Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean
This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…
Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M
Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims.
Panu Poutvaara; Olli Ropponen
In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can use a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the average performance of young men declined due to the school shooting, whereas we do not observe a similar pattern for ...
Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.
Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…
Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Schroer-Hippel, Miriam; Panno, Jennifer; Neumetzler, Katharina; Fisch, Sarah; Scholl, Johanna; Scheithauer, Herbert
Since 1999, Germany has experienced at least twelve serious cases of targeted school violence. This article describes two projects designed to fill the gap between universal prevention and emergency response in preventing severe forms of school violence in Germany. The Berlin Leaking Project examined the viability of preventive efforts based on early identification of leaking behavior that often precedes targeted school attacks. Leaking refers to any behavior or communication that indicates a student is preparing to carry out a violent attack. This would include explicit or implied threats of violence, apparent fascination with prior acts of violence such as Columbine, and any evidence of planning or preparation to carry out an attack. The NETWASS project will test a training program and intervention strategy based on those findings, examining the usefulness of a threat assessment approach to prevent violence by training teachers to recognize leaking behavior by students. This approach is extended by training teachers on a larger scale to identify leaking and then having a school-based team evaluate the student and initiate appropriate interventions, such as mental health services, and in some cases, law enforcement action. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Maxwell, Lesli A.
The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…
Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J
Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.
Fox, Cybelle; Harding, David J.
This article argues that rampage school shootings in American public schools can be understood as instances of organizational deviance, which occurs when events created by or in organizations do not conform to an organization's goals or expectations and produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes. Drawing on data from qualitative case studies of…
What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…
Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel
School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…
In the last few years, amok-like killings and especially so-called "school shootings" have received a great deal of public attention both in the Old and the New world. Meanwhile, criminal psychological research has gained a thorough insight into this dangerous development in young people. Thus, the possibility to assess the concrete threat of such a multiple killing before it is carried out has been considerably improved, as many prognostic criteria have been worked out in the meantime. The case report presented shows that it is possible to exercise a favourable influence on this critical negative trend.
Duplechain, Rosalind; Morris, Robert
This manuscript consists of three sections. Section one provides historical data on some 310 documented shootings that have taken place on school property within the United States. Section two discusses numerous risk factors associated with school shooters. Section three discusses numerous strategies for creating safe schools.
CHDS State/Local School shootings have happened in the past and will happen again. The history of school shootings prompts all stakeholders to look at ways to prevent them from happening, and if they do happen, to be resilient. Change is needed in the prevention of school shootings. The case studies of Virginia Tech, Sandy Hook, E. O. Green Junior High, and Beslan school shootings reveal that the lack of information sharing and lack of communication were flaws; and the incidents might have...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories...... of recovery? RECENT FINDINGS:Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced...
Full Text Available Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts.Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed. We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event.We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015. We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001. All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.
Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos
Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.
Angert, Betsy L.
School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…
Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos
Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent dat...
pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming
© RAI 2018 In this guest editorial, the author addresses the latest school shootings at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. This event is weighed up against reports written by prominent academics, including anthropologists, during previous school shootings.
Travers, Áine; McDonagh, Tracey; Elklit, Ask
This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories of recovery? Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced by pre-trauma functioning as well as peri-traumatic and post-traumatic factors. These include proximity to the trauma, peri-traumatic dissociation, post-traumatic emotional regulation difficulties, social support, and flexibility of coping styles. Research that separates the distinguishing features of young people with differing recovery styles is vital to tailor intervention. But methodological and design issues associated with such research necessitates caution in drawing conclusions. Variation in definitions and measures and the self-report nature of many of the studies are potential sources of bias. Greater uniformity across designs would enhance confidence and allow for improved evidence-based intervention.
Raittila, Pentti; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari
Two school shootings in Finland (Jokela in 2007 and Kauhajoki in 2008) resulted in the death of 20 people, and they shook not only the foundations of Finnish society but also of the profession that reported about the tragedies. This report is based on research conducted on school shootings at the University of Tampere Journalism Research and Development Centre between 2008 and 2009. The analysis concentrates on both the journalistic texts published on the shootings and journalists' actions...
Beland, Louis-Philippe; Kim, Dongwoo
We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools' test scores, enrollment, number of teachers, graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences…
Louis-Philippe Beland; Dongwoo Kim
We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schoolsâ€™ test scores, enrollment, and number of teachers, as well as graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences strategy that uses other high schools in the same district as the comparison group. Our findings suggest that homicidal shootings s...
CERN technology will be taking a stellar journey as the Langton Ultimate Cosmic ray Intensity Detector (LUCID) is launched into space in 2012. LUCID has been designed by students from the CERN@school programme using Timepix chips from the Medipix Collaboration at CERN. CERN@school students present LUCID. In today’s educational environment, a pioneering school physics programme that involves students in authentic research seems unlikely. But in the UK, the CERN@school programme is providing the resources for school students to do just that. “We develop projects which allow students to work alongside scientists and engineers before they go to university,” says Becky Parker, head of the Langton Star Centre and founder of the CERN@school programme. “Thanks to these programmes, students can make a genuine contribution to global scientific research. LUCID is the culmination of three years of efforts by the students.” Surrey Satellite Tech...
de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R
School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.
This paper describes the construction and descriptive analysis of a data set of United States school shooting events. Three hundred forty-three shooting events are included, spanning 175 years of United States educational history. All levels of US educational institution are included. Events are included when a firearm is discharged, regardless of…
Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M
Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States. PMID:28228989
Connelly, Kevin G.
Throughout 2015, there have been 52 school shootings within the United States that have left 30 individuals dead and another 53 injured (Reuters-USA, 2015). Since Friday, December 14, 2012, the date of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, in which 26 people lost their lives, there has been on average one school shooting per week. It is…
Brown, Carleton H.
At a small rural middle school in the southern United States, two students murdered a teacher, four students, and injured 10 during a shooting spree. This case represents the lived experiences of a school principal, counselor, and community that survived the deadly rampage. The case highlights the challenges that school leaders may face such as…
Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.
Contrary to popular belief, rampage violence at suburban and rural schools occurred before the infamous Columbine High School shooting in April 1999. While school shootings before Columbine gained international media attention were treated as a local rather than a national or even international problem, they are now seen as an emergent phenomenon that has to be addressed with appropriate urgency. In this paper, I want to examine whether school shootings are in fact increasing and addre...
Kalesan, Bindu; Lagast, Kinan; Villarreal, Marcos; Pino, Elizabeth; Fagan, Jeffrey; Galea, Sandro
Data on the factors associated with school shootings in the USA are limited. The public conversation has often suggested several factors that may be linked to these events, however with little empirical support. Aiming to fill this gap, we describe the characteristics of school shooting incidents in the USA between 2013 and 2015 and explore whether four factors that represent domains of firearm policy, educational policy and epidemiological risk factors for intentional firearm injuries-background check (BC) policies, per capita mental health expenditures (MHE), K-12 education expenditure (KEE) and urbanicity-were associated with school shootings during this period. We searched LexisNexis, a newspaper and broadcast media databases for school shooting incidents from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Presence of BC laws was extracted from legal information in LexisNexis. State-level covariates of per capita MHE (2013), KEE (2013) and urbanicity (2010) rates were obtained from publicly available data sources. We used negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering by state to explore unadjusted associations between the BC laws, state-level covariates and school shootings to report IRR and 95% CI. We documented 154 school shootings (35, 55 and 64 each year). In unadjusted models, BC for firearm purchase (IRR=0.55, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.76), ammunition purchase (IRR=0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.27), log per capita MHE (IRR=0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.90), log per-capita KEE (IRR=0.09, 9% CI 0.02 to 0.29) and urbanicity (IRR=0.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) were associated with school shooting. School shootings are less likely in states with BC laws, higher MHE and KEE, and with greater per cent urban population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.
A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…
Journal of School Violence, 2013
In response to the killing of 20 children and 6 adults at Sandy Hook Elementary School on December 17, 2012, this position statement argues that research supports a thoughtful approach to safer schools, guided by four key elements--balance, communication, connectedness, and support--along with strengthened attention to mental health needs in the…
The continual occurrence of school shooting incidents underscores the need of taking preventive measures. Inductive measures of threat assessment have proved to be a bad strategy to solve the problem and new research is focusing on deductive approaches. Deductive threat assessment approaches are gaining ground and efforts are underway to mine text for automatic detection of threats in written text. Automatic detection and classification of threats in the digital world can help the decision ma...
Borum, Randy; Cornell, Dewey G.; Modzeleski, William; Jimerson, Shane R.
School shootings have generated great public concern and fostered a widespread impression that schools are unsafe for many students; this article counters those misapprehensions by examining empirical evidence of school and community violence trends and reviewing evidence on best practices for preventing school shootings. Many of the school safety…
Polland, Scott; Rosenburg, Steve
A tragic school shooting occurred in Brazil on April 7, 2011. A young adult male returned to the school that he had previously attended, Tasso da Silveira in Realengo, and shot and killed 13 and wounded another 20 students or teachers. Realengo, a suburb of Rio de Janeiro, is composed of hard working lower and middle class families with strong…
Conventional explanations - lax gun control laws, media violence, single and working parents - do not adequately explain the recent spate of school shootings, and neither does bullying by itself, an explanation recently gaining more traction. A certain type of bullying, however, is revealed as particularly culpable. Many of the recent shootings share a disturbing component: The perpetrators were repeatedly, even relentlessly, accused by "preps and jocks" of being gay. Gay harassment is proposed as a point of departure for understanding the causes of school shootings. When boys who believe on some level that they warrant privilege, are instead harassed, they may feel driven to avenge the "wrong," and re-assert a more dominant, powerful, and victorious masculinity. These circumstances call for a cultural transformation such that "boys will be boys" is no longer used as an alibi for violence. The author presents implications for school-based social work practice, teacher and administrator interventions, as well as other prevention strategies.
Much discourse on school shootings tends to imply a binary separation between what is considered normal and exceptional, between an expected course of human events and sociohistorical aberrations. In this article Harvey Shapiro suggests the need for new directions in our responses: First, he shows how responses to school shootings tend to…
communication media (print, television, radio, computer, and film ) can play an important role in helping to prevent violence in the schools and the media can...also have drawbacks, such as those exposed to the media will try to mimic the violent act, desensitize viewers to the horrors of violence...something%E2%84%A2-campaign. 164 Paul QuinJudge, “Dark Memories One Year on, the Horror of the School Siege Still Haunts Beslan—and Russia,” Time
Diaz, Maria Magnolia Santamaria
Discusses efforts by the Venezuelan government to improve the nation's school infrastructure through the Bolivarian Schools Project administered by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. The project set educational principles which are guiding current school building efforts. (EV)
Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M
Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States.
Full Text Available Background: A large number of bereaved family members, surviving students, and their relatives as well as school staff and the wider community were in need of psychosocial support as a result of a school shooting in Kauhajoki, Finland, 2008. A multilevel outreach project provided psychosocial care to the trauma-affected families, students, schools staff, and wider community for 2 years and 4 months. Objective: This article is twofold. First, it presents the theoretical rationale behind the psychosocial support and describes the multimodal elements of the services. Second, it analyzes the trauma-exposed students’ help-seeking behavior and perceptions of the usefulness of the support they were offered in different phases of recovery. Method: Information of students’ help-seeking and perceptions of support is based on a follow-up data from 4 months (T1, N=236, 16 months (T2, N=180, and 28 months (T3, N=137 after the shootings. Mean age of students was 24.9 (SD=10.2; 95% women. Their perceptions of the offered psychosocial support were collected with structured and open questions constructed for the study. Results: The results confirmed the importance of enhancing the natural networks after a major trauma and offering additional professional support for those in greatest need. The students’ perceptions of the provided care confirmed that the model of the acute and long-term outreach can be used after major tragedies in diverse situations and in other countries as well.
Turunen, Tuija; Haravuori, Henna; Pihlajamäki, Jaakko J; Marttunen, Mauri; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
A large number of bereaved family members, surviving students, and their relatives as well as school staff and the wider community were in need of psychosocial support as a result of a school shooting in Kauhajoki, Finland, 2008. A multilevel outreach project provided psychosocial care to the trauma-affected families, students, schools staff, and wider community for 2 years and 4 months. This article is twofold. First, it presents the theoretical rationale behind the psychosocial support and describes the multimodal elements of the services. Second, it analyzes the trauma-exposed students' help-seeking behavior and perceptions of the usefulness of the support they were offered in different phases of recovery. Information of students' help-seeking and perceptions of support is based on a follow-up data from 4 months (T1, N=236), 16 months (T2, N=180), and 28 months (T3, N=137) after the shootings. Mean age of students was 24.9 (SD=10.2; 95% women). Their perceptions of the offered psychosocial support were collected with structured and open questions constructed for the study. The results confirmed the importance of enhancing the natural networks after a major trauma and offering additional professional support for those in greatest need. The students' perceptions of the provided care confirmed that the model of the acute and long-term outreach can be used after major tragedies in diverse situations and in other countries as well.
Shultz, James M; Cohen, Alyssa M; Muschert, Glenn W; Flores de Apodaca, Roberto
Background The December 14, 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, USA, vaulted concerns regarding gun violence to the forefront of public attention. This high-visibility incident occurred within the epidemiological context of U.S. firearm mortality that claims more than 88 lives daily. Methods National epidemiologic data on firearm deaths over two decades were analyzed along with data registries on school shootings in order to place the tragedy at Sandy H...
Shultz, James M; Cohen, Alyssa M; Muschert, Glenn W; Flores de Apodaca, Roberto
Background The December 14, 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, USA, vaulted concerns regarding gun violence to the forefront of public attention. This high-visibility incident occurred within the epidemiological context of U.S. firearm mortality that claims more than 88 lives daily. Methods National epidemiologic data on firearm deaths over two decades were analyzed along with data registries on school shootings in order to place the tragedy at Sandy Hook in perspective. School shootings were classified as random or targeted. Results The U.S. has the highest rates of firearm deaths, suicides, and homicides among the world’s 34 “advanced economies.” Seventy percent of U.S. homicides and more than 50% of U.S. suicides are committed using a firearm. U.S. firearm homicide rates first declined, and then stabilized, during the past 23 years, 1990-2012. “Shooting massacres” in school settings, a new phenomenon within the past 50 years, are extremely rare events. Over 23 years, 1990-2012, 215 fatal school shooting incidents resulted in 363 deaths, equivalent to 0.12% of national firearm homicides during that time period. Most episodes were “targeted” shootings in which the perpetrator intentionally killed a specific individual in a school setting. Only 25 of these 215 events (11.6%) were “random” or “rampage” shootings, resulting in 135 deaths (0.04% of national firearm homicides). Among these, just three shooting rampages – Columbine High School, Virginia Tech University, and Sandy hook Elementary School – accounted for 72 (53.3%) of these 135 deaths. The frequency of random/rampage shooting incidents in schools has remained within the narrow range of 0 to 3 episodes per year. Conclusions Each year, more than 32,000 Americans die by firearms and more than 70,000 are wounded, representing a volume of preventable deaths and injuries that the U.S. government describes as a “public health crisis.” School
Shultz, James M; Cohen, Alyssa M; Muschert, Glenn W; Flores de Apodaca, Roberto
Background The December 14, 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, USA, vaulted concerns regarding gun violence to the forefront of public attention. This high-visibility incident occurred within the epidemiological context of U.S. firearm mortality that claims more than 88 lives daily. Methods National epidemiologic data on firearm deaths over two decades were analyzed along with data registries on school shootings in order to place the tragedy at Sandy Hook in perspective. School shootings were classified as random or targeted. Results The U.S. has the highest rates of firearm deaths, suicides, and homicides among the world's 34 "advanced economies." Seventy percent of U.S. homicides and more than 50% of U.S. suicides are committed using a firearm. U.S. firearm homicide rates first declined, and then stabilized, during the past 23 years, 1990-2012. "Shooting massacres" in school settings, a new phenomenon within the past 50 years, are extremely rare events. Over 23 years, 1990-2012, 215 fatal school shooting incidents resulted in 363 deaths, equivalent to 0.12% of national firearm homicides during that time period. Most episodes were "targeted" shootings in which the perpetrator intentionally killed a specific individual in a school setting. Only 25 of these 215 events (11.6%) were "random" or "rampage" shootings, resulting in 135 deaths (0.04% of national firearm homicides). Among these, just three shooting rampages - Columbine High School, Virginia Tech University, and Sandy hook Elementary School - accounted for 72 (53.3%) of these 135 deaths. The frequency of random/rampage shooting incidents in schools has remained within the narrow range of 0 to 3 episodes per year. Conclusions Each year, more than 32,000 Americans die by firearms and more than 70,000 are wounded, representing a volume of preventable deaths and injuries that the U.S. government describes as a "public health crisis." School massacres, such as Sandy Hook
Thompson, Stephen; Kyle, Ken
This paper explores perspectives about certain individual and social characteristics that may contribute to school shootings by students. It begins with perspectives on individual/environment fit, arguing first that persons marginalized by their caregivers during their upbringing, and by their peers, are lacking in the social interactions that help develop ethical behavior. Our argument contends that lacking such interactions may result in the failure to develop a sound moral philosophy. Further, we argue that when such persons enter the highly competitive environment found in some suburban and rural schools, some will be continually and consistently marginalized, finding their means of self-expression and sense of significance subdued. Their need for self-expression and a sense of significance as persons will surface, but without the benefit of a moral philosophy to guide that expression, this may result in deviant means of expression, such as violence--even extraordinary violence. We do not attempt to identify a list of specific traits of school shooters, which might lead to the development of a profile of school shooters. Rather, we are concerned with the characteristics of the environment in which shootings might occur, and how students not fully prepared for that environment might react. Thus, this paper is an overview of how seeds of the neglect of the basic needs of personhood, when sown early in life, and nurtured by peers, might come to fruition in the fertile field of the competitive school environment.
Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert
In March and September 2009 the school shootings in Winnenden and Ansbach once again demonstrated the need for preventive approaches in order to prevent further offences in Germany. Due to the low frequency of such offences and the low specificity of relevant risk factors known so far, prediction and prevention seems difficult though. None the less, several preventive approaches are currently discussed. The present article highlights these approaches and their specific advantages and disadvantages. As school shootings are multicausally determined, approaches focussing only on single aspects (i.e. prohibiting violent computer games or further strengthening gun laws) do not meet requirements. Other measures such as installing technical safety devices or optimizing actions of police and school attendants are supposed to reduce harm in case of emergency. Instead, scientifically founded and promising preventive approaches focus on secondary prevention and for this purpose employ the threat assessment approach, which is widespread within the USA. In this framework, responsible occupational groups such as teachers, school psychologists and police officers are to be trained in identifying students' warning signs, judging danger of these students for self and others in a systematic process and initiating suitable interventions.
Nader, Kathleen, Ed.
Together, "School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances" and its accompanying CD provide a complete toolkit for using early preventative interventions with elementary-school age children. In ten thoughtful, clearly written chapters, both new and experienced practitioners will find a wealth of research- and evidence-based…
Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Sievering, Kathryn S.; Armstrong, Charlotte; Stonis, Julie
This article describes a crisis response framework based on the authors' first-hand experience following three Colorado school shootings. During each crisis response, one or more of the authors joined school and/or district crisis teams, providing direct assistance and leadership. The authors' experiences helped guide subsequent responses and…
DeLeon, Abraham P.
School shootings loom large in the collective imagination and young, White males commit a majority of these horrific crimes. Although many of the descriptions of school shooters in the media and scholarly studies attribute their actions to psychological problems and/or personal/social failings, these events are also often placed in a comparative…
Daniels, Jeffrey A.; Volungis, Adam; Pshenishny, Erin; Gandhi, Punita; Winkler, Amy; Cramer, Daniel P.; Bradley, Mary C.
The recent rash of school violence has again brought to the fore a need to investigate ways to enhance the safety of America's children. With its emphases on prevention and collaboration with schools, a counseling psychology perspective can add much to the growing body of research on lethal school violence. This article aims to understand school…
O'Donnell, Robert William
The purpose of this study was to examine changes implemented by public school district personnel in response to the Newtown school shooting that occurred on December 14, 2012. The researcher used the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to gather quantitative…
Kranjc, T.; Razpet, N.
Many physics textbooks start with kinematics. In the lab, students observe the motions, describe and make predictions, and get acquainted with basic kinematics quantities and their meaning. Then they can perform calculations and compare the results with experimental findings. In this paper we describe an experiment that is not often done, but is interesting and attractive to students—the ballistic cart, i.e., the shooting of a ball from a cart moving along a slope. For that, one has to be familiar with one-dimensional uniform motion and one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration, as well as curvilinear motion that is a combination of such motions.1,2 The experimental results confirm theoretical predictions.
Turunen, Tuija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
In Finland, as many as 20 people have lost their lives in two school shootings within one year. This article describes trauma-theoretical rationale, planning, and implementation of acute and long-term psychosocial aftercare that was organized in Kauhajoki where one of the school shootings happened. The aftercare was embedded in the school community's everyday life to enhance easy access. The aftercare proceeded in 6 phases, involving the immediate support phase at the first 24 hr, the acute phase for the first 2 weeks, followed by a 5-month period of empowerment, normalization, and creating "a safe place." The habituation phase coincided with the completion of the renovation of the damaged school building and students returning to the scene. The first anniversary was marked by shared rituals and remembrance, and the follow-up phase lasted until the end of the aftercare in 2 years. The aftercare contained, for example, psychoeducation, screening, and services at community, group, and individual levels.
This article discusses Joel Best's ( 1999 ) notion of random violence and applies his concepts of pointlessness, patternlessness, and deterioration to the reality about multiple-victim school shootings gleaned from empirical research about the phenomenon. Best describes how violence is rarely random, as scholarship reveals myriad observable patterns, lots of discernable motives and causes, and often far too much fear-mongering over how bad society is getting and how violent we are becoming. In contrast, it is vital that the media, scholars, and the public better understand crime patterns, criminal motivations, and the causes of fluctuating crime rates. As an effort toward such progress, this article reviews the academic literature on school rampage shootings and explores the extent to which these attacks are and are not random acts of violence.
School shootings are often used in public policy debate as a justification for increased regulation, based on qualitative arguments. However, to date, no effort has been made to find valid quantitative evidence for the claims bolstering the regulation recommendations. In defense of this absence of evidence, it is usually argued that the rarity of such events does not allow the employment of quantitative methods. This paper, using a simulation study, shows that, based on the number of shool sh...
Strahler, Jana; Ziegert, Thomas
Police work is one of the most demanding professions with various sources of high occupational stress. Among the most demanding tasks are amok situations, such as school shootings. Hardly anything is known about endocrine and cardiovascular markers in safety professionals during emergency situations in real life and how this relates to stress perception and management. This study will therefore explore police officers' stress responses to a reality-based school shooting simulation assessing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and psychological stress markers. A convenience sample of 50 police officers (39.5 ± 8.7 yrs, 9 women) participating in a basic or refresher amok training session for the German uniformed and criminal police were recruited. Saliva samples were collected shortly before the simulation task (school shooting), immediately after, 20 and 45 min after finishing the task for the assessment of cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA), as markers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system, respectively. Heart rate (variability) was assessed continuously. Officers rated their actual mood right before and 10 min after the simulation. Subjective experience of task stressfulness was assessed minutes after finishing the simulation. Overall, the simulated school shooting did not result in changes of mood, tiredness, or calmness but higher restlessness was experienced during the basic training, which was also experienced as more controllable. Female officers reported to experience more strain and anxiety. Cortisol showed highest levels at the beginning of the training and steadily decreasing values thereafter. In contrast, sAA increased substantially right after the simulation with officers on the front position showing most pronounced changes. Cardiovascular reactivity was highest in officers acting on the side positions while advancing to find the suspect. Furthermore higher self-efficacy as well as, by trend, controllability and
As part of a program to increase learning and engagement in science classes 124 Victorian schools are trialing a best practice teaching model. The Science in Schools Research Project is a DEET funded project under the Science in Schools Strategy, developed in response to recent research and policy decisions at national and state levels through which literacy, numeracy and science have been identified as key priorities for learning. This major science research project aims to identify, develop and trial best practice in Science teaching and learning. The Department will then be able to provide clear advice to Victoria's schools that can be adopted and sustained to: * enhance teaching and learning of Science * enhance student learning outcomes in Science at all year levels * increase student access to, and participation in Science learning from Prep through to Year 10, and hence in the VCE as well. The nature of the SiS program will be detailed with specific reference to the innovative programs in solar model cars, robotics and environmental science developed at Forest Hill College in response to this project.
Lickel, Brian; Schmader, Toni; Hamilton, David L
Two studies examined perceptions of collective responsibility for the April 20, 1999, shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. Collective responsibility refers to the perception that others, besides the wrongdoers themselves, are responsible for the event. In Study 1, the authors assessed perceptions of the shooters' parents and their peer group (the Trenchcoat Mafia), whereas Study 2 tested perceptions of collective responsibility across a range of groups. In both studies, perceptions of a target group's entitativity predicted judgments of collective responsibility. This relationship was mediated by two situational construals that justify applying collective responsibility: responsibility by commission (encouraging or facilitating the event) and responsibility by omission (failing to prevent the event). Study 2 also determined that perceptions of authority predicted judgments of collective responsibility for the Columbine shootings and was mediated by inferences of omission. Future directions in collective responsibility research are discussed. Copyright 2003 Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Levine, Phillip B; McKnight, Robin
Exposure to firearms increased substantially after the December 2012 shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, where 20 children and 6 adults were killed. Gun sales spiked by 3 million, on the basis of the increase in the number of background checks for firearm purchases. Google searches for buying and cleaning guns increased. We used Vital Statistics mortality data to examine whether a spike in accidental firearm deaths occurred at the same time as the greater exposure to firearms. We also assessed whether the increase in these deaths was larger in those states where the spike in gun sales per capita was larger. We find that an additional 60 deaths overall, including 20 children, resulted from unintentional shootings in the immediate aftermath of Sandy Hook. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Full Text Available In this article, we will examine the ritualised dynamics of communication that emerged around the killer material on YouTube produced in four school shootings in the United States and in Finland: Columbine in 1999, Virginia Tech in 2007, Jokela in 2007, and Kauhajoki in 2008. The scope of the article is media anthropological. The dynamics of the dark digital encounters celebrating violence and misanthropy are discussed through the ideas of French social theorist Georges Bataille (1897–1962 on the constitution of the social through ritualised use of visual representations of violence and torture.
Full Text Available Background: Survivors of life-endangering trauma use varying resources that help them to recover. Attachment system activates in the times of distress, and is expected to associate with stress responses, arousal regulation, and mental health. Objective: We examined the associations of attachment style with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD symptoms and dissociative symptoms, and posttraumatic growth (PTG among students exposed to a school shooting in Finland in a three-wave follow-up setting. Method: Participants were students (M age=24.9 years; 95% female who were followed 4 (T1, N=236, 16 (T2, N=180, and 28 months (T3, N=137 after the shooting. The assessments included the Attachment Style Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale, part of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Results: Securely attached survivors had lower levels of posttraumatic stress and dissociative symptoms than preoccupied at T1 and T2 as hypothesized. At T3 survivors with avoidant attachment style had higher levels of intrusive and hyperarousal symptoms than those with secure style. Concerning PTG, survivors with avoidant attachment style scored lower in PTG at T3 than survivors with both secure and preoccupied style. Conclusion: Secure attachment style was beneficial in trauma recovery. A challenge to the health care systems is to acknowledge that survivors with preoccupied and avoidant attachment styles react uniquely to trauma, and thus need help in different doses, modalities, and timings.
Michiel Christiaan Bekker
Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.
Understanding Social Dynamics and School Shootings Requires Larger Context. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"
Jessie Klein begins her commentary on "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review" (Sommer, Leuschner, and Scheithauer," International Journal of Developmental Science" v 8, n1-2, p3-24, 2014) by saying that to…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Two school shootings with altogether 18 victims took place in Finland in November 2007 and September 2008. Homicides and suicides are both associated with the copycat phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to characterize adolescent copycats who had threatened to carry out a school massacre. Methods The nation-wide study evaluated 77 13- to 18-year-old adolescents who were sent for adolescent psychiatric evaluations between 8.11.2007 and 30.6.2009, one of the reasons for evaluation being a threat of massacre at school. The medical files of the copycats were retrospectively analysed using a special data collection form. Data on demographics, family- and school-related issues, previous psychiatric treatment and previous delinquency, current symptoms, family adversities and psychiatric diagnoses were collected. The severity of the threat expressed and the risk posed by the adolescent in question were evaluated. The Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version was used to assess psychopathic traits. Results All of the copycats were native Finns with a mean age of 15.0 years. Almost two thirds of them had a history of previous mental health treatment before the index threat. Almost two thirds of the copycats suffered from anxiety and depressive symptoms, and almost half of the sample expressed either suicidal ideation or suicidal plans. Behavioural problems including impulse control problems, aggressive outbursts, the destruction of property as well as non-physical and physical violence against other persons were common. The diagnosis groups highlighted were behavioural and emotional disorders, mood disorders as well as schizophrenia-related disorders. The prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders was high. Only one of the copycats was assessed as expressing high traits of psychopathy. Conclusion The copycats with school massacre threats were characterized with a high prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders. Like
Lindberg, Nina; Sailas, Eila; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
Two school shootings with altogether 18 victims took place in Finland in November 2007 and September 2008. Homicides and suicides are both associated with the copycat phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to characterize adolescent copycats who had threatened to carry out a school massacre. The nation-wide study evaluated 77 13- to 18-year-old adolescents who were sent for adolescent psychiatric evaluations between 8.11.2007 and 30.6.2009, one of the reasons for evaluation being a threat of massacre at school. The medical files of the copycats were retrospectively analysed using a special data collection form. Data on demographics, family- and school-related issues, previous psychiatric treatment and previous delinquency, current symptoms, family adversities and psychiatric diagnoses were collected. The severity of the threat expressed and the risk posed by the adolescent in question were evaluated. The Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version was used to assess psychopathic traits. All of the copycats were native Finns with a mean age of 15.0 years. Almost two thirds of them had a history of previous mental health treatment before the index threat. Almost two thirds of the copycats suffered from anxiety and depressive symptoms, and almost half of the sample expressed either suicidal ideation or suicidal plans. Behavioural problems including impulse control problems, aggressive outbursts, the destruction of property as well as non-physical and physical violence against other persons were common. The diagnosis groups highlighted were behavioural and emotional disorders, mood disorders as well as schizophrenia-related disorders. The prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders was high. Only one of the copycats was assessed as expressing high traits of psychopathy. The copycats with school massacre threats were characterized with a high prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders. Like actual school shooters, they showed psychotic symptoms and traumatic
Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.
A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is this article object; orbit gathering projects are also presented [fr
Wasser, Joseph G; Chen, Cong; Vincent, Heather K
Low back pain (LBP) and motion alterations can occur in athletes who engage in high-speed throwing motions. The relationship between LBP and shooting motion in lacrosse players is not yet known. To quantify the effects of LBP on key kinematic parameters of the lacrosse shot and determine the contribution of the severity of LBP on specific kinematic parameters of the shooting motion. Controlled laboratory study. High school and collegiate players (N = 24) were stratified into 2 groups based on back pain symptoms (LBP or no pain). Three-dimensional motion capture of overhead throws was used to collect data on knee, pelvis, trunk, and shoulder kinematics as well as crosse stick (the stick capped with a strung net) and ball speed. Mean low back numeric pain rating scale (NRSpain) score was 2.9. Knee flexion at ball release was greater in the LBP than no pain group, indicating a more bent knee (P = .04). The LBP group demonstrated less angular velocity transfer from pelvis to trunk than the no pain group (P = .05). Total range of motion of the pelvis and shoulders during the shot and follow-through were less in the LBP group than the no pain group (83.6° ± 24.5° vs 75.9° ± 24.5°, P = .05). Age- and sex-adjusted regression analyses revealed that the low back NRSpain rating contributed 6.3% to 25.0% of the variance to the models of shoulder transverse rotation range of motion, trunk and shoulder rotation angular velocities, and knee flexion angle (P core training and prehabilitation programs for high school and collegiate players may reduce pain in affected players as well as help them to attain appropriate motion parameters and avoid secondary musculoskeletal injuries. This research identified a prehabilitation need in the understudied lacrosse population. Therapeutic strategies can be developed to strengthen the throwing motion, which could control mechanical loading patterns on the low back and minimize pain symptoms in players with chronic LBP.
Outlines a school recycling project that started as a newspaper collection for library funds and evolved into a community service. Discusses problems that were overcome, strategies for implementation of the project, and related cross-curricular studies and activities. Contains two curriculum mind maps. (LZ)
Palinkas, Lawrence A; Prussing, Erica; Reznik, Vivian M; Landsverk, John A
Within one month (March 2001), two separate incidents of school shootings occurred at two different high schools within the same school district in San Diego's East County. To examine community-wide expressions of post-traumatic distress resulting from the shootings that may or may not fulfill DSM-IV criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but which might interfere with treatment and the prevention of youth violence. A qualitative study was undertaken using Rapid Assessment Procedures (RAP) in four East San Diego County communities over a six-month period following the two events. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 85 community residents identified through a maximum variation sampling technique. Interview transcripts were analyzed by coding consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison, using text analysis software. Three community-wide patterns of response to the two events were identified: (1) 52.9% of respondents reported intrusive reminders of the trauma associated with intense media coverage and subsequent rumors, hoaxes, and threats of additional acts of school violence; (2) 44.7% reported efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, conversations, or places (i.e., schools) associated with the events; negative assessment of media coverage; and belief that such events in general cannot be prevented; and (3) 30.6% reported anger, hyper-vigilance, and other forms of increased arousal. Twenty-three (27.1%) respondents reported symptoms of fear, anxiety, depression, drug use, and psychosomatic symptoms in themselves or others. School shootings can precipitate symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder at the community level. Such symptoms hinder the treatment of individuals with PTSD and the implementation of effective prevention strategies and programs.
Acts of violence at schools across the country committed by gun-wielding students in recent years have all too frequently, as we know by now, resulted in multiple casualties and widespread community grieving. Two of the shooting rampages noted in this report that attracted national and international media attention--one at West-side Middle School, Jonesboro, AR, on March 24, 1998, and the other at Columbine High School, Littleton, CO, on April 20, 1999--illustrate the importance of hospital preparedness and quick implementation of emergency disaster plans. In both instances, officials say their administrative, clinical, and security personnel were well prepared to handle the physical and emotional trauma caused by the tragedies. Meanwhile, a leading criminologist warns that the trend toward school violence likely will continue and provides tips for hospitals and their security directors.
Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert
Die School Shootings in Winnenden und Ansbach im März und September 2009 haben die Notwendigkeit präventiver Ansätze zur Vermeidung weiterer Taten in Deutschland erneut verdeutlicht. Aufgrund der geringen Häuigkeit des Phänomens und der geringen Speziität der bekannten Risikofaktoren ist eine gezielte Vorhersage und Prävention jedoch schwierig. Dennoch werden zurzeit verschiedene Präventionsansätze diskutiert. Der vorliegende Artikel stellt diese vor und beleuchtet ihre Vor- und Nachteile. Da...
Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, C K Fred; Miller, Kimberly A; Eddy, J Mark
School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, CK Fred; Miller, Kimberly A.; Eddy, J. Mark
School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. PMID:26298676
Sommer, Friederike; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert
A plethora of studies have appeared which argue that, prior to their attack, the perpetrators of school shootings had experienced intense conflicts and problematic relations (e.g. bullying) with peers and teachers, and were on the periphery of the schools' social life. This in turn resulted in the perpetrators' view of themselves as marginalized…
When Rejection Kills: The Central Role of Low Relational Value in School Violence. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"
Leary, Mark R.; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P.
The authors begin their commentary by saying that Sommer, Leuschner, and Scheithauer (2014) did an admirable job of reviewing and integrating research on school shootings across a broad array of studies that relied on varied conceptualizations, operational definitions, coding strategies, and samples of shootings. The authors agree with Sommer et…
Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: A Finnish Perspective. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"
Oksanen, Atte; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kiilakoski, Tomi; Lindberg, Nina
The systematic review by Sommer, Leuschner, and Scheithauer ("International Journal of Developmental Science" v8, n1-2, p3-24, 2014) includes 126 school shooting cases from 13 countries. This comprehensive review provides a valuable synthesis of a topic largely discussed in school shooting research: The role of bullying and peer…
Apr 23, 2002 ... Schools Water Efficiency Project in February 2003, which supports several of the City's Water Demand ... of automatic flushing urinals (AFUs) alone in schools can save up .... to go back into the bag as the cistern is filling.
Ash, Gwynne Ellen; Saunders, Jane M.
This essay considers 12 books of contemporary young adult fiction, published in the United States between 2000 and 2016, with plots directly related to rampage school shootings. It compares the shooters' psychological types, ages, races, genders, roles, motives and the narrative points of view in the books with dominant cultural scripts for…
Underhill, Dyan Whitlow
Multiple incidents of postsecondary school shooting violence have occurred in American society--prompting concern about safety on college campuses, administrators' roles in prevention, and proactive and responsible bystander actions. Active shooter plans have become more established in educational environments, with efforts are directed…
Brook, Heather A.; Hiltz, Cynthia M.; Kopplin, Vicki L.; Lindeke, Linda L.
A high prevalence of epilepsy diagnoses and seizure events among students was identified at a large Midwestern school district. In partnership with the Epilepsy Foundation of Minnesota (EFMN), a quality improvement project was conducted to provide education and resources to staff caring for school children with seizures. School nurses (N = 26)…
Keehn, Gabriel; Boyles, Deron
Utilizing a broadly Levinasian framework, specifically the interplay among his ideas of possession, violence, and negation, Gabriel Keehn and Deron Boyles illustrate how the relatively recent sharp turn toward the hypercorporatized school and the concomitant transition of the student from simple (potential) customer to a type of hybrid…
Targeted School Violence and the Web of Causes: Risk Factors and the Problems of Specificity. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"
Böckler, Nils; Roth, Viktoria; Stetten, Lina; Zick, Andreas
The authors begin their commentary by saying that looking at the phenotypical characteristics of a school shooting, which focus on the perpetrators' experiences in school contexts seems to be overdue. In spite of methodological problems, the studies involved in the review seem to paint a clear picture with regard to social ostracism and harassment…
ems -insider/articles/2014/02/a-new-response.html. 2 Ashby, Cornelia, and William O. Jenkins Jr. Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have...of Emergency Medical Services, March 18, 2014, http://www.jems.com/ ems -insider/ articles/2014/02/a-new-response.html. xviii THIS PAGE...Gang violence Bomb threats Domestic violence and abuse Cyber attacks Suicide 72
Kähärä, Kirsti; Ala-aho, Sirkka; Hakala, Asta-Leena; Toivonen, Tarja; Turunen, Tuija
On September 29, 2008 in Kauhajoki, a student killed ten persons and committed suicide. Many people in the region were subjected to an extensive sensation of threat and experienced mental effects of the tragedy. Aftercare of the tragedy has been coordinated by the Kauhajoki project. The project has aimed at ensuring that persons and communities traumatized by the event in their life and functioning will receive the required psychosocial support and appropriate treatment. The goal is to restore the mental balance and to maintain the ability to work and function.
Coleman, Clarence D.; Hathaway, Roger (Technical Monitor)
The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project (PASS) Project was granted a one-year no cost extension for 2001-2002. In year three of the project, objectives and strategies were modified based on the previous year-end evaluation. The recommendations were incorporated and the program was replicated within most of the remaining elementary schools in Portsmouth, Virginia and continued in the four middle schools. The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project is a partnership, which includes Norfolk State University, Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME), NASA Langley Research Center, and the City of Portsmouth, Virginia Public Schools. The project seeks to strengthen the knowledge of Portsmouth Public Schools students in the field of atmospheric sciences and enhance teacher awareness of hands on activities in the atmospheric sciences. The project specifically seeks to: 1) increase the interest and participation of elementary and middle school students in science and mathematics; 2) strengthen existing science programs; and 3) facilitate greater achievement in core subjects, which are necessary for math, science, and technical careers. Emphasis was placed on providing training activities, materials and resources for elementary students (grades 3 - 5) and middle school students (grades 6 - 8), and teachers through a CHROME club structure. The first year of the project focused on introducing elementary students to concepts and activities in atmospheric science. Year two of the project built on the first year's activities and utilizes advanced topics and activities appropriate for middle school students. During the third year of the project, in addition to the approaches used in years one and two, emphasis was placed on activities that enhanced the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL).
By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…
Hoffmann, Jens; Allwinn, Mirko
Three cases of rampage killings at German schools by adult outsiders were identified and analyzed. The cases took place between 1913 and 1983. To what extent do psychiatric aspects play a role and are there risk factors that can be identified und used for prevention? For the identification of risk factors the warning behavior typology was utilized which covers eight behavioral factors. Severe mental problems were found in all three cases. The factors of the warning behavior typology were present in different relevance: Pathway (100 %), Fixation (100 %), Identification (33 %), novel aggression (33 %), energy burst (33 %), Leakage (66 %), last resort (66 %), directly communicated threat (0 %). The prevention of such cases seems to be most promising installing a regional and interdisciplinary threat management model. The field of threat management offers a scientific frame with evidence based tools and methods.
Bjegović, V; Zivković, M; Marinković, J; Vuković, D; Legetić, B
The term of project management is commonly used to describe the work of a team that is handling a special program. In this type of management, a form of leadership which creates environment, enables fast movement of participants through different work phases achieving the common aims, is used [1-4]. The "Healthy School" Project, launched in almost all European countries, has been taking place in Yugoslavia since the end of 1991 . The project developed within the country designed as a health promotion-education intervention study in primary schools. The network of 13 schools on 11 locations representing typical economic, cultural and social environments, was established to cover the country. Although the proposed methodological approach from WHO was followed , the specific situation in the country (economic crisis, break down of Yugoslav Federation, the war and international blockade) distated the particular modification. The management of the Healthy School Project in general, and in Yugoslavia particularly, is based upon project management structure (Scheme 1). The objective of this research was to assess the Healthy School project management in Yugoslavia, by measuring causal, intervening and output variables. In the process of assessing the management in general, three groups of criteria are commonly used: (a) causal (those that influence the course of developments in the Project), (b) intervening (representing the current condition of the internal state of the Project), and (c) output (that reflect the Project achievements). (a) For the purpose of this study the causal criteria were measured by analyzing the overall management strategy and the level of agreement in objectives of the Project itself, the Project Coordinators and main participants in the Project. (b) The intervening criteria used in this assessment were: the time spent on different project activities, the estimate of the severity of the problems in different aspects of project management
What does it take to create and implement a 7th to 8th grade middle school program where the great majority of students achieve at high academic levels regardless of their previous elementary school backgrounds? This was the major question that guided the research and development of a 7-year long project effort entitled the Chancellor's Model School Project (CMSP) from September 1991 to August 1998. The CMSP effort conducted largely in two New York City public schools was aimed at creating and testing a prototype 7th and 8th grade model program that was organized and test-implemented in two distinct project phases: Phase I of the CMSP effort was conducted from 1991 to 1995 as a 7th to 8th grade extension of an existing K-6 elementary school, and Phase II was conducted from 1995 to 1998 as a 7th to 8th grade middle school program that became an integral part of a newly established 7-12th grade high school. In Phase I, the CMSP demonstrated that with a highly structured curriculum coupled with strong academic support and increased learning time, students participating in the CMSP were able to develop a strong foundation for rigorous high school coursework within the space of 2 years (at the 7th and 8th grades). Mathematics and Reading test score data during Phase I of the project, clearly indicated that significant academic gains were obtained by almost all students -- at both the high and low ends of the spectrum -- regardless of their previous academic performance in the K-6 elementary school experience. The CMSP effort expanded in Phase II to include a fully operating 7-12 high school model. Achievement gains at the 7th and 8th grade levels in Phase II were tempered by the fact that incoming 7th grade students' academic background at the CMSP High School was significantly lower than students participating in Phase 1. Student performance in Phase II was also affected by the broadening of the CMSP effort from a 7-8th grade program to a fully functioning 7-12 high
Expanding the Practice of Newsmaking Criminology to Enlist Criminologists, Criminal Justicians, and Social Workers in Shaping Discussions of School Violence: A Review of School Shootings from 1992-2013
Kelley Reinsmith-Jones; James F. Anderson; Adam H. Langsam
Newsmaking criminology argues that criminologists should interpret, influence, and even shape the direction of newsworthy information about crime and justice to the extent that they aggressively make their presence known by engaging the media. This article calls for an expansion in the practice of newsmaking criminology to also include criminal justicians, as well as social workers when it comes to the issue of school violence. Recently, a number of shootings have occurred on school campuses ...
Mcguire, Saundra Y.
The Alabama A and M University Elementary and Middle School Science Improvement Project (Project SIP) was instituted to improve the science knowledge of elementary and middle school teachers using the experimental or hands-on approach. Summer workshops were conducted during the summers of 1986, 1987, and 1988 in the areas of biology, chemistry, physics, and electricity, and magnetism. Additionally, a manual containing 43 lessons which included background information, experiments and activities for classroom and home use was provided to each teacher. During the course of the project activities, the teachers interacted with various university faculty members, scientists, and NASA staff. The administrative aspects of the program, the delivery of the services to participating teachers, and the project outcome are addressed.
King, Angus; Chantler, Zara
This article describes a "Quiet Room" project for students with social, emotional, and behavioral problems at a British primary school. The Quiet Room was designed to provide a nurturing environment away from the classroom in which a child's emotional needs can be explored on a one-to-one basis. Benefits for children, parents, and…
In December 2012, twenty elementary school children and six adult staff members were shot and killed by a single individual at a school in Connecticut. Although this horrific event was met with widespread shock, Americans are sadly all too familiar with such mass shootings. From Columbine in 1999, to Virginia Tech in 2007, to the Colorado cinema shootings earlier in 2012, mass shootings seem to occur with alarming regularity. And although they appear to afflict the United States more than mos...
Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain
School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…
Palinkas, Lawrence A; Prussing, Erica; Landsverk, John; Reznik, Vivian
In March, 2001, 2 separate incidents of school shootings occurred within the same school district in San Diego's East County. To examine community explanatory models of the causes of the school shootings and strategies for preventing such events. A qualitative study was undertaken in 4 East County communities over a 6-month period following the 2 events. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 85 community residents identified through maximum variation sampling. Interview transcripts were analyzed by coding consensus, co-occurrence and comparison, using NVivo text analysis software. Four sets of theories as to the cause of these events were identified, based on the following: 1) unique or idiosyncratic characteristics of the 2 shooters (newcomer to community who was a victim of bullying, victim of child abuse with a history of mental illness), 2) universal factors (culture of violence, violence in the media), 3) family-centered characteristics (single-parent households, dysfunctional relationships), and 4) community-specific characteristics (reputation for social intolerance, widespread access to guns). Beliefs in family-centered and community-centered theories of etiology were associated with optimism in preventing such events from occurring in the future through increased recognition and response to problem behaviors, while beliefs in idiosyncratic or universal determinants of youth violence were associated with pessimistic assessments of prevention. In this community, youth-violence-prevention programs that focus on taking responsibility for recognizing and responding to problem behaviors in at-risk youth are more likely to gain community support and participation than programs that focus on increased security, surveillance, or behavior change.
Prepare a generation of young people for the challenges of the future is a task which forces us to rethink the school, not just for being difficult, but also because students feel that the school has very little to offer, especially something that interests them. Thus, the school is dysfunctional, is ill, and needs prompt treatment. School have to adjust to the new times, and this does not mean changing the old blackboards by advanced interactive whiteboards. The school has to find the way to the students with something that seduce them: the Challenge. The Astronomy Club that I lead in my school is essentially a Project space. Students who voluntarily joined the club, organize themselves according to their interests around projects whose outcome is not defined from the beginning, which requires them to do, undo and redo. Which obliges them to feel the need to ask for help to mathematics or physics to achieve answers, to feel the passion to study with a genuine purpose of learning. Some examples of the work: The younger students are challenged to reproduce the historical astronomical experiments that have opened the doors of knowledge such as the Eratosthenes experiment to determine the perimeter of the Earth (on equinox), or by using congruent triangles, determine the diameter the sun. These students are driven to establish distance scales in the solar system, which, to their astonishment, allows them to clear misconceptions that arise from some pictures of books and allows them to have a scientifically correct idea of the planetary orbit and distance separating the planets of the Solar System. For students from 15 to 18 years, I have to raise the level of the challenges and use the natural tendency of this age bracket to assert making new and exciting things. To this purpose, I am fortunate to have the support of large organizations like NUCLIO, ESA, CERN, and Go-Lab Project, Inspiring Science Education, Open Discovery Space and Global Hands on Universe. Through
Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon
Adolescent forensic behavior can have a variety of meanings. A consideration of the range of meanings can inform the practice of the psychiatric forensic evaluation. This case report describes the history of an adolescent in individual treatment for disruptive and self-defeating behaviors who brought a concealed toy gun into his high school in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting. The overdetermined nature of this act, as well as a consideration of its multiple meanings in the context of the young man's psychology, his educational and family systems, and his relationship with his treatment provider, will be described and developed. The discussion will broaden to consider the parameters of indicated therapeutic programs to address this subset of adolescent forensic behaviors. The role of deficient implicit emotion regulation capacities in adolescents and the corrective measures to target these neurobehavioral deficits will be described. The report concludes with implications for primary prevention of future adolescent forensic behaviors.
Oker-Blom, P.; Kellomaki, S.; Smolander, H.
A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively
Hojnoski, Robin L.; Morrison, Rhonda; Brown, Melissa; Matthews, William J.
The use of projective techniques by school psychologists has been a point of interest and debate, with a number of survey studies documenting usage. The purpose of this study is to update the status of projective use among school psychologists, with a specific focus on their use in the social emotional assessment of children in schools. In…
Building a Systematic Data Base for the Future. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"
Smith, Peter K.
In this commentary, Peter Smith questions how well we follow up after school shootings in order to diagnose causes and enhance future prevention. Sommer, Leuschner, and Scheithauer (2014) have assembled data from 126 cases available in the English and German research literature and suggested important risk categories. Notably, there are a large…
Thomas H. Nicholls; Kathryn Robbins
Sirococcus shoot blight, caused by the fungus Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss, affects conifers in the Northern United States and southern Canada. The fungus infects the new shoots; diseased seedlings and saplings are especially affected. In the United States, sirococcus shoot blight has become increasingly widespread since the early 1970's. When favorable...
School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, ... an astronomy education project for high school teachers and students was initiated ... ipality, universities and research institutes, professional and amateur astronomical.
In the wake of the Stoneman Douglas School shooting, Republican and Democratic leaders-like the American electorate they represent-remain sharply divided in their responses to gun violence. They are united in their condemnation of these mass shootings, but they disagree about whether stricter or looser gun control laws are the answer. Those on the right side of the political aisle suggest that the issue is one of mental illness rather than gun control. Conversely, those who are more liberal or progressive in their political learnings are quick to condemn attempts to reframe the issue of mass shootings as a mental health problem. Both sides are wrong. Mass shootings are indeed partially a mental health problem, albeit one poorly addressed by our current laws and policies. But the solution to mass shootings also needs to consider strategies that may reduce gun violence in general. © 2018 The Hastings Center.
Wellensiek, Anneliese; Lembens, Anja; Schallies, Michael
"Schools Ethics Technology" was a German interdisciplinary research project with the Centre of Ethics in the Sciences at the University of Tubingen. The project highlighted the new topic of biotechnology and genetic engineering, involving the formation of active project groups within schools. This study examined teaching activities…
Jin, Zizhuo Tony
The context of this internship is the CERN summer student program for the year 2015. As a member of the CERN summer school, I have been assigned, in addition to the classes I attended in the morning, a scientific project within the BE-ABP-HSC section. This work was done under the directions of Benoit Salvant and Nicolo Biancacci whom I thank greatly for their help, patience and teaching. The project consisted in observing the effects generated by the beam passing through various devices. We focused mainly on the electromagnetic waves generated by beams of particles travelling along two of the accelerator's devices: A wire scanner and the TDI (LHC injection beam stopper). These Simulations are of importance to estimate the effect of the beam onto the surrounding apparatus and ensuring both that the latter doesn't get damaged and that the beam doesn't lose too much energy. All the models and simulations were done using c CST STUDIO SUITE software developed by the c CST company.
Porter, Brian Joseph
The actions of two assailants who shot and killed 10 people and wounded three others, including a student, in the region around Washington, D.C., in October 2002, provides the backdrop for a qualitative study of the emergency response by school district leaders in Montgomery County, Maryland. The study explores and describes the experiences of the…
Cook, Daniel Thomas
Analyzes the cause of the massacre at Colorado's Columbine high school by other students. Considers the incident systemic of opposing tendencies, values, and motives surrounding childhood and the weakening of the power to affect one's surroundings due to the dominance of commercial culture. (JPB)
Describes the creation and operation of Project Chrysalis, a community, service-learning school transformed from row houses, where children can learn, work, and gain inspiration from artists and social entrepreneurs involved with Houston's Project Row Houses. Personal narratives of two teachers highlight the school's and students' accomplishments…
Cooper, Jill F MSW; McMillan, Tracy MPH, PHD
fe Routes to School National Partnership (Partnership) founded the Local School Project (Project) in 2008 to assist ten schools in lowincome communities to: 1) develop and evaluate a school-based SRTS program, 2) build local capacity to apply for state or federal SRTS funding, and 3) increase safe walking and bicycling to and from the school and in the community. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kaiser Permanente, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation provided funding for the ...
Citizenship education in schools is a powerful tool to build people's ability to demand recognition of their ... and foster debate on strengthening democracy and citizenship through school education. ... Inclusive growth: Buzzword or innovation?
Sakes, Aimée; Wiel, van der Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W.J.; Leeuwen, van Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul
Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these
Strøm, Ida Frugård; Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete
The psychological impact on survivors of terrorism has been well documented. However, studies on adolescent survivors and the academic performance of high school students following a terrorist attack are lacking. This study investigated academic performance, absenteeism, and school support amongst survivors of a terrorist attack in Norway. Data from a longitudinal interview study were linked to officially registered grades of students (N=64) who successfully completed their 3-year senior high school program. Statistical tests of mean differences and linear regression were used to compare the survivors' registered grades with the national grade point average, before and after the event, as well as to assess absenteeism, self-reported grades and to test the association with school support. The students' grades were lower the year after the event than they had been the year before, and they were also lower than the national grade point average (pschool, indicating possible recovery. Absence from school increased after the event, compared to the previous year. However, students reported high satisfaction with school support. The results indicate that academic functioning was reduced in the year after the traumatic event, but for students who successfully completed high school, the school situation improved 2 years after the event. The findings underscore the importance of keeping trauma-exposed students in school and providing support over time. A more defined educational approach to maintaining school attendance and educational measures which compensate for learning loss are needed in trauma-sensitive teaching.
Rovilson José da Silva
Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the formation of readers in the first years of elementary school and proposes the integration between the school pedagogical project, teachers, reading practices and the school library. Objective: To analyze the basic assumptions to train readers in school. Methods: Bibliographic research based on a literature review on the subject. Results: Initial elements that may be used to structure readers-training projects at any schools are presented. Conclusion: Training readers at school consists in having procedures and pedagogical actions performed in combination with guided and free usage of the library, borrowing books and time to hear stories and talk about them.
Ida Frugård Strøm
Full Text Available Background: The psychological impact on survivors of terrorism has been well documented. However, studies on adolescent survivors and the academic performance of high school students following a terrorist attack are lacking. Objective: This study investigated academic performance, absenteeism, and school support amongst survivors of a terrorist attack in Norway. Method: Data from a longitudinal interview study were linked to officially registered grades of students (N=64 who successfully completed their 3-year senior high school program. Statistical tests of mean differences and linear regression were used to compare the survivors’ registered grades with the national grade point average, before and after the event, as well as to assess absenteeism, self-reported grades and to test the association with school support. Results: The students’ grades were lower the year after the event than they had been the year before, and they were also lower than the national grade point average (p<0.001. However, their grades improved in the last year of high school, indicating possible recovery. Absence from school increased after the event, compared to the previous year. However, students reported high satisfaction with school support. Conclusion: The results indicate that academic functioning was reduced in the year after the traumatic event, but for students who successfully completed high school, the school situation improved 2 years after the event. The findings underscore the importance of keeping trauma-exposed students in school and providing support over time. A more defined educational approach to maintaining school attendance and educational measures which compensate for learning loss are needed in trauma-sensitive teaching.
Blanchini, P.; Marino, G.
The Foundation for Environmental Education in Europe (FEEE) was established in 1981; since then it was been actively promoting and delivering education through a series of successful internationals programmes launched in 21 different European nations. The Eco-School Campaign aims to raise students' awareness of environment issues through classroom study, and provide an integrated system for environmental management of schools based on EMAS (with waste, water and energy management as priority areas). As a process of facilitating sustainable developpement at a local level, pupils are encouraged to take an active role in mental impact of the schools. The Eco-Schools Green Flag, awarded to schools with high achievement in their Programme, is a recognised and respected eco-label for environmental education and performance. In Italy the National Eco-Schools operator was asked to set up a ten-schools pilot programme in the region Friuli Venezia Giulia: these are very first national schools that are likely to become 'Eco-Schools'
Glynn, Ted; Berryman, Mere; Glynn, Vin
The Rotorua Energy Charitable Trust with support from the Ministry of Education funded a home and school literacy project in nine Rotorua primary schools. The project funded each school to train a home-school liaison worker (either a school staff member or a community person) to assist schools in developing a working partnership with the students'…
"This concluding article provides the first published account of a series of psychological experiments which are presently being undertaken by the Schools Television Research Project, examining presentation factors in instructional television. (Editor)
This article presents selected outcomes of a 3-year project "Health promotion of school staff in health-promoting schools," as well as the achievements and difficulties in its implementation. The research was conducted on 644 teachers and 226 members of non-teaching staff in 21 schools. The method involved opinion poll and authored questionnaires. A 2-part model of outcome evaluation was developed. Most participants appreciated the changes that took place within the 3 years of the project implementation. These included the improved level of their knowledge about health, health-conducive behaviors (62-93%) and the physical and social environment of the school (50-92%). Changes were more frequently acknowledged by teachers. About 80% of the participants had a positive attitude to the project, but only 20% assessed their involvement as considerable. About 90% believed that health promotion activities should be continued. According to the project leaders, insufficient support and financial resources, and difficulties in motivating school employees, particularly the nonteaching staff, to undertake health-promotion activities were the major handicaps in the project implementation. The project outcomes can be assessed as satisfying. They revealed that it is posssible to initiate health promotion among school staff. This can be effective on condition that participants are motivated, actively engaged in the project and supported by the head teacher and the local community. Necessarily, school leaders should be prepared to promote health among adults and to gain support from school policy decision makers, school administration, trade unions and universities involved in teacher training. Med Pr 2016;67(2):187-200. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Background: This article presents selected outcomes of a 3-year project “Health promotion of school staff in health-promoting schools,” as well as the achievements and difficulties in its implementation. Material and Methods: The research was conducted on 644 teachers and 226 members of non-teaching staff in 21 schools. The method involved opinion poll and authored questionnaires. A 2-part model of outcome evaluation was developed. Results: Most participants appreciated the changes that took place within the 3 years of the project implementation. These included the improved level of their knowledge about health, health-conducive behaviors (62–93% and the physical and social environment of the school (50–92%. Changes were more frequently acknowledged by teachers. About 80% of the participants had a positive attitude to the project, but only 20% assessed their involvement as considerable. About 90% believed that health promotion activities should be continued. According to the project leaders, insufficient support and financial resources, and difficulties in motivating school employees, particularly the nonteaching staff, to undertake health-promotion activities were the major handicaps in the project implementation. Conclusions: The project outcomes can be assessed as satisfying. They revealed that it is posssible to initiate health promotion among school staff. This can be effective on condition that participants are motivated, actively engaged in the project and supported by the head teacher and the local community. Necessarily, school leaders should be prepared to promote health among adults and to gain support from school policy decision makers, school administration, trade unions and universities involved in teacher training. Med Pr 2016;67(2:187–200
The City of Cape Town's Water Demand Management (WDM) department has been involved in school projects for several years, although these have generally been restricted to educational activities during Water Week and school competitions, due mainly to limited resources. Cape Town is a water scarce area, and ...
Howe, Edward T.
Financing school capital projects in New York State is a responsibility involving both local school districts and the state government. State building aid is provided through an aid ratio and approved expenditure formula. This formula has an equalizing effect among districts by explicitly providing an aid amount inversely proportional to property…
, and ... materials and teachers' training modules on citizenship education. ... and the political class, frail government institutions, high social unrest, corruption, and ... Citizenship education in schools is a powerful tool to build people's ability to ...
The White Pine County School District and the Nevada Division of Forestry agreed to develop a pilot project for Nevada using wood chips to heat the David E. Norman Elementary School in Ely, Nevada. Consideration of the project was triggered by a ''Fuels for Schools'' grant that was brought to the attention of the School District. The biomass project that was part of a district-wide energy retrofit, called for the installation of a biomass heating system for the school, while the current fuel oil system remained as back-up. Woody biomass from forest fuel reduction programs will be the main source of fuel. The heating system as planned and completed consists of a biomass steam boiler, storage facility, and an area for unloading and handling equipment necessary to deliver and load fuel. This was the first project of it's kind in Nevada. The purpose of the DOE funded project was to accomplish the following goals: (1) Fuel Efficiency: Purchase and install a fuel efficient biomass heating system. (2) Demonstration Project: Demonstrate the project and gather data to assist with further research and development of biomass technology; and (3) Education: Educate the White Pine community and others about biomass and other non-fossil fuels.
Full Text Available The International Successful School Principalship Project (ISSPP has been actively conducting research about the work of successful principals since 2001. Findings from four project books and eight models derived from this project are synthesised into a model of successful school leadership. Building on Gurr, Drysdale and Mulford’s earlier model, the work of school leaders is described as engaging within the school context to influence student and school outcomes through interventions in teaching and learning, school capacity building, and the wider context. The qualities a leader brings to their role, a portfolio approach to using leadership ideas, constructing networks, collaborations and partnerships, and utilising accountability and evaluation for evidence-informed improvement, are important additional elements. The model is applicable to all in leadership roles in schools.
Rose, Barbara L; Mansour, Mona; Kohake, Kelli
The Cincinnati School Health Demonstration Project was a 3-year collaboration that evaluated school-linked health services in 6 urban elementary (kindergarten to eighth grade) schools. Partners from the Cincinnati Health Department, Cincinnati Public Schools, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, and The Health Foundation of Greater Cincinnati wanted to determine if levels of school-linked care made a difference in student quality of life, school connectedness, attendance, emergency department use, and volume of referrals to health care specialists. School nurses, principals and school staff, parents and students, upper-level managers, and health service researchers worked together over a 2.5-year period to learn about and use new technology to collect information on student health, well-being, and outcome measures. Varying levels of school health care intervention models were instituted and evaluated. A standard model of care was compared with 2 models of enhanced care and service. The information collected from students, parents, nurses, and the school system provided a rich database on the health of urban children. School facilities, staffing, and computer technology, relationship building among stakeholders, extensive communication, and high student mobility were factors that influenced success and findings of the project. Funding for district-wide computerization and addition of school health staff was not secured by the end of the demonstration project; however, relationships among the partners endured and paved the way for future collaborations designed to better serve urban school children in Cincinnati.
Santos, Marta; Araújo e Sá, Maria Helena; Simões, Ana Raquel
In this article, we present and discuss a collaborative project on intercultural education developed by a group of educational partners. The group was made up of 12 people representing different institutions in the community, namely primary schools, cultural and social associations and the local council. The project takes an intercultural approach…
Managing the risks inherent in a building project presents a challenge and opportunities not often encountered in the ordinary affairs of a school district. A building project brings the district, its staff, and students, as well as the community, in close contact with architects and engineers and a number of contractors for a period of time often…
US Department of Energy, 2007
The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…
Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Gabriel, Roy M.; Hahn, Karen J.; Laws, Katherine E.
In 1994, the Chrysalis Project in Portland Public Schools received funding to prevent or delay the onset of substance abuse among a special target population: high-risk, female adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Findings from the evaluation of the project's second year of providing assistance to these students are reported here. During…
Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2010
The school shooting incidents during the decade of the 1990's prompted an increase of law enforcement presence in schools. The School Violence Resource Center (SVRC) at the Criminal Justice Institute (CJI) University of Arkansas System undertook a project to determine what programs law enforcement agencies currently provide in their local schools…
Teenoi, Kultida; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
Like others, Thailand education strongly focused on STEM education. This paper aimed to examine existing Thai high school students' integrated knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in their developing science project. The participants included 49 high school students were studying the subject of individual study (IS) in Khon Kaen wittayayon school, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The IS was provided to gradually enhance students to know how to do science project starting from getting start to do science projects, They enrolled to study the individual study of science project for three year in roll. Methodology was qualitative research. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM were interpreted through participant observation, interview, and students' science projects. The first author as participant observation has taught this group of students for 3 years. It found that 16 science projects were developed. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM could be categorized into three categories. These included (1) completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, (2) partial indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, and (3) no integration. The findings revealed that majority of science projects could be categorized as completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The paper suggested some ideas of enhancing students to applying STEM for developing science projects.
Your next usability project could be waiting for you in the college library, registration office, or online admissions process that your college or university utilizes in their daily transactions. As an added bonus, these exercises supplement the IS2002 curriculum model, benefit the instructor's institution, build inter-departmental collaboration,…
Rosenilde Nogueira Paniago
Full Text Available This study discusses an investigation done with teachers of a public school, located on countryside, city of Água Boa, Mato Grosso, with a view to looking for new alternatives to the teaching practice on school, by means of using the collaborative realization of projects and researches as pedagogical alternatives. As qualitative approach, the investigation has developed by means of the study of benchmarks, that discuss the research on teaching formation, on teaching practice, education on/of the countryside and, of the projects’ realization of teaching and research with and by teachers. The work enabled to get closer relationship between school and community, to articulate the theoretical knowledge, studied on school, and the life of countryside students, showing the necessity of theoretico-methodological formation with collective engagement of teachers and public politics that propitiate the emergence of conditions to the new practices of teaching on school on/of the countryside by the bias of search.
In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.
Post, W.M.; Bogaard, S.A.A. van den; Rasker, P.C.
When knowledge, required for trouble-shooting at sea, can be supplied real-time but from a distance, problems, such as with the limited availability of specialists, and the high costs of maintenance, may be tackled. Unclear is, however, how this redistribution of knowledge will work in practice. We
Chalikias, Miltiadis S.
The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.
Described is an established geophysics project to construct a solar wind monitor based on a nT resolution fluxgate magnetometer. Low-cost and appropriate from school to university level it incorporates elements of astrophysics, geophysics, electronics, programming, computer networking and signal processing. The system monitors the earth's field in…
Application of Markovian model to school enrolment projection process. VU Ekhosuehi, AA Osagiede. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 9-16. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
The study investigated the effect of students' project work on secondary school science process skills acquisition in Biology. The study was carried out in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State. Three research questions guided the study and three null hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of ...
Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.
This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on health is divided into ten topics. The topics included are Nutrition, Reproduction, Menstruation, Contraception, Alcohol Abuse, Tobacco, Immunization, Disease, Accident Prevention, and…
Project SABER, which operated in Sarah J. Hale High School in South Brooklyn, New York, consisted of bilingual instructional and supportive services to 9th and 10th grade Spanish language students. Students received bilingual instruction in social studies, science, math, and Spanish. All the SABER students received English as a second language…
Corte-Real, Maria De Sao Jose
MUSSI is the name of a she-cat from an imaginary story invented and told by children from two elementary schools through different performing modalities. It is also the name of a pilot project of Applied Ethnomusicology funded by a major Portuguese Company, SONAE Sierra, through the local Loures Shopping Centre, which paid for the musical…
Space-related educational activities is a very inspiring and attractive way to involve students into science courses, present them the variety of STEM careers that they can follow, while giving them at the same time the opportunity to develop various practical and communication skills necessary for their future professional development. As part of a large scale extracurricular course in Space Science, Space Technology and Robotics that has been introduced in our school, our students, divided in smaller groups of 3-4 students in each, try to understand the challenges that current and future space exploration is facing. Following a mixture of an inquiry-based learning methodology and hands-on practical activities related with constructions and experiments, students get a glimpse of the pre-mentioned fields. Our main goal is to gain practical knowledge and inspiration from the exciting field of Space, to attain an adequate level of team spirit and effective cooperation, while developing technical and research data-mining skills. We use the following two approaches: 1. Constructive (Technical) approach Designing and constructing various customized robotic machines, that will simulate the future space exploration vehicles and satellites needed to study the atmosphere, surface and subsurface of planets, moons or other planetary bodies of our solar system that have shown some promising indications for the existence of life, taking seriously into account their special characteristics and known existing conditions (like Mars, Titan, Europa & Enceladus). The STEM tools we use are the following: - LEGO Mindstorms: to construct rovers for surface exploration. - Hydrobots: an MIT's SeaPerch program for the construction of submarine semi-autonomous robots. - CanSats: Arduino-based microsatellites able to receive, record & transmit data. - Space balloons: appropriate for high altitude atmospheric measurements & photography. 2. Scientific approach Conducting interesting physics
Shariffah Noor Khamseah Al Idid
The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)
Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.
Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T
Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.
McConnell, Mark L.
The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.
Smith, Saylor; Godbold, Jim; Carter, Paul
Presents three short articles dealing with ethical issues facing the Thornton High School (Oregon) newspaper staff as they dealt with the aftermath of an incident in which an armed student allegedly entered the school cafeteria and began shooting. Discusses how the local newspaper covered the tragedy, and policies on dealing with reporting of…
Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.
This report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in three California public school districts. Solar energy systems installed on public schools have a number of benefits that include utility bill savings, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and other toxic air contaminants, job creation, demonstrating environmental leadership, and creating learning opportunities for students. In the 2011 economic environment, the ability to generate general-fund savings as a result of reducing utility bills has become a primary motivator for school districts trying to cut costs. To achieve meaningful savings, the size of the photovoltaic (PV) systems installed (both individually on any one school and collectively across a district) becomes much more important; larger systems are required to have a material impact on savings. Larger PV systems require a significant financial commitment and financing therefore becomes a critical element in the transaction. In simple terms, school districts can use two primary types of ownership models to obtain solar installations and cost savings across a school district. The PV installations can be financed and owned directly by the districts themselves. Alternatively, there are financing structures whereby another entity, such as a solar developer or its investors, actually own and operate the PV systems on behalf of the school district. This is commonly referred to as the 'third-party ownership model.' Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be weighed carefully.
Described is an established geophysics project to construct a solar wind monitor based on a nT resolution fluxgate magnetometer. Low-cost and appropriate from school to university level it incorporates elements of astrophysics, geophysics, electronics, programming, computer networking and signal processing. The system monitors the earth’s field in real-time uploading data and graphs to a website every few minutes. Modular design encourages construction and testing by teams of students as well as expansion and refinement. The system has been tested running unattended for months at a time. Both the hardware design and software is published as open-source [1, 10].
Peruzza, Laura; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Dusi, Alberto; Grimaz, Stefano; Malisan, Petra; Saraò, Angela; Mucciarelli, Marco
For many years, the Italian scientific community has faced the problem of the reduction of earthquake risk using innovative educational techniques. Recent earthquakes in Italy and around the world have clearly demonstrated that seismic codes alone are not able to guarantee an effective mitigation of risk. After the tragic events of San Giuliano di Puglia (2002), where an earthquake killed 26 school children, special attention was paid in Italy to the seismic safety of schools, but mainly with respect to structural aspects. Little attention has been devoted to the possible and even significant damage to non-structural elements (collapse of ceilings, tipping of cabinets and shelving, obstruction of escape routes, etc..). Students and teachers trained on these aspects may lead to a very effective preventive vigilance. Since 2002, the project EDURISK (www.edurisk.it) proposed educational tools and training programs for schools, at primary and middle levels. More recently, a nationwide campaign aimed to adults (www.iononrischio.it) was launched with the extensive support of civil protection volounteers. There was a gap for high schools, and Project SISIFO was designed to fill this void and in particular for those schools with technical/scientific curricula. SISIFO (https://sites.google.com/site/ogssisifo/) is a multidisciplinary initiative, aimed at the diffusion of scientific culture for achieving seismic safety in schools, replicable and can be structured in training the next several years. The students, helped by their teachers and by experts from scientific institutions, followed a course on specialized training on earthquake safety. The trial began in North-East Italy, with a combination of hands-on activities for the measurement of earthquakes with low-cost instruments and lectures with experts in various disciplines, accompanied by specifically designed teaching materials, both on paper and digital format. We intend to raise teachers and students knowledge of the
Schenke, Wouter; van Driel, Jan; Geijsel, Femke P.; Volman, Monique L. L.
Background/Context: School leaders, teachers, and researchers are increasingly involved in collaborative research and development (R&D) projects in schools, which encourage crossing boundaries between the fields of school and research. It is not clear, however, what and how professionals in these projects learn through cross-professional…
Full Text Available Environmental education does not only occur in formal institutions, and yes has been widely disseminated among non formal spaces of education, which complements its ecological and social nature. Zoos are the institutions that play an important role in environmental education, raising awareness and preparing citizens to act in the critically and ethical society, committed to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental perception of students in 7th grade of elementary school in Municipal Elementary School Jardelino Ramos, in partnership with the Zoo, University of Caxias do Sul. Twenty-four questionnaires were applied in order to diagnose the environmental perception of students through four questions regarding activities at the zoo. After it was contextualized and discussed on the topics: zoos and their history, function, animals and their enclosures, technical education and environmental enrichment. To complement the enrichment technique discussed in class, the students sewed materials that were later added to the precincts of animals chosen for themselves. A week after the project is completed was held again the questionnaire to verify the results obtained from the project. These were analyzed, discussed and compared through graphs, which show that the objectives were achieved and the didactics used was efficient, as described in the article.
Katsarou, Eleni; Tsafos, Vassilis
A collaborative school innovation project is explored as a pivot for the professional development of the teachers involved. The Second Chance School (SCS) of Acharnes in Greece constitutes such a collaborative innovative project, regarding the underlying theory of multiliteracies, its decentralised character, respect for student individuality, and…
Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin
Background and purpose: This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects, which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects
Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin
Background and purpose: This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from…
Vagnby, Bo Hellisen
In 2002, efforts started on formulating a maintenance policy for schools and other social service facilities in Eritrea. Since then, an appropriate policy and related implementation strategies have been further developed. In 2003, a specific pilot project was designed covering a number of schools...... of a school based approach to school maintenance are presented in the report....
The First Amendment Schools project holds rich lessons in how to change school cultures into "laboratories of democracy"--as well as in how to increase the odds of success for any school reform effort. School reform programs of any sort need to make sure to build in sustainability, to provide ways to spread their lessons beyond the…
McHenry-Sorber, Erin; Schafft, Kai A.
Far from being the harmonious and homogenous communities of popular imagination, rural communities often are characterised by stark differences in class-situated values over education philosophy and financing. These differences can produce contentious political environments, vastly complexifying local decision-making, including school district…
Callaghan, Christine; Mandich, Gillian; He, Meizi
The Healthy Vending Machine Pilot Project (HVMPP) was a public health initiative intended to create a healthier school nutrition environment by making healthier snacks available in vending machines, while maintaining a profit margin. The HVMPP was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative measures. Vending machines were stocked with healthier choices and conventional vending products at a 50:50 ratio. The HVMPP was implemented from February to May 2007 in four Ontario secondary schools in Middlesex-London, Elgin, and Oxford counties. Product sales were tracked, and focus groups were conducted to obtain students' opinions about healthy eating and vending choices. "Healthier choice" sales ranged from 14% to 17%. In all schools, vending revenues declined from 0.7% to 66%. A majority of participants had substantial knowledge of healthy eating and were in favour of healthier choices in vending machines; however, price, value, and taste were barriers that led them to purchase these products rarely. Students preferred to have "real" healthy snacks, such as yogurt, fruit, and vegetables, available in schools. Replacing 50% of vending stock with healthier snacks resulted in a decline in vending revenues. Future health programs in schools need to provide "real" healthy snacks, such as low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
Chipley, Michael; Lyon, Wesley; Smilowitz, Robert; Williams, Pax; Arnold, Christopher; Blewett, William; Hazen, Lee; Krimgold, Fred
This publication, part of the new Building and Infrastructure Protection Series (BIPS) published by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Infrastructure Protection and Disaster Management Division (IDD), serves to advance high performance and integrated design for buildings and infrastructure. This…
Smith, C. W.; Broad, L.; Goelzer, S.; Levergood, R.; Lugaz, N.; Moebius, E.
Every summer for the past 26 years the University of New Hampshire (UNH) has run a month-long, residential outreach program for high school students considering careers in mathematics, science, or engineering. Space science is one of the modules. Students work directly with UNH faculty performing original work with real spacecraft data and hardware and present the results of that effort at the end of the program. This year the student research projects used data from the Messenger, STEREO, and Triana missions. In addition, the students build and fly a high-altitude balloon payload with instruments of their own construction. Students learn circuit design and construction, microcontroller programming, and core atmospheric and space science along with fundamental concepts in space physics and engineering. Our payload design has evolved significantly since the first flight of a simple rectangular box and now involves a stable descent vehicle that does not require a parachute. Our flight hardware includes an on-board flight control computer, in-flight autonomous control and data acquisition of multiple student-built instruments, and real-time camera images sent to ground. This year we developed, built and flew a successful line cutter based on GPS location information that prevents our payload from falling into the ocean while also separating the payload from the balloon remains for a cleaner descent. We will describe that new line cutter design and implementation along with the shielded Geiger counters that we flew as part of our cosmic ray air shower experiment. This is a program that can be used as a model for other schools to follow and that high schools can initiate. More information can be found at .
Ryan V. Dio
Full Text Available The general expectancies of the enhanced basic education curriculum in the Philippines focuses on the performance standards which can be expressed when students are able to produce products as evidence that they can transfer or use their learning in real-life situations. One way to assess students achievement is through an engaging activities that would require them apply the knowledge and skills acquired in the subject as the outcome of their learning. This descriptive method of research employed content analysis procedures and survey in describing and assessing the significant feature of the mathematical games as potential learning devices developed by the high school students through an engaging task assignment. It utilized purposive sampling techniques in the selection of the respondents and the submitted write-ups of mathematical games for analysis as typical sample in this study. The study revealed that the high school students developed mathematical board games with different objectives and mechanics as inspired by their learning, experiences, hobbies, and interest. Mathematical concepts and processes along numbers and number sense, measurements, algebra, geometry, and probability and statistics were integrated in the game through question card and mechanics of the game itself. The groups of students and teachers have high level of agreement as to the workmanship and usability, mechanics and organization, relevance to instruction/learning, and fun and enjoyment of the game as revealed by their assessment from very satisfactory to excellent level. Results implied that teachers in any subject area may use students’ engagement project as teaching strategy to produce products and performance that would provide evidence of students’ learning. The school curriculum makers may consider the students’ output as subjects of research for further improvements, exhibits, and classroom utilization.
Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.
The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA s Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA s and NLSI s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE s High School Lunar Research Projects program is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The objectives of the program are to enhance 1) student views of the nature of science; 2) student attitudes toward science and science careers; and 3) student knowledge of lunar science. In its first three years, approximately 168 students and 28 teachers from across the United States have participated in the program. Before beginning their research, students undertake Moon 101, a guided-inquiry activity designed to familiarize them with lunar science and exploration. Following Moon 101, and guided by a lunar scientist mentor, teams choose a research topic, ask their own research question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results to a panel of lunar scientists. This panel selects four posters to be presented at the annual Lunar Science Forum held at NASA Ames. The top scoring team travels to the forum to present their research in person.
Noversa, Silvana; Abreu, Cátia; Varela, Paulo; Costa, Manuel F. M.
This communication results from a pedagogical intervention project, carried out at a primary school in the district of Braga - Portugal. The intervention took place in a class of the 3rd year, composed of 16 students, and it incorporated the practice of inquiry-based science teaching addressing the theme "Light Experiments", which is part of the "Environmental Studies" curricular area. Various class activities were planned and implemented concerning some of the factors that influence the shadow of an object, in order to find answers to the following three questions: a) will 3rd year students, aged 7/8 years, be able to construct and execute an investigation strategy that involves manipulating and controlling variables? b) what are the main difficulties experienced by students in the designing and execution of such a strategy? c) how will students, in interaction with the teacher and with their peers, gradually design and execute their investigation strategy in order to respond to the problem formulated? The project adopted an action research methodology. A careful record was kept of the events most relevant to the questions under study in each class. This data was used to prepare the class diaries - descriptive and reflective narratives prepared based on recorded audio and field notes made during participant observation in the context of the classroom. A content analysis of the diaries has identified a few elements that provide answers to the research questions raised. In order to plan and implement a research project with children in the 7/8 years old range require a high level of scaffolding to allow students to gradually build a coherent strategy to tackle the research problem. Teacher's role is crucial. The teacher, by questioning and inducing reasoning and discussion, promotes encourages and regulates the cognitive activity of students. Some level of autonomy should be given to the students in large group collaborative work.
Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of the current study was to determine whether existing pre-performance routines had an effect on free throw shooting accuracy in high school pupils as compared to shooting without a pre-performance routine.
This was a Research and Developmental study designed to develop and validate projects for Junior Secondary School Basic Science instruction and evaluation. The projects were developed using the project blueprint and sent for validation by experts in science education and measurement and evaluation; using a project validation scale. They were to…
Townrow, Carly S.; Laurence, Nick; Blythe, Charlotte; Long, Jenny; Harré, Niki
The Maui's Dolphin Challenge was a litter reduction project that was run twice at a secondary school in Aotearoa New Zealand. The project drew on a theoretical framework encompassing four psycho-social principles: values, embodied learning, efficacy, and perceived social norms. It challenged students to reduce the litter at the school by offering…
Hilsmier, Amanda Strong; Wood, Patricia F.; Wirt, Susan; McTamney, Diane; Malone, Mary Beth; Milstead, Becky
The purpose of this article is to outline the implementation of a summer reading project targeted at middle school students with identified reading deficits and behavioral concerns called Pathway to Graduation (PTG). The project was a collaborative process between a school district, local university, and department of mental health. The students…
Gungor, Sema Nur; Ozer, Dilek Zeren; Ozkan, Muhlis
This study re-evaluated 454 science projects that were prepared by primary school students between 2007 and 2011 within the scope of Science Projects Event for Primary School Students. Also, submitted to TUBITAK BIDEB Bursa regional science board by MNE regional work groups in accordance with scientific research methods and techniques, including…
Kester, Donald L.; Plakos, John; Santos, Will
The report details the third-year evaluation of a transitional bilingual education project at Chester W. Nimitz Middle School in Huntington Park, California. The Family/School Partnership Project is designed to assist limited English proficient students in mastering English skills to transition to regular classroom activities by integrating…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the concept, methods of implementation, results and experiences from the first stage of the three-year project on school staff health promotion carried out within the framework of the health-promoting school (HPS) network in Poland. Design/methodology/approach: The project was implemented in 2012 in…
The objective of this study is to find out the opinions of school administrators, teachers, staff, benefiting students and parents and other stakeholders of "Let the Schools Become Life" project being carried out in order to reveal the effectiveness and efficiency of the project. Data in this qualitative research was gathered by…
Terrón-López, María-José; García-García, María-José; Velasco-Quintana, Paloma-Julia; Ocampo, Jared; Vigil Montaño, María-Reyes; Gaya-López, María-Cruz
The School of Engineering at Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM) implemented, starting in the 2012-2013 period, a unified academic model based on project-based learning as the methodology used throughout the entire School. This model expects that every year, in each grade, all the students should participate in a capstone project integrating the…
Meyer, Kimberly; Wurdinger, Scott
This research aimed to examine students' perceptions of their life skills while attending project-based learning (PBL) schools. The study focused on three questions including: (1) What are students' perceptions of their development of life skills in project-based learning schools?; (2) In what ways, if any, do students perceive an increase in…
Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Hazzan, Orit
This article describes the construction process and evaluation of the Agile Constructionist Mentoring Methodology (ACMM), a mentoring method for guiding software development projects in the high school. The need for such a methodology has arisen due to the complexity of mentoring software project development in the high school. We introduce the…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
This manual presents the major lessons learned about how national authorities, individual institutions, and individual educators can work to increase the impact of the Associated Schools Project (ASP) schools and spread it to other parts of the educational system. ASP is a project of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural…
Greek school community emphasizes on the discovery direction of teaching methodology in the school Environmental Education (EE) in order to promote Education for the Sustainable Development (ESD). In ESD school projects the used methodology is experiential teamwork for inquiry based learning. The proposed tool checks whether and how a school…
Gunn, Angus M., Ed.
Nine articles by geographers and educators analyze the High School Geography Project (HSGP). A project overview by Angus Gunn presents essential ideas and content of six units and several preliminary reactions. The question of "HSGP exportability" to France and Germany is examined in articles by Maurice Saint-Yves and Robert Geipel…
Baring-Gould, I.; Newcomb, C.
This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy, Wind Powering America, Wind for Schools project. It outlines teacher-training activities and curriculum development; discusses the affiliate program that allows school districts and states to replicate the program; and contains reports that provide an update on activities and progress in the 11 states in which the Wind for Schools project operates.
Snipes, Jason C.; Holton, Glee Ivory; Doolittle, Fred
In the past decade, school districts around the country have sought to improve struggling urban high schools, where high dropout rates, poor student achievement, and low rates of graduation and college-going remain all too prevalent. In a field crowded with reform initiatives, Project Graduation Really Achieves Dreams (GRAD) stands out as…
Anderson, Lorin W.; Shirley, J. Robert
Summarizes a study examining the high school principal's role in providing the leadership needed to explore and implement Project Re:Learning. The 4-phase study initially included 15 schools and involved questionnaires, interviews, and shadowing. Identifies six types of administrators: the absent administrator, the pawn, the pragmatic principal,…
Austin, Susan Eudy
A case study is conducted implementing the Dell Streak seven-inch android device into eighth grade science classes of one teacher in a rural middle school in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The purpose of the study is to determine if the use of the Dell Streaks would increase student achievement on standardized subject testing, if the Streak could be used as an effective instructional tool, and if it could be considered an effective instructional resource for reviewing and preparing for the science assessments. A mixed method research design was used for the study to analyze both quantitative and qualitative results to determine if the Dell Streaks' utilization could achieve the following: 1. instructional strategies would change, 2. it would be an effective instructional tool, and 3. a comparison of the students' test scores and benchmark assessments' scores would provide statistically significant difference. Through the use of an ANOVA it was determined a statistically significant difference had occurred. A Post Hoc analysis was conducted to identify where the difference occurred. Finally a T-test determined was there was no statistically significance difference between the mean End-of-Grade tests and four quarterly benchmark scores of the control and the experimental groups. Qualitative research methods were used to gather results to determine if the Streaks were an effective instructional tool. Classroom observations identified that the teacher's teaching styles and new instructional strategies were implemented throughout the pilot project. Students had an opportunity to complete a questionnaire three times during the pilot project. Results revealed what the students liked about using the devices and the challenges they were facing. The teacher completed a reflective questionnaire throughout the pilot project and offered valuable reflections about the use of the devices in an educational setting. The reflection data supporting the case study was drawn
Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.
The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA's and NLSI's objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE's High School Lunar Research Projects program is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The objectives of the program are to enhance 1) student views of the nature of science; 2) student attitudes toward science and science careers; and 3) student knowledge of lunar science. In its first three years, approximately 140 students and 28 teachers from across the United States have participated in the program. Before beginning their research, students undertake Moon 101, a guided-inquiry activity designed to familiarize them with lunar science and exploration. Following Moon 101, and guided by a lunar scientist mentor, teams choose a research topic, ask their own research question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results to a panel of lunar scientists. This panel selects four posters to be presented at the annual Lunar Science Forum held at NASA Ames. The top scoring team travels to the forum to present their research. Three instruments have been developed or modified to evaluate the extent to which the High School Lunar Research Projects meets its objectives. These three instruments measure changes in student views of the nature of science, attitudes towards science and science careers, and knowledge of lunar science. Exit surveys for teachers, students, and mentors were also developed to elicit general feedback about the program and its impact. The nature of science
I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta; N. Adiputra; I P G Adiatmika
The effectiveness of jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable, because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on...
Bechara, Glaucia Margonari; Castelo Branco, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Avelino Luiz; Chinnici, Daniela; Chaney, David; Calliari, Luis Eduardo P; Franco, Denise Reis
Although it is known that school care is a major challenge in diabetes treatment, there is still no published international initiative. The aims of this study were to introduce an international educational intervention tool, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) KiDS and Diabetes in Schools project (KiDS project), and to describe its impact on diabetes knowledge and behavior of caregivers and school professionals. The KiDS project was developed with the support of IDF and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes and provides online free material in 10 languages, directed to caregivers and school personnel. A pilot evaluation of the KiDS intervention was performed in Brazil. An educational intervention was conducted in 5 primary schools, with 42 parents and school staff, followed by 2 individual interviews after 1 and 3 months. The results were evaluated in a qualitative study with a descriptive design based on content analysis. School staff acquired new knowledge on diabetes and its treatment. They felt more confident when helping students with diabetes and said the educational intervention promoted a positive impact on the teacher-student relationship, on the caring for health, and on school infrastructure. Family members of children with diabetes stated that the educational intervention gave them an opportunity to strengthen and update information on treatment and improve their knowledge. The KiDS project is the first international tool directed to foster a safe and supportive environment and a better understanding of diabetes in schools. In this pilot evaluation, it achieved the goal of informing and changing the behavior of parents and school staff, thus improving the care provided to children with diabetes in schools. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This study focused on the planning, implementation and evaluation of a character-based school culture (CBSC) project in Taiwan. The project integrated the principles of justice, caring and developmental discipline and was influenced by several well-known American models of character education programmes. The CBSC project was conducted in a…
Beckett, Gulbahar H.; Hemmings, Annette; Maltbie, Catherine; Wright, Kathy; Sherman, Melissa; Sersion, Brian
This paper focuses on the notable heightening of underrepresented students' engagement in STEM education through project-based learning CincySTEM iTEST projects. The projects, funded by an iTEST NSF grant, were designed and facilitated by teachers at a new STEM urban public high school serving low-income African-American students. Student…
International cultural exchange and education in the sciences and arts is one of the chief aims of the British Council (BC). The 1998 Leonids Meteor Shower was recognised by the BC in China as an event that would offer an opportunity, both to promote the public understanding of space science at an international level, and to encourage on-going cultural links between the United Kingdom and China. Predictions suggested that the 1998 shower, which was likely to be the most intense for more than three decades, would be best viewed in north-east Asia. The BC contracted the Orbital Mechanics Educational Network, an independent organisation that promotes space education amongst young people, to organise several activities aimed particularly at teenagers. The culmination of the project was a visit to Beijing by a party of British teenagers, to take part in meteor observation at China's Mi Yun Observatory. The paper focusses on the practicalities of organising and running such a project and reports on the achievements and shortcomings of the overall venture. It also reports on the observations and findings that were made by the UK group and their Chinese student partners, all of whom were observing a meteor shower for the first time. It reports on the techniques of observing that were tried, the observations themselves and the findings that were made by the group. It also offers advice to those who might wish to set up similar bi-lateral ventures, particularly with China and the UK, and outlines plans to continue and improve the relationships that have been established. (Please note: I realise this is topic not directly covered by the Conference, but how the subject of the meteor phenomenon in particular and, for that matter, science in general is conveyed to the " man in the street" should be important to all scientists, not least because they depend on external funding and public goodwill! Perhaps a suitable slot can be made for this presentation on Tuesday, which is the
Sheldon, Steven B.; Davis, Marcia H.
This report focuses on the opening of new school libraries and their impact on schools, teachers and students after two years of implementation of the Baltimore Elementary and Middle School Library Project (Library Project). The findings build on the first report of this project and show that it is not just new facilities, but also the added…
María Luisa de Lázaro y Torres
Full Text Available School on the Cloud es un Proyecto europeo Acción Clave 3 del programa de Aprendizaje Permanente de la UE. En sus tres años de andadura ha evidenciado la potencialidad del empleo de la nube para el aprendizaje en todos los niveles educativos con la finalidad de llamar la atención a los agentes responsables de la educación en Europa sobre ello. Diversas actividades y resultados de investigación han permitido llegar a esa conclusión, para cuya consecución se proponen algunas medidas concretas, como por ejemplo, una estrategia europea para la educación en la nube.School on the Cloud is a European Erasmus+ project Key Action 3 of the EU Lifelong Learning program. The experience of three years has proven the potential use of the cloud for learning at all educational levels. We aim to draw stakeholders’ attention to the subject of education in Europe. A number of activities and research results have made it possible to reach this conclusion. Concrete measures to improve this type of learning have been proposed, such as a European strategy for education on the cloud.
Fischman, Gustavo E.; Gandin, Luis Armando
The Citizen School Project (Escola Cidadã) was implemented from 1993 to 2004 in Porto Alegre, capital of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. This article presents the conception behind the Citizen School Project, the basic mechanisms created to implement and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses, and some of its contradictions. After contextualising the educational reforms in Brazil during the 1980s and 1990s, the authors demonstrate how the Citizen School Project's emphasis on participation and democratisation was a radical departure from Brazil's traditional public education system. Next, they present the three main goals and structures of the Citizen School Project - democratisation of access to schools, democratisation of schools' administration, and democratisation of access to knowledge. They conclude by discussing some pedagogic, social and political dynamics which appear to be strong legacies of this pedagogical project. The authors also argue that the Citizen School Project has both improved the quality of education in Porto Alegre and is an important contribution to our collective thinking about the politics of "successful" educational policies.
Oudejans, R.R.D.; Heubers, S.; Ruitenbeek, J-R.J.A.C.; Janssen, T.W.J.
We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use
Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.
We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…
Andrews, Daniel R.
This story is about an unlikely NASA mission to the Moon. It was unlikely because it was started with far too little time and too-little money to complete. It was unlikely because it was able to take chances to accept risk of failure. It was unlikely because it was searching for the unthinkable: water-ice on the moon... Figure 1-1: LCROSS Mission. The mission of the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to investigate the possibility of water ice in craters on the Moon s poles. This is certainly an interesting scientific topic in itself, but I intend to focus on the compelling experience of managing the LCROSS Project in the context of this storied Agency. Perhaps most interesting are the implications this story has for managing any development effort, lunar or not, and working a balance to achieve success. NASA is by design a risk-taking agency within the US Government. It could be argued that NASA s purpose in the aerospace community is to take on the really big challenges that either the corporate world can t afford, are not yet profitable endeavors, or are just too risky for private corporations to entertain. However, expectations of the Agency have evolved. A combination of grim human tragedies and some very public cost and schedule overruns have challenged the public s and Congress s tolerance for risk-taking within the Agency. NASA, which is supposed to be in the business of taking risks to do bold, difficult things, has become less and less able to do so within its cost framework. Yet effectively replacing prudent risk management with attempts to "risk-eliminate" is completely unaffordable. So where does risk-taking fit within the Agency, or within private/corporate organizations for that matter? Where astronauts play there is clearly concern about risk. When an organization puts humans in harm s way, it is understandably going to take extra effort to assure nobody gets hurt. Doing so, of course, costs money - a lot of money to pay for
Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis were, for the first time, achieved directly in shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’ following cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification. Shoot tips (2 mm in length) including 2-3 leaf primordia were excised from 4-week-old adventitious shoots directly r...
Association du personnel
For a number of years a minimum service has been offered at lunchtime between 12.15 and 13.30 for children enrolled for the full day at the CERN Nursery School. This service is provided by qualified staff at the Nursery School, on the premises, the meals being supplied by the parents.
Nordin, Lone Lindegard
. The project is funded by the Danish Ministry of Science, University of Aarhus and Silkeborg municipality, and involves 5 primary schools, 23 teachers and 233 pupils from 7th to 9 class. The project is positioned within the critical approach to school health education and health promotion, developed......Implementation of municipally health promoting projects' in primary schools: teachers perspective Research question This paper discusses the findings from a qualitative research, that aimed to investigate how teachers in primary schools implemented municipal health promoting projects focusing...... that there is a “gap” between policy and practice according to aim, content and methods, and that teachers practice can be explained as coping mechanism. The key findings include: • Teachers practice is closer to traditional health education than critical health education. • Teachers priorities the mandatory teaching...
Chen, Charlene Y.; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Phelan, Jo C.; Yu, Gary; Yang, Lawrence H.
The Virginia Tech and Columbine High shootings are 2 of the deadliest school massacres in the United States. The present study investigates in a nationally representative sample how White Americans’ causal attributions of these shooting moderate their attitudes toward the shooter’s race. White Americans shown a vignette based on the Virginia Tech shooting were more likely to espouse negative beliefs about Korean American men and distance themselves from this group the more they believed that ...
Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.
School effectiveness and school improvement have different origins: School effectiveness is more directed to finding out "what works" in education and "why"; school improvement is practice and policy oriented and intended to change education in the desired direction. However, in their orientation to
Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Ko?, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy
Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected acc...
The study presents the results of a project in which tablets and a ready-made application were used for teaching basic programming concepts to young primary school students (ages 7-9). A total of 135 students participated in the study, attending primary schools in Athens, Greece, divided into three groups. The first was taught conventionally. The…
This publication is a tentative edition of readings on Wildlife and Fish Conservation in Louisiana, and as such it forms part of one of the four units of study designed for an experimental high school course, the "High School Conservation Curriculum Project." The other three units are concerned with Forest Conervation, Soil and Water…
As schools continue to become more diverse, it is important to look at science teaching methods that will meet the needs of all students. In this study, 172 students in a middle school in Northwestern Illinois were taught using two methods of teaching science. Half of the students were taught using project-based science (PBS) and the other half of…
Lopes, Lígia; Aguiar, Carlos; da Silva, Fernando Moreira
The Project for Schools Modernization taking place in Portugal, with an estimated total investment of 2450 million for the intervention in the first 205 schools, provide the reclassification of 332 secondary schools by 2015. One of the questions we can pose is if the authorities and the teams of architects selected to design these schools considered fundamental for the correctness of architectural barriers within the school and its accessibility the implementation of standards and principles of inclusion of children/teenagers with special needs within their school environment. As most of the projects are already being implemented, the main aim of this paper is to present the outcomes of a comparative analysis and synthesis of six schools located in the northern part of the country. This analysis occurs from the of Participatory Design perspective which appeals to the experience of the disable children to look (or evaluate) the negative and positive factors in terms of physical space, interpreted by inclusive design rules and orientations. Therefore, the evaluation of schools modernization project, and its discussion, is central for the understanding how these children are addressed in projects which are directed at them.
ten Brummelhuis, A.C.A.; Plomp, T.
The systematic introduction of computers in schools for general secondary education in The Netherlands started in the early 1980s. Initially, the Dutch government experimented in 1983 with a project in 100 lower general secondary schools limited in scope to gain experience with educational computer
The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…
The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…
Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal
In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant…
Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu
This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…
Karakus, Fatma; Uyar, Melis Yesilpinar; Balbag, Nur Leman
The purpose of this study was to determine teachers' educational needs regarding school education projects within the scope of Erasmus+ programme. In the study, the case study method, one of qualitative research designs, was used. The participants were determined using the snowball sampling method, and eight secondary school teachers took part in…
Ricardo Fernandes Pátaro
Full Text Available This paper is derived from a dissertation and the main goal is to argue how the project-based curriculum, in a perspective of complexity, can offers some possibilities for an education on values introducing studies of nowadays social problems into the school. To achieve the objectives was considered a project developed with a ten years old students. The investigation was based on project activities and daily field. As a result we have demonstrated the project-based curriculum – using the complexity, interdisciplinary and transversality as references – can help school to combine the disciplinary knowledge to the ethical formation. The investigation has show that the project-based curriculum may lead schools to succeed in implementing an education in values, pointing out some directions to develop citizens who can deal with diversity and conflicts as well as capable of get indignant with the injustices and have disposal to individual and collective welfare.
Patel, Sanjai; DeMaine, Sophie; Heafield, Joshua; Bianchi, Lynne; Prokop, Andreas
Science communication is becoming an increasingly important part of a scientist's remit, and engaging with primary and secondary schools is one frequently chosen strategy. Here we argue that science communication in schools will be more effective if based on good understanding of the realities of school life, which can be achieved through structured participation and/or collaboration with teachers. For example, the Manchester Fly Facility advocates the use of the fruit fly Drosophila as an important research strategy for the discovery processes in the biomedical sciences. To communicate this concept also in schools, we developed the 'droso4schools' project as a refined form of scientist-teacher collaboration that embraces the expertise and interests of teachers. Within this project, we place university students as teaching assistants in university partner schools to collaborate with teachers and develop biology lessons with adjunct support materials. These lessons teach curriculum-relevant biology topics by making use of the profound conceptual understanding existing in Drosophila combined with parallel examples taken from human biology. By performing easy to implement experiments with flies, we bring living organisms into these lessons, thus endeavouring to further enhance the pupil's learning experience. In this way, we do not talk about flies but rather work with flies as powerful teaching tools to convey mainstream curriculum biology content, whilst also bringing across the relevance of Drosophila research. Through making these lessons freely available online, they have the potential to reach out to teachers and scientists worldwide. In this paper, we share our experiences and strategies to provide ideas for scientists engaging with schools, including the application of the droso4schools project as a paradigm for long-term school engagement which can be adapted also to other areas of science. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All
Matuk, Lucia Yiu; Ruggirello, Tina
To promote multiculturalism among grade school students through drama education. Grade 3-6 students (N = 665) from 6 targeted schools including lead-class students (n = 158) representing each school. Elementary schools in Windsor-Essex County, Ontario, Canada. In this non-experimental design study, group discussions conducted with each lead class to explore students' understanding of multiculturalism were developed into an interactive drama performance and performed for all grades 3-6 students in their respective schools. A follow-up drama workshop was offered to each lead class one week after the drama performance. All students completed a 7-item questionnaire before and after the drama performance and after the drama workshop. Pre-test and post-test data collected were analyzed using T-test and ANOVA to determine the effects of drama education on students' attitudes toward multiculturalism. Statistical analysis at 0.05 significance level revealed that both the performance and the drama workshop heightened students' awareness of racism, and instilled cultural respect through "talking with others", "accepting others", and "believing that they can make a difference" in multiculturalism promotion. Drama education was an effective experiential tool for promoting multiculturalism in a school setting. The key to promoting inter-racial harmony is to respect and accept individual differences and to broaden the social determinants of health by providing culture safety care.
research effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC) and the Norwegian Centre for ICT in Education to inform Nordic school leaders and decision-makers about significant developments in technologies supporting teaching, learning, and creative inquiry in primary and secondary education across Denmark......Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Freeman, A., and Rose, K. (2017). 2017 NMC Technology Outlook for Nordic Schools: A Horizon Project Regional Report. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. The 2017 NMC Technology Outlook for Nordic Schools: A Horizon Project Regional Report reflects a collaborative...
Gabriela da Silva Bulla
Full Text Available This paper aims at reflecting on school, multiliteracies and technologies in contemporary society. To this end, we describe and analyze a learning project carried out with a ninth grade class in Portuguese Language classes at a public school in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The project focused on multimodal discourse genres such as Youtuber video and written dissertation. We highlight the importance of working with the promotion of multiliteracies in the school that is committed to the formation of citizens that are able to circulate critically through the cybercultural and mediatic spheres inherent in the network society.
Yu, S. Q.; Wang, Minjuan J.
The Modern Distance Education Project for the Rural Schools (MDEPRS) of China has a wider scope and serves a larger population than any other informational project in the world. It likely will result in a far-reaching informational revolution for basic education in China. Here, we introduce three main innovative models of material delivery, the…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.
This report evaluates Project HOLA, in its first year of funding, which provides instruction in English as a second language, Spanish language skills, and bilingual instruction in mathematics, science, and social studies to approximately 230 students in a high school in Bronx, New York. The report examines the project's long- and short-range…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.
In 1984-85, Project HOLA was in its second year of funding at William H. Taft High School in the Bronx, New York. HOLA serves Spanish-speaking students of limited English proficiency (LEP). Project goals include speedy acquisition of English skills, orientation to life in America, maintenance and improvement of Spanish skills and cultural…
Allen, Meg; Brewer, Paul R.
This article uses a case study to illustrate how science fair projects--which traditionally focus on "hard science" topics--can contribute to political science education. One of the authors, a high school student, conducted an experimental study of politics for her science fair project. The other author, a faculty member, was asked to advise the…
Gulay, Hulya; Yilmaz, Sevket; Gullac, Esin Turan; Onder, Alev
The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the first two group applications of the project named "We are Learning about the Soil with Tipitop and His Friends" within the scope of the project group activities of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) "Schools of Nature and…
Frederiksson, Ulf; Jedeskog, Gunilla; Plomp, T.
The European e-Learning Forum for Education (ELFE) is a project initiated by the ETUCE (European Trade Union Committee on Education). An important objective of the project has been to study good experiences with implementing the use of ICT in schools. This objective has been broken down in seven
The article examines the opportunities and prospects for the use of experience of project method during "technology lessons" in US secondary schools, since the value of project technology implementation experience into the educational process in the USA for ensuring holistic development of children, preparing them for adult life, in…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.
Career Advancement through Bilingual Educational Skills (Project CABES) completed the second year of a 3-year funding cycle at Seward Park High School on Manhattan's Lower East Side. Project CABES serves 233 recently immigrated, predominantly low-income, ninth through twelfth grade, Hispanic students of limited English proficiency (LEP). Included…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.
In 1985-86, the Career Advancement through Bilingual Education Skills (CABES) project was in the final year of a three-year funding cycle at Seward Park High School in Manhattan, New York. The project's major goal was to provide career advancement skills to a population group of 279 students of limited English proficiency (LEP). Included in the…
Fisher, Ronald J.
Describes a small group discussion project involving students and teachers in two large white suburban high schools. The project's intention was to focus discussion on the social quality of the relationship between students and teachers, and to assess the impact of the discussions on student perceptions. (Author/RK)
Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Social Welfare Development and Research Center.
An operational description of the 1973-74 Buddy-Tutor Project at Hilo Intermediate School in Hilo, Hawaii and an evaluative assessment of its outcome with statistical treatment of the data is provided in this report. This project is an exploratory behavioral intervention program for educationally deprived students and focuses its efforts on the…
Franzén, C; Brown, G
Undergraduate degree projects have currently been introduced into courses in the four Swedish dental schools. The rationale for research projects is that they enable students to develop research expertise skills and to show their ability to apply and develop knowledge relevant to professional practice. This paper reports a qualitative analysis of the curriculum documents and handbooks including the criteria used to assess the students' research reports. The aim was to investigate commonalities and differences in the design of degree projects between the four Swedish dental schools and to explore any inconsistencies within the documents. The documentary analysis was based on the constant comparison method. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis: (i) developing scientific expertise, (ii) developing professional expertise, (iii) following rules and (iv) fostering creativity. The documents from the four dental schools revealed similar views on the purposes of the projects and provided similar assessment criteria. The students were requested to formulate an odontological problem, apply a relevant scientific method, analyse texts and empirical data, express critical reflections and write a short thesis. The students were free to choose topics. There were differences between the dental schools on the emphasis placed on practical uses of the projects and theoretical background of the projects. Two of the schools insisted on rigid rules of completing and writing the project yet paradoxically emphasised creativity. There were wide variations in the required length of the project report. The report may prove useful to dental schools in other countries who are about to design undergraduate research projects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Attempts to place the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in a historical perspective. Describes the shootings in Littleton and the high school shootings since 1996. Interprets the possible reasons for the Columbine shootings, such as the role of the high school, access to guns, and violence in the mass media. (CMK)
Schumacher, L; Nieskens, B; Bräuer, H; Sieland, B
The goal of this project is the development, implementation and evaluation of a concept designed for sustainable health promotion among occupational and trade school teachers. We assume that for sustainable health promotion -- along with a behavioral prevention program -- a change is necessary in the structure, as well as, the working and communication processes within schools. The realization of early teacher participation and self regulated cooperative groups initiates comprehensive and goal-oriented developmental processes in the project schools. The organizational development process was accomplished in the following way: At the beginning we conducted a diagnosis of school-specific and individual health risks and the resources available to the project schools. The results were reported for both the individual and for the teacher group. This was intended to clarify the potential for improvement and, thus, strengthen the teachers' motivation toward processes of change. Following the diagnosis, the teachers chose areas of stress-related strain and then worked in groups to develop and implement behaviour and working condition-oriented intervention strategies for health promotion. The diagnosis results confirm the necessity of school-specific health promotion: the schools demonstrate very different demand and resource profiles. Furthermore, is has become evident that the central success factor for health promotion in schools is the teachers' willingness for change. The individual and group reports of the diagnosis results seem to have made clear how essential individual and organisational changes are.
Iimoto, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Noboru; Nakamura, Takashi
This is a report of the project of MEXT(The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) to support high school students researching radiation etc. This subject research consists of an exchange meeting, independence research, and a presentation meeting of the results. Media introduced the project and this was a very reputable project. However, regrettably this support project was broken off in the business year of 2012. In this document, the outline of the support project for seven years is introduced and the possibility of future deployment is discussed. (author)
Elaine Sampaio Araujo
The objective of this article is to discuss, starting from the historical-cultural perspective, the sense of a pedagogic project considering its procedural nature, the convergence of the personal and collective dimensions and the educational purpose. The goal is to notice the project as possibility in the field pragmatic and in the theory of the sciences of human formation, linking the human development with the schools and its projects. For that, it tries to demonstrate that pedagogic projec...
Terrón-López, María-José; García-García, María-José; Velasco-Quintana, Paloma-Julia; Ocampo, Jared; Vigil Montaño, María-Reyes; Gaya-López, María-Cruz
The School of Engineering at Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM) implemented, starting in the 2012-2013 period, a unified academic model based on project-based learning as the methodology used throughout the entire School. This model expects that every year, in each grade, all the students should participate in a capstone project integrating the contents and competencies of several courses. This paper presents the academic context under which this experience has been implemented, and a summary of the work done to design and implement the Project-Based Engineering School at the UEM. The steps followed, the structure used, some sample projects, as well as the difficulties and benefits of implementing the programme are discussed in this paper. The results are encouraging as students are more motivated and the initial set objectives were accomplished.
Abbrescia, M.; An, S.; Antolini, R.; Badala, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Blanco, F.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Chiri, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Coccia, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Fabbri, F.L.; Frolov, V.; Garbini, M.; Gustavino, C.
The EEE Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, aims to detect Extreme Energy Events of cosmic rays with an array of muon telescopes distributed over the Italian territory. The Project involves Italian High Schools in order to introduce young people to Physics, also countervailing the recent crisis of university scientific classes inscriptions. The detectors for the EEE telescopes are Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) and have been constructed by teams of High School students who went in shift at the CERN laboratories. The mechanics and the electronics were developed by groups of researchers from CERN, the Italian Centro Fermi and INFN. The first group of schools of the EEE Project has inaugurated their telescopes recently. A status report of the Project and the preliminary results are presented
Abbrescia, M; An, S; Antolini, R; Badalà, A; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Blanco, F; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Chiri, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Coccia, E; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D’Incecco, M; Fabbri, F L; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Imponente, G; Kim, J; La Rocca, P; Librizzi, F; Maggiora, A; Menghetti, H; Miozzi, S; Moro, R; Panareo, M; Pappalardo, G S; Piragino, G; Riggi, F; Romano, F; Sartorelli, G; Sbarra, C; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Williams, C; Zuyeuski, R
The EEE Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, aims to detect Extreme Energy Events of cosmic rays with an array of muon telescopes distributed over the Italian territory. The Project involves Italian High Schools in order to introduce young people to Physics, also countervailing the recent crisis of university scientific classes inscriptions. The detectors for the EEE telescopes are Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) and have been constructed by teams of High School students who went in shift at the CERN laboratories. The mechanics and the electronics were developed by groups of researchers from CERN, the Italian Centro Fermi and INFN. The first group of schools of the EEE Project has inaugurated their telescopes recently. A status report of the Project and the preliminary results are presented.
Rocca, Lorena; Donadelli, Giovanni; Ziliotto, Sonia
The increasing complexity of urban regions and the lack of green areas in the neighborhoods have turned the cities less and less child-friendly. In order to locally face these situations, the project "Small steps of Agenda 21," which promoted a participatory planning experience for children focused on the green area of their school, was…
Many high school students are faced with the dilemma of "what next?" as they go through their final years at school. With new-economy jobs becoming more complex and career paths increasingly convoluted, the decision-making process is no simple task. What do these jobs and careers entail? How does what they are studying in school relate…
This examination of the New American Schools Development Corporation initiative in Bensenville (Illinois) details the controversy over the reform effort and argues that factors such as school governance, local control, and school finance played major roles in determining program outcomes. The importance of political influences in reform efforts is…
Rodriguez, Eunice; Rivera, Diana Austria; Perlroth, Daniella; Becker, Edmund; Wang, Nancy Ewen; Landau, Melinda
Background: With increasing budget cuts to education and social services, rigorous evaluation needs to document school nurses' impact on student health, academic outcomes, and district funding. Methods: Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated outcomes in 4 schools with added full-time nurses and 5 matched schools with part-time nurses…
This paper discusses an attempt to establish community literacy procedures in an Eastern Cape community school. The school hosts the Additive Bilingual Education (ABLE) project, a cooperation between UK and South African universities and the school trust. The community literacy strand of the project encourages family members to contribute oral…
Felner, Robert D.; Favazza, Antoinette; Shim, Minsuk; Brand, Stephen; Gu, Kenneth; Noonan, Nancy
Describes the School Transitional Environment Project and its successor, the Project on High Performance Learning Communities, that have contributed to building a model for school improvement called the High Performance Learning Communities. The model seeks to build the principles of prevention into whole school change. Presents findings from…
Moos, Lejf; Johansson, Olof
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the findings of the follow-up studies of successful school principals in six countries: Australia, Denmark, England, Norway, Sweden, and the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Data were categorized according to stakeholder expectations, the concept and practice of leadership, and the…
Bean, David; Glick, Paul
In June 1999, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) issued its statement on the structure of the basic financial reporting model for state and local governments. Explains the new financial reporting model and reviews the implementation issues that school districts will need to address. (MLF)
Crul, M.R.J.; Schneider, Jens
Mentoring and coaching is an established practice in corporate multinational firms worldwide, but mentoring programs for school pupils are still relatively new in Europe. This policy brief highlights a special kind of mentor: students in higher education with an immigrant background who can act as
Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin
Background and purpose This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from scientists about the global carbon cycle. This study focuses in particular on differences between male and female students, as female students normally like traditional school science less than male students. Sample and design Data, drawn from 1370 students from 60 secondary schools across Europe, were collected through questionnaires taken at the end of the projects. The evaluated aspects were: organization; enjoyment; difficulty; and impact of the projects. Results The findings suggest that authentic science education is appreciated very much by both male students and even more by female students. The projects had positive impacts on climate change ideas, in particular for female students. Female students felt that they had learned many new things more often than male students. Conclusions Both male and female students have positive opinions about the authentic science projects. The results further point to positive effects of activities in which students have an active role, like hands-on experiments or presentation of results. The findings are placed in the international context of science education and their implications for policy are discussed.
Rodriguez, Eunice; Rivera, Diana Austria; Perlroth, Daniella; Becker, Edmund; Wang, Nancy Ewen; Landau, Melinda
With increasing budget cuts to education and social services, rigorous evaluation needs to document school nurses' impact on student health, academic outcomes, and district funding. Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated outcomes in 4 schools with added full-time nurses and 5 matched schools with part-time nurses in the San Jose Unified School District. Student data and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of illness-related absenteeism for 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. We calculated average daily attendance (ADA) funding and parent wages associated with an improvement in illness-related absenteeism. Utilizing parent surveys, we also estimated the cost of services for asthma-related visits to the emergency room (ER; N = 2489). Children with asthma were more likely to be absent due to illness; however, mean absenteeism due to illness decreased when full-time nurses were added to demonstration schools but increased in comparison schools during 2008-2009, resulting in a potential savings of $48,518.62 in ADA funding (N = 6081). Parents in demonstration schools reported fewer ER visits, and the estimated savings in ER services and parent wages were significant. Full-time school nurses play an important role in improving asthma management among students in underserved schools, which can impact school absenteeism and attendance-related economic costs. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Luigjes, B.; De Wit, J.W. [Rucon Ventilatoren, Harderwijk (Netherlands)
The Dutch government has provided local authorities with 100 million euros to address the polluted air in class rooms of primary schools. However, this amount is not sufficient to solve the problem entirely. This problem has been solved by linking the implementation to a project dedicated to combating youth unemployment, named 'VentiLeren'. [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid heeft 100 miljoen euro beschikbaar gesteld aan gemeenten om de vervuilde lucht in de lokalen van basisscholen aan te pakken. Dit bedrag is echter ontoereikend om het hele probleem op te lossen. Door de uitvoering ervan te koppelen aan een project ter bestrijding van jeugdwerkloosheid, ventiLeren genaamd, wordt dit opgelost.
Carmen ÁLVAREZ ÁLVAREZ
Full Text Available This article reflects on the interrelationships that exist between two educational projects of today: service-learning (ApS and learning communities (CdA. The ApS is an educational methodology applied worldwide where a single project combines a learning based on experience with the implementation of a service to the community. CdA is a school transformation project to achieve that the information society does not exclude any person, constituting a reality in more than one hundred and ninety schools in Spain and Latin America. Between the two, it is possible to show differences, especially in what refers to its theoretical substrates, but in actual teaching practice in schools there is some harmony, particularly in the so closely that they cultivate both projects with the school community. Therefore, we conclude that service-learning and learning communities can occur as two innovative and relevant today projects which can be mutually enriching: because for both the approach school-community-environment and volunteering is essential.
Orrell, Richard; Liggins, Felicity; Challenger, Lesley; Lethem, Dom; Campbell, Katy
Wow Schools is a pilot project from the Met Office with an aim to inspire and educate the next generation of scientists and, uniquely, use the data collected by schools to improve weather forecasts and warnings across the UK. Wow Schools was launched in late 2015 with a competition open to primary schools across the UK. 74 schools entered the draw, all hoping to be picked as one of the ten lucky schools taking part in the pilot scheme. Each winning school received a fully automatic weather station (AWS), enabling them to transmit real-time local weather observations to the Met Office's Weather Observation Website (WOW - wow.metoffice.gov.uk), an award winning web portal for uploading and sharing a range of environmental observations. They were also given a package of materials designed to get students out of the classroom to observe the weather, get hands-on with the science underpinning weather forecasting, and analyse the data they are collecting. The curriculum-relevant materials were designed with the age group 7 to 11 in mind, but could be extended to support other age groups. Each school was offered a visit by a Wow Schools Ambassador (a Met Office employee) to bring the students' learning to life, and access to a dedicated forecast for its location generated by our new supercomputer. These forecasts are improved by the school's onsite AWS reinforcing the link between observations and forecast production. The Wow Schools pilot ran throughout 2016. Here, we present the initial findings of the project, examining the potential benefits and challenges of working with schools across the UK to: enrich students' understanding of the science of weather forecasting; to source an ongoing supply of weather observations and discover how these might be used in the forecasting process; and explore what materials and business model(s) would be most useful and affordable if a wider roll-out of the initiative was undertaken.
Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Garwick, Ann W; Anderson, Lori S; Looman, Wendy S; Seppelt, Ann; Orlygsdottir, Brynja
This article is a report of an international study of barriers to asthma care from the perspectives of school nurses in Reykjavik, Iceland and St. Paul, Minnesota, in the context of their schools, communities and countries. Globally, asthma affects the health and school performance of many adolescents. School nurses play a key role by providing care to adolescents with asthma in school settings. Understanding universal barriers to asthma management in schools is important for developing interventions that are effective in multiple societal contexts. Exploratory, descriptive study. Parallel studies were conducted from September 2008-January 2009, through six focus groups among school nurses (n = 32, in Reykjavik n = 17 and St. Paul n = 15) who were managing asthma in adolescents. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim in English or Icelandic. The Icelandic transcripts were translated into English. Descriptive content analytic techniques were used to systematically identify and categorize types of barriers to asthma care. School nurses in both countries identified common barriers, such as time constraints, communication challenges and school staff barriers. The primary difference was that St. Paul school nurses identified more socio-economic and health access barriers than school nurses in Reykjavik. Greater cultural and linguistic diversity and socio-economic differences in the student population in St. Paul and lack of universal healthcare coverage in the US contributed to school nurses' need to focus more on asthma management than school nurses in Reykjavik, who were able to focus more on asthma prevention and education. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Brustad, Maja Rosvold
Abstract Each year thousands of Norwegian students spend one day of their education to collect money for different aid projects. These projects aim at giving youth in developing countries the opportunity to education and are referred to as Solidarity Projects. The projects are organized by different NGO s. The first organizations that started offering solidarity projects were Operation Day´s Work. This organization was founded in 1964, and is run for, by and with youth. Participation in solid...
Fortunato, Ronald C.
Development of the NORSTAR (Norfolk Public Student Team for Acoustical Research) Project includes the definition, design, fabrication, testing, analysis, and publishing the results of an acoustical experiment. The student-run program is based on a space flight organization similar to the Viking Project. The experiment will measure the scattering transfer of momentum from a sound field to spheres in a liquid medium. It is hoped that the experimental results will shed light on a difficult physics problem - the difference in scattering cross section (the overall effect of the sound wave scattering) for solid spheres and hollow spheres of differing wall thicknesses.
Vann, Carolyn N.; Saxon, Herbert L.; Brblic, Tom; Elliades, Stacie; Lambert, Scott; Shaw, Jake; Smith, Ryan; Inman, Megan
Reports on a student's research project on the degree of genetic diversity within the trout lily species. Enables a rough prediction of the continuance of the species and provides insight into how to manage plants that might be endangered. Contains 16 references. (DDR)
Corrieri, Sandro; Conrad, Ines; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
How did the work of four school coaches in five Saxonian schools influence children's and adolescents' psychosocial development? At three points in time, students at intervention (N = 292) and control schools (N = 300) were evaluated concerning their social distance towards mentally ill people and their help-seeking behavior in case of crisis. The survey also included teachers (N = 323) and parents (N = 370). Data analysis was done descriptively and with random effects models. The social distance of the intervention schools declined significantly compared to the control schools. Having heard or read about mental illnesses, or personally knowing somebody affected by mental illness, led to less social distance and more empathy. Information increased the confidence to receive help from a professional consultant. Friends and family were the main reference groups. The school coaches were accepted as confidential persons and helped with school and private issues. The school coaches' work showed positive influence on all members of the school system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Recent rapid advances in information technology pose new challenges for teachers in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM fields to incorporate the latest knowledge and technical expertise into courses in a way that will be applicable to students as future scientists. A demonstration project was designed, developed, and deployed by university faculty and high school teachers for their students to explore the use of the components of cyberinfrastructure. The project explored the introduction of cyberinfrastructure through the use of bioinformatics and the use of team science. This paper describes the high school course that was deployed at Galileo Magnet High School (GMHS in collaboration with the scientists at Virginia Tech University, and details its overall assessment. Implementation of a project-centric teaching paradigm to engage students in applying the concepts of cyberinfrastructure by integrating the disciplines of biology, computer science, mathematics, and statistics through bioinformatics was an integral part of this study.
Risen, D. Michael
This is a detailed description of an assessment that can be used in a graduate level of study in the area of public school finance. This has been approved by NCATE as meeting all of the stipulated ELCC standards for which it is designed (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3.). This course of…
Sexton, Matt; Downton, Ann
It is not uncommon in many Australian primary schools for a teaching staff member to undertake the leadership or coordination of mathematics in his or her school. Some research (e.g., Cheeseman & Clarke, 2005) suggests that coordinators and leaders play an important role in the leadership and management of mathematics teaching and learning in…
Full Text Available The project-based learning is an active learning strategy that helps break the paradigm of traditional teaching methods. The student is involved in the learning proposal that includes the PiBL, on which one is not passive and becomes the main actor in one's own teaching learning process. Within this learning strategy, the teacher becomes a mediator between theory and practice thus each different subject interact with one another in order to develop a topic that is mutual to all areas because the learning environment is naturally interdisciplinary. The idea of this kind of learning strategy was applied during a workshop that took place with primary and secondary schoolteachers in order to help them approach the strategy in the classroom, contributing with experiences and ideas towards the interdisciplinary based project.
This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the CSM Fusion Gamma Ray Project for the calendar year 1989. As reported in last year's Technical Progress Report, the initial objective of the project was the design and bench testing of an eight channel, very high count rate gamma ray spectrometer. The next objective of the project was the installation and field testing of a comparable fifteen channel spectrometer on TFTR. This objective has been accomplished over the past year and the system has been operated successfully at count rates approaching 10 MHz during neutral beam injected (NBI) deuterium plasmas with injected beam powers in excess of 20 MW. The MFE computer network link between CSM and TFTR has been most valuable in the accomplishment of the year's objectives and should serve as a model for future collaborations of outside researchers with experiments on TFTR and CIT. The coming year's work includes the spectrometry of high energy fusion gamma rays during 3 He minority ICRH heating of deuterium plasmas and hydrogen minority ICRH heating during Lithium pellet injection as diagnostics of energetic alpha particle production. We include in this report selected results from our parallel grant from the DOE Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics as they pertain to the present APP grant. These results include experimentally derived thermonuclear reactivities of various light ion fusion plasmas for temperatures up to 40 keV. We would emphasize that our APP project is highly collaborative in nature and that Sid Medley and other members of the TFTR staff deserve much of the credit and bore much of the cost for many of the important accomplishments summarized in this report
This report summarizes the accomplishments of the project ''Studies of nuclear reactions at very low energies''. This project was undertaken in 1987 and completed in 1993. All but one of the major objectives of this study have been accomplished. Specifically the authors have completed their investigation of the (p,γ) on light nuclei, a study of the Oppenheimer-Phillips effect, a measurements of the astrophysically interesting reaction D(α,γ) 6 Li at low energies and an extension of the reaction D(d,γ) 4 He to lower energies than previously observed. Preliminary investigation of te reaction 7 Li( 3 He,p) 9 Be was begun and is continuing under a separate DOE grant. In addition to these tasks, they have completed some very interesting projects which were not included in the original proposal. These include a study of the (d,γ) reactions on 6 Li, 7 Li and 10 B and an investigation of the possibility of observing terrestrial antineutrinos from the beta decay chains of U and Th as a diagnostic of terrestrial heat flow
A major accomplishment of this project in the past year is the completion of a fairly comprehensive paper describing the survey of radiative capture reactions of protons on light nuclei at low energies. In addition we have completed a preliminary set of measurements of (d,p)/(d,α) cross section ratios on the charge symmetric nuclei 6 Li and 10 B as a test of the Oppenheimer-Phillips effect. While the 6 Li data remain inconclusive, the 10 B data show solid evidence for the Oppenheimer-Phillips enhancement of the (d,p) reaction relative to the (d,α) reaction for deuteron bombarding energies below about 100 keV. We have continued our investigation of fusion reaction products from deuterium-metal systems at room temperatures with the startling observation of intense burst of energetic charged particles from deuterium gas loaded thin titaium foils subject to non-equilibrium thermal and electrical conditions. We have completed two projects involving the application of the low energy particle accelerator to material science problems; firstly a study of the transformation of crystalline to amorphous Fe-Zr systems by proton irradiation and secondly the effects of ion bombardment on the critical temperature of YBCO high-temperature superconductors. Finally we have made progress in several instrumentation projects which will be used in some of the up-coming measurements of nuclear cross sections at very low energies
Quarneti, A.; Levaggi, G.
Introduction: The Health Sector operates within the framework of Social Policy and it is therefore one of the ways of distribution of public benefit, like Housing, Education and Social Security. While public spending on health has grown in recent years, its distribution has been uneven and the sector faces funding and management problems. The Service Hospital Radiation Oncology has reduced its health care liavility , lack technological development and unsufficient human resources and training. Aim: developing an inclusive reform bill Service Hospital Radiation Oncology .Material and Methods: This project tends to form a network institutional, introducing concepts of evidence-based medicine, risk models, cost analysis, coding systems, system implementation of quality management (ISO-9000 Standards). Proposes redefining radiotherapy centers and their potential participation in training resource development goals humanos.Promueve scientific research of national interest. Separate strictly administrative function, management and teaching. The project takes into account the characteristics of demand, the need to order it and organize around her, institutional network system and within the Hospital das Clinicas own related services related to Service Hospital Radiation Oncology , Encourages freedom of choice, and confers greater equity in care. The project would managed by the Hospital Clínicas. Conclusions: We believe this proposal identifies problems and opportunities, Service Hospital Radiation Oncology proposes the development of institutional network under one management model
Full Text Available The improvement of formative work, through a life orientation that is characterized by the correspondence of aspirations or individual goals, potentials and social demands is a challenge to Junior high school in the design and implementation of sócio–educative system of actions, that led by principals and teachers, integrates socializing agents, in order to prepare adolescents in managing a developmental life project to ensure their integration into dynamic and complex society. This research paper nowadays, from the pedagogical, psychological and sociological references, a conceptual basis for understanding adolescents’ life project as an expression of integral formation and the product of social and educational work of school.
Kooken, Wendy Carter; Eckhardt, Ann L; McNutt-Dungan, Marianne; Woods, Jonathan
Most academic-clinical partnerships are described as formal agreements between schools of nursing at research-intensive universities and large teaching hospitals. This article demonstrates less formal versions of academic-clinical partnerships established between a small, private liberal arts university school of nursing and 2 regional clinical agencies. In both exemplars, students, faculty, and staff contributed to evidence-based practice projects. Schools of nursing in non-research-intensive environments can develop right-size academic-clinical partnerships that are beneficial for all parties involved.
Johnson, Chelen H.; Linahan, Marcella; Cuba, Allison Frances; Dickmann, Samantha Rose; Hogan, Eleanor B.; Karos, Demetra N.; Kozikowski, Kendall G.; Kozikowski, Lauren Paige; Nelson, Samantha Brooks; O'Hara, Kevin Thomas; Ropinski, Brandi Lucia; Scarpa, Gabriella; Garmany, Catharine D.
STEM education is about offering unique opportunities to our students. For the past three years, students from two high schools (Breck School in Minneapolis, MN, and Carmel Catholic High School in Mundelein, IL) have collaborated on authentic astronomy research projects. This past year they surveyed archival data of open clusters to determine if a clear turnoff point could be unequivocally determined. Age and distance to each open cluster were calculated. Additionally, students requested time on several telescopes to obtain original data to compare to the archival data. Students from each school worked in collaborative teams, sharing and verifying results through regular online hangouts and chats. Work papers were stored in a shared drive and on a student-designed Google site to facilitate dissemination of documents between the two schools.
Sakes, A.; van der Wiel, M.; Henselmans, P.W.J.; van Leeuwen, J.L.; Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.
In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these
Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO
Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.
Prof. Adipala Ekwamu
Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.
Feb 4, 2009 ... Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil. Key words: shoot organogenesis, callus, ... saline and alkaline soils (Economou and Maloupa, 1995). Its fruits have been used as a .... cally inert compounds as reported by Kaminek (1992). Direct shoot organogenesis without ...
Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Tosca, Susana
In this paper we present some methodological challenges that emerged during the process of shaping the research design for the comprehensive and complex research project Children as learning designers in a digital school. The project is the realization of our proposal to a research call from...... to the need to strengthen the populations’ digital literacy and 21st century competencies. The call’s scope was research and development projects as pilot school experiments in relation to five selected areas. The selected projects should contribute with new generalizable and practice oriented knowledge...... of how: • ICT supports students learning, • ICT release time for more teaching, and • teachers digital literacy impact on the role of ICT in the educational practice. Further the call required collaboration between universities and university colleges in order to disseminate knowledge and new practices...
Elaine Sampaio Araujo
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss, starting from the historical-cultural perspective, the sense of a pedagogic project considering its procedural nature, the convergence of the personal and collective dimensions and the educational purpose. The goal is to notice the project as possibility in the field pragmatic and in the theory of the sciences of human formation, linking the human development with the schools and its projects. For that, it tries to demonstrate that pedagogic projects configured as activity don't just legitimate the collective participation as it establish a new theoretical and/or methodological order in the organization of the pedagogic work, provoking a school that learns and grows in the search of forming men and women of the best human quality.
Lilian Caicedo Obando
Full Text Available Nowadays, more than before people talks about the importance to pay attention to the particularity, and this concept has had different conceptions: starting with the incapacity, concept understood like the feature which make a subject different from the others. Other concept is vulnerability which require special attention by the same society that has produced this. Education is one of the most important aspects in the attention. And what is happening inside the educative institutions is not the result of only one way to face and understand the situation that imply the subjects integration since the particularity many senses are assumed in relation with the conception of: subject, school, integration. For this reason, in this article the instrumental, strategic and complex senses are analysed.
Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F
Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial.
Trinder, Margot; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Freeman, Elizabeth; Sanson, Ann; Richardson, Shanel; Hunt, Sue
This study evaluated the Enhancing Relationships in School Communities (ERIS) Project which aimed to promote constructive conflict resolution (CR) in Australian primary school communities through professional development for core teams of three-five staff (n = 33 teachers). Twelve schools were randomly assigned to a full intervention (FI) group or…
Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.
CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...
Álka is a framework involving teacher education institutions in the Nordic counties. This study describes the design of a module aiming at the establishment of a stronger nexus between research (theory) and teaching of science (practice) and to explore an issue relevant for the student teachers...... future professional life. The theme that was used for the research based project was: Nordic Children’s ideas about living things in the sea. Oral presentation at The 10th Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN), Linköbing, Sweden, June 2011....
Héctor José Peinado-Guevara
Full Text Available The semipresential modality at high school level for adults, as the offered in the nightlife high school of the Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, that creates high expectations for Sinaloa´s society, to give the student an opportunity to continue its educational development in high school level and, lead him to continue with their vocational training. With this investigation, and given to their conditions, the objective it´s to know the competitive level at the beginning and during the development in the institution, also to identify the influence of the school tutoring in the development of adult students in high school. It was identified the income profile of students to the institution; was necessary to rescue the results of CENEVAL and EDAOM tests, practiced at the entry of students to the institution. Together this tools, was necessary to practice two questionnaires to evaluate the students perception about their teachers; and another one to identify the main problems they faced and the function of their school tutor in the institution. With the data obtained, were identified some deficiencies of semipresential system, especially in educational planning. Even though the students recognizes that the tutoring its fundamental to the incorporation of students to academic activities and that exists a high level of acceptance to the programs set by the institution.
This evidence-based project provided a professional development opportunity for educators to enhance the awareness of school-based occupational therapy and promote a collaborative approach when supporting student participation in daily learning tasks. Through asynchronous web-based delivery, participants viewed five narrated PowerPoint…
Ryder, Linda Sue; Pegg, Jerine; Wood, Nathan
Summer outreach programs provide pre-college participants an introduction to college life and exposure to engineering in an effort to raise the level of interest and bring more students into engineering fields. The Junior Engineering, Mathematics, and Science (JEMS) program is a project-based summer workshop in which teams of high school students…
Schallies, Michael; Wellensiek, Anneliese; Lembens, Anja
This paper describes a German project that developed students' capabilities for understanding and valuing biotechnology and genetic engineering, focusing on practical fieldwork with schools by an interdisciplinary team. The paper identifies the characteristics of individual and structural preconditions and their development during active project…
Hoffstaedter, Petra; Kohn, Kurt
Our contribution focuses on synchronous oral telecollaboration in secondary schools. With reference to the EU project TILA, aspects of task design and implementation are discussed against the backdrop of issues of technological quality in connection with class organisation in computer labs. Case study evidence is provided in favour of the…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.
Project HOLA at William H. Taft High School (Bronx, New York) assists foreign-born and Puerto Rican-born students to quickly assists foreign- and Puerto Rican-born students to quickly acquire English language skills and an American cultural orientation; to maintain or improve their Spanish language skills and cultural knowledge; and to be…
Martinez, Ana L.; And Others
In its fourth year of Title VII funding, Project HOLA at William H. Taft High School served 383 Spanish-speaking students of limited English proficiency from low-income families. The program's goals were to develop English language skills for mainstreaming, to develop an understanding and awareness of American culture and society, to develop…
Schlechty, Phillip C.
Part of the Virginia Beach year-round school program evaluation, this final report contains a detailed analysis of parental attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions. The data leads to the following conclusions: a majority (53.3 percent) of parents are dubious or negative toward the 45-15 pilot project; a slight majority of parents in the pilot schools…
Ward, Christopher R.; Balavage, Valerie
An evaluation determined the impact on participants of pilot intergenerational programs in the Central Greene, Quaker Valley, and Titusville school districts in western Pennsylvania. It examined how participation in project activities changed students' attitudes about older adults and aging. A four-part questionnaire consisted of the following:…
Bos, Johannes; Berman, Jacqueline
The primary research question for this project was whether a streamlined, relatively inexpensive, counseling-based program that assists low-income high school students with the college and financial application processes can significantly increase college enrollment rates. The intervention was designed to test the hypothesis that lack of…
Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.
This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on American government is divided into fourteen topics. The topics included are: definition of "State"; left to right political spectrum; Dictatorship vs. Democracy; Capitalism,…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2011
The "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project ("UCSMP") 6-12 Curriculum" is a series of yearlong courses--(1) Transition Mathematics; (2) Algebra; (3) Geometry; (4) Advanced Algebra; (5) Functions, Statistics, and Trigonometry; and (6) Precalculus and Discrete Mathematics--emphasizing problem solving, real-world applications, and the use…
Johnson, Richard W.; Southgate, Benjamin G.
The financial problems afflicting the Illinois teacher pension plan have grabbed headlines. An equally important problem, though underappreciated, is that relatively few teachers benefit much from the plan. This report evaluates the pension benefits provided to Illinois public school teachers. The researchers project annual and lifetime pension…
Tron, Esther, Ed.
Section 1203 of the Education Amendments of 1978 mandated the undertaking of studies concerning the adequate financing of elementary and secondary education in the 1980s. Created to carry out this mandate, the School Finance Project established as one of its goals reporting to Congress on issues implicit in funding educational adequacy. Several…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2009
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra is a one-year course covering three primary topics: (1) linear and quadratic expressions, sentences, and functions; (2) exponential expressions and functions; and (3) linear systems. Topics from geometry, probability, and statistics are integrated with the appropriate algebra.…
Edmunds, Julie; Arshavsky, Nina; Glennie, Elizabeth; Charles, Karen; Rice, Olivia
Project-based learning (PjBL) is an approach often favored in STEM classrooms, yet some studies have shown that teachers struggle to implement it with academic rigor. This paper explores the relationship between PjBL and rigor in the classrooms of ten STEM-oriented high schools. Utilizing three different data sources reflecting three different…
The challenge study is a project based learning curriculum at Technical High School aimed at the construction of a wireless communication system. The first period was engineering issues in the construction of an artificial satellite and the second period was a positional locating system based on the general purpose wire-less device--ZigBee device.…
Marable, Paula; Frazer, Linda
Project A+ Elementary Technology Demonstration Schools is a program made possible through grants from IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) and Apple, Inc. The primary purpose of the program is to demonstrate the educational effectiveness of technology in accelerating the learning of low achieving at-risk students and enhancing the…
Lindenskov, Lena; Andresen, Mette
A new concept, compulsory multi-disciplinary courses, was introduced in upper secondary school curriculum as a central part of a recent reform. This paper reports from a case study of such a triple/four-disciplinary project in mathematics, physics, chemistry and ‘general study preparation...
Simonovits, Reinhard; McElroy, Jim; O'Loughlin, James; Townsend, Colin
The overall aim of the project is to allow for the collaboration of high school students of different European countries on small, selected maths topics. This involves the use of technology, student mobility and English language competency. Benefits are also expected to accrue to teachers of mathematics by providing the opportunity to work with…
Bohát, Róbert; Rödlingová, Beata; Horáková, Nina
The Applied Linguistics Project (ALP) started at the International School of Prague (ISP) in 2013. Every year, Grade 9 English as an Additional Language (EAL) students identify an area of learning in need of improvement and design a research method followed by data collection and analysis using basic computer software tools or online corpora.…
Rasmussen, Annette; Andreasen, Karen Egedal
Bridge-building activities are practiced widely in the education systems of Europe. They are meant to bridge transitions between lower and upper secondary school and form a mandatory part of the youth guidance system in Denmark. By giving pupils the opportunity to experience the different...... educational context of upper secondary school, bridge-building activities are meant to facilitate their decision-making on educational paths, but also to attract more and new groups of pupils. However, the premises of the inherent differences of educational contexts and of pupils’ lacking knowledge of upper...... secondary education can be questioned. In this ethnographic case study of a bridge-building project in a rural area in Denmark, we analyse the implicit knowledge of the general upper secondary school, as it is practiced in a bridge-building project, and how it is experienced by the pupils on the background...
Ishii, Hiroaki; Hamada, Yoko; Utsugi, Hajime
We investigated the effects of sun- and shade-shoot architecture on the photosynthetic rates of two Picea species by applying light from various angles in the laboratory. Compared with sun shoots, shade shoots were characterized by lower mass allocation per light-intercepting area, less leaf mass per shoot mass, less mutual shading among leaves and more efficient allocation of chlorophyll to photosynthesis. The shoot silhouette to total leaf area ratio (STAR(ϕ)) decreased with increasing shoot inclination angle (ϕ, the shoot axis angle relative to the projection plane) and was consistently higher for the shade shoots. Morphological and physiological characteristics of the shade shoots resulted in maximum rates of net photosynthesis at ϕ = 0° (P(max,0)) similar to that of the sun shoots when expressed on a leaf mass, total leaf area and chlorophyll basis. When the angle of incoming light was varied, P(max,ϕ) per total leaf area (P(max,ϕ )/A(T)) of the shade shoots increased linearly with increasing STAR(ϕ), while P(max,ϕ) per shoot silhouette area did not change. In contrast, the response of the sun shoots was non-linear, and an optimum angle of incoming light was determined. Our results suggest that shade-shoot morphology is adaptive for utilizing diffuse light incoming from various angles, while sun-shoot morphology is adaptive for avoiding the negative effects of strong direct radiation and for enhancing light diffusion into the canopy. We propose that the angle of incoming light should be taken into account when estimating photosynthetic rates of sun shoots of conifer trees in the field.
Herrera R, Juan Francisco; Reyes S, Lucia; Amaya, Hector Oswaldo T .Gerena Oscar Arturo
It was investigated the current state of de School Environment Projects in the public educational institutions of de Town 18 Rafael Uribe Uribe in Bogota (Colombia). The participation grade was measured in the design o execution and evaluation of the environmental projects, the registration and systematising of experiences, the generation of reflection spaces and the structuring to the Institutional Educational Project. By means of the test pilot the variables were determined for the sample design and the validation of the mensuration instrument. Three populations study object were determined and for each was designed a for through which the information of the variable was gathered by means of the method of direct interview. The results show that the overwhelming majority of the considered population didn't participated in the design in the execution of the environmental projects. The registration and systematizing of experiences are minimum, as well as the reflection spaces and conceptualization. There is not articulation from the environmental project to the Institutional Educational Project. The little participation, systematizing of experiences and lack of reflection spaces and conceptualization limit the impact of the School Environmental Projects in the formation of favorable attitudes to the environment
The main purpose of this study is to develop positive attitudes in high school teachers towards scientific research and project competitions by training them in scientific research and project preparation subjects. The study group consists of 90 high school teachers. As a result of the study, a significant difference was found in favor of…
Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia; Boaventura, Diana
The purpose of the study was to investigate how young students engage in an inquiry-based project driven by real-life contexts. Elementary school children were engaged in a small inquiry project centred on marine biodiversity and species adaptations. All activities included the exploration of an out-of-school setting as a learning context. A total…
Cogger, Steven D.; Miley, Daniel H.
This paper proposes that project-based active learning is a key part of engineering education at the middle school level. One project from a comprehensive middle school engineering curriculum developed by the authors is described to show how active learning and state frameworks can coexist. The theoretical basis for learning and assessment in a…
The Battle River Project: school division implementation of the health-promoting schools approach: assessment for learning: using student health and school capacity measures to inform action and direct policy in a local school district.
Gleddie, Douglas L; Hobin, Erin P
The Battle River Project (BRP) is a school division-level intervention in rural Alberta, Canada, built upon the health-promoting schools approach to health promotion. Using self-reported school and student-level data from administrators and students, the central aim of the BRP is to examine: 'How can the school environment and health behaviours (healthy eating, physical activity and mental wellness) of children and youth be improved when a health-promoting schools model, the Ever Active Schools program, is implemented with school division support?' Evidence used to inform school level changes included students' demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables linked to school environment data, comprised of school demographics and administrator-assessed quality of policies, facilities, and programs related to physical activity. Each participating school and the division were provided with a tailored report of their schools' results to reflect, plan and implement for positive health behavior change. The main lesson learned was that sharing school-specific evidence can operate as a catalyst for embedding health promoting policy and practices within the school and division culture.
Feder, J.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzynski, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.
We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Lodz. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented
Alozie, Nonye M.; Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Krajcik, Joseph S.
One goal of project-based science is to promote the development of scientific discourse communities in classrooms. Holding rich high school scientific discussions is challenging, especially when the demands of content and norms of high school science pose challenges to their enactment. There is little research on how high school teachers enact…
Mercury is a persistent, toxic substance that poses a serious threat to the environment and human health. Mercury compounds can be carried hundreds of kilometers once airborne and inhaling mercury vapours or ingesting mercury can cause serious injury or death. In Canada, mercury is regularly found in thousands of products such as fluorescent lamps, thermostats, fever thermometers and button batteries, as well as a variety of industrial applications. This report discussed a project that was undertaken by the Recycling Council of Ontario (RCO) that targeted schools, within the Grand Erie District School Board (GEDSB), to pilot a program over a period of 3 months to track, collect and recycle sufficient number of fluorescent tubes. The purpose was to successfully divert 2200 mgs of mercury that may otherwise be destined for landfill. The primary objective of the pilot project was to establish an operating system to collect and recycle fluorescent tube lighting and develop recycling guidelines for the GEDSB that would be transferable to other school districts. The report discussed why fluorescent lamp recycling was needed and outlined the project partners. One recycling partner's recycling process, Fluorescent Lamp Recyclers (FLR) was described. The report also discussed regulations affecting the handling and disposal of fluorescent lamps in Ontario. GEDSB's, RCO's and FLR's responsibilities in the project were outlined. The methodology and florescent lamp collection process were described. The report also presented the collection schedule and results. It was concluded that with very little effort, significant amounts of fluorescent lamps could be diverted, preventing mercury from entering landfills. refs., tabs., figs., appendices.
Laux, T; Mayer, K F
The shoot meristem is a proliferative centre containing pluripotent stem cells that are the ultimate source of all cells and organs continuously added to the growing shoot. The progeny of the stem cells have two developmental options, either to renew the stem cell population or to leave the meristem and to differentiate, possibly according to signals from more mature tissue. The destiny of each cell depends on its position within the dynamic shoot meristem. Genetic data suggest a simple model in which graded positional information is provided by antagonistic gene functions and is interpreted by genes which regulate cell fate.
Kirk, Chris Michael; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Brown, Kyrah; Karibo, Brittany; Scott, Angela; Park, Elle
In an education system marred by inequity, urban schools in the United States are faced with the challenge of helping students from marginalized groups succeed. While many strategies have been tried, most are built on deficit-based models that blame students and teachers for a lack of achievement and ignore the role of power within the school…
Utilizing a consensus decision-making strategy, teachers and an administrator from Parkway Central Middle School (PCMS) (Missouri) selected a two-part mission: (1) to establish an atmosphere where students demonstrate respect for themselves, their peers, and all adults; and (2) to evaluate, revise, develop, and implement a new discipline plan that…
Ferreira, Jose Leonardo
This project aims to develop interdisciplinary actions, articulated and convergence in the field of education, dissemination and popularization of science and technology in Brasilia-DF, the Federal District of Brazil. These actions are also been carried out at DF surroundings areas. Since 2015 linked convergent actions are focused on the development of space science and astronomy teaching with hands on experimental activities. Workshops, short basic astronomy courses, expositions and planetarium show are been carried out by a team of professors, graduate and under graduate students from University of Brasilia- UnB. At the same time upgrade actions are been done in order to modernize The Luiz Cruls Astronomical Observatory located at the far campus of UnB, named Fazenda Água Limpa. It is now a Center for research and space science dissemination and popularization not only for students but also for the whole community of Brasilia. Working toghether with the Physics Institute of UnB we have the recently created Museum of Science and Technology of Brasilia, also located at the UnB campus. The Museum is responsible for contac with schools and Brasilia community and for the organization of the activities of the Science on the School Project. Science on the School is an educational, scientific and cultural proposal approved and financed by the brazillian national research council (CNPq) and by the Science and Technology Reseach Foundation of Brasilia. Besides science dissemination for the brazillian society the project is also developing theoretical and experimental research in the area of Space Science and Astronomy. The project also aim to transform the Museum in a strong Science Education Center for the Brazil central region population, It is going to be a cultural environment and leisure for the Federal District and surrounding areas of Brasilia. In this work we will describe the coordinate actions of The Luiz Cruls Astronomical Observatory the Physics Institute of
I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta
Full Text Available The effectiveness of jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable, because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on 20samples of people whowere selected randomly from the men's basketball club of the Faculty of Physical Educationand Health of Teacher Training Institute PGRI Bali. Samples were divided into two groups each consisting of 10 people. Group I was given training step jump shoot four sets of 10 reps and Group II training still jump shoot four sets of 10 reps. The data before and after treatment were tested by SPSS computer program. The data were normally distributed and homogeneous so further tested using pairedt-test to compare the average values?? before and after training between each group, while the independent t-test was used to determine differences in mean values?? between the two groups. Paired t-test resulted the obtained data were significantly increased in both treatment groups p=0,001 in Group I and p=0,000 in Group II (p <0.05. Results of independent t-test found that both groups before training did not differ significantly p=0,926 (p>0.05 and after training both groups equally improve the accuracy of shooting because p=0,133 (p>0.05. It was concluded that botht raining improved the shooting accuracy and there was no difference between the effect of step jumps hoot and still jump shoot toward the shooting accuracy. It was suggested to improve the shooting accuracy in basketball used step jump shoot training and still jump shoot training four sets of 10 reps with a training frequency of 4 times a week for 6 weeks
Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal
In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant differences between the two groups: Open inquiry students were more satisfied and felt they gained benefits from implementing the project to a greater extent than guided inquiry students. On the other hand, regarding documentation throughout the project, guided inquiry students believed that they conducted more documentation, as compared to their open inquiry peers. No significant differences were found regarding `the investment of time', but significant differences were found in the time invested and difficulties which arose concerning the different stages of the inquiry process: Open inquiry students believed they spent more time in the first stages of the project, while guided inquiry students believed they spent more time in writing the final paper. In addition, other differences were found: Open inquiry students felt more involved in their project, and felt a greater sense of cooperation with others, in comparison to guided inquiry students. These findings may help teachers who hesitate to teach open inquiry to implement this method of inquiry; or at least provide their students with the opportunity to be more involved in inquiry projects, and ultimately provide their students with more autonomy, high-order thinking, and a deeper understanding in performing science.
Ray, E.; McCabe, D.; Sheldon, S.; Jankowski, K.; Haselton, L.; Luck, M.; van Houten, J.
The Vermont EPSCoR Streams Project engages a diverse group of undergraduates, high school students, and their teachers in hands-on water quality research and exposes them to the process of science. The project aims to (1) recruit students to science careers and (2) create a water quality database comprised of high-quality data collected by undergraduates and high school groups. The project is the training and outreach mechanism of the Complex Systems Modeling for Environmental Problem Solving research program, an NSF-funded program at the University of Vermont (UVM) that provides computational strategies and fresh approaches for understanding how natural and built environments interact. The Streams Project trains participants to collect and analyze data from streams throughout Vermont and at limited sites in Connecticut, New York, and Puerto Rico. Participants contribute their data to an online database and use it to complete individual research projects that focus on the effect of land use and precipitation patterns on selected measures of stream water quality. All undergraduates and some high school groups are paired with a mentor, who is either a graduate student or a faculty member at UVM or other college. Each year, undergraduate students and high school groups are trained to (1) collect water and macroinvertebrate samples from streams, (2) analyze water samples for total phosphorus, bacteria, and total suspended solids in an analytical laboratory, and/or (3) use geographic information systems (GIS) to assess landscape-level data for their watersheds. After training, high school groups collect samples from stream sites on a twice-monthly basis while undergraduates conduct semi-autonomous field and laboratory research. High school groups monitor sites in two watersheds with contrasting land uses. Undergraduate projects are shaped by the interests of students and their mentors. Contribution to a common database provides students with the option to expand the
Service-learning (SL) is an experiential teaching method that combines instruction with community service, with the aim of enriching students' academic learning, interpersonal skills and sense of responsibility while making meaningful contributions to the community. However, measuring outcomes of service-learning projects is difficult. This article reports on the perceptions of 18 third-year undergraduate nursing students who took part in a pilot service-learning project targeting tobacco use in a local elementary school. Faculty members evaluated the program's outcomes by engaging students in structured reflection on the program about its relevance to their future careers as practicing professionals, especially in community-based settings. The students' perceptions were elicited through three sets of reflective assignments following the project. Findings from the reflective assignments suggest that the pilot program was successful in enhancing the students' academic, social, and personal development while building a partnership between the school of nursing and key players in the community, including school-based nurses, teachers, administrators, families, and community leaders. The author suggests that service-learning projects can help nursing students accomplish key developmental tasks of the college years (such as building their competence, autonomy, and integrity), while helping impart the skills and values they will need as they graduate and seek professional nursing roles.
Irinéa de Lourdes Batista
Full Text Available In this research, an understanding about scholar interdisciplinarity and project working is brought, aiming at showing that the last one is an alternative methodological to promote an interdisciplinary educative practice. Therefore a pedagogical proposal was built to implement interdisciplinarity in Science and Mathematics Education in High School. It is exposed the theoretical syntheses, analysis and discussions concerning the pertinence and possibility to implement the proposal studied by the teachers and pedagogical staff in a public High School in the State of Paraná, Brazil.
School Science Review, 1978
Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)
Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A
This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.
Little, Stefan A; Jacobs, Brooke; McKechnie, Steven J; Cooper, Ranessa L; Christianson, Michael L; Jernstedt, Judith A
Ginkgo, centrally placed in seed plant phylogeny, is considered important in many phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Shoot dimorphism of Ginkgo has been long noted, but no work has yet been done to evaluate the relationships between overall branch architecture and wood ring characters, shoot growth, and environmental conditions. • Branches, sampled from similar canopy heights, were mapped with the age of each long shoot segment determined by counting annual leaf-scar series on its short shoots. Transverse sections were made for each long shoot segment and an adjacent short shoot; wood ring thickness, number of rings, and number of tracheids/ring were determined. Using branch maps, we identified wood rings for each long shoot segment to year and developmental context of each year (distal short shoot growth only vs. at least one distal long shoot). Climate data were also analyzed in conjunction with developmental context. • Significantly thicker wood rings occur in years with distal long shoot development. The likelihood that a branch produced long shoots in a given year was lower with higher maximum annual temperature. Annual maximum temperature was negatively correlated with ring thickness in microsporangiate trees only. Annual minimum temperatures were correlated differently with ring thickness of megasporangiate and microsporangiate trees, depending on the developmental context. There were no significant effects associated with precipitation. • Overall, developmental context alone predicts wood ring thickness about as well as models that include temperature. This suggests that although climatic factors may be strongly correlated with wood ring data among many gymnosperm taxa, at least for Ginkgo, correlations with climate data are primarily due to changes in proportions of shoot developmental types (LS vs. SS) across branches.
Glogowski, Tomasz; Hlosta, Pawel; Stepniak, Slawomir; Swiderski, Waldemar
Multimedia shooting training systems are increasingly being used in the training of security staff and uniformed services. An advanced practicing-training system SPARTAN for simulation of small arms shooting has been designed and manufactured by Autocomp Management Ltd. and Military Institute of Armament Technology for the Polish Ministry of National Defence. SPARTAN is a stationary device designed to teach, monitor and evaluate the targeting of small arms and to prepare soldiers for: • firing the live ammunition at open ranges for combat targets and silhouettes • detection, classification and engagement of real targets upon different terrains, weather conditions and periods during the day • team work as a squad during the mission by using different types of arms • suitable reactions in untypical scenarios. Placed in any room the training set consists of: • the projection system that generates realistic 3D imaging of the battlefield (such as combat shooting range) in high-resolution • system that tracks weapons aiming points • sound system which delivers realistic mapping of acoustic surroundings • operator station with which the training is conducted and controlled • central processing unit based on PC computers equipped with specialist software realizing individual system functions • units of smart weapons equipped with radio communication modules, injection laser diodes and pneumatic reloading system. The system make possible training by firing in dynamic scenarios, using combat weapons and live ammunition against visible targets moving on a screen. The use of infrared camera for detecting the position of impact of a projectile.
Kalcic, Maria; Turowski, Mark; Hall, Callie
Presentation topics include: importance of salinity of coastal waters, habitat switching algorithm, habitat switching module, salinity estimates from Landsat for Sabine Calcasieu Basin, percent of time inundated in 2006, salinity data, prototyping the system, system as packaged for field tests, salinity probe and casing, opening for water flow, cellular antenna used to transmit data, preparing to launch, system is launched in the Pearl River at Stennis Space Center, data are transmitted to Twitter by cell phone modem every 15 minutes, Google spreadsheet I used to import the data from the Twitter feed and to compute salinity (from conductivity) and display charts of salinity and temperature, results are uploaded to NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office Webpage.
Fitzgerald, M. T.; Hollow, R.; Rebull, L. M.; Danaia, L.; McKinnon, D. H.
Since the early 1990s with the arrival of a variety of new technologies, the capacity for authentic astronomical research at the high school level has skyrocketed. This potential, however, has not realised the bright-eyed hopes and dreams of the early pioneers who expected to revolutionise science education through the use of telescopes and other astronomical instrumentation in the classroom. In this paper, a general history and analysis of these attempts is presented. We define what we classify as an Astronomy Research in the Classroom (ARiC) project and note the major dimensions on which these projects differ before describing the 22 major student research projects active since the early 1990s. This is followed by a discussion of the major issues identified that affected the success of these projects and provide suggestions for similar attempts in the future.
This report presents an evaluation of Bilingual Enrichment Services and Training (Project BEST), an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its third year of operation at four schools in Manhattan. The project served 266 Cantonese-, Fukienese, and Mandarin-speaking gifted students of limited English proficiency.…
Ady Marcela Vaca Torres
Full Text Available This research study examined how a group of ninth graders enhanced the speaking skill in an English as a foreign language classroom through project-based learning. Data about the experience were collected through field notes, transcripts of learners’ oral performance, and one interview. Grounded theory was implemented for data analysis, out of which three main findings emerged: (1 project-based learning encouraged students to increase oral production through lexical competence development, (2 helped them to overcome fears of speaking in L2, and (3, increased their interest in learning about their school life and community.
David L. Eatough
Full Text Available The need for inquiry oriented authentic activities is imperative to engage high school students in the active involvement and associated learning of science. Herein, we describe our experience of involving high school students in the process of studying wild coyotes in and around the communities where they live. We found that many became aware and familiar with the program but few participated to the point of being contributing members of the scientific community. To make this project sustainable in the long-run three important things must happen: one, there must be reliable point person (such as a graduate student who can focus on the ecology side of the coyote project while others can focus on the educational components of the collaboration; two, mechanisms must be put in place to provide incentives for participants; and three, funding must be reliable and substantial over time.
Venoso, G.; Bertucci, A.; Balzano, E.; Giberti, G.; Pugliese, M.; Roca, V.; Romano, M.; Venoso, G.; Balzano, E.; D'Onofrio, A.; Gialanella, L.; Giberti, G.; Pugliese, M.; Roca, V.; Romano, M.; Sabbarese, C.; D'Onofrio, A.; Sabbarese, C.; Bertucci, A.
Environmental topics are today at the centre of the public attention, but people mostly does not have cultural tools for an adequate knowledge. The radioactivity, in particular, is generally misunderstood and this had negatively influence debate about the energy. To fill this gap science subjects need to be study in school with a more efficient approach. Many efforts have spent to obtain this goal: in this framework the Envirad project was developed with the aim to make students of high schools of Campania Region (south-Italy) able to practice experimental method involving directly them in a real environmental physics experiment . The aim of this project, developed by the grant of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, is that the effective experimental activity is the best way to provide for an adequate scientific background. (N.C.)
Elite guava (Psidium guajava L.) strains of cv. Safeda were explored in vitro for multiple shoot induction. Shoot induction was enhanced up to 83% with 3.5 to 4.25 shoots per single node cutting and shoot tip explants, respectively, using higher levels of benzyl amino purine (BAP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.
Christina A. Russell
Full Text Available The field of after-school programming remains rife with unanswered questions. What constitutes quality in after-school programs? Are after-school opportunities valuable for participants regardless of their quality? Are differences in quality associated with differences in participant benefit? This sub-study of the longitudinal evaluation of The After-School Corporation (TASC looks at how after-school opportunities with varying features affect urban middle-grades (6-8 adolescents who live in impoverished circumstances. Supported by the William T. Grant Foundation, the study explores the associations between after-school project features and the social and cognitive outcomes of disadvantaged middle-grades participants in TASC programs. The study relies on data collected during the 2001-02 and 2002-03 school years in eight TASC projects serving middle-grades students.
Hayes, J.W. (Marlboro College, VT); Converse, A.O.
Two Vermont elementary school energy conservation/passive solar energy retrofit projects are described. Both masonry buildings were insulated with polystyrene on the east, north and west exterior walls. The south walls of each building were converted to Trombe walls, and, in addition, a portion of the south wall of one building was fitted with a solar greenhouse. The construction details, the predicted performance, and some actual results are reported here.
Марія Михайлівна Греб
Full Text Available In the article it is considered the applied aspects of content projecting of lexicology and phraseology teaching of future primary school teachers basing on the principles of developing education. These principles are realized gradually (theoretical, practical, research stages and stage of independent work. Also these principles are guaranteed by the system of exercises and tasks of three levels of complexity which promotes increasing of motivation, self-development, self-realization of subjects of educational process
Rush, Elaine; Obolonkin, Victor; McLennan, Stephanie; Graham, David; Harris, James D; Mernagh, Paul; Weston, Adéle R
Project Energize, a multicomponent through-school physical activity and nutrition programme, is delivered to all primary school children in the Waikato region. The programme aim is to improve the overall health and reduce the rate of weight gain of all Waikato primary school children. An existing economic model was used to extrapolate the programme effects, initial costs, lifetime health treatment cost structures, quality-adjusted-life-years gained and increased life expectancy to the general and Māori child population of New Zealand. In March 2011, a sample of 2474 younger (7.58 ± 0.57 years, mean ± SD) and 2330 older (10.30 ± 0.51 years) children (36% Māori) attending Energize schools had body mass index measured and compared using mixed effect modelling with unEnergized comparison children from 2004 and 2006 from the same region. In 2011 the median body mass index reduction compared with the comparison younger children was -0.504 (90% CI -0.435 to -0.663) kg/m(2) and in the older children -0.551 (-0.456 to -0.789) kg/m(2). In 2010 there were 42,067 children attending Energize schools and in the same year NZ$1,891,175 was spent to deliver the programme; a cost of $44.96/child/year. Compared to the comparison children the increment in cost/quality-adjusted-life-year gained was $30,438 for the younger and $24,690 for the older children, and lower for Māori (younger $28,241, older $22,151) and for the middle socioeconomic status schools ($23,211, $17,891). Project Energize would improve quality and length of life and when compared with other obesity prevention programmes previously assessed with this model, it would be relatively cost-effective from the health treatment payer's perspective.
Walpole, S C; Mortimer, F
Environmental change poses pressing challenges to public health and calls for profound and far-reaching changes to policy and practice across communities and health systems. Medical schools can act as a seedbed where knowledge, skills and innovation to address environmental challenges can be developed through innovative and collaborative approaches. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore drivers and challenges of collaboration for educational development between and within medical schools; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of a range of pedagogies for sustainable healthcare education; and (3) identify effective strategies to facilitate the renewal of medical curricula to address evolving health challenges. Participatory action research. Medical school teams participated in a nine-month collaborative project, including a one-day seminar to learn about sustainable healthcare education and develop a project plan. After the seminar, teams were supported to develop, deliver and evaluate new teaching at their medical school. New teaching was introduced at seven medical schools. A variety of pedagogies were represented. Collaboration between schools motivated and informed participants. The main challenges faced related to time pressures. Educators and students commented that new teaching was enjoyable and effective at improving knowledge and skills. Collaborative working supported educators to develop and implement new teaching sessions rapidly and effectively. Collaboration can help to build educators' confidence and capacity in a new area of education development. Different forms of collaboration may be appropriate for different circumstances and at different stages of education development. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robinson, R. A.; Roper, K. A.; Macfarlane, D.; Pike, C.
GeoBus is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews. It is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (high) schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. These linkages are important for introducing career opportunities in Earth sciences. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 140 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Over 20,000 pupils will have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities by December 2013, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run workshops, field excursions and Enterprise Challenges. GeoBus provides 16 workshops which can be adapted for different learning levels. Workshops are 50 to 80 minute sessions for up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. The Enterprise Challenges are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Current topics are Drilling for Oil, Renewable Energy, a Journey to Mars and Scotland
Full Text Available State programs promoting school autonomy have been developed within the neo-liberal project and its state reform policies characterized by decentralization and privatization of social services. These programs were fostered as strategies to improve educational quality and equity, in the midst of the redefinition of the role of the state as guarantor of education as a social right. Disputing the neo-liberal view which led to the dismantlement of the welfare state, social movements arising from marginal sectors of society have implemented their own education projects, often working in collaboration with academia. In these projects, school autonomy is seen as a strategy to challenge existing social relations. In this paper, we compare and contrast the meanings attached to the notion of “school autonomy” and the characteristics of the social practices fostered by the educational programs promoted by two different agents, i.e. the state and social movements. Thus, we analyze in the case of Argentina a nation-wide program implemented by the National Ministry of Education (Programa Nueva Escuela Argentina para el Siglo XXI as well as an educational program developed by a social movement (the Movimiento Nacional de Empresas Recuperadas.
This report presents an evaluation of the Bilingual Academic and Career Education Services for Hispanic High School Students (Project BACES), an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its third year of operation at DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx and George Washington High School in Manhattan. The project served…
White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd
Thirty years ago we would think nothing of driving to school with a jackknife in our pocket or rifle in the gun rack. Since then, the practices of possessing, transporting, and using firearms have been limited by laws, rules, and public perception. Despite restrictions on youth, the Youth Handgun Safety Act does afford 4-H shooting sports members…
Lo, Ya-yu; Burk, Bradley; Burk, Bradley; Anderson, Adrienne L.
The current study examined the effects of a modified video prompting procedure, namely progressive video prompting, to increase technique accuracy of shooting a basketball in the school gymnasium of three 11th-grade students with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention involved participants viewing video clips of an adult model who…
Ogle, Jennifer Paff; Eckman, Molly
An inductive content analysis approach was used to examine 155 dress-related newspaper articles following the Columbine High School shootings in 1999. Analysis revealed two dress-related responses: (1) other-imposed regulation to protect students and deter them from expressing hatred and (2) self-designed acts of resistance for grieving. (Contains…
Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy
Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results : 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78.7% In Eastern countries 63.1% in Western Europe.
Full Text Available In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill.We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting.Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10-9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi, or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals, or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to -197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi. The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1 in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum by compression of the spore and droplets and (2 in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5,413,000g in
Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Y W
A community-wide school health project for the promotion of smoke-free homes was launched in June 2010 with the aim of promoting the benefits of smoke-free homes to all school-aged children (aged 6-18), and indirectly to their parents and family members. The 1-year project included health talks on a smoke-free life; the distribution of educational leaflets; slogan and visual art competitions; and a health fair held in June 2011. Two sets of questionnaires were developed to solicit a resolution and action from the participants regarding the establishment of a smoke-free home, and their decision to stay smoke-free. This is a paper to report on the activities of this project, the attempts to reach out to school-aged children, and their indications of agreement with, support for, and commitment to promoting smoke-free homes. The project reached an estimated 12,800 school-aged children in Hong Kong. A large proportion of those received educational leaflets (69.6-88.2 %). Of those who participated in the health fair, 69.7-87.6 % agreed to promote the concept of smoke-free homes to friends and family. More primary than secondary students pledged to not take up smoking (90.8 vs 85.8 %). About 82 % of those who had experimented with smoking pledged to stop. A small proportion of them reported already having established a smoke-free policy at home (14.9 %), placed a 'No Smoking' sign at home (16.4 %), informed visitors of their smoke-free policy at home (12.9 %), and asked visitors to dispose of lit cigarettes before entering their home (15.9 %). This community-wide school health project on the benefits of smoke-free homes reached a large number of students, and indirectly to family members, and home visitors. Public health efforts of this kind should be continued to reach younger generations and the general public.
Bachman, Jane T.; Kota, Dena H.; Kota, Aaron J.
Encouraging students at all grade levels to consider pursuing a career in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields i s a national focus. In 2005, the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD), a Department of Defense laboratory located in Da hlgren, Virginia, began work on the Virginia Demonstration Project (VDP) with the goal of increasing more student interest in STEM educatio n and pursuing STEM careers. This goal continues as the program enters its sixth year. This project has been successful through the partici pation of NSWCDD's scientists and engineers who are trained as mentor s to work in local middle school classrooms throughout the school year, As an extension of the in-class activities, several STEM summer aca demies have been conducted at NSWCDD, These academies are supported by the Navy through the VDP and the STEM Learning Module Project. These projects are part of more extensive outreach efforts offered by the National Defense Education Program (NDEP), sponsored by the Director, Defense Research and Engineering. The focus of this paper is on the types of activities conducted at the summer academy, an overview of the academy planning process, and recommendations to help support a nati onal plan of integrating modeling and simulation-based engineering and science into all grade levels. based upon the lessons learned
Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro
Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wagner and colleagues (2006) state the mediocrity of teaching and instructional leadership is the central problem that must be addressed if we are to improve student achievement. Educational reform efforts have been initiated to improve student performance and to hold teachers and school leaders accountable for student achievement (Wagner et al., 2006). Specifically, in the area of science, goals for improving student learning have led reformers to establish standards for what students should know and be able to do, as well as what instructional methods should be used. Key concepts and principles have been identified for student learning. Additionally, reformers recommend student-centered, inquiry-based practices that promote a deep understanding of how science is embedded in the everyday world. These new approaches to science education emphasize inquiry as an essential element for student learning (Schneider, Krajcik, Marx, & Soloway, 2002). Project-based learning (PBL) is an inquiry-based instructional approach that addresses these recommendations for science education reform. The objective of this research was to study the implementation of project-based learning (PBL) in an urban school undergoing reform efforts and identify the variables that positively or negatively impacted the PBL implementation process and its outcomes. This study responded to the need to change how science is taught by focusing on the implementation of project-based learning as an instructional approach to improve student achievement in science and identify the role of both school leaders and teachers in the creation of a school environment that supports project-based learning. A case study design using a mixed-method approach was used in this study. Data were collected through individual interviews with the school principal, science instructional coach, and PBL facilitator. A survey, classroom observations and interviews involving three high school science teachers teaching grades 9
Terrón-López, María-José; Velasco-Quintana, Paloma-Julia; García-García, María-José; Ocampo, Jared R.
A unified academic model based on the project-based learning (PBL) methodology was implemented, in the 2012-2013 period, in the School of Engineering at Universidad Europea de Madrid. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether teachers and students participating in the capstone projects feel that the objectives for which this methodology was designed for are being achieved. The data were collected through interviews to participants at the end of the PBL experience. The results are encouraging, as students seem to be more motivated, and they say that they are experiencing deeper learning, and have developed key competitive skills required for their professional lives. Findings also suggest that teachers face positively the PBL as a learning approach since they perceive that students obtain a deeper learning, develop transversal skills with the projects and are more engaged with their studies. Implications and recommendations for the future of the model are also discussed.
Šverc, Magdalena; Flogie, Andrej; Krabonja, Maja Vicic; Percic, Kristjan
During the years 2008-2013 Ministry of Education in the Republic of Slovenia prepared largest project of informatization of educational institutions. One of the main goals of the project E-Education is the development of the standard E-Competent Teacher, School Principal and IT Expert. The standard E-Competent Teacher, Principal and IT Expert…
Bernstein, Lawrence S.; McLaughlin, Joan E.; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Daft, Lynn M.
In 1998, Congress authorized the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project (SBPP) to study the implementation and effects of providing universal free school breakfast in six school districts across the United States. For three years, from School Year (SY) 2000-2001 through SY 2002-2003, these six school districts received federal funds to offer…
Fonseca, Maria João; Santos, Catarina L; Costa, Patrício; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando
Health-promoting education is essential to foster an informed society able to make decisions about socio-scientific issues based on scientifically sustained criteria. Antibiotic resistance is currently a major public health issue. Considering that irrational antibiotic use has been associated with the development and widespread of antibiotic resistant bacteria, educational interventions to promote prudent antibiotic consumption are required. This study focuses on the outcomes of an interventional program implemented at the University of Porto, Portugal, to promote awareness about antibiotic resistance at high school levels (15-17 year old). The project Microbiology recipes: antibiotics à la carte articulates a set of wet and dry lab activities designed to promote the participants' understanding of concepts and processes underlying antibiotics' production and activity, such as the notion of mechanisms of action of antibiotics. Following a mix-method approach based on a pre-/post design, the effectiveness of this project was assessed by gathering data from surveys, direct observation and analysis of artifacts of 42 high school students (aged 15 and 16 years). The results indicate that the participants developed a more comprehensive picture of antibiotic resistance. The project was shown to promote more sophisticated conceptualizations of bacteria and antibiotics, increased awareness about the perils of antibiotic resistance, and enhanced consciousness towards measures that can be undertaken to mitigate the problem. The participants regarded their experiences as enjoyable and useful, and believed that the project contributed to improve their understanding and raise their interest about the issues discussed. Furthermore, there were also improvements in their procedural skills concerning the laboratory techniques performed. This study evidences the possibility of increasing high school students' awareness about the consequences of antibiotic resistance and the
Tercedor, Pablo; Villa-González, Emilio; Ávila-García, Manuel; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Martínez-Baena, Alejandro; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Pérez-López, Isaac José; García-Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Mandic, Sandra; Palomares-Cuadros, Juan; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Huertas-Delgado, Francisco Javier
The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions) to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age) from six schools in Granada (Spain) will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school) or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children). Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry), physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery), and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference). Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires), academic achievement (grades from the official school's records), and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires). To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.
Chitepo, Thoko; And Others
The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…
Davis, Michelle R.
This article reports that the crisis besetting U.S. and world financial markets is hitting school districts hard, as they struggle to float the bonds needed for capital projects, borrow money to ensure cash flow, and get access to investment funds locked up in troubled institutions. Some schools districts depend heavily on borrowed money to pay…
Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne
Compared mathematical performance of middle school students in low-income communities involved in the QUASAR project to those of a demographically similar school and of a nationally representative sample. QUASAR mathematics instruction emphasizes reasoning, problem-solving, and understanding. Quasar students outperformed NAEP's disadvantaged urban…
Cwi, Cwisa; Hays, Jennifer
This article provides an overview of a mother-tongue education project for the Ju|'hoansi of Nyae Nyae in Namibia--the village schools. These schools are the only places in southern Africa where an Indigenous San community has access to mother-tongue education for 3 years; and are, thus, an important example in the region. However, there are some…
The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…
The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…
The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a five-part unit…
Goelzer, J.; Varner, R. K.; Levergood, R.; Sullivan, F.; Palace, M. W.; Haney, J. F.; Rock, B. N.; Smith, C. W.
The month long residential Marine and Environmental Science research program for high school students at the University of New Hampshire connects students with university researchers. This educational program provides upper level high school students who are considering majors in the earth and environmental sciences with the opportunity to perform field work and conduct authentic research. This year's program introduced students to four modules exploring topics ranging from forest ecology to island ecosystems. The unifying theme between modules was the use of spectroscopy and remote sensing as a method of assessing the characteristics of ecosystems. Students constructed their own photometers utilizing eight specific Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) spanning a wavelength range from 400 to 1200 nm. An Ultra Violet (UV) LED, four visible LEDs, and three different infrared LEDs were selected to detect light reflected by plant pigments and tissues. Students collected data using their photometers and compared results to an actual Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) reflectance data, mounted eight photometers on an unmanned aerial system (UAS) to collect forest canopy data and collected data from island rock pools. The students compared their photometer readings to data collected using a fluorometer to identify the presence of phycocyanin produced by cyanobacteria and chlorophyll produced by algae in the rock pools. Students found that the photometer data were comparable to the ASD data for several wavelengths, but recommended several changes. It was determined that to be useful for forest health assessment, two of the three infrared LEDs had the incorrect gain settings, and that for rock pool studies, the infrared LEDs were not necessary. Based on the student findings, we will refine the photometers for next year's program. The photometers constructed this summer will be utilized in high schools classes during the 2017-2018 school year. This low cost project will bring what is
LEANDRO JACQUES MARTINS
Full Text Available The reports produced by the Education Ministry, after the Prova Brasil results, applied to 8º and 9º grade students in the Portuguese and Mathematics subject shows the Brazilians students learning difficulties in these areas. The Prova Brasil results applied in 2013 shows that in Portuguese only 28,7% of the students graduates at elementary school with the appropriate learning and in mathematics this rate falls to 16,4%. The Brazilian educational legislation determines the minimum pattern at the education quality and the compulsory requirement of reinforcement classes to students who has learning difficulties. Many authors and the legislation establish the pedagogical time and space expansion necessity. The reinforcement, assessment the inclusion in the political- pedagogical project, is an important alternative to the mathematic and Portuguese learning difficulties confront. With the purpose of know the difficulties faced by the Mathematics and Portuguese teachers at the last years of elementary school and the schools reinforcement adoption, interviews were carried out with docents of both areas who works at two public schools at Barra do Quaraí.
Zivković, M; Bjegović, V; Vuković, D; Marinković, J
Contemporary health-education intervention programs are increasingly used as a tool for improving health of school children [1-4]. Since 1992 a Network of 13 elementary Health Promoting Schools established in Yugoslavia (though not yet admitted to the European Network) has been operational. The Project was approved by the Ministries of Health, Education and Ecology from the very beginning, and financially supported by the Government of Serbia since 1995. The team of up to 40 health professionals, school principals and school project managers worked together for four years to change the working conditions in schools knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of school children and staff in order to improve their health . The goal of this paper is to present results of health education intervention in changing of hygienic conditions in schools, as well as some of the attitudes, behaviour and knowledge of pupils and their parents. The study took place before and after the intervention--at two points in time--during 1993 and 1996. The tri-angular approach including (1) pupils, (2) schools (teachers, school environment), and (3) parents, was used. A random pretest and post-test study design with control group (12 experimental and two control schools) has been implemented. The multiphase cluster sample was employed in order to represent all of the country typical regions. Six types of especially designed questionnaires were used to provide comparable variables in the sample of pupils, their parents and teachers. Exception were 1st-graders and 4th-graders for whom information were gathered by means of a "draw-and-write" investigation technique . The response rate was 88.70% before and 98.28% after intervention. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS/PC software. Schools are somewhat less overcrowded, much cleaner and better maintained after the four-year intervention. Toilets are in a better condition, but there is still much more to be done
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
The meaning-making of four science teachers involved in collaboratively analyzing video and other artifacts from practice in local science classrooms in a school-based professional development project is examined through repeated interviews and represented as meaning-making maps. The research aim...... is to examine how these collaborative inquiries make sense to the teachers: what they identify as outcomes, how they make use of inputs and support in their classrooms and in collegial interactions and how their ideas about teaching and learning of science might play a role. An adapted version...... learning of science in concrete situations. They refer to outcomes from sharing experiments with new tools and materials and refer to being encouraged to continue collaboration around science at the school. Beside this the teachers emphasize various outcomes apparently for each of them in areas where...
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
The meaning-making of four science teachers involved in collaboratively analyzing video and other artifacts from practice in local science classrooms in a school-based professional development project is examined through repeated interviews and represented as meaning-making maps. The research aim...... is to examine how these collaborative inquiries make sense to the teachers: what they identify as outcomes, how they make use of inputs and support in their classrooms and in collegial interactions and how their ideas about teaching and learning of science might play a role. An adapted version...... learning of science in concrete situations. They refer to outcomes from sharing experiments with new tools and materials and refer to being encouraged to continue collaboration around science at the school. Beside this the teachers emphasize various outcomes apparently for each of them in areas where...
Appel, Yetta; Berken, Ruth R.
This project for pregnant school age girls is an ESEA Title I program operating in five facilities in Manhattan, Bronx, and Brooklyn. The primary objective of the project was to assist pregnant school age girls complete their education by being able to attend school. Additional objectives included provision of information and training in personal…
This study examines the potential structural impediments to the reform movement of Project Based Learning (PBL) that are presented to teachers by the inherent nature of the school system, as well as the ways in which teachers address these systemic barriers when attempting to implement PBL in their classrooms. Much of the current research that is aimed at investigating the transition from traditional teacher-centered learning to student-centered PBL---whether PBL as problem based or project based learning---has focused on the transition issues at the level of individual teacher/student. Systemic barriers, on the other hand, are those features that are inherent to the structure of the system, and that pose---by their very nature---physical and/or political circumstances that are inconsistent with the student-centered and collaborative goals of PBL. It is not enough for teachers, parents, students, and administrators to be philosophically aligned with PBL, if the encompassing school system is structurally incompatible with the method. This study attempts to make the structural impediments to PBL explicit, to determine whether or not the existing school system is amenable to the successful implementation of PBL. Because the universal features of PBL coupled with the ubiquity of factory-model schools is likely to create recurring themes, it is plausible that this study may in fact be analytically generalizable to situations beyond those described by the populations and contexts in this set of purposive, multiple cases. One of the themes that emerged from this study was the role of rural poverty as an underlying cause of student apathy. More research may be needed to see whether science, as taught through PBL and in collaboration with practical arts courses, might be able to address some of the social, gendered, and educational needs of impoverished rural students and their families.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. Methods A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age from six schools in Granada (Spain will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children. Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry, physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery, and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference. Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires, academic achievement (grades from the official school’s records, and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires. To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. Discussion The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.
Abbrescia, M; Aiola, S; Antolini, R; Coccia, E; Giovanni, A Di; D'Incecco, M; Avanzini, C; Bossini, E; Ferroli, R Baldini; Bressan, E; Bencivenni, G; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, F L; Chiavassa, A; Frolov, V; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Gruttula, D De; Pasquale, S De; Doroud, K
The Extreme Energy Events Project has been designed to join the scientific interest of a cosmic rays physics experiment with the enormous didactic potentiality deriving from letting it be carried out by high school students and teachers. After the initial phase, the experiment is starting to take data continuously, and the first interesting physics results have been obtained, demonstrating the validity of the idea of running a real physics investigation in these peculiar conditions. Here an overview of its structure and status is presented, together with some studies about detector performance and first physics results. (technical report)
range. Most of the shooting range soils contained high levels of Pb in the range above 2000 mg kg–1 far exceeding the United States ... N. Sehube, R. Kelebemang, O. Totolo, M. Laetsang, O. Kamwi and P. Dinake,. 21 ..... Eng. Sci., 1999, 16,.
The effect of various concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) with or without 2.7 μM of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation of two Petunia hybrida cultivars was studied. Seeds from 'Daddy Blue' and 'Dreams White' cultivars were germinated in vitro. Expanded leaves from both seedlings and ...
A highly efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite step for successful genetic transformation of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus L.). The objective of this study was to establish efficient in vitro plant regeneration for three watermelon cultivars. To achieve optimal conditions for adventitious shoot induction, the ...
Riihelä, Juha; Mäki, Sanna
This article describes initiatives implemented in Finland to create an online learning environment for studying geographic information systems (GIS). A development project produced an online GIS tool called PaikkaOppi, aimed at promoting GIS studies and spatial thinking skills in upper secondary schools. The project is reviewed through analysis of…
Wilkinson, Gayle A.
This curriculum guide begins with classroom and text study of plants and develops into an individual research project that continues throughout the school year outside the regular biology or botany teaching plan and text. The project uses about one class period every 2 weeks for group discussions, evaluations, and suggestions for the individual…
Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.
Using a randomized controlled effectiveness trial, we examined the effects of Project SUCCESS on a range of secondary outcomes, including the program's mediating variables. Project SUCCESS, which is based both on the Theory of Reasoned Action and on Cognitive Behavior Theory, is a school-based substance use prevention program that targets…
Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet
The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…
This paper describes the impact of the project-based learning (PBL) approach on learning and teaching physics from the perspective of pre-service elementary school teacher education students and an instructor. This approach promoted meaningful learning (mainly in the scope of projects), higher motivation, and active involvement of students in…
Purpose: The EU-funded research project "Fifobi--Fit for Business--developing business competencies in school" (2009-2012) focused on the implementation of economic education in seven European countries. The purpose of the project and this paper is to investigate the current programmes that exist within the final two years of compulsory…
Newman, Jane L.; Dantzler, John; Coleman, April N.
The purpose of Science in Action (SIA) was to examine the relationship between implementing quality science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) service-learning (SL) projects and the effect on students' academic engagement in middle school science, civic responsibility, and resilience to at-risk behaviors. The innovative project funded by…
Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.
Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation at a school site, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…
Chen, Charlene Y; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Phelan, Jo C; Yu, Gary; Yang, Lawrence H
The Virginia Tech and Columbine High shootings are 2 of the deadliest school massacres in the United States. The present study investigates in a nationally representative sample how White Americans' causal attributions of these shooting moderate their attitudes toward the shooter's race. White Americans shown a vignette based on the Virginia Tech shooting were more likely to espouse negative beliefs about Korean American men and distance themselves from this group the more they believed that the shooter's race caused the shooting. Among those who were shown a vignette based on the Columbine High shooting, believing that mental illness caused the shooting was associated with weaker negative beliefs about White American men. White Americans in a third condition who were given the Virginia Tech vignette and prompted to subtype the shooter according to his race were less likely to possess negative beliefs about Korean American men the more they believed that mental illness caused the shooting. There was no evidence for the ultimate attribution error. Theoretical accounts based on the stereotype and in-group-out-group bias literature are presented. The current findings have important implications for media depictions of minority group behavior and intergroup relations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Chen, Charlene Y.; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Phelan, Jo C.; Yu, Gary; Yang, Lawrence H.
The Virginia Tech and Columbine High shootings are 2 of the deadliest school massacres in the United States. The present study investigates in a nationally representative sample how White Americans’ causal attributions of these shooting moderate their attitudes toward the shooter’s race. White Americans shown a vignette based on the Virginia Tech shooting were more likely to espouse negative beliefs about Korean American men and distance themselves from this group the more they believed that the shooter’s race caused the shooting. Among those who were shown a vignette based on the Columbine High shooting, believing that mental illness caused the shooting was associated with weaker negative beliefs about White American men. White Americans in a third condition who were given the Virginia Tech vignette and prompted to subtype the shooter according to his race were less likely to possess negative beliefs about Korean American men the more they believed that mental illness caused the shooting. There was no evidence for the ultimate attribution error. Theoretical accounts based on the stereotype and in-group-out-group bias literature are presented. The current findings have important implications for media depictions of minority group behavior and intergroup relations. PMID:25198415
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
A group of teachers’ meaning-making when they are collaboratively analyzing artifacts from practice in local science classrooms in a school-based professional development (PD) project is examined through repeated interviews and represented as meaning-making maps. The interpretation of the teachers......’ meaningmaking includes both their reference to outcomes from the project and their expressed ideas about teaching and learning of science. All four teachers refer to experiences from experimenting in their classrooms and interpret the collected artifacts in relation to students’ learning. Furthermore, they all...... felt encouraged to continue collaboration around science. During the interviews, the teachers emphasize various elements apparently connected to concrete challenges they each experience in their professional work. Implications in relation to the design of PD are discussed....
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
A group of teachers' meaning-making when they are collaboratively analyzing artifacts from practice in local science classrooms in a school-based professional development (PD) project is examined through repeated interviews and represented as meaning-makig maps. The interpretation of the teachers......' meaning-making includes both their reference to outcomes from the project and their expressed ideas about teaching and learning of science. All four teachers refer to experiences from experimenting in their classrooms and interpret the collected artifacts in relation to students' learning. Furthermore......, they all felt encouraged to continue collaboration around science. During the interviews, the teachers emphasize various elements apparently connected to concrete challenges they each experience in their professional work. Implications in relation to the design of PD are discussed....
María Gabriela Amador-Solano
Full Text Available This article aims at showing the development and relevance of an extension project in seven rural schools located in “circuito 05” in the central area of Cartago. The main goal is to enhance oral communication in elementary school students. The project was designed as a training workshop for the teachers in the chosen schools in order to be taught to students by implementing an oratory club. In each student´s dissertation, the researchers observed the enthusiasm that the project caused in the schools. Objectives, contents, activities, assessment and observations were designed in a didactic plan to be used upon needs of institutions.
Fredriksen, Per Morten; Hjelle, Ole Petter; Mamen, Asgeir; Meza, Trine J; Westerberg, Ane C
The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD's is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545) with two control schools (n = 752); all aged 6-11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA) of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP) and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c). In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL), mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 ) as of June 20 th - 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.
Per Morten Fredriksen
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD’s is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. Methods The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545 with two control schools (n = 752; all aged 6–11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c. In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL, mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. Discussion HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. Trial registration The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 as of June 20th – 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.
Schetzina, Karen E; Dalton, William T; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Azzazy, Nora; VonWerssowetz, Katrina M; Givens, Connie; Pfortmiller, Deborah T; Stern, H Patrick
Childhood obesity has been an increasing problem in the United States, especially in rural areas. Effective prevention approaches are needed. This article describes the development, implementation, effectiveness, feasibility, and sustainability of a school-based obesity prevention pilot project, Winning with Wellness. The program was based on the coordinated school health model and included a community-based participatory research approach aimed at promoting healthy eating and physical activity in a rural Appalachian elementary school. Findings from this preliminary project revealed improvements in nutrition offerings and increased physical activity during the school day. In addition, the program was found to be acceptable to teachers, successfully implemented utilizing both existing and newly developed resources, and sustainable as evidenced in continued practice and expansion to other area schools.
The MIT Graduate School of Chemical Engineering Practice stresses engineering problem solving. The Practice School program, as it is commonly called, develops in a unique and particularly effective way the student's ability to apply fundamentals to problems in the chemical industry and thus accelerates one's professional development. The themes of atomization, emthanol production and utilization, hydrogen production and compression, localized electrochemical corrosion and biochemical engineering reflect some of the major programs at the Laboratory. The titles of all the projects are listed in chronological order in the index at the end of this document. Brief summaries are presented for each project with related projects grouped together
Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon
Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.
The United Kingdom Department of Energy has recently published a consultative document on the future cf its nuclear research programmes. In the light of comments received, the Department will then produce an overall strategy for nuclear R and D programmes. This paper critically examines the background to the document, particularly the decision to provide no further funding of the fast breeder reactor (FBR) project at Dounreay which raises questions as to the appropriate level of funding for fast reactor technology. A second document, issued by the heads of the four UK nuclear companies, the Nuclear Utilities Chairman's Group (NUCG), is a response to the consultative documents which argues a case for significant continued funding of FRB research by the UK government. This response demonstrates the inability, or unwillingness of the nuclear industry to recognize the consequences of the change which has overtaken the prospects for nuclear power. The privatisation of the electricity supply industry, which excludes nuclear power, means that the days of long-term government energy planning have gone. (author)
Springer, Andrew E.; Kelder, Steven H.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Ranjit, Nalini; Delk, Joanne E.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.
The Central Texas Coordinated Approach To Child Health (CATCH) Middle School Project is a 3.5-year school-based project aimed at promoting physical activity (PA), healthy eating, and obesity prevention among public middle school students in Texas. This article describes the CATCH intervention model and presents baseline findings from spring 2009.…
Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.
The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.)wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil.
Factors relating to the feeling of school avoidance among elementary school children: Results from the MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Education) Super Shokuiku School Project.
Akimoto, Masahiro; Sekine, Michikazu; Yamada, Masaaki; Tatsuse, Takashi
Purpose This study aims to evaluate whether lifestyle factors including media use and social and family environments are associated with elementary school children's feeling of school avoidance.Methods Total study population for this study was 2,057 children in 5 elementary schools in Takaoka city, Toyama prefecture, which participated in the MEXT Super Shokuiku School Project. A questionnaire survey was conducted in July 2014 and 1,936 students responded (Response rate: 94.1%). Of those who responded, data from 1,698 respondents were relevant for this study. The questionnaire included questions on lifestyle factors (e.g., eating habits, media use, exercise habits, and sleep), health status, and the social and family environments. Children responded to questions on lifestyle factors, health status, and feeling of school avoidance with their parents. Parents were asked to only respond to the questions on social and family environments. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether the feeling of avoiding school, as the dependent variable, is associated with the independent variables such as social and family environment factors and lifestyle factors. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated.Results The percentage of children who had the feeling of avoiding school was 32.2% in the study sample. In comparison with the 6 th graders, the 1 st , 3 rd , 4 th , and 5 th graders were more likely to have this feeling. Relevant adjusted ORs [95%CI] for Grades 1-5 were found to be 1.48 [1.02-2.13], 1.63 [1.10-2.42], 1.60 [1.08-2.39], and 1.56 [1.03-2.35], respectively. Other factors positively correlated with this feeling were skipping breakfast (OR 1.76, 95%CI [1.12-2.75]), daily snacking (OR 1.64, 95%CI [1.21-2.22]), watching TV for 3 hours or longer (OR 1.55, 95%CI [1.05-2.28]), video gaming for 0.5-2 hours (OR 1.37, 95%CI [1.08-1.74]), feeling sleepy (OR 1.51, 95%CI [1.14-1.99]), not feeling well upon waking up
Sauter, Floor Margriet
School refusal is an attendance problem characterized by a young person’s difficulty in going to school, accompanied by emotional distress on the part of the young person and parental attempts to return the young person to regular school attendance. Prolonged absence from school has serious short-
K. S. Nagesh
Full Text Available Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. is an endangered medicinal plant with anticancer properties. The rhizome and tuberous roots of the plant have been used extensively in India in indigenous medicine. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Curculigo orchioides is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered ‘endangered’ in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. Here, we describe a successful protocol for multiple shoot induction of C. orchioides using shoot tip and rhizome disc. We find that proximal rhizome discs are optimal for high frequency shoot bud formation than shoot tip and distal rhizome disc. We observed a synergistic effect between 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin (KN (each at 1 mg/L on the regeneration of shoot buds from proximal rhizome disc than shoot tip explant. Optimum root induction was achieved on half-strength MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to natural condition with 90% survival.
Cady, Sherry L.; Blok, Mikel; Grosse, Keith; Wells, Jennifer
The program Project NANO (Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Outreach) enables middle and high school students to discover and research submicroscopic phenomena in a new and exciting way with the use of optical and scanning electron microscopes in the familiar surroundings of their middle or high school classrooms. Project NANO provides secondary level professional development workshops, support for classroom instruction and teacher curriculum development, and the means to deliver Project NANO toolkits (SEM, stereoscope, computer, supplies) to classrooms with Project NANO trained teachers. Evaluation surveys document the impact of the program on student's attitudes toward science and technology and on the learning outcomes for secondary level teachers. Project NANO workshops (offered for professional development credit) enable teachers to gain familiarity using and teaching with the SEM. Teachers also learn to integrate new content knowledge and skills into topic-driven, standards-based units of instruction specifically designed to support the development of students' higher order thinking skills that include problem solving and evidence-based thinking. The Project NANO management team includes a former university science faculty, two high school science teachers, and an educational researcher. To date, over 7500 students have experienced the impact of the Project NANO program, which provides an exciting and effective model for engaging students in the discovery of nanoscale phenomena and concepts in a fun and engaging way.
Full Text Available In this case study, we investigated teachers’ professional learning within a multinational project in an upper secondary school. The aim of the study was to investigate how the participating teachers adopted and applied the trialogical approach (TLA in their pedagogical practices and their challenges in doing that. The mixed method approach was used for data collection and analysis. About one-fourth of the teachers participated in the activities, ten females and three males. Three groups were identified, based on their activity in the project: pilot teachers, active adopters, and adopters. Altogether 79 students (38 males and 41 females answered a questionnaire concerning the pedagogical practices. The pedagogical revisions were well in line with TLA; the revised courses as well as new iterations and new ideas were indicators of the teachers’ creative implementation processes. However, some of the TLA ideas were more difficult to apply in an upper secondary school context; for example, the implementation of ideas involving cross-fertilization with other organizations and cultures was rare. In order to learn new pedagogical practices, teachers need organized time for collaborative planning, for reflecting, and for sharing.
Full Text Available RESUMEN Cualquier estudio sobre el trabajo de Gunnar Asplund irradia una nueva luz sobre las fuerzas culturales que influyeron en el periodo que precedió al Movimiento Moderno y del que el arquitecto sueco es uno de los exponentes más significativos a través de una obra que guarda buena parte de su extremo en su contenido intelectual y en el empleo simultáneo y libre de fuentes clásicas, vernáculas y modernas. En este sentido, durante la finalización de sus estudios en una academia no oficial y en los comienzos de su carrera, una serie de acontecimientos desencadenados provocaron que Asplund tuviera que abordar una serie de proyectos de pequeñas viviendas particulares así como concursos para escuelas; de modo que todos ellos resultan altamente ilustrativos para comprender buena parte de su proceder profesional al establecer estos una serie de motivos comunes que irán apareciendo en los distintos trabajos del arquitecto. En este artículo se analizan los precedentes que propiciaron todos esos proyectos desarrollando principalmente el acontecer de dos de ellos: desde su formación en la escuela Klara de Estocolmo (1910/11 a sus proyectos para la escuela de secundaria Vägga en Karlshamn (1912-18 y la ampliación de la escuela de primaria Karl Johan en Göteborg (1915-24. SUMMARY Any study on the activity of Gunnar Asplund sheds new light on the cultural forces at play in the period preceding the Modern Movement, of which the Swedish architect is one of the most significant examples by way of a work that relies primarily on its intellectual content and the concurrent and free use of classical, vernacular and modern sources. In this sense, at the time he finished his studies at a non-official academy and was beginning his career, a chain of events made Asplund take on a series of projects for small private homes as well as calls for tender for schools; all of these are highly illustrative for understanding most of his professional activity
Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper
School violence is a growing area of concern for school nurses across the nation. Recent national data and a compilation of risk factors for youth violence and school shootings are presented as a general guide to identifying students who may be in need of assistance. The nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and developing violence prevention strategies in the school and the community are examined.
Smith, C. W.; Broad, L.; Goelzer, S.; Lessard, M.; Levergood, R.; Lugaz, N.; Moebius, E.; Schwadron, N.; Torbert, R. B.; Zhang, J.; Bloser, P. F.
Every summer for the past 25 years the University of New Hampshire (UNH) has run a month-long, residential outreach program for high school students considering careers in mathematics, science, or engineering. Space science is one of the modules. Students work directly with UNH faculty performing original work with real spacecraft data and hardware and present the results of that effort at the end of the program. Recent research topics have included interplanetary waves and turbulence as recorded by the ACE and Voyager spacecraft, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves seen by the RBSP spacecraft, interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME) acceleration and interstellar pickup ions as seen by the STEREO spacecraft, and prototyping CubeSat hardware. Student research efforts can provide useful results for future research efforts by the faculty while the students gain unique exposure to space physics and a science career. In addition, the students complete a team project. Since 2006, that project has been the construction and flight of a high-altitude balloon payload and instruments. The students typically build the instruments they fly. In the process, students learn circuit design and construction, microcontroller programming, and core atmospheric and space science. Our payload design has evolved significantly since the first flight of a simple rectangular box and now involves a stable descent vehicle that does not require a parachute, an on-board flight control computer, in-flight autonomous control and data acquisition of multiple student-built instruments, and real-time camera images sent to ground. This is a program that can be used as a model for other schools to follow and that high schools can initiate. More information can be found at .
Based on a sociology research-action project, this article analyses the specific issue of return to school of high school students with cancer. Three detailed cases, illustrating the global results of the study, are presented to highlight the academic trajectories of these students. This situation has a particular impact on juvenile sociability. Moreover, the education of these students does not comply with French educational standards and is very complex for professionals. Finally, social inequalities in education are reinforced by the experience of serious illness, as pedagogical negotiations are even more complex due to the fact that families are not familiar with school practices.
Mar 14, 2011 ... Induction of multiple shoots of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant in two commercial varieties (Sahel and Varamin) using shoot apex was done. Explants were isolated from 3 - 4 days old seedlings, then they were cultured on a shoot induction media, modified MS nutrient agar with combinations: 1- ...
growth. Studies on root-shoot intera'ctions in relation to mechanical impedance have only investigated the effect on shoots of ... growth regulators that may be responsible. Studies of root-shoot ... of germinating seeds to MI leaving roots in rela-.
Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den
Semi-open shooting ranges, in contrast to a fully open shooting range, are often used in the densely populated area of the Netherlands. The Ministry of Defense operates a number of these ranges. In these shooting ranges above the line of fire a number of screens are situated for safety precautions
Atotal of eight military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the eight shooting ranges at the berm, target line, 50 and 100 m from berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest total lead (Pb) concentrations were found in the bermsoils. Elevated Pb concentrations of 38 ...
In vitro shoot necrosis is a quite widespread disorder affecting raspberry micropropagation. This study was conducted to investigate effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on shoot necrosis and dieback of raspberry shoots during micropropagation. Nodal segments of primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars 'Allgold', ...
Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...
Polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus were produced by treatment with colchicine. Results showed that the combination of 0.5% colchicine and treating multiple shoot clumps for 4 days was the most appropriate conditions for E. globulus polyploidy induction and the effect of the use of multiple shoot ...
Jan 11, 2017 ... Protocol optimization for in vitro shoot multiplication of ... shoot length and leaf number, whereby 2 mg/L BAP alone was found to be the best with a mean shoot .... Analysis of variance showed that the interaction between.
Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A. esculentus L. Monech) N-550 line evolved at R&D, Nirmal Seeds Pvt. Ltd., ...
Jaimie L. Miller
Full Text Available We report preliminarily on the efficacy of an innovative, STEM education project for middle-school youth participating in outof- school-time programs, targeting girls and students from underrepresented communities. Participating students attend urban schools in Eastern Massachusetts. The two main goals for the technology-based project are to inspire the participants to consider STEM careers and increase the student mastery of fundamental STEM subject matter. The students control robotic telescopes – either from school or home – to acquire and then process images of solar system and deep space objects. Project teachers attend workshops to become adept at using the robotic telescopes, meet weekly with the students, pilot project curricula, collaborate with staff to plan and supervise field trips and star parties, and assist in all project evaluation. There are both academic and non-academic partners; the latter include amateur astronomers and retired engineers. We use an online system to evaluate teacher and student subject matter knowledge and survey students and parents about STEM careers.
International Understanding at School, 1982
In September 1982, K-12 teachers and principals participating in Unesco's Associated Schools Project met to make preparations for the implementation of the project that was to commence when schools opened later that month. The project is intended to promote international understanding and peace. What happened at the meeting is described. (RM)
Hundreds of U.S. schools will supplement fire drills and tornado training next fall with simulations of school shootings. In response to the December shootings by an intruder at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, several states have enacted or are considering laws that require more and new types of school safety drills, more…
Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf
This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms. The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics. This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...
Almobasher, H. A. A.; Osman, M. G.; Said, A. E.
This study was conducted with the objective of modifying the composition of MS medium for the clonal propagation of pineapple using shoot tips of Smooth Cayenne cultivar. Modification were made on various medium components. Results showed that both MS salts at the full or half strength were optimal, and there was on significant difference between them. Sucrose concentrations of 3% and 6% were better than other concentrations tested for growth and development of plant lets. The cultures responded positively to the increase of adenine sulfate and 80 mg/1 was the optimal. As for the additions of NAA and BA , alone or in combinations, the best results were recorded with the combination of NAA at 0.01 mg/1, and BA at 3.0 mg/1 where the largest number of shoots was obtained. Better explants performance was achieved on liquid medium with cotton support compared to solid medium. (Author)
Recent state and regional energy crises demonstrate the delicate balance between energy systems, the environment, and the economy. Indeed, the interaction between these three elements of society is very complex. This project develops curriculum materials that would better provide students with an understanding and awareness of fundamental principles of energy supply, conversion processes, and utilization now and in the future. The project had two specific objectives: to transfer knowledge of energy systems, analysis techniques, and advanced technologies from the energy analyst community to the teacher participants; and to involve teachers in the preparation of modular case studies on energy issues for use within the classroom. These curriculum modules are intended to enhance the teacher's ability to provide energy-related education to students within his or her own academic setting. The project is organized as a three-week summer program, as noted in the flyer (Appendix A). Mornings are spent in seminars with energy and environmental specialists (their handout lecture notes are included as Appendix B); afternoons are devoted to high school curriculum development based on the seminar discussions. The curriculum development is limited to five areas: conservation, electricity demand scheduling, energy in the food system, new technologies (solar, wind, biomass), and environment. Appendix C consists of one-day lession plans in these areas.
R. S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese
Identifying superior combinations among date of dormant- season shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position can increase the rooting potential of Populus cuttings. Thus, the objectives of our study were to: 1) evaluate variation among clones in early rooting from hardwood cuttings processed every three weeks from shoots collected...
Engineering Fair (NAISEF) and EXPO at the Albuquerque, NM Convention Center. Albuquerque is also the home of the AISES national office. The AISES staff also recruits volunteers to assist with implementation of the science and math bowl event. In 2011, there were 7 volunteers; in 2012, 15 volunteers, and in 2013, 19 volunteers. Volunteers are recruited from a variety of local sources, including Sandia Laboratories, Southwest Indian Polytechnic Institute students, Department of Defense, as well as family members of AISES staff. For AISES, the goals of the Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl project are to have more Native students learn science, for them to gain confidence in competing, and to reward their effort in order to motivate them to pursue studies in the sciences and engineering. For DOE, the goals of the project are to get more Native students to compete at the National Science Bowl, held in Washington, DC.
Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Létondor, Clarisse; Liber, Yohan; Jamin, Emilien L; Laurent, François
Chlordecone (CLD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that was mainly used as an insecticide against banana weevils in the French West Indies (1972-1993). Transfer of CLD via the food chain is now the major mechanism for exposure of the population to CLD. The uptake and the transfer of CLD were investigated in shoots of maize, a C4 model plant growing under tropical climates, to estimate the exposure of livestock via feed. Maize plants were grown on soils contaminated with [(14)C]CLD under controlled conditions. The greatest part of the radioactivity was associated with roots, nearly 95%, but CLD was detected in whole shoots, concentrations in old leaves being higher than those in young ones. CLD was thus transferred from the base toward the plant top, forming an acropetal gradient of contaminant. In contrast, results evidenced the existence of a basipetal gradient of CLD concentration within leaves whose extremities accumulated larger amounts of CLD because of evapotranspiration localization. Extractable residues accounted for two-thirds of total residues both in roots and in shoots. This study highlighted the fact that the distribution of CLD contamination within grasses resulted from a conjunction between the age and evapotranspiration rate of tissues. CLD accumulation in fodder may be the main route of exposure for livestock.
Sigma Explorations Inc. sells licenses to use Sigma owned seismic data. The company participates with exploration and production companies in the joint acquisition of semi-private participation surveys. This paper discusses three major types of seismic group shoots and the essential elements of the agreements that govern or should govern them. They are: (1) exploration and production company joint ventures, (2) publicly offered spec shoots, and (3) semi-private participation surveys. The key issue with the exploration and production company joint ventures is that the companies are owners of the seismic data in proportion to their contribution towards the cost of the program. Their use of the data should be restricted to those situations permitted by the other owners. These are not often well documented, and there is much concern in the industry as a result. The key issue with publicly offered spec shoots is that the seismic company ultimately owns the data and the client exploration and production company is a licensee and must behave as such. In most such cases the rights and responsibilities are well documented in formal agreements that are signed in advance of the program's beginning date
This capstone project applied Clark and Estes' (2008) gap analysis framework to identify performance gaps, develop perceived root causes, validate the causes, and formulate research-based solutions to present to Trojan High School. The purpose was to examine ways to increase the academic achievement of ELL students, specifically Latinos, by…
Thomas, Melinda; Rowe, Fiona; Harris, Neil
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that characterise effective school-community partnerships that support the sustainability of school health initiatives applied within a health-promoting schools approach. Design/methodology/approach: The study used an explanatory case study approach of five secondary schools…
Knudson-Martin, John C.
This study investigates how a group of Mexican immigrant children in the United States made sense of engaging in school and school mathematics. The research focused on a population of Latino/a middle school students who were a distinct minority, building a model that shows how a complex set of cognitive, sociocultural, and institutional factors…
Rocque, Michael; Duwe, Grant
Rampage shootings is a relatively new term to describe a phenomenon that has a long history. Rampage shootings are mass shootings (generally defined as involving four or more victims), taking place in a public location, with victims chosen randomly or for symbolic purposes. These shootings are isolated events, meaning they are not connected to another criminal act (such as robbery or terrorism). Research suggests that rampage shootings are not a new phenomenon, but have occurred throughout the US since the early 1900s. There is some evidence of an increase in recent years, but definitional differences across studies and data sources make interpreting trends somewhat tenuous. Theories regarding the perpetration of rampage shootings center on masculinity, mental illness, and contagion effects. Policies aimed at preventing rampage shootings remain somewhat controversial and not well-tested in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodak, C. M.; Walsh, M.; Gensic, J.
Simple water quality test kits were used in a series of K-12 classrooms to demonstrate scientific processes and to motivate learning in K-12 students. While focused on student learning, this project also allowed collection of regional data on groundwater quality (primarily nitrate) in the study area. The project consisted of development and administration of a weeklong groundwater quality unit introduced to K-12 schools in northern Indiana and taught by a graduate student in an engineering discipline. The structure of the week started with an introduction to basic groundwater concepts modified for the specific grade level; for this project the students ranged from grades 4-12. In addition to groundwater basics, the purpose of the collection of the water quality data, as well as relevance to the research of the graduate student, were outlined. The students were then: (i) introduced to two simple water quality testing methods for nitrates, (ii) required to hypothesize as to which method will likely be "better" in application, and (iii) asked to practice using these two methods under laboratory conditions. Following practice, the students were asked to discuss their hypotheses relative to what was observed during the practice focusing on which testing method was more accurate and/or precise. The students were then encouraged to bring water samples from their home water system (many of which are on private wells) to analyze within groups. At the end of the week, the students shared their experience in this educational effort, as well as the resulting nitrate data from numerous groundwater wells (as collected by the students). Following these discussions the data were added to an online database housed on a wiki sponsored by the Notre Dame Extended Research Community (http://wellhead.michianastem.org/home). These data were plotted using the free service MapAList to visually demonstrate to the students the spatial distribution of the data and how their results have
Hunter, Richard C.; Mazingo, Terri H.
Describes efforts by two school districts to address the potential threats of shootings and other school disruptions: Baltimore City Public Schools in Maryland and Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools in North Carolina. Also describes the growing costs of providing safety and security in elementary and secondary schools. (Contains 13 references.)…
Forero M, German; Mahecha G, Ana Maria
With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together. Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved
Full Text Available Abstract With the establishment of advanced technology facilities for high throughput plant phenotyping, the problem of estimating plant biomass of individual plants from their two dimensional images is becoming increasingly important. The approach predominantly cited in literature is to estimate the biomass of a plant as a linear function of the projected shoot area of plants in the images. However, the estimation error from this model, which is solely a function of projected shoot area, is large, prohibiting accurate estimation of the biomass of plants, particularly for the salt-stressed plants. In this paper, we propose a method based on plant specific weight for improving the accuracy of the linear model and reducing the estimation bias (the difference between actual shoot dry weight and the value of the shoot dry weight estimated with a predictive model. For the proposed method in this study, we modeled the plant shoot dry weight as a function of plant area and plant age. The data used for developing our model and comparing the results with the linear model were collected from a completely randomized block design experiment. A total of 320 plants from two bread wheat varieties were grown in a supported hydroponics system in a greenhouse. The plants were exposed to two levels of hydroponic salt treatments (NaCl at 0 and 100 mM for 6 weeks. Five harvests were carried out. Each time 64 randomly selected plants were imaged and then harvested to measure the shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight. The results of statistical analysis showed that with our proposed method, most of the observed variance can be explained, and moreover only a small difference between actual and estimated shoot dry weight was obtained. The low estimation bias indicates that our proposed method can be used to estimate biomass of individual plants regardless of what variety the plant is and what salt treatment has been applied. We validated this model on an independent
Lucinei Pereira da Silva
Full Text Available The representations and memory of living space are essential to developing mental maps and cartographic documents. In this regard this investigation as a primary objective to understand how mind maps can contribute pedagogically classes in Geography and History as well, breaking the dichotomy space / time. From the point of view of theoretical and methodological the research relied on the analysis of the school project “Our Neighborhood, Our Place” developed at the Municipal School “Vereador Hamilton Teodoro” in Governador Valadares (MG, along with a group of 7th grades from elementary school and the articulation of authors who discuss the concepts of representation, memory, space and place.
Siti Badriatul Munawaroh
Full Text Available The purpose of this research are: (1 description of characteristics and (2 validate thesenior hight school of mathematics syllabus integrated character education with the project assessment, (3 test the effectiveness of the learning material of function in class X. Testing procedure of syllabus and learning used research development of Borg & Gall (1987. The data were processed with descriptive analysis, statistical test t test and regression. The results obtained by the integration of the 10 characters on the senior hight school of mathematics syllabus show a valid syllabus by experts with an average score of 4 (both categories, the maximum score of 5. Test implementation on learning reach effective: (1 the percentage of learners achieve mastery learning by 89, 5%; (2 an increase of characters curiosity of learners of meeting 1 to 2, up to 3, up to 4 each score gain of 0.17; 0.30; 0.31; (3 the influence of the curiosity of students to the learning outcomes of 48.9%, (4 the average learning outcomes of students experimental class (77.2 is better than the control class (76.2. Thus, each character can bring a change in behavior according to the character programmed and observed in the learning process in focus. Coordination learning at every level stated in the syllabus.
Marina Ferreira de Souza Antunes
Full Text Available The theme of teacher's formation has gained a spotlight in academic research, especially in the context of the researches conducted in the perspective of the "researcher professor", and in the consolidation of the partnerships between universities and educational systems by promoting programs of continuing education. The Laboratory of Studies about School, Curriculum and Physical Education of the Faculty of Physical Education at the Federal University of Uberlândia (LECEF/FAEFI/UFU is constituted as a unifying space for teachers and students whose aim is the further study on issues related to school, teaching and curriculum planning for physical education as a curriculum component as well as providing space for continuing education to promote qualitative changes in teaching practice. This article presents a model of educational planning held on the curricular component of physical education, developed in a collective planning context, under an extension project offered by LECEF. We underline the principles and assumptions leading the planning process adopted. We emphasize that the collective work gives us dialogue, exchange of experience, inclination to listen, overcoming the difficulties of individualism and isolation presents in the organization and realization of pedagogical work routine.
Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Britton, C F; Brannon, B R; Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Sussman, S; Dent, C
This paper presents the student outcomes of a large-scale, social-influences-based, school and media-based tobacco use prevention and cessation project in Southern California. The study provided an experimental comparison of classroom delivery with television delivery and the combination of the two in a 2 x 2 plus 1 design. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Control groups included "treatment as usual" and an "attention control" with the same outcome expectancies as the treatment conditions. Students were surveyed twice in grade 7 and once in each of grades 8 and 9. The interventions occurred during grade 7. We observed significant effects on mediating variables such as knowledge and prevalence estimates, and coping effort. The knowledge and prevalence estimates effects decayed partially but remained significant up to a 2-year follow-up. The coping effort effect did not persist at follow-ups. There were significant main effects of both classroom training and TV programming on knowledge and prevalence estimates and significant interactions of classroom and TV programming on knowledge (negative), disapproval of parental smoking, and coping effort. There were no consistent program effects on refusal/self-efficacy, smoking intentions, or behavior. Previous reports demonstrated successful development and pilot testing of program components and measures and high acceptance of the program by students and parents. The lack of behavioral effects may have been the result of imperfect program implementation or low base rates of intentions and behavior.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available The Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs is a positive youth development program implemented in school settings utilizing a curricular-based approach. In the third year of the Full Implementation Phase, 19 experimental schools (n = 3,006 students and 24 control schools (n = 3,727 students participated in a randomized group trial. Analyses based on linear mixed models via SPSS showed that participants in the experimental schools displayed better positive youth development than did participants in the control schools based on different indicators derived from the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale, including positive self-identity, prosocial behavior, and general positive youth development attributes. Differences between experimental and control participants were also found when students who joined the Tier 1 Program and perceived the program to be beneficial were employed as participants of the experimental schools. The present findings strongly suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is making an important positive impact for junior secondary school students in Hong Kong.
Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Cecilia M S
The Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs) is a positive youth development program implemented in school settings utilizing a curricular-based approach. In the third year of the Full Implementation Phase, 19 experimental schools (n = 3,006 students) and 24 control schools (n = 3,727 students) participated in a randomized group trial. Analyses based on linear mixed models via SPSS showed that participants in the experimental schools displayed better positive youth development than did participants in the control schools based on different indicators derived from the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale, including positive self-identity, prosocial behavior, and general positive youth development attributes. Differences between experimental and control participants were also found when students who joined the Tier 1 Program and perceived the program to be beneficial were employed as participants of the experimental schools. The present findings strongly suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is making an important positive impact for junior secondary school students in Hong Kong.
This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Richmond Elementary School in Susanville, CA. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of an Aquatic Treatme...
Lee, Changwoo; Han, Minah; Baek, Jongduk
Digital tomosynthesis system has been widely used in chest, dental, and breast imaging. Since the digital tomosynthesis system provides volumetric images from multiple projection data, structural noise inherent in X-ray radiograph can be reduced, and thus signal detection performance is improved. Currently, tomosynthesis system uses two data acquisition modes: step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode. Several studies have been conducted to compare the system performance of two acquisition modes with respect to spatial resolution and contrast. In this work, we focus on signal detectability in step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode. For evaluation, uniform background is considered, and eight spherical objects with diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 mm are used as signals. Projection data with and without spherical objects are acquired in step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode, respectively, and quantum noise are added. Then, noisy projection data are reconstructed by FDK algorithm. To compare the detection performance of two acquisition modes, we calculate task signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of channelized Hotelling observer with Laguerre-Gauss channels for each spherical object. While the task-SNR values of two acquisition modes are similar for spherical objects larger than 1 mm diameter, step-and-shoot mode yields higher detectability for small signal sizes. The main reason of this behavior is that small signal is more affected by X-ray tube motion blur than large signal. Our results indicate that it is beneficial to use step-and-shoot data acquisition mode to improve the detectability of small signals (i.e., less than 1 mm diameter) in digital tomosynthesis systems.
This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping
Aldridge, Robert W.; Hayward, Andrew C.; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane
Background School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. Methods We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. Results 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5–14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. Interpretation This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies
Aldridge, Robert W; Hayward, Andrew C; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane
School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5-14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies in the future.
Earthquakes may be traumatic events and as many other environmental emergencies, like storm or floods, may cause more damages than expected when who experiences the phenomena does not know how to behave in the fall. Provided that it is always not feasible to rely on prediction when dealing with earthquakes or extreme meteorological events, preparedness proves to be an efficient (and certainly the most recommendable and cheap) way to face emergencies. Education and training are thus two ingredients to help citizens to perceive the scientific information formerly confined in the laboratories, in particular in the domain of the environmental risk. The "O3E" innovative project (European Educational Observatory for Environment) is established after 12 years (1996-2008) of regional and national original programs for education ("Sismometers at School" in France and Swiss, "Edurisk" in Italy and "ClimAtscope" in Switzerland). The project is born to promote a responsible behaviour of citizens in front of the evolution of a society where scientific information is promptly available. The objective of this program is to create a school network in the Alpine and Mediterranean areas equipped with environmental sensors of an educational vocation. The data on the ground motion (seismometers), the temperatures and precipitations (weather stations), the flows of rivers (hydrogeology) recorded in the schools and processed by the students are collected on dedicated servers and then made available through Internet to the entire community. This network "O3E", once installed, is the starting point of activities. Indeed, various general objectives are pursued: - To promote the applied sciences and new technologies. - To put in network the actors of Education and formative teachning. - To develop the sense of the autonomy and the responsibility in the young people. - To reinforce and develop relationships with regional partners of the educational and university fields. - To support a
Full Text Available This article focuses on the impact of practice and internship stages in order to facilitate transition from school to active life for Tourism higher education graduates in Romania, in the case of the project entitled: “The practice of students in Economics. An inter-regional partnership on the labour market between universities and business environment" (PRACTeam, implemented in partnership by Faculties of Economics and Business Administration from: University of Oradea, West University of Timişoara and „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava. The research carried out for this article is addressed to students, members of the PRACTeam project’s target groups, enrolled in Economics of Commerce, Tourism and Services as common Bachelor specialization and, also, to students from different Master degree specializations in the field of Tourism from universities mentioned above. The article presents the literature analysis about transition from university to active life, research methodology and characteristics of respondents, then the main findings and concludes that the practice and internship stages developed in PRACTeam project have generated both improving the students’ skills and abilities and their perception and attitude regarding work in Tourism.
Oliveira Junior, Jose Baptista de; Pacheco, Almi Cabral; Souza, Thiago Teixeira; Medeiros Junior, Luiz; Santanna, Vanessa Cristina [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Projeto Campo-Escola
The Field-School Project (PCE) was created through an agreement signed in 2003 between the Brazilian Regulatory Petroleum Agency (ANP) and the Federal University of Bahia. The main objectives of the Project were: implementation of a programme of technology transfer to institutions of federal education, and training of specialist for the sector of E and P of oil and gas, from the use of oil fields. Besides that, to demonstrate to small entrepreneurs that it is possible to exploit oil fields at low cost. Nowadays, the PCE has 02 fully equipped camps. The field of Quiambina, with a single well, was the first revitalized field. Equipped with mechanical elevation, it achieved a production of 19,000 bbl of oil until April 2008. The second revitalized field (Fazenda Mamoeiro), also with a single well, is already equipped for the production of gas and oil. Gas will be its primary product. The start of production of this field is planned for July 2008. Apart from these fields, the PCE also has three more: Bela Vista, Caracatu and Riacho Sesmaria. They were also designated by the ANP to integrate the PCE in Bahia. This article shows the progress and prospects for PCE, with emphasis to the field of Fazenda Mamoeiro in its imminent start of production. (author)
Perkins, Lizabeth A; Holderbaum, Laura; Tao, Rong; Hu, Yanhui; Sopko, Richelle; McCall, Kim; Yang-Zhou, Donghui; Flockhart, Ian; Binari, Richard; Shim, Hye-Seok; Miller, Audrey; Housden, Amy; Foos, Marianna; Randkelv, Sakara; Kelley, Colleen; Namgyal, Pema; Villalta, Christians; Liu, Lu-Ping; Jiang, Xia; Huan-Huan, Qiao; Wang, Xia; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoda, Atsushi; Ayers, Kathleen; Blum, Allison; Czech, Benjamin; Neumuller, Ralph; Yan, Dong; Cavallaro, Amanda; Hibbard, Karen; Hall, Don; Cooley, Lynn; Hannon, Gregory J; Lehmann, Ruth; Parks, Annette; Mohr, Stephanie E; Ueda, Ryu; Kondo, Shu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Perrimon, Norbert
To facilitate large-scale functional studies in Drosophila, the Drosophila Transgenic RNAi Project (TRiP) at Harvard Medical School (HMS) was established along with several goals: developing efficient vectors for RNAi that work in all tissues, generating a genome-scale collection of RNAi stocks with input from the community, distributing the lines as they are generated through existing stock centers, validating as many lines as possible using RT-qPCR and phenotypic analyses, and developing tools and web resources for identifying RNAi lines and retrieving existing information on their quality. With these goals in mind, here we describe in detail the various tools we developed and the status of the collection, which is currently composed of 11,491 lines and covering 71% of Drosophila genes. Data on the characterization of the lines either by RT-qPCR or phenotype is available on a dedicated website, the RNAi Stock Validation and Phenotypes Project (RSVP, http://www.flyrnai.org/RSVP.html), and stocks are available from three stock centers, the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (United States), National Institute of Genetics (Japan), and TsingHua Fly Center (China). Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.
Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Holderbaum, Laura; Tao, Rong; Hu, Yanhui; Sopko, Richelle; McCall, Kim; Yang-Zhou, Donghui; Flockhart, Ian; Binari, Richard; Shim, Hye-Seok; Miller, Audrey; Housden, Amy; Foos, Marianna; Randkelv, Sakara; Kelley, Colleen; Namgyal, Pema; Villalta, Christians; Liu, Lu-Ping; Jiang, Xia; Huan-Huan, Qiao; Wang, Xia; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoda, Atsushi; Ayers, Kathleen; Blum, Allison; Czech, Benjamin; Neumuller, Ralph; Yan, Dong; Cavallaro, Amanda; Hibbard, Karen; Hall, Don; Cooley, Lynn; Hannon, Gregory J.; Lehmann, Ruth; Parks, Annette; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Ueda, Ryu; Kondo, Shu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Perrimon, Norbert
To facilitate large-scale functional studies in Drosophila, the Drosophila Transgenic RNAi Project (TRiP) at Harvard Medical School (HMS) was established along with several goals: developing efficient vectors for RNAi that work in all tissues, generating a genome-scale collection of RNAi stocks with input from the community, distributing the lines as they are generated through existing stock centers, validating as many lines as possible using RT–qPCR and phenotypic analyses, and developing tools and web resources for identifying RNAi lines and retrieving existing information on their quality. With these goals in mind, here we describe in detail the various tools we developed and the status of the collection, which is currently composed of 11,491 lines and covering 71% of Drosophila genes. Data on the characterization of the lines either by RT–qPCR or phenotype is available on a dedicated website, the RNAi Stock Validation and Phenotypes Project (RSVP, http://www.flyrnai.org/RSVP.html), and stocks are available from three stock centers, the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (United States), National Institute of Genetics (Japan), and TsingHua Fly Center (China). PMID:26320097
Marshall, Sheila K; Young, Richard A; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Lollis, Susan; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree; Nelson, Margo; Goessling, Kristen
Leisure research to date has generally overlooked planning and organizing of leisure time and activities between parents and adolescents. This investigation examined how a sample of Canadian adolescents and their parents jointly constructed and acted on goals related to adolescents' leisure time during the move from elementary to high school. Using the Qualitative Action-Project Method, data were collected over an 8-10 month period from 26 parent-adolescent dyads located in two urban sites, through video-taped conversations about leisure time, video recall interviews, and telephone monitoring interviews. Analysis of the data revealed that the joint projects of the 26 dyads could be grouped into three clusters: a) governance transfer or attempts to shift, from parent to adolescent, responsibility over academic demands, organizing leisure time, and safety with peers, b) balancing extra-curricular activities with family life, academics, and social activities, and c) relationship adjustment or maintenance. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Naval Postgraduate School's current attempt at getting another spacecraft into orbit is focusing on Naval Postgraduate School Spacecraft Architecture and Technology Demonstration Experiment (NPSAT1...
Séguin, Monique; Chawky, Nadia; Lesage, Alain; Boyer, Richard; Guay, Stéphane; Bleau, Pierre; Miquelon, Paule; Szkrumelak, Nadia; Steiner, Warren; Roy, Denise
In 2006, following the shooting at Dawson College, the authorities implemented an intervention plan. This provided an opportunity to analyze the responses to services offered, and afforded a learning opportunity, which led to the proposal of an extensive multimodal short- and long-term psychological plan for future needs. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered 18 months after the event, involving the participation of 948 students and staff. Mental health problems and the perception of services offered after the shooting were investigated, using standardized measures. Second, focus groups and individual interviews were conducted among a subgroup of participants (support team members; teachers and employees; students and parents) and permitted to gather data on services received and services required. Individual report of events, the extent of psychological impact and services offered and received were analyzed in terms of the following dimensions: intervention philosophy, training, ongoing offer of services and finally, detection and outreach. A significant incidence of disorders and a high rate of exacerbation of preexisting mental disorders were observed within the 18 months following the shooting. Postimmediate and short-term intervention appeared adequate, but the long-term collective vision toward community support and availability of mental health services were lacking. Lessons learned from this evaluation and other school shootings suggest that preparedness and long-term community responses are often overlooked. A multimodal extensive plan is proposed based on a theoretical model from which interventions strategies could be drawn. PMID:24795790
This report describes five major activities that the Alliance to Save Energy performed for the years 2000 and 2001 to support and compliment DOE's Energy Smart Schools Partnership. The major tasks under this project were to: (1) Promote the School Efficiency Peer Exchange program for school personnel; (2) develop the Earth Apple Awards program and disseminate the best award-winning ideas; (3) link Green Schools with Rebuilt with at least one metropolitan area such as Philadelphia or Buffalo; (4) support Rebuild/Energy Smart Schools through working at the state level to develop business, state, and local government and through making presentations in support of school efficiency; (5) update the curriculum search originally conducted in 1995
Taylor, Catherine G.; Meyer, Elizabeth J.; Peter, Tracey; Ristock, Janice; Short, Donn; Campbell, Christopher
The Every Teacher Project involved large-scale survey research conducted to identify the beliefs, perspectives, and practices of Kindergarten to Grade 12 educators in Canadian public schools regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-inclusive education. Comparisons are made between LGBTQ and cisgender heterosexual…
Thys, Miranda; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim; Laevers, Ferre
This paper provides a systematic review of instruments that have the potential to measure the quality of project-based science and technology (S&T) learning environments in elementary school. To this end, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken for the large field of S&T learning environments. We conducted a horizontal bottom-up…
Cann, Cynthia W.; Brumagim, Alan L.
The authors present the case of one business college's use of project management techniques as tools for accomplishing Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International maintenance of accreditation. Using these techniques provides an efficient and effective method of organizing maintenance efforts. In addition, using…
Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Hazzan, Orit
This paper focuses on challenges in mentoring software development projects in the high school and analyzes difficulties encountered by Computer Science teachers in the mentoring process according to Shulman's Teacher Knowledge Base Model. The main difficulties that emerged from the data analysis belong to the following knowledge sources of…
McDonald, Paula; Graham, Tina
Drawing on primary data and adjunct material, this article adopts a critical self-reflexive approach to a three-year, Australian Research Council-funded project that explored themes around "employment citizenship" for high school students in Queensland. The article addresses three overlapping areas that reflect some of the central…
Wekesa, Noah Wafula; Ongunya, Raphael Odhiambo
The concept of classification of organisms in Biology seems to pose a problem to Secondary School students in Kenya. Though, the topic is important for understanding of the basic elements of the subject. The Examinations Council in Kenya has identified teacher centred pedagogical techniques as one of the main causes for this. Project based…
Wangila, Violet Muyoka
Information communication and technology (ICTs) has become common place entities in all aspects of life. Within the education sector, ICT has begun to have a special attention although not extensively as in other fields both globally and locally. Limited funds still presents a challenge in rolling out the e-school projects in Kenyan secondary…
Feb 8, 2010 ... Key words: Clonal propagation, cidir, shoot tip culture, Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. INTRODUCTION. Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf., locally known as cidir, is a multipurpose tree species belonging to the botanical family Rhamnaceae. It is an important cultivated tree and one of the few truly native tree ...
Saitou, Tsutomu; Kamada, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi
Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions. PMID:16669041
Saitou, T; Kamada, H; Harada, H
Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.
Harrington, Karen; Griffith, Catherine; Gray, Katharine; Greenspan, Scott
This article provides an overview of a grant project designed to create a district-wide elementary school counseling program with a strong data-based decision-making process. Project goals included building data literacy skills among school counselors and developing the infrastructure to efficiently collect important social-emotional indicators…
Bowker, Rob; Tearle, Penni
This article considers the impact of the early stages of an international project, Gardens for Life (GfL), on children's perceptions of school gardening and on their learning. The project involved 67 schools in England, Kenya and India and focused on the growing of crops, recognising the importance of both the process and product of this activity…
Generating greater student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been a major topic of discussion among educators, policymakers, and researchers in recent years, as increasing the number of graduates in these fields is widely considered a necessary step for sustaining the progress of today's society. Fostering this interest must occur before students reach college, and substantial efforts have been made to engage students at K-12 levels in STEM-focused learning. Attempts to involve students in engineering, a vital and growing profession, yet one in which students often have little experience, have frequently emphasized the design and construction of physical products, a practice supported by project-based learning. This thesis examines the environment of an engineering high school course that employed the project-based model. The course is part of a dedicated curricular program which aims to provide students with positive experiences in engineering-related activities while also preparing them for the rigors of college. A case study was conducted to provide insight into the benefits and drawbacks of the learning model. The study's outcomes are intended to provide guidance to educators participating in the design and/or facilitation of project-based activities, particularly those involved with engineering education. The research was performed using a qualitative approach. Long-term engagement with course participants was deemed critical to gaining a comprehensive understanding of the interactions and events that transpired on a daily basis. Nine educators involved with the program were interviewed, as were nineteen of the course's thirty-nine students. A wealth of other relevant data -- including surveys, field notes, and evaluations of student work -- was compiled for analysis as well. The study findings suggest that experiences in problem solving and teamwork were the central benefits of the course. Limitations existed due to a
Kararo, Alex T.
There have been calls by the Federal government and policymakers for improvements in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education through the development of excellent teachers with the content knowledge and skills to teach and motivate students. A shared goal among teacher professional development (PD) programs is to improve students' learning outcomes through changes in teachers' classroom practices. One way to address classroom practice is by studying pedagogical content knowledge and skill (PCK&S), which is the way teachers incorporate both subject matter and teaching strategies to transform the way they teach content to support student learning. PCK&S includes the knowledge and planning as well as the act of teaching. The NSF-funded Research Goes to School (RGS) project sought to impact teachers' PCK&S through the introduction of a current scientific research topic simultaneously with an evidence-based teaching strategy. As part of the RGS project, high-school STEM teachers from Indiana applied to attend summer PD workshops. At these workshops, aspects of nanoscience taken from the Big Ideas of Nanoscale Science and Engineering book and project-based learning (PjBL) were taught. Nanoscience was chosen due to the rapid growth of this field and the call by scientists and policymakers for the development of standards and curricula focused on nanoscience within K-12 education. Introduction of fundamental nanoscience concepts can expose students to current research within what is considered the next industrial revolution. PjBL was chosen since within this teaching strategy, scientific processes are used to address unstructured authentic problems. As part of PjBL, the students are required to synthesize ideas, collect and analyze data, and work with peers to develop an answer to the authentic question. Teachers who attended the workshops developed a nanoscience-based PjBL unit that aligned with Indiana state standards and implemented these units
Levinsen, Karin Ellen Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Tosca, Susana
of how: • ICT supports students learning, • ICT release time for more teaching, and • teachers digital literacy impact on the role of ICT in the educational practice. Further the call required collaboration between universities and university colleges in order to disseminate knowledge and new practices......In this paper we present some methodological challenges that emerged during the process of shaping the research design for the comprehensive and complex research project Children as learning designers in a digital school. The project is the realization of our proposal to a research call from...... the Danish Ministry of Education named Development projects and pilot school experiments (Udviklingsprojekter med demonstrationsskoleforsøg vedr. it i folkeskolen – see Undervisningsministeriet 2013) in the spring 2013. The call was based on a governmental decision to allocate 500 million DKR to increase...
Connelly, Mark; Bickel, Jennifer; Wingert, Tammie; Galemore, Cynthia
Migraine is a common health problem in youth that is ranked highest for disability among neurological conditions and is one of the leading reasons for school absences. Children with migraines frequently are seen by the school nurse for care, sometimes before ever being seen by another healthcare provider for evaluation and treatment. As such, school nurses have the unique opportunity to provide education and resources to children with migraines and their family. This article provides information on the Headache Action Plan Program for Youth (HAPPY), a project involving the provision of live and online migraine education and management resources to school nurses, children, families, and primary care providers in an effort to improve migraine recognition and care in the community.
Rosenthal, Harvey M.
This Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I project was developed in order to provide educationally enriching experiences to New York City elementary school students in disadvantaged non-public schools by means of field trips to places of civic and cultural interest. The 182 schools chosen were in designated poverty areas. Evaluation of…
Sullivan, Ellen Wahl
This document contains chapter 9 of the final report of the Project on Social Architecture in Education. Chapter 9 is about a regional experimental high school program for the arts. Several features distinguished Arts Co-op from the other schools in the study. For one, it was a special purpose school, focused on the arts, and not offering a…
With nightmare visions of a gunman stalking school halls, districts often rush to hire police officers to patrol their campuses after news of a school shooting. Critics of that impulsive response, which has been in high gear nationwide since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings in December, acknowledge the concern for student and staff…
Berenguer, J.; Courboulex, F.; Baroux, E.; Cremonini, R.; Ferretti, G.; Eva, C.; Giardini, D.; Haslinger, F.; Leputh, J.; Ponzone, M.; Solarino, S.; Sornette, A.
Earthquakes may be traumatic events and as many other environmental emergencies, like storm or floods, may cause more damages than expected when who experiences the phenomena does not know how to behave in the fall. Provided that it is always not feasible to rely on prediction when dealing with earthquakes or extreme meteorological events, preparedness proves to be an efficient (and certainly the most recommendable and cheap) way to face emergencies. Education and training are thus two ingredients to help citizens to perceive the scientific information formerly confined in the laboratories, in particular in the domain of the environmental risk. The “O3E” innovative project (European Educational Observatory for Environment) is established after 12 years (1996-2008) of regional and national original programs for education (“Sismometers at School” in France and Switzerland, “Edurisk” in Italy and “ClimAtscope” in Switzerland). The project is born to promote a responsible behaviour of citizens in front of the evolution of a society where scientific information is promptly available. The objective of this program is to create a school network in the Alpine and Mediterranean areas equipped with environmental sensors of an educational vocation. The data on the ground motion (seismometers), the temperatures and precipitations (weather stations), the flows of rivers (hydrogeology) recorded in the schools and processed by the students are collected on dedicated servers and then made available through Internet to the entire community. This network “O3E”, once installed, is the starting point of activities. Indeed, various general objectives are pursued: - To promote the applied sciences and new technologies. - To put in network the actors of Education and formative teachning. - To develop the sense of the autonomy and the responsibility in the young people. - To reinforce and develop relationships with regional partners of the educational and university
Anthony, Robert J.; Tippett, Christine D.; Yore, Larry D.
Science literacy leading to fuller and informed participation in the public debate about science, technology, society, and environmental (STSE) issues that produce justified decisions and sustainable actions is the shared and central goal of the Pacific CRYSTAL Project. There is broad agreement by science education researchers that learners need to be able to construct and interpret specific scientific discourses and texts to be literate in science. We view these capabilities as components in the fundamental sense of science literacy and as interactive and synergetic to the derived sense of science literacy, which refers to having general knowledge about concepts, principles, and methods of science. This article reports on preliminary findings from Years 1, 2, and 3 of the 5-year Pacific CRYSTAL project that aims to identify, develop, and embed explicit literacy instruction in science programs to achieve both senses of science literacy. A community-based, opportunistic, engineering research and development approach has been utilized to identify problems and concerns and to design instructional solutions for teaching middle school (Grades 6, 7, and 8) science. Initial data indicate (a) opportunities in programs for embedding literacy instruction and tasks; (b) difficulties generalist teachers have with new science curricula; (c) difficulties specialist science teachers have with literacy activities, strategies, genre, and writing-to-learn science tasks; and (d) potential literacy activities (vocabulary, reading comprehension, visual literacy, genre, and writing tasks) for middle school science. Preinstruction student assessments indicate a range of challenges in achieving effective learning in science and the need for extensive teacher support to achieve the project’s goals. Postinstructional assessments indicate positive changes in students’ ability to perform target reading and writing tasks. Qualitative data indicate teachers’ desire for external direction
The previous principal reports his concerned decontamination process of the school, localizing at 60 km distance from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, after its Accident (Mar. 2011). The school was defined as one of 11 with >3.8 mc-Sv/h ambient dose necessary for decontamination by Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science an Technology (MEXT). Measurements of the dose by Date City and MEXT started from April, which revealed that it was 3.3-5.5 mc-Sv/h at 1 m height of the schoolyard. Decontamination was done by weeding, then removal of the ground soil at 3 ) and spreading a new soil, resulting in the reduction of the dose to 0.75 mc-Sv/h at 50 cm height. Unexpectedly, the removed soil was buried for tentative storage by wrapping with Volclay tarpaulin in a 140 cm deep hole at the corner of the yard, which was a result of residents' disagreement with the scheduled estate. Decontamination of school circumstances was conducted in July by experts, PTA voluntary parents and applied volunteers with their repeated meetings involving the radiological explanation of even radiation units. The classroom ambient dose at 50 cm height was declined from 0.11 to 0.06 mc-Sv, pavements from 2-3 to 0.7-1.0, plantings from 3.7 to 0.7, and the bank between the yard and schoolhouse from 4-5 to 1-1.5. The swimming pool water was first purified with zeolite, which made its radiocesium level below the standard limit <50 Bq/L, then was released out, and the pool was filled with fresh city water (<7 Bq/L). The ambient dose 6-8 mc-Sv/h around the pool at 50 cm height was reduced to 0.7-0.8 after decontamination. The project finished within July. Now the decontamination is still under progress for the forest and resident's houses; pupils are enjoying lessons, swimming and sports; and the author looks back the successful importance of experts' easy explanation about radiology. (T.T)
Mateer, Susan Carol
In 2001, less than two years after the Columbine High School shootings, a plan to copycat the Columbine shooting in a junior high school was interrupted by police. This was one of the first documented cases of interrupted school violence and the school where this was to occur was traumatized both by the fact that students were planning violence…
Akita, M; Shigeoka, T; Koizumi, Y; Kawamura, M
A procedure for the mass propagation of multiple shoots of Stevia rebaudiana is described. Isolated shoot primordia were used as the inoculum to obtain clusters of shoot primordia. Such clusters were grown in a 500 liter bioreactor to obtain shoots. A total of 64.6 Kg of shoots were propagated from 460 g of the inoculated shoot primordia. These shoots were easily acclimatized in soil.
Longitudinally dissected shoot apices of Grand Nain, Williams and Maghrabi banana cultivars were exposed to gamma irradiation with Cobalt 60 source at the doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60 Gy and immediately placed into proliferation medium. A number of micropropagation cycles after irradiation were necessary up to M1 V2 to M1 V4 stage to let mutated sectors developing into non-chimeric shoots. Radiosensitivity was evaluated by the rate of shoot proliferation and by the shoot fresh weight increase. Increasing gamma doses caused reduction in survival rates and average number of shoots. Grand Nain exhibited the highest multiplication- rate (3.1). The lower dose (20 Gy) enhanced shoot multiplication ratio specially in Williams and Maghrabi, which however decreased with increased doses. The doses of 20-40 Gy yielded Ld50, with sensible degree of shoot multiplication, which occurred hardly ever beyond 40 Gy. The dose of 60 Gy resulted 80% lethal shoot growth. Linear decrease in fresh weight was observed in post-irradiation recovery, notably in the Maghrabi. In contradictory vulnerable damage was observed in Williams which showed the highest fresh weight value. Shoot proliferation appeared generally on the surface of the corm. Root formation was observed without additional hormone. The roots were dark colored and was decreased with the increased of dosage
Mass shooting events are relatively underresearched, and most study comes from the United States. Despite significant international interest, little is known about other countries' experiences of these events. The current study examines Australian mass shooting incidents and offenders, with emphasis on mental illness, life strains, and offenders' life histories. Australia had 14 mass shootings between 1964 and 2014. Most offenders experienced acute life stressors and/or chronic strains leading up to the event; however, diagnosed mental illness was less commonly documented. These observations provide new information about mass shooting incidents and offenders, and can help to inform international policy development.
Sebastiana Mederos Molina
Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.
Martinon , Pierre; Gergaud , Joseph
The SHOOT2.0 package implements an indirect shooting method for optimal control problems. It is specifically designed to handle control discontinuities, with an automatic switching detection that requires no assumptions concerning the number of switchings. Special care is also devoted to the computation of the Jacobian matrix of the shooting function, using the variational system instead of classical finite differences. The package also features an embedded continuation method and an automati...
Darhmaoui, H.; Loudiyi, K.
Astronomy education in Morocco, like in many developing countries, is not well developed and lacks the very basics in terms of resources, facilities and research. In 2004, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) signed an agreement of collaboration with Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane to support the continued, long-term development of astronomy and astrophysics in Morocco. This is within the IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD). The initial focus of the program concentrated exclusively on the University's Bachelor of Science degree program. Within this program, and during two years, we were successful in providing adequate astronomy training to our physics faculty and few of our engineering students. We also offered our students and community general astronomy background through courses, invited talks and extra curricular activities. The project is now evolving towards a wider scope and seeks promoting astronomy education at the high school level. It is based on modules from the Hands on Universe (HOU) interactive astronomy program. Moroccan students will engage in doing observational astronomy from their PCs. They will have access to a world wide network of telescopes and will interact with their peers abroad. Through implementing astronomy education at this lower age, we foresee an increasing interest among our youth not only in astronomy but also in physics, mathematics, and technology. The limited astronomy resources, the lack of teachers experience in the field and the language barrier are amongst the difficulties that we'll be facing in achieving the objectives of this new program.
Ebenezer, Jazlin; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Kasab, Dimma
The purpose of this investigation was to qualitatively describe high school students' reasons for their science dispositions (attitude, perception, and self-confidence) based on their long-term experience with innovative technology-embedded environmental research projects. Students in small groups conducted research projects in and out of school with the help of their teachers and community experts (scientists and engineers). During the 3-year period of this nationally funded project, a total of 135 students from five schools in a mid-west State participated in research activities. Of the 135 students, 53 students were individually interviewed to explore reasons for their science dispositions. Students' reasons for each disposition were grouped into categories, and corresponding frequency was converted to a percentage. The categories of reasons were not only attributed to the use of innovative technologies in environmental research but also the contexts and events that surrounded it. The reasons that influenced students' science dispositions positively were because engaging in environmental research projects with technology contributed to easing fear and difficulty, building a research team, disseminating findings, communicating with the community, researching with scientists, training by teachers, and acknowledging teachers' knowledge. These results advanced how and why students develop science dispositions in the positive direction, which are as follows: building science teacher capacity, developing a community of inquirers, and committing to improve pedagogical practices.
Yamamoto, Masa-Yuki; Okamoto, Sumito; Miyoshi, Terunori; Takamura, Yuzaburo; Aoshima, Akira; Hinokuchi, Jin
As one of the space educational projects in Japan, a triangulation observation project of TLE (Transient Luminous Events: sprites, elves, blue-jets, etc.) has been carried out since 2006 in collaboration between 29 Super Science High-schools (SSH) and Kochi University of Technol-ogy (KUT). Following with previous success of sprite observations by "Astro High-school" since 2004, the SSH consortium Kochi was established as a national space educational project sup-ported by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). High-sensitivity CCD camera (Watec, Neptune-100) with 6 mm F/1.4 C-mount lens (Fujinon) and motion-detective software (UFO-Capture, SonotaCo) were given to each participating team in order to monitor Northern night sky of Japan with almost full-coverage. During each school year (from April to March in Japan) since 2006, thousands of TLE images were taken by many student teams, with considerably large numbers of successful triangulations, i.e., (School year, Numbers of TLE observations, Numbers of triangulations) are (2006, 43, 3), (2007, 441, 95), (2008, 734, 115), and (2009, 337, 78). Note that, school year in Japan begins on April 1 and ends on March 31. The observation campaign began in December 2006, numbers are as of Feb. 28, 2010. Recently, some high schools started wide field observations using multiple cameras, and others started VLF observations using handmade loop antennae and amplifiers. Infomation exchange among the SSH consortium Kochi is frequently communicated with scientific discussion via KUT's mailing lists. Also, interactions with amateur observers in Japan are made through an internet forum of "SonotaCo Network Japan" (http://sonotaco.jp). Not only as an educational project but also as a scientific one, the project is also in success. In February 2008, simultaneous observations of Elves were obtained, in November 2009 a Giant "Graft-shaped" Sprites driven by Jets was clearly imaged with VLF signals. Most recently, ob-servations of Elves
Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L.; Zhou, Jiangxiu; Hecht, Michael L.
Random assignment to groups is the foundation for scientifically rigorous clinical trials. But assignment is challenging in group randomized trials when only a few units (schools) are assigned to each condition. In the DRSR project, we assigned 39 rural Pennsylvania and Ohio schools to three conditions (rural, classic, control). But even with 13 schools per condition, achieving pretest equivalence on important variables is not guaranteed. We collected data on six important school-level variables: rurality, number of grades in the school, enrollment per grade, percent white, percent receiving free/assisted lunch, and test scores. Key to our procedure was the inclusion of school-level drug use data, available for a subset of the schools. Also, key was that we handled the partial data with modern missing data techniques. We chose to create one composite stratifying variable based on the seven school-level variables available. Principal components analysis with the seven variables yielded two factors, which were averaged to form the composite inflate-suppress (CIS) score which was the basis of stratification. The CIS score was broken into three strata within each state; schools were assigned at random to the three program conditions from within each stratum, within each state. Results showed that program group membership was unrelated to the CIS score, the two factors making up the CIS score, and the seven items making up the factors. Program group membership was not significantly related to pretest measures of drug use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, chewing tobacco; smallest p>.15), thus verifying that pretest equivalence was achieved. PMID:23722619
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.
Two final reports, winter 1968-1969 and summer 1969, respectively describe the sixth and seventh sessions of the Cambridge School Department's After School Center Program and involving six elementary schools. Both the winter and the summer programs were designed to give disadvantaged children remedial instruction in reading and mathematics along…
O'Toole, Nadia; Due, Clemence
While past literature has explored school engagement in older students, there is less research for younger children specifically, and very little which engages children themselves in the research process. This paper provides insight into school engagement for academically at-risk students in the second year of school through a participatory…
Presented is a summary of the Alaskan Native high school dropouts. The data collected on 180 Native Alaskan high school dropouts was taken from the regional dormitories at Nome, Kodiak, Bethel and Boarding Home programs in Anchorage, Tok, Fairbanks, Dillingham, and Ketchikan. Students who terminated for academic reasons, failed to attend school,…
Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet
Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.
Kranjc, T.; Razpet, N.
Many physics textbooks start with kinematics. In the lab, students observe the motions, describe and make predictions, and get acquainted with basic kinematics quantities and their meaning. Then they can perform calculations and compare the results with experimental findings. In this paper we describe an experiment that is not often done, but is…
Adenosma glutinosum (Linn.) Druce is an important aromatic plant, but no information is available regarding its regeneration, callus induction and proliferation from leaf explants. In this study, an in vitro shoot regeneration procedure was developed for native A. glutinosum using leaf explants. Callus induction and shoots ...
Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. is one of the horticulturally important orchids of Nepal due to its beautiful yellowish flower and medicinal properties. The present study was carried out for plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of D. densiflorum by tissue culture technique. The shoot tip explants of this species, obtained ...
identify possible insider threats, Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story Obama: Soldiers ," Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story President Praises Swift Response to Fort Hood Remarks on Fort Hood Shooting at White House McHugh, Odierno Address Fort Hood Shooting Before Congress
Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips can be successfully cryopreserved using either Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3) as the cryoprotectant. We used this model system to identify suites of genes that were either upregulated or downregulated as shoot tips recov...
Engvild, Kjeld Christensen
promoted shoot differentiation. Gibberellic acid inhibited shoot formation weakly, but inhibited proper leaf blade formation. Root differentiation was rare. The callus cultures of Datura innoxia grew rapidly (100-fold in 4 weeks) on a slightly modified Murashige and Skoog medium (0.5 mg/l thiamin · HCl, p...
In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...
There was significant reduction in number of days to shoot initiation and growth in sawdust medium in the wet season. Sawdust and soil gave a better performance of the cuttings in opening of apical buds, initiation of shoots, percentage of rooted cuttings, number of vines, vine length and number of opposite leaves on vines ...
Faust, J.E.; Heins, R.D.
An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m -2 . Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint. (author)
Baker, William; Sammons, Pam; Siraj, Iram; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Taggart, Brenda
Educational and occupational aspirations have become an important reference point in policy debates about educational inequality. Low aspirations are presented as a major barrier to closing educational attainment gaps and increasing levels of social mobility. Our paper contributes to this on-going debate by presenting data on the educational aspirations of students from the Effective Provision of Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education Project in England. We analyse factors that help pred...
Månsson, Annegrete Gohr; Elmose, Mette; Dalsgaard, Søren; Roessler, Kirsten K
Practising target-shooting sport requires focused attention and motoric steadiness. A previous non-controlled pilot study suggests that children with impairing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) benefit from participating in target-shooting sport in local shooting associations, as rated by parents and teachers. This study aims at examining if, and to which extent, target-shooting sport reduces parent- and teacher-reported severity of inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children with attention difficulties, and if, and to which extend, target-shooting sport improves the children's wellbeing and quality of life. A mixed method approach is applied. A non-blinded, waiting list controlled study is combined with a case study, consisting of interviews and observations. The intervention consists of children practising target-shooting sport, by attending a local shooting association, once a week for six months, during regular school hours. Data from questionnaires (ADHD-RS, SDQ, Kidscreen-27), as well as a computerized continued performance test (Qb test), measure the children's activity and attention. The study includes 50 children in an intervention group and 50 children in a waiting list control group. The Qb test collects data from at least 20 children from the intervention group and at least 20 children from the waiting list control group. Data from the questionnaires and Qb-test is collected at baseline, and six months post intervention. In addition, a case study is carried out, consisting of interviews of at least five children from the intervention group, their parents, teachers and shooting instructors. Observations are carried out, when children are in school and while they are attending the local shooting association. The case study adds to an in-depth understanding of children's participation in target-shooting sports. At present, little is known about the effects and influence of practising target-shooting sport for
Allen, P.M.; Latham, K.; Mann, D.L.; Ravensbergen, H.J.C.; Myint, J.
The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle,
2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create