and subjective health. Findings highlight the utility of youths' participation in organized sports for promoting healthy outcomes. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore motivation in school physical education (PE, barriers and demotivation factors that influence student’s parti¬ci¬pation in PE. The participants of the study were (n = 305 kosovan students (155 boys, 150 girls, 15.5 years at grade10 and 11 of secondary high schools. Results of the study indicate that adolescents showed lack of enthusiasm for a stereotypical activities and lack of motivation. Students were more likely to report two main barriers (a Institutional related barriers to participation in school Physical education (PE such as ;the lack of facilities and equipment (Gym and sport requisites, lower priority given to PE by schools, traditional PE curriculum not flexible enough to meet different student’s needs and (b PE teacher related barriers; low levels of confidence and competence in teaching PE, being unable to provide safely planned and structured lessons, lack of teacher support, PE uniforms, outdated curriculum focusing mostly on team sports rather than overall fitness by giving more importance to winning than to participation. Often or most of the times teachers use “direct instruction” to introduce a new movement or activity, which has a lack of student involvement, group work, opportunities to explore, etc
Hebert, Jeffrey J; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian
outcomes were body mass index categories and fasting serum insulin and glucose concentrations. Associations were explored with generalized estimating equations and reported with beta coefficients (β) and percent difference per weekly sports session or incidence rate ratios. All models were adjusted......-time sports participation via text messaging. Clustered cardiovascular risk was estimated with a composite score comprising fasting serum triglyceride levels, homeostasis assessment model-estimated insulin resistance, total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and systolic blood pressure. Additional...
Garcia, Lars Bonell; Ríos, Oriol
The research "INCLUD-ED, Strategies for Inclusion and Social Cohesion in Europe from Education" (2006-11) identified several forms of family participation that contribute to the improvement of school performance and living together in schools: participation in decision-making processes, participation in the evaluation of educational…
Coleman, S J; Sebire, S J
Non-elite mass participation sports events (MPSEs) may hold potential as a physical activity promotion tool. Research into why people participate in these events and what goals they are pursuing is lacking. Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined the associations between MPSE participants' goals, event experiences and physical activity. A prospective cohort study was conducted; pre-event, participants reported their goals for the event. Four weeks post-event, participants reported their motivation for exercise, perceptions of their event achievement and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Bivariate correlations and path analysis were performed on data from 114 adults. Intrinsic goals (e.g. health, skill and social affiliation) for the event were positively associated with perceptions of event achievement, whereas extrinsic goals (e.g. appearance or social recognition) were not. Event achievement was positively associated with post-event autonomous motivation, which in turn was positively associated with MVPA. Pursuing intrinsic but not extrinsic goals for MPSEs is associated with greater perceptions of event achievement, which in turn is associated with post-event autonomous motivation and MVPA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Silva, Gustavo; Andersen, Lars Bo; Aires, Luisa
Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The study comprised 310 participants (183 girls and 127 boys) aged 11-18 years. Sports participation...... was assessed by questionnaire and habitual physical activity (PA) was measured objectively with accelerometers. The 20-m shuttle-run test was used to estimate CRF. Logistic regression analyses were carried out with CRF as the outcome. The odds ratio (OR) for being fit was greater for those who comply with60min...
Factors influencing the teaching of physical education and sport in Cluster H Shools ... and nine heads of schools selected using the random sampling technique. ... the participation of children with disabilities in Physical Education and Sports.
Elmer Garita Azofeifa
Full Text Available Motivation in physical activity constitutes a multidimensional psychological characteristic that is influenced by the person’s internal aspects (preferences, desires, fears, etc. and his/her experiences in the external environment (social acceptance, friends, skills, etc.. In a period in which physical activity is globally increasing among people of all ages, it is important for physical educators, sports trainers, or physical instructors to know the main reasons for their trainees to exercise with the purpose of preparing ideal workout plans that would help them continue exercising. These plans should encourage subjects to enjoy and be satisfied with their participation, therefore, extending their active life cycle and avoiding quitting, which are closely related to a sedentary lifestyle and the risk of having chronic and degenerative diseases. Consequently, children prefer to exercise to have fun and make friends, adolescents to compete and make friends, college students for adventure and fun, adults to have regular physical activity, and senior citizens to obtain health benefits. Women are motivated by their appearance and social reasons, while men do it for competition and status. Subjects who practice sports are motivated by competition, while those who exercise do it for body image. The more physical activity is practiced the more value is given to competition. Finally, having fun, competing, learning skills, and being in good physical condition are the most relevant reasons for American, European, and Asian subjects to participate in physical activity. This research was conducted with the purpose of letting professionals of human movement sciences know the variables that determine the reasons for subjects of distinctive ages, gender, culture, and level of activity to participate in the different types of physical activities.
Sorkkila, M; Aunola, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Tolvanen, A; Ryba, T V
Student-athletes who strive for success in high-level sports while pursuing upper secondary education may be prone to sport and school burnout. This study examined the co-developmental dynamic of sport and school burnout in Finnish adolescent student-athletes (N time 1 = 391; N time 2 = 373) across the first year of upper secondary school using cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM). Furthermore, we used sport and school-related achievement goals as predictors of sport and school burnout, namely sport and school-related exhaustion, cynicism, and feelings of inadequacy. The results showed that burnout dimensions in a particular domain were substantially stable within the same domain during the first year of upper secondary school and that school-related exhaustion at the beginning of upper secondary school predicted sport-related exhaustion at the end of the school year. Mastery goals in sport and school were negatively associated with cynicism and feelings of inadequacy within the same domain. Furthermore, performance goals in school were positively associated with school-related cynicism. The results can be used by healthcare professionals for early prevention of student-athletes' burnout. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Tallir, Isabel B; D'Hondt, Eva; Vaeyens, Roel; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M
The goal of this study was to investigate differences in physical fitness and sports participation over 2 years in children with relatively high, average, and low motor competence. Physical fitness and gross motor coordination of 501 children between 6-10 years were measured at baseline and baseline+2 years. The sample compromised 2 age cohorts: 6.00-7.99 and 8.00-9.99 years. An age and sex-specific motor quotient at baseline testing was used to subdivide these children into low (MQ competence groups. Measures of sports participation were obtained through a physical activity questionnaire in 278 of the same children. Repeated Measures MANCOVA and two separate ANOVAs were used to analyze differences in changes in physical fitness and measures of sports participation respectively. Children with high motor competence scored better on physical fitness tests and participated in sports more often. Since physical fitness levels between groups changed similarly over time, low motor competent children might be at risk for being less physically fit throughout their life. Furthermore, since low motor competent children participate less in sports, they have fewer opportunities of developing motor abilities and physical fitness and this may further prevent them from catching up with their peers with an average or high motor competence.
Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos
Grounded in the 2x2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and the indicators of athletes' welfare. Finally, measurement and structural invariance was tested with respect to gender in the hypothesized model. An alternative model was also estimated specifying self-esteem as an antecedent of the four goals and cognitive appraisals. Four hundred and twenty-four team sport participants (Mage=24.25) responded to a multisection questionnaire. Structural equation modeling analyses provided support for the hypothesized model only. Challenge and threat appraisals partially mediated the relationships observed between mastery-based goals and the well-being indicators. Lastly, the hypothesized model was found to be invariant across gender.
The present research was conducted in order to compare self-esteem of American students with Turkish students in terms of the sport participation at the universities. For this purpose, a total of 460 students (M age = 19,61 ± 1,64) voluntarily participated in the study from two universities. As data collection tool, Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem…