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Sample records for school scoliosis screening

  1. School scoliosis screening programme-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirin, J; Bakri, R; Buang, S N; Abdullah, A T; Shapie, A

    2010-12-01

    A systematic review on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of school scoliosis screening programme was carried out. A total of 248 relevant titles were identified, 117 abstracts were screened and 28 articles were included in the results. There was fair level of evidence to suggest that school scoliosis screening programme is safe, contributed to early detection and reduction of surgery. There was also evidence to suggest that school-based scoliosis screening programme is cost-effective. Based on the above review, screening for scoliosis among school children is recommended only for high risk group such as girls at twelve years of age.

  2. The Clinical Effectiveness of School Screening Programme for Idiopathic Scoliosis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, A S; Ong, J Y; Choon, Dsk; Lee, C K; Chiu, C K; Chan, Cyw; Kwan, M K

    2017-03-01

    There is no large population size study on school screening for scoliosis in Malaysia. This study is aimed to determine the prevalence rate and positive predictive value (PPV) of screening programme for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 8966 voluntary school students aged 13-15 years old were recruited for scoliosis screening. Screening was done by measuring the angle of trunk rotation (ATR) on forward bending test (FBT) using a scoliometer. ATR of 5 degrees or more was considered positive. Positively screened students had standard radiographs done for measurement of the Cobb angle. Cobb angle of >10° was used to diagnose scoliosis. The percentage of radiological assessment referral, prevalence rate and PPV of scoliosis were then calculated. Percentage of radiological assessment referral (ATR >5°) was 4.2% (182/4381) for male and 5.0% (228/4585) for female. Only 38.0% of those with ATR >5° presented for further radiological assessment. The adjusted prevalence rate was 2.55% for Cobb angle >10°, 0.59% for >20° and 0.12% for >40°. The PPV is 55.8% for Cobb angle >10°, 12.8% for >20° and 2.6% for > 40°. This is the largest study of school scoliosis screening in Malaysia. The prevalence rate of scoliosis was 2.55%. The positive predictive value was 55.8%, which is adequate to suggest that the school scoliosis screening programme did play a role in early detection of scoliosis. However, a cost effectiveness analysis will be needed to firmly determine its efficacy.

  3. The Clinical Effectiveness of School Screening Programme for Idiopathic Scoliosis in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak AS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is no large population size study on school screening for scoliosis in Malaysia. This study is aimed to determine the prevalence rate and positive predictive value (PPV of screening programme for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 8966 voluntary school students aged 13-15 years old were recruited for scoliosis screening. Screening was done by measuring the angle of trunk rotation (ATR on forward bending test (FBT using a scoliometer. ATR of 5 degrees or more was considered positive. Positively screened students had standard radiographs done for measurement of the Cobb angle. Cobb angle of >10° was used to diagnose scoliosis. The percentage of radiological assessment referral, prevalence rate and PPV of scoliosis were then calculated. RESULTS: Percentage of radiological assessment referral (ATR >5° was 4.2% (182/4381 for male and 5.0% (228/4585 for female. Only 38.0% of those with ATR >5° presented for further radiological assessment. The adjusted prevalence rate was 2.55% for Cobb angle >10°, 0.59% for >20° and 0.12% for >40°. The PPV is 55.8% for Cobb angle >10°, 12.8% for >20° and 2.6% for > 40°. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study of school scoliosis screening in Malaysia. The prevalence rate of scoliosis was 2.55%. The positive predictive value was 55.8%, which is adequate to suggest that the school scoliosis screening programme did play a role in early detection of scoliosis. However, a cost effectiveness analysis will be needed to firmly determine its efficacy.

  4. School scoliosis screening by Moiré topography - Overview for 33 years in Miyazaki Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takuya; Chosa, Etsuo; Tajima, Naoya

    2018-04-05

    Since 1981, we have performed school scoliosis screening (SSS) using Moiré topography in Miyazaki, Japan and attained a certain result in detecting scoliosis. However, this screening system was discontinued due to cessation of repair and production of Moiré topographic equipment. The purpose of this study was to make clear both the results and the problems of SSS by Moiré topography on the basis of our past 33 years' experiences. The subjects were 689,293 students (5th grade boys in 200,329, 5th grade girls in 191,919, 8th grade boys in 151,351, and 8th grade girls in 145,694) who were screened by Moiré topography between 1981 and 2013. The number of students received SSS, the positive rate of Moiré topography, the discovery rate of scoliosis greater than 20°, the reference rate to the second screening, and the positive predictive value of Moiré topography to detect scoliosis greater than 20° were investigated. The number of students received SSS achieved a peak in 1992. The positive rate of Moiré topography and the discovery rate of scoliosis were highest in 8th grade girls. The reference rates to the second screening were 49.8% in 5th grade students and 41.4% in 8th grade students. The positive predictive values were 2.1% in 5th grade students and 7.6% in 8th grade students. SSS by Moiré topography seemed to be effective in detecting scoliosis although both the positive predictive value and the reference rate to the second screening were low. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis screening for school, community, and clinical health promotion practice utilizing the PRECEDE-PROCEED model

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    Wyatt Lawrence A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is a commonly performed procedure for school children during the high risk years. The PRECEDE-PROCEDE (PP model is a health promotion planning model that has not been utilized for the clinical diagnosis of AIS. The purpose of this research is to study AIS in the school age population using the PP model and its relevance for community, school, and clinical health promotion. Methods MEDLINE was utilized to locate AIS data. Studies were screened for relevance and applicability under the auspices of the PP model. Where data was unavailable, expert opinion was utilized based on consensus. Results The social assessment of quality of life is limited with few studies approaching the long-term effects of AIS. Epidemiologically, AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and leading orthopedic problem in children. Behavioral/environmental studies focus on discovering etiologic relationships yet this data is confounded because AIS is not a behavioral. Illness and parenting health behaviors can be appreciated. The educational diagnosis is confounded because AIS is an orthopedic disorder and not behavioral. The administration/policy diagnosis is hindered in that scoliosis screening programs are not considered cost-effective. Policies are determined in some schools because 26 states mandate school scoliosis screening. There exists potential error with the Adam's test. The most widely used measure in the PP model, the Health Belief Model, has not been utilized in any AIS research. Conclusion The PP model is a useful tool for a comprehensive study of a particular health concern. This research showed where gaps in AIS research exist suggesting that there may be problems to the implementation of school screening. Until research disparities are filled, implementation of AIS screening by school, community, and clinical health promotion will be compromised. Lack of data and perceived importance by

  6. Idiopathic Scoliosis

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    Jens Ivar Brox

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic scoliosis (IS is a lifetime condition and is defined as a structural, lateral rotated curvature of the spine of >10° on standing coronal plane radiographs. It should be distinguished from other causes of scoliosis. It can be classified as infantile, juvenile, and adolescent according to age. As a rule of thumb, about 80% of all curves are idiopathic, right convex thoracic, and present in otherwise healthy girls at the beginning of puberty. A family member most commonly detects scoliosis. The structural asymmetry of the spine is best observed by asking the patient to bend forward. IS is often seen in more than one member of a family, but the aetiology remains unknown. Multiple genes are likely to be involved with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Early detection by screening allows for monitoring curve progression and timely initiation of bracing, but school screening is controversial and practises vary worldwide. Most patients have minor scoliosis and treatment is generally not recommended for patients with curves 45°. Scoliosis surgery was not successful until the introduction of Harrington’s instrumentation in the 1960s. Modern instrumentation has evolved from the Cotrel-Dubousset system in the 1980s, and a variety of methods are available today. Although scoliosis may be a burden, long-term studies suggest that a good quality of life is maintained in most patients.

  7. Scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, L.J.; Yochum, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    The term ''scoliosis'' is usually credited to Hippocrates. Its derivation is from the Greek word ''skolios'', meaning twisted or crooked. Within the disciplines of orthopedics and radiology scoliosis describes any lateral deviation of the spine from the midsagitttal plane. A review of the past and present literature available on this subject reveals a voluminous amount of information and sophisticated research. This chapter is not an encyclopedic compilation of this data but represents a presentation of the fundamental concepts, principles, and knowledge, particularly in relation to the role, evaluation, and clinical application of the radiological examination

  8. To screen or not to screen for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurloo, J.A.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Over the years, there has been much debate about the desirability and efficacy of screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To analyse the current evidence from a public health point of view a renewed evaluation of the literature was performed. Study design: Literature review.

  9. Scoliosis detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment in the absence of a screening program in Norway

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    Adobor Raphael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis allows for observation and timely initiation of brace treatment in order to halt progression. School scoliosis screening programs were abolished in Norway in 1994 for lack of evidence that the programs improved outcome and for the costs involved. The consequences of this decision are discussed. Objectives To describe the detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at a scoliosis clinic during the period 2003–2011, when there was no screening and to compare treatment modalities to the period 1976–1988 when screening was performed. Methods Patient demographics, age at detection, family history, clinical and radiological charts of consecutive patients referred for scoliosis evaluation during the period 2003–2011, were prospectively registered. Patients were recruited from a catchment area of about 500000 teenagers. Maturity was estimated according to Risser sign and menarcheal status. Severity of pain was recorded by a verbal 5-point scale from no pain to pain at all times. Physical and neurological examinations were conducted. The detector and patient characteristics were recorded. Referral patterns of orthopedic surgeons at local hospitals and other health care providers were recorded. Patient data was obtained by spine surgeons. Treatment modalities in the current period were compared to the period 1976–1988. Results We registered 752 patients with late onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 2003–2011. There were 644 (86% girls and 108 (14% boys. Mean age at detection was 14.6 (7–19 years. Sixty percent had Risser sign ≥ 3, whilst 74% were post menarche with a mean age at menarche of 13.2 years. Thirty-one percent had a family history of scoliosis. The mean major curve at first consultation at our clinic was 38° (10°-95°. About 40% had a major curve >40°. Seventy-one percent were detected by patients

  10. Total spine and posterior fossa MRI screening in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (177 cases

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    MR Etemadifar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: MRI screening for idiopathic scoliosis is controversial. Considering our clinical experiences, the results of MRI in all patients with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated. Methods: In a prospective clinical study, all neurologically normal patients with idiopathic scoliosis screened by posterior fossa and total spine MRI. Results: After excluding 9 patients for mild neurological findings, in other 177 patients (132 female, 45 male, the average age and curve angle was 15±2 years and 59±17º (30 to 135º, respectively. Convexity was to right in 146 and to left in 31 cases. MRI was positive in 12 cases (6.8%. In 5 cases (2.8%, neurosurgical intervention was necessary prior to scoliosis surgery. There was no relation between age, sex, presence of pain or curve angle and positive MRI findings (P>0.05. Left convexity was significantly related to positive MRI findings (P=0.013. In males with left convex curves, the probability of positive MRI findings was 8.8 folds other patients. Conclusion: Considering our results and other reported articles, it seems that routine MRI screening of all patients presenting as idiopathic scoliosis is necessary for detection of underlying pathologies. Key words: Idiopathic Scoliosis, MRI, Spine Syrinx, Chiari

  11. The effectiveness of scoliosis screening programs: methods for systematic review and expert panel recommendations formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Literature on scoliosis screening is vast, however because of the observational nature of available data and methodological flaws, data interpretation is often complex, leading to incomplete and sometimes, somewhat misleading conclusions. The need to propose a set of methods for critical appraisal of the literature about scoliosis screening, a comprehensive summary and rating of the available evidence appeared essential. Methods To address these gaps, the study aims were: i) To propose a framework for the assessment of published studies on scoliosis screening effectiveness; ii) To suggest specific questions to be answered on screening effectiveness instead of trying to reach a global position for or against the programs; iii) To contextualize the knowledge through expert panel consultation and meaningful recommendations. The general methodological approach proceeds through the following steps: Elaboration of the conceptual framework; Formulation of the review questions; Identification of the criteria for the review; Selection of the studies; Critical assessment of the studies; Results synthesis; Formulation and grading of recommendations in response to the questions. This plan follows at best GRADE Group (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) requirements for systematic reviews, assessing quality of evidence and grading the strength of recommendations. Conclusions In this article, the methods developed in support of this work are presented since they may be of some interest for similar reviews in scoliosis and orthopaedic fields. PMID:23883346

  12. "Rehabilitation schools for scoliosis" thematic series: describing the methods and results

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    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods are not known by most of the scientific community. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of the different physiotherapy methodologies (specific exercises, integrated into the whole rehabilitation program, is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about it. This is what the SCOLIOSIS Journal is going to do through the "Rehabilitation Schools for Scoliosis" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  13. Physiotherapy scoliosis-specific exercises - a comprehensive review of seven major schools.

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    Berdishevsky, Hagit; Lebel, Victoria Ashley; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Rigo, Manuel; Lebel, Andrea; Hennes, Axel; Romano, Michele; Białek, Marianna; M'hango, Andrzej; Betts, Tony; de Mauroy, Jean Claude; Durmala, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    produce benefits in subjects with scoliosis other than reducing the Cobb angle, like improving back asymmetry, based on 3D self-correction and stabilization of a stable 3D corrected posture, as well as the secondary muscle imbalance and related pain. In more severe cases of thoracic scoliosis, it can also improve breathing function. This paper will discuss in detail seven major scoliosis schools and their approaches to PSSE, including their bracing techniques and scientific evidence. The aim of this paper is to understand and learn about the different international treatment methods so that physical therapists can incorporate the best from each into their own practices, and in that way attempt to improve the conservative management of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. These schools are presented in the historical order in which they were developed. They include the Lyon approach from France, the Katharina Schroth Asklepios approach from Germany, the Scientific Exercise Approach to Scoliosis (SEAS) from Italy, the Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School approach (BSPTS) from Spain, the Dobomed approach from Poland, the Side Shift approach from the United Kingdom, and the Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis approach (FITS) from Poland.

  14. Comparison of stimulable phosphor technology and conventional screen-film technology in pediatric scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, D.A.; Cairns, R.A.; Poskitt, K.J.; Bray, H.; Milner, R.; Kennedy, B.

    1994-01-01

    One hundred consecutive patients being investigated for scoliosis were studied using a double cassette containing a conventional film screen and a stimulable phosphor plate. The images were separated, randomised and scored thrice by three radiologists for anatomic structure visualisation. The exposure to the plate and film and repeat rate were measured. Scoliosis angles were comparable on both sets of images, however, visualisation of vertebrae, vertebral end plates, pedicles, spinous processes and other structures were significantly improved (p < 0.0001). Intra- and inter-observer reliability was high with good intraclass correlation. There was a 40% potential exposure reduction, and retakes were decreased from 3 to 0%. We conclude that stimulable phosphor images give better anatomic structure visualisation with potential radiation exposure reduction and lower repeat rate. (orig.)

  15. Screening Devices at School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2011-01-01

    ethnographic data from a Danish school, the article explores,first, the script and agencement of the SMTTE and, second, how the screening properties of the SMTTE are achieved, including how these properties challenge management-­‐teacher relations when the SMTTE travels to other networks at the school...

  16. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

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    Safak Ekinci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is called idiopathic when no other underlying disease can be identified. The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is still unknown despite many years of research effort. Theories on AIS's etiology have included mechanical, hormonal, metabolic, neuromuscular, growth, and genetic abnormalities. Skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are at risk of curve progression. The adolescent onset of severe idiopathic scoliosis has traditionally been evaluated using standing posteroanterior radiographs of the full spine to assess lateral curvature with the Cobb method. Scoliosis in children of school age and above primarily occurs in girls. The therapeutic goal in children is to prevent progression. In children, scoliosis of 20 and deg; or more should be treated with a brace, and scoliosis of 45 and deg; or more with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 174-182

  17. Determination of different types of scoliosis based on the apex of the spinal curve in adolescents

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    zahed Safikhani

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: Scoliosis not only causes physical problems but also leads to various health problems like breathing and heart diseases. School screening can be a great help to us for early detection of scoliosis, which can have important role in society health.

  18. The direct cost of "Thriasio" school screening program

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    Maziotou Christina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is great diversity in the policies for scoliosis screening worldwide. The initial enthusiasm was succeeded by skepticism and the worth of screening programs has been challenged. The criticisms of school screening programs cite mainly the negative psychological impact on children and their families and the increased financial cost of visits and follow-up radiographs. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the direct cost of performing the school screening in a district hospital. Methods A cost analysis was performed for the estimation of the direct cost of the "Thriasio" school-screening program between January 2000 and May 2006. The analysis involved all the 6470 pupils aged 6–18 years old who were screened at schools for spinal deformities during this period. The factors which were taken into consideration in order to calculate the direct cost of the screening program were a the number of the examiners b the working hours, c the examiners' salary, d the cost of transportation and finally e the cost of examination per child. Results During the examined period 20 examiners were involved in the program and worked for 1949 working hours. The hourly salary for the trainee doctors was 6.80 euro, for the Health Visitors 6.70 euro and for the Physiotherapists 5.50 euro in current prices. The cost of transportation was 32 euro per year. The direct cost for the examination of each child for the above studied period was calculated to be 2.04 euro. Conclusion The cost of our school-screening program is low. The present study provides a strong evidence for the continuation of the program when looking from a financial point of view.

  19. "Rehabilitation schools for scoliosis" thematic series: describing the methods and results

    OpenAIRE

    Rigo, Manuel D; Grivas, Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods ar...

  20. Adult Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents For Adolescents For Adults Scoliosis Kyphosis Spondylolysis Other Spine Deformities & Conditions Conditions of the Aging ... For Parents For Adolescents For Adults Scoliosis Kyphosis Spondylolysis Other Spine Deformities & Conditions Conditions of the Aging ...

  1. FREQUENCY DEFORMITY SCOLIOSIS AND FLAT FEET IN PUPILS III, V.VII GRADE SCHOOL

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    Dejаn Gojković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is a lateral deviation of the spine or the angular deviation of the normal position of one or more segmenata.Funkcional curve can be fully corrected until the internal structural scoliosis are bone disorders, muscle nerve elements that support the spine, and complete correction is impossible. Static role is reflected in the foot taking kisses body weight through the bones pop and transmission and distribution of weight on the main point of support of the foot and therefore subject to various changes in the normal foot status.Dinamic role is reflected in walking, running and jumping in different forms. Because of this, the percentage of foot disorders is particularly large in the form of lowering the testing we arche.Perform o.š.Pale Pale deformities in scoliosis and flat feet in students III, V, VII grade. Our aim was to verify the extent to which physical education classes take appropriate measures in the detection and removal of poor posture and physical deformities. For testing we used: clinical method for scoliosis, a method for flat feet -Thomson method.

  2. Curve Magnitude in Patients Referred for Evaluation of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Henriksen, Jeppe L.

    2016-01-01

    Study design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Objectives To analyze the referral pattern of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in a tertiary hospital in a nationalized health care system without school screening and to compare curve magnitude on referral with results reported...... scoliosis screening. Our tertiary institution receives referrals for evaluation of AIS from general practitioners (GPs) and other hospitals or private specialists. Method A review was conducted on all patients diagnosed with AIS between 2010 and 2015. Data collection included age, gender, menarchal status...

  3. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

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    ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Common Questions & Glossary Resources ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis Diagnosed ...

  4. Screening of Visually Impaired Children for Health Problems

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    Dilay Açıl, MSN

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These findings showed the important role of school health nurses in performing health screenings directed at visually impaired children who constitute a special group for school health services. Health screening for height, weight, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis is suggested for visually impaired children.

  5. Prevalence and predictors of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in adolescent ballet dancers.

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    Longworth, Brooke; Fary, Robyn; Hopper, Diana

    2014-09-01

    To determine any differences between the prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in ballet dancers who are girls compared with age-matched nondancers, and to establish if any relations exist between the presence of scoliosis and generalized joint hypermobility, age of menarche, body mass index (BMI), and the number of hours of dance training per week. Cross-sectional, matched pair study. Dance school. Dancers (n=30) between the ages of 9 and 16 years were recruited from a certified dance school in Western Australia; each dancer provided a consenting age-matched nondancer (n=30). Not applicable. Measurements were taken for angle of trunk rotation using a scoliometer (presence of scoliosis) and for height and weight to produce generalized joint hypermobility using Beighton criteria and an age-adjusted BMI, respectively. A subjective questionnaire regarding age of menarche and participation in dance and other sports was completed. Thirty percent of dancers tested positive for scoliosis compared with 3% of nondancers. Odds ratio calculations suggest that dancers were 12.4 times more likely to have scoliosis than nondancers of the same age. There was a higher rate of hypermobility in the dancer group (70%) compared with the nondancers (3%); however, there were no statistically significant relations between scoliosis and hypermobility, age of menarche, BMI, or hours of dance per week. Adolescent dancers, similar to adult dancers, are at significantly higher risk of developing scoliosis than nondancers of the same age. Vigilant screening and improved education of dance teachers and parents of dance students may be beneficial in earlier detection and, consequently, reducing the risk of requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

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    Bettany-Saltikov, J; Parent, E; Romano, M; Villagrasa, M; Negrini, S

    2014-02-01

    The use of exercises for the treatment of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis is controversial. Whilst exercises are routinely used in a number of central and southern European countries, most centres in the rest of the world (mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries), do not advocate its use. One of the reasons for this is that many health care professionals are usually not conversant with the differences between generalised physiotherapy exercises and physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE): while the former are generic exercises usually consisting of low-impact stretching and strengthening activities like yoga, Pilates and the Alexander technique, PSSE consist of a program of curve-specific exercise protocols which are individually adapted to a patients' curve site, magnitude and clinical characteristics. PSSEs are performed with the therapeutic aim of reducing the deformity and preventing its progression. It also aims to stabilise the improvements achieved with the ultimate goal of limiting the need for corrective braces or the necessity of surgery. This paper introduces the different 'Schools' and approaches of PSSE currently practiced (Scientific Exercise Approach to Scoliosis - SEAS, Schroth, Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School - BSPTS, Dobomed, Side Shift, Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis - FITS and Lyon) and discusses their commonalities and differences.

  7. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  8. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from getting worse. But, when they no longer work, the child's health care provider will recommend surgery. There are several reasons to treat scoliosis: Appearance is a major concern. Scoliosis often causes back pain. If the curve is severe enough, ...

  9. Imaging of painful scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Alun; Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Scoliosis is defined as a lateral deviation of the spine from the normal plumb line. Commonly, there is a rotational component and deviation also in the sagittal plane (kyphosis or hyperlordosis). When scoliosis presents in adults, it is often painful. In contrast, back pain in a child is considered rare, and serious underlying pathology should be excluded, particularly since idiopathic scoliosis is typically painless. A painful scoliosis in a child or adolescent, especially if the patient has a left-sided curve, should be examined thoroughly. The aim of this review is to illustrate the causes of a painful scoliosis in children, adolescents and adults. (orig.)

  10. Imaging of painful scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Alun; Saifuddin, Asif

    2009-01-01

    Scoliosis is defined as a lateral deviation of the spine from the normal plumb line. Commonly, there is a rotational component and deviation also in the sagittal plane (kyphosis or hyperlordosis). When scoliosis presents in adults, it is often painful. In contrast, back pain in a child is considered rare, and serious underlying pathology should be excluded, particularly since idiopathic scoliosis is typically painless. A painful scoliosis in a child or adolescent, especially if the patient has a left-sided curve, should be examined thoroughly. The aim of this review is to illustrate the causes of a painful scoliosis in children, adolescents and adults. (orig.)

  11. Scoliosis Associated With Syringomyelia

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    Gh Fathi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The differential diagnosis of idiopathic and syringomyelia associated scoliosis is important because corrective surgery for scoliosis associated with syringomyelia prior to management of syringomyelia can be dangerous. There are important imaging indicators for diagnosis of syringomyelia associated with scoliosis. A few of these indicators have been assessed in our study. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study including 38 patients with both scoliosis and syringomyelia was performed at the Shafa Yahyaeian center. Standard scoliosis series radiographs and MRI of all patients were studied. The type of scoliosis, location and magnitude of deformity, kyphosis or lordosis in the sagittal plane, location and size of syrinx were assessed. Results: Thoracic kyphosis was present in 94.7% of patients. 37% of patients had scoliosis with convexity to left. Arnold –chiari malformation was present in 36% and cord tethering in 21% of patients. The locations of syrinx were as follows: 47.4%cervical, 44.6 thoracic, 2.7% lumbar and 5.3% were holocord. Conclusion: Kyphosis, abscence of lordosis in sagittal plane, progressive scoliosis and scoliosis with convexity to left are atypical findings and could be indicators of the presence of syringomyelia. If these indicators are present, a diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis should be made with caution.

  12. School-Based Screening to Identify At-Risk Students Not Already Known to School Professionals: The Columbia Suicide Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Davies, Mark; Hicks, Roger C.; Turner, J. Blake; Shaffer, David

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the degree of overlap between students identified through school-based suicide screening and those thought to be at risk by school administrative and clinical professionals. Methods. Students from 7 high schools in the New York metropolitan area completed the Columbia Suicide Screen; 489 of the 1729 students screened had positive results. The clinical status of 641 students (73% of those who had screened positive and 23% of those who had screened negative) was assessed with modules from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. School professionals nominated by their principal and unaware of students' screening and diagnostic status were asked to indicate whether they were concerned about the emotional well-being of each participating student. Results. Approximately 34% of students with significant mental health problems were identified only through screening, 13.0% were identified only by school professionals, 34.9% were identified both through screening and by school professionals, and 18.3% were identified neither through screening nor by school professionals. The corresponding percentages among students without mental health problems were 9.1%, 24.0%, 5.5%, and 61.3%. Conclusions. School-based screening can identify suicidal and emotionally troubled students not recognized by school professionals. PMID:19059865

  13. Intraspinal anomalies in scoliosis: An MRI analysis of 177 consecutive scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran S

    2010-01-01

    onset scoliosis. Isolated lumbar curves had no anomalies. In group-C, incidence was 22% and most of the anomalies were in curves with connective tissue disorders. Conclusion : The high incidence of intraspinal anomalies in presumed idiopathic scoliosis in our study group emphasizes the need for detailed examination for subtle neurological signs that accompany neuro-axial anomalies. Preoperative MRI screening is recommended in patients with presumed ′idiopathic′ scoliosis who present at young age, with neurological findings and in curves with apical thoracic kyphosis.

  14. Screening urinalysis for proteinuria in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partini P. Trihono

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Although asymptomatic proteinuria in children is uncommon, long-term follow-up of children who have persistent proteinuria reveals that they face risks to have significant glomerular changes followed by decreasing kidney function. Since 1970’s urine screening program for asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria in schoolchildren has been conducted regularly in some countries. So far such program has never been implemented in Jakarta. As a part of The Community Health Program of the Medical School, University of Indonesia, this epidemiologic study aimed especially to look at the urine abnormalities among schoolchildren. The target population was children in grades III, IV and V of 4 elementary schools in Eastern Jakarta. Four hundred and forty nine children (217 boys and 232 girls were enrolled in this study, held during school time in August 1999. Their mean age was 9.35 (SD 1.2 years. Data collected were history of illness, physical examination, and complete urinalysis using a dipstick method. Proteinuria was found in 30 (6.8% children, which in repeated urinalyses were determined as orthostatic in 2 (0.4%, transient in 20 (4.5%, and persistent proteinuria in 6 (1.4% children. Three out of 6 children with persistent proteinuria also had hematuria. One child with persistent proteinuria was considered as having urinary tract infection. We conclude that the incidence of asymptomatic proteinuria in schoolchildren is not high, but because of significant risks that they face, a long-term follow up of them is indicated.

  15. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotwicki T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Kotwicki,1 Joanna Chowanska,1,2 Edyta Kinel,3 Dariusz Czaprowski,4,5 Marek Tomaszewski,1 Piotr Janusz1 1Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2National Scoliosis Foundation, Stoughton, MA, USA; 3Department of Rehabilitation, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan Poland; 4Department of Physiotherapy, Józef Rusiecki University College, Olsztyn, 5Rehasport Clinic, Poznan, Poland Abstract: Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%–3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid

  16. Hypercholesterolemia: The Role of Schools in Cholesterol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; Casler, Suzanne M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents, the pros and cons of cholesterol screening among youth, cholesterol assessments of at-risk youth, and the role of schools in cholesterol education and screening (focusing on comprehensive school health education and services). (SM)

  17. [Scoliosis: the bent spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, R; Maafe, M; Ziegler, S

    2011-05-01

    Scoliosis, a permanent abnormal curvature of the spine to the side, is divided into four forms: idiopathic (infantile, juvenile and adolescent, accounting for 80% of cases), neurogenic, congenital and adult scoliosis. Most patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis initially have mainly cosmetic problems. However, neurogenic, congenital and adult scoliosis can lead to severe clinical symptoms. The leading symptom is back pain caused by secondary changes. In recent years the Lenke classification has been proven to be a reliable tool for disease classification. Non-progressive scoliosis is usually treated conservatively. In the case of Cobb angles of greater than 50°, surgical therapy is recommended in patients presenting before adulthood. Technical improvements in implants and the optimisation of surgical methods have set a trend in the direction of surgical therapy.

  18. Screening for Motor Dysgraphia in Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielza Regina Ismael Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for warning signs of dysgraphia in schoolchildren at the sixth grade of elementary school. Method: This was a descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional cohort study performed with 630 schoolchildren assessed through the (adapted Analytical Dysgraphia Inventory, which recognizes difficulties in writing through the tracing the graphics. Results: A total of 22% (n = 138 of the sample presented all indications of dysgraphia; the most prevalent indicator was ascending/descending/fluctuating lines (53.6%. When the indicators were correlated to gender, males showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in most of them. Among the warning signs of co-occurrences, dyslexia was the most prevalent indicator (22%. Conclusion: Given the large number of warning signs of dysgraphia observed in schoolchildren, it is advisable to screen for these signs, in order to implement early interventions. Resumo: Objetivo: Rastrear sinais de alerta para a disgrafia em escolares do 6° ano do ensino fundamental. Método: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório, de coorte transversal realizado com 630 escolares avaliados através do Inventário Disgráfico Analítico (adaptado, que reconhece as dificuldades da escrita através do traçado dos grafismos. Resultados: Em 22% (n = 138 da amostra apareceram todos os indicativos de disgrafia, sendo que o indicador mais prevalente foi o de linha ascendente/descendente/flutuante (53,6%. Se correlacionados os indicadores ao gênero,os meninos apresentaram diferença significativa (p < 0,05 na maioria deles. Dentre os sinais de alerta de co-ocorrências, a dislexia foi a que obteve maior indicador (22%. Conclusão: Considerando o grande número de sinais de alerta para disgrafia encontrados nos escolares, torna-se pertinente o rastreio para que uma intervenção precoce seja realizada. Keywords: Screening, Dysgraphia, Learning disorders, Palavras-chave: Rastreio, Disgrafia, Transtornos de aprendizagem

  19. Trunk imbalance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Carole; Grunstein, Erin; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie

    2016-06-01

    Trunk imbalance (ie, frontal trunk shift measured with a plumb line from C7 to S1) is part of the clinical evaluation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but its prevalence and relationship with scoliosis, back pain, and health-related factors are not well documented. The principal objectives are to document trunk imbalance prevalence and to explore the association between trunk imbalance and the following factors: Cobb angle, type of scoliosis, back pain, function, mental health, and self-image. The secondary objective is to determine back pain prevalence and the relationship between back pain and each of the following: Cobb angle, function, mental health, and self-image. This is a cross-sectional study in a scoliosis clinic of a tertiary university hospital center. The sample includes youth with AIS (N=55). The outcome measures were trunk imbalance prevalence and magnitude, and back pain prevalence and intensity using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) pain score, and the function, self-image, and mental health domains of the SRS-22. Trunk imbalance and back pain were assessed in 55 patients with AIS (Cobb angle: 10-60°). Patients completed the SRS-22 questionnaire and the NPRS. Correlations were done between trunk imbalance and scoliosis (Cobb angle, type of scoliosis), back pain (NPRS and SRS-22 pain score), and health-related factors using Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and logistic regression models. Trunk imbalance prevalence is 85% and back pain prevalence is 73%. We found fair to moderate significant positive correlation between trunk imbalance and Cobb angle (r=0.32-0.66, pself-image, or type of scoliosis. Lower self-reported pain significantly correlated with lower Cobb angles (r=0.29, p=.03), higher function (r=0.55, p=.000), higher self-image (r=0.44, p=.001), and better mental health (r=0.48, p=.000). There was a trend for trunk imbalance to be related with lower pain in logistic regression

  20. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Chowanska, Joanna; Kinel, Edyta; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Marek; Janusz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%–3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid the need for surgical treatment. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe idiopathic scoliosis which is rapidly progressive, with early onset, late diagnosis, and neglected or failed conservative treatment. The psychologic impact of idiopathic scoliosis, a chronic disease occurring in the psychologically fragile period of adolescence, is important because of its body distorting character and the onerous treatment required, either conservative or surgical

  1. school eye health screening in kaduna north metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogwurike

    Background: Five public primary schools referred to as Local Education ... Conclusion: School eye screening visits should be at least once a year and should involve ... Sex. 6/4-6/18. 6/24-6/60. Visual acuity not measured; believed not blind. M.

  2. Exercises for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Michele; Minozzi, Silvia; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Zaina, Fabio; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Maier-Hennes, Axel; Negrini, Stefano

    2012-08-15

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine . While AIS can progress during growth and cause a surface deformity, it is usually not symptomatic. However, in adulthood, if the final spinal curvature surpasses a certain critical threshold, the risk of health problems and curve progression is increased. The use of scoliosis-specific exercises (SSE) to reduce progression of AIS and postpone or avoid other more invasive treatments is controversial. To evaluate the efficacy of SSE in adolescent patients with AIS. The following databases (up to 30 March 2011) were searched with no language limitations: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, issue 2), MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), CINHAL (from January 1982), SportDiscus (from January 1975), PsycInfo (from January 1887), PEDro (from January 1929). We screened reference lists of articles and also conducted an extensive handsearch of grey literature. Randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies with a control group comparing exercises with no treatment, other treatment, surgery, and different types of exercises. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Two studies (154 participants) were included. There is low quality evidence from one randomised controlled study that exercises as an adjunctive to other conservative treatments increase the efficacy of these treatments (thoracic curve reduced: mean difference (MD) 9.00, (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.47 to 12.53); lumbar curve reduced:MD 8.00, (95% CI 5.08 to 10.92)). There is very low quality evidence from a prospective controlled cohort study that scoliosis-specific exercises structured within an exercise programme can reduce brace prescription (risk ratio (RR) 0.24, (95% CI 0.06 to1.04) as compared to usual physiotherapy (many different kinds of general exercises according to the preferences of the single therapists within different facilities

  3. [Hearing screening at nursery schools: results of an evaluation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichbold, Viktor; Rohrer, Monika; Winkler, Cornelia; Welzl-Müller, Kunigunde

    2004-07-31

    This study aimed to evaluate the hearing screening of pre-school children at nursery schools in Tyrol, Austria. 47 nursery schools with a total of 2199 enrolled children participated in the study. At the screening, the children were presented a series of tones at frequencies 0.5 kHz (25dB), 1 kHz, 2 kHz, 3 kHz, and 4 kHz (20 dB each) from portable audiometers. The tones were presented over headphones for each ear separately and at irregular intervals. Failure to respond to any of the frequencies was considered failure of the screening. Parents were then advised in written form to have the child examined by an ENT-specialist. 1832 individuals were screened (coverage: 83% of nursery school children; corresponding to at least 63% of all Tyrolean children aged 3 to 5 years). Of these, 390 failed the test (referral rate: 21% of all screened). Examination through an ENT-specialist occurred with 217 children, and this confirmed the positive test in 139 children (hit rate: 64%). In most cases, a temporary conductive hearing loss due to external or middle ear problems (glue ear, tube dysfunction, cerumen, otitis media) was diagnosed. A sensorineural hearing loss was found in 4 children (in 3 of them bilateral). The need for therapy was recognized in 81 children (4% of all screened). Pre-school hearing screening identifies children with ear and hearing problems that need therapeutical intervention. Although the hearing problems are mostly of a temporary nature, some may require monitoring over some period. Also some children with permanent sensorineural hearing loss may be detected through this measure. Hearing screening is an efficient means of assessing ear and hearing problems in pre-school children. However, the follow-up rate needs to be improved for optimizing the efficacy.

  4. Psychosis screening practices in schools: A survey of school-based mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Emily R; Chokran, Cole; Rodenhiser-Hill, Janine; Seidman, Larry J; Woodberry, Kristen A

    2018-05-04

    Many school districts in the United States employ mental health professionals to provide assessment, counselling and crisis interventions within the school setting; however, little is known about actual clinical practices of psychosis screening in schools. The aim of the present study is to examine attitudes and practices regarding psychosis screening among school mental health providers in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. School-based mental health clinicians (N = 100) completed an anonymous survey assessing familiarity, screening, and involvement with psychosis and psychosis risk prior to attending trainings on psychosis. Providers reported screening for psychosis less often than other mental health problems and rated themselves as less confident treating psychosis relative to other mental health concerns. Frequency of screening for psychosis was significantly associated with familiarity with psychosis assessment and case management, confidence providing treatment for individuals experiencing psychosis, and the number of students with or at risk for psychosis with whom providers had been involved. Frequency of screening for psychosis was not associated with years of practice, suggesting that both novice and experienced school-based providers may benefit from training on this issue. Community outreach via school-based provider training on assessment and management of psychosis may help to increase providers' understanding of psychosis and increase the practice of verbal or written screening for psychosis and psychosis risk within schools. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Radiation-induced scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Kiichi; Morii, Kazue; Ohmi, Keiko; Akanuma, Atsuo.

    1976-01-01

    Observation was made as to 9 cases who received x-ray therapy (1,500 - 3,500 R) over the abdomen at their childhood and description was also made as to scoliosis. Mild scoliosis was recognized in 6 cases, which was probably due to their age under ten years old. The future observation was necessary in cases who passed through the period of adolescent growth spurt. There was a case who showed wedge shape deformation of the spine at 1,500 R. Abnormal case was not recognized in lordosis. (Serizawa, K.)

  6. Radiation-induced scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, K [Saitama Cancer Center, Ageo (Japan); Morii, K; Ohmi, K; Akanuma, A

    1976-02-01

    Observation was made as to 9 cases who received x-ray therapy (1,500 - 3,500 R) over the abdomen at their childhood and description was also made as to scoliosis. Mild scoliosis was recognized in 6 cases, which was probably due to their age under ten years old. The future observation was necessary in cases who passed through the period of adolescent growth spurt. There was a case who showed wedge shape deformation of the spine at 1,500 R. Abnormal case was not recognized in lordosis.

  7. Intraspinal anomalies in early-onset idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E A C; Oxenham, M; Lam, K S

    2017-06-01

    In the United Kingdom, lower incidences of intraspinal abnormalities in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis have been observed than in studies in other countries. We aimed to determine the rates of these abnormalities in United Kingdom patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis before the age of 11 years. This retrospective study of patients attending an urban scoliosis clinic identified 71 patients satisfying a criteria of: clinical diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis; age of onset ten years and 11 months or less; MRI screening for intraspinal abnormalities. United Kingdom census data combined with patient referral data was used to calculate incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was six years with 39 right-sided and 32 left-sided curves. Four patients (5.6%) were found to have intraspinal abnormalities on MRI. These consisted of: two combined Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformations with syrinx; one syrinx with a low lying conus; and one isolated syrinx. Overall annual incidence of early onset idiopathic scoliosis was one out of 182 000 (0.0006%). This study reports the lowest rates to date of intraspinal anomalies in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis, adding to knowledge regarding current incidences of these abnormalities as well as any geographical variation in the nature of the disease. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:829-33. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the ...

  9. Universal School Readiness Screening at Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Matthew; Dowdy, Erin; Dever, Bridget; Carnazzo, Katherine; Bolton, Courtney

    2018-01-01

    Researchers examined the concurrent and predictive validity of a brief (12-item) teacher-rated school readiness screener, the Kindergarten Student Entrance Profile (KSEP), using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to examine associations between (N = 78) children's social-emotional (SE) and cognitive (COG) readiness with…

  10. A Case of Depression Screening in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent clinical and subclinical depression has a significant negative impact on adolescents well being, school performance and consequently produces maladaptive outcomes in terms of subsequent education and occupational functioning. This research is a part of a larger research project with a focus on clinical and subclinical depression during…

  11. [Characteristics of neuromuscular scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzier, M; Groß, C; Zahn, R K; Pumberger, M; Strube, P

    2016-06-01

    Usually, neuromuscular scolioses become clinically symptomatic relatively early and are rapidly progressive even after the end of growth. Without sufficient treatment they lead to a severe reduction of quality of life, to a loss of the ability of walking, standing or sitting as well as to an impairment of the cardiopulmonary system resulting in an increased mortality. Therefore, an intensive interdisciplinary treatment by physio- and ergotherapists, internists, pediatricians, orthotists, and orthopedists is indispensable. In contrast to idiopathic scoliosis the treatment of patients with neuromuscular scoliosis with orthosis is controversially discussed, whereas physiotherapy is established and essential to prevent contractures and to maintain the residual sensorimotor function.Frequently, the surgical treatment of the scoliosis is indicated. It should be noted that only long-segment posterior correction and fusion of the whole deformity leads to a significant improvement of the quality of life as well as to a prevention of a progression of the scoliosis and the development of junctional problems. The surgical intervention is usually performed before the end of growth. A prolonged delay of surgical intervention does not result in an increased height but only in a deformity progression and is therefore not justifiable. In early onset neuromuscular scolioses guided-growth implants are used to guarantee the adequat development. Because of the high complication rates, further optimization of these implant systems with regard to efficiency and safety have to be addressed in future research.

  12. [An illustrated guide to dental screening: a school survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Annabelle; Sayada, Mélanie; Azogui-Levy, Sylvie

    2017-12-05

    Marked social inequalities in oral health are observed right from early childhood. A mandatory complete health check-up, including dental screening, is organized at school for 6-year-old children. School healthcare professionals are not well trained in dental health. The aim of this study was to assess the relevance of an illustrated guide as a simple and rapid dental screening training tool in order to ensure effective, standardized and reproducible screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the context of the dental examination performed as part of the health check-up. Two examiners (Doctor E1 and Nurse E2) were trained in dental screening by means of the illustrated guide. This reference guide, comprising pictures and legends, presents the main oral pathology observed in children. 109 consent forms for oral screening were delivered, and 102 children agreed to participate (93.57%). The sensitivity of detection of tooth decay by examiners E1 and E2 was 81.48% with a specificity of 96%. No correlation was observed between the child's age (+/- 6 years) and correct detection rates. The illustrated guide is an appropriate and rapid tool for dental screening that can improve the quality of dental check-up and increase the number of children detected.

  13. Current Screening Procedures for the Usher Syndrome at Residential Schools for the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Creagh Walker

    1982-01-01

    The results indicated that 53 percent of the schools that responded are screening students for Usher syndrome. One-half of the schools with screening programs offered some support services: personal counseling, genetic counseling, curricular modifications, and vocational counseling. (Author)

  14. Restructuring the Ikeda City school urinary screening system: report of a screening survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Annual urinary screening is conducted at municipal kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Ikeda City, Osaka, Japan (Ikeda City School System), and the results are reviewed by a general physician, but standards for when to recommend specialist referral have not been clear. Methods In all children attending the Ikeda City School System in 2012, dipstick urinalysis of a first-morning urine specimen was recommended once or twice, and if a second urinalysis showed proteinuria (≥1+), the urinary protein/creatinine ratio was measured. If this showed ≥0.2 g/g of creatinine (g/gCr), it was recommended that the child be evaluated by a specialist at Ikeda City Hospital. Results Urinary screening was performed in about 20% (388) of kindergarten, about 90% (5363) of elementary school, and about 86% (2523) of junior high school children living in Ikeda City. Urine samples were obtained from 387, 5349, and 2476 children, respectively. The urinary protein/creatinine ratio was ≥0.2 g/gCr in 13 children, including 1 elementary and 12 junior high children. In these 13 children, chronic nephritic syndrome (CNS) was suspected in 6 junior high school children, and of these, this was a new finding in 5, and renal biopsy was indicated in 3. In Ikeda City, the prevalence of CNS in elementary school children was junior high school children was 0.29%, and a renal biopsy was indicated in 0.14%. By eliminating the costs associated with assessment of the results by the Ikeda Medical Association, and by directly contracting with the testing company, the expenses paid by Ikeda City for the system itself decreased from 2,508,619 yen to 966,157 yen. Conclusions Incorporating the urinary protein/creatinine ratio into the school urinary screening system in the Ikeda City School System and clarifying standards for specialist referral has enabled restructuring of the system so that is efficient and its effectiveness can be assessed. PMID:24330222

  15. Screening and brief intervention in high schools: School nurses' practices and attitudes in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunstead, Julie; Weitzman, Elissa R; Kaye, Dylan; Levy, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is recommended as a strategy to prevent or reduce adolescent substance use. Offering SBIRT in schools may provide an opportunity to reach adolescents not accessing primary care. The objective is to assess school nurses' attitudes and practices regarding adolescent SBIRT. The authors administered electronically and in person a questionnaire including 29 items on SBIRT attitudes and practices to school nurses registered for the Northeastern University's School Health Institute Summer Program in Massachusetts (N = 168). Survey questions were adapted from a questionnaire originally developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. One hundred and forty-four nurses completed the survey for a response rate of 85.7%. More than three quarters of the respondents (77.0%) were in favor of universal alcohol screening in schools. None of the respondents reported screening their students on a regular basis. More than half (64.4%) of nurses reported screening students; however, they did so only when they suspected alcohol use. During these instances, only 17.9% used a validated screening tool and almost all (98.2%) used face-to-face clinical interviews. When addressing alcohol use by a student, the large majority of respondents reported including the following recommended clinical strategies: asking about problems related to alcohol use (56.3%), explaining the harms of alcohol use (70.1%), and advising abstinence (73.6%). On average, respondents spend 5 to 10 minutes discussing alcohol use with their students. Survey respondents were supportive of universal alcohol screening in school, although few were doing so at the time. When respondents identified students using alcohol, their interventions were closely aligned with clinical recommendations for brief intervention. Implementation of SBIRT that focuses on standardized, annual screening has the potential to deliver high-quality care in this setting.

  16. Regional differences as barriers to body mass index screening described by Ohio school nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Ann M; Chaudry, Rosemary V; Polivka, Barbara J

    2011-08-01

    Body mass index (BMI) screening is advocated by the National Association of School Nurses (NASN). Research identifying barriers to BMI screening in public elementary school settings has been sparse. The purpose of the study was to identify barriers and facilitating factors of BMI screening practices among Ohio school nurses working in suburban, rural, and urban public elementary schools. This descriptive study used focus groups with 25 school nurses in 3 geographic regions of Ohio. An adapted Healthy People 2010 model guided the development of semistructured focus group questions. Nine regional themes related to BMI screening emerged specific to suburban, rural, and/or urban school nurses' experiences with BMI screening practice, policy, school physical environment, school social environment, school risk/protection, and access to quality health care. Key facilitating factors to BMI screening varied by region. Key barriers to BMI screening were a lack of privacy, time, policy, and workload of school nurses. Regionally specific facilitating factors to BMI screening in schools provide opportunities for schools to accentuate the positive and to promote school health. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  17. Screening High School Students for Eating Disorders: Validity of Brief Behavioral and Attitudinal Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Franko, Debra L.; McDonald, Julia; Mond, Jonathan M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early identification can greatly impact the trajectory of eating disorders, and school-based screening is 1 avenue for identifying those at risk. To be feasible in a school setting, a screening program must use a brief, valid screening tool. The aim of this study was to assess how well brief attitudinal and behavioral survey items…

  18. Rare causes of scoliosis and spine deformity: experience and particular features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliarchopoulou Fani M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spine deformity can be idiopathic (more than 80% of cases, neuromuscular, congenital or neurofibromatosis-related. However, there are many disorders that may also be involved. We present our experience treating patients with scoliosis or other spine deformities related to rare clinical entities. Methods A retrospective study of the records of a school-screening study in North-West Greece was performed, covering a 10-year period (1992–2002. The records were searched for patients with deformities related to rare disorders. These patients were reviewed as regards to characteristics of underlying disorder and spine deformity, treatment and results, complications, intraoperative and anaesthesiologic difficulties particular to each case. Results In 13 cases, the spine deformity presented in relation to rare disorders. The underlying disorder was rare neurological disease in 2 cases (Rett syndrome, progressive hemidystonia, muscular disorders (facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, arthrogryposis in 2 patients, osteogenesis imperfecta in 2 cases, Marfan syndrome, osteopetrosis tarda, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, cleidocranial dysplasia and Noonan syndrome in 1 case each. In 2 cases scoliosis was related to other congenital anomalies (phocomelia, blindness. Nine of these patients were surgically treated. Surgery was avoided in 3 patients. Conclusion This study illustrates the fact that different disorders are related with curves with different characteristics, different accompanying problems and possible complications. Investigation and understanding of the underlying pathology is an essential part of the clinical evaluation and preoperative work-up, as clinical experience at any specific center is limited.

  19. Radiation dose reduction in the evaluation of scoliosis: an application of digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, D.C.; Cleveland, R.H.; Herman, T.E.; Zaleske, D.J.; Ehrlich, M.G.; Correia, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the clinical testing of scanning beam digital radiography as an imaging method in patients with scoliosis. This type of digital imaging requires a skin exposure of only 2.4 mR (0.619 microC/kg) per image, compared with the lowest possible posteroanterior screen-film exposure of 10 mR (2.58 microC/kg) at the chest and 60 mR (15.48 microC/kg) at the lumbar spine. Digital radiographic and screen-film images were obtained on multiple test objects and 273 patients. Scoliosis measurements using screen-film radiographs and digital radiographs were comparable to within a mean difference of 1 degrees at many different degrees of severity. The low-dose digital images were found to be useful and accurate for the detection and measurement of scoliosis after the first screen-film radiographs have excluded tumors and structural abnormalities

  20. Idiopathic Scoliosis from Psychopathological and Mind-Body Medicine Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talić, Goran; Ostojić, Ljerka; Bursać, Snježana Novaković; Nožica-Radulović, Tatjana; Stevanović-Papić, Đurđica

    2016-12-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis, defined as a three-dimensional spine and trunk deformity, which appears in otherwise healthy subjects, exhibits complex relations with various forms of personal well-being and psychopathology. Most research studies have documented a higher proportion of psychological disturbances (e.g., self-criticism, negative body image, low self-esteem) and mental disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders, personality disorders) among idiopathc scoliosis patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, there are some reports, although more systematic research is warranted, on the role of mental health and personality traits in relation to the adherence to conservative treatment. Given the increasing role of surgical treatment in the management of scoliosis, as well as several reports on negative psychological outcomes of such interventions, there is a growing need for ongoing screening and mental health care in this population. It seems this also holds true for non-operative treatments, particularly bracing therapy. One should keep in mind that these scoliosis-psychopathology relations are deduced from a limited number of empirical studies, usually conducted on small sample sizes, suggesting the need for further large-scale investigations, preferrably those with longitudinal research designs. Understanding the complex interplay between personality/psychopathology and spinal deformities within the framework of personalized mind-body medicine, should help clinicians tailor more individualized and specific treatments and predict therapeutic outcomes in this clinical population.

  1. Way of life as emphasizing factors in the progression of idiophatic scoliosis in adolescence era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muminagic, Sahib; Bisanovic, Senaida; Mehic, Sanra; Sivic, Suad

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a significant health problem which occurs in 2%-4% school kids in adolescent age. Reasons of occurrence are not quite clear, there are many theories, but probably it is multifactor disease. Among the theories that are mentioned some of them included environmental and behavioral factors. Research the impact of some environmental and behavioral factor on development and progression of idiopathic scoliosis in school kids. Research was conducted on 421 pupil in adolescent age, where 120 pupils was from urban schools and 301 pupil from rural schools. Environmental factors and habits like the bigger osteomuscular structure mobility at kids from rural schools, longer outdoor time spending, different nutrition, alcoholism and smoking, different obligations, etc. factors which can be cause of scoliosis development. In this research we assumed that different environmental and behavioral factors of school kids, which exist in rural and urban areas, can develop to different expression of scoliosis in these areas. In our research we proved that the scoliosis occurrence is more often in urban areas than in rural (Fisher's exact test P<0.001). It is necessary to research all factors of lifestyle individually, which are different between the urban and rural kids.

  2. Screening 5 and 6 year-old children starting primary school for development and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Deniz; Bayar-Muluk, Nuray; Bayoğlu, Birgül; İdil, Aysun; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    Beginning school is an important milestone for children. Children's readiness for school involves cognitive, physical, and emotional development. Certain school programs allow children to start first grade after 66 months of age, together with 72 month-old children. In order to estimate school readiness, we screened children before starting first grade and compared their school performance according to their age and socio-demographic characteristics. Marmara School Readiness, Denver II developmental screening, and language assessment tests were applied. Language delays were more frequent and school readiness test scores were lower in the younger group compared to older children. However, school achievement did not differ between the two age groups. Preschool education, parental income and education affected performance in most tests. Preschool screening seems effective in detecting children with lower than average developmental skills, and the school system may provide a practical opportunity for providing support to those children.

  3. Screening for Usher Syndrome: A Hands-On Guide for School Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Joan; Coonts, Teresa; Jordan, Beth; Schafer, Jacqueline, Ed.

    This manual was written specifically to help school nurses conduct screenings for Usher syndrome, a genetic condition that involves deafness or hearing loss and the progressive loss of vision. It provides information on the step-by-step process of how to conduct a screening, the actual forms needed for a screening, and resources for referring…

  4. Reliability and concurrent validity of postural asymmetry measurement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Ashleigh; Aslaksen, Berit; Kierkegaard, Marie; Furness, James; Gerdhem, Paul; Abbott, Allan

    2017-01-18

    To investigate the reliability and concurrent validity of the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis postural assessment in three anatomical planes. This is an observational reliability and concurrent validity study of adolescent referrals to the Orthopaedic department for scoliosis screening at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden between March-May 2012. A total of 31 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (13.6 ± 0.6 years old) of mild-moderate curvatures (25° ± 12°) were consecutively recruited. Measurement of cervical, thoracic and lumbar curvatures, pelvic and shoulder tilt, and axial thoracic rotation (ATR) were performed by two trained physiotherapists in one day. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the inter-examiner reliability (ICC2,1) and the intra-rater reliability (ICC3,3) of the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter. Spearman's correlation analyses were used to estimate concurrent validity between the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter and Gold Standard Cobb angles from radiographs and the Orthopaedic Systems Inc. Scoliometer. There was excellent reliability between examiners for thoracic kyphosis (ICC2,1 = 0.94), ATR (ICC2,1 = 0.92) and lumbar lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.79). There was adequate reliability between examiners for cervical lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.51), however poor reliability for pelvic and shoulder tilt. Both devices were reproducible in the measurement of ATR when repeated by one examiner (ICC3,3 0.98-1.00). The device had a good correlation with the Scoliometer (rho = 0.78). When compared with Cobb angle from radiographs, there was a moderate correlation for ATR (rho = 0.627). The Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter provides reliable transverse and sagittal cervical, thoracic and lumbar measurements and valid transverse plan measurements of mild-moderate scoliosis deformity.

  5. What's New in Congenital Scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahys, Joshua M; Guille, James T

    2018-03-01

    Congenital scoliosis is a failure of vertebral formation, segmentation, or a combination of the 2 arising from abnormal vertebral development during weeks 4 to 6 of gestation. The associated spinal deformity can be of varying severity and result in a stable or progressive deformity based on the type and location of the anomalous vertebra(e). Bracing for congenital scoliosis is rarely indicated, while recent reports have demonstrated the utility of serial derotational casting for longer curves with multiple anomalous vertebrae as an effective "time buying strategy" to delay the need for surgery. Earlier hemivertebra excision and short-segment posterior spinal fusion have been advocated to prevent future curve progression of the deformity and/or the development of large compensatory curves. It has been shown in recent long-term follow-up studies that growth rates of the vertebral body and spinal canal are not as dramatically affected by pedicle screw instrumentation at a young age as once thought. Growth friendly surgery with either spine-based or rib-based anchors has demonstrated good results with curve correction while maintaining spinal growth. Rib-based anchors are typically more commonly indicated in the setting of chest wall abnormalities and/or when spinal anatomy precludes placement of spinal instrumentation. Recently, magnetically controlled growing rods have shown promising results in several studies that include a small subset of congenital scoliosis cases. A literature search was performed to identify existing studies related to the treatment of congenital scoliosis published from January 1, 2005 to June 1, 2016. Databases included PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Library. The search was limited to English articles and yielded 36 papers. This project was initiated by the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America Publications Committee and was reviewed and approved by the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America Presidential Line. A total of

  6. Development of a non-fusion scoliosis correction device. Numerical modelling of scoliosis correction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Gerdine

    2011-01-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and trunk, comprising of a lateral deviation and an axial rotation. Severe scoliosis is mostly seen in girls and is often detected during adolescence. Without treatment, scoliosis progression can lead to a life-threatening situation because the

  7. School Asthma Screening and Case Management: Attendance and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moricca, Michelle L.; Grasska, Merry A.; BMarthaler, Marcia; Morphew, Tricia; Weismuller, Penny C.; Galant, Stanley P.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is related to school absenteeism and underperformance in elementary students. This pilot study assessed whether school nurse case management (CM) in children identified with asthma impacts academic performance and school absenteeism in one school. A validated questionnaire was used to identify children at risk for asthma and CM was provided…

  8. A High School Counselor's Leadership in Providing School-Wide Screenings for Depression and Enhancing Suicide Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Anne; Abel, Nicholas R.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health issues and suicidal thoughts and actions among school-aged children and adolescents is a serious issue. This article examines the scope of the problem nationwide and provides a brief overview of the literature regarding the effectiveness of school-wide screening programs for depression and suicide risk. The authors…

  9. Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES # 2 Rayagada school screening program: efficacy of multistage screening of school teachers in detection of impaired vision and other ocular anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda L

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Lapam Panda,1 Taraprasad Das,1 Suryasmita Nayak,1 Umasankar Barik,2 Bikash C Mohanta,1 Jachin Williams,3 Vivekanand Warkad,4 Guha Poonam Tapas Kumar,5 Rohit C Khanna3 1Indian Oil Center for Rural Eye Health, GPR ICARE, L V Prasad Eye Institute, MTC Campus, Bhubaneswar, India; 2Naraindas Morbai Budhrani Eye Centre, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Rayagada, India; 3Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Center for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, KAR Campus, Hyderabad, India; 4Miriam Hyman Children Eye Care Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, MTC Campus, Bhubaneswar, India; 5District Administration, Government of Odisha, Rayagada, India Purpose: To describe program planning and effectiveness of multistage school eye screening and assess accuracy of teachers in vision screening and detection of other ocular anomalies in Rayagada District School Sight Program, Odisha, India.Methods: This multistage screening of students included as follows: stage I: screening for vision and other ocular anomalies by school teachers in the school; stage II: photorefraction, subjective correction and other ocular anomaly confirmation by optometrists in the school; stage III: comprehensive ophthalmologist examination in secondary eye center; and stage IV: pediatric ophthalmologist examination in tertiary eye center. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of teachers for vision screening and other ocular anomaly detection were calculated vis-à-vis optometrist (gold standard.Results: In the study, 216 teachers examined 153,107 (95.7% of enrolled students aged 5–15 years. Teachers referred 8,363 (5.4% of examined students and 5,990 (71.6% of referred were examined in stage II. After prescribing spectacles to 443, optometrists referred 883 students to stage III. The sensitivity (80.51% and PPV (93.05% of teachers for vision screening were high, but specificity (53.29% and NPV (26.02% were low. The

  10. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of a School-Based Emotional Health Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Elena; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; Kernic, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: School-based screening for health conditions can help extend the reach of health services to underserved populations. Screening for mental health conditions is growing in acceptability, but evidence of cost-effectiveness is lacking. This study assessed costs and effectiveness associated with the Developmental Pathways Screening…

  12. Referral criteria for school-based hearing screening in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Referral criteria for school-based hearing screening in South Africa: Considerations for resource-limited contexts. ... Diagnostic audiometry confirmed that almost half (47%) of the referred children had a hearing loss. Conclusion: A screening intensity of 25 dB HL andimmediate rescreen reduces the referral rate significantly ...

  13. [Optimization of radiological scoliosis assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, Goya; Piqueras, Joaquim; Catalá, Ana; Oliva, Glòria; Ruiz, Agustí; Ribas, Montserrat; Duran, Carmina; Rodrigo, Carlos; Rodríguez, Eugenia; Garriga, Victoria; Maristany, Teresa; García-Fontecha, César; Baños, Joan; Muchart, Jordi; Alava, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Most scoliosis are idiopathic (80%) and occur more frequently in adolescent girls. Plain radiography is the imaging method of choice, both for the initial study and follow-up studies but has the disadvantage of using ionizing radiation. The breasts are exposed to x-ray along these repeated examinations. The authors present a range of recommendations in order to optimize radiographic exam technique for both conventional and digital x-ray settings to prevent unnecessary patients' radiation exposure and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients with scoliosis. With analogue systems, leaded breast protectors should always be used, and with any radiographic equipment, analog or digital radiography, the examination should be performed in postero-anterior projection and optimized low-dose techniques. The ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) rule should always be followed to achieve diagnostic quality images with the lowest feasible dose. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  14. [Scoliosis: review of types, aetiology, diagnostics, and treatment 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baat, P.; van Biezen, E.C.; de Baat, C.

    2012-01-01

    A scoliosis is a flexible or rigid deformity of the spine in the frontal plane. There are several types of scoliosis, each with specific characteristics. The most prevalent types are idiopathic, congenital, and neuromuscular scoliosis and scoliosis in adults. The aetiology is varied and largely

  15. Spinal decompensation in degenerative lumbar scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.A.; Mullender, M.G.; Pluymakers, W.J.; Castelein, R.M.; van Royen, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the aging population, degenerative scoliosis is a growing clinical problem. It is associated with back pain and radicular symptoms. The pathogenesis of degenerative scoliosis lies in degenerative changes of the spinal structures, such as the intervertebral disc, the facet joints and the

  16. Imaging in scoliosis: What, why and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Eisenstein, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Scoliosis may be a spinal manifestation of underlying disease and although most cases of scoliosis are idiopathic, imaging plays a very important role in determining the underlying aetiology and in monitoring the changes of the deformity that take place with growth. As a clinical problem scoliosis may present directly to the radiology department through a primary healthcare referral, or it may be referred from the paediatric, orthopaedic, spinal and neurosurgical hospital services. Growth affects all types of scoliosis irrespective of cause. There are no reliable predetermined algorithmic steps in the management of scoliosis, and treatment decisions require the inclusion of multiple extrinsic (e.g age, menarche) and intrinsic (curve magnitude, vertebral anomaly) factors. It is important to remember that most of what is known about curve behaviour and its progression applies to idiopathic scoliosis, and it is inappropriate to apply these criteria to the other specific types of scoliosis. It is imperative that radiation techniques are used judiciously to minimize the radiation burden. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had a significant impact in the understanding of the scoliotic deformity, it is still evolving and it may well eventually play a very important role in uncovering the underlying aetiology of 'idiopathic' scoliosis. Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. and Eisenstein, S.M. (2002)

  17. Imaging in scoliosis: What, why and how?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Eisenstein, S.M

    2002-07-01

    Scoliosis may be a spinal manifestation of underlying disease and although most cases of scoliosis are idiopathic, imaging plays a very important role in determining the underlying aetiology and in monitoring the changes of the deformity that take place with growth. As a clinical problem scoliosis may present directly to the radiology department through a primary healthcare referral, or it may be referred from the paediatric, orthopaedic, spinal and neurosurgical hospital services. Growth affects all types of scoliosis irrespective of cause. There are no reliable predetermined algorithmic steps in the management of scoliosis, and treatment decisions require the inclusion of multiple extrinsic (e.g age, menarche) and intrinsic (curve magnitude, vertebral anomaly) factors. It is important to remember that most of what is known about curve behaviour and its progression applies to idiopathic scoliosis, and it is inappropriate to apply these criteria to the other specific types of scoliosis. It is imperative that radiation techniques are used judiciously to minimize the radiation burden. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had a significant impact in the understanding of the scoliotic deformity, it is still evolving and it may well eventually play a very important role in uncovering the underlying aetiology of 'idiopathic' scoliosis. Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. and Eisenstein, S.M. (2002)

  18. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N G

    2012-04-01

    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  19. High school Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening: 5 to 11-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curd, Helen; Lewis, Sharon; Macciocca, Ivan; Sahhar, Margaret; Petrou, Vicki; Bankier, Agnes; Lieberman, Sari; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Delatycki, Martin B

    2014-04-01

    The Melbourne high school Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening program began in 1997. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of this screening program among those who had testing more than 5 years ago, to evaluate the long-term impact of screening. A questionnaire was used for data collection and consisted of validated scales and purposively designed questions. Questionnaires were sent to all carriers and two non-carriers for each carrier who were screened in the program between 1999 and 2005. Twenty-four out of 69 (34.8 %) carriers and 30/138 (21.7 %) non-carriers completed the questionnaire. Most participants (82 %) retained good knowledge of TSD and there was no evidence of a difference in knowledge between carriers and non-carriers. Most participants (83 %) were happy with the timing and setting of screening and thought that education and screening for TSD should be offered during high school. There was no difference between carriers and non-carriers in mean scores for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Decision Regret Scale. This evaluation indicated that 5-11 years post high school screening, those who were screened are supportive of the program and that negative consequences are rare.

  20. School Locations and Traffic Emissions — Environmental (InJustice Findings Using a New Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philine Gaffron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling. We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits.

  1. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children's Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Broyles, Stephanie T; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-07-30

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children's health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June-July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5-18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score (BMIz) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth's physical activity and TV viewing.

  2. Screens

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  3. Screening of Energy Renovation Measures for Schools – Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Ove; Paulsen, Anton; Stiger, Simone

    2013-01-01

    School of the Future’ is a collaborative project within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union in the energy sector. It started in February 2011 and will run for 5 years. The aim of the “School of the Future” project is to design, demonstrate, evaluate and communicate shining examples...... of how to reach the future high performance building level. School buildings and their primary users: pupils – the next generations – are in the focus of the project. Both, the energy and indoor environment performance of 4 demo buildings in 4 European countries and climates will be greatly improved due...

  4. Pediatric spine imaging post scoliosis surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsharief, Alaa N. [IWK Children' s Health Center, Dalhousie University, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Halifax, NS (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); King Saud University, Department of Medical Imaging, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, King Khaled National Guard Hospital-Western Region, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); El-Hawary, Ron [Dalhousie University, Orthopedic Surgery Department, IWK Children' s Health Center, Halifax, NS (Canada); Schmit, Pierre [IWK Children' s Health Center, Dalhousie University, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2018-01-15

    Many orthopedic articles describe advances in surgical techniques and implants used in pediatric scoliosis surgery. However, even though postoperative spine imaging constitutes a large portion of outpatient musculoskeletal pediatric radiology, few, if any, radiology articles discuss this topic. There has been interval advancement over the last decades of the orthopedic procedures used in the treatment of spinal scoliosis in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of treatment in these patients is to stop the progression of the curve by blocking the spinal growth and correcting the deformity as much as possible. To that end, the authors in this paper discuss postoperative imaging findings of Harrington rods, Luque rods, Luque-Galveston implants and segmental spinal fusion systems. Regarding early onset scoliosis, the guiding principles used for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis do not apply to a growing spine because they would impede lung development. As a result, other devices have been developed to correct the curve and to allow spinal growth. These include spine-based growing rods, vertically expandable prosthetic titanium rods (requiring repetitive surgeries) and magnetically controlled growing rods (with a magnetic locking/unlocking system). Other more recent systems are Shilla and thoracoscopic anterior vertebral body tethering, which allow guided growth of the spine without repetitive interventions. In this paper, we review the radiologic appearances of different orthopedic implants and techniques used to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and early onset scoliosis. Moreover, we present the imaging findings of the most frequent postoperative complications. (orig.)

  5. Pediatric spine imaging post scoliosis surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsharief, Alaa N.; El-Hawary, Ron; Schmit, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Many orthopedic articles describe advances in surgical techniques and implants used in pediatric scoliosis surgery. However, even though postoperative spine imaging constitutes a large portion of outpatient musculoskeletal pediatric radiology, few, if any, radiology articles discuss this topic. There has been interval advancement over the last decades of the orthopedic procedures used in the treatment of spinal scoliosis in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of treatment in these patients is to stop the progression of the curve by blocking the spinal growth and correcting the deformity as much as possible. To that end, the authors in this paper discuss postoperative imaging findings of Harrington rods, Luque rods, Luque-Galveston implants and segmental spinal fusion systems. Regarding early onset scoliosis, the guiding principles used for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis do not apply to a growing spine because they would impede lung development. As a result, other devices have been developed to correct the curve and to allow spinal growth. These include spine-based growing rods, vertically expandable prosthetic titanium rods (requiring repetitive surgeries) and magnetically controlled growing rods (with a magnetic locking/unlocking system). Other more recent systems are Shilla and thoracoscopic anterior vertebral body tethering, which allow guided growth of the spine without repetitive interventions. In this paper, we review the radiologic appearances of different orthopedic implants and techniques used to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and early onset scoliosis. Moreover, we present the imaging findings of the most frequent postoperative complications. (orig.)

  6. Service Use by At-Risk Youth after School-Based Suicide Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program, and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youth and parents. Method We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youth identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools in New York State. The at-risk teenagers and their parents were interviewed approximately two years after the initial screen to assess service use during the intervening period and identify barriers that may have interfered with seeking treatment. Results At the time of the screen, 72% of the at-risk students were not receiving any type of mental health service. Of these students, 51% were deemed in need of services and subsequently referred by us to a mental health professional. Nearly 70% followed through with the screening’s referral recommendations. Youth and their parents reported perceptions about mental health problems, specifically relating to the need for treatment, as the primary reasons for not seeking service. Conclusions Screening appears to be effective in enhancing the likelihood that students at risk for suicidal behavior will get into treatment. Well developed and systematic planning is needed to ensure that screening and referral services are coordinated so as to facilitate access for youth into timely treatment. PMID:19858758

  7. The Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Eating Disorder Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. Bryn; LeAnn Noh, H.; Jiang, Yushan; Sonneville, Kendrin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to assess the value of school-based eating disorder (ED) screening for a hypothetical cohort of US public school students. Methods. We used a decision-analytic microsimulation model to model the effectiveness (life-years with ED and quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]), total direct costs, and cost-effectiveness (cost per QALY gained) of screening relative to current practice. Results. The screening strategy cost $2260 (95% confidence interval [CI] = $1892, $2668) per student and resulted in a per capita gain of 0.25 fewer life-years with ED (95% CI = 0.21, 0.30) and 0.04 QALYs (95% CI = 0.03, 0.05) relative to current practice. The base case cost-effectiveness of the intervention was $9041 per life-year with ED avoided (95% CI = $6617, $12 344) and $56 500 per QALY gained (95% CI = $38 805, $71 250). Conclusions. At willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50 000 and $100 000 per QALY gained, school-based ED screening is 41% and 100% likely to be cost-effective, respectively. The cost-effectiveness of ED screening is comparable to many other accepted pediatric health interventions, including hypertension screening. PMID:25033131

  8. Interactive vs passive screen time and nighttime sleep duration among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yland, Jennifer; Guan, Stanford; Emanuele, Erin; Hale, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Insufficient sleep among school-aged children is a growing concern, as numerous studies have shown that chronic short sleep duration increases the risk of poor academic performance and specific adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between weekday nighttime sleep duration and 3 types of screen exposure: television, computer use, and video gaming. We used age 9 data from an ethnically diverse national birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using screen time data reported by both the child (n = 3269) and by the child's primary caregiver (n= 2770). Within the child-reported models, children who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had shorter sleep duration by approximately 11 minutes per night compared to those who watched less than 2 hours of television (β = -0.18; P computer use were associated with reduced sleep duration. For both child- and parent-reported screen time measures, we did not find statistically significant differences in effect size across various types of screen time. Screen time from televisions and computers is associated with reduced sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using 2 sources of estimates of screen time exposure (child and parent reports). No specific type or use of screen time resulted in significantly shorter sleep duration than another, suggesting that caution should be advised against excessive use of all screens.

  9. Screen time and passive school travel as independent predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ogunleye, Ayodele A

    2012-05-01

    The most prevalent sedentary behaviours in children and adolescents are engagement with small screen media (screen-time) and passive travel (by motorised vehicle). The objective of this research was to assess the independence of these behaviours from one another and from physical activity as predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness in n=6819 10-16 year olds (53% male) who self-reported their physical activity (7-day recall) school travel and screen time habits. Travel was classified as active (walking, cycling) or passive; screen time as 4 h. The multivariate odds of being fit were higher in active travel (Boys: OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09-1.59; Girls: OR 1.46, 1.15-1.84) than in passive travel groups. Boys reporting low screen time were more likely to be fit than those reporting >4 h (OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.68-2.63) as were girls (OR 1.66, 95% CI: 1.24-2.20). These odds remained significant after additionally controlling for physical activity. Passive travel and high screen time are independently associated with poor cardiorespiratory fitness in youth, and this relationship is independent of physical activity levels. A lifestyle involving high screen time and habitual passive school travel appears incompatible with healthful levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Parents of elementary school students weigh in on height, weight, and body mass index screening at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Rieland, Gayle

    2006-12-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) screening and parent notification programs have been recommended as a childhood overweight prevention strategy. However, there are little empirical data available to guide decision making about the acceptability and safety of programs. A pilot study was conducted using a quasiexperimental research design. In fall 2004, children in 4 suburban elementary schools (kindergarten to sixth grade) in the St Paul/Minneapolis, MN, metropolitan area completed height/weight screening. The following spring, parents in 2 schools received letters containing height/weight and BMI results. A self-administered post-only survey examined parents' opinions and beliefs regarding school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs (response rate: 790/1133 = 70%). The chi2 test of significance was used to examine differences in program support by treatment condition, child's weight status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among all parents, 78% believed it was important for schools to assess student's height/weight annually and wanted to receive height, weight, and BMI information yearly. Among parents receiving the letter, 95% read most/all of the letter. Most parents (80%) and children (83%) reported comfort with the information in the letter. Parents of overweight children were more likely to report parental discomfort as well as child discomfort with letter content. There was considerable parental support for school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs. Programs may be a useful overweight prevention tool for children. However, continued attention to how best to support parents and children affected by overweight is required.

  11. School Students and Computer Games with Screen Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. V.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author states how these days, school students from low-income strata of the population in Russia spend hours sitting in computer rooms and Internet clubs, where, for a relatively small fee, they can play interactive video games. And to determine what games they prefer the author conducted a content analysis of eighty-seven…

  12. [Therapy of scoliosis from a historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, J; Rauschmann, M; Rickert, M

    2015-12-01

    Scoliosis can be considered as one of the classical orthopedic diseases of the spine. The history of orthopedics is closely connected to the development of the therapy of scoliosis. In the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries the therapy of scoliosis was mainly a conservative corrective orthopedic treatment with a variety of corset forms and extension bed treatment. In the middle of the nineteenth century physiotherapy (movement therapy) became established as an supplementary active treatment. The first operations for treatment of scoliosis were carried out in 1839. The real success with surgical procedures for improvement in corrective options was connected to the introduction of metal spinal implants in the early 1960s.

  13. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the management of scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian C.; Roper, Helen P.; Chikermane, Ashish A.; Tatman, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study summaries the current management of scoliosis in patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. A literature review of Medline was performed and the collected articles critically appraised. This literature is discussed to give an overview of the current management of scoliosis within Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Importantly, improvements in respiratory care, the use of steroids and improving surgical techniques have allowed patients to maintain quality of life and improved life expectancy in this patient group. PMID:27757431

  14. Predictors of emotional functioning in youth after surgical correction of idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebracki, Kathy; Thawrani, Dinesh; Oswald, Timothy S; Anadio, Jennifer M; Sturm, Peter F

    2013-09-01

    Patients with idiopathic scoliosis, although otherwise healthy, often have significant concerns about their self-image and appearance. In a group of juveniles and adolescents, this can impact adjustment in school, functioning in peer groups, and general sense of well-being. There are limited data to help physicians reliably and precisely identify those who are at higher risk of poor emotional adjustment even after spine deformity correction. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of emotional maladjustment in juvenile and adolescent patients after surgical correction of idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 233 juveniles, mean age 11.26 ± 1.02 (range, 8 to 12) years and 909 adolescents, mean age 14.91 ± 1.61 (range, 13 to 21) years, who underwent surgical correction for idiopathic scoliosis and who were participating in a prospective longitudinal multicenter database, were enrolled in the study. Participants completed the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire before surgery and 2 years postoperatively. Radiographs were used to measure Cobb angle and surface measurements were used to determine decompensation and trunk shift. Adolescents reported poorer mental health preoperatively (Pself-image (Pself-image (Padolescent group, mental health 2 years postoperatively was predicted by preoperative mental health (Pself-image 2 years postoperatively was predicted by preoperative mental health (Pself-image (PSelf-image and mental health are significantly improved after spine deformity correction in juveniles and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. However, consistent with normative development, adolescents are at higher risk for emotional maladjustment than juveniles. Surgical decision making in scoliosis correction should take the emotional status of the patient into consideration.

  15. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  16. Screening for word reading and spelling problems in elementary school: An item response theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore whether the Item Response Theory (IRT) provides a suitable framework to screen for word reading and spelling problems during the elementary school period. The following issues were addressed from an IRT perspective: (a) the dimensionality of word

  17. Development and Implementation of High School Chemistry Modules Using Touch-Screen Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Maurica S.; Zhao, Jinhui; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2012-01-01

    Technology was employed to motivate and captivate students while enriching their in-class education. An outreach program is described that involved college mentors introducing touch-screen technology into a high school chemistry classroom. Three modules were developed, with two of them specifically tailored to encourage comprehension of molecular…

  18. The Inclusion of Pseudowords within the Year One Phonics "Screening Check" in English Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Howard; England, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights problems surrounding the Year 1 Phonics Screening Check that has accompanied the legislative framework for synthetic phonics in English primary schools. It investigates the inclusion of pseudowords and raises questions regarding their generation and categorization, the rationale for their inclusion and the assumption that the…

  19. Evaluating Referral, Screening, and Assessment Procedures for Middle School Trauma/Grief-Focused Treatment Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassetti, Stevie N.; Williamson, Ariel A.; Herres, Joanna; Kobak, Roger; Layne, Christopher M.; Kaplow, Julie B.; Pynoos, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    There is a need to delineate best practices for referring, assessing, and retaining students suspected of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and maladaptive grief (MG) in school-based treatment. Evidence-based risk-screening procedures should accurately include students who are appropriate for group treatment and exclude students who do not require…

  20. Screen-based sedentary behaviours in Italian school children: the ZOOM8 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Galfo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 Background: screen-based sedentary behaviours likely have a negative impact on many aspects of youth health and development. The purpose of this study was to describe the screen-based sedentary behaviours and to examine factors associated in a sample of Italian school children. Methods: 2129 children, aged 8-9 years, from the three main geographical areas of Italy were involved. Body weight and height were measured. Screen-based sedentary behaviours were evaluated using a parent-reported questionnaire that included items about the time spent watching television (TV and using computer/playstation and other electronic games. Pearson’s chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted to study possible associated factors.Results: more time was spent in screen-based sedentary activities during non-school days rather than on school days. More males than females watched television more than the recommended 2 hours a day and spent the same time using computer (PC, playstation and other electronic games.  The presence of a TV in the child’s bedroom was significantly associated with geographical area, and inversely associated with mother’s education. Moreover, children with a TV in the bedroom had higher odds of being overweight/obese and watching TV more than 2 hours a day than those without a TV. According to multiple logistic regression gender, mother’s age and mother’s education were predictors of the total screen time.Conclusions: Italian children spent a significant amount of time in screen-based sedentary behaviours, exceeding media recommendations. In addition gender, mother’s age and mother’s education were predictors of the total screen time.

  1. Use of the scoliosis research society outcomes instrument to evaluate patient outcome in untreated idiopathic scoliosis patients in Japan: part I: comparison with nonscoliosis group: preliminary/limited review in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kei; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Toru; Uchiyama, Seiji; Endo, Naoto

    2005-05-15

    This preliminary study evaluates untreated Japanese patients with idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-24). To determine the baseline patient outcome score using the SRS-24 for untreated Japanese scoliosis patients compared with a nonscoliosis group. The SRS instrument with 24 questions was developed to help evaluate patient-perceived outcomes of idiopathic scoliosis treatment. Evaluation of untreated Japanese idiopathic scoliosis patients using the SRS instrument has not been reported. Japanese idiopathic scoliosis patients (n = 141) (mean age, 13.6 years; range, 10-17 years) with a Cobb angle of more than 20 degrees who were not treated with a brace or surgery, were evaluated in comparison with a nonscoliosis group (healthy junior high school students; n = 72) using the SRS-24. The scoliosis group was categorized as mild deformity group with a major curve Cobb angle of less than 30 degrees, moderate deformity group with 30 degrees to 49 degrees, and severe deformity group with more than 50 degrees. The patients were evaluated using section 1 (15 questions) of the SRS-24, which was divided into four domains: total pain, general self-image, general function, and activity. Reliability, as determined by internal consistency, was validated using Cronbach's alpha for these domain scales. The severe deformity group had the lowest scores compared with the other deformity groups and the nonscoliosis group in pain (P self-image (P self-image of back appearance, were significantly lower in the scoliosis group than those in the nonscoliosis group. This tendency was more significant in the patients with greater curve magnitude. Scores for questions 14 and 15, evaluation of general self-image, in the scoliosis group were, however, higher than those in the nonscoliosis group. Internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha was 0.57 (pain), 0.27 (general self-image), -0.08 (general function), and 0.15 (overall level of activity

  2. Screening and treatment of obesity in school health care - the gap between clinical guidelines and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkänen, Paula; Ketola, Eeva; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2018-05-06

    School health care offers a natural setting for childhood obesity interventions. Earlier studies reveal inadequate screening and treatment in primary care. However, longitudinal studies in unselected populations are lacking. We aimed to examine how school nurses and physicians identified obesity, diagnosed it and offered interventions over primary school. We compared the results with Finnish recommendations. From our cohort of 2000 primary school sixth graders (aged 12-14), 172 were obese at least once during primary school. We manually collected retrospective electronic health record (EHR) data of these 'ever-obese' children. Of the ever-obese children, 96% attended annual nurse assessments more than twice. School physicians met 53% of the ever-obese children at health checks at first grade and 93% at fifth grade. Of overweight-related extra visits to school nurses, 94% took place without parents. Parents were present in 48% of extra school physician visits. Only 29% of the 157 who became obese during the first five school grades received an obesity diagnosis. However, school physicians mentioned weight problems in EHR for 90% of the children and, similarly, school nurses for 99%. The majority received a treatment plan at least once. For 78%, at least one plan was made with the parents. Still, 28% missed nutrition plans, 31% exercise plans and 90% lacked recorded weight development targets. The gap between clinical guidelines and reality in school health care could be narrowed by improving diagnosing and parent collaboration. Obstacles in parent involvement and work methods in school health care need further study. © 2018 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Screening for caries in targeted schools in the Blue Mountains and Hawkesbury districts, New South Wales, Australia: an evaluation of the School Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gabriel Tse Feng; Evans, Robin Wendell; Dennison, Peter John

    2011-11-01

      To determine if the school dental screening program in New South Wales, the School Assessment Program, achieved its aim of being the key entry point for high-risk children to receive care.   A secondary analysis was conducted on epidemiological data gathered in 16 primary schools in New South Wales (10 for the School Assessment Program and six for the non-School Assessment Program) in 2003. The validity of the School Assessment Program targeting criteria in identifying high-risk schools was determined. Post-screening treatment outcomes were evaluated from the assessment of treatment ratios.   There were negligible differences in the caries experience and proportions of high-risk children, irrespective of their School Assessment Program status. Sensitivity and specificity values were approximately 60% and 40%, respectively, using various case definitions of high risk applied to both children and schools. Deciduous dentition treatment ratios for School Assessment Program and non-School Assessment Program children with decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) ≥1 ranged from 0.48 to 0.79 and from 0.47 to 0.73, respectively. Respective permanent dentition treatment ratios for School Assessment Program and non-School Assessment Program children with Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) ≥1 were 0.49-0.82 and 0.64-1.08.   The School Assessment Program failed to identify schools with high caries-risk children or confer post-screening caries treatment benefits. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. [Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with effective braces: early response to trunk asymmetry may avoid curvature progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matussek, J; Dingeldey, E; Wagner, F; Rezai, G; Nahr, K

    2014-07-01

    Vertical posture of the growing child requires minute central nervous control mechanisms in order to maintain symmetry of the torso in its various activities. Scoliosis describes a constant deviation in the frontal, transverse and sagittal planes from the dynamic symmetry of the trunk. Early intervention with effective bracing, physiotherapy and sports can reverse curve progression during growth spurts, once these are identified in screening. Modern braces have a derotating and reducing effect (mirror effect) on asymmetric body volumes, thus influencing the growing torso and restoring lasting symmetry. Recent data support the use of braces to reverse progressing scoliosis.

  5. Early childhood anomalies of the hip occur at a similar frequency in patients with idiopathic scoliosis and in healthy individuals – questionnaire for parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Improper hip joint development may lead to numerous unfavourable changes in the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this research was to determine how often adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and their healthy counterparts experienced anomalies of the hip in their infancy period and to examine the correlation between the occurrence of hip anomalies and idiopathic scoliosis. Material and methods: The research was conducted in medical centres as well as in schools. The parents of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and parents of healthy adolescents completed a questionnaire on the basis of their child’s development history included in the medical records book and other medical documentation. Results: 533 questionnaires were taken into consideration, included 145 questionnaires completed by parents of adolescents with scoliosis (121 girls - 13.8 years, SD 1.9; 24 boys - 12.9 years, SD 2.5 and 388 questionnaires from the group of adolescents without scoliosis (194 girls - 13.5 years, SD 2.0; 194 boys - 13.4 years, SD 2.1. No significant differences were noted in the incidence of hip anomalies between the groups of girls and boys with and without scoliosis, no correlations between anomalies of the hip and scoliosis were found (girls χ2=0.840; Cramer V=0.052; p=0.36; boys χ2=1.205; Cramer V=0.074; p=0.27. Conclusions: Hip anomalies such as hip dysplasia, movement asymmetry or range of motion limitations diagnosed in the infancy period did not correlate with idiopathic scoliosis. Further research aimed at a separate analysis of the influence of hip dysplasia on the occurrence of idiopathic scoliosis should be carried out.

  6. Expression Signatures of Long Noncoding RNAs in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, the most common pediatric spinal deformity, is considered a complex genetic disease. Causing genes and pathogenesis of AIS are still unclear. This study was designed to identify differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs involving the pathogenesis of AIS. Methods. We first performed comprehensive screening of lncRNA and mRNA in AIS patients and healthy children using Agilent human lncRNA + mRNA Array V3.0 microarray. LncRNAs expression in different AIS patients was further evaluated using quantitative PCR. Results. A total of 139 lncRNAs and 546 mRNAs were differentially expressed between AIS patients and healthy control. GO and Pathway analysis showed that these mRNAs might be involved in bone mineralization, neuromuscular junction, skeletal system morphogenesis, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, and regulation of signal pathway. Four lncRNAs (ENST00000440778.1, ENST00000602322.1, ENST00000414894.1, and TCONS_00028768 were differentially expressed between different patients when grouped according to age, height, classification, severity of scoliosis, and Risser grade. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the abnormal expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in AIS, and the expression of some lncRNAs was related to clinical features. This study is helpful for further understanding of lncRNAs in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of AIS.

  7. Evaluation of a mass screening of breast cancer with mammography in personnel of regional public schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Muto, Taisei; Asanuma, Taku; Horikoshi, Akira; Tsuchihara, Katsuo

    2009-01-01

    We have examined a total of 15,224 women in our hospital aiming at a mass screening of breast cancer with mammography (MMG) during the last 8 years. Subjected women were teachers or staffs of public schools in six prefectures in the Tohoku area. More than 90% of them were under 50 years old and women younger than 49 accounted for about half of them. A recall rate was 3.8%, and breast cancer was found in 55 women (0.36%) and the ratio of cancers diagnosed among recalled women was 9.5%. Twenty-one point eight percent of detected cancers were associated with calcification. The average diameter of the detected tumors in the screening group was 1.6 cm, whereas that of outpatients (controls) was 2.5 cm. Stage 0 and I cancer cases in the screening group accounted for 82.0%, whereas those in the outpatient group, 49.6%, indicating a significant increase in detection rate of early breast cancer in the screening compared to the outpatients group. However, detection rate of breast masses was 76.7% of all cases of breast tumor by means of MMG, versus 86.0% by means of physical examination. These results suggest that the mass screening by using physical examination and MMG, as well as ultrasonography, may provide a better clinical application for precise diagnosis, when it is done for working women in the regional public schools who are younger. (author)

  8. Thalassaemia screening among students in a secondary school in Ampang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameela, S; Sabirah, S O Sharifah; Babam, J; Phan, C L; Visalachy, P; Chang, K M; Salwana, M A; Zuraidah, A; Subramanian, Y; Rahimah, A

    2011-12-01

    Thalassaemia is a common disorder in Malaysia. It is estimated that 4.5% of the population are carriers for beta- or alpha- thalassaemias. We set out to screen Form 4 students aged between 15 and 16 years old in a national school, for thalassaemia in March 2008. Written consent was obtained from 310 students. The carrier rate for the common thalassaemia syndromes was 6.8% (2.9% for beta-thalassaemia, 2.6% for HbE and 1.3% for two-gene deletion for alpha-thalassaemia). Carriers for beta-thalassaemia and two-gene deletion for alpha-thalassaemia were more common in the Chinese (4.3% and 1.4% respectively) while heterozygous HbE was more common in the Malays (3.8%). The laboratory cost of screening one student was RM 45 and the total number of man-hours spent in this screening activity was 600. This screening exercise showed that thalassaemia carriers are common among the Chinese and Malays and it is feasible to carry out a screening programme for secondary school students.

  9. Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bigger braces. Braces are usually named after the cities where they were invented and have names like ... During the operation, the orthopedic surgeon fuses the bones in the spine together so that they can ...

  10. Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or low-back pain that goes down the legs Weakness or tired feeling in the spine after sitting or standing for a long time Uneven hips or shoulders (one shoulder may be higher than the other) Spine curves more to one side Exams and Tests The health care provider will perform a physical ...

  11. Effect of patient position on the lordosis and scoliosis of patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Han; Li, Wei-Shi; Sun, Zhuo-Ran; Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Zhong-Qiang

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of patient positions on the lordosis and scoliosis of patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS).Seventy-seven patients with DLS were retrospectively analyzed. We measured lordosis and Cobb's angle on preoperative upright x-rays and magnetic resonance imagings in supine position. The lordosis and scoliosis of surgical segments in intraoperative prone position were measured on intraoperative radiographs of 20 patients to compare with that in standing position. Paired t tests were performed to investigate the parameters of the sample.From standing to supine position the whole lordosis increased (29.2 ± 15.7 degree vs. 34.9 ± 11.2 degree), and the whole scoliosis decreased (24.3 ± 11.8 degree vs. 19.0 ± 10.5 degree); 53 of 77 (68.8%) cases had increased lordosis, and 67 of 77 (87%) cases had decreased scoliosis. The lordosis of surgical segments in standing position had no difference with that in intraoprerative prone position. But in changing from supine/standing position to intraoprerative prone position, the scoliosis of surgical segments decreased (14.7 ± 9.4 degree vs. 11.4 ± 7.0 degree; 19.0 ± 11.8 degree vs. 11.4 ± 7.0 degree, respectively), and 18 of 20 (90%) cases had decreased scoliosis in intraoperative prone position than that in standing position.Compared with standing position in DLS patients, supine position increased lordosis and reduced scoliosis, and intraoperative prone position reduced scoliosis significantly. When evaluating the severity of DLS and making preoperative surgical plans, lumbar lordosis in supine position should also be evaluated in addition to upright x-ray, and the effects of different positions should be taken into consideration to reduce deviation.

  12. Pulmonary function in children with idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiligiannis Theofanis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic scoliosis, a common disorder of lateral displacement and rotation of vertebral bodies during periods of rapid somatic growth, has many effects on respiratory function. Scoliosis results in a restrictive lung disease with a multifactorial decrease in lung volumes, displaces the intrathoracic organs, impedes on the movement of ribs and affects the mechanics of the respiratory muscles. Scoliosis decreases the chest wall as well as the lung compliance and results in increased work of breathing at rest, during exercise and sleep. Pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure may develop in severe disease. In this review the epidemiological and anatomical aspects of idiopathic scoliosis are noted, the pathophysiology and effects of idiopathic scoliosis on respiratory function are described, the pulmonary function testing including lung volumes, respiratory flow rates and airway resistance, chest wall movements, regional ventilation and perfusion, blood gases, response to exercise and sleep studies are presented. Preoperative pulmonary function testing required, as well as the effects of various surgical approaches on respiratory function are also discussed.

  13. Scoliosis in Steinert syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, George S; Sapkas, George S; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Stilianessi, Eugenia V; Papadopoulos, Elias Ch; Apostolou, Constantinos D

    2005-01-01

    Steinert syndrome is described as an autosomal dominant condition characterized by progressive muscular wasting, myotonia, musculoskeletal manifestations and rare spinal defects. Little is reported about spinal deformity associated with this syndrome. We present a patient with Steinert syndrome complicated by scoliosis. In the literature on muscular dystrophy, other than Duchenne, little mention is given to the problem of scoliosis in general and its treatment in particular. A case report of a patient with Steinert syndrome associated with thoracic scoliosis and hypokyphosis is presented. A 17-year-old boy presented with King type II right thoracic scoliosis (T5-T11, Cobb angle of 40 degrees) and hypokyphosis--10 degrees. He was treated with posterior stabilization and instrumentation at level T3-L2 with a postoperative correction of the scoliotic curve to 20 degrees. Histopathologic examination of the muscles confirmed the diagnosis of Steinert myotonic dystrophy. At 30-month follow-up, the patient was clinically pain free and well balanced. Plain radiographs showed solid spine fusion with no loss of deformity correction. Scoliosis in Steinert syndrome shares the characteristic of an arthrogrypotic neuromuscular curve and demands the extensive soft tissue release for optimal surgical correction. Intraoperative observations included profound tissue bleeding, abnormally tough soft tissues and a difficult recovery from anaesthesia.

  14. Congenital scoliosis: an up-to-date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnei, G; Gavriliu, S; Vlad, C; Georgescu, I; Ghita, RA; Dughilă, C; Japie, EM; Onilă, A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital scoliosis represents a spinal malformation due to defects of formation, segmentation or mixed ones. It is characterized by a longitudinal and rotational imbalance. 54 patients were analyzed and 39 out of them were operated by various approaches with anterior and posterior instrumentations during 2000 and 2012. The impossibility to appoint some patients encountered in the daily practice into the known classifications, allowed us to purpose two categories of congenital scoliosis related to the predominance of spinal deviances in the coronal and transversal views. No certain etiology of congenital scoliosis has been identified until today. The susceptibility of some polygenic defects is obvious due to the presence of a sum of defects associated to most of the congenital scoliosis cases and the rarity of the presence of a unique defect. The diagnosis requires a thorough clinical and imaging examination in order to establish an individualized therapeutic strategy. The treatment of congenital scoliosis is different from the adolescent idiopathic one. Therapeutic criteria are significantly different. It is essential to assess the difference in growth of the concavity related to the convexity when choosing a particular procedure. The magnitude of the curve and the progressive rate are fundamental issues to the surgeon PMID:26351546

  15. Posture management program based on theory of planned behavior for adolescents with mild idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihea; Kim, Hee Soon; Kim, Gwang Suk; Lee, Hyejung; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Chung, Kyong-Mee

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a devised posture management program based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in adolescents with mild idiopathic scoliosis. A quasi-experimental study was conducted. It involved a nonequivalent comparison group design with pretest and posttest. Forty-four female adolescents with mild idiopathic scoliosis participated; data from 35 participants (20 for the test group, 15 for the control group) were used for the final analyses. The devised posture management program ran for 6 weeks. Posture management behavioral determinants (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention) as cognitive outcomes and muscular strength and flexibility as physical outcomes were measured three times: at baseline, week 6 and week 8. Cobb's angle as another physical outcome was measured twice: at baseline and week 8. Descriptive analysis, repeated measures analysis of variance and t test were used for data analyses. Attitude, perceived control, and behavioral intention were consistently enhanced by the posture management program. The intervention increased flexibility and muscular strength and decreased Cobb's angle, which reduced spinal curvature. Frequency of posture management exercise showed a gradual increase in the test group. The results indicate that the posture management program is effective in maintaining posture management behavior in adolescents with mild idiopathic scoliosis for both cognitive and physical outcomes. The posture management program should be helpful in expanding the role of school nurses in improving the health status of adolescents with mild idiopathic scoliosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. School program for screening students at risk for diabetes: the School Nurse Childhood Obesity Prevention Education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Shirley; Bobo, Nichole

    2009-07-01

    Accurate height and weight and BMI assessment by the school nurse is the first step in identifying students at risk for developing type 2 diabetes or other health consequences. Additional screening for children at or above the 95th percentile for BMI identifies those students most at risk. MAP affiliate sites indicate that when this assessment and communication is done in a private, sensitive, and caring manner--with emphasis on the health of the child-parents/ guardians are receptive to the information. School nurses, with the knowledge and skills provided by the S.C.O.P.E. program, alert parents/guardians to address their children's health risks and contact their health care providers. School nurses are also taught how they can provide guidance for school leadership and community coalitions to incorporate effective changes to food and physical activity offerings to students. The S.C.O.P.E. program can enhance the role of the school nurse in the global fight against childhood obesity so school-age children are healthy and ready to learn.

  17. Adherence to guidelines for cardiovascular screening in current high school preparticipation evaluation forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Christopher M; Phillips, George C

    2009-10-01

    We compared the content of the cardiac screening questions on US state high school athletic association preparticipation evaluation forms with current consensus recommendations. We reviewed the high school athletic association's approved, recommended, or required sports preparticipation form from each of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia, and compared the content of the personal and family history components with current recommendations for cardiac screening questions. We found that 85% of the preparticipation forms in current use contain all elements of the formerly recommended guidelines, but only 17% contain all elements of the new consensus guidelines. We conclude that although there appears to be some improvement in the content of the preparticipation forms in current use compared with previous studies, the vast majority of these forms are incomplete compared with current consensus guidelines.

  18. Rehabilitation treatment in children with scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Galia

    1998-01-01

    The scoliosis is classified as the problem more common of the spinal cord in the pediatric population. It is defined like a lateral abnormal bend of the spinal cord. It exists a wide range of unique or combined interventions that they will guarantee that the bend in most of the cases remains stable and in others that it diminishes until the period of the boy's growth is completed. The election of the type of intervention observation, orthesis, bandage in plaster or surgical it will depend on the skeletal maturity and of the classification that is made of the scoliosis. Every time that the intervention begins in a patient with scoliosis an individual analysis of each situation should be carried out, for this reason the rehabilitation services have an interdisciplinary team that looks for, above all, the execution of the elected treatment. The paper includes physical exam, methods and intervention types

  19. [TUBERCULOSIS SCREENING BY CHEST RADIOGRAPHY AMONG INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS AT JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOLS IN OSAKA CITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Komukai, Jun; Furukawa, Kanae; Saito, Kazumi; Shimouchi, Akira

    2015-10-01

    With a broader aim of controlling pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among foreigners, here, we have reported the findings of chest radiography screening for TB among international students at Japanese language schools in Osaka city. Between April 2011 and December 2013, 4,529 international students from 19 Japanese language schools in Osaka city underwent chest radiography for TB screening. The chest radiographs were studied in reference to the student's sex, age, nationality, and date of entry to Japan as well as any health conditions present at the time of screening. We further analyzed the bacterial information and pulmonary TB classification based on chest radiography findings of students who were identified to be positive for TB. Information on the implementation of health education was also gathered. The results revealed that 52.5% of the students who underwent chest radiography came from China, 20.3 % from South Korea, and 16.3% from Vietnam. Of the students, 52.9% were male and 47.1% were female. The median age of students was 23 years (range: 14-70 years). The median number of days from the first date of entry to Japan up until the radiography screening was 63 days. Based on the chest radiography findings, 71 students (1.6%) were suspected to have TB; however, further detailed examination confirmed that 19 students (0.4%) had active TB. This percentage is significantly higher than the 0.1% TB identification rate among residents in Osaka city of the same time period (Pschools (for a total of 12 times) in the 3-year period. A total of 257 language school staff and students attended the health education seminars. The identification rate of TB positive students in Japanese language schools was higher than that of the general residents in Osaka city. In addition, most of these students came to Japan within 1 year. It is also important to note that the majority of TB positive students had sputum smear negative results. This study proves that medical examination after

  20. [Therapeutic algorithm of idiopathic scoliosis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortan, Ionica; Goţia, D G

    2008-01-01

    Acquired deformations of spinal cord (scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis) represent a frequent pathology in child; their treatment is complex, with variable results which depend on various parameters. Mild scoliosis, with an angle less than 30 degrees, is treated with physiotherapy and regular follow-up. If the angle is higher than 30 degrees, the orthopedic corset is required; the angle over 45 degrees impose surgically correction. The indications of every therapeutic method depend on many factors, the main target of the treatment is to prevent the aggravation of the curvature; concerning the surgery, the goal is to obtain a correction as normal as possible of the spinal axis.

  1. Genetic Evaluation for the Scoliosis Gene(s) in Patients with Neurofibromatosis 1 and Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    by advertising our study on Children’s Tumor Foundation and The Littlest Tumor Foundation Midwest Society. The study was also posted on...Identification of 53 Single- Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Markers 6 Associated with Scoliosis Progression in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Fake ID...23 105 dystrophic 24 26 non dystrophic 25 35 dystrophic 26 43 non dystrophic 27 53 dystrophic 28 70 non dystrophic 29 7 non dystrophic Fake

  2. Score distribution of the scoliosis research society health-related quality of life in different subgroups of adolescent subjects unaffected by scoliosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifei; Du, Yuanli; Liang, Jie; Chen, Ying; Tan, Xiaoyi; Xiang, Xuanping; Wang, Wanhong; Ru, Neng

    2014-02-01

    A comparative study. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire performance in normal adolescents without scoliosis to establish a normative baseline useful for evaluating the discriminate validity of the SRS-22 in primary adolescent scoliosis; and (2) investigate impact of age and sex on SRS-22 in an adolescent population unaffected by scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire is widely used to measure health-related quality of life of patients with spinal disease including scoliosis and lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, normal data, which are very important, when comparing patients and nonpatients, are few, little, and there are few studies about factors that may affect SRS questionnaire performance. The adolescent population was from 14 schools located in 7 provinces. A total of 2008 adolescents (961 females, 1026 males, 21 unknown; mean age, 14.3 yr; range, 11-20) completed the simplified Chinese version of SRS-22 questionnaire and demographic questions. Surveys were stratified into 8 age-sex groups for analysis: male/female; 12 to 13.4, 13.5 to 14.9, 15 to 15.9, and more than 16 years of age. Post hoc testing and the Tukey least significant difference were used to compare differences between any 2 of the 4 age groups. Self-image scores in males were higher than those in females (P < 0.01). Pain domain scores were significantly higher in males than those in females in the 13.5- to 14.9-year-old subgroup, whereas other subgroups showed no obvious differences. The function domain scores in males who were aged 15 to 15.9 years and those older than 16 years were significantly higher than those in females (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in mental health domain scores among age-sex subgroups, with the exception of the 13.5- to 14.9-year-old group. This is the first study to characterize the sex and age influence on the SRS-22 scores in normal population. Age and sex have an important

  3. Physical activity, screen time, and school absenteeism: self-reports from NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew R; Pritchard, Tony; Melnic, Irina; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how lifestyle behaviors in the context of physical activity levels and screen time are associated with school absenteeism. We analyzed 2005-2008 NHANES data of proxy interviews for 1048 children aged 6-11 years and in-person self-reports of 1117 adolescents aged 12-18 years. Missing 10% of school days during the past school year was defined as severe school absenteeism (SSA). Watching TV ≥2 hours a day was significantly associated with SSA among both children (OR = 3.51 [1.03-12.0]) and adolescents (OR = 3.96 [1.84-8.52]) compared with their peers watching Absenteeism was not validated with report cards. Unable to account for the absence type or frequency of illness or injury. No psychometric properties provided for subjective measures regarding participants' attitudes and characteristic traits towards physical activity, TV viewing, and school attendance. Excessive TV watching among children and adolescents, and inactivity and high activity levels (≥7 times per week) among children are independently associated with severe school absenteeism.

  4. Through our children's eyes--the public health impact of the vision screening requirements for Indiana school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Edwin C; Meetz, Richard E; Harmon, L'erin L

    2010-02-01

    The vision screening of preschool and school children is a widely accepted procedure to detect vision problems that can interfere with learning. The Indiana General Assembly requires the annual vision screening with the Modified Clinical Technique (MCT) of all children upon their enrollment in either kindergarten or the first grade, with the exception of schools that apply for and receive waivers to conduct only a distance Snellen chart screening. In association with the Indiana State Department of Health, the Indiana University School of Optometry conducted an analysis of statewide school screening data on 36,967 grade 1 children from 139 of the 294 Indiana school corporations that submitted data for the 2000-2001 school year to examine differences in referral rate by screening method, the socioeconomic status of children screened, and academic performance. The MCT was used by 125 of the school corporations, and some other technique was used by 14 school corporations. Significant differences were seen when comparing the mean referral rates of school corporations that conduct the MCT against school corporations that do not conduct the MCT (P = 0.001) and in the rate of referral by median family income of the children screened (P = 0.050). A median family income of $46,500 was identified as the level at which the income-specific difference in referral rates ceased to be significant (P = 0.074). In spite of an observed tendency toward a higher referral rate for children who performed below average on the standardized Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress Plus (ISTEP+) exam, results were found to be not significant (P = 0.116) when comparing the percentage of grade 1 children referred to an eye care provider in 2000-2001 with their percentages of passing both the English/language arts and mathematics components of the 2002-2003 ISTEP+ exam (in grade 3). Schools using the highly sensitive and specific MCT identified more visually at-risk children than

  5. Assessing the accuracy and feasibility of a refractive error screening program conducted by school teachers in pre-primary and primary schools in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Kanlaya; Myint, Chaw-Yin; Wongkittirux, Kwanjai; Teerawattananon, Yot; Chinkulkitnivat, Bunyong; Orprayoon, Surapong; Kusakul, Suwat; Tengtrisorn, Supaporn; Jenchitr, Watanee

    2014-01-01

    As part of the development of a system for the screening of refractive error in Thai children, this study describes the accuracy and feasibility of establishing a program conducted by teachers. To assess the accuracy and feasibility of screening by teachers. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted in 17 schools in four provinces representing four geographic regions in Thailand. A two-staged cluster sampling was employed to compare the detection rate of refractive error among eligible students between trained teachers and health professionals. Serial focus group discussions were held for teachers and parents in order to understand their attitude towards refractive error screening at schools and the potential success factors and barriers. The detection rate of refractive error screening by teachers among pre-primary school children is relatively low (21%) for mild visual impairment but higher for moderate visual impairment (44%). The detection rate for primary school children is high for both levels of visual impairment (52% for mild and 74% for moderate). The focus group discussions reveal that both teachers and parents would benefit from further education regarding refractive errors and that the vast majority of teachers are willing to conduct a school-based screening program. Refractive error screening by health professionals in pre-primary and primary school children is not currently implemented in Thailand due to resource limitations. However, evidence suggests that a refractive error screening program conducted in schools by teachers in the country is reasonable and feasible because the detection and treatment of refractive error in very young generations is important and the screening program can be implemented and conducted with relatively low costs.

  6. Melanoma and medical education: student’s perceptions of skin cancer screening in three medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Finn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated how the level of medical education affected confidence of counseling on skin health, performing skin examinations, and the likelihood of using those skills in future screenings. Material and Methods: An online survey was distributed to students at three midwest medical schools that assessed sun protection behaviors, and the student’s perception of education and comfort on the complete skin examination and counseling on skin health. Results: 51.6% (n=243 indicated they were in the last two years of medical school and were considered advanced students, compared to less advanced students in the first two years. Advanced students were significantly more comfortable in performing a complete skin examination and counseling patients on skin health when compared to less advanced students (p < 0.001. However, they were also statistically less likely to indicate they would provide skin screening on future patients when compared to less advanced students (p < 0.001. Only 29.5% (n = 139 and 60.7% (n = 286 of students indicated they had been educated on performing a complete skin examination and counseling on skin health, respectively. Conclusions: Although advanced students were more likely to report education and comfortability in skin cancer screening they were not as likely to indicate they would practice these skills in the future compared to less advanced students. Also, only a small number of students perceived themselves to be educated in these aspects.

  7. Feasibility of microcoria optometry in screening for ametropia in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the feasibility of microcoria optometry in screening for children ametropia. METHODS: Totally 217 school-age children were selected, included 94 first-grade students(6~8 years oldand 123 fourth-grade students(9~12 years old. Refractive diopter was measured with automatic refractor RM-8000 to evaluate the accuracy of micocoria optometry in screening ametropia. RESULTS: After cycloplegia, both the mean sphere diopter and cylinder diopter in grade one students changed significantly(PPP>0.05in grade four students. Different refractive type: before and after mydriasis spherical myopia, spherical equivalent difference was 0.263±0.618 and 0.216±0.653D, with statistical significance(PP=0.000. The lenticular difference between the two groups were not statistically different(P>0.05. Choosing small pupil computer optometry for ≤-1.00D, ≥-0.50D child myopia or hyperopia could get more accurate value of diagnostic cutoffs, Youden index was 0.672 and 0.580.CONCLUSION: Microcoria optometry can be as a effective method of screening of children with ametropia, but if for optometry, school-age children must accept mydriasis.

  8. Segmental torso masses in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Bethany E; Izatt, Maree T; Askin, Geoffrey N; Labrom, Robert D; Pettet, Graeme J; Pearcy, Mark J; Adam, Clayton J

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of spinal deformity whose aetiology remains unclear. Studies suggest that gravitational forces in the standing position play an important role in scoliosis progression, therefore anthropometric data is required to develop biomechanical models of the deformity. Few studies have analysed the trunk by vertebral level and none have performed investigations of the scoliotic trunk. The aim of this study was to determine the centroid, thickness, volume and estimated mass, for sections of the scoliotic trunk. Existing low-dose CT scans were used to estimate vertebral level-by-level torso masses for 20 female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. ImageJ processing software was used to analyse the CT images and enable estimation of the segmental torso mass corresponding to each vertebral level. The patients' mean age was 15.0 (SD 2.7) years with mean major Cobb angle of 52 (SD 5.9)° and mean patient weight of 58.2 (SD 11.6) kg. The magnitude of torso segment mass corresponding to each vertebral level increased by 150% from 0.6kg at T1 to 1.5kg at L5. Similarly, segmental thickness from T1-L5 increased inferiorly from a mean 18.5 (SD 2.2) mm at T1 to 32.8 (SD 3.4) mm at L5. The mean total trunk mass, as a percentage of total body mass, was 27.8 (SD 0.5) % which was close to values reported in previous literature. This study provides new anthropometric reference data on segmental (vertebral level-by-level) torso mass in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, useful for biomechanical models of scoliosis progression and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Two Different Screen Readers' Programs on Developing Using the Internet Skills of Blind Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Akram Fathy; Bin Mta'en, Isa Bin Yahya

    2017-01-01

    Research aims to know the effect of two different designs of screen readers' programs on using the internet skills of blind middle school students, and the research sample consisted of (8) students from El-thoghr middle school students (Fousol El-Noor)-Jeddah where the student has been divided into two experimental groups each of (4) students. To…

  10. Are school factors and urbanization supportive for being physically active and engaging in less screen-based activities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Klein, Daniel; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    The aim was to assess the association between physical activity and screen-based activities in adolescents and selected school factors and urbanization and whether these associations were modified by degree of urbanization. We obtained data regarding the fifth-ninth grade students from 130 schools

  11. Revisiting Factors Associated With Screen Time Media Use: A Structural Study Among School-Aged Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngantcha, Marcus; Janssen, Eric; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Ehlinger, Virginie; Le-Nezet, Olivier; Beck, François; Spilka, Stanislas

    2018-06-01

    Screen-based media overuse has been related to harmful consequences especially among children and adolescents. Given their complex interrelationships, predictors of screen time (ST) should be analyzed simultaneously rather than individually to avoid incomplete conclusions. Structural equation models were conducted to examine associations between media ST (television, video games, and computers) along with harmful consequences in adolescents' well-being, such as underweight and overweight, depression, and school failure. Predictors included individual (gender, age, and physical activity), family (structure and socioeconomic background), and substance use variables. We used the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey organized in 2014, including eighth- and ninth-grade students living in France (N = 3720). Students reported spending 3 hours per day in front of each media. Spending more than 2 hours behind each of those 3 media was associated with lower life satisfaction, less physical activity, active school bullying, and grade repetition. Socioeconomic status was the most important predictor of ST, whereas regular substance uses showed modest associations. The main implication of our findings is to sensitize parents and stakeholders about the limitation of ST, including their own use that adolescents are likely to mimic. Alternative measures such as off-line time should be encouraged.

  12. Severe progressive scoliosis in an adult female possibly secondary thoracic surgery in childhood treated with scoliosis specific Schroth physiotherapy: Case presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Lebel; Victoria Ashley Lebel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional (3D) spinal deformity. Acquired scoliosis in early childhood may progress into adulthood and pose an increased risk of health problems and reduction in quality of life. In Canada, patients with scoliosis are not referred for physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE) despite the fact that Schroth physiotherapy, a scoliosis-specific 3D posture training and exercise program, can be effective in reducing pain and improving s...

  13. Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Criteria and Society of Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) 2008 Guidelines in Non-Operative Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Krzysztof; Kozinoga, Mateusz; Stoliński, Łukasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2014-07-28

    According to the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a curvature of more than 10° Cobb angle, affecting 2-3% of pediatric population. Idiopathic scoliosis accounts for 80% of all scoliosis cases. Non-operative principles in the therapy of idiopathic scoliosis, including Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria and guidelines proposed by the experts of the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORTS) were presented. The possibility to carry out quality of life assessments in a conservative procedure was also demonstrated. Based on the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis, SRS criteria, SOSORT 2008 experts' opinion and the knowledge of the possibilities of psychological assessment of conservative IS treatment, rules were proposed regarding nonsurgical IS therapy procedures, with special consideration being paid to the proper treatment start time (age, Risser test, biological maturity, Cobb angle), possibility of curvature progression, the importance of physiotherapy and psychological assessment. The knowledge of SRS criteria and SOSORT guidelines regarding the conservative treatment of IS are essential for proper treatment (the right time to start treatment), and supports establishment of interdisciplinary treatment teams, consisting of a physician, a physiotherapist, an orthopedic technician and a psychologist.

  14. MUSCLE DISORDERS IN ADOLESCENT IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS: LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Pinheiro Lédio Alves; Barbara de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scoliosis is characterized by three-dimensional changes of the spine and is estimated to be present in 4% of the population worldwide. The most common form is the adolescent idiopathic. The purpose of this study is to identify the major muscle abnormalities found in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis through a literature review. We conducted an electronic search of the national databases PubMed, Lilacs, PEDro, and EMBASE using the keywords "scoliosis", "biomechanics", "exe...

  15. Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Weon Wook; Suh, Kuen Tak; Kim, Jeung Il; Ku, Ja Gyung; Lee, Hong Seok; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ki; Lee, Jung Sub

    2008-01-01

    A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with ...

  16. Why did soft drink consumption decrease but screen time not? Mediating mechanisms in a school-based obesity prevention program

    OpenAIRE

    Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Singh, A.S.; Brug, J.; Mechelen, van, W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This paper aims to identify the mediating mechanisms of a school-based obesity prevention program (DOiT). Methods The DOiT-program was implemented in Dutch prevocational secondary schools and evaluated using a controlled, cluster-randomised trial (September 2003 to May 2004). We examined mediators of effects regarding (1) consumption of sugar containing beverages (SCB); (2) consumption of high caloric snacks; (3) screen-viewing behaviour; and (4) active commuting to school...

  17. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  18. Clinical balance tests, proprioceptive system and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Morgane; Guyot, Marc-Alexandre; Agnani, Olivier; Bourdeauducq, Isabelle; Versyp, Marie-Christine; Donze, Cécile; Thévenon, André; Catanzariti, Jean-Francois

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of the spinal column of unknown etiology. Multiple factors could be involved, including neurosensory pathways and, potentially, an elective disorder of dynamic proprioception. The purpose of this study was to determine whether routine balance tests could be used to demonstrate an elective alteration of dynamic proprioception in AIS. This was a multicentre case-control study based on prospectively collected clinical data, in three hospitals pediatric, with spine consultation, from January 2013 through April 2015. From an original population of 547 adolescents, inclusion and non-inclusion criteria indentified 114 adolescents with right thoracic AIS (mean age 14.5 ± 1.9 years, Cobb angle 35.7 ± 15.3°) and 81 matched adolescents without scoliosis (mean age 14.1 ± 1.9 years). Participants performed three routine clinical balance tests to assess the static and dynamic proprioception: the Fukuda-Utenberger stepping test (angle of rotation in degrees and distance of displacement in cm) to assess dynamic balance; the sharpened Romberg test and the unipedal stance test (eyes closed) to assess static balance. There was no significant difference between AIS subjects and controls for the static tests, but there was a significant difference for the dynamic test for both measures: distance of displacement (p tests can be performed in routine practice. Their validity as a biomarker for screening and monitoring purposes should be assessed.

  19. Effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates in Vikarabad town: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadde Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The school dental screening program has been in existence from the beginning of 20 th century. Its value in encouraging attendance among school children is not fully established. Aim: The aim was to determine the effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates among school children in Vikarabad town. Objectives: (a To compare the dental attendance rates between 6-9 and 10-13 years old age groups, among male and female school children in Vikarabad town. (b To identify the type of dental treatment received by the school children. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted among school children aged 6-13 years old from 16 schools that were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Eight schools had a dental screening program (study group = 300 children and had blanket referral cards and 8 schools that did not have the intervention (control group = 300. The dental attendance rates were determined after 3 months of follow-up period by evaluating the blanket referral cards for the study group and by an oral questionnaire for the control group. Results: The dental attendance rate was 27% for the study group and 18% for the control group which is statistically significant. The attendance rate was higher among 10-13 years of children both in test group and control groups. Among the children who visited the dentist, 53% in the control group and 69% from the test group got simple amalgam and glass ionomer cement restorations. Conclusion: The dental attendance rates were improved following school dental screening.

  20. Effect of intervention programs in schools to reduce screen time: a meta‐analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roggia Friedrich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effects of intervention program strategies on the time spent on activities such as watching television, playing videogames, and using the computer among schoolchildren. Sources: a search for randomized controlled trials available in the literature was performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library using the following Keywords randomized controlled trial, intervention studies, sedentary lifestyle, screen time, and school. A summary measure based on the standardized mean difference was used with a 95% confidence interval. Data synthesis: a total of 1,552 studies were identified, of which 16 were included in the meta‐analysis. The interventions in the randomized controlled trials (n = 8,785 showed a significant effect in reducing screen time, with a standardized mean difference (random effect of: −0.25 (−0.37, −0.13, p < 0.01. Conclusion: interventions have demonstrated the positive effects of the decrease of screen time among schoolchildren. Resumo: Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos das estratégias dos programas de intervenção sobre o tempo dedicado a atividades como assistir à televisão, jogar videogame e usar computador em escolares. Fonte dos dados: foi realizada busca de estudos controlados randomizados, disponíveis nas bases de dados eletrônicas PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science e Cochrane Library, com os descritores: randomized controlled trial, intervention studies, sedentary lifestyle, screen time e school. Medida de sumário baseada na diferença das médias padronizadas foi usada com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Síntese dos dados: foram identificados 1.552 estudos, dos quais 16 foram incluídos na meta‐análise. As intervenções nos estudos controlados randomizados (n = 8.785 apresentaram efeito significativo na redução do tempo em frente à tela, com diferença das médias padronizadas (efeito rand

  1. Effect of intervention programs in schools to reduce screen time: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roggia Friedrich

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:to evaluate the effects of intervention program strategies on the time spent on activities such as watching television, playing videogames, and using the computer among schoolchildren.SOURCES:a search for randomized controlled trials available in the literature was performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library using the following Keywords randomized controlled trial, intervention studies, sedentary lifestyle, screen time, and school. A summary measure based on the standardized mean difference was used with a 95% confidence interval.DATA SYNTHESIS: a total of 1,552 studies were identified, of which 16 were included in the meta-analysis. The interventions in the randomized controlled trials (n = 8,785 showed a significant effect in reducing screen time, with a standardized mean difference (random effect of: -0.25 (-0.37, -0.13, p < 0.01.CONCLUSION:interventions have demonstrated the positive effects of the decrease of screen time among schoolchildren.

  2. Can we predict podiatric medical school grade point average using an admission screen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Graham P; Velis, Evelio; Molnar, David

    2012-01-01

    Most medical school admission committees use cognitive and noncognitive measures to inform their final admission decisions. We evaluated using admission data to predict academic success for podiatric medical students using first-semester grade point average (GPA) and cumulative GPA at graduation as outcome measures. In this study, we used linear multiple regression to examine the predictive power of an admission screen. A cross-validation technique was used to assess how the results of the regression model would generalize to an independent data set. Undergraduate GPA and Medical College Admission Test score accounted for only 22% of the variance in cumulative GPA at graduation. Undergraduate GPA, Medical College Admission Test score, and a time trend variable accounted for only 24% of the variance in first-semester GPA. Seventy-five percent of the individual variation in cumulative GPA at graduation and first-semester GPA remains unaccounted for by admission screens that rely on only cognitive measures, such as undergraduate GPA and Medical College Admission Test score. A reevaluation of admission screens is warranted, and medical educators should consider broadening the criteria used to select the podiatric physicians of the future.

  3. Six years of vision screening tests in pre-school children in kindergartens of Wroclaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigiel, Marta; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Ireneusz

    2017-09-01

    Detection of vision defects of a child without professional knowledge is not easy. Very often, the parents of a small child does not know that their child sees incorrect. Also the youngster, not knowing any other way of seeing, does not know that it is not the best. While the vision of a small child is not yet fully formed, it is worth checking them very early. Defects detected early gives opportunity for the correction of anomalies, which might give the effect of the normal development of vision. According to the indications, the American Optometric Association (AOA) control eye examination should be performed between the ages of 6 months to 3 years, before going to school and then every two years. Members of SPIE Student Chapter, in cooperation with the Visual Optics Group working on the Department of Optics and Photonics (Faculty of Fundamental Problems, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology) for 6 years offer selected kindergartens of Wroclaw participation in project "Screening vision tests in pre-school children". Depending on the number of involved members of the student chapter and willing to cooperate students of Ophthalmology and Optometry, vision screening test was carried out in up to eight kindergartens every year. The basic purpose of screening vision test is to detect visual defects to start the correction so early in life as possible, while increasing the efficiency of the child's visual potential. The surrounding community is in fact more than enough examples of late diagnose vision problems, which resulted in lack of opportunity or treatment failure

  4. Cost-effectiveness of screening and correcting refractive errors in school children in Africa, Asia, America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltussen, Rob; Naus, Jeroen; Limburg, Hans

    2009-02-01

    To estimate the costs and effects of alternative strategies for annual screening of school children for refractive errors, and the provision of spectacles, in different WHO sub-regions in Africa, Asia, America and Europe. We developed a mathematical simulation model for uncorrected refractive error, using prevailing prevalence and incidence rates. Remission rates reflected the absence or presence of screening strategies for school children. All screening strategies were implemented for a period of 10 years and were compared to a situation were no screening was implemented. Outcome measures were life years adjusted for disability (DALYs), costs of screening and provision of spectacles and follow-up for six different screening strategies, and cost-effectiveness in international dollars per DALY averted. Epidemiological information was derived from the burden of disease study from the World Health Organization (WHO). Cost data were derived from large databases from the WHO. Both univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed on key parameters to determine the robustness of the model results. In all regions, screening of 5-15 years old children yields most health effects, followed by screening of 11-15 years old, 5-10 years old, and screening of 8 and 13 years old. Screening of broad-age intervals is always more costly than screening of single-age intervals, and there are important economies of scale for simultaneous screening of both 5-10 and 11-15-year-old children. In all regions, screening of 11-15 years old is the most cost-effective intervention, with the cost per DALY averted ranging from I$67 per DALY averted in the Asian sub-region to I$458 per DALY averted in the European sub-region. The incremental cost per DALY averted of screening 5-15 years old ranges between I$111 in the Asian sub-region to I$672 in the European sub-region. Considering the conservative study assumptions and the robustness of study conclusions towards changes in these

  5. The Use of COVD-QOL Questionnaire in School Vision Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Farhana Abu Bakar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the application of College of Optometrist in Vision Development (COVD Quality of Life (QOL questionnaire in vision screening for normal school children and children with learning disabilities (LD and to determine appropriate referral-score for different target population. Methods: A total of 90 children (Normal: 45, LD: 45 who attended government primary schools aged between 6 to 12 years old were recruited. An interview session with normal children and parents or teachers in children with LD was made to determine visual symptoms using shorter version of COVD-QOL questionnaire. A comprehensive eye examination was performed after completion of the questionnaire. The evaluation was made base on the sensitivity and specificity for detection of refractive error, amblyopia, strabismus, vergence and accommodative disorders. Results: The mean score for normal children and children with LD were 22.47±10.75 and 12.24±8.72 respectively. Rapidity of the test in normal children and children with LD were 177.27±9.52 seconds and 162.16±16.58 seconds respectively. In normal children referral score of =20 showed highest sensitivity (66.7% and specificity (95.8% for detection of amblyopia. Sensitivity and specificity for referral-score of =20, =10 and =4 for detection of overall vision problems in children with LD were (20.4%, 100.0%, (54.5%, 100.0% and (81.8%, 100.0% respectively. Conclusion: COVD-QOL questionnaire was recommended as an easy, rapid and cost-effective tool for school vision screening. Different referral-score was suggested for different target population.

  6. Richard's back: death, scoliosis and myth making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mary Ann

    2015-12-01

    The body of a mediaeval monarch was always under scrutiny, and Richard III's was no exception. In death, however, his body became subject to new forms of examination and interpretation: stripped naked after the battle of Bosworth, his corpse was carried to Leicester and exhibited before being buried. In 2012, it was rediscovered. The revelation that Richard suffered from scoliosis prompts this article to re-evaluate the historical sources about Richard's physique and his posthumous reputation. This article argues that Richard's death and his myth as 'crookback' are inextricably linked and traces attitudes to spinal curvature in the early modern period. It also considers how Shakespeare represented Richard as deformed, and aspects of performance history which suggest physical vulnerability. It then considers Richard's scoliosis from the perspective of medical history, reviewing classical accounts of scoliosis and arguing that Richard was probably treated with a mixture of axial traction and pressure. It demonstrates from the evidence of Richard's medical household that he was well placed to receive hands-on therapies and considers in particular the role of his physician and surgeon, William Hobbes. Finally, it shows how the case of Richard III demonstrates the close relationship between politics and medicine in the period and the contorted process of historical myth making. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... cases of a normal spine and a thoracic scoliosis are presented. Results: For a normal spine, vector projections in the transverse plane are aligned with the posterior-anterior anatomical axis. For a scoliotic spine, vector projections in the horizontal plane provide information on the lateral...... decompensation of the spine and the lateral displacement of vertebrae. In the horizontal plane view, vertebral rotation and projections of the sagittal curves can also be analyzed simultaneously. Conclusions: The use of posterior-anterior vertebral vector facilitates the understanding of the 3D nature...

  8. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children’s Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E. Staiano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined differences in children’s health behaviors during school term (ST versus school holiday (SH: June–July and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5–18 years (n = 406 from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score(BMIz ) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth’s physical activity and TV viewing.

  9. Associations of Caffeinated Beverage Consumption and Screen Time with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Nuri; Lee, Aeri; Baik, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was...

  10. Screen time, cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity among school-age children from Monteria, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Carlos M; Parra, Diana C; Gómez, Luis F; Lema, Lucía; Lobelo, Felipe; Ekelund, Ulf

    2014-09-01

    To explore the association between electronic media exposure (television viewing time, personal computer/video game use, total screen time), and waist circumference and body mass index, and study whether this association is independent of cardiorespiratory fitness, in a representative sample of adolescents from Montería, Colombia. Cross-sectional study analyzing data from 546 students aged 11-18 years, from fourteen randomly selected schools. Z-scores for WC and BMI were calculated. The physical activity module of the Global School Health Survey 2007 was used to determine EME, and the shuttle run test was used to assess CRF. Linear regression models adjusted by age, school location, physical activity level, type of institution (public or private), consumption of sweetened beverages, fast food, and fried food were used. Among boys, independently of cardiorespiratory fitness, high television viewing time (≥ 2 h/day) (β=+0.22; p3h/day) was positively associated with waist circumference (β=+0.34; pnegatively associated with body mass index. These findings support the evidence on the negative impact of excessive electronic media exposure and low cardiorespiratory fitness, and highlight the need for interventions and prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  11. Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, H. Y.; Seo, G. T.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Jeon, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The mean mini-mental status exam score in the congenital scoliosis group was significantly lower than that in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis group. Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus. From this study, we could find the metabolic abnormalities of brain in patients with congenital scoliosis and suggest the possible role of voxel-based analysis of brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, H. Y.; Seo, G. T.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Jeon, S. M. [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The mean mini-mental status exam score in the congenital scoliosis group was significantly lower than that in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis group. Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus. From this study, we could find the metabolic abnormalities of brain in patients with congenital scoliosis and suggest the possible role of voxel-based analysis of brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

  13. Perceived health status in self-reported adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2010-01-01

    A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and measure of Short Form-12 (SF-12) in a big twin-cohort.......A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and measure of Short Form-12 (SF-12) in a big twin-cohort....

  14. [Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with physical therapy and orthoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H-R

    2003-02-01

    Opinions differ in the international literature about the efficacy of conservative approaches to scoliosis treatment. Because this divergence of opinion corresponds to a great discrepancy in the standards applied to conservative treatment methods, it is not astonishing that the results of conservative treatment as described in the literature also differ. Scoliosis normally does not have such dramatic effects that immediate surgery would be indicated.Moreover, it is clear from the published literature that it is the functional and physiological impairments of scoliosis patients--including pain, torso deformity, psychological disturbance, and pulmonary dysfunction--which require therapeutic intervention. In Germany the triad of outpatient physiotherapy, intensive inpatient rehabilitation, and bracing has proven effective in conservative scoliosis treatment.Indication, content, and results of the individual treatment procedures are described and discussed. The positive outcomes of this practice validate a policy of offering conservative scoliosis treatment as an alternative to patients, including those for whom surgery is indicated.

  15. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in twins: a population-based survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel O; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in a twin cohort. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish a scoliosis twin cohort to provide data on the heritability of AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of AIS is still...... environmental factors. METHODS: All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a questionnaire, which included questions about scoliosis. A total of 34,944 (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs returned the questionnaire. RESULTS: A subgroup of 220 subjects considered...... of monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was significantly different (P scoliosis in 1 twin whose other twin has scoliosis is smaller than believed up until now....

  16. Minimally Invasive Scoliosis Surgery: A Novel Technique in Patients with Neuromuscular Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sarwahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive surgery (MIS has been described in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS and adult scoliosis. The advantages of this approach include less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, earlier mobilization, less tissue disruption, and relatively less pain. However, despite these significant benefits, MIS approach has not been reported in neuromuscular scoliosis patients. This is possibly due to concerns with longer surgery time, which is further increased due to more levels fused and instrumented, challenges of pelvic fixation, size and number of incisions, and prolonged anesthesia. We modified the MIS approach utilized in our AIS patients to be implemented in our neuromuscular patients. Our technique allows easy passage of contoured rods, placement of pedicle screws without image guidance, partial/complete facet resection, and all standard reduction maneuvers. Operative time needed to complete this surgery is comparable to the standard procedure and the majority of our patients have been extubated at the end of procedure, spending 1 day in the PICU and 5-6 days in the hospital. We feel that MIS is not only a feasible but also a superior option in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Long-term results are unavailable; however, short-term results have shown multiple benefits of this approach and fewer limitations.

  17. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  18. Scoliosis Research Society members attitudes towards physical therapy and physiotherapeutic scoliosis specific exercises for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Cindy L; Glassman, Steven D; Knott, Patrick T; Carreon, Leah Y; Hresko, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes regarding non-operative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) may be changing with the publication of BRAiST. Physiotherapeutic Scoliosis Specific Exercises (PSSE) are used to treat AIS, but high-quality evidence is limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of members of the Scoliosis Research Society towards PSSE. A survey was sent to all SRS members with questions on use of Physical Therapy (PT) and PSSE for AIS. The majority of the 263 respondents were from North America (175, 67 %), followed by Asia (37, 14 %) and Europe (36, 14 %). The majority of respondents (166, 63 %) prescribed neither PT nor PSSE, 28 (11 %) prescribed both PT and PSSE, 39 (15 %) prescribe PT only and 30 (11 %) prescribe PSSE only. PT was prescribed by 67 respondents, as an adjunct to bracing (39) and in small curves (32); with goals to improve aesthetics (27) and post-operative outcomes (25). Of the 196 who do not prescribe PT, the main reasons were lack of evidence (149) and the perception that PT had no value (112). PSSE was prescribed by 58 respondents. The most common indication was as an adjunct to bracing (49) or small curves (41); with goals to improve aesthetics (36), prevent curve progression (35) and improve quality of life (31). Of the respondents who do not prescribe PSSE, the main reasons were lack of supporting research (149), a perception that PSSE had no value (108), and lack of access (63). Most respondents state that evidence of efficacy may increase the role of PSSE, with 85 % (223 of 263) favoring funding PSSE studies by the SRS. The results show that 22 % of the respondents use PSSE for AIS, skepticism remains regarding the benefit of PSSE for AIS. Support for SRS funded research suggests belief that there is potential benefit from PSSE and the best way to assess that potential is through evidence development.

  19. The Impact of Providing Vision Screening and Free Eyeglasses on Academic Outcomes: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Title I Elementary Schools in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glewwe, Paul; West, Kristine L.; Lee, Jongwook

    2018-01-01

    More than 20 percent of all school-aged children in the United States have vision problems, and low-income and minority children are disproportionately likely to have unmet vision care needs. Vision screening is common in U.S. schools, but it remains an open question whether screening alone is sufficient to improve student outcomes. We implemented…

  20. A Comprehensive Review of School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Programs and Their Implications for School Health: Do the Controversies Accurately Reflect the Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Dominique G.; Bass, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whereas legislation for body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening programs has passed in 25 states, the programs are often subject to ethical debates about confidentiality and privacy, school-to-parent communication, and safety and self-esteem issues for students. Despite this debate, no comprehensive analysis has been completed…

  1. Evidence for cognitive vestibular integration impairment in idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercier Pierre

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is characterized by a three-dimensional deviation of the vertebral column and its etiopathogenesis is unknown. Various factors cause idiopathic scoliosis, and among these a prominent role has been attributed to the vestibular system. While the deficits in sensorimotor transformations have been documented in idiopathic scoliosis patients, little attention has been devoted to their capacity to integrate vestibular information for cognitive processing for space perception. Seated idiopathic scoliosis patients and control subjects experienced rotations of different directions and amplitudes in the dark and produced saccades that would reproduce their perceived spatial characteristics of the rotations (vestibular condition. We also controlled for possible alteration of the oculomotor and vestibular systems by measuring the subject's accuracy in producing saccades towards memorized peripheral targets in absence of body rotation and the gain of their vestibulo-ocular reflex. Results Compared to healthy controls, the idiopathic scoliosis patients underestimated the amplitude of their rotations. Moreover, the results revealed that idiopathic scoliosis patients produced accurate saccades to memorized peripheral targets in absence of body rotation and that their vestibulo-ocular reflex gain did not differ from that of control participants. Conclusion Overall, results of the present study demonstrate that idiopathic scoliosis patients have an alteration in cognitive integration of vestibular signals. It is possible that severe spine deformity developed partly due to impaired vestibular information travelling from the cerebellum to the vestibular cortical network or alteration in the cortical mechanisms processing the vestibular signals.

  2. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of screen time and physical activity with school performance at different types of secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Tanja; Peschel, Thomas; Vogel, Mandy; Jurkutat, Anne; Kiess, Wieland

    2018-04-27

    Previous studies have already reported associations of media consumption and/or physical activity with school achievement. However, longitudinal studies investigating independent effects of physical activity and media consumption on school performance are sparse. The present study fills this research gap and, furthermore, assesses relationships of the type of secondary school with media consumption and physical activity. The consumption of screen-based media (TV/video, game console, PC/internet, and mobile phone) and leisure physical activity (organized and non-organized) of 10 - to 17-year old adolescents participating in the LIFE Child study in Germany were related to their school grades in two major school subjects (Mathematics and German) and in Physical Education. In addition to a cross-sectional analysis at baseline (N = 850), a longitudinal analysis (N = 512) investigated the independent effects of these activities on the school grades achieved 12 months later. All associations were adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, year of data assessment, body-mass-index, and school grades at baseline. A further analysis investigated differences in the consumption of screen-based media and physical activity as a function of the type of secondary school (highest vs. lower secondary school). Adolescents of lower secondary schools reported a significantly higher consumption of TV/video and game consoles than adolescents attending the highest secondary school. Independently of the type of school, a better school performance in Mathematics was predicted by a lower consumption of computers/internet, and a better performance in Physical Education was predicted by a lower consumption of TV/video and a higher frequency of non-organized physical activity. However, the association between non-organized physical activity and subsequent grades in Physical Education was significant in girls only. The present results suggest that media consumption has a negative effect on

  3. THE RESULTS OF KINESIOTAPING IN PATIENTS WITH SCOLIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Anatolevich Kiselev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The kinesiotaping method has put into practice on the Rehabilitation and Sport medicine chair of the RNIMU named by N.I. Pirogov which is situated in the Medical Rehabilitation Department of RDKB. This method showed high theatment efficacy and results were stable and continuous. Kinesiotaping isn’t the main treatment method of scoliosis, but its good efficacy in reaching particular rehabilitation goals, potentiation of some methods of treatment of scoliosis, pain elimination and so on, support the idea to invent this method in the rehabilitation process circle in case of such difficult disease as scoliosis.

  4. Patient health questionnaire for school-based depression screening among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Liu, Hui-Ching; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Liu, Shen-Ing

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 item (PHQ-9) and its 2 subscales (1 item and 2 items) for the screening of major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2257 adolescents were recruited from high schools in Taipei. The participants completed assessments including demographic information, the Chinese version of the PHQ-9, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and data on the number of physical illnesses and mental health service utilizations were recorded. Among them, 430 were retested using the PHQ-9 within 2 weeks. Child psychiatrists interviewed a subsample of the adolescents (n = 165) using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia Epidemiological Version as the criterion standard. The PHQ-9 had good internal consistency (α = 0.84) and acceptable test-retest reliability (0.80). The participants with higher PHQ-9 scores were more likely to have MDD. Principal component factor analysis of the PHQ-9 yielded a 1-factor structure, which accounted for 45.3% of the variance. A PHQ-9 score ≥15 had a sensitivity of 0.72 and a specificity of 0.95 for recognizing MDD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.90. The screening accuracy of the 2 subscales was also satisfactory, with a Patient Health Questionnaire-2 item cutoff of ≥3 being 94.4% sensitive and 82.5% specific and a Patient Health Questionnaire-1 item cutoff of ≥2 being 61.1% sensitive and 87.7% specific. The PHQ-9 and its 2 subscales appear to be reliable and valid for detecting MDD among ethnic Chinese adolescents in Taiwan.

  5. The Effect of Manual Therapy on the Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in a 28 Years Old Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Mohamadi; Farahnaz Ghaffari-Nejhad

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is the most common type of scoliosis. Clinical signs and symptoms of scoliosis impair quality of life and daily function. Manual therapy is commonly used for treatment of scoliosis. This is a case report of scoliosis treatment with manual therapy in a 28 years old patient. A 28 years old woman complained of low back pain for 4 years. Spine x-ray, showed scoliosis with a 32 degrees Cobb angle. The patient received a manual therapy procedure of two visits per week for ...

  6. [Early onset scoliosis. What are the options?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, D M; Tatay-Díaz, A

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of children with progressive early onset scoliosis has improved considerably due to recent advances in surgical and non-surgical techniques and the understanding of the importance of preserving the thoracic space. Improvements in existing techniques and development of new methods have considerably improved the management of this condition. Derotational casting can be considered in children with documented progression of a <60° curve without previous surgical treatment. Both single and dual growing rods are effective, but the latter seem to offer better results. Hybrid constructs may be a better option in children who require a low-profile proximal anchor. The vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR(®)) appears to be beneficial for patients with congenital scoliosis and fused ribs, and thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome. Children with medical comorbidities who may not tolerate repeated lengthenings should be considered for Shilla or Luque Trolley technique. Growth modulation using shape memory alloy staples or other tethers seem promising for mild curves, although more research is required to define their precise indications. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and environment: what primary care providers say about pre-school vision screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh-Tootle, Wendy L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Frazier, Marcela G; Crenshaw, Katie; Wall, Terry C

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and environment of primary care providers, and to develop a conceptual framework showing their impact on self-reported pre-school vision screening (PVS) behaviors. Eligible primary care providers were individuals who filed claims with Medicaid agencies in Alabama, South Carolina, or Illinois, for at least eight well child checks for children aged 3 or 4 years during 1 year. Responses were obtained on-line from providers who enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized trial to improve PVS. We calculated a summary score per provider per facet: (1) for behavior and knowledge, each correct answer was assigned a value of +1; and (2) for attitudes and environment, responses indicating support for PVS were assigned a value of +1, and other responses were assigned -1. Responses were available from 53 participants (43 of 49 enrolled pediatricians, 8 of 14 enrolled family physicians, one general physician, and one nurse practitioner). Recognizing that amblyopia often presents without outward signs was positively related to good PVS: [odds ratio (OR) = 3.9; p = 0.06]. Reporting that "preschool VS interrupts patient flow" posed a significant barrier (OR = 0.2; p = 0.05). Providers with high summed scores on attitudes (OR = 6.0; p = 0.03), or knowledge and attitudes (OR = 11.4; p attitudes or environment, and "good" PVS behavior (p = 0.04). PVS is influenced by positive attitudes, especially when combined with knowledge about amblyopia. Interventions to improve PVS should target multiple facets, emphasizing (1) asymptomatic children are at risk for amblyopia, (2) specific evidence-based tests have high testability and sensitivity for amblyopia in pre-school children, and (3) new tests minimize interruptions to patient flow.

  8. Bone density determination using I125 densitometry with idiopathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, N.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the assumption that radiographs from patients with idiopathic scoliosis show osteoporotic changes in the curved area, investigation with I 125 -densitometry were made, and specifically with measurement points at the ulna and the calcaneus. A difference in the bone density between patients with scoliosis and normal controls could not be proven. The mineral-salt content of the scoliosis patients lay on the average 6.5 to 9.3% lower than the normal controls. No relation could be found between the degree of curvature of the scoliosis and the peripheral bone density, from which it can be concluded that no generalized mineral-salt deficiency exists. Radiographs show only local changes (photo densitometry, computed tomography). (TRV) [de

  9. The genetic implication of scoliosis in osteogenesis imperfecta: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Chen, Jia; Zhou, Yangzhong; Zuo, Yuzhi; Liu, Sen; Chen, Weisheng

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a kind of heritable connective tissue disorder, including blue sclerae, hearing loss, skeletal dysplasia causing bone fragility and deformities. It is typically caused by collagen related gene mutations, which could lead to bone formation abnormalities. Scoliosis is one of the most common and severe spinal phenotype which has been reported in approximately 26–74.5% of all OI patients. Recent breakthroughs have suggested that OI can be divided into more than 16 types based on genetic mutations with different degrees of scoliosis. In this review, we summarize the etiology of scoliosis in OI, especially the genetic studies of different types. We aim to provide a systematic review of the genetic etiology and clinical suggestions of scoliosis in OI. PMID:29354746

  10. Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomfim, Rodrigo C.; Tavora, Daniel G.F.; Nakayama, Mauro; Gama, Romulo L. [Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Ceara (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and progressive scoliosis developing in childhood and adolescence. We present a child with clinical and neuroimaging findings typical of HGPPS. CT and MRI of the brain demonstrated pons hypoplasia, absence of the facial colliculi, butterfly configuration of the medulla and a deep midline pontine cleft. We briefly discuss the imaging aspects of this rare entity in light of the current literature. (orig.)

  11. CELSR2 is a candidate susceptibility gene in idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Grauers, Anna; Wang, Jingwen

    2017-01-01

    and the US. No association was found to variants in CELSR1 or CELSR3. Our findings suggest a rare variant in CELSR2 as causative for idiopathic scoliosis in a family with dominant segregation and further highlight common variation in CELSR2 in general susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis in the Swedish......-Danish population. Both variants are located in the highly conserved GAIN protein domain, which is necessary for the auto-proteolysis of CELSR2, suggesting its functional importance....

  12. Screening for mental health risk in high schools: The development of the Youth RADAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John R; Rapee, Ronald M

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that as many as 1 in 5 young people will develop a mental health problem in any given year. Early detection and intervention are needed to reduce the impact that these conditions have-both for the young person and for the communities in which they live. This study reports the development of a new instrument aimed at helping identify students at risk of developing mental health difficulties. Rather than asking about the presence of symptoms of mental health conditions, the RADAR screening tool assesses a student's balance of risk and protective factors associated with the development of mental health problems. The RADAR was evaluated with a sample of 838 participants in high school Years 7-12. A robust internal factor structure was revealed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was satisfactory for each subscale, ranging from .73 to .90 while the reliability for the total scale was .91. Retest stability, measured over a 12 month period, was found to be strong (r = .72). Convergent validity was demonstrated with reference to standard measures of depression and behavioral problems. It is concluded that the RADAR is a promising measure for helping mental health professionals and educators decide which students may be at risk of developing mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Male-female differences in Scoliosis Research Society-30 scores in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Savage, Jason W; Schwartz, Daniel G; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Richards, Benjamin Stephens; Lenke, Lawrence G; Emans, John B; Parent, Stefan; Sarwark, John F

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal cohort study. To compare functional outcomes between male and female patients before and after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). There is no clear consensus in the existing literature with respect to sex differences in functional outcomes in the surgical treatment of AIS. A prospective, consecutive, multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical correction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was analyzed retrospectively. All patients completed Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) questionnaires before and 2 years after surgery. Patients with previous spine surgery were excluded. Data were collected for sex, age, Risser grade, previous bracing history, maximum preoperative Cobb angle, curve correction at 2 years, and SRS-30 domain scores. Paired sample t tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative scores within each sex. Independent sample t tests were used to compare scores between sexes. A P value of Self-image/appearance had the greatest relative improvement. Males had better self-image/appearance scores preoperatively, better pain scores at 2 years, and better mental health and total scores both preoperatively and at 2 years. Both males and females were similarly satisfied with surgery. Males treated with surgery for AIS report better preoperative self-image, less postoperative pain, and better mental health than females. These differences may be clinically significant. For both males and females, the most beneficial effect of surgery is improved self-image/appearance. Overall, the benefits of surgery for AIS are similar for both sexes.

  14. Evaluation of Patient Outcome and Satisfaction after Surgical Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Using Scoliosis Research Society-30

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandehari, Hasan; Mahabadi, Maryam Ameri; Mahdavi, Seyed Mani; Shahsavaripour, Ali; Seyed Tari, Hossein Vahid; Safdari, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) may lead to physical and mental problems. It also can adversely affect patient satisfaction and the quality of life. In this study, we assessed the outcomes and satisfaction rate after surgical treatment of AIS using scoliosis research society-30 questionnaire (SRS-30). Methods: We enrolled 135 patients with AIS undergoing corrective surgery. Patients were followed for at least 2 years. We compared pre- and post-operative x-rays in terms of Co...

  15. Effects of living environment on the postoperative Scoliosis Research Society-24 results in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Misterska, Ewa; G?owacki, Maciej; Panek, S?awomir; Igny?-O?Byrne, Anna; G?owacki, Jakub; Igny?, Iwona; Krauss, Hanna; Pi?tek, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background There are many factors influencing postoperative health-related quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, including the degree of the deformity, culture, differences in geography, rural versus urban living environments, and social factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the significance of geographic factors and their differences influencing the postoperative quality of life in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis residing in urban and...

  16. A Dutch guideline for the treatment of scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, M.G.; Blom, N.; de Kleuver, M.; Fock, J.; Hitters, W.; Horemans, A.; Kalkman, C.; Pruijs, J.; Timmer, R.; Titarsolej, P.; van Haasteren, N.; Jager, M.V.; van Vught, A.; van Royen, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with neuromuscular disorders with a progressive muscle weakness such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Spinal Muscular Atrophy frequently develop a progressive scoliosis. A severe scoliosis compromises respiratory function and makes sitting more difficult. Spinal surgery is

  17. Mental Health of Adults Treated in Adolescence with Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Program or Observed for Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płaszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine general mental health in adult males and females, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific therapeutic exercise program or were under observation due to diagnosis of scoliosis. Design. Registry-based, cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection. Methods. Sixty-eight subjects (43 women aged 30.10 (25–39 years, with mild or moderate scoliosis (11–36° Cobb angle, and 76 (38 women nonscoliotic subjects, aged 30.11 (24–38 years, participated. The time period since the end of the exercise or observation regimes was 16.5 (12-26 years. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 scores were analyzed with the χ2 and U tests. Multiple regression analyses for confounders were also performed. Results. Intergroup differences of demographic characteristics were nonsignificant. Scoliosis, gender, participation in the exercise program, employment, and marital status were associated with BDI scores. The presence of scoliosis and participation in the exercise program manifested association with the symptoms. Higher GHQ-28 “somatic symptoms” subscale scores interacted with the education level. Conclusions. Our findings correspond to the reports of a negative impact of the diagnosis of scoliosis and treatment on mental health. The decision to introduce a therapeutic program in children with mild deformities should be made with judgment of potential benefits, risks, and harm.

  18. Scoliosis associated with airflow obstruction due to endothoracic vertebral hump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenyu; Kawakami, Noriaki; Miyasaka, Kazuyoshi; Tsuji, Taichi; Ohara, Tetsuya; Nohara, Ayato

    2012-12-01

    A retrospective clinical study of scoliosis-associated airflow obstruction due to endothoracic vertebral hump. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and present anatomical features of patients with scoliosis who showed airflow obstruction caused by endothoracic vertebral hump. It is well known that severe scoliosis causes airflow restriction due to thoracic cage deformity. There have been few reports of clinical data and anatomical features on scoliosis associated with airflow obstruction due to endothoracic vertebral hump. The subjects were 6 patients. The diagnoses were idiopathic scoliosis in 3 patients, symptomatic scoliosis in 2 patients, and thoracogenic scoliosis in 1 patient. The radiological outcome, comorbidities, pre- and postoperative respiratory function, and surgical complication were analyzed. Four patients had preoperative atelectasis on the convex side of the lower lobe and improved after the operations. All patients showed main thoracic curves and their apex was located at T7-T9. All patients had lordoscoliosis except 1, who demonstrated kyphosing scoliosis. The correction rate was 78% (62.8%-83.5%). Preoperative thoracic lordosis within the range of -5° to -47° was postoperatively corrected to a substantially normal kyphosis within the range of 9° to 24°. The average vital capacity, percent VC improved from 0.72 L (0.33-1.17 L) to 1.21 L (0.82-1.71 L) and 45.5% (37.3%- 50.8%) to 63.7% (41.0%-88.6%) relatively. Spine Penetration Index improved from 23% (18%-35%) to 16% (13%-19%). Endothoracic hump ratio improved from 1.34 (0.98-1.93) to 1.12 (0.86-1.28). Each patient with symptomatic scoliosis and thoracogenic scoliosis required relatively long periods of respiration management. Patients having lordoscoliosis with an apex located between T7 and T9 may develop airflow obstruction due to an endothoracic vertebral hump. Correction of lordoscoliosis through anterior and posterior approaches successfully improved endothoracic hump ratio and

  19. New method of scoliosis assessment: preliminary results using computerized photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroeira, Rozilene Maria Cota; Leal, Jefferson Soares; de Melo Pertence, Antônio Eustáquio

    2011-09-01

    A new method for nonradiographic evaluation of scoliosis was independently compared with the Cobb radiographic method, for the quantification of scoliotic curvature. To develop a protocol for computerized photogrammetry, as a nonradiographic method, for the quantification of scoliosis, and to mathematically relate this proposed method with the Cobb radiographic method. Repeated exposure to radiation of children can be harmful to their health. Nevertheless, no nonradiographic method until now proposed has gained popularity as a routine method for evaluation, mainly due to a low correspondence to the Cobb radiographic method. Patients undergoing standing posteroanterior full-length spine radiographs, who were willing to participate in this study, were submitted to dorsal digital photography in the orthostatic position with special surface markers over the spinous process, specifically the vertebrae C7 to L5. The radiographic and photographic images were sent separately for independent analysis to two examiners, trained in quantification of scoliosis for the types of images received. The scoliosis curvature angles obtained through computerized photogrammetry (the new method) were compared to those obtained through the Cobb radiographic method. Sixteen individuals were evaluated (14 female and 2 male). All presented idiopathic scoliosis, and were between 21.4 ± 6.1 years of age; 52.9 ± 5.8 kg in weight; 1.63 ± 0.05 m in height, with a body mass index of 19.8 ± 0.2. There was no statistically significant difference between the scoliosis angle measurements obtained in the comparative analysis of both methods, and a mathematical relationship was formulated between both methods. The preliminary results presented demonstrate equivalence between the two methods. More studies are needed to firmly assess the potential of this new method as a coadjuvant tool in the routine following of scoliosis treatment.

  20. Evaluation of scoliosis using baropodometer and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Meireles Fanfoni

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: One of the most recurrent pathologies in the spine is scoliosis. It occurs in the frontal plane and is formed by one or more curves in the spinal column. The scoliosis causes global postural misalignment in an individual. One of the modifications produced by postural misalignment is the way in which an individual distributes weight to the feet. We aimed to implement an electronic system for separating patients with Degree I scoliosis (i.e., 1° to 19° scoliosis according to the Ricard classification into two groups: C1 (1°-9° and C2 (10°-9°. The highest percentage of patients with scoliosis is in this range: those who do not need to wear vests or undergo surgery and whose treatment is performed via special physical exercise and frequent evaluations by healthcare professionals. Methods The electronic system consists of a baropodometer and artificial neural networks (ANNs. The classification of patients in the scoliosis groups was performed with MATLAB software and a Single Layer Perceptron network using the backpropagation training algorithm. Evaluations were performed on 63 volunteers. Results The mean classification sensitivity was 93.7% in the C1 group and 94.5% in the C2 group. The classification accuracy was 83.3% in the C1 group and 96.0% in the C2 group. Conclusion The implemented system can contribute to the treatment of patients with scoliosis grades ranging from 1° to 19°, which represents the highest incidence of this pathology, for which the monitoring of the clinical condition using noninvasive techniques is of fundamental importance.

  1. Rock Goes to School on Screen: A Model for Teaching Non-"Learned" Musics Derived from the Films "School of Rock" (2003) and "Rock School" (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from two films with "rock" and "school" in their titles, about rock in school and about music and schooling more broadly? "School of Rock" (2003), a "family comedy," and "Rock School" (2005), a documentary, provoke a range of questions, ideological and otherwise, surrounding the inclusion of rock in formal instructional…

  2. Effectiveness of using teachers to screen eyes of school-going children in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhan Anand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To assess the effectiveness of teachers in a vision screening program for children in classes 5th to 12th attending school in two blocks of a district of north central India. Materials and Methods : Ophthalmic assistants trained school teachers to measure visual acuity and to identify obvious ocular abnormalities in children. Children with visual acuity worse than 20/30 in any eye and/or any obvious ocular abnormality were referred to an ophthalmic assistant. Ophthalmic assistants also repeated eye examinations on a random sample of children identified as normal (approximately 1%, n=543 by the teachers. Ophthalmic assistants prescribed spectacles to children needing refractive correction and referred children needing further examination to a pediatric ophthalmologist at the base hospital. Results : Five hundred and thirty teachers from 530 schools enrolled 77,778 children in the project and screened 68,833 (88.50% of enrolled children. Teachers referred 3,822 children (4.91% with eye defects for further examination by the ophthalmic assistant who confirmed eye defects in 1242 children (1.80% of all screened children. Myopia (n=410, 33.01%, Vitamin A deficiency (n=143, 11.51% and strabismus (n=134, 10.79% were the most common eye problems identified by the ophthalmic assistant. Ophthalmic assistants identified 57.97% referrals as false positives and 6.08% children as false negatives from the random sample of normal children. Spectacles were prescribed to 39.47% of children confirmed with eye defects. Conclusions : Primary vision screening by teachers has effectively reduced the workload of ophthalmic assistants. High false positive and false negative rates need to be studied further.

  3. The Association of Screen Time, Television in the Bedroom, and Obesity among School-Aged Youth: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Methods: Using 2007 National Survey of…

  4. Impact of intermittent screening and treatment for malaria among school children in Kenya: a cluster randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence of the benefits of alternative school-based malaria interventions or how the impacts of interventions vary according to intensity of malaria transmission. We investigated the effect of intermittent screening and treatment (IST for malaria on the health and education of school children in an area of low to moderate malaria transmission.A cluster randomised trial was implemented with 5,233 children in 101 government primary schools on the south coast of Kenya in 2010-2012. The intervention was delivered to children randomly selected from classes 1 and 5 who were followed up for 24 months. Once a school term, children were screened by public health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, and children (with or without malaria symptoms found to be RDT-positive were treated with a six dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (AL. Given the nature of the intervention, the trial was not blinded. The primary outcomes were anaemia and sustained attention. Secondary outcomes were malaria parasitaemia and educational achievement. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. During the intervention period, an average of 88.3% children in intervention schools were screened at each round, of whom 17.5% were RDT-positive. 80.3% of children in the control and 80.2% in the intervention group were followed-up at 24 months. No impact of the malaria IST intervention was observed for prevalence of anaemia at either 12 or 24 months (adjusted risk ratio [Adj.RR]: 1.03, 95% CI 0.93-1.13, p = 0.621 and Adj.RR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.90-1.11, p = 0.953 respectively, or on prevalence of P. falciparum infection or scores of classroom attention. No effect of IST was observed on educational achievement in the older class, but an apparent negative effect was seen on spelling scores in

  5. Behavior of scoliosis during growth in children with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissipour, Alireza K; Hammerberg, Kim W; Caudill, Angela; Kostiuk, Theodore; Tarima, Sergey; Zhao, Heather Shi; Krzak, Joseph J; Smith, Peter A

    2014-02-05

    Spinal deformities are common in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, a heritable disorder that causes bone fragility. The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior of spinal curvature during growth in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta and establish its relationship to disease severity and medical treatment with bisphosphonates. The medical records and radiographs of 316 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were retrospectively reviewed. The severity of osteogenesis imperfecta was classified with the modified Sillence classification. Serial curve measurements were recorded throughout the follow-up period for each patient with scoliosis. Regression analysis was used to determine the effect of disease severity (Sillence type), patient age, and bisphosphonate treatment on the progression of scoliosis as measured with the Cobb method. Of the 316 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, 157 had associated scoliosis, a prevalence of 50%. Scoliosis prevalence (68%) and mean progression rate (6° per year) were the highest in the group of patients with the most severe osteogenesis imperfecta (modified Sillence type III). A group with intermediate osteogenesis imperfecta severity, modified Sillence type IV, demonstrated intermediate scoliosis values (54%, 4° per year). The patient group with the mildest form of osteogenesis imperfecta, modified Sillence type I, had the lowest scoliosis prevalence (39%) and rate of progression (1° per year). Early treatment-before the patient reached the age of six years-of type-III osteogenesis imperfecta with bisphosphonate therapy decreased the curve progression rate by 3.8° per year, which was a significant decrease. Bisphosphonate treatment had no demonstrated beneficial effect on curve behavior in patients with other types of osteogenesis imperfecta or in patients of older age. The prevalence of scoliosis in association with osteogenesis imperfecta is high. Progression rates of scoliosis in children with osteogenesis

  6. Treatment of the idiopathic scoliosis with brace and physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundozi-Hysenaj, Hajrije; Dallku, Iliriana Boshnjaku; Murtezani, Ardiana; Rrecaj, Shkurte

    2009-01-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformation of the spine with a lateral curvature or deviation greater than 10 degrees and associated with vertebral rotation. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but the evidence for their effectiveness is still questioned. The objective of this study was to define the effectiveness of braces and individual physiotherapy for the comprehensive treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. A retrospective study of 57 children with idiopathic thoracic dextroscoliosis with the magnitude of the thoracic curve between 20 degrees-35 degrees, treated in Orthopedic and Physiatrist Clinic as well as National Ortho-prosthetic Center within University Clinical Center of Kosova in Prishtina, during the period of 2003-2006. Inclusion of kinesitherapy in the comprehensive management of idiopathic scoliosis varied in the improvement of the muscle strength (satisfied and moderate) in almost 80% of the children while the correction of the curve was small in approximately 42.1% of cases. For children with idiopathic scoliosis, who require braces, an exercise program helps chest mobility, muscle strength, proper breathing flexibility in the spine, correct posture and keeps muscles in tone so that the transition period after brace removal is easier.

  7. Ogilvie′s syndrome following posterior spinal arthrodesis for scoliosis

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    Athanasios I Tsirikos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report Ogilvie′s syndrome following posterior spinal arthrodesis on a patient with thoracic and lumbar scoliosis associated with intraspinal anomalies. Postoperative paralytic ileus can commonly complicate scoliosis surgery. Ogilvie′s syndrome as a cause of abdominal distension and pain has not been reported following spinal deformity correction and can mimic post-surgical ileus. 12 year old female patient with double thoracic and lumbar scoliosis associated with Arnold-Chiari 1 malformation and syringomyelia. The patient underwent posterior spinal fusion from T 4 to L 3 with segmental pedicle screw instrumentation and autogenous iliac crest grafting. She developed abdominal distension and pain postoperatively and this deteriorated despite conservative management. Repeat ultrasounds and abdominal computer tomography scans ruled out mechanical obstruction. The clinical presentation and blood parameters excluded toxic megacolon and cecal volvulus. As the symptoms persisted, a laparotomy was performed on postoperative day 16, which demonstrated ragged tears of the colon and cecum. A right hemi-colectomy followed by ileocecal anastomosis was required. The pathological examination of surgical specimens excluded inflammatory bowel disease and vascular abnormalities. The patient made a good recovery following bowel surgery and at latest followup 3.2 years later she had no abdominal complaints and an excellent scoliosis correction. Ogilvie′s syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of postoperative ileus in patients developing prolonged unexplained abdominal distension and pain after scoliosis correction. Early diagnosis and instigation of conservative management can prevent major morbidity and mortality due to bowel ischemia and perforation.

  8. Current concepts and controversies on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Alok; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2013-03-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common spinal deformity encountered by General Orthopaedic Surgeons. Etiology remains unclear and current research focuses on genetic factors that may influence scoliosis development and risk of progression. Delayed diagnosis can result in severe deformities which affect the coronal and sagittal planes, as well as the rib cage, waistline symmetry, and shoulder balance. Patient's dissatisfaction in terms of physical appearance and mechanical back pain, as well as the risk for curve deterioration are usually the reasons for treatment. Conservative management involves mainly bracing with the aim to stop or slow down scoliosis progression during growth and if possible prevent the need for surgical treatment. This is mainly indicated in young compliant patients with a large amount of remaining growth and progressive curvatures. Scoliosis correction is indicated for severe or progressive curves which produce significant cosmetic deformity, muscular pain, and patient discontent. Posterior spinal arthrodesis with Harrington instrumentation and bone grafting was the first attempt to correct the coronal deformity and replace in situ fusion. This was associated with high pseudarthrosis rates, need for postoperative immobilization, and flattening of sagittal spinal contour. Segmental correction techniques were introduced along with the Luque rods, Harri-Luque, and Wisconsin systems. Correction in both coronal and sagittal planes was not satisfactory and high rates of nonunion persisted until Cotrel and Dubousset introduced the concept of global spinal derotation. Development of pedicle screws provided a powerful tool to correct three-dimensional vertebral deformity and opened a new era in the treatment of scoliosis.

  9. Small Screen Technology Use among Indigenous Boarding School Adolescents from Remote Regions of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Oliver, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of small screen technology by adolescents is widespread, particularly in industrial nations. Whether the same is true for Australian Aboriginal youth is less clear as there is a dearth of research in this regard. Therefore, in this exploratory study the use of small screen technology by Indigenous students was examined. Twenty-four…

  10. Evaluation of the King-Devick test as a concussion screening tool in high school football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Daniel H; Burlingame, Jennifer; Yousif, Lina R; Donahue, Xinh P; Krier, Joshua; Rayes, Lydia J; Young, Rachel; Lilla, Muareen; Mazurek, Rochelle; Hittle, Kristie; McCloskey, Charles; Misra, Saroj; Shaw, Michael K

    2015-09-15

    Concussion is the most common type of traumatic brain injury, and results from impact or impulsive forces to the head, neck or face. Due to the variability and subtlety of symptoms, concussions may go unrecognized or be ignored, especially with the pressure placed on athletes to return to competition. The King-Devick (KD) test, an oculomotor test originally designed for reading evaluation, was recently validated as a concussion screening tool in collegiate athletes. A prospective study was performed using high school football players in an attempt to study the KD as a concussion screening tool in this younger population. 343 athletes from four local high school football teams were recruited to participate. These athletes were given baseline KD tests prior to competition. Individual demographic information was collected on the subjects. Standard team protocol was employed to determine if a concussion had occurred during competition. Immediately after diagnosis, the KD test was re-administered to the concussed athlete for comparison to baseline. Post-season testing was also performed in non-concussed individuals. Of the 343 athletes, nine were diagnosed with concussions. In all concussed players, cumulative read times for the KD test were significantly increased (phistory of concussion was the only demographic factor predictive of concussion in this cohort. The KD test is an accurate and easily administered sideline screening tool for concussion in adolescent football players. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Body image in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: validation of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire--Scoliosis Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Joshua D; Lonner, Baron S; Crerand, Canice E; Shah, Suken A; Flynn, John M; Bastrom, Tracey; Penn, Phedra; Ahn, Jennifer; Toombs, Courtney; Bharucha, Neil; Bowe, Whitney P; Newton, Peter O

    2014-04-16

    Appearance concerns in individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can result in impairment in daily functioning, or body image disturbance. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire (BIDQ) is a self-reported, seven-question instrument that measures body image disturbance in general populations; no studies have specifically examined body image disturbance in those with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This study aimed to validate a modified version of the BIDQ in a population with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and to establish discriminant validity by comparing responses of operatively and nonoperatively treated patients with those of normal controls. In the first phase, a multicenter study of forty-nine patients (mean age, fourteen years; thirty-seven female) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was performed to validate the BIDQ-Scoliosis version (BIDQ-S). Participants completed the BIDQ-S, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22, Children's Depression Index (CDI), and Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. In the second phase, ninety-eight patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (mean age, 15.7 years; seventy-five female) matched by age and sex with ninety-eight healthy adolescents were enrolled into a single-center study to evaluate the discriminant validity of the BIDQ-S. Subjects completed the BIDQ-S and a demographic form before treatment. Independent-sample t tests and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. The BIDQ-S was internally consistent (Cronbach alpha = 0.82), and corrected item total correlations ranged from 0.47 to 0.67. The BIDQ-S was significantly correlated with each domain of the SRS-22 and the total score (r = -0.50 to -0.72, p ≤ 0.001), with the CDI (r = 0.31, p = 0.03), and with the BESAA (r = 0.60, p image disturbance compared with healthy controls. To our knowledge, this user-friendly instrument is the first to

  12. Associations of Caffeinated Beverage Consumption and Screen Time with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Nuri; Lee, Aeri; Baik, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was defined as ESS scores of 9 or greater. Students with EDS consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks and spent longer time for a TV and a mobile phone than those without EDS (p students with short sleep (≤ 6 hours) consumed greater amount of coffee than others whereas students with long sleep (> 8 hours) consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks than others (p sleep duration. Although these findings do not support causal relationships, they suggest that screen time is associated with EDS, but not with sleep duration, and that consumption of certain types of caffeinated beverages is associated with EDS and sleep duration. Adolescents may need to reduce screen time and caffeine consumption to improve sleep quality and avoid daytime sleepiness.

  13. Scoliosis and Syringomyelia With Chiari Malformation After Lumbar Shunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Chen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady gait was noted in a 2-year-old boy with a lumboperitoneal (LP shunt that had been inserted 1 year earlier for increased head circumference caused by communicating hydrocephalus. Scoliosis was also noted during postoperative follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed new hindbrain tonsillar herniation and an extensive syrinx from C3 to L1. The malfunctioning LP shunt was removed and posterior fossa decompression with ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion was performed. The unsteady gait recovered completely and scoliosis improved. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated resolution of the syrinx and tonsillar herniation. Acquired Chiari I malformation after LP shunt is well documented; usually, patients have no symptoms. This is the first report to have all the cause and effect mechanisms among syringomyelia, scoliosis and Chiari I malformation in 1 patient. We review the literature and discuss the possible mechanisms.

  14. Risk factors for scoliosis in children with neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulino, Arnold C.; Fowler, B. Zach

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk factors for scoliosis in children treated for neuroblastoma. Methods and materials: From 1957 to 1997, 58 children with neuroblastoma were treated at one institution and have survived a minimum of 5 years. There were 35 boys and 23 girls with a median age of 6 months (range, 2 weeks to 15 years) at initial diagnosis. Primary site was located in the adrenal gland in 25 (43.1%), abdominal/nonadrenal in 16 (27.6%), thoracic in 12 (20.7%), cervical in 3 (5.3%), and pelvic region in 2 (3.5%). The International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage was Stage 1 in 10 (17.2%), Stage 2A in 7 (12.1%), Stage 2B in 5 (8.6%), Stage 3 in 22 (37.9%), Stage 4 in 4 (6.9%), and Stage 4S in 10 (17.2%). Thirty-three (56.9%) received chemotherapy whereas 5 (8.6%) had a laminectomy as part of the surgical procedure. Twenty-seven (46.6%) received radiotherapy (RT). Beam energy was 1.25 MV in 11 (41%), 250 kV in 10 (37%), 4 MV in 4 (15%), and 6-MV photons in 1 patient. One patient received 300 cGy in 1 fraction total skin RT using 6-MeV electrons. For the remaining patients, fraction size was 100 cGy in 6 (22%), 150-180 cGy in 11 (41%), 200 cGy in 4 (15%), and 250-300 cGy in 3. Three patients had total body irradiation at 333 cGy for 3 fractions. For all children who received RT, median total dose was 2000 cGy (range, 300-3900 cGy). Patients who were treated with RT had plain films of the irradiated area every 1 to 2 years until at least the age of puberty. Median follow-up was 10 years (range, 5-46 years). Results: The overall 5-, 10-, and 15-year scoliosis-free rates were 87.6%, 79.0%, and 76.0% respectively. Twelve (21%) developed scoliosis at a median time of 51 months (range, 8-137 months). The degree of scoliosis was mild (≤20 deg ) in 8 (67%). Four had scoliosis ranging from 30 deg to 66 deg ; 3 of these patients required surgical intervention, whereas 1 had an underlying Duchenne muscular dystrophy which manifested itself 8 years after

  15. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children?s Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children’s health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June–July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5–18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score(BMIz ) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model include...

  16. Culture and ethnicity influence outcomes of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Lee Jae; Kawakami, Noriaki; Lenke, Lawrence G; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Diab, Mohammad

    2012-05-20

    Retrospective comparative study. To report preoperative differences in the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-30) between multiple US ethnicities and native Japanese and Korean children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The SRS-24 was developed in a US cohort with AIS. Comparative studies using the SRS-24 between US and Japanese patients showed differences, suggesting that culture might affect functional outcome. Preoperative SRS-30 outcomes were collected from 1853 children with AIS from 6 different ethnic groups: US white (1234), black (213), Hispanic (78), and Asian (29), as well as native Japanese (192) and Koreans (107). Analysis of covariance of 4 SRS-30 domains (pain, appearance, activity, and mental) was compared between groups adjusting for differences in age, sex, major curve magnitude, and body mass index. Pairwise comparisons of the 4 SRS-30 domains were adjusted for multiple comparisons, using Bonferroni correction. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Significant differences between ethnicities were found in all domains (P Culture and ethnicity influence SRS-30 outcomes in AIS. Whites reported more pain than Japanese and Koreans. Japanese and Koreans had the lowest appearance scores. Koreans additionally were distinguished by the lowest activity, mental, and total scores. These cultural and ethnic differences must be taken into account when counseling patients with AIS and studying functional outcomes.

  17. A new look at the etiopathogenesis ofadolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Brzęczek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of spinal deformity in children. The aetiology of the condition has not been elucidated. Currently, the multifactorial theory seems to be the most probable. Certain authors propose that melatonin should be considered as a causative factor of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Their assumption is supported by a range of research studies conducted on animal models with removed pineal gland, which induced scoliosis. Melatonin has been proven to exert direct and indirect effects on the development of the skeletal system. The role of calmodulin or osteoprotegerin seems equally important. In patients with this condition, the levels of platelet calmodulin and calmodulin in the specimens of the paraspinal muscles on the convex side of the curve have been shown to rise. Osteoprotegerin, in turn, modifies osteoclastic and osteoblastic differentiation. These substances have a direct influence on the cellular calcium and phosphate metabolism and can be potentially responsible for spinal deformity in adolescents. The role of oestrogens is being investigated. Moreover, the role of growth factors or thrombospondins still remains obscure. Additionally, molecular tests have revealed a number of genes that can predispose to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. It still needs to be determined which of the musculoskeletal disorders occur first in the development of scoliosis and which are secondary to the deformity. The identification of the aetiological factor and factors responsible for scoliosis progression determines the manner of treatment.

  18. Bluetooth wireless database for scoliosis clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, E; Fedorak, M V; Hill, D L; Raso, J V; Moreau, M J; Mahood, J K

    2003-05-01

    A database system with Bluetooth wireless connectivity has been developed so that scoliosis clinics can be run more efficiently and data can be mined for research studies without significant increases in equipment cost. The wireless database system consists of a Bluetooth-enabled laptop or PC and a Bluetooth-enabled handheld personal data assistant (PDA). Each patient has a profile in the database, which has all of his or her clinical history. Immediately prior to the examination, the orthopaedic surgeon selects a patient's profile from the database and uploads that data to the PDA over a Bluetooth wireless connection. The surgeon can view the entire clinical history of the patient while in the examination room and, at the same time, enter in any new measurements and comments from the current examination. After seeing the patient, the surgeon synchronises the newly entered information with the database wirelessly and prints a record for the chart. This combination of the database and the PDA both improves efficiency and accuracy and can save significant time, as there is less duplication of work, and no dictation is required. The equipment required to implement this solution is a Bluetooth-enabled PDA and a Bluetooth wireless transceiver for the PC or laptop.

  19. The natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Hee-Kit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been great advances in the conservative and surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the last few decades. The challenge for the physician is the decision for the optimal time to institute therapy for the individual child. This makes an understanding of the natural history and risk factors for curve progression of significant importance. Reported rates of curve progression vary from 1.6% for skeletally mature children with a small curve magnitude to 68% for skeletally immature children with larger curve magnitudes. Although the patient′s age at presentation, the Risser sign, the patient′s menarchal status and the magnitude of the curve have been described as risk factors for curve progression, there is evidence that the absolute curve magnitude at presentation may be most predictive of progression in the long term. A curve magnitude of 25º at presentation may be predictive of a greater risk of curve progression. Advances in research may unlock novel predictive factors, which are based on the underlying pathogenesis of this disorder.

  20. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Keskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare condition that causes a proximal small intestinal obstruction due to contraction of the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. Scoliosis surgery is one of the 15 reasons for superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which can present with acute or chronic manifestations. Although conservative treatment is usually possible, surgical treatment is required in certain cases that cannot be treated using conservative methods. In this paper, we describe a patient who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome after scoliosis surgery and was treated with duodenojejunostomy due to failure and complications of conservative treatment.

  1. Analysis and evaluation of the radiological aspects of scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Gonzalez, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The theme of scoliosis is proposed from the radiological perspective. An extensive literature review is realized, extracting the most relevant information for research. The initiation and evolution of scoliosis has been silent, therefore, to meet this condition has been important to detect it early and opportunely, before that curvatures have progressed and become structured, forcing the surgical treatment. The timely correction of curvatures in the spine has generated significant conditions in the patient's life. The early diagnosis has been fundamental to realize an opportune treatment of orthopedic type. A great variety of congenital and developmental disorders have been evident in the spine. The causes and patterns of the abnormal curvature of the spine have been varied. Precise diagnosis of these alterations is supported on a careful clinical assessment and is aided by imaging explorations, such as conventional radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance. Imaging methods to detect scoliosis are mentioned. The measurement procedures of the angle of spine curve are determined. The classification of scoliosis according to King-Lenke are cited to facilitate objective assessment of a disease for examiners, making that the results are presented in shape uniform and comparable possible. The types of scoliosis are explained. The characterization of the deformities of the axis of the spine, quantification and estimation of the degree of skeletal maturity has been the principal objective of the spine radiography. In an radiography has been important to be included all the thoracolumbar spine from C7. The Cobb and Ferguson measurements are used to measure angles, Risser for skeletal maturation, Nas and Moe for vertical rotation. Congenital deformities should be taken into account in radiographs of spine. Each vertebra is examined minutely in search of malformations of fusion, etc., that explain scoliosis. In neurological disorders, to take

  2. The association of screen time, television in the bedroom, and obesity among school-aged youth: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-08-01

    Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Using 2007 National Survey of Children's Health data, we used multivariable logistic regression to identify sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with excessive screen time among 6 to 11- and 12 to 17-year-olds on a typical weekday. For 12 to 17-year-olds only, we used logistic regression to examine the odds of obesity using the same variables as above, with the addition of screen time. Overall, 20.8% of 6 to 11-year-olds and 26.1% of 12 to 17-year-olds had excessive screen time. For both age groups, having a bedroom TV was significantly associated with excessive screen time. For the older age group, the dual scenario of excessive screen time with a bedroom TV had the strongest association with obesity (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.9, 3.2). Given the similar risk factors for excess screen time and having a TV in the bedroom, a public health challenge exists to design interventions to reduce screen time among school-aged youth. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutumisu Nicoleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.

  4. Identification of Social Anxiety in Schools: The Utility of a Two-Step Screening Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Corinne; Masia Warner, Carrie; Brice, Chad; Stewart, Catherine; Ryan, Julie; Loeb, Katharine L.; McGrath, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent yet largely undetected and untreated in adolescents despite the availability of effective treatments. Implementing interventions in schools enhances recognition and access to treatment for SAD. However, without reliable means to accurately identify youth in need of services, school-based…

  5. Vision screening in primary school children in Kegbara-Dere, a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Visual impairment causes significant ocular morbidity in children and has been known to affect their performance at school. Majority of children with impaired vision livein developing countries, where there is a dearth of eye care facilities. Aim: To determine the proportion of school children with ocular disorders ...

  6. Screening for Asperger Syndrome in School-Age Children: Issues and Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Campbell, Audrey; Keran, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many children with Asperger syndrome are not identified prior to school entry, and difficulties associated with the condition may only become evident when a child enters school. Failure to identify children with the syndrome may lead to increased risk for psychopathology, and lack of understanding of the reasons for social and communicative…

  7. Should We Limit "Screen Time" In School?: Debating the Wisest Use of Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoggin, Daniel; Vander Ark, Tom

    2018-01-01

    A truism of school reform has long been the promise that technology, properly applied, will fuel dramatic improvement in teaching and learning. When tech-enabled schools or online learning programs haven't delivered the hoped-for results, some have dismissed these shortcomings as implementation problems--or evidence that we haven't yet deployed…

  8. Experience with a Drug Screening Program at a School of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…

  9. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2005-01-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were...

  10. A multicenter study analyzing the relationship of a standardized radiographic scoring system of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and the Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip L; Newton, Peter O; Wenger, Dennis R; Haher, Thomas; Merola, Andrew; Lenke, Larry; Lowe, Thomas; Clements, David; Betz, Randy

    2002-09-15

    A multicenter study examining the association between radiographic and outcomes measures in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To evaluate the association between an objective radiographic scoring system and patient quality of life measures as determined by the Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument. Although surgical correction of scoliosis has been reported to be positively correlated with patient outcomes, studies to date have been unable to demonstrate an association between radiographic measures of deformity and outcomes measures in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A standardized radiographic deformity scoring system and the Scoliosis Research Society outcome tool were used prospectively in seven scoliosis centers to collect data on patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 354 data points for 265 patients consisting of those with nonoperative or preoperative curves >or=10 degrees, as well as those with surgically treated curves, were analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed to identify significant relationships between any of the radiographic measures, the Harms Study Group radiographic deformity scores (total, sagittal, coronal), and the seven Scoliosis Research Society outcome domains (Total Pain, General Self-Image, General Function, Activity, Postoperative Self-Image, Postoperative Function, and Satisfaction) as well as Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument total scores. Radiographic measures that were identified as significantly correlated with Scoliosis Research Society outcome scores were then entered into a stepwise regression analysis. The coronal measures of thoracic curve and lumbar curve magnitude were found to be significantly correlated with the Total Pain, General Self-Image, and total Scoliosis Research Society scores (P Society domain and total scores. No radiographic measures taken after surgery were significantly correlated with the postoperative domains of the Scoliosis Research Society

  11. Severe progressive scoliosis in an adult female possibly secondary thoracic surgery in childhood treated with scoliosis specific Schroth physiotherapy: Case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Andrea; Lebel, Victoria Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional (3D) spinal deformity. Acquired scoliosis in early childhood may progress into adulthood and pose an increased risk of health problems and reduction in quality of life. In Canada, patients with scoliosis are not referred for physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE) despite the fact that Schroth physiotherapy, a scoliosis-specific 3D posture training and exercise program, can be effective in reducing pain and improving scoliosis curves, vital capacity, and overall quality of life in scoliosis patients. This case presentation shows that indeed adult curve progression can be stopped and even reversed with scoliosis specific Schroth physiotherapy (SSSPT) in an adult patient with scoliosis. This is a retrospective case presentation involving a 23-year-old female scoliosis patient who began an outpatient Schroth physiotherapy exercise program and was initially monitored monthly and then annually for improvement in measurements of angle of trunk rotation (ATR) and chest expansion and improvement in vital capacity measured with incentive spirometry. Photos were taken to document body image periodically throughout Schroth physiotherapy treatment. Additionally, the patient completed SRS-22 quality of life questionnaires every 2 years to evaluate daily function, pain, self-imagine, mental health, and scoliosis management satisfaction. Within one month of beginning SSSPT, the patient reported no more back pain and within 2 months, reported improved breathing. The patient also benefitted from improved chest expansion, reduced scoliosis curve angles (measured in Cobb degrees), increased vital capacity, decreased ATR, and higher SRS-22 scores. She became more active and resumed all athletic activity within 8 months of beginning Schroth physiotherapy. Adult scoliosis patients are not routinely referred for PSSE in Canada, even though Schroth physiotherapy, a form of PSSE, is shown to be effective in this case presentation

  12. Severe progressive scoliosis in an adult female possibly secondary thoracic surgery in childhood treated with scoliosis specific Schroth physiotherapy: Case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lebel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional (3D spinal deformity. Acquired scoliosis in early childhood may progress into adulthood and pose an increased risk of health problems and reduction in quality of life. In Canada, patients with scoliosis are not referred for physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE despite the fact that Schroth physiotherapy, a scoliosis-specific 3D posture training and exercise program, can be effective in reducing pain and improving scoliosis curves, vital capacity, and overall quality of life in scoliosis patients. This case presentation shows that indeed adult curve progression can be stopped and even reversed with scoliosis specific Schroth physiotherapy (SSSPT in an adult patient with scoliosis. Methods This is a retrospective case presentation involving a 23-year-old female scoliosis patient who began an outpatient Schroth physiotherapy exercise program and was initially monitored monthly and then annually for improvement in measurements of angle of trunk rotation (ATR and chest expansion and improvement in vital capacity measured with incentive spirometry. Photos were taken to document body image periodically throughout Schroth physiotherapy treatment. Additionally, the patient completed SRS-22 quality of life questionnaires every 2 years to evaluate daily function, pain, self-imagine, mental health, and scoliosis management satisfaction. Results Within one month of beginning SSSPT, the patient reported no more back pain and within 2 months, reported improved breathing. The patient also benefitted from improved chest expansion, reduced scoliosis curve angles (measured in Cobb degrees, increased vital capacity, decreased ATR, and higher SRS-22 scores. She became more active and resumed all athletic activity within 8 months of beginning Schroth physiotherapy. Conclusions Adult scoliosis patients are not routinely referred for PSSE in Canada, even though Schroth physiotherapy, a form

  13. [Analysis of the quality of life in patients affected by scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Hernández, M; Martínez-Monje, F; Pérez-Valencia, M; García-Romero, R; Mena-Poveda, R; Caballero-Cánovas, J

    2017-05-11

    To assess the quality of life using the SRS 22 test in patients with scoliosis of 20 or more degrees Cobb. A prospective descriptive study was conducted between April and May 2016 on patients with scoliosis of at least 20 degrees Cobb and aged between 10 and 20 years. A record was made of weight, height, body mass index, and the SR 22 specific quality of life questionnaire for patients with scoliosis was completed. Patients were divided into two groups for analysis: a) scoliosis between 20 and 29 degrees Cobb (n=44); and b) scoliosis with a Cobb of 30 degrees or greater (n=32). There were significant differences in the dimensions that assess pain, image self-perception, and satisfaction with treatment, being valued worse when the degree of scoliosis Cobb is 30 degrees or higher. There were no significant differences in function/activity or mental health. The overall score of the questionnaire was also worse in the group with the highest degree of scoliosis. The weight, height, and BMI showed no significant differences due to the varying degrees of scoliosis. Scoliosis significantly affects the quality of life of people who suffer it, and there is a negative correlation between the severity of scoliosis measured by degrees Cobb and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation of Scoliosis Treatment Using a Brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Čulík

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivo Maoík M.D. has treated many child patients with scoliosis at the "Centre for Locomotor Defects", Olšanská 7, 130 00 Prague 3. The author has cooperated with him, and composed the computer program for the spine stress state under brace effects and for simulating scoliosis treatment. The program simulates the spinal curve remodelling in time for a specific child patients, and the algorithm for stress state calculation and treatment simulation is given.Orthopaedists in the Czech Republic use Cheneau-type or Cerny-type corrective braces. The brace exerts force effects on the skeleton of a child. The brace is made individually for each patient, in the following way: first, a negative plaster form of the child`s trunk is made, and then the positive plaster form is created. The orthopaedist determines the places where brace has to load the patient`s trunk, and the plaster form deepened in these places on the basis of his advice. The laminate brace made according to this plaster form constricts the child`s trunk (like a tight shoe.This paper shows how the stress state is determined in vertebrae and in inter-vertebral discs, and the solution of spinal curvature correction under brace force effects for a specific child patient. The project aims to find the dependence of the activation and velocity of spinal curvature correction in the spinal stress state for many patients. The paper shows the computing algorithms for spinal deformations and the stress state under brace force effects, and a simulation of spinal curvature correction.Spinal curvature is determined according to measured values on an X-ray of a patient before a brace is applied. The stress state in the spine and the spinal deformation are investigated by the finite element method as beam (spine in an elastic ground (soft tissue. Two algorithms are used. The first algorithm deals with the spine above and below the soft tissues, and it is loaded by given displacements of the trunk surface

  15. Idiopathic scoliosis; a biomechanical and functional anatomical study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, Albert Gerrit

    1985-01-01

    Although many types of causes of scoliosis are known, the idiopathic variety comprises the largest group and as its name indicates, its a etiology is unknown. Idiopathics coliosis develops in a previously normal vertebral column and has been recognized as an entity for more than a century.

  16. Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis Causing an Acute Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Armstrong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design. A Case Report. Objective. We present a 15-year-old girl with an acute atypical scoliosis secondary to chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO. Summary of Background Data. CRMO is a rare nonpyogenic inflammatory bone condition with unclear aetiology. CRMO mainly affects the metaphyses of long bones, the pelvis, shoulder girdle, and less commonly the spine. Methods. Our case presented with a 6-month history of worsening thoracic back pain, asymmetry of her shoulders and abnormal posture. Whole spine radiographs revealed a right atypical thoracic scoliosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed abnormal signal on the short TI inversion recovery (STIR sequences in multiple vertebrae. A bone biopsy demonstrated evidence of fibrosis and chronic inflammatory changes. Interval MRI scans revealed new oedematous lesions and disappearance of old lesions. Symptoms improved. Results. It is important to consider CRMO as an acute cause of atypical scoliosis. Malignancy, pyogenic infections and atypical presentations of juvenile arthritis need excluding. Conclusion. This 24-month follow-up describes a rare cause of an atypical scoliosis and fortifies the small amount of the currently available literature. The case highlights the relapsing and remitting nature of CRMO with new lesions developing and older lesions burning out. We advise close radiological surveillance and symptomatic management.

  17. The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis : biomechanical and neuromuscular factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, AG; Webb, PJ

    The aetiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains an enigma. In the literature there are two opinions: one believes a deviating growth pattern is responsible for the condition - patients with AIS lend to be growing faster/be taller - while the other opinion assumes that the growth

  18. Curve progression and spinal growth in brace treated idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonseth, KA; Veldhuizen, AG; Cool, JC; van Horn, [No Value

    The risk of progression of idiopathic scoliosis is correlated primarily to factors that predict potential remaining skeletal growth. The aim of the current study was to evaluate spinal growth, measured as the length of the scoliotic spine on serial longitudinal radiographs, and its relationship to

  19. Treatment planning in severe scoliosis: the role of MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. of Muenster (Germany); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Heidelberg Medical School (Germany); Haehnel, S.; Sartor, K. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Heidelberg Medical School (Germany); Thomsen, M. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Medical School (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative investigation of children with idiopathic scoliosis is controversial. Syringomyelia and other intraspinal lesions may be risk factors for neurological injury during surgical correction. Our purpose was to investigate whether pathology of the neuraxis is associated with scoliosis and to detect lesions which may threaten neurological sequelae during distraction and instrumented correction. We obtained T1- and T2-weighted images of 40 children (28 girls, 12 boys), mean age 12.7 years with severe idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle 50-70 ) obtained in coronal, sagittal and axial planes from the posterior cranial fossa to the sacrum, and these were assessed by two neuroradiologists and an orthopaedic surgeon prior to further treatment planning. Abnormalities of the neuraxis were found in 24 patients (60 %); five (12 %) had two or more lesions. No abnormalities of the neuraxis were found in 16 patients (40 %). There were 15 patients (38 %) with intraspinal abnormalities who deteriorated clinically and nine (22 %) who showed no clinical changes. We transferred 16 patients (40 %) from the orthopaedic to the neurosurgical department for further assessment. Our results suggest that one should investigate the neuraxis with MRI before contemplating orthopaedic surgical correction of severe idiopathic scoliosis, because the findings may lead to a change of procedure. (orig.)

  20. Providence nighttime bracing, in treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Beuschau, Inge; Quisth, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2008 the non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence night-time bracing. Methods: Since 2008, skeletally immature patients diagnosed with AIS and a primary curve w...

  1. Irregular menses linked to vomiting in a nonclinical sample: findings from the National Eating Disorders Screening Program in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Ziyadeh, Najat J; Vohra, Sameer; Forman, Sara; Gordon, Catherine M; Prokop, Lisa A; Keliher, Anne; Jacobs, Douglas

    2008-05-01

    Using data from an eating disorders screening initiative conducted in high schools across the United States, we examined the relationship between vomiting frequency and irregular menses in a nonclinical sample of adolescent females. A self-report questionnaire was administered to students from U.S. high schools participating in the National Eating Disorders Screening Program in 2000. The questionnaire included items on frequency of vomiting for weight control in the past 3 months, other eating disorder symptoms, frequency of menses, height, and weight. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted using data from 2791 girls to estimate the risk of irregular menses (defined as menses less often than monthly) associated with vomiting frequency, adjusting for other eating disorder symptoms, weight status, age, race/ethnicity, and school clusters. Girls who vomited to control their weight one to three times per month were one and a half times more likely (risk ratio [RR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-2.2), and girls who vomited once per week or more often were more than three times more likely (RR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.3-4.4), to experience irregular menses than were girls who did not report vomiting for weight control. Vomiting for weight control remained a strong predictor of irregular menses even when overweight and underweight participants were excluded. Our study adds to the evidence that vomiting may have a direct effect on hormonal function in adolescent girls, and that vomiting for weight control may be a particularly deleterious component of eating disorders.

  2. Referral criteria for school-based hearing screening in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faheema Mahomed-Asmail

    Available online xxx. Keywords: ... ciently low for a cost-effective and sustainable programme. The study aim was to .... cost-effectiveness and feasibility of hearing screening ..... Lopez, A. D., Mathers, C. D., Ezzati, M., Jamison, D. T., & · Murray ...

  3. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third graders residing in 3 rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved…

  4. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Skills of Students upon Entering and Exiting a Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, P. Elizabeth; Lane, Dorothy S.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the breast cancer screening knowledge of 27 medical students in first and fourth years. In the fourth year additional questions were asked about training and training needs. Although students performed significantly better on knowledge-based questions in the fourth year, considerable room for improvement remained. Most students…

  5. Relationship between Backpack Weight and Prevalence of Lordosis, Kyphosis, Scoliosis and Dropped Shoulders in Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Zakeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Carrying heavy backpacks by school students at growth age can cause irreversible physical harms. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between backpack weight and the incidence of lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis, and dropped shoulders in elementary school students. Materials and Methods This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in 2015 in Abadan, Iran, and 383 elementary school students were selected and enrolled using the cluster sampling method. Data was collected through the grid method and a demographic questionnaire. The weights of students’ backpacks were recorded, and it was determined whether they were standard or not. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS version 22, descriptive statistics, and the Chi-square test. Results Findings showed that 36.9% of public school students’ backpacks and 55.1% of private school students’ backpacks were non-standard with respect to weight. A significant relationship was also found between non-standard backpack weight and prevalence of dropped shoulders, kyphosis and lordosis (P

  6. SCREENING FOR SIMPLE MYOPIA AMONG HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN IN HYDERABAD CITY

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    Vundi Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Refractive error is one of the most common causes of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness. Due to the high magnitude of uncorrected refractive errors, myopia is considered as one of the important public health problems, especially in the urban population in India. It has been given high priority under the National Programme for Control of Blindness. AIM The aim of the present study is to know the prevalence of myopia and assess the degree of myopia among school going children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Cross-sectional study done for one year. METHODS AND MATERIAL Age group of children 13-15 years, a total of 1600 were included in the study. Refractive error was tested using Snellen’s chart, Pin hole test, Occluder, Retinoscope. Statistical Analysis was done using the Epi Info version 7. RESULTS The prevalence of refractive errors was more in private schools (28.6% than in government schools (23%. It was observed that myopia was the major refractive error (89.8% among total refractive errors, followed by astigmatism (6.1% and hypermetropia (4.1%. In myopic children, both eyes were involved in 71.5%, right eye alone in 16.4%. Only 60% (478 and 98.4% (788 have undergone eye checkups yearly once, 36% and 0.3% didn’t have eye checkups so far in private and government schools respectively. CONCLUSION We conclude that prevalence of refractive errors more in private schools than government schools and myopia is the major among refractive errors. In most of them both the eyes are involved. Bitot’s spots were more in government schools, suggesting the need of vitamin A supplementation.

  7. Locomotor skills and balance strategies in adolescents idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallau, Sophie; Bollini, Gérard; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Assaiante, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Locomotor balance control assessment was performed to study the effect of idiopathic scoliosis on head-trunk coordination in 17 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and 16 control subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the functional effects of structural spinal deformations like idiopathic scoliosis on the balance strategies used during locomotion. Up to now, the repercussion of the idiopathic scoliosis on head-trunk coordination and balance strategies during locomotion is relatively unknown. Seventeen patients with AIS (mean age 14 years 3 months, 10 degrees 30 degrees) and 16 control subjects (mean age 14 years 1 month) were tested during various locomotor tasks: walking on the ground, walking on a line, and walking on a beam. Balance control was examined in terms of rotation about the vertical axis (yaw) and on a frontal plane (roll). Kinematics of foot, pelvis, trunk, shoulder, and head rotations were measured with an automatic optical TV image processor in order to calculate angular dispersions and segmental stabilizations. Decreasing the walking speed is the main adaptive strategy used in response to balance problems in control subjects as well as patients with AIS. However, patients with AIS performed walking tasks more slowly than normal subjects (around 15%). Moreover, the pelvic stabilization is preserved, despite the structural changes affecting the spine. Lastly, the biomechanical defect resulting from idiopathic scoliosis mainly affects the yaw head stabilization during locomotion. Patients with AIS show substantial similarities with control subjects in adaptive strategies relative to locomotor velocity as well as balance control based on segmental stabilization. In contrast, the loss of the yaw head stabilization strategies, mainly based on the use of vestibular information, probably reflects the presence of vestibular deficits in the patients with AIS.

  8. The differences in postural reactions between scoliosis and scoliotic posture

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    Jacek Wilczyński

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to demonstrate the differences in amplitudes of postural reactions in girls with scoliotic posture and idiopathic scoliosis. 28 girls aged 7-18 years old were involved in the study. Children attended to the Interschool Centre of Corrective Exercises in Starachowice. The research was conducted in June 2011. Spine research was made by Exhibeon digital radiography. Based on the size of the angle of spinal curvature there were identified: scoliotic posture: 1-9° and scoliosis: ≥10°. Postural reactions were examined by static-dynamic Tecnobody’s ST 310 Plus Stability System platform. There were 21 (75% children with scoliotic posture, and 7 (25% with idiopathic scoliosis. Student's t-test showed a significantly higher postural reactions for scoliosis in relation to scoliotic postures in case of: Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,05, Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,002, and Ellipse area (CE, (p=0,012. To verify the significant differences, demonstrating the lack of homogeneity of variance, the Mann–Whitney U-test has been used, which showed a significant differences between the scoliotic posture and scoliosis in case of: Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,0012, Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,0548, and Ellipse area (CE (p=0,0047. Together with an increase of the angle of curvature, the value of these postural reactions also grew. Most of postural reactions didn’t fit the norm.

  9. Current concepts and controversies on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Part I

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    Alok Sud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common spinal deformity encountered by General Orthopaedic Surgeons. Etiology remains unclear and current research focuses on genetic factors that may influence scoliosis development and risk of progression. Delayed diagnosis can result in severe deformities which affect the coronal and sagittal planes, as well as the rib cage, waistline symmetry, and shoulder balance. Patient′s dissatisfaction in terms of physical appearance and mechanical back pain, as well as the risk for curve deterioration are usually the reasons for treatment. Conservative management involves mainly bracing with the aim to stop or slow down scoliosis progression during growth and if possible prevent the need for surgical treatment. This is mainly indicated in young compliant patients with a large amount of remaining growth and progressive curvatures. Scoliosis correction is indicated for severe or progressive curves which produce significant cosmetic deformity, muscular pain, and patient discontent. Posterior spinal arthrodesis with Harrington instrumentation and bone grafting was the first attempt to correct the coronal deformity and replace in situ fusion. This was associated with high pseudarthrosis rates, need for postoperative immobilization, and flattening of sagittal spinal contour. Segmental correction techniques were introduced along with the Luque rods, Harri-Luque, and Wisconsin systems. Correction in both coronal and sagittal planes was not satisfactory and high rates of nonunion persisted until Cotrel and Dubousset introduced the concept of global spinal derotation. Development of pedicle screws provided a powerful tool to correct three-dimensional vertebral deformity and opened a new era in the treatment of scoliosis.

  10. The Effect of Manual Therapy on the Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in a 28 Years Old Woman

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    Marzieh Mohamadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic scoliosis (IS is the most common type of scoliosis. Clinical signs and symptoms of scoliosis impair quality of life and daily function. Manual therapy is commonly used for treatment of scoliosis. This is a case report of scoliosis treatment with manual therapy in a 28 years old patient. A 28 years old woman complained of low back pain for 4 years. Spine x-ray, showed scoliosis with a 32 degrees Cobb angle. The patient received a manual therapy procedure of two visits per week for 16 weeks including myofascial release technique, mobilization and manipulation. The Cobb angle was reduced 15.62% after 8 weeks and 21.87% after 16 weeks. In addition the pain was reduced by 50%. We can state that manual therapy was useful for this patient.

  11. Scoliosis: review of types of curves, etiological theories and conservative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakil, Halima; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Al-Ghadir, Ahmad H

    2014-01-01

    Scoliosis is the deviation in the normal vertical spine. Although there are numerous studies available about treatment approaches for scoliosis, the numbers of studies that talk about its etiology and pathology are limited. Aim of this study was to discuss the different types of scoliosis; its curves and etiological theories; and to note their implication on its treatment. We examined various electronic databases including Pub MED, Medline, Cinhal, Cochrane library and Google scholar using key words "scoliosis", "etiology", "pathology" and "conservative treatment". References of obtained articles were also examined for cross references. The search was limited to articles in English language. A total of 145 papers, about Prevalence, History, Symptoms, classification, Biomechanics, Pathogenesis, Kinematics and Treatment of scoliosis were identified to be relevant. To choose the appropriate treatment approach for scoliosis we need to understand its etiology and pathogenesis first. Early intervention with conservative treatment like physiotherapy and bracing can prevent surgery.

  12. The Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire adapted for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients in China: reliability and validity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Xiaotang; Du, Qing; Shang, Lei

    2007-12-01

    Outcome investigation to verify the internal consistency, reproducibility and validity of the adapted Chinese version of the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with idiopathic scoliosis. To develop this questionnaire for the outcome measurement in treating Chinese adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and evaluate its metric qualities. The SRS-22 questionnaire has proven to be a valid instrument for clinical assessment of patients with idiopathic scoliosis and has been successfully translated into Spanish and Turkish. In most developing countries, however, quality of life and psychological health have been poorly described when treating children with idiopathic scoliosis. Trans-cultural adaptation of the SRS-22 questionnaire was carried out according to the International Quality of Life Assessment Project guidelines. The final version was approved by a committee of experts. The questionnaire was completed by 86 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who had been treated with a brace; this included 11 males and 75 females, aged from 10 to 18 years (mean 13.9 years). Curve magnitude ranged from 25 degrees to 45 degrees (mean 35.6 degrees ). A subgroup of 30 patients completed the questionnaire again in 3 or 4 weeks. Five common factors were acquired from factorial analysis, and the cumulative contribution ratio was 67.66%. The overall alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.88. Coefficients for individual domains were as follows: function/activity, 0.70; pain, 0.80; self-image, 0.80; mental health, 0.88; and satisfaction, 0.81. The questionnaire as a whole had a test-retest correlation coefficient of 0.97. Test-retest correlation coefficients for individual domains were as follows: function, 0.85; pain, 0.96; self-image, 0.96; mental health, 0.95; and satisfaction, 0.91. The Chinese version of the SRS-22 questionnaire is eligible in terms of reliability and validity, and can be

  13. Asymmetries of the shoulder and pelvic girdles in girls with scoliosis and scoliotic posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research: To evaluate the asymmetries of the shoulder and pelvic girdles in girls aged 7–18 with scoliosis and scoliotic posture. Material and methods: The children were enrolled at the Międzyszkolny Ośrodek Gimnastyki Korekcyjnej i Kompensacyjnej (Interschool Corrective and Compensatory Gymnastics Centre in Starachowice. The research was carried out in June 2011. 3D digital photogrammetry using the moiré effect was adopted in the research. Depending on the conformity of the variables’ distributions with the normal distribution, and the values of skewness and kurtosis, parametric or non-parametric tests were adopted. The variables were verified in terms of normal distribution with the Shapiro-Wilk test. A screening analysis of the parameters of physiological curvatures of the spine in age groups was also carried out. The relation between the frequency and type of disorders in the frontal plane and age was determined using the χ 2 test. Value of p ≤ 0.05 was assumed as the level of significance. Results: Based on the size of the angle of the curvature of the spine the following were singled out scoliotic posture (1–9° and idiopathic scoliosis (≥ 10°. There were 21 (75% children with the scoliotic posture and 7 (25% with idiopathic scoliosis. The frequency and type of disorders in the frontal plane does not depend on the age of the examined. Asymmetry of the shoulders and shoulder blades was found in all of the examined. The left shoulder along with the left shoulder blade were raised more often. The right side of the pelvis was lowered in most of the examined. Posterior rotation of the left hip bone occurred more often. Conclusions: The values of WBM, WBK and WBC asymmetry coefficients confirm the asymmetry of the shoulder and hip girdles. Analysis of variance did not show any significant relations of asymmetry of the shoulder and hip girdles and the age of the examined.

  14. Growth rates and the prevalence and progression of scoliosis in short-statured children on Australian growth hormone treatment programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhee Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence of any known syndrome and the clinical presence of scoliosis were included for analysis. Subsequently, skeletally immature patients identified with scoliosis were followed up over a period of a minimum four years and the radiologic type, progression and severity (Cobb angle of scoliosis were recorded. Results Four (3.6% of the 109 with idiopathic short stature or hormone deficiency had idiopathic scoliosis (within normal limits for a control population and scoliosis progression was not prospectively observed. 13 (28.8% of 45 with Turner syndrome had scoliosis radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis. 11 (48% of 23 with varying syndromes, had scoliosis. In the entire cohort, the growth rates of those with and without scoliosis were not statistically different and HGH treatment was not ceased because of progression of scoliosis. Conclusion In this study, there was no evidence of HGH treatment being responsible for progression of scoliosis in a small number of non-syndromic patients (four. An incidental finding was that scoliosis, similar to the idiopathic type, appears to be more prevalent in Turner syndrome than previously believed.

  15. Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. Pt. 1. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, A.E. [Radiology Department, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Young, L.W. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children`s Hospital, CA (United States); Young Poussaint, T. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Plain film imaging remains important for the diagnosis and surveillance of scoliosis, as well as for the detection of complications after surgery. Advances in CT and MR imaging have greatly improved the ability to detect or confirming nonidiopathic causes of scoliosis, including abnormalities within the spinal canal. Three-dimensional thinking has become more important in evaluating and understanding scoliosis. (orig.) With 11 figs., 3 tabs., 75 refs.

  16. Influence of Cobb Angle and ISIS2 Surface Topography Volumetric Asymmetry on Scoliosis Research Society-22 Outcome Scores in Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Paul; Berryman, Fiona; Baker, De; Pynsent, Paul; Gardner, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Retrospective sequential patient series. To establish the relationship between the magnitude of the deformity in scoliosis and patients' perception of their condition, as measured with Scoliosis Research Society-22 scores. A total of 93 untreated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included retrospectively. The Cobb angle was measured from a plain radiograph, and volumetric asymmetry was measured by ISIS2 surface topography. The association between Scoliosis Research Society scores for function, pain, self-image, and mental health against Cobb angle and volumetric asymmetry was investigated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Correlation of both Cobb angle and volumetric asymmetry with function and pain was weak (all self-image, was higher, although still moderate (-.37 for Cobb angle and -.44 for volumetric asymmetry). Both were statistically significant (Cobb angle, p = .0002; volumetric asymmetry; p = .00001). Cobb angle contributed 13.8% to the linear relationship with self-image, whereas volumetric asymmetry contributed 19.3%. For mental health, correlation was statistically significant with Cobb angle (p = .011) and volumetric asymmetry (p = .0005), but the correlation was low to moderate (-.26 and -.35, respectively). Cobb angle contributed 6.9% to the linear relationship with mental health, whereas volumetric asymmetry contributed 12.4%. Volumetric asymmetry correlates better with both mental health and self-image compared with Cobb angle, but the correlation was only moderate. This study suggests that a patient's own perception of self-image and mental health is multifactorial and not completely explained through present objective measurements of the size of the deformity. This helps to explain the difficulties in any objective analysis of a problem with multifactorial perception issues. Further study is required to investigate other physical aspects of the deformity that may have a role in how patients view themselves. Copyright

  17. Why did soft drink consumption decrease but screen time not? Mediating mechanisms in a school-based obesity prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brug Johannes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This paper aims to identify the mediating mechanisms of a school-based obesity prevention program (DOiT. Methods The DOiT-program was implemented in Dutch prevocational secondary schools and evaluated using a controlled, cluster-randomised trial (September 2003 to May 2004. We examined mediators of effects regarding (1 consumption of sugar containing beverages (SCB; (2 consumption of high caloric snacks; (3 screen-viewing behaviour; and (4 active commuting to school. To improve these behaviours the DOiT-program tried to influence the following potentially mediating variables: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and habit-strength. Results Both in boys (n = 418 and girls (n = 436 the DOiT-intervention reduced SCB consumption (between group difference in boys = -303.5 ml/day, 95% CI: -502.4;-104.5, between group difference in girls = -222.3 ml/day, 95% CI: -371.3;-73.2. The intervention did not affect the other examined behaviours. In girls, no intervention effect on hypothetical mediators was found nor evidence of any mediating mechanisms. Boys in intervention schools improved their attitude towards decreasing SCB consumption, while this behaviour became less of a habit. Indeed, attitude and habit strength were significant mediators of the DOiT-intervention's effect (4.5 and 3.8%, respectively on SCB consumption among boys. Conclusion Our findings imply that interventions aimed at EBRB-change should be gender-specific. Future studies aimed at reducing SCB consumption among boys should target attitude and habit strength as mediating mechanisms. Our study did not resolve the mediating mechanisms in girls. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN87127361

  18. A Comparison of Methods to Screen Middle School Students for Reading and Math Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; Lackner, Stacey K.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored multiple ways in which middle schools can use and integrate data sources to predict proficiency on future high-stakes state achievement tests. The diagnostic accuracy of (a) prior achievement data, (b) teacher rating scale scores, (c) a composite score combining state test scores and rating scale responses, and (d) two…

  19. Do adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis have body schema disorders? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, Alessandro; Negrini, Stefano; Zenorini, Andrea; Iosa, Marco; Paolucci, Stefano; Smania, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    To date etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis appears complex and still remains unclear. A distorted body schema has been proposed to be a part of a sequence of pathological events in the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To investigate the awareness of trunk misalignment in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Information about 44 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis was collected as follows: age; sex; handedness; family history of scoliosis; back pain; sport practice; shoulder and waist line symmetry; leg length; dorsal kyphosis; back hump; rehabilitation; scoliotic curve; Risser sign. We evaluated awareness of trunk misalignment with a graphic table displaying pictures of progressively increasing scoliotic curves. Patients were asked to indicate which picture corresponded to their perceived own spinal alignment. Patients with thoracolumbar scoliosis overestimated their actual thoracic spine curve. Patients with thoracic-thoracolumbar scoliosis underestimated their actual thoracolumbar spine curve and overestimated their actual lumbar spine curve. Scoliotic curve > 15°, double curve, younger age, back pain, family history of scoliosis and lower Risser score related with a misperception of trunk alignment. Our results support the hypothesis that adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis have an altered corporeal awareness of their trunk alignment.

  20. Effectiveness of school dental screening on dental visits and untreated caries among primary schoolchildren: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayadi, Haya; Sabbah, Wael; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2018-04-13

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases affecting children in Saudi Arabia despite the availability of free dental services. School-based dental screening could be a potential intervention that impacts uptake of dental services, and subsequently, dental caries' levels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two alternative approaches for school-based dental screening in promoting dental attendance and reducing untreated dental caries among primary schoolchildren. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing referral of screened-positive children to a specific treatment facility (King Saud University Dental College) against conventional referral (information letter advising parents to take their child to a dentist). A thousand and ten children in 16 schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, will be recruited for the trial. Schools (clusters) will be randomly selected and allocated to either group. Clinical assessment for dental caries will be conducted at baseline and after 12 months by dentists using the World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Data on sociodemographic, behavioural factors and children's dental visits will be collected through structured questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The primary outcome is the change in number of teeth with untreated dental caries 12 months after referral. Secondary outcomes are the changes in the proportions of children having untreated caries and of those who visited the dentist over the trial period. This project should provide high level of evidence on the clinical benefits of school dental screening. The findings should potentially inform policies related to the continuation/implementation of school-based dental screening in Saudi Arabia. ClinicalTrials.gov , ID: NCT03345680 . Registered on 17 November 2017.

  1. School and Community Screening Shows Malawi, Africa, to Have a High Prevalence of Latent Rheumatic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims Sanyahumbi, Amy; Sable, Craig A; Beaton, Andrea; Chimalizeni, Yamikani; Guffey, Danielle; Hosseinipour, Mina; Karlsten, Melissa; Kazembe, Peter N; Kennedy, Neil; Minard, Charles G; Penny, Daniel J

    2016-12-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the largest cardiac cause of morbidity and mortality in the world's youth. Early detection of RHD through echocardiographic screening in asymptomatic children may identify an early stage of disease, when secondary prophylaxis has the greatest chance of stopping disease progression. Latent RHD signifies echocardiographic evidence of RHD with no known history of acute rheumatic fever and no clinical symptoms. Determine the prevalence of latent RHD among children ages 5-16 in Lilongwe, Malawi. This is a cross-sectional study in which children ages 5 through 16 were screened for RHD using echocardiography. Screening was conducted in 3 schools and surrounding communities in the Lilongwe district of Malawi between February and April 2014. Children were diagnosed as having no, borderline, or definite RHD as defined by World Heart Federation criteria. The primary reader completed offline reads of all studies. A second reader reviewed all of the studies diagnosed as RHD, plus a selection of normal studies. A third reader served as tiebreaker for discordant diagnoses. The distribution of results was compared between gender, location, and age categories using Fisher's exact test. The prevalence of latent RHD was 3.4% (95% CI = 2.45, 4.31), with 0.7% definite RHD and 2.7% borderline RHD. There was no significant differences in prevalence between gender (P = .44), site (P = .6), urban vs. peri-urban (P = .75), or age (P = .79). Of those with definite RHD, all were diagnosed because of pathologic mitral regurgitation (MR) and 2 morphologic features of the mitral valve. Of those with borderline RHD, most met the criteria by having pathological MR (92.3%). Malawi has a high rate of latent RHD, which is consistent with other results from sub-Saharan Africa. This study strongly supports the need for a RHD prevention and control program in Malawi. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of Srs-24 And Srs-22 Scores in Thirty Eight Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Who Had Undergone Surgical Correction

    OpenAIRE

    CYW Chan; LB Saw; MK Kwan

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity that affects patients’ self image and confidence. Surgery is offered when the curvature is greater than 50 degrees based on the likelihood of curvature progression. Outcome measures for scoliosis correction can be described in terms of radiological improvement or improvement of health related quality of life scores. The Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22) and Scoliosis Research Society 24 (SRS-24) questionnaires are widely accepted and ...

  3. The prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity – a study based on vision screening conducted at Enukweni and Mzuzu Foundation Primary Schools, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thom L

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaveson Thom,1 Sanchia Jogessar,1,2 Sara L McGowan,1 Fiona Lawless,1,2 1Department of Optometry, Mzuzu University, Mzuzu, Malawi; 2Brienholden Vision Institute, Durban, South Africa Aim: To determine the prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity (VA among pupils recruited in two primary schools in Mzimba district, northern region of Malawi.Materials and methods: The study was based on the vision screening which was conducted by optometrists at Enukweni and Mzuzu Foundation Primary Schools. The measurements during the screening included unaided distance monocular VA by using Low Vision Resource Center and Snellen chart, pinhole VA on any subject with VA of less than 6/6, refraction, pupil evaluations, ocular movements, ocular health, and shadow test.Results: The prevalence of decreased VA was found to be low in school-going population (4%, n=594. Even though Enukweni Primary School had few participants than Mzuzu Foundation Primary School, it had high prevalence of decreased VA (5.8%, n=275 than Mzuzu Foundation Primary School (1.8%, n=319. The principal causes of decreased VA in this study were found to be amblyopia and uncorrected refractive errors, with myopia being the main cause than hyperopia.Conclusion: Based on the low prevalence of decreased VA due to myopia or hyperopia, it should not be concluded that refractive errors are an insignificant contributor to visual disability in Malawi. More vision screenings are required at a large scale on school-aged population to reflect the real situation on the ground. Cost-effective strategies are needed to address this easily treatable cause of vision impairment. Keywords: vision screening, refractive errors, visual acuity, Enukweni, Mzuzu foundation

  4. Effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude to sickle cell disorder and screening practices among school of nursing students in Sokoto, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, A O; Ojika, B O; Mannir, B; Abba, S K; Muhammad, M; Ibrahim, M T O; Aschcroft, B N; Akanmu, S S

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disorder is the most important genetic hematological disease that affects people of black African descent. The years of young adulthood present a good opportunity for screening and counseling for this genetic blood disorder. To assess effect of health education and provision of free sickle cell haemoglobin screening on knowledge of sickle cell disorder, attitude towards sickle cell haemoglobin screening, and uptake of sickle cell haemoglobin screening among students of a School of Nursing. Study design was a quasi-experimental noncontrolled study. Self-administered questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention data collection. Implemented interventions were seminar on sickle cell disorder combined with free sickle cell haemoglobin screening. The data was analyzed with Epi-info version 3.5.1 statistical software package. Respondents who participated in all the study phases were 104. Mean knowledge score (%) was high (80.9 +/- 22.8%) at baseline and improved significantly to 91.8 +/- 9.4% (p marriage if self and fiancée are carriers of sickle cell haemoglobin. Phenotype of the respondents that volunteered to be screened for sickle cell haemoglobin were: A (70.5%), AC (6.8%) and AS (22.7%). Implemented interventions, seminar on sickle cell disorder combined with free sickle cell haemoglobin screening service yielded significant impact on respondents' knowledge, attitude and uptake of sickle cell haemoglobin screening.

  5. Randomized controlled trial to investigate the effects of growth hormone treatment on scoliosis in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind van Wijngaarden, R.F. de; Klerk, L.W. de; Festen, D.A.M.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Otten, B.J.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: The prevalence of scoliosis in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is 30-80%, depending on age. Although reports about effects of GH treatment on scoliosis in children with PWS are limited, scoliosis is generally considered a contraindication for GH treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim was

  6. Towards an understanding of the information and support needs of surgical adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients: a qualitative analysis

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    Nyhof-Young Joyce

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informed decision making for adolescents and families considering surgery for scoliosis requires essential information, including expected outcomes with or without treatment and the associated risks and benefits of treatment. Ideally families should also receive support in response to their individual concerns. The aim of this study was to identify health-specific needs for online information and support for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who have had or anticipate having spinal surgery. Methods Focus group methodology was chosen as the primary method of data collection to encourage shared understandings, as well as permit expression of specific, individual views. Participants were considered eligible to participate if they had either experienced or were anticipating surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis within 12 months, were between the ages of 10 and 18 years of age, and were English-speaking. Results Two focus groups consisting of 8 adolescents (1 male, 7 female and subsequent individual interviews with 3 adolescents (1 male, 2 female yielded a range of participant concerns, in order of prominence: (1 recovery at home; (2 recovery in hospital; (3 post-surgical appearance; (4 emotional impact of surgery and coping; (5 intrusion of surgery and recovery of daily activities; (6 impact of surgery on school, peer relationships and other social interactions; (7 decision-making about surgery; (8 being in the operating room and; (9 future worries. Conclusion In conclusion, adolescents welcomed the possibility of an accessible, youth-focused website with comprehensive and accurate information that would include the opportunity for health professional-moderated, online peer support.

  7. Body Image and Quality-of-Life in Untreated Versus Brace-Treated Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L; Dolan, Lori A; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R

    2016-02-01

    The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°- 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or QOL. 2.

  8. The oldest record of aquatic amniote congenital scoliosis.

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    Tomasz Szczygielski

    Full Text Available We report the first occurrence of congenital scoliosis in an early Permian aquatic parareptile, Stereosternum tumidum from Paraná state, Brazil. The spine malformation is caused by a congenital hemivertebra. These observations give insight into the biomechanical aspects of underwater locomotion in an axial skeleton-compromised aquatic amniote. This is the oldest record of a hemivertebra in an aquatic animal.

  9. One stage surgical treatment for scoliosis associated with intraspinal abnormalities

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    Kai WANG

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of one stage surgical treatment for scoliosis and coexisting intraspinal abnormalities. Methods The data of 6 patients who underwent one stage surgical treatment for scoliosis and coexisting intraspinal abnormalities from October 2016 to January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment for intraspinal abnormalities, posterior correction, osteotomy and internal fixation were performed simultaneously. The clinical and radiologic presentations, operative details, complications and postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results The success rate was 100%. The operating time was (470.83 ± 136.20 min and intraoperative bleeding amount was 1350 (625, 2150 ml. Total fusion segments were 11.00 ± 2.76. Both Cobb angle of scoliosis [postoperation (19.60 ± 5.94° vs. preoperation (59.40 ± 14.31°, P = 0.007] and kyphosis [postoperation (25.80 ± 10.87° vs. preoperation (62.40 ± 21.04°, P = 0.005] were improved after operation. Tethered cords were released and epidermoid cyst, ganglioglioma and lipoma were excised. Syringomyelia was left untreated. No neurological functional defect or worsening was found. Muscle strength of all patients was improved. Muscular tone of 4 patients and difficulty in urination of 5 patients were also improved. The mean hospital stay was (8.83 ± 3.31 d. No severe complications, such as infection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage, failed internal fixation, fractured pedicle screws or rods occurred after operation. None of the patients died, or experienced deterioration of neurological function, delayed infection, pseudoarthrosis, or loss correction during the (7.50 ± 1.22 months follow - up. Conclusions The one stage surgical treatment for scoliosis and intraspinal abnormalities seems to be a safe and effective approach. Neurological functional defect can be improved after operation. Osteotomy can improve correction result. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.09.011

  10. Are we simplifying balance evaluation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Saba; Baldwin, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of the postural balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has been measured by sagittal vertical axis and frontal balance. The impact of the scoliotic deformity in three planes on balance has not been fully investigated. 47 right thoracic and left lumbar curves adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 10 non-scoliotic controls were registered prospectively. 13 spinopelvic postural parameters were calculated from the 3-dimantional reconstructions of X-rays. 7 balance variables describing the position and sway of the center of pressure were recorded using a pressure mat. A regression analysis was used to predict sagittal vertical axis and frontal balance from the 7 balance variables. A canonical correlation analysis was performed between all the postural parameters and balance variables and the significant associations between the postural and balance variables were determined. sagittal vertical axis and frontal balance were not significantly associated with the position or sway of the center of pressure (p>0.05). Canonical correlation analysis showed significant associations between the postural variables in the 3 planes and center of pressure position (R 2 =0.81) and sway (R 2 =0.62), pbalance contributed to the postural balance in the cohort. The compensatory role of the pelvis and distal kyphosis in sagittal plane was underlined. Multidimensional analyses between the postural and balance variables showed the alignment of the thoracic, lumbar, and pelvis in the 3 planes, in addition to the global head-pelvic position impact on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurophysiological basis of rehabilitation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smania, Nicola; Picelli, Alessandro; Romano, Michele; Negrini, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on mechanisms of neurophysiological control of trunk movement and posture could help in the development of rehabilitation programs and brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Reviewing up-to-date research on neurophysiology of movement and posture control with the aim of providing basis for new researches in the field of AIS rehabilitation and background understanding for clinicians engaged in management of AIS. Review of literature. We considered several neurophysiological issues relevant for AIS rehabilitation, namely, the peculiar organization of patterns of trunk muscle recruitment, the structure of the neural hardware subserving axial and arm muscle control, and the relevance of cognitive systems allowing mapping of spatial coordinates and building of body schema. We made clear the reason why trunk control is generally carried out by means of very fast, feedforward or feedback driven patterns of muscle activation which are deeply rooted in our neural control system and very difficult to modify by training. We hypothesized that augmented sensory feedback and strength exercises could be an important stage in a rehabilitation program aimed at hindering, or possibly reversing, scoliosis progression. In this context we considered bracing not only as a corrective biomechanical device but also as a tool for continuous sensory stimulation that could help awareness of body misalignment. Future research aimed at developing strategies of trunk postural control learning is essential in the rehabilitation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  12. Knowledge about idiopathic scoliosis among students of physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciazynski, D; Czernicki, K; Durmala, J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of basic knowledge about idiopathic scoliosis (IS) among students of physiotherapy. The study included 37 students of Medical University of Silesia (17F and 20M aged 22-25, mean 22.6), attending the 3(rd) year of a 1(st) degree of physiotherapy. All students had credits in kinesiotherapy, including methods of conservative treatment of IS. Students were examined using a questionnaire, comprising general knowledge of IS, questions related to sagittal plane correction, influence of various physical activities on IS and known methods of conservative treatment. 81 students considered IS as 3-D deformity. 62.2% of those questioned would diagnose IS when the Cobb angle reaches 10 degrees . All students agreed that the aetiology of IS remains unknown. 54.1% considered forcible extensory exercises of back as favourable in IS. Questioned students mostly preferred swimming (94.6%), yoga (73.0%) and martial arts (32.4%) as beneficial to IS. The methods of conservative treatment which were known best were: Lehnert-Schroth-Weiss (94.6%), Klapp (91.9%), Majoch (89.2%) and Dobosiewicz (78.4%). The conclusions indicate that the average level of knowledge of idiopathic scoliosis among students of physiotherapy is unsatisfactory, despite the education programme including the SOSORT guidelines. Education in the field of scoliosis should be comprehensive and meet contemporary guidelines and standards.

  13. Mechanism to induce scoliosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Yasuyo; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Mano, Yukio.

    1992-01-01

    We studied the mechanism to induce scoliosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) of paraspinal muscles. CT examination of paraspinal muscles was performed on 15 DMD patients at the following six levels: (1) Th3 vertebrae (upper thoracic spine level); (2) Th6 vertebrae (middle thoracic spine level); (3) Th10 vertebrae (lower thoracic spine level); (4) L1 vertebrae (upper lumbar spine level); (5) L3 vertebrae (middle lumbar spine level); (6) L5 vertebrae (lower lumbar spine level). We evaluated the degeneration of paraspinal muscle by a decrese in ratio-density of the muscle which indicates infiltration of fatty tissue. The degeneration of the lateral portion of paraspinal muscle was more marked than that of the medial portion. The muscle was most severely affected at the middle lumbar spine level, showing a tendency to increase degeneration at the lower level of the spine. In cases showing laterality of the degeneration of paraspinal muscle, the less affected muscle on CT was located at the convex site of scoliosis. We speculate that the scoliosis occurs when DMD patients have asymmetrical paraspinal muscle degeneration, leading them to take compensatory posture. (author)

  14. MUSCLE DISORDERS IN ADOLESCENT IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS: LITERATURE REVIEW

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    Débora Pinheiro Lédio Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Scoliosis is characterized by three-dimensional changes of the spine and is estimated to be present in 4% of the population worldwide. The most common form is the adolescent idiopathic. The purpose of this study is to identify the major muscle abnormalities found in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis through a literature review. We conducted an electronic search of the national databases PubMed, Lilacs, PEDro, and EMBASE using the keywords "scoliosis", "biomechanics", "exercise", "physical therapy specialty", "idiopathic", and "muscles", from January 2003 to April 2015. The most relevant articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish were selected by title and abstract. It was also performed a manual search of the references of the selected articles. From a total of 4,319 articles, 11 were selected. We conclude that individuals with AIS have changes in the paraspinal muscles, with a difference in activation between the concave and convex sides, suggesting an increase in EMG activity on the convex side, although there is still no consensus among the authors.

  15. IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS. /LECTURE, PART I. «PARADOXES»/

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    Михаил Георгиевич Дудин

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we discussed and analyzed the issues that confront practicing orthopedists with the most mysterious and at the same time the most studied vertebral column lesion in children and adolescents - idiopathic scoliosis. Nowadays a great amount of information on its various aspects has been already accumulated, but a practical output in the form of a system of effective treatment has not been yet found and (we can’t even speak about there is no speech at all about the prevention (prophylactic of the disease (scoliosis. On the basis of the own many year’s experience with this category of patients and the results of a comprehensive multi-faceted survey, the authors acquired the right to form their own point of view on the etiology and pathogenesis of the three-plane deformation in orthograde human (homo erectus. In this paper, the authors present their reflections on the history of the study of scoliosis, the terminology, statistical indicators and the existing views on its origins. Concerning argumentation on the own findings (conclusions and views on the disease the authors plan to tell in the following sections.

  16. MRI evaluation of multifidus muscles in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yu-Leung; King, A.D.; Griffith, J.F.; Metreweli, C.; Cheng, J.C.Y.; Guo Xia

    1999-01-01

    Background. The role of the multifidus muscles in the initiation and progression of curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is not fully understood and controversy exists as to the side of the abnormality. Objective. To evaluate on MRI the multifidus muscles at the apex of the major curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis to ascertain if the multifidus muscles on the convex or concave side are abnormal and the relationship to curve severity. Materials and methods. Forty-six patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, separated into two groups, were studied using a 1.5-T MR scanner with the synergy spine coil, employing a modified STIR (short tau inversion recovery) axial sequence obtained at the apex of the major scoliotic curve. Results. No hyperintense signal change was demonstrated in the convex side multifidus muscles in any patient. In group I, 16 of 18 patients with severe or rapidly progressive curve showed increase in signal intensity in the multifidus muscle on the concave side of the apex of the curve. In group II, of the 15 patients with mild curve (Cobb angle 10-30 ), 4 had increased signal intensity in the multifidus muscle on the concave side; of the 13 with more severe curve (Cobb angle greater than 30 ), 10 had increase in multifidus signal intensity on the concave side. Conclusions. The concave-side multifidus muscle at the apex of a scoliotic curve was morphologically abnormal. A significant association between abnormal signal change and curve severity was also established. (orig.)

  17. Rehabilitation of scoliosis patients with pain after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    In our centre, the postoperative scoliosis rehabilitation consists in stabilizing postural and respiratory exercises lasting several hours a day (5 1/2 to 7 hours). Additionally to pain treatment, we apply pain physiotherapy, physical therapy, acupuncture and besides manual medicine, also a psychological intervention and pain treatment by medication. 46 patients suffered from heavier pain 10 or more years after scoliosis surgery. The patients reported their pain at the beginning and at the end of 3-6 week in-patient rehabilitation programme. We applied a visual analogous scale (VAS), a numerical scale (NS), a standardized adjective scale (VRS), and a pain frequency scale. All the patients with an average age of 36 years old (SD=16) and an average curve angle of 35 degrees thoracic (SD=36) and 26 degrees lumbar (SD=22) showed a decrease of the values on the pain intensity scale. Pain reduction was highly significant, as well as pain frequency. Chronic pain as a late result following scoliosis surgery can be reduced by an intensive in-patient rehabilitation, at least in the short term. There are further necessary studies in order to follow-up the long-term effect of postoperative rehabilitation.

  18. Subdural Hemorrhage after Scoliosis and Detethering of Cord Surgery

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    Rohan Bhimani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial hypotension may occur when CSF leaks from the subarachnoid space. Formation of intracranial, subdural, and subarachnoid hemorrhage has been observed after significant CSF leak as seen in lumbar puncture or ventricular shunt placement. However, very few cases, referring to these remote complications following spine surgery, have been described in literature. We present a case of a 10-year-old male child operated for idiopathic scoliosis with low-lying conus medullaris who postoperatively developed subdural hemorrhage. Case Report. A case of a 10-year-old male operated for idiopathic scoliosis with low-lying conus medullaris is presented. To correct this, detethering was done at the L3 level, laminectomy was done from L2 to L3 with pedicular screw fixation from T3 to L2, and bone grafting with right costoplasty was done from the 3rd to the 6th ribs. On the 5th day postoperatively, the patient developed convulsions and drowsiness and recovered subsequently by postoperative day 7. Conclusion. We report a rare case of an acute intracranial subdural hemorrhage caused by intracranial hypotension following scoliosis and detethering of cord surgery. This report highlights the potential morbidity associated with CSF leak occurring after this surgery.

  19. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Indications and efficacy of nonoperative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Canavese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis depends essentially upon the magnitude and pattern of the deformity, and its potential for progression. Treatment options include observation, bracing and/or surgery. During the past decade, several studies have demonstrated that the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be positively affected by nonoperative treatment, especially bracing. Other forms of conservative treatment, such as chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, exercise or other manual treatments, or diet and nutrition, have not yet been proven to be effective in controlling spinal deformity progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Observation is appropriate treatment for small curves, curves that are at low risk of progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Indications for brace treatment are a growing child presenting with a curve of 25°-40° or a curve less than 25° with documented progression. Curves of 20°-25° in patients with pronounced skeletal immaturity should also be treated. The purpose of this review is to provide information about conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Indications for conservative treatment, hours daily wear and complications of brace treatment as well as brace types are discussed.

  20. Polish adaptation of scoliosis research society-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Maciej; Misterska, Ewa; Laurentowska, Maria; Mankowski, Przemyslaw

    2009-05-01

    Polish adaptation of the original version of Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) instrument. The transcultural adaptation of SRS-22 and evaluation of its internal consistency. High psychometric value of the SRS-22 Questionnaire has made it an effective evaluation instrument in clinically assessing the functional status of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. First, 2 translators translated the original version into Polish. Afterwards, the translators identified differences between the translations and produced a consensus version. In the third stage, 2 native English speakers produced back translations. Finally, a team of 2 orthopedic surgeons, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all the translations to produce a prefinal version. The questionnaire was administered to 60 girls at the age of 16.6, SD 2.0 with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with the Cotrel-Dubousset method in Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic in Poznań. The internal consistency in the Polish version equaled 0.89 for the overall result and 0.81 for function, 0.81 for pain, 0.80 for mental health, 0.77 for self-image, and 0.69 for treatment satisfaction domains, respectively. The Polish version of SRS-22 is characterized by high internal consistency for all domains and for the overall score, which makes it an evaluation tool after surgical treatment compatible with the original SRS-22.

  1. Scoliosis in a Case of Neurofibromatosis Type 1

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    Özlem SOLAK

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1 is a multisystemic disease, manifesting as abnormalities ofthe nervous tissue, bones, soft tissue, and skin. The entity is dominantly inherited and affects 1in 4000 individuals. Cafe-au-lait spots, peripheral neurofibromas, Lisch nodules and axillaryfreckling are the characteristics of NF1. Bone abnormalities are usually observed in NF1. Scoliosis is a skeletal anomaly reported to beassociated with NF1. We made a diagnosis of NF1 and scoliosis secondary to NF1 in our 26-year-old male case with complaints of low back pain, a mass on his left hip beginning 10 yearsago and growing and with cafe-au-lait spots on his back. We think that, in daily practice, it isimportant to look for cafe-au-lait spots with inspection in the patients coming with the complaintof low back pain and when these spots are observed a diagnosis of NF1 should be suspected.Besides, we wanted to emphasize that scoliosis should be searched in the patients with adiagnosis of NF1 and low back pain.

  2. Converting Scoliosis Research Society-24 to Scoliosis Research Society-22r in a Surgical-Range, Medical/Interventional Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patient Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Antonia F; Bi, Wenzhu; Singhabahu, Dilrukshika; Londino, Joanne; Hohl, Justin; Ward, Maeve; Ward, W Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Prospective questionnaire administration study. To assess the ability to translate total and domain scores from Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-24 to SRS-22r in a surgical-range, medical/interventional adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patient population. Conversion of SRS-24 to SRS-22r is demonstrated in an operative cohort of patients with AIS, but not in a medical/interventional patient population. We simultaneously administered SRS-24 and SRS-22r questionnaires to 75 surgical-range, medical/interventional AIS patients and compared them. We performed analysis by regression modeling to produce conversion equations from SRS-24 to SRS-22r. The total SRS-24 score for these medical/interventional AIS patients was 92.5 ± 9.45 (mean, 3.9 ± 0.39), and the total SRS-22r score was 93.5 ± 9.63 (mean, 4.3 ± 0.44). The correlation between these 2 groups was fair (R 2 = 0.77) and improved to good when mental health or recall questions were removed. The correlation was also fair for total pain domains (R 2 = 0.73). However, there was poor correlation for general self-image (R 2 = 0.6) and unacceptable for post-treatment self-image (R 2 = 0.01), general function (R 2 = 0.52), activity function (R 2 = 0.56), and satisfaction (R 2 = 0.53). Compared with a published population of operative AIS patients, R 2 values for total SRS-24 scores, pain, general self-image, activity function, and satisfaction were similar (p > .05). The R 2 values for general function and combined general and activity function were significantly different between the operative and medical/interventional cohorts. Scoliosis Research Society-24 can be converted to SRS-22r scores with fair accuracy in the surgical-range, medical/interventional AIS patient population for total score, and total pain domains. The SRS-24 translates unacceptably to the SRS-22r in self-image, function, and satisfaction domains. The SRS-24 to SRS-22r conversion equations are similar to operative AIS patients, except for the

  3. Utilization of cervical cancer screening services and its associated factors among primary school teachers in Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kileo, Neema Minja; Michael, Denna; Neke, Nyasule Majura; Moshiro, Candida

    2015-12-15

    Worldwide cervical cancer is one of the more common forms of carcinoma among women, causing high morbidity and high mortality. Despite being a major health problem in Tanzania, screening services for cervical cancer are very limited, and uptake of those services is low. We therefore conducted a study to investigate utilization of cancer screening services, and its associated factors among female primary school teachers in Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam. We conducted a cross-sectional study between May - August 2011 which involved 110 primary schools in Ilala Municipality in Dar es Salaam. Five hundred and twelve female primary school teachers were sampled using a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Data on utilization of cervical cancer and risk factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Proportional utilization of cervical cancer screening services was identified through a self report. Risk factors for services utilization were assessed using logistic regression analyses. Out of 512 female primary school teachers, only 108 (21 %) reported to ever been screened for cervical cancer. Utilization of cervical cancer screening services was 28 % among those aged 20-29, 22 % among married and 24 % among those with higher level of education. Women were more likely to utilize the cancer-screening service if they were multiparous (age-adjusted OR = 3.05, 95 % CI 1.15-8.06, P value 0.025), or reported more than one lifetime sexual partner (age-adjusted OR 2.17, 95 % CI 1.04-4.54, P value 0.038), or did not involve their spouse in making health decisions (adjusted OR 3.56, 95 % CI 2.05-6.18, P value service among female primary school teachers in Ilala munipality. Female primary school teachers with more than one previous pregnancy and those with more than one life-time sex partners were more likely to report utilization of the service. Spouse or partners support was an important factor in the utilization of cervical cancer screening

  4. Sagittal balance in scoliosis associated with Marfan syndrome: a stereoradiographic three-dimensional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glard, Yann; Pomero, Vincent; Collignon, Patrick; Skalli, Wafa; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Bollini, Gérard

    2008-03-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disease often marked by the presence of scoliosis. There is no three-dimensional analysis of the deformity in the literature. Our aim was to determine what kind of sagittal balance defines scoliosis associated with MFS, namely a flexion deformity, as it is in scoliosis associated with Chiari I or an extension deformity, as in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To address this issue, we compared the presence or absence of a thoracic scoliosis with the presence or absence of a segment in extension in the thoracic spine. In our series, 30 patients diagnosed with Marfan syndrome were prospectively included. In each patient, personalized three-dimensional reconstruction from T1 to L5 of the spine was made using stereoradiography. The patients were first separated based on the presence or absence of thoracic scoliosis, in order to compare this with the presence or absence of a segment in extension in the thoracic spine. They were then classified into two groups based on the presence or absence of the segment in extension (meaning containing negative values of inter-vertebral sagittal rotation) in the thoracic spine. Among scoliotic patients with a thoracic scoliosis (17 cases), there were 13 (76.5% cases) with a segment in extension in the thoracic spine and 4 with no segment in extension. Our results showed that scoliosis associated with MFS is somehow original, demonstrating a sagittal balance in extension (as AIS) in about 80% of thoracic curves, but without this characteristic feature in about 20%.

  5. Spinal cord transection before scoliosis correction in myelomeningocele may improve bladder function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, Josephine I.; Veenboer, Paul W.; Dik, Pieter; Pruijs, Hans E. H.; Han, Sen K. S.; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.

    2014-01-01

    In patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) and coexistent scoliosis, a spinal cord transection (SC-transection) is sometimes performed before scoliosis correction to prevent traction on the myelum after stretching the spinal column. Performing a SC-transection may have positive effects on bladder

  6. Psychological aspects of idiopathic scoliosis: the specificity of the mother-daughter relationship

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    Galina V. Pyatakova

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: General and specific characteristics of the mother-daughter relationship in families of adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis and families of healthy adolescent girls were revealed. In the context of complex surgical treatment, preventive measures are necessary to address psychological difficulties in adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

  7. The role of intrinsic spinal mechanisms in the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, J.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite numerous years of dedicated research into the origin of idiopathic scoliosis, the pathogenesis of this classic orthopaedic disorder has so far remained elusive. A striking feature of idiopathic scoliosis is the fact that it does not occur in vertebrates other than humans, despite many

  8. Forces exerted during exercises by patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis wearing fiberglass braces

    OpenAIRE

    Romano Michele; Carabalona Roberta; Petrilli Silvia; Sibilla Paolo; Negrini Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify and compare the forces exerted by scoliosis patients in fiberglass braces during exercises usually prescribed in departments where casts are made. The exercises are intended to increase corrective forces, activate muscles, stimulate ventilation and help the patient psychologically. Setting Outpatient care. Patients 17 consecutive adolescent patients wearing fiberglass brace for idiopathic scoliosis. Interventions Exercises (kyphotization, rotation, "escape from ...

  9. Determination of bone density via /sup 125/I-densitometry in idiophathic scoliosis

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    Matzen, K.A.; Milachowski, K.A.; Weinberger, N.; Rohloff, R.

    1984-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether idiopathic scoliosis is associated with a general reduction of the calcium salt content of the bones. The study was conducted in a scoliosis patient group of 48 individuals, using /sup 125/I densitometry.

  10. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: From Normal Spinal Anatomy To Three-Dimensional Deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, T.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and trunk that primarily affects previously healthy children. It is a classic orthopedic disorder. Despite many years of dedicated research into the etio-pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis, there is not one distinct

  11. Scoliosis correction with shape-memory metal : results of an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elstrodt, JA; Veldhuizen, AG; van Horn, [No Value

    The biocompatibility and functionality of a new scoliosis correction device, based on the properties of the shape-memory metal nickel-titanium alloy, were studied. With this device, the shape recovery forces of a shape-memory metal rod are used to achieve a gradual three-dimensional scoliosis

  12. Discriminative validity of the Scoliosis Research Society 22 questionnaire among five curve-severity subgroups of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Jonathan L; Verma, Kushagra; Lonner, Baron S; Penn, Phedra U; Bharucha, Neil J

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) 22 discriminative validity have lacked sufficiently matched study groups and were limited to a comparison with three or fewer subgroups of disease severity. To evaluate the discriminative validity of SRS-22 by assessing the questionnaire's ability to discriminate among five groups of pretreatment adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with increasing curve severity. Retrospective review of prospectively administered surveys. Two hundred eighty-six SRS-22 questionnaires were issued to two AIS pretreatment patient populations: 67 nonoperative and 219 preoperative. Study subjects were separated into five subgroups depending on the major Cobb angle (nonoperative 0°-19° and 20°-40° and preoperative 41°-50°, 51°-60°, and >60°). Each group (n=31) was matched for age (within 1 year) and sex (23 females and 8 males), resulting in a total of 155 study subjects. Analysis of variance was used to determine statistically significant differences (pself-image than all three preoperative groups. Both nonoperative groups' total scores were significantly higher than all three preoperative groups' scores, with the exception of the 20° to 40° subgroup versus the >60° subgroup. No significant differences were found between groups within the same planned treatment category. The SRS-22 questionnaire demonstrated good discriminative validity between small nonoperative curves and larger surgical curves within the pain, image, and total domains. However, SRS-22 lacked the ability to differentiate between small intervals of curve magnitude, suggesting a limitation to the questionnaire's discriminative capacity. The discriminative validity of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) 22 has not been clearly defined. Our analysis of 155 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients evaluates the instrument's discriminative validity among five age- and sex-matched curve-severity subgroups. The SRS-22 questionnaire lacked the

  13. Universal School-Based Implementation of Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment to Reduce and Prevent Alcohol, Marijuana, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use: Process and Feasibility

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    Julie Maslowsky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT is an evidence-based approach to reducing substance use in adolescents. An emerging literature shows the promise of school-based SBIRT. However, most school-based SBIRT has only targeted substance-using adolescents and used school-based health clinics, which most schools lack. This project aimed to describe the following: a model for implementing universal SBIRT in high schools without school-based clinics, reasons students most commonly endorsed for reducing or avoiding substance use, students’ perceptions of SBIRT, and students’ intentions to change substance use or remain abstinent following SBIRT. Participants were N = 2513, 9th to 10th grade students in 10 high schools. Students rated SBIRT positively and indicated substantial intentions to reduce or delay substance use following SBIRT. Results support SBIRT’s potential to delay substance use among current abstainers in addition to reducing substance use among current users. This project demonstrates SBIRT’s feasibility as a universal method in high schools without in-school clinics.

  14. Validation of a Japanese version of the Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire among idiopathic scoliosis patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Sase, Takeshi; Arai, Yasuhisa; Maruyama, Toru; Isobe, Keijirou; Shouno, Yasuhiro

    2007-02-15

    A cross-sectional observational study to determine the response distribution, internal consistency, and construct, concurrent, and discriminative validities of The Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) Patient Questionnaire translated into Japanese as compared with the other language versions. To validate the Japanese version of SRS22. The SRS-22 was translated into several languages but yet not into Japanese. The Japanese SRS-22 and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 were simultaneously administered to 114 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure, though several items were not loaded as theoretically expected. The originally constructed Japanese SRS-22 subscales and the English version showed similar response distribution. Internal consistency was fair but lower than that of the English version. The concurrent validity of the translated version, except for the self-image subscale, was supported using Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 subscales as a reference. The function scale differed significantly by curve angle magnitude and treatment status. The self-image score was the highest in patients under observation when curve angle was or = 40 degrees, respectively. The Japanese SRS-22 is valid and may be useful for clinical evaluation of Japanese scoliosis patients, though the self-image subscale may need further assessment.

  15. Rastreio de disgrafia motora em escolares da rede pública de ensino Screening for motor dysgraphia in public schools

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    Marielza Regina Ismael Martins

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rastrear sinais de alerta para a disgrafia em escolares do 6º ano do ensino fundamental. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório, de coorte transversal realizado com 630 escolares avaliados através do Inventário Disgráfico Analítico (adaptado, que reconhece as dificuldades da escrita através do traçado dos grafismos. RESULTADOS : Em 22% (n = 138 da amostra apareceram todos os indicativos de disgrafia, sendo que o indicador mais prevalente foi o de linha ascendente/descendente/flutuante (53,6%. Se correlacionados os indicadores ao gênero,os meninos apresentaram diferença significativa (p OBJECTIVE: To screen for warning signs of dysgraphia in schoolchildren at the sixth grade of elementary school. METHOD: This was a descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional cohort study performed with 630 schoolchildren assessed through the (adapted Analytical Dysgraphia Inventory, which recognizes difficulties in writing through the tracing the graphics. RESULTS: A total of 22% (n = 138 of the sample presented all indications of dysgraphia; the most prevalent indicator was ascending/descending/fluctuating lines (53.6%. When the indicators were correlated to gender, males showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in most of them. Among the warning signs of co-occurrences, dyslexia was the most prevalent indicator (22%. CONCLUSION: Given the large number of warning signs of dysgraphia observed in schoolchildren, it is advisable to screen for these signs, in order to implement early interventions.

  16. Multimedia messages in genetics: design, development, and evaluation of a computer-based instructional resource for secondary school students in a Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gason, Alexandra A; Aitken, MaryAnne; Delatycki, Martin B; Sheffield, Edith; Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2004-01-01

    Tay Sachs disease is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder, for which carrier screening programs exist worldwide. Education for those offered a screening test is essential in facilitating informed decision-making. In Melbourne, Australia, we have designed, developed, and evaluated a computer-based instructional resource for use in the Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program for secondary school students attending Jewish schools. The resource entitled "Genetics in the Community: Tay Sachs disease" was designed on a platform of educational learning theory. The development of the resource included formative evaluation using qualitative data analysis supported by descriptive quantitative data. The final resource was evaluated within the screening program and compared with the standard oral presentation using a questionnaire. Knowledge outcomes were measured both before and after either of the educational formats. Data from the formative evaluation were used to refine the content and functionality of the final resource. The questionnaire evaluation of 302 students over two years showed the multimedia resource to be equally effective as an oral educational presentation in facilitating participants' knowledge construction. The resource offers a large number of potential benefits, which are not limited to the Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program setting, such as delivery of a consistent educational message, short delivery time, and minimum financial and resource commitment. This article outlines the value of considering educational theory and describes the process of multimedia development providing a framework that may be of value when designing genetics multimedia resources in general.

  17. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD tests in a school-age hearing screening programme – analysis of 76,429 children

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    Piotr H. Skarzynski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Hearing disorders among school-age children are a current concern. Continuing studies have been performed in Poland since 2008, and on 2 December 2011 the EU Council adopted Conclusions on the Early Detection and Treatment of Communication Disorders in Children, Including the Use of e-Health Tools and innovative Solutions. The discussion now focuses not only on the efficacy of hearing screening programmes in schoolchildren, but what should be its general aim and what tests it should include? This paper makes the case that it is important to include central auditory processing disorder (CAPD tests. One such test is the dichotic digits test (DDT. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the usefulness of the DDT in detecting central hearing disorders in school-age children. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. During hearing screening programmes conducted in Poland in 2008–2010, exactly 235,664 children (7–12-years-old were screened in 9,325 schools. Of this number, 7,642 were examined using the DDT test for CAPD. Screening programmes were conducted using the Sense Examination Platform. [b]Results.[/b] With the cut-off criterion set at the 5th percentile, results for the DDT applied in a divided attention mode were 11.4% positive for 7-year-olds and 11.3% for 12-year-olds. In the focused attention mode, the comparable result for 12-year-olds was 9.7%. There was a clear right ear advantage. In children with positive DDT results, a higher incidence of other disorders, such as dyslexia, was observed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. A test for CAPD should be included in the hearing screening of school-age children. The results of this study form the basis for developing Polish standards in this area.

  18. Late Proximal Pedicle Hook Migration Into Spinal Canal After Posterior Correction Surgery of Scoliosis Causing Neurologic Deficit: "Proximal Junctional Scoliosis"? Case Series and a Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, I.M.P.; de Kleuver, M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design: Case series. Objectives: We describe 4 patients with proximal pedicle hook migration as a late complication (greater than 12 months postoperatively) of posterior correction surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. We studied failure mechanisms and propose strategies for revision

  19. Altered sensory-weighting mechanisms is observed in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis

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    Allard Paul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoliosis is the most common type of spinal deformity. In North American children, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS makes up about 90% of all cases of scoliosis. While its prevalence is about 2% to 3% in children aged between 10 to 16 years, girls are more at risk than boys for severe progression with a ratio of 3.6 to 1. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that idiopathic scoliosis interferes with the mechanisms responsible for sensory-reweighting during balance control. Methods Eight scoliosis patients (seven female and one male; mean age: 16.4 years and nine healthy adolescents (average age 16.5 years participated in the experiment. Visual and ankle proprioceptive information was perturbed (eyes closed and/or tendon vibration suddenly and then returned to normal (eyes open and/or no tendon vibration. An AMTI force platform was used to compute centre of pressure root mean squared velocity and sway density curve. Results For the control condition (eyes open and no tendon vibration, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients had a greater centre of pressure root mean squared velocity (variability than control participants. Reintegration of ankle proprioception, when vision was either available or removed, led to an increased centre of pressure velocity variability for the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients whereas the control participants reduced their centre of pressure velocity variability. Moreover, in the absence of vision, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis exhibited an increased centre of pressure velocity variability when ankle proprioception was returned to normal (i.e. tendon vibration stopped. The analysis of the sway density plot suggests that adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, during sensory reintegration, do not scale appropriately their balance control commands. Conclusion Altogether, the present results demonstrate that idiopathic scoliosis adolescents have difficulty in

  20. Treatment of Scoliosis-Evidence and Management (Review of the Literature

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    Weiss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and trunk which includes lateral deviation, rotation, and a disturbance of the sagittal profile. Treatment is indicated for scoliosis because it may lead to negative consequences with regard to the quality of life and other health issues for some patients. The purpose of this review was to gather current, up-to-date information, and to search the recent articles on scoliosis for evidence of the different modes of treatment. Evidence Acquisition A PubMed search for review articles, prospective controlled trials (PCT, and randomized controlled trials (RCT was performed. The search terms were: 1 scoliosis, treatment (12,045 items found; 2 scoliosis, physiotherapy (776 items found; 3 scoliosis, brace treatment (1,447 items found; and 4 scoliosis, surgery (10,485 items found. Results When looking at the current literature, high quality evidence (level I was found to support physical rehabilitation and brace treatments, while no evidence was found to support spinal fusion surgery. The numerous long-term complications that patients may face post-operation, and the lack of evidence for spinal fusion surgery indicate that there is no clear medical indication for this kind of treatment. Conclusions There is a high level of evidence for the conservative treatment of scoliosis, but there are varying levels of success in the different approaches. The better the correction of the curve, the better the end result and outcome for the patient. This is supported by the current evidence reviewed in this paper. Physiotherapy and bracing should be used and, specifically, those approaches using high corrective methods. Spinal fusion surgery is not supported by the current evidence. According to the literature, the long-term complications of surgery for scoliosis far outweigh the consequences of untreated scoliosis.

  1. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes

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    Mihas Constantinos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among normal girls in various geographic latitudes. An attempt is also made to implicate a possible role of melatonin in the above association. Material-methods 20 peer-reviewed published papers reporting adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and 33 peer-reviewed papers reporting age at menarche in normal girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included regression of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche by latitude. Results The regression of prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche by latitude is statistically significant (p Conclusion Late age at menarche is parallel with higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pubarche appears later in girls that live in northern latitudes and thus prolongs the period of spine vulnerability while other pre-existing or aetiological factors are contributing to the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A possible role of geography in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis is discussed, as it appears that latitude which differentiates the sunlight influences melatonin secretion and modifies age at menarche, which is associated to the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis.

  2. The role of culture in the context of school-based BMI screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Beech, Bettina M

    2009-09-01

    The high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a significant public health concern in the United States. Minority populations are disproportionately affected, and the impact of obesity on minority children is especially alarming. In this article we discuss school-based BMI reporting, which is intended to increase parental awareness of their children's weight status. This information could potentially lead parents of overweight and obese children to carefully examine and possibly change their children's diet and activity patterns. However, any program related to child weight status must consider culturally defined aspects of body size and shape. In other words, the cultural context in which information on child BMI is presented to and received by parents must be considered. In this article we review parental perceptions of child weight. Multiple studies have shown that parents of overweight or obese children often fail to correctly perceive their children as overweight. Possible reasons for, and implications of, this misperception of child weight status among minority parents are then explored within a cultural framework. The PEN-3 model is used to examine influences on health behaviors and could help inform the development of a culturally sensitive BMI-notification program for minority parents. Reporting materials congruent with the social and cultural values and practices of the target audience are likely to maximize program effectiveness. A culturally based BMI-notification program should be conceptualized as a small step in a comprehensive plan to reduce childhood obesity and improve the current and future health of minority children.

  3. Use of HIV Screening Services and Sexual Behavior of In-School Adolescents in Surulere LGA, Lagos State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekoni, A O; Somefun, E O; Fatoba, O O; Onajole, A T

    2015-01-01

    The health and development.of populations irrespective of where they live is dependent on their behaviour. Adolescents constitute a huge chunk of the global population. A high proportion of the burden of diseases therefore occur in this age group as well. The maturation process occurs throughout this period and behaviours adopted often last for life and are determinants of healthy adult life. High prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections including Human Immunodeficiency Virus has been documented in adolescents. This study was carried out to assess the use of HIV screening services and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents in Surulere an urban community in Lagos State, Nigeria. Cross sectional descriptive study design was used. Simple random sampling was used to select 9 public senior secondary schools in Surulere Local Government Area. All the enrolled and willing students in SSS3 who were available during the period of data collection were included in the study (1,029). Information was collected with a self-adrministered questionnaire. Data analysis was done with Epi info version 3.5.4. Frequency tables were generated and analysis was explored using chi square at. psexually active, among this group 20% engaged in transactional sex. Only 36.8% used condom at first sex which increased to 57.2% at last sex, however consistent condom use was practiced by 22.4%. Students who are sexually experienced (psexual behaviour, use of HCT services and other STI prevention strategies was poor. It is essential that young people have access to and utilize all HIV prevention tools at their disposal.

  4. School-based intervention on healthy behaviour among Ecuadorian adolescents: effect of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on screen-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Susana; Verloigne, Maïté; Cardon, Greet; Kolsteren, Patrick; Ochoa-Avilés, Angelica; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Donoso, Silvana; Lachat, Carl

    2015-09-22

    Effective interventions on screen-time behaviours (television, video games and computer time) are needed to prevent non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. The present manuscript investigates the effect of a school-based health promotion intervention on screen-time behaviour among 12- to 15-year-old adolescents. We report the effect of the trial on screen-time after two stages of implementation. We performed a cluster-randomised pair matched trial in urban schools in Cuenca-Ecuador. Participants were adolescents of grade eight and nine (mean age 12.8 ± 0.8 years, n = 1370, control group n = 684) from 20 schools (control group n = 10). The intervention included an individual and environmental component tailored to the local context and resources. The first intervention stage focused on diet, physical activity and screen-time behaviour, while the second stage focused only on diet and physical activity. Screen-time behaviours, primary outcome, were assessed at baseline, after the first (18 months) and second stage (28 months). Mixed linear models were used to analyse the data. After the first stage (data from n = 1224 adolescents; control group n = 608), the intervention group had a lower increase in TV-time on a week day (β = -15.7 min; P = 0.003) and weekend day (β = -18.9 min; P = 0.005), in total screen-time on a weekday (β = -25.9 min; P = 0.03) and in the proportion of adolescents that did not meet the screen-time recommendation (β = -4 percentage point; P = 0.01), compared to the control group. After the second stage (data from n = 1078 adolescents; control group n = 531), the TV-time on a weekday (β = 13.1 min; P = 0.02), and total screen-time on a weekday (β = 21.4 min; P = 0.03) increased more in adolescents from the intervention group. No adverse effects were reported. A multicomponent school-based intervention was only able to mitigate the increase

  5. Parents' and teachers' views on sexual health education and screening for sexually transmitted infections among in-school adolescent girls in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanje, George; Masese, Linnet; Avuvika, Ethel; Baghazal, Anisa; Omoni, Grace; Scott McClelland, R

    2017-08-14

    To successfully develop and implement school-based sexual health interventions for adolescent girls, such as screening for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, it is important to understand parents' and teachers' attitudes towards sexual health education and acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions. In this qualitative study, we approached parents and teachers from three high schools to participate in in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus-group discussions (FGDs). Parents and teachers were asked about their general knowledge of STIs and sexual health education. In addition, they were asked whether they would support utilizing outreach to schools to facilitate provision of sexual health education and screening for STIs in adolescent girls. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English. An initial coding matrix was developed and refined throughout the coding process. Transcripts were coded by two researchers and analyzed using the content analysis approach. We conducted 10 IDIs (5 parents and 5 teachers) and 4 FGDs (2 with parents, 2 with teachers, total of 26 participants). Most parents reported few or no discussions regarding STIs with their adolescent girls. Parents were more comfortable discussing consequences of sexual activity including loss of virginity and the potential for pregnancy. Parents tended to place responsibility for sexual health education with teachers. The teachers, in turn, provided basic sexual and reproductive health education including puberty, abstinence, and overview of STIs. Both parents and teachers found the idea of screening for STIs in adolescent girls to be acceptable, and were comfortable with research staff contacting girls through informational meetings at schools. Parents felt that adolescents' STI screening results should be shared with their parents. In this African setting, parents and teachers provide limited sexual health education

  6. Family history and its association to curve size and treatment in 1,463 patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauers, Anna; Danielsson, Aina; Karlsson, Magnus; Ohlin, Acke; Gerdhem, Paul

    2013-11-01

    To study family history in relation to curve severity, gender, age at diagnosis and treatment in idiopathic scoliosis. A self-assessment questionnaire on family history of scoliosis was administered to 1,463 untreated, brace or surgically treated idiopathic scoliosis patients. Out of the 1,463 patients, 51 % had one or more relatives with scoliosis. There was no significant difference between females and males, nor between juvenile and adolescent study participants in this respect (p = 0.939 and 0.110, respectively). There was a significant difference in maximum curve size between patients with one or more relatives with scoliosis (median 35°, interquartile range 25) and patients without any relative with scoliosis (median 32°, interquartile range 23) (p = 0.022). When stratifying patients according to treatment (observation, brace treatment or surgery), we found that it was more common to have a relative with scoliosis among the treated patients (p = 0.011). The OR for being treated was 1.32 (95% CI 1.06-1.64) when the patient had a relative with scoliosis, compared to not having. Larger curve sizes were found in patients with a family history of scoliosis than in the ones without. No relation between family history and gender or between family history and age at onset of idiopathic scoliosis was found. Although the presence of a family history of scoliosis may not be a strong prognostic risk factor, it indicates that these patients are at higher risk of developing a more severe curve.

  7. A multicenter study of the outcomes of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcome instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Andrew A; Haher, Thomas R; Brkaric, Mario; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Mathur, Samir; Kohani, Omid; Lowe, Thomas G; Lenke, Larry G; Wenger, Dennis R; Newton, Peter O; Clements, David H; Betz, Randal R

    2002-09-15

    A multicenter study of the outcomes of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire (SRS 24). To evaluate the patient based outcome of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A paucity of information exists with respect to patient measures of outcome regarding the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To our knowledge, no prospective outcome study on this topic thus far exists. Using the SRS 24 questionnaire, seven scoliosis centers agreed to prospectively assess outcome for surgically treated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Data were collected before surgery and at 24 months after surgery. Data were analyzed using paired and independent samples t test for all seven SRS 24 questionnaire domains (Pain, General Self-Image, Postoperative Self-Image, Postoperative Function, Function From Back Condition, General Level of Activity, and Satisfaction) using Statistical Package for Social Science. The domains were analyzed with respect to the total cohort, gender, curve magnitude, and type of surgery using independent-samples t tests. A total of 242 patients were included in our analysis. A baseline preoperative pain level of 3.68 of 5 was found. This improved to 4.63 after surgery, representing an improvement of 0.95 points. Surgical intervention was associated with improving outcome when compared with preoperative status. Pain, General Self-Image, Function From Back Condition, and Level of Activity all demonstrated statistically significant improvement as compared with preoperative status (P adolescent scoliosis population. Pain scores were improved in our study population at the 2-year postsurgical follow-up. Statistically significant improvements were likewise seen in the General Self-Image, Function From Back Condition, and Level of Activity domains. The present study demonstrates the ability of surgery to improve the outcome of patients afflicted with

  8. Validity and reliability of an adapted Thai version of Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathira-Angkura, Vera; Pithankuakul, Kongkit; Sakulpipatana, Susana; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Kunakornsawat, Sombat

    2012-04-20

    Cross-sectional observational study to investigate psychometric properties of an adapted Thai version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Thai version of the refined SRS-22 questionnaire. The SRS-22 questionnaire is a valid instrument for assessing the health-related quality of life for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Recently, the questionnaire has been translated and validated in many languages for non-English-speaking countries. Translation/retranslation of the English version of the SRS-22 was conducted, and the cross-cultural adaptation process was performed. The Thai version SRS-22 and previously validated Thai version Short-Form survey version 2.0 (SF-36V2) questionnaires were administered to 77 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had surgical treatment. Fifty-eight patients (52 adolescent girls) had filled out the first set of questionnaires. Thirty patients of the first-time responders completed the second set of questionnaires. The mean age at the time of operation was 14.6 years and the mean age at the time of the final follow-up was 18.7 years. The mean preoperative scoliosis curve magnitude was 55.4° (range, 30°-95°) and postoperative curve magnitude was 20.1° (range, 0°-60°). Internal consistency was determined with Cronbach α coefficient. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used for test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36V2 questionnaire, using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The mean overall Cronbach α coefficient of the adapted Thai version SRS-22 was 0.76. The 2 of corresponding domains (mental health = 0.80 and self-image = 0.83) had satisfactory internal consistency and the remaining domains (pain = 0.78; function/activity = 0.74; and satisfaction = 0.76) were good. The intraclass correlation coefficient for 5 domains was ranged from

  9. The effectiveness of core stabilization exercise in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Gözde; Ayhan, Cigdem; Yakut, Yavuz

    2017-06-01

    Core stabilization training is used to improve postural balance in musculoskeletal problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of stabilization training in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A randomized controlled trial, pretest-posttest design. In total, 25 subjects with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into two groups: stabilization group ( n = 12) and control group ( n = 13). The stabilization group received core stabilization in addition to traditional rehabilitation, and the control group received traditional rehabilitation for 10 weeks. Assessment included Cobb's angle on radiograph, apical vertebral rotation in Adam's test, trunk asymmetry (Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index), cosmetic trunk deformity (Trunk Appearance Perception Scale), and quality of life (Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire). Inter-group comparisons showed significantly greater improvements in the mean change in lumbar apical vertebral rotation degree and the pain domain of Scoliosis Research Society-22 in the stabilization group than those in the control group ( p adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Clinical relevance Stabilization exercises are more effective in reducing rotation deformity and pain than traditional exercises in the conservative rehabilitation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. These improvements suggest that stabilization training should be added to rehabilitation programs in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  10. Quality of life after surgery for neuromuscular scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Obid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Surgery in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis is associated with a higher rate of complications. It is still controversially discussed whether the patients truly benefit from deformity correction. The purpose of this study is to investigate if the quality of life has been improved and if the patients and their caregivers are satisfied with the results of surgery. This is a retrospective clinical outcome study of 46 patients with neuromuscular scoliosis which were treated with primary stable posterior pedicle screw instrumentation and correction. To achieve fusion only autologous bone was used. Follow up was minimum 2 years and maximum 5 years with an average of 36 months. The patients and/or their caregivers received a questionnaire based on the PEDI (pediatric disability inventory and the GMFS (gross motor function score. The patients (and their caregivers were also asked if the quality of life has improved after surgery. Only 32 of 46 patients answered the questionnaire. The answers showed a high approval-rate regarding the patients satisfaction with the surgery and the improvement of quality of life. The questionnaire could be answered from 1 (I do not agree to 4 (I completely agree. The average agreement to the following statements was: i the quality of life has improved: 3.35; ii I am satisfied with surgery: 3.95; iii the operation has fulfilled my expectations: 3.76. The average age at surgery was 12.7 years. The mean pre-operative cobb-angle of the main curve was 83.1° with a correction post-operatively to a mean of 36.9° and 42.6° at final follow-up. That is an average correction of 56.9%. Although spinal fusion in neuromuscular scoliosis is associated with a higher rate of complications our results show that the patients and their caregivers are satisfied with the operation and the quality of life has improved after surgery.

  11. MRI evaluation of multifidus muscles in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

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    Chan Yu-Leung; King, A.D.; Griffith, J.F.; Metreweli, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin (Hong Kong); Cheng, J.C.Y.; Guo Xia [Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin (Hong Kong)

    1999-05-01

    Background. The role of the multifidus muscles in the initiation and progression of curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is not fully understood and controversy exists as to the side of the abnormality. Objective. To evaluate on MRI the multifidus muscles at the apex of the major curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis to ascertain if the multifidus muscles on the convex or concave side are abnormal and the relationship to curve severity. Materials and methods. Forty-six patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, separated into two groups, were studied using a 1.5-T MR scanner with the synergy spine coil, employing a modified STIR (short tau inversion recovery) axial sequence obtained at the apex of the major scoliotic curve. Results. No hyperintense signal change was demonstrated in the convex side multifidus muscles in any patient. In group I, 16 of 18 patients with severe or rapidly progressive curve showed increase in signal intensity in the multifidus muscle on the concave side of the apex of the curve. In group II, of the 15 patients with mild curve (Cobb angle 10-30 ), 4 had increased signal intensity in the multifidus muscle on the concave side; of the 13 with more severe curve (Cobb angle greater than 30 ), 10 had increase in multifidus signal intensity on the concave side. Conclusions. The concave-side multifidus muscle at the apex of a scoliotic curve was morphologically abnormal. A significant association between abnormal signal change and curve severity was also established. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs., 25 refs.

  12. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: natural history and long term treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Marc A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a lifetime, probably systemic condition of unknown cause, resulting in a spinal curve or curves of ten degrees or more in about 2.5% of most populations. However, in only about 0.25% does the curve progress to the point that treatment is warranted. Untreated, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis does not increase mortality rate, even though on rare occasions it can progress to the >100° range and cause premature death. The rate of shortness of breath is not increased, although patients with 50° curves at maturity or 80° curves during adulthood are at increased risk of developing shortness of breath. Compared to non-scoliotic controls, most patients with untreated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis function at or near normal levels. They do have increased pain prevalence and may or may not have increased pain severity. Self-image is often decreased. Mental health is usually not affected. Social function, including marriage and childbearing may be affected, but only at the threshold of relatively larger curves. Non-operative treatment consists of bracing for curves of 25° to 35° or 40° in patients with one to two years or more of growth remaining. Curve progression of ≥ 6° is 20 to 40% more likely with observation than with bracing. Operative treatment consists of instrumentation and arthrodesis to realign and stabilize the most affected portion of the spine. Lasting curve improvement of approximately 40% is usually achieved. In the most completely studied series to date, at 20 to 28 years follow-up both braced and operated patients had similar, significant, and clinically meaningful reduced function and increased pain compared to non-scoliotic controls. However, their function and pain scores were much closer to normal than patient groups with other, more serious conditions. Risks associated with treatment include temporary decrease in self-image in braced patients. Operated patients face the usual

  13. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianxiong; Lin, Youxi; Luo, Jinmei; Xiao, Yi

    2016-10-05

    Scoliosis causes impairment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Traditional pulmonary function tests only examine patients under static conditions. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between radiographic parameters and dynamic cardiopulmonary capacity in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Forty patients with idiopathic scoliosis were included in this prospective study from January 2014 to February 2016. The patients underwent full radiographic assessment of deformity, pulmonary function testing, and cardiopulmonary bicycle ergometer testing. The impact of the severity of thoracic curvature and kyphosis on pulmonary function and physical capacity was investigated. Thirty-three female patients with a mean age of 15.5 years (range, 11 to 35 years) and coronal thoracic curvature of 49.4° (range, 24° to 76°) and 7 male subjects with a mean age of 15.9 years (range, 13 to 18 years) and coronal thoracic curvature of 47.1°(range, 22° to 80°) were included. No correlation was found between coronal thoracic curvature and pulmonary function test results in the female patients. Female patients with a thoracic curve of ≥60° had lower blood oxygen saturation at maximal exercise in the cardiopulmonary exercise test (p = 0.032). Female patients with a thoracic curve of ≥50° had a higher respiratory rate (p = 0.041) and ventilation volume per minute (p = 0.046) and lower breathing reserve at maximal exercise (p = 0.038). Thoracic kyphosis in female patients was positively correlated with pulmonary function, as shown by the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r = 0.456, p = 0.01), forced vital capacity (r = 0.366, p = 0.043), vital capacity (r = 0.525, p = 0.006), and total lung capacity (r = 0.388, p = 0.031), as well as with tidal volume (r = 0.401, p = 0.025) in cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Female patients who engaged in regular exercise had better peak oxygen intake normalized by body weight (p rate (p = 0.020), and heart rate

  14. Prevalence of optimal cardiovascular screening activities and associated factors among apparently healthy school teachers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman A. Noraza, MMED

    2018-04-01

    ليومية. Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of optimal cardiovascular disease (CVD screening activities and the associated factors among apparently healthy school teachers. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical observational study was conducted among 380 secondary school teachers in Kelantan, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire addressing sociodemographic data and factors influencing CVD screening activities was administered. Descriptive analysis, simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: A total of 348 teachers responded to the questionnaire, with a response rate of 91.6%. The prevalence of optimal CVD screening activities was 29.3% (95% CI: 24.52, 34.08. Age, knowledge of CVD screening, family history of CVD and availability of health facilities were significantly linked to CVD screening. Conclusion: The prevalence of optimal screening activities was low. A great majority of the factors contributing to optimal screening were modifiable. Health care providers should widely implement global health-oriented rather than disease-orientated assessment in their daily practice. الكلمات المفتاحية: فحص أمراض القلب والأوعية الدموية, خطر أمراض القلب والأوعية الدموية, الفحص الصحي, تاريخ العائلة, معلمي المدارس, Keywords: Cardiovascular disease screening, Cardiovascular risk, Family history, Health screening, School teachers

  15. Partner meeting place is significantly associated with gonorrhea and chlamydia in adolescents participating in a large high school sexually transmitted disease screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Felicia M T; Newman, Daniel R; Anschuetz, Greta L; Mettey, Aaron; Asbel, Lenore; Salmon, Melinda E

    2014-10-01

    From 2003 to 2012, the Philadelphia High School STD Screening Program screened 126,053 students, identifying 8089 Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infections. We examined sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with CT/GC diagnoses among a sample of this high-risk population. Standardized interviews were given to infected students receiving in-school CT/GC treatment (2009-2012) and to uninfected students calling for results (2011-2012). Sex-stratified multivariable logistic models were created to examine factors independently associated with a CT/GC diagnosis. A simple risk index was developed using variables significant on multivariable analysis. A total of 1489 positive and 318 negative students were interviewed. Independent factors associated with a GC/CT diagnosis among females were black race (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.27; confidence interval, 1.12-4.58), history of arrest (AOR, 2.26; 1.22-4.21), higher partner number (AOR, 1.75; 1.05-2.91), meeting partners in own neighborhood (AOR, 1.92; 1.29-2.86), and meeting partners in venues other than own school, neighborhood, or through friends ("all other"; AOR, 9.44; 3.70-24.09). For males, factors included early sexual debut (AOR, 1.99; 1.21-3.26) and meeting partners at "all other" venues (AOR, 2.76; 1.2-6.4); meeting through friends was protective (AOR, 0.63; 0.41-0.96). Meeting partners at own school was protective for both sexes (males: AOR, 0.33; 0.20-0.55; females: AOR, 0.65; 0.44-0.96). Although factors associated with a GC/CT infection differed between males and females in our sample, partner meeting place was associated with infection for both sexes. School-based screening programs could use this information to target high-risk students for effective interventions.

  16. Imaging in scoliosis from the orthopaedic surgeon's point of view

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    Thomsen, Marc [Stiftung Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Schlierbacher Landstr. 200a, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Abel, Rainer [Stiftung Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Schlierbacher Landstr. 200a, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: rainer.abel@ok.uni-heidelberg.de

    2006-04-15

    For treating patients with scoliosis orthopaedic surgeons need diagnostic imaging procedures in order to provide answers about a possible underlying disease, choice of treatment, and prognosis. Once treatment is instituted, imaging is also critical for monitoring changes of the deformity so as to optimize therapy. The combined effort of orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists helps detect treatable causes of scoliosis at an early stage, define the need and timing for surgery, and ensure that every precaution is taken to minimize the risks of surgery. Neurosurgical causes, with particular reference to spinal cord tumours and syringomyelia, need to be addressed before scoliosis surgery can be contemplated.

  17. Research progress of the relationship between abnormal vestibular reflexes and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is an agnogenic structural scoliosis occurring in adolescence, and the main diagnostic criteria is coronal Cobb angle >10°in total spine X-ray. Studies have shown that AIS may be associated with abnormal postural reflexes, vestibular system is an important component of postural reflexes and its mechanism in the occurrence and development of scoliosis has received wide attention in recent years. In the study, the research progress on the role of abnormal vestibular reflexes in the pathogenesis of AIS was mainly introduced to help the clinicians better understand the pathogenesis of AIS and provide new ideas for AIS study.

  18. The opportunistic screening of refractive errors in school-going children by pediatrician using enhanced Brückner test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the results of enhanced Brückner test (EBT performed by a pediatrician and an experienced pediatric ophthalmologist. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective double-masked cohort study, a pediatrician and a pediatric ophthalmologist performed the EBT in a classroom of a school in semi-dark lighting condition using a direct ophthalmoscope. The results of the test were compared using 2 × 2 Bayesian table and kappa statistics. The findings of the pediatric ophthalmologists were considered gold standard. Results: Two hundred and thirty-six eyes of 118 subjects, mean age 6.8 ± 0.5 years (range, 5.4–7.8 years, were examined. The time taken to complete this test was <10 s per subject. The ophthalmologist identified 59 eyes as ametropic (12 hyperopic and 47 myopic eyes and 177 as emmetropic compared to 61 eyes as ametropic and 175 emmetropic by pediatrician. The prevalence of the test positive was 25.9%. The sensitivity of the pediatrician was 90.2%, specificity was 97.7%, predictive value of the positive test was 93.2%, and predictive value of the negative test was 96.6%. The clinical agreement (kappa between the pediatric ophthalmologist and the pediatrician was 0.9. Conclusion: The results of the EBT performed by pediatrician were comparable to that of an experienced pediatric ophthalmologist. Opportunistic screening of refractive errors using EBT by a pediatrician can be an important approach in the detection of ametropia in children.

  19. Effects of living environment on the postoperative Scoliosis Research Society-24 results in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Panek, Sławomir; Ignyś-O'Byrne, Anna; Głowacki, Jakub; Ignyś, Iwona; Krauss, Hanna; Piątek, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    There are many factors influencing postoperative health-related quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, including the degree of the deformity, culture, differences in geography, rural versus urban living environments, and social factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the significance of geographic factors and their differences influencing the postoperative quality of life in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis residing in urban and rural environments, by use of the Polish version of the SRS-24 questionnaire. Forty urban and 20 rural postoperative patients with adolescent scoliosis with a minimum 2-year follow-up period after surgery were included in the study. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the IQOLA Project. General results of the Polish SRS-24 equalled 4.1 (SD 0.5) and 4.0 (SD.0.5) in the rural and urban groups of patients, respectively. The 2 groups do not differ in incidence of floor and ceiling effects. The Cronbach's alpha values are excellent for the general result of SRS-24 in urban and rural groups (0.85 and 0.85, respectively). The sub-groups differed significantly in the self-image after surgery domain (p=0.048). Patients from the rural group scored higher in the self-image after surgery domain but reported higher pain levels when compared to urban patients. The associations between SRS-24 results and radiographic parameters in the rural group of patients were strong, compared with moderate relations reported in the urban group.

  20. Health Screenings at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... others develop later. A child who has difficulty reading the blackboard may not know that she is ...

  1. Active versus passive transportation to school-differences in screen time, socio-economic position and perceived environmental characteristics in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Gomes, Helena; Almeida, Mariana; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Maria Paula

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess the relationships between transport to and from school (active vs. passive), sedentary behaviours, measures of socio-economic position and perceived environmental variables, and (2) to determine which, if any, variables were predictors of active transportation. The sample comprised 705 girls with mean age of 14.7 (SD = 1.6) years old. Questionnaires were used to describe travel mode to school and to estimate weekly television and computer use (screen time). Girls were assigned to active transportation (AT) or passive transportation (PT) groups depending on whether they walked or bicycled (AT) to and from school or travelled by car or bus (PT). Screen time was determined by the number of hours they reported watching television and using computers in the week preceding the examination, including weekends. Socio-economic position was established by parental occupation and educational level. A questionnaire assessed Perceived Neighbourhood Environments. No statistically significant differences were seen for screen time between travel groups. Occupational status of both mother (r = -0.17) and father (r = -0.15) and father's educational level (r = -0.10) were significantly and negatively associated with AT, while street connectivity (r = 0.10) was positively and significantly associated with AT. Logistic regression analysis showed that the likelihood of active commuting decreased by around 50% with increasing father's occupation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.51; p active (OR = 1.63; p active commuting to school and that street connectivity is a predictor of active transportation in adolescent girls.

  2. Characterization and Predictive Value of Segmental Curve Flexibility in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Guanfeng; Cheung, Jason P Y; Shigematsu, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A prospective radiographic analysis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients managed with alternate-level pedicle screw fixation was performed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize segmental curve flexibility and to determine its predictive value...

  3. Upright, prone, and supine spinal morphology and alignment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Rob C; Colo, Dino; Schlösser, Tom P C; Vincken, Koen L; van Stralen, Marijn; Hui, Steve C N; Shi, Lin; Chu, Winnie C W; Cheng, Jack C Y; Castelein, RM

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are usually investigated by serial imaging studies during the course of treatment, some imaging involves ionizing radiation, and the radiation doses are cumulative. Few studies have addressed the correlation of spinal deformity captured

  4. Candidate gene analysis and exome sequencing confirm LBX1 as a susceptibility gene for idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauers, Anna; Wang, Jingwen; Einarsdottir, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    samples from 100 surgically treated idiopathic scoliosis patients. Novel or rare missense, nonsense, or splice site variants were selected for individual genotyping in the 1,739 cases and 1,812 controls. In addition, the 5'UTR, noncoding exon and promoter regions of LBX1, not covered by exome sequencing...... by exome sequencing after filtration and an initial genotyping validation. However, we could not verify any association to idiopathic scoliosis in the large cohort of 1,739 cases and 1,812 controls. We did not find any variants in the 5'UTR, noncoding exon and promoter regions of LBX1. CONCLUSIONS: Here...... that are significantly associated with idiopathic scoliosis in Asian and Caucasian populations, rs11190870 close to the LBX1 gene being the most replicated finding. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetics of idiopathic scoliosis in a Scandinavian cohort by performing a candidate gene study...

  5. Hemivertebra of the cervical spine: an uncommon background for neck pain, cervical scoliosis, and torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Nastoulis, Evangelos; Stavrev, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    A 15-year-old female patient presented with neck pain accompanied by cervical scoliosis, on the existence of torticollis. Although rare, hemivertebra of the cervical spine is a congenital deformation associated with these three clinical features.

  6. Influence of implant rod curvature on sagittal correction of scoliosis deformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmingo, Remel A.; Tadano, Shigeru; Abe, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    of the implant rod’s angle of curvature during surgery and establish its influence on sagittal correction of scoliosis deformity. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of the preoperative and postoperative implant rod geometry and angle of curvature was conducted. PATIENT SAMPLE: Twenty adolescent idiopathic......BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Deformation of in vivo–implanted rods could alter the scoliosis sagittal correction. To our knowledge, no previous authors have investigated the influence of implanted-rod deformation on the sagittal deformity correction during scoliosis surgery. PURPOSE: To analyze the changes...... scoliosis patients underwent surgery. Average age at the time of operation was 14 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: The preoperative and postoperative implant rod angle of curvature expressed in degrees was obtained for each patient. METHODS: Two implant rods were attached to the concave and convex side...

  7. Geometric and electromyographic assessments in the evaluation of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, J; Veldhuizen, AG; Halberts, JPK; Sluiter, WJ; Van Horn, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. The natural history of patients with idiopathic scoliosis was analyzed radiographically and electromyographically in a prospective longitudinal study. Objectives. To identify changes in geometric variables and the sequence in which these changes occur during curve progression in the

  8. Concordance Rates of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in a Danish Twin Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Ane; Carreon, Leah Y; Højmark, Karen

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Clinical, radiological and genetic determination of zygosity of twin pairs from the Danish Twin Registry who self-reported having Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). OBJECTIVE: To establish concordance rates of AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The aetiology of and the true mode...... reported. METHODS: All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a survey, which included questions about scoliosis. The survey was returned by 34,944 individuals (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs. From this study, 548 individuals representing 274 complete twin...... pairs where at least one twin self-reported having scoliosis were invited to a clinical and radiological examination. Zygosity was established by genetic testing. RESULTS: 182 individuals (33.2%) of the original cohort agreed to participate, 128 of whom had scoliosis by self-report. There were 91 twin...

  9. The Role of Health Educators in Mitigating Health Risk from Increasing Screen Time in Schools and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merga, Margaret K.; Williams, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary health educators in schools are responsible for promoting the health of individual students, as well as a healthy school environment. The ongoing push for increasing device use in schools, which is underpinned by the information and communications technology (ICT) capability requirements of the new Australian Curriculum, can…

  10. Evaluation of Patient Outcome and Satisfaction after Surgical Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Using Scoliosis Research Society-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandehari, Hasan; Mahabadi, Maryam Ameri; Mahdavi, Seyed Mani; Shahsavaripour, Ali; Seyed Tari, Hossein Vahid; Safdari, Farshad

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) may lead to physical and mental problems. It also can adversely affect patient satisfaction and the quality of life. In this study, we assessed the outcomes and satisfaction rate after surgical treatment of AIS using scoliosis research society-30 questionnaire (SRS-30). We enrolled 135 patients with AIS undergoing corrective surgery. Patients were followed for at least 2 years. We compared pre- and post-operative x-rays in terms of Cobb's angles and coronal balance. At the last visit, patients completed the SRS-30 questionnaire. We then assessed the correlation between radiographic measures, SRS-30 total score, and patient satisfaction. Cobb's angle and coronal balance improved significantly after surgery (Pself-image/cosmesis, mental health, and satisfaction were 27±4.3, 26±2.5, 33±5.2, 23±3.5, and 13±1.8, respectively. The total SRS-30 score was 127±13. Radiographic measures showed significant positive correlation with satisfaction and SRS-30 total scores. There was also a positive correlation between satisfaction and self-image/cosmesis domain scores. The greater the radiographic angles were corrected the higher the SRS-30 total score and patient satisfaction were. It is intuitive that the appearance and cosmesis is of most important factor associated with patient satisfaction.

  11. The Use of Touch-Screen Tablets at Home and Pre-School to Foster Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Young children living in technology-based communities are using touch-screen tablets (e.g. iPads) to engage with the digital world at an early age. The intuitive touch-screen interface, easily downloadable apps (applications) and mobility of tablets drive their increasing popularity with pre-schoolers. This review examines research to date on…

  12. Poor, Unsafe, and Overweight: The Role of Feeling Unsafe at School in Mediating the Association Among Poverty Exposure, Youth Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Séguin, Louise; Barnett, Tracie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study applied socioecological and cumulative risk exposure frameworks to test the hypotheses that 1) the experience of poverty is associated with feeling less safe at school, and 2) feeling less safe is associated with engaging in poorer weight-related behaviors, as well as an increased probability of being overweight or obese. Data were from the ongoing Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, initiated in 1998 with a population-based cohort of 2,120 Québec (Canada) infants 5 months of age and their parent or primary caregiver. Measures of youths' (age, 13 years) self-reported feelings of safety, screen time, physical activity, and objectively assessed not overweight/obese (70%), overweight (22%), and obese (8%) weight status were collected in 2011. Family poverty trajectory from birth was assessed by using latent growth modeling. As hypothesized, exposure to poverty was associated with feeling less safe at school and, in turn, with an increased probability of being overweight or obese. The association was most pronounced for youths who experienced chronic poverty. Compared with youths who experienced no poverty and felt unsafe, those who experienced chronic poverty and felt unsafe were nearly 18% more likely to be obese (9.2% vs. 11.2%). Although feeling unsafe was associated with screen time, screen time did not predict weight status. PMID:25921649

  13. Pre- and postoperative photographs and surgical outcomes in patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Akif; Buyuk, Abdul Fettah; Ucpunar, Hanifi; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Kargin, Deniz; Kaygusuz, Mehmet Akif

    2015-04-01

    Clinical study with pre- and postoperative back photographs and postoperative Scoliosis Research Society-22 survey in patients who had undergone surgery for idiopathic scoliosis. To determine the effect of showing patients their photographs before and after surgery for idiopathic scoliosis on postoperative patient satisfaction. After scoliosis surgery, patient satisfaction may be limited because the patients cannot directly see their back and may forget the preoperative appearance. In 60 patients who had undergone surgery for correction of idiopathic scoliosis (Lenke type 1), pre- and postoperative photographs were taken from the anterior, posterior, and right and left lateral views. After surgery, patients in group 1 (30 patients) were shown the preoperative and most recent follow-up photographs, and patients in group 2 (30 patients) had routine evaluation but were not shown their photographs. All patients completed the Scoliosis Research Society-22 survey. Patients in both groups had similar age, sex, distribution of Lenke type and Risser sign, follow-up, and pre- and postoperative Cobb angles and balance (coronal and sagittal). A significant difference was observed between the groups for survey question 10 (which was about self-image), question 18 (which was about function and activity), and question 21 (which was about satisfaction) (P ≤ 0.05). There were no differences between patients in groups 1 and 2 in Scoliosis Research Society-22 domain or total scores. By showing patients the pre- and postoperative clinical photographs, patient satisfaction may be greater, as measured with some SRS-22 scores. This method may enable clinicians to positively change the patients' self-image perception after surgery for correction of scoliosis. 4.

  14. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L.; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Chavez, Thomas A.; Broom, Alexander M.; Wren, Tishya A.L.; Skaggs, David L.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm 2 ; P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm 2 ; P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis. (orig.)

  15. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L.; Aggabao, Patricia C. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chavez, Thomas A. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Broom, Alexander M.; Wren, Tishya A.L.; Skaggs, David L. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gilsanz, Vicente [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis. (orig.)

  16. Case Study: Manual Therapy in Patient of 18 Years with Youthful Scoliosis Idiopathic Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Yaneth Franco Monsalve; Zorika María Guerra Corena; María Patricia Otero Samudio

    2007-01-01

    Scoliosis is a lateral deviation of the spine from the mean line, characterized by a lateral curvature and a vertebral rotation. It is generallyof idiopathic character and appears mainly in adolescent females. Multiple techniques of conservative treatment for the scoliosis exist such as the manual therapy that complements the treatment for this pathology. This technique uses manipulation of soft tissue and bone, obtainingtherefore a more effective recovery, improving the quality of life of th...

  17. Progression of scoliosis in patients with spastic quadriplegia after the insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Glen M; Lauder, Anthony J

    2007-11-15

    Medical and radiographic review of 19 consecutive patients with spastic quadriplegia before and after intrathecal baclofen pump insertion with special attention paid to progression of scoliosis. Many orthopedic surgeons who treat spastic quadriplegic patients have noticed a trend of marked scoliosis progression after the administration of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) via subcutaneous pump and catheter. The purpose of this study is to quantify scoliosis progression in this patient population before and after baclofen administration and compare this to published natural history data. The authors had noted rapid progression of scoliosis in spastic quadriplegic patients after intrathecal baclofen pump insertion. This had been noted at other centers, but no significant statistical analysis had been done comparing prepump to postpump scoliosis progression in these patients. To document the magnitude and rate of scoliosis progressions after the placement of an ITB pump, the charts and radiographs of 19 consecutive nonambulatory patients with spastic quadriplegia and an ITB pump were reviewed. To document the rate of scoliosis progression, each patient had at least 2 pre and 2 postpump insertion spinal radiographs made. All radiographs were made with the patients in the supine position without orthoses. A board-certified orthopedic surgeon reviewed these radiographs. Skeletal maturity was assessed using Risser grading. Catheter tip location and rate of baclofen administration were recorded. For 19 patients with complete radiographic data, average Cobb angles were 10.2 degrees before pump insertion and 25 degrees at an average of 20.9 months after pump insertion (P quadriplegia and ITB pump. The authors are now performing spinal fusions for curves that exceed 40 degrees to 50 degrees in the presence of an ITB pump as recommended by previous reviews of scoliosis and accompanying quadriplegia.

  18. Scoliosis correction with shape-memory metal: results of an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Wever, D.; Elstrodt, J.; Veldhuizen, A.; v Horn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The biocompatibility and functionality of a new scoliosis correction device, based on the properties of the shape-memory metal nickel-titanium alloy, were studied. With this device, the shape recovery forces of a shape-memory metal rod are used to achieve a gradual three-dimensional scoliosis correction. In the experimental study the action of the new device was inverted: the device was used to induce a scoliotic curve instead of correcting one. Surgical procedures were performed in six pigs....

  19. Mothers' experience of caring for a child with early onset scoliosis: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Bonnie; Sinclair, Peter M; Maguire, Jane

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify and describe the experience of parents of children diagnosed with early onset scoliosis living in Australia. Chronic childhood disease has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Caring for a child with a chronic illness is well documented but the specific experiences of parents who care for children with early onset scoliosis, a rare but devastating illness, has not been explored. Numerous studies have described the interrelated psychological, financial, social, physical and logistical factors that impact the experience of the caregiver role with various diseases, but in the case of early onset scoliosis, limited studies have been conducted about the parental experience. A qualitative descriptive design was used. A snowball sampling technique assisted in the recruitment. Parents invited to the study included mothers, fathers and guardians. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Data collection complied with the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines. Twelve mothers of children with early onset scoliosis were interviewed, as only mothers consented to participate. Four major themes emerged: emotional rollercoaster ride, a lack of resources, money talks and pervasive burden. Factors that impacted on the participants' ability to confront, manage and endure caring for a child with early onset scoliosis emerged from the data. The findings suggest there are multiple factors that influence the experience of mothers' caring for a child with early onset scoliosis. The recognition and appropriate management of these factors by healthcare professionals have the potential to improve the quality of life of parents who care for a child with early onset scoliosis. Healthcare professionals have first-line contact with parents of children with early onset scoliosis and are well placed to provide parents with evidence-based education

  20. Physical exercises in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at risk of brace treatment – SOSORT consensus paper 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Negrini, Stefano; Hawes, Martha C; Rigo, Manuel; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Grivas, Theodoros B; Maruyama, Toru

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Based on a recognized need for research to examine the premise that nonsurgical approaches can be used effectively to treat signs and symptoms of scoliosis, a scientific society on scoliosis orthopaedic and rehabilitation treatment (SOSORT) was established in Barcelona in 2004. SOSORT has a primary goal of implementing multidisciplinary research to develop quantitative, objective data to address the role of conservative therapies in the treatment of scoliosis. This interna...

  1. Congenital scoliosis in monozygotic twins: case report and review of possible factors contributing to its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exact etiology of congenital scoliosis remains unknown as yet. It seems that its development may be influenced by both genetic predisposition and environmental factors, at varying degrees. International bibliography features few cases of monozygotic twins with congenital scoliosis. The aim of this study is to report a case in monozygotic twins and review the literature relating to the description of similar cases as well as the pathophysiological mechanism involved in its development. Methods Clinical examination and simple X-rays revealed scoliosis of differing degrees and types in male monozygotic twins with moderate mental retardation and dyslalia. Results Congenital scoliosis identified in both twins. In the first, this was manifested as left thoracic scoliosis, with Cobb angle of 34 degrees while in the second as left thoracolumbar scoliosis with Cobb angle of 10 degrees. Both were found to suffer from incarcerated hemivertebrae. Conclusion According to both its clinical identification and severity and to its course, not only the genetic but the environmental factors seem to play a leading role in the appearance of the condition.

  2. [Exercise therapy in the treatment of idiopathic adolescent scoliosis: Is it useful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, M; Patte, K; Dupeyron, A; Cottalorda, J

    2016-06-01

    Many practitioners, pediatricians, and general practitioners prescribe physical therapy when tracking scoliosis. However, has physical therapy alone proved its efficacy in the care of the scoliosis to slow down progression? Our purpose is to report the results of a literature review on the effectiveness of rehabilitation in idiopathic scoliosis. No current study presents sufficient scientific proof to validate the efficacy of isolated exercise therapy in scoliosis. Learned societies recognize, however, the efficacy of combining conservative therapy (brace+physiotherapy) in idiopathic scoliosis. Should we then still prescribe rehabilitation without brace treatment? Although physical therapy alone does not seem effective in treating scoliosis, it can limit potential painful phenomena and be beneficial for respiratory function. The physical therapist can also teach the teenager the classic principles of hygiene of the back. It may therefore be appropriate to prescribe physical therapy, but the principles and objectives must be explained to the patient and family in light of current evidence-based medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A Dutch guideline for the treatment of scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders

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    Titarsolej PJ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with neuromuscular disorders with a progressive muscle weakness such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Spinal Muscular Atrophy frequently develop a progressive scoliosis. A severe scoliosis compromises respiratory function and makes sitting more difficult. Spinal surgery is considered the primary treatment option for correcting severe scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders. Surgery in this population requires a multidisciplinary approach, careful planning, dedicated surgical procedures, and specialized after care. Methods The guideline is based on scientific evidence and expert opinions. A multidisciplinary working group representing experts from all relevant specialties performed the research. A literature search was conducted to collect scientific evidence in answer to specific questions posed by the working group. Literature was classified according to the level of evidence. Results For most aspects of the treatment scientific evidence is scarce and only low level cohort studies were found. Nevertheless, a high degree of consensus was reached about the management of patients with scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders. This was translated into a set of recommendations, which are now officially accepted as a general guideline in the Netherlands. Conclusion In order to optimize the treatment for scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders a Dutch guideline has been composed. This evidence-based, multidisciplinary guideline addresses conservative treatment, the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative care of scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders.

  4. The evaluation of short fusion in idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajanavisit Wiwat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selective thoracic fusion in type II curve has been recommended by King et al. since 1983. They suggested that care must be taken to use the vertebra that is neutral and stable so that the lower level of fusion is centered over the sacrum. Since then there has been the trend to do shorter and selective fusion of the major curve. This study was conducted to find out whether short posterior pedicle instrumentation alone could provide efficient correction and maintain trunk balance comparing to the anterior instrumentation. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted during 2005-2007 on 39 consecutive cases with idiopathic scoliosis cases King 2 and 3 (Lenke 1A, 1B, 5C and miscellaneous. Only the major curve was instrumented unless both curves were equally rigid and of the same magnitude. The level of fusion was planned as the end vertebra (EVB to EVB fusion, although minor adjustment was modified by the surgeons intraoperatively. The most common fusion levels in major thoracic curves were T6-T12, whereas the most common fusion levels in the thoraco-lumbar curves were T10-L3. Fusion was performed from the posterior only approach and the implants utilized were uniformly plate and pedicle screw system. All the patients were followed at least 2 years till skeletal maturity. The correction of the curve were assessed according to type of curve (lenke IA, IB and 5, severity of curve (less than 450, 450-890 and more than 900, age at surgery (14 or less and 15 or more and number of the segment involved in instrumentation (fusion level less than curve, fusion level as of the curve and fusion more than the curve Results: The average long-term curve correction for the thoracic was 40.4% in Lenke 1A, 52.2% in Lenke 1B and 56.3% in Lenke 5. The factors associated with poorer outcome were younger age at surgery (< 11 years or Risser 0, fusion at wrong levels (shorter than the measured end vertebra and rigid curve identified by bending

  5. Utilization of teledentistry as a tool to screen for dental caries among 12-year-old school children in a rural region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bharathi M; Singh, Abhinav; Dwivedi, Ashish

    2017-03-01

    The study aims to assess the reliability of video-graphic method as a tool to screen the dental caries among 12-year-old school children in a rural region of India. A total of 139 school children participated in the study. Visual tactile examinations were conducted using the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. Simultaneously, standardized video recording of the oral cavity was performed. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated for video-graphic assessment of dental caries. Bland-Altman plot was used to assess agreement between the two methods of caries assessment. Likelihood ratio (LR) and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to assess the predictive accuracy of the video-graphic method. Mean DMFT for the study population was 2.47 ± 2.01 and 2.46 ± 1.91 by visual tactile and video-graphic assessment (P = 0.76; > 0.05). Sensitivity and specificity values of 0.86 and 0.58 were established for video-graphic assessment. A fair degree of agreement was noted between the two methods with Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value of 0.56. LR for video-graphic assessment was 2.05. Bland-Altman plot confirmed the level of agreement between the two assessment methods. The area under curve was 0.69 (CI 0.57, 0.80, P = 0.001). Teledentistry examination is comparable to clinical examination when screening for dental caries among school children. This study provides evidence that teledentistry may be used as an alternative screening tool for assessment of dental caries and is viable for remote consultation and treatment planning. Teledentistry offers to change the dynamics of dental care delivery and may effectively bridge the rural-urban oral health divide. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  6. The prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity – a study based on vision screening conducted at Enukweni and Mzuzu Foundation Primary Schools, Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Thom L; Jogessar S; McGowan SL; Lawless F

    2016-01-01

    Leaveson Thom,1 Sanchia Jogessar,1,2 Sara L McGowan,1 Fiona Lawless,1,2 1Department of Optometry, Mzuzu University, Mzuzu, Malawi; 2Brienholden Vision Institute, Durban, South Africa Aim: To determine the prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity (VA) among pupils recruited in two primary schools in Mzimba district, northern region of Malawi.Materials and methods: The study was based on the vision screening which was conducted by optometrists at Enukweni and Mzuzu Foundation Primary Sc...

  7. The prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity – a study based on vision screening conducted at Enukweni and Mzuzu Foundation Primary Schools, Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Thom,Leaveson; Jogessar,Sanchia; McGowan,Sara L; Lawless,Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Leaveson Thom,1 Sanchia Jogessar,1,2 Sara L McGowan,1 Fiona Lawless,1,2 1Department of Optometry, Mzuzu University, Mzuzu, Malawi; 2Brienholden Vision Institute, Durban, South Africa Aim: To determine the prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity (VA) among pupils recruited in two primary schools in Mzimba district, northern region of Malawi.Materials and methods: The study was based on the vision screening which was conducted by optometrists at Enukweni and Mzuzu Foundation Primary Sc...

  8. REVISION SURGERY IN PATIENTS WITH SCOLIOSIS OPERATED WITH PLATE ENDOCORRECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kolesov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors presented 19 clinical observations of patients undergoing surgery at the primary idiopathic scoliosis using plate endocorrectors. The following characteristics were determined: the fixation of posterior elements of the spine there is no possibility of adequate derotation scoliotic vertebrae arc and require extensive fixation of the spine (Th2-L4, significantly reducing the functional activity of the patients. The lack of the fusion is accompanied by system micromotion, causes the instability of the upper pole of the metal construction and provokes the formation of a fistula. The presence of fibrous scar, and later - bone block, doesn’t allow to realize the lengthening effect during the patient’s growth and causes the development of Crankshaft-phenomenon, the correction of which requires a long, traumatic, multi-stage surgery.

  9. Computerized tomography - a new dimension in the assessment of scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschfelder, H

    1983-01-01

    Scoliosis mostly starts in the infant or youth age and regularly progresses until the growth of the vertebral column is completed. In most cases, its cause remains unknown. Aside from the lateral curvature, there is always also a rotation of that part of the vertebral column which is caused biomechanically. This leads to a visible costal hump in addition to the shortening of the trunk. At the same time, the deformation of the thorax leads to restrictive changes in the lungs which, after some time, cause a hypertension in the pulmonary circulation. Functional effects on the abdominal organs, especially the kidneys, are also known. Therefore, the orthopedic surgeous main concern lies in early recognition and a complete comprehension of the disease in order to keep effects and secondary diseases under control by means of consequent therapeutic measures.

  10. Surgical treatment of scoliosis in Marfan syndrome: outcomes and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jun; Xu, Leilei; Liu, Zhen; Zhu, Feng; Qian, Bangping; Sun, Xu; Zhu, Zezhang; Qiu, Yong; Jiang, Qing

    2016-10-01

    To investigate surgical outcomes and complications of scoliosis associated with Marfan syndrome. Inclusion criteria were patients who were 10-20 years of age, had a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome by the Ghent nosology, had scoliosis and had undergone spinal fusion, and had at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The medical records of all patients were reviewed for age at the time of surgery, surgical procedures performed, instrumentation type, estimated blood loss (EBL) during surgery, operation time and complications related to surgery. Health-related quality-of-life measures (obtained with the SRS-22 Questionnaire before operation and at the last clinical follow-up) were also recorded. Patients were analyzed as two different groups, Group 1 and Group 2, according to the different approaches employed. Patients receiving combined anterior and posterior surgery were assigned to Group 1 and those who received posterior-only surgery to Group 2. Group 1 consisted of 30 patients (14 males, 16 females) with a mean age at surgery of 16.8 years (range: 10-20 years). Complications in Group 1 included two cases of instrumentation loosening with one removed, one case of instrumentation breakage and one case of chylothorax and hemothorax during video assisted thoracoscopic release. 66 patients (28 males, 38 females) with a mean age at surgery of years 16.4 years (range: 10-20 years) were included in Group 2. Complications in Group 2 included six cases of cerebro-spinal fluid leak, one case of deep wound infection secondary to cerebro-spinal fluid leak, one case of leg weakness and one case of pleural rupture cause by misplacement of pedicle screw. There is no difference of age at surgery, preoperative Cobb angles, and SRS-22 total scores (3.0 vs. 3.1) between the two groups (P > 0.05). Group 1 yielded larger correction rate than Group 2 for both thoracic (62.5 % vs. 56.2 %) and lumbar scoliosis (68.3 % vs. 62.7 %). Loss of correction was similar between the two

  11. Optimization on scoliosis examination on Canons DR system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle

    2007-01-01

    recordings of scoliosis today are carried out on CR systems even though most radiological departments have DR systems available. Theoretically speaking the two modalities are similar regarding dose and image quality. In this project consequently, the focus will be to obtain images of equal dose and quality...... at a DR system when using different receptors during the exam. This is a completely new opportunity, as it has earlier been difficult to compare distinct scintilators connected to the receptors due to unlike processing of the image. Given that Canon have released a receptor with CsI scintilator we...... in which theory is used as a background for the test setup and later audit appraisal. Two tests are carried out on two different hospitals with each their receptor, and afterwards the results are compared. To guarantee comparable tests the results are verified through status checks and statistical t...

  12. Robinsoniella peoriensis infection following surgery for scoliosis: a case report

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    Cassir Nadim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Robinsoniella peoriensis was recently identified as a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacillus originally isolated from swine manure storage pits. Seven isolates have been subsequently reported from human sources. Case presentation We report the case of an infection caused by R. peoriensis in a 45-year-old Caucasian woman after posterior instrumentation correction of idiopathic thoracolumbar scoliosis. The identification was made by culture of samples inoculated onto blood agar and chocolate agar and was confirmed by 16 S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing. Conclusions We discuss similar cases suggesting that R. peoriensis is responsible for health care-associated infections with the colonic flora as a potential source of infection.

  13. Evaluation and management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, Ajit; Mackel, Charles E; Hwang, Steven W; Samdani, Amer F; Stephen, James H; Bennett, James T; Baaj, Ali A

    2017-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a 3D spinal deformity affecting children between the ages of 11 and 18, without an identifiable etiology. The authors here reviewed the available literature to provide spine surgeons with a summary and update on current management options. Smaller thoracic and thoracolumbar curves can be managed conservatively with observation or bracing, but corrective surgery may be indicated for rapidly growing or larger curves. The authors summarize the atypical features to look for in patients who may warrant further investigation with MRI during diagnosis and review the fundamental principles of the surgical management of AIS. Patients with AIS can be managed very well with a combination of conservative and surgical options. Outcomes for these children are excellent with sustained longer-term results.

  14. Rate of complications in scoliosis surgery – a systematic review of the Pub Med literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodall Deborah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal fusion surgery is currently recommended when curve magnitude exceeds 40–45 degrees. Early attempts at spinal fusion surgery which were aimed to leave the patients with a mild residual deformity, failed to meet such expectations. These aims have since been revised to the more modest goals of preventing progression, restoring 'acceptability' of the clinical deformity and reducing curvature. In view of the fact that there is no evidence that health related signs and symptoms of scoliosis can be altered by spinal fusion in the long-term, a clear medical indication for this treatment cannot be derived. Knowledge concerning the rate of complications of scoliosis surgery may enable us to establish a cost/benefit relation of this intervention and to improve the standard of the information and advice given to patients. It is also hoped that this study will help to answer questions in relation to the limiting choice between the risks of surgery and the "wait and see – observation only until surgery might be recommended", strategy widely used. The purpose of this review is to present the actual data available on the rate of complications in scoliosis surgery. Materials and methods Search strategy for identification of studies; Pub Med and the SOSORT scoliosis library, limited to English language and bibliographies of all reviewed articles. The search strategy included the terms; 'scoliosis'; 'rate of complications'; 'spine surgery'; 'scoliosis surgery'; 'spondylodesis'; 'spinal instrumentation' and 'spine fusion'. Results The electronic search carried out on the 1st February 2008 with the key words "scoliosis", "surgery", "complications" revealed 2590 titles, which not necessarily attributed to our quest for the term "rate of complications". 287 titles were found when the term "rate of complications" was used as a key word. Rates of complication varied between 0 and 89% depending on the aetiology of the entity investigated

  15. Morphology and Prevalence Study of Lumbar Scoliosis in 7,075 Multiracial Asian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gabriel; Tan, Jun Hao; Ee, Gerard; Chan, Yiong Huak; Low, Siew Leng; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2016-08-03

    Lumbar scoliosis affects patients' quality of life and will increasingly burden the health-care system as the population ages, yet there have been few reports of its prevalence in Asians. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of scoliosis, curve characteristics, and risk factors for development of scoliosis in an Asian population. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using spinal images obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of individuals ≥40 years of age. Scoliosis was defined as a curvature of >10°. A multivariate analysis for risk factors for development of lumbar scoliosis was performed. Of 7,075 patients studied, 645 (9.1%) were identified as having scoliosis. The average age of the patients with scoliosis was 61 years (range, 40 to 98 years). The mean curve prevalence was 9.4% in women and 6.5% in men. The average Cobb angle was 16.5° (range, 10° to 66°). Multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of scoliosis in women (relative risk [RR] = 2.4, 95% CI =1.4 to 4.3), Chinese patients (RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.3), Malay patients (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.9), and patients with spinal fracture (RR = 5.1, 95% CI = 3.0 to 8.8). The risk of scoliosis was found to increase as patients progressed through each decade of life after the age of 40 years (6th decade: RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.4, p = 0.026; 7th decade: RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.8 to 4.1, p Chinese or Malay race, and vertebral fracture increased the risk of scoliosis developing. Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  16. Can Touch Screen Tablets be Used to Assess Cognitive and Motor Skills in Early Years Primary School Children? A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Outhwaite, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive and motor functions is fundamental for developmental and neuropsychological profiling. Assessments are usually conducted on an individual basis, with a trained examiner, using standardized paper and pencil tests, and can take up to an hour or more to complete, depending on the nature of the test. This makes traditional standardized assessments of child development largely unsuitable for use in low-income countries. Touch screen tablets afford the opportunity to assess cognitive functions in groups of participants, with untrained administrators, with precision recording of responses, thus automating the assessment process. In turn, this enables cognitive profiling to be conducted in contexts where access to qualified examiners and standardized assessments are rarely available. As such, touch screen assessments could provide a means of assessing child development in both low- and high-income countries, which would afford cross-cultural comparisons to be made with the same assessment tool. However, before touch screen tablet assessments can be used for cognitive profiling in low-to-high-income countries they need to be shown to provide reliable and valid measures of performance. We report the development of a new touch screen tablet assessment of basic cognitive and motor functions for use with early years primary school children in low- and high-income countries. Measures of spatial intelligence, visual attention, short-term memory, working memory, manual processing speed, and manual coordination are included as well as mathematical knowledge. To investigate if this new touch screen assessment tool can be used for cross-cultural comparisons we administered it to a sample of children ( N = 283) spanning standards 1-3 in a low-income country, Malawi, and a smaller sample of children ( N = 70) from first year of formal schooling from a high-income country, the UK. Split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, face validity, convergent

  17. Can touch screen tablets be used to assess cognitive and motor skills in early years primary school children? A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pitchford

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of cognitive and motor functions is fundamental for developmental and neuropsychological profiling. Assessments are usually conducted on an individual basis, with a trained examiner, using standardised paper and pencil tests, and can take up to an hour or more to complete, depending on the nature of the test. This makes traditional standardised assessments of child development largely unsuitable for use in low-income countries. Touch screen tablets afford the opportunity to assess cognitive functions in groups of participants, with untrained administrators, with precision recording of responses, thus automating the assessment process. In turn, this enables cognitive profiling to be conducted in contexts where access to qualified examiners and standardised assessments are rarely available. As such, touch screen assessments could provide a means of assessing child development in both low- and high-income countries, which would afford cross-cultural comparisons to be made with the same assessment tool. However, before touch screen tablet assessments can be used for cognitive profiling in low-to-high-income countries they need to be shown to provide reliable and valid measures of performance. We report the development of a new touch screen tablet assessment of basic cognitive and motor functions for use with early years primary school children in low- and high-income countries. Measures of spatial intelligence, visual attention, short-term memory, working memory, manual processing speed, and manual coordination are included as well as mathematical knowledge. To investigate if this new touch screen assessment tool can be used for cross-cultural comparisons we administered it to a sample of children (N=283 spanning standards 1-3 in a low-income country, Malawi, and a smaller sample of children (N=70 from first year of formal schooling from a high-income country, the UK. Split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, face validity

  18. Results of Casting in Severe Curves in Infantile Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasikelis, Peter J; Carpenter, Ashley M

    2018-04-01

    Previous work has demonstrated best results for casting in infantile scoliosis when the curves are small and the child begins casting under 2 years of age. This study examines if casting can delay the need for growth friendly instrumentation in severe curves (50 to 106 degrees) and how the comorbidities of syrinx or genetic syndromes affected outcomes. All children undergoing casting for scoliosis at a single institution over an 8-year period were examined. Inclusion criteria included initial curve at first casting of ≥50 degrees, age ≤3 years at the start of casting, and a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Of 148 children undergoing casting during this period, 44 met our inclusion criteria. All children underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Ten children with a syrinx were identified. Ten children had known genetic syndromes (2 who also had a syrinx). The 26 children without these comorbidities were considered idiopathic. Curve magnitude ranged from 50 to 106 degrees. Nine of the 26 (35%) children in the children with idiopathic curves demonstrated resolution of their curves, while only 3 of the remaining 18 (17%) did. Of the children that did not have resolution of their curves, 14 were maintained over the entire follow-up period to within 15 degrees of their initial curve and 13 were improved 15 degrees or more. Only 5 children had an increase of 15 degrees or more over the follow-up period and 4 of these have undergone growth friendly instrumentation after a mean delay from initial cast of 71 months (range, 18 to 100 mo). This study demonstrates that even in severe curves, casting was effective in delaying instrumentation in all cases, and led to curve resolution of the curves in 12 of 44 children. Level III-case control study.

  19. Chiropractic manipulation in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoline Michael R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS remains the most common deforming orthopedic condition in children. Increasingly, both adults and children are seeking complementary and alternative therapy, including chiropractic treatment, for a wide variety of health concerns. The scientific evidence supporting the use chiropractic intervention is inadequate. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot study and explore issues of safety, patient recruitment and compliance, treatment standardization, sham treatment refinement, inter-professional cooperation, quality assurance, and outcome measure selection. Methods Six patients participated in this 6-month study, 5 of whom were female. One female was braced. The mean age of these patients was 14 years, and the mean Cobb angle was 22.2 degrees. The study design was a randomized controlled clinical trial with two independent and blinded observers. Three patients were treated by standard medical care (observation or brace treatment, two were treated with standard medical care plus chiropractic manipulation, and one was treated with standard medical care plus sham manipulation. The primary outcome measure was Cobb, and the psychosocial measure was Scoliosis Quality of Life Index. Results Orthopedic surgeons and chiropractors were easily recruited and worked cooperatively throughout the trial. Patient recruitment and compliance was good. Chiropractic treatments were safely employed, and research protocols were successful. Conclusion Overall, our pilot study showed the viability for a larger randomized trial. This pilot confirms the strength of existing protocols with amendments for use in a full randomized controlled trial. Trial registration This trial has been assigned an international standard randomized controlled trial number by Current Controlled Trials, Ltd. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/. The number is ISRCTN41221647.

  20. Congenital scoliosis - presentation of three severe cases treated conservatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H-R

    2008-01-01

    In view of the very limited data about conservative treatment of patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) available, early surgery is suggested already in mild cases with formation failures in the first three years of life. It is common sense that patients with failures of segmentation will not benefit from conservative treatment at all and the same applies to failures of formation with curves of >50 degrees in infancy. Two patients with rib synostosis denied surgery before entering the pubertal growth spurt. These patients have been treated conservatively with braces and Scoliosis In-Patient Rehabilitation (SIR) and now are beyond the pubertal growth spurt. One patient with a formation failure and a curve of >50 degrees lumbar has been treated with the help of braces and physiotherapy from 1.6 years on and is still under treatment now at the age of 15 years. Severe decompensation was prevented in the two patients with failure of segmentation, however a severe thoracic deformity is evident with underdeveloped lung function and severe restrictive ventilation disorder. The patient with failure of formation is well developed, now without cosmetic or physical complaints although his curve progressed at the end of the growth spurt due to final mal-compliance. Failures of segmentation should be advised to have surgery before entering the pubertal growth spurt. In case they deny, conservative treatment can at least in part be beneficial. For patients with failures of formation conservative treatment should be suggested in the first place because long-term outcomes of early surgery beyond pubertal growth spurt are not yet revealed.

  1. Psychometric properties of the SCOFF questionnaire (Chinese version) for screening eating disorders in Hong Kong secondary school students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sau Fong; Lee, Ka Li; Lee, Sze Man; Leung, Sik Chi; Hung, Wing Sze; Lee, Wai Leng; Leung, Yuen Yee; Li, Man Wai; Tse, Tak Kin; Wong, Hoi Kei; Wong, Yuen Ni

    2009-02-01

    Eating disorders are affecting an increasing number of high school students in Western and Asian countries. The availability of an effective screening tool is crucial for early detection and prompt intervention. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the SCOFF questionnaire for screening eating disorders in Hong Kong high school students. This study adopted a cross-sectional design to examine the psychometric properties of the SCOFF questionnaire. A panel of 7 experts and 936 students of a high school participated in the study. The SCOFF questionnaire was translated into Chinese and back-translated into English to ensure the linguistic equivalence. A panel of 7 experts involved in the content validation of the SCOFF questionnaire. The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) was used as the "reference standard" to assess its concurrent validity in 936 students of a high school. Its reliability was examined by internal consistency and the test-retest method at a 2-week interval and with 38 students. The SCOFF questionnaire achieved an agreement of 86-100% among the experts for the content relevance. Of 812 students (86.8%) who responded to this study, their SCOFF scores correlated significantly with their global scores on the EDE-Q (r=0.5, Peating disorders had significantly higher scores in the EDE-Q than those not identified as such by SCOFF. The SCOFF questionnaire demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability (ICC=0.66) and an acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.44-0.57) in comparing with previous studies. The SCOFF questionnaire has acceptable psychometric properties in the Chinese culture. It will be useful for detecting potential eating disorders and assisting health promotion activity.

  2. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  3. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2006-07-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were investigated with at least 2 years follow-up at the time of receiving a posted self-administered questionnaire. Forty-four patients were treated with Boston brace (B) only, 41 patients had surgery (S), and 33 patients were treated both with brace and surgery (BS). The Cobb angles of the three treatment groups did not differ significantly after completed treatment. The outcome in terms of the total SRS 24 score was not significantly different among the three groups. B patients had a significantly better general (not treatment related) self-image and higher general activity level than the total group of surgically treated patients, while surgically treated patients scored significantly better in post-treatment self-image and satisfaction. Comparing B with BS we found a significantly higher general activity level in B patients, while the BS group had significantly higher satisfaction. There were no significant differences between BS and S patients in any of the domain scores. All treatment groups scored "fair or better" in all domain scores of the SRS 24 questionnaire, except in post-treatment function, where all groups scored worse than "fair". Improvement of appearance by means of surgical correction increases mean scores for post-treatment self-image and post-treatment satisfaction. Double-treatment by brace and surgery does not appear to jeopardize a good final outcome.

  4. Screening of preschool and school children for cystic fibrosis with the chloride electrode and neutron activation analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on medical applications of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurson, C.T.

    1975-10-01

    A screening study was performed on 9,685 infants and children between 0 and 7 years of age living in the city of Istanbul. 2,511 of the subjects (''normals'') were kindergarten and school children and the remainder were children who had been brought to the casualty outpatient departments of two large hospitals. The purposes of the investigation were twofold, first to determine the prevalence of cystic fibrosis in a normal versus a sick population of children, and second to compare sweat-chloride vis-a-vis nail-sodium as indicators of the disease. Sweat-chloride was determined in all subjects by the use of a chloride specific electrode; nail sodium was determined in 1122 subjects by neutron activation analysis. These measurements led to the identification of seven cystic fibrosis cases in the outpatient group (frequency = 0.1%) and none in the kindergarten/school group. Sweat-chloride gave 0.7% false positives and no false negatives; nailsodium gave 14.7% false positives and 0.1% false negatives. It is concluded that nail-sodium is a much less effective indicator of cystic fibrosis than sweat-chloride and its use can probably not be justified except in certain special circumstances. Furthermore it would appear that the screening of outpatient cases rather than the whole population of children is a more cost-effective method for the detection of cystic fibrosis

  5. Responsiveness and Minimal Important Changes of the Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire in Subjects With Mild Adolescent and Moderate Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis Undergoing Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Rocca, Barbara; Foti, Calogero; Ferrante, Simona

    2017-06-01

    Single-center, prospective study. Evaluating the responsiveness and minimal important changes (MICs) for the Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and adult idiopathic scoliosis (AS). Despite the SRS-22 properties have been investigated in various different languages, there is still a lack of information concerning responsiveness and MIC, limiting the use of SRS-22 for clinical and research purposes. At the beginning and end of multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs, 149 subjects with mild AIS (Cobb angle self-perceived image, 0.40 (0.609;79;42) for AIS and 0.60 (0.751;61;82) for AS. Correlations between change scores of the SRS-22 domains and GPE were low to moderate, ranging from -0.347 to -0.667. The SRS-22 was sensitive in detecting clinical changes in subjects with adolescent and adult scoliosis. We recommend taking the MICs provided into account when assessing patients' improvement or planning studies in these clinical contexts. 3.

  6. Pain, pain intensity and pain disability in high school students are differently associated with physical activity, screening hours and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anabela G; Sa-Couto, Pedro; Queirós, Alexandra; Neto, Maritza; Rocha, Nelson P

    2017-05-16

    Studies exploring the association between physical activity, screen time and sleep and pain usually focus on a limited number of painful body sites. Nevertheless, pain at different body sites is likely to be of different nature. Therefore, this study aims to explore and compare the association between time spent in self-reported physical activity, in screen based activities and sleeping and i) pain presence in the last 7-days for 9 different body sites; ii) pain intensity at 9 different body sites and iii) global disability. Nine hundred sixty nine students completed a questionnaire on pain, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen based time watching TV/DVD, playing, using mobile phones and computers and sleeping hours. Univariate and multivariate associations between pain presence, pain intensity and disability and physical activity, screen based time and sleeping hours were investigated. Pain presence: sleeping remained in the multivariable model for the neck, mid back, wrists, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.17 to 2.11); moderate physical activity remained in the multivariate model for the neck, shoulders, wrists, hips and ankles/feet (OR 1.06 to 1.08); vigorous physical activity remained in the multivariate model for mid back, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.05 to 1.09) and screen time remained in the multivariate model for the low back (OR = 2.34. Pain intensity: screen time and moderate physical activity remained in the multivariable model for pain intensity at the neck, mid back, low back, shoulder, knees and ankles/feet (Rp 2 0.02 to 0.04) and at the wrists (Rp 2  = 0.04), respectively. Disability showed no association with sleeping, screen time or physical activity. This study suggests both similarities and differences in the patterns of association between time spent in physical activity, sleeping and in screen based activities and pain presence at 8 different body sites. In addition, they also suggest that the factors associated

  7. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  8. Axial plane dissimilarities of two identical Lenke-type 6C scoliosis cases visualized and analyzed by vertebral vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs

    2018-01-01

    is essential to completely evaluate the scoliosis curves, because, despite the similar representations in the frontal and sagittal planes, the occurrence of scoliosis in the horizontal plane can be completely different. Graphical abstract: These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material...

  9. Risk factors for emergence and progression of scoliosis in children with severe cerebral palsy : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeters, Marianne J. B.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Aim Scoliosis is a frequently occurring and serious complication of severe cerebral palsy (CP). This systematic review aims to the assess the risk factors associated with the emergence and progression of scoliosis in children with CP functioning at level IV or V of the Gross Motor Function

  10. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene polymorphism and scoliosis in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G; Hossain, Waheeda; Hassan, Maaz; Manzardo, Ann M

    2018-04-01

    A growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene polymorphism impacts sensitivity to endogenous and exogenous growth hormone (GH) to moderate growth and development. Increased sensitivity may accelerate spinal growth and contribute to scoliosis, particularly in GH-deficient and treated populations such as Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Therefore, we examined the relationship between GHR genotype and scoliosis (case and control) in PWS cohorts. We utilized a case-control design in a study of 73 subjects (34M; 39F) with genetically confirmed PWS in 32 individuals previously diagnosed with moderate to severe scoliosis (mean age=16.9±10.2years; age range of 1 to 41years) and 41 adults with no evidence of scoliosis (mean age=30.8±9.7years; age range of 18 to 56years). The GHR gene polymorphism was determined using PCR specific primers to capture the two recognized GHR gene fragment sizes [i.e., full length (fl) or exon 3 deletions (d3)]. Twenty-three (72%) of the 32 case subjects with scoliosis required surgical correction with an approximately equal balance for gender and PWS genetic subtype among cases and 41 control subjects without scoliosis. The GHR d3/d3 genotype was identified in N=2 of 8 (25%) cases with scoliosis and the d3/fl genotype was identified in N=11 of 25 (44%) cases with scoliosis but the distribution difference did not statistically differ. The GHR fl/fl genotype was correlated with a significantly faster rate and heavier weight gain among case subjects. Our examination of demographic and genetic markers associated with scoliosis and surgical repair in PWS found no evidence to support differences in gender, PWS genetic subtype or GHR d3 allele distributions among the case vs control groups. Those with fl/fl alleles were heavier than those with d3/d3 or d3/fl genotypes and warrant further study with a larger sample size and possibly to include other vulnerable populations requiring growth hormone treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Screen media time usage of 12-16 year-old Spanish school adolescents: Effects of personal and socioeconomic factors, season and type of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devís-Devís, José; Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J; Tomás, José Manuel

    2009-04-01

    This study examined screen media time usage (SMTU) and its association with personal and socioeconomic factors, as well as the effect of season and type of day, in a Spanish sample of 12-16 year-old school adolescents (N=323). The research design was a cross-sectional survey, in which an interviewer-administered recall questionnaire was used. Statistical analyses included repeated measures analyses of variance, analysis of covariance and structural equation models. Results showed an average of 2.52h per day of total SMTU and partial times of 1.73h per day in TV viewing, 0.27h per day in computer/videogames, and 0.52h per day in mobile use. Four significant predictors of SMTU emerged. Firstly, the type of school was associated with the three media of our study, particularly students from state/public school spent more time on them than their private schools counterparts. Secondly, older adolescents (14-16 years old) were more likely to use computer/videogame and mobile phone than younger adolescents. Thirdly, the more accessibility to household technology the more probable computer/videogames and mobile phone were used. Finally, boys spent significantly more time in mobile phone than girls. Additionally, results revealed that adolescents seemed to consume more TV and computer/videogames in autumn than in winter, and more TV and mobile phones on weekends than on weekdays, especially among state school students. Findings from this study contribute to the existing knowledge on adolescents' SMTU patterns that can be transferred to families and policies.

  12. Reliability of photogrammetry in the evaluation of the postural aspects of individuals with structural scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Karen Ruggeri; Colombo, Alexandra Siqueira; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; João, Sílvia Maria Amado

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of photogrammetry in the measurement of the postural deviations in individuals with idiopathic scoliosis. Twenty participants with scoliosis (17 women and three men), with a mean age of 23.1 ± 9 yrs, were photographed from the posterior and lateral views. The postural aspects were measured with CorelDRAW software. High inter-rater and test-retest reliability indices were found. It was observed that with more severity of scoliosis, greater were the variations between the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis measures obtained by the same examiner from the left lateral view photographs. A greater body mass index (BMI) was associated with greater variability of the trunk rotation measures obtained by two independent examiners from the right, lateral view (r = 0.656; p = 0.002). The severity of scoliosis was also associated with greater inter-rater variability measures of trunk rotation obtained from the left, lateral view (r = 0.483; p = 0.036). Photogrammetry demonstrated to be a reliable method for the measurement of postural deviations from the posterior and lateral views of individuals with idiopathic scoliosis and could be complementarily employed for the assessment procedures, which could reduce the number of X-rays used for the follow-up assessments of these individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of apical vertebra for grading of idiopathic scoliosis using image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, H; Prabhu, G K

    2012-02-01

    Scoliosis is a 3-D deformity of spinal column, characterized by both lateral curvature and vertebral rotation. The disease can be caused by congenital, developmental, or degenerative problems; but most cases of scoliosis actually have no known cause, and this is known as idiopathic scoliosis. Vertebral rotation has become increasingly prominent in the study of scoliosis and the most deformed vertebra is named as apical vertebra. Apical vertebral deformity demonstrates significance in both preoperative and postoperative assessment, providing better appreciation of the impact of bracing or surgical interventions. Precise measurement of apical vertebral rotation in terms of grading is most valuable for the determination of reference value in normal and pathological conditions for better understanding of scoliosis. Routine quantitative evaluation of vertebral rotation is difficult and error prone due to limitations of observer characteristic and specific imaging property. This paper proposes automatic identification of the apical vertebra and its parameter that depends on the objective criteria of measurement using active contour models. The proposed technique is more accurate and is a reliable measurement compared to manual and computer-assisted system.

  14. Associations between treatment, scoliosis, pulmonary function, and physical performance in long-term survivors of sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interiano, Rodrigo B; Kaste, Sue C; Li, Chenghong; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Rao, Bhaskar N; Warner, William C; Green, Daniel M; Krasin, Matthew J; Robison, Leslie L; Davidoff, Andrew M; Hudson, Melissa M; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Ness, Kirsten K

    2017-10-01

    Longer survival for children with sarcoma has led to the recognition of chronic health conditions related to prior therapy. We sought to study the association of sarcoma therapy with the development of scoliosis. We reviewed patient demographics, treatment exposures, and functional outcomes for patients surviving >10 years after treatment for sarcoma between 1964 and 2002 at our institution. The diagnosis of scoliosis was determined by imaging. Functional performance and standardized questionnaires were completed in a long-term follow-up clinic. We identified 367 patients, with median age at follow-up of 33.1 years. Scoliosis was identified in 100 (27.2%) patients. Chest radiation (relative risk (RR), 1.88 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-2.92), p sarcoma are at risk of developing scoliosis when treatment regimens include chest radiation or rib resection. Identification of these risk factors may allow for early intervention designed to prevent adverse long-term outcomes. Cancer survivors at risk of developing scoliosis may benefit from monitoring of pulmonary status and early physical therapy.

  15. Progressive senile scoliosis: Seven cases of increasing spinal curves in elderly patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespy, T. III; Gillespy, T. Jr.; Revak, C.S.

    1985-04-01

    An increasing scoliosis was documented in seven elderly women. The average curve at the most recent examination was 43/sup 0/ (range 26/sup 0/-78/sup 0/). Previous films, from 5 to 26 years before, demonstrated an average increase of 2.3/sup 0//year (range 1/sup 0/-4.8/sup 0//year). There were three lumbar and four thoracolumbar curves. Three curves were to the right and four were to the left. Only one patient had osteoporotic vertebral body crush fractures. The common underlying mechanism in the progression of senile scoliosis appears to be asymmetric loading of the spine which can be caused by a previously established scoliosis, spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis, lumbosacral anomalies, or leg length discrepancy. Subsequently, factors that can cause a curve to increase include degenerative disc disease with lateral disc space narrowing, soft tissue failure, and osteoporosis. Since even minor scoliosis can potentially progress in the older adult, increased monitoring of scoliosis in patients over age 50 years may be warranted.

  16. Progressive senile scoliosis: Seven cases of increasing spinal curves in elderly patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespy, T. III; Revak, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    An increasing scoliosis was documented in seven elderly women. The average curve at the most recent examination was 43 0 (range 26 0 -78 0 ). Previous films, from 5 to 26 years before, demonstrated an average increase of 2.3 0 /year (range 1 0 -4.8 0 /year). There were three lumbar and four thoracolumbar curves. Three curves were to the right and four were to the left. Only one patient had osteoporotic vertebral body crush fractures. The common underlying mechanism in the progression of senile scoliosis appears to be asymmetric loading of the spine which can be caused by a previously established scoliosis, spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis, lumbosacral anomalies, or leg length discrepancy. Subsequently, factors that can cause a curve to increase include degenerative disc disease with lateral disc space narrowing, soft tissue failure, and osteoporosis. Since even minor scoliosis can potentially progress in the older adult, increased monitoring of scoliosis in patients over age 50 years may be warranted. (orig.)

  17. Lenke and King classification systems for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: interobserver agreement and postoperative results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpour-Feizi H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hojjat Hosseinpour-Feizi, Jafar Soleimanpour, Jafar Ganjpour Sales, Ali ArzroumchilarDepartment of Orthopedics, Shohada Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and to compare the results of surgery performed based on classification of the scoliosis according to each of these classification systems.Methods: The study was conducted in Shohada Hospital in Tabriz, Iran, between 2009 and 2010. First, a reliability assessment was undertaken to assess interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Second, postoperative efficacy and safety of surgery performed based on the Lenke and King classifications were compared. Kappa coefficients of agreement were calculated to assess the agreement. Outcomes were compared using bivariate tests and repeated measures analysis of variance.Results: A low to moderate interobserver agreement was observed for the King classification; the Lenke classification yielded mostly high agreement coefficients. The outcome of surgery was not found to be substantially different between the two systems.Conclusion: Based on the results, the Lenke classification method seems advantageous. This takes into consideration the Lenke classification’s priority in providing details of curvatures in different anatomical surfaces to explain precise intensity of scoliosis, that it has higher interobserver agreement scores, and also that it leads to noninferior postoperative results compared with the King classification method.Keywords: test reliability, scoliosis classification, postoperative efficacy, adolescents

  18. ERECTOR SPINAE AND SCOLIOSIS IN A POPULATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSAMA J. ALÍ-MORELL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the relation of muscular response to the vestibular stimulation of the erector spinae, specifically longissimus thoracis and iliocostalis lumborum, with the origin of scoliosis in a population of individuals with level V cerebral palsy of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 12 individuals aged between four and 14 years. The muscular activity of the longissimus thoracis and iliocostalis lumborum was recorded by electromyography in the presence of anteroposterior and lateral imbalances, comparing it with that obtained in sitting position without imbalances. Scoliosis was assessed by radiological study following Cobb method. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between correct responses of both muscles to anteroposterior imbalances and absence of right thoracolumbar scoliosis (p=0.005; p=0.028, left thoracic scoliosis (p=0.005; p=0.046 and right lumbar scoliosis (p=0.005; p=0.046. Conclusions: The symmetry of muscular responses to anteroposterior imbalances, both of longissimus thoracis and iliocostalis lumborum, seems to be one of the factors that prevent the development of spine deviations in this population. Level of evidence: IV. Type of Study: Case series

  19. To What Extent Can Adolescent Scoliosis Be Improved in Four Weeks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ağırman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is a condition that leads to severe disability and an impaired cosmetic appearance in adolescence. This article presents x-ray images of a patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS in whom the pain and posture improved dramatically over four weeks, emphasizing the importance of physical therapy. A 13-year-old male was admitted because of posture deformity and mild back and lower back pain. He was being followed with the diagnosis of scoliosis for two years and specific exercises were proposed for scoliosis. On physical examination, we observed paravertebral muscle spasm and significant asymmetry of the thoracolumbar region. Neurological examination and laboratory tests were normal. X-ray showed arcuate thoracolumbar scoliosis (cobb angle: 24° with a leftward convexity. Electrical stimulation was applied to the convex and concave sides for 30 minutes, five times a week for four weeks and an exercise program was performed under the supervision of a therapist. The stimulation amplitude was the maximum stimulation intensity with which the patient was comfortable. Analgesic and myorelaxant drugs were not required, and no brace was used. After the treatment, significant improvements were observed in the patient’s posture and radiography (cobb angle: 10°. This work demonstrates that well-planned physical therapy is a rapid and effective option for treating AIS.

  20. Intraoperative implant rod three-dimensional geometry measured by dual camera system during scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmingo, Remel Alingalan; Tadano, Shigeru; Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu

    2016-05-12

    Treatment for severe scoliosis is usually attained when the scoliotic spine is deformed and fixed by implant rods. Investigation of the intraoperative changes of implant rod shape in three-dimensions is necessary to understand the biomechanics of scoliosis correction, establish consensus of the treatment, and achieve the optimal outcome. The objective of this study was to measure the intraoperative three-dimensional geometry and deformation of implant rod during scoliosis corrective surgery.A pair of images was obtained intraoperatively by the dual camera system before rotation and after rotation of rods during scoliosis surgery. The three-dimensional implant rod geometry before implantation was measured directly by the surgeon and after surgery using a CT scanner. The images of rods were reconstructed in three-dimensions using quintic polynomial functions. The implant rod deformation was evaluated using the angle between the two three-dimensional tangent vectors measured at the ends of the implant rod.The implant rods at the concave side were significantly deformed during surgery. The highest rod deformation was found after the rotation of rods. The implant curvature regained after the surgical treatment.Careful intraoperative rod maneuver is important to achieve a safe clinical outcome because the intraoperative forces could be higher than the postoperative forces. Continuous scoliosis correction was observed as indicated by the regain of the implant rod curvature after surgery.

  1. Reliability and validity of the persian version of the scoliosis research society-22r questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Mobini, Bahram; Mehdian, Hossein; Akbarnia, Behrouz; Bouzari, Behshad; Askary-Ashtiani, Ahmadreza; Montazeri, Ali; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2010-04-01

    Cross-sectional validation study to investigate psychometric properties of adapted Persian version of the Scoliosis Research Society-22r (SRS-22r) questionnaire. OBJECTIVES.: To translate the SRS-22r into Persian and to evaluate the internal consistency, reliability, and validity of the Persian SRS-22r. The SRS-22r has not been translated and validated for Persian-speaking patients with idiopathic scoliosis. This was to provide a validated instrument to measure health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic scoliosis in Iran. The translation and cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire were carried out in accordance with the published guidelines. About 84 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were participated in the study. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to test convergent validity of the Persian SRS-22r. Moderate to high correlations were found between the SRS-22r domains and SF-36 subscales. The correlations ranged from 0.54 to 0.67 (function/activity domain), 0.48 to 0.74 (pain domain), 0.45 to 0.55 (self image domain), 0.66 to 0.85 (mental health domain), and 0.35 to 0.55 (satisfaction domain) (P adolescent patients with scoliosis in Iran. It is simple and easy to use and now can be applied in clinical settings and future outcome studies in Iran.

  2. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Pre-School Screening Instrument: Comparison of Korean and US Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, K. H.; Squires, J.; Yovanoff, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Accurate and efficient developmental screening measures are critical for early identification of developmental problems; however, few reliable and valid tests are available in Korea as well as other countries outside the USA. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) was chosen for study with young children in Korea. Methods: The ASQ…

  3. Neurophysiological detection of impending spinal cord injury during scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel M; Auerbach, Joshua D; Dormans, John P; Flynn, John; Drummond, Denis S; Bowe, J Andrew; Laufer, Samuel; Shah, Suken A; Bowen, J Richard; Pizzutillo, Peter D; Jones, Kristofer J; Drummond, Denis S

    2007-11-01

    Despite the many reports attesting to the efficacy of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential monitoring in reducing the prevalence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury during corrective scoliosis surgery, these afferent neurophysiological signals can provide only indirect evidence of injury to the motor tracts since they monitor posterior column function. Early reports on the use of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials to monitor the corticospinal motor tracts directly suggested that the method holds great promise for improving detection of emerging spinal cord injury. We sought to compare the efficacy of these two methods of monitoring to detect impending iatrogenic neural injury during scoliosis surgery. We reviewed the intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring records of 1121 consecutive patients (834 female and 287 male) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (mean age, 13.9 years) treated between 2000 and 2004 at four pediatric spine centers. The same group of experienced surgical neurophysiologists monitored spinal cord function in all patients with use of a standardized multimodality technique with the patient under total intravenous anesthesia. A relevant neurophysiological change (an alert) was defined as a reduction in amplitude (unilateral or bilateral) of at least 50% for somatosensory evoked potentials and at least 65% for transcranial electric motor evoked potentials compared with baseline. Thirty-eight (3.4%) of the 1121 patients had recordings that met the criteria for a relevant signal change (i.e., an alert). Of those thirty-eight patients, seventeen showed suppression of the amplitude of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials in excess of 65% without any evidence of changes in somatosensory evoked potentials. In nine of the thirty-eight patients, the signal change was related to hypotension and was corrected with augmentation of the blood pressure. The remaining twenty-nine patients had an alert that was related directly to a

  4. Three solutions to a single problem: alternative casting frames for treating infantile idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halanski, Matthew A; Harper, Benjamin L; Cassidy, Jeffry A; Crawford, Haemish A

    2013-07-01

    This is a technique article discussing 3 alternative frames for casting children with infantile scoliosis. To provide surgeons with alternatives to expensive specialized casting tables to allow local treatment of these children utilizing readily available materials present at most institutions. Casting for infantile scoliosis has become more popular as reports have shown promising results with this technique without the morbidity and complications associated with more invasive procedures. However, without a specialized casting table, treating these patients has been limited to a few centers throughout the country often causing patients to travel large distances to receive care. Three different alternatives to commercially available casting frames are presented. Requirements, setup, and techniques are discussed. Each surgeon has had success with each of these frames. These provide adequate support and traction while allowing enough access to the trunk to apply a well-molded cast. Cotrel/Metha casting for infantile scoliosis can be accomplished without a specialized table using commonly available equipment.

  5. Assessment of bone density in patients with scoliosis neuromuscular secondary to cerebral palsy

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    Charbel Jacob Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bone mineral density in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study in which, in addition to bone densitometry, the anthropometric data of the patients were assessed. As inclusion criterion we adopted patients with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, wheelchair users, aged between 10 and 20 years and with neuromuscular scoliosis. RESULTS: We evaluated 31 patients, 20 female, whose average age was 14.2 years. The mean bone density was -3.2 standard deviation (Z-score, with mean biceps circumference of 19.4 cm, calf circumference 18.6 cm and BMI of 13.6 kg/m². CONCLUSION: There is a high incidence of osteoporosis in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

  6. Iphone app use to Cobb angle in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Does this apply?

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    Antenor Rafael de Oliveira Mazzuia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate a new method of measuring the Cobb angle for scoliosis from the mobile app CobbMeter to facilitate the evaluation and measurement in clinical practice.METHODS: Five observers with minimum experience of two years in the field performed radiographic measurements of Cobb angle in 24 radiographs of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis through the CobbMeter. Observers performed serial measures on the images with the application, which were repeated after one month. The most experienced appraiser of the group, after measurements were made through the application, determined the Cobb angle in each radiography by the traditional method.RESULTS: The mean standard deviation by comparing the angles electronically and manually measured had no clinical significance. Although 40% of electronic measurements are outside the confidence interval when compared to manual measurements, this difference was insignificant in clinical practice.CONCLUSIONS: The CobbMeter is another alternative for measuring Cobb angle in scoliosis.

  7. Managing Scoliosis in a Young Child with Rett Syndrome: A Case Study

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    Meir Lotan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a genetic disorder primarily affecting females. One of its most disabling features is the severe and rapid progression of scoliosis. So far, only surgical intervention has succeeded in reversing the development of scoliosis in Rett syndrome.The present study describes a new management approach implemented with a girl with Rett syndrome. The core of the management regime was intensive: asymmetrical activation of trunk muscles through equilibrium reactions. The X-rays accompanying the article (evaluated by four experienced orthopedic surgeons blinded to the intervention process suggested that the intervention was successful in reversing the progress of the scoliosis for the above-mentioned child. Discontinuation of treatment led to severe and rapid deterioration of the spinal curve.Due to the fact that this was a case study, generalization is limited, but we suggest further investigation and studies with this method.

  8. The effect of myofascial release (MFR) on an adult with idiopathic scoliosis.

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    LeBauer, Aaron; Brtalik, Robert; Stowe, Katherine

    2008-10-01

    The lack of evidence of conservative treatment has led to an interest in exploring myofascial release (MFR) as an effective means of controlling spinal curvature progression in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The purpose of this case study is to measure the effects of MFR as a manual therapy technique in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. One 18-year-old female subject underwent 6 weeks of MFR treatment consisting of two sessions each week for 60min. Pain, pulmonary function, and quality of life were measured. Six goniometric measurements were taken encompassing trunk flexion, extension, and rotation. The subject improved with pain levels, trunk rotation, posture, quality of life, and pulmonary function. The results suggest further investigation is needed using MFR, as an effective manual therapy treatment for idiopathic scoliosis.

  9. Simultaneous double-rod rotation technique in posterior instrumentation surgery for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

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    Ito, Manabu; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kotani, Yoshihisa; Takahata, Masahiko; Sudo, Hideki; Hojo, Yoshihiro; Minami, Akio

    2010-03-01

    The authors present a new posterior correction technique consisting of simultaneous double-rod rotation using 2 contoured rods and polyaxial pedicle screws with or without Nesplon tapes. The purpose of this study is to introduce the basic principles and surgical procedures of this new posterior surgery for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Through gradual rotation of the concave-side rod by 2 rod holders, the convex-side rod simultaneously rotates with the the concave-side rod. This procedure does not involve any force pushing down the spinal column around the apex. Since this procedure consists of upward pushing and lateral translation of the spinal column with simultaneous double-rod rotation maneuvers, it is simple and can obtain thoracic kyphosis as well as favorable scoliosis correction. This technique is applicable not only to a thoracic single curve but also to double major curves in cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  10. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis – case report of a patient with clinical deterioration after surgery

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    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is no evidence that the long-term effects of scoliosis surgery are superior to the long-term effects of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS itself, patients can fear the consequences of not under going this surgery due to incorrect or insufficient information. The main indication for surgical treatment in patients with AIS, is cosmetic. However spinal surgery may, along with other negative side effects, actually cause postoperative clinical deterioration. This complication of surgery has not yet been described in international literature. Case presentation A 15-year old female patient originally presenting with a well-compensated double curve pattern scoliosis. The patient was advised to undergo surgery due to the long-term negative impact of signs and symptoms of scoliosis upon her health. The patient agreed to surgery, which was performed in one of Germanys leading centres for spinal surgery. The thoracolumbar curve was corrected and fused, while the thoracic curve, clearly showing wedged vertebrae, defined as structural scoliosis, remained untreated. This operation left the patient with an unbalanced appearance, with radiological and clinical imbalance to the right. The clinical appearance of the patient though clearly deteriorated post-surgery. Furthermore, the wedged disc space below the fusion area indicates future problems with possible destabilisation accompanied probably by low back pain. Conclusion Scoliosis surgery for patients with AIS is mainly indicated for cosmetic or psychological reasons. Therefore the treatment leading to the best possible clinical appearance and balance has to be chosen. Patients should be informed that surgery will not necessarily improve their health status. Clinical deterioration after surgery may occur, and such information is crucial for an adequate informed consent.

  11. Surgical correction of scoliosis in children with spastic quadriplegia: benefits, adverse effects, and patient selection.

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    Legg, Julian; Davies, Evan; Raich, Annie L; Dettori, Joseph R; Sherry, Ned

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of nonprogressive syndromes of posture and motor impairment associated with lesions of the immature brain. Spastic quadriplegia is the most severe form with a high incidence of scoliosis, back pain, respiratory compromise, pelvic obliquity, and poor sitting balance. Surgical stabilization of the spine is an effective technique for correcting deformity and restoring sitting posture. The decision to operate in this group of patients is challenging. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of surgical correction of scoliosis in children with spastic quadriplegia, the adverse effects of this treatment, and what preoperative factors affect patient outcome after surgical correction. A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies describing benefits and adverse effects of surgery in spastic quadriplegia. Factors affecting patient outcome following surgical correction of scoliosis were assessed. Studies involving adults and nonspastic quadriplegia were excluded. A total of 10 case series and 1 prospective and 3 retrospective cohort studies met inclusion criteria. There was significant variation in the overall risk of complications (range, 10.9-70.9%), mortality (range, 2.8-19%), respiratory/pulmonary complications (range, 26.9-57.1%), and infection (range, 2.5-56.8%). Factors associated with a worse outcome were a significant degree of thoracic kyphosis, days in the intensive care unit, and poor nutritional status. Caregivers report a high degree of satisfaction with scoliosis surgery for children with spastic quadriplegia. There is limited evidence of preoperative factors that can predict patient outcome after scoliosis. There is a need for well-designed prospective studies of scoliosis surgery in spastic quadriplegia.

  12. Mild angle early onset idiopathic scoliosis children avoid progression under FITS method (Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis).

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    Białek, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    Physiotherapy for stabilization of idiopathic scoliosis angle in growing children remains controversial. Notably, little data on effectiveness of physiotherapy in children with Early Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis (EOIS) has been published.The aim of this study was to check results of FITS physiotherapy in a group of children with EOIS.The charts of the patients archived in a prospectively collected database were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were:diagnosis of EOIS based on spine radiography, age below 10 years, both girls and boys, Cobb angle between 118 and 308, Risser zero, FITS therapy, no other treatment (bracing), and a follow-up at least 2 years from the initiation of the treatment. The criterion for curve progression were as follows: the Cobb angle increase of 68 or more, for curve stabilization; the Cobb angle was 58 comparing to the initial radiograph,for curve correction; and the Cobb angle decrease of 68 or more at the final follow-up radiograph.There were 41 children with EOIS, 36 girls and 5 boys, mean age 7.71.3 years (range 4 to 9 years) who started FITS therapy. The curve pattern was single thoracic (5 children), single thoracolumbar (22 children) or double thoracic/thoracolumbar (14 children), totally 55 structural curvatures. The minimum follow-up was 2 years after initiation of the FITS treatment, maximum was 16 years, mean 4.8 years). At follow-up the mean age was 12.53.4 years. Out of 41 children, 10 passed pubertal growth spurt at the final follow-up and 31 were still immature and continued FITS therapy. Out of 41 children, 27 improved, 13 were stable, and one progressed. Out of 55 structural curves, 32 improved, 22 were stable and one progressed. For the 55 structural curves, the Cobb angle significantly decreased from 18.085.48 at first assessment to 12.586.38 at last evaluation,pphysiotherapy was effective in preventing curve progression in children with EOIS. Final postpubertal follow-up data is needed.

  13. The Use of Application Blanks as Pre-Screening Devices in Employee Selection: An Assessment of Practices in Public Schools.

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    Bredeson, Paul V.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a study of the use of employment application blanks as prescreening devices in public school employee selection. Findings suggest two major areas for further research. The first relates to legal compliance with Equal Opportunity Employment guidelines. The second concerns information relevancy to personnel selection. (JAM)

  14. The SPoRT concept of bracing for idiopathic scoliosis.

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    Zaina, Fabio; Fusco, Claudia; Atanasio, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The SPoRT (acronym: Symmetrical, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active) concept of bracing is a new way to build braces based on our 20 years of experience and the biomechanical principles of scoliosis correction, inclusive of the Sibilla and Sforzesco braces. The concept always requires a custom brace, which is made according to the patient's individual requirements. New technologies such as CAD-CAM can be applied, and often for better results, without the customary use of prebuilt forms whose measurements are stored in databases. Once the initial draft brace is completed, a final test must be made on the patient to modify and adapt it, depending on his or her real interaction between the body and the brace. The results that are today available on the SPoRT concept relate to the Sforzesco brace and are necessarily short-term, because the first treated patients are now reaching the fourth-year follow-up examination and haven't yet completed their treatments. On the basis of the initial evaluations, we can state that the Sforzesco brace is more effective than the Lyon brace after 6 months of treatment and that the Sforzesco brace is equally effective as the Risser Plast brace.

  15. Predictive factors for homologous transfusion during paediatric scoliosis surgery.

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    Dupuis, Claire; Michelet, Daphné; Hilly, Julie; Diallo, Thierno; Vidal, Christophe; Delivet, Honorine; Nivoche, Yves; Mazda, Keyvan; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2015-12-01

    Blood saving strategies during paediatric spinal surgery often include recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) and antifibrinolytic therapy (AFT). The goal of this study was to investigate additional preventive factors involved in the risk of blood transfusion. This prospective study was designed with the aim of identifying factors associated with the perioperative (defined as the intraoperative and the first postoperative day) probability of homologous red cell transfusion during scoliosis surgery in children operated during a one year period in our institution. The predictors analysed were: age, weight less than the 3rd percentile (W 255 minutes. ROC analysis for the latter model found an area under the curve of 0.9 (95% confidence interval: 0.8-0.97). The accuracy of the model was 92.3% (97.4% for non-transfusion and 69.2% for transfusion). Multivariate sensitivity analysis excluding patients with no preoperative administration of EPO found similar results. The current results indicate that optimising nutritional status might prevent allogenic blood transfusion and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between vitamin d levels and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

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    Rodrigo Martins Borges Ferreira Batista

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients with AIS and a control group. Methods: The patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic of our institution during the year of 2013. Children diagnosed with scoliosis before 10 or after 18 years of age, and those suffering from neurological or muscular disorders, congenital malformations or genetic syndromes were excluded. The 25-OHD levels were determined by a fully automated electrochemiluminescence test. The appropriate level of 25-OHD was defined as greater than 30 ng/mL. The results were compared to a group of healthy individuals. Results: In group 1 (control 63,3% showed abnormal vitamin D levels, while 91% of patients with AIS presented a low level of vitamin D. The mean BMI was 19.6 kg/m2 for controls and 20.3 kg/m2 for group 2. Statistical analysis showed significant difference (p<0.0001 between the levels of vitamin D. The average and minimum levels of vitamin D were respectively 27 and 13.6 ng/mL for group 1 and 18.8 and 3.13 ng/mL for AIS group. Conclusions: Patients with AIS had statistically significant lower levels of 25-OHD than healthy patients. Further research should be conducted to investigate the actual impact of serum vitamin D levels on the pathophysiology of AIS.

  17. Positioning of pedicle screws in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using electromyography

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    Bruno Moreira Gavassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of poor positioning of pedicle screws inserted with the aid of intraoperative electromyographic stimulation in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS.METHODS: This is a prospective observational study including all patients undergoing surgical treatment for AIS, between March and December 2013 at a single institution. All procedures were monitored by electromyography of the inserted pedicle screws. The position of the screws was evaluated by assessment of postoperative CT and classified according to the specific AIS classification system.RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included in the study, totalizing 281 instrumented pedicles (17.5 per patient. No patient had any neurological deficit or complaint after surgery. In the axial plane, 195 screws were found in ideal position (69.4% while in the sagittal plane, 226 screws were found in ideal position (80.4%. Considering both the axial and the sagittal planes, it was observed that 59.1% (166/281 of the screws did not violate any cortical wall.CONCLUSION: The use of pedicle screws proved to be a safe technique without causing neurological damage in AIS surgeries, even with the occurrence of poor positioning of some implants.

  18. The role of family-related factors in the effects of the UP4FUN school-based family-focused intervention targeting screen time in 10- to 12-year-old children: the ENERGY project.

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    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Bere, Elling; Verloigne, Maïté; van Stralen, Maartje M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Vik, Frøydis Nordgård; Manios, Yannis; Grillenberger, Monika; Kovács, Eva; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2014-08-18

    Screen-related behaviours are highly prevalent in schoolchildren. Considering the adverse health effects and the relation of obesity and screen time in childhood, efforts to affect screen use in children are warranted. Parents have been identified as an important influence on children's screen time and therefore should be involved in prevention programmes. The aim was to examine the mediating role of family-related factors on the effects of the school-based family-focused UP4FUN intervention aimed at screen time in 10- to 12-year-old European children (n child-parent dyads = 1940). A randomised controlled trial was conducted to test the six-week UP4FUN intervention in 10- to 12-year-old children and one of their parents in five European countries in 2011 (n child-parent dyads = 1940). Self-reported data of children were used to assess their TV and computer/game console time per day, and parents reported their physical activity, screen time and family-related factors associated with screen behaviours (availability, permissiveness, monitoring, negotiation, rules, avoiding negative role modeling, and frequency of physically active family excursions). Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country). Almost all TV-specific and half of the computer-specific family-related factors were associated with children's screen time. However, the measured family-related factors did not mediate intervention effects on children's TV and computer/game console use, because the intervention was not successful in changing these family-related factors. Future screen-related interventions should aim to effectively target the home environment and parents' practices related to children's use of TV and computers to decrease children's screen time. The study is registered in the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (registration number: ISRCTN34562078).

  19. Scoliosis in patients with Prader Willi Syndrome – comparisons of conservative and surgical treatment

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    Goodall Deborah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In children with Prader Willi syndrome (PWS, besides growth hormone (GH therapy, control of the food environment and regular exercise, surgical treatment of scoliosis deformities seems the treatment of choice, even though the risks of spinal surgery in this specific population is very high. Therefore the question arises as to whether the risks of spinal surgery outweigh the benefits in a condition, which bears significant risks per se. The purpose of this systematic review of the Pub Med literature was to find mid or long-term results of spinal fusion surgery in patients with PWS, and to present the conservative treatment in a case study of nine patients with this condition. Methods Types of studies included; all kinds of studies; retrospective and prospective ones, which reported upon the outcome of scoliosis surgery in patients with PWS. Types of participants included: patients with scoliosis and PWS. Type of intervention: surgery. Search strategy for identification of the studies; Pub Med; limited to English language and bibliographies of all reviewed articles. Nine patients with PWS from our data-base treated conservatively have been found, being 19 years or over at the time this study has been performed. The results of conservative management are described and related to the natural history and treatment results found in the Pub Med review. Results From 2210 titles displayed in the Pub Med database with the key word being "Prader Willi syndrome", 5 different papers were displayed at the date of the search containing some information on the outcome of surgery and none appeared to contain a mid or long-term follow-up. The PWS patients treated conservatively from our series all stayed below 70° and some of which improved. Discussion If the curve of scoliosis patients with PWS can be kept within certain limits (usually below 70 degrees conservatively, this treatment seems to have fewer complications than surgical treatments. The

  20. Screening for psychological distress among High School Graduates Accepted for Enrollment at Alexandria Faculty of Medicine: Academic year 2016/2017

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    Iman Hassan Diab

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental and psychological health of adolescents in general and prospective medical students in particular is a priority area to investigate as it affects wellbeing of the future doctors. Objectives: The current research was conducted to screen first year medical students accepted for enrollment at Alexandria Faculty of Medicine to identify those with a high probability of having psychological distress before the start of academic courses as well as explore the sources of stress among them.Methods.A cross sectional survey of 779 high school graduates accepted for admission to Alexandria Faculty of medicine was conducted. Participants were approached on the days of obligatory pre-enrollment medical examination. The translated Arabic version of DASS 21 questionnaire was used to screen students for three negative emotional symptoms namely depression, anxiety and stress. Inquiry about age, sex, residency and type of high school was added. Results: More than a tenth of studied medical students (12.6% suffered from severe or profound stress and 29.1% of them had mild to moderate stress. Moreover, one fifth (20% of studied students were severely anxious and less than one third (29.3% had mild to moderate anxiety. Severe and profound depression was diagnosed among 14.3% of students whereas, 18.7% them were moderately depressed. No association was found between any of studied negative emotional symptoms and the students' educational background or their residency. Conclusion: Nearly half of the prospective medical students might have some sort of psychological distress before starting their study in the Faculty of Medicine. They should be investigated to verify diagnosis and start intervention to minimize its adverse effects on academic performance and advancement at the faculty. Stress management courses should be considered for all medical students. Keywords: Psychological distress, Prospective medical students, Adolescents' psychological

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation of a pre-school screening instrument: comparison of Korean and US populations.

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    Heo, K H; Squires, J; Yovanoff, P

    2008-03-01

    Accurate and efficient developmental screening measures are critical for early identification of developmental problems; however, few reliable and valid tests are available in Korea as well as other countries outside the USA. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) was chosen for study with young children in Korea. The ASQ was translated into Korean and necessary cross-cultural adaptations were made. The translated version was then distributed and completed by 3220 parents of young children between the ages of 4 months and 5 years. Reliability was studied including domain correlations, internal consistency, and performance of identification cut-off scores for the Korean population. Rasch analyses including tests of Differential Item Functioning, contrasting Korean and US samples were also performed. In general, internal consistency of the Korean ASQ was high, with overall correlations 0.75 for communication, 0.85 for gross motor, 0.74 for fine motor, 0.72 for problem solving, and 0.65 for personal-social. Validity, including concurrent validity, also had strong evidence. Mean scores of children on the Korean translation of the ASQ and the US normative sample were generally similar. Rasch analyses indicated the majority of items functioned similarly across the Korean sample. In general, the ASQ was translated with cultural appropriateness in mind and functioned as a valid and reliable parent-completed screening test to assist in early identification of young children with developmental delays. Further research is needed to confirm these results with a larger and more diverse Korean sample.

  2. The combined impact of diet, physical activity, sleep and screen time on academic achievement: a prospective study of elementary school students in Nova Scotia, Canada.

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    Faught, Erin L; Ekwaru, John P; Gleddie, Douglas; Storey, Kate E; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-03-09

    Few studies have investigated the independent associations of lifestyle behaviors (diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen time) and body weight status with academic achievement. Even fewer have investigated the combined effect of these behaviors on academic achievement. We hypothesize that the combined effect of these behaviors will have a higher impact on academic achievement than any behavior alone, or that of body weight status. In 2011, 4253 grade 5 (10-11 years old) students and their parents were surveyed about the child's diet, physical activity, screen time and sleep. Students' heights and weights were measured by research assistants. Academic achievement was measured using provincial standardized exams in mathematics, reading and writing, and was expressed as 'meeting' or 'not meeting' expectations as per standardized criterion. Exams were written 1 year following the measurement of lifestyle behaviors. Lifestyle behaviors were measured with self- and parental proxy reports and expressed as meeting recommendations (yes/no) for each behavior. Mixed effects logistic regression models adjusting for demographic confounders and caloric intake were used to determine the independent and combined associations. Meeting dietary recommendations was associated with increased likelihood of meeting academic expectations for each of math, reading and writing. Meeting recommendations for screen time and sleep was associated with meeting expectations for writing. For all three subjects, meeting additional lifestyle behavior recommendations was associated with higher likelihood of meeting expectations. Children who met 7-9 lifestyle behavior recommendations had greater than three-times the odds of meeting expectations for reading compared to those who met 0-3 recommendations (OR: 3.07, 95% CI: 2.09, 4.51), and 1.47 and 2.77 times the odds of meeting expectations in mathematics and writing, respectively. Body weight status was not associated with academic achievement

  3. Overweight, obesity, and screen-time viewing among Chinese school-aged children: National prevalence estimates from the 2016 Physical Activity and Fitness in China—The Youth Study

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    Yujun Cai

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In 2016, the prevalence of obesity among Chinese school children was about 12%, and about 37% of them did not meet screen-time viewing recommendations. The prevalence of obesity and sedentary behavior was generally higher among boys than among girls, and it was higher for children living in urban areas than for those living in rural areas.

  4. Validation of the scale on Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management-idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S

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    Khadra C

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Christelle Khadra,1–3 Sylvie Le May,1,2 Ariane Ballard,1,2 Jean Théroux,1,4 Sylvie Charette,5 Edith Villeneuve,6,7 Stefan Parent,2,8,9 Argerie Tsimicalis,10,11 Jill MacLaren Chorney12,13 1Faculty of Nursing, Université de Montréal, 2CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, 3Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4School of Health Professions, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 5Direction of Nursing, 6Department of Anesthesia, CHU Sainte-Justine, 7Department of Anesthesia, 8Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 9Orthopaedic Service, Department of Surgery, CHU Sainte-Justine, 10Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, 11Shriners Hospitals for Children, Montreal, QC, 12Pediatric Complex Pain Team, IWK Health Centre, 13Department of Anesthesia, Pain Management, and Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Background: Spinal fusion is a common orthopedic surgery in children and adolescents and is associated with high pain levels postoperatively. If the pain is not well managed, negative outcomes may ensue. To our knowledge, there is no measure in English that assesses patient’s satisfaction with postoperative pain management following idiopathic scoliosis surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the satisfaction subscale of the English version of the Satisfaction of Adolescents with Postoperative pain management – idiopathic Scoliosis (SAP-S scale.Methods: Eighty-two participants aged 10–18 years, who had undergone spinal fusion surgery, fully completed the SAP-S scale at 10–14 days postdischarge. Construct validity was assessed through a principal component analysis using varimax rotation.Results: Principal component analysis indicated a three-factor structure of the 13-item satisfaction subscale of the SAP-S scale. Factors referred to satisfaction regarding current

  5. Evaluation of coronal shift as an indicator of neuroaxial abnormalities in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective study.

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    Karami, Mohsen; Sagheb, Soodeh; Mazda, Keyvan

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, many indicator factors have been proposed to select patients who need an MRI screening of the spinal canal. In current study, the clinical and radiologic factors including coronal parameters of the curve were evaluated to find out which indicator is more important. A prospective study included 143 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who were treated between 2010 and 2013 at our spinal clinics. Only patients with normal or subtle neurologic findings were included. All patients were evaluated by a total spine MRI protocol for examination of neuroaxial abnormalities. Known indicators and also coronal shift were analysed in all patients with or without abnormal MRI. The incidence of neuroaxial abnormalities was 11.9% (17 of 143); only 5 patients (3.5%) were operated to treat their neuroaxial problem. The significant indicators of the abnormalities in our patients were: younger age at onset, asymmetric superficial abdominal reflex and, coronal shift more than 15 mm (P = 0.03). Some previously known indicators like atypical curves, male gender, double curves and absence of thoracic lordosis were not different between two groups of the patients. A total spine MRI is recommended at presentation in patients with younger age, abnormal neurologic findings and severe coronal shift.

  6. Cross-sectional and prospective associations between sleep, screen time, active school travel, sports/exercise participation and physical activity in children and adolescents.

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    Dalene, Knut Eirik; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Andersen, Lars Bo; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Ekelund, Ulf; Hansen, Bjørge H; Kolle, Elin

    2018-06-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate how sleep, screen time, active school travel and sport and/or exercise participation associates with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in nationally representative samples of Norwegian 9- and 15-y-olds, and whether these four behaviors at age nine predict change in MVPA from age nine to 15 years. We pooled cross-sectional accelerometer and questionnaire data from 9- (n = 2366) and 15-y-olds (n = 1554) that participated in the first (2005/06) and second (2011/12) wave of the Physical Activity among Norwegian Children Study to investigate cross-sectional associations. To investigate prospective associations, we used data from a sub-sample that participated in both waves (at age nine and 15 years, n = 517). Cross-sectional analyses indicated a modest, inverse association between screen time and MVPA among 9- (- 2.2 min/d (95% CI: -3.1, - 1.3)) and 15-y-olds (- 1.7 min/d (95% CI: -2.7, - 0.8)). Compared to their peers with 0-5 min/d of active travel to school, 9- and 15-y-olds with ≥16 min/d accumulated 7.2 (95% CI: 4.0, 10.4) and 9.0 (95% CI: 3.8, 14.1) more min/d of MVPA, respectively. Nine-y-old boys and 15-y-olds reporting ≥8 h/week of sports and/or exercise participation accumulated 14.7 (95% CI: 8.2, 21.3) and 17.9 (95% CI: 14.0, 21.8) more min/d of MVPA, respectively, than those reporting ≤2 h/week. We found no cross-sectional association between sleep duration and MVPA in either age group. None of the four behaviors predicted change in MVPA from age nine to 15 years (p ≥ 0.102). Active travel to school and sport/exercise participation may be important targets for future interventions aimed at increasing MVPA in children and adolescents. However, future studies are needed to determine causality.

  7. The coeliac iceberg in Italy. A multicentre antigliadin antibodies screening for coeliac disease in school-age subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catassi, C; Fabiani, E; Rätsch, I M; Coppa, G V; Giorgi, P L; Pierdomenico, R; Alessandrini, S; Iwanejko, G; Domenici, R; Mei, E; Miano, A; Marani, M; Bottaro, G; Spina, M; Dotti, M; Montanelli, A; Barbato, M; Viola, F; Lazzari, R; Vallini, M; Guariso, G; Plebani, M; Cataldo, F; Traverso, G; Ventura, A

    1996-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that coeliac disease (CD) is one of the commonest, life-long disorders in Italy. The aims of this multicentre work were: (a) to establish the prevalence of CD on a nationwide basis; and (b) to characterize the CD clinical spectrum in Italy. Fifteen centres screened 17,201 students aged 6-15 years (68.6% of the eligible population) by the combined determination of serum IgG- and IgA-antigliadin antibody (AGA) test; 1289 (7.5%) were IgG and/or IgA-AGA positive and were recalled for the second-level investigation; 111 of them met the criteria for the intestinal biopsy: IgA-AGA positivity and/or AEA positivity or IgG-AGA positivity plus serum IgA deficiency. Intestinal biopsy was performed on 98 of the 111 subjects. CD was diagnosed in 82 subjects (75 biopsy proven, 7 not biopsied but with associated AGA and AEA positivity). Most of the screening-detected coeliac patients showed low-grade intensity illness often associated with decreased psychophysical well-being. There were two AEA negative cases with associated CD and IgA deficiency. The prevalence of undiagnosed CD was 4.77 x 1000 (95% CI 3.79-5.91), 1 in 210 subjects. The overall prevalence of CD, including known CD cases, was 5.44 x 1000 (95% CI 4.57-6.44), 1 in 184 subjects. The ratio of known to undiagnosed CD cases was 1 in 7. These findings confirm that, in Italy, CD is one of the most common chronic disorders showing a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum. Most CD cases remain undiagnosed unless actively searched.

  8. The opportunistic screening of refractive errors in school-going children by pediatrician using enhanced Br?ckner test

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Piyush; Kothari, Mihir T; Gode, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the results of enhanced Brückner test (EBT) performed by a pediatrician and an experienced pediatric ophthalmologist. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective double-masked cohort study, a pediatrician and a pediatric ophthalmologist performed the EBT in a classroom of a school in semi-dark lighting condition using a direct ophthalmoscope. The results of the test were compared using 2 × 2 Bayesian table and kappa statistics. The findings of the pedia...

  9. Eye-hand laterality and right thoracic idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Jean-François; Guyot, Marc-Alexandre; Agnani, Olivier; Demaille, Samantha; Kolanowski, Elisabeth; Donze, Cécile

    2014-06-01

    The adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) pathogenesis remains unknown. Certain studies have shown that there is a correlation between manual laterality and scoliotic deviation. A full study of manual laterality needs to be paired with one for visual dominance. With the aim of physiopathological research, we have evaluated the manual and visual laterality in AIS. A retrospective study from prospective data collection is used to evaluate the distribution of eye-hand laterality (homogeneous or crossed) of 65 right thoracic AIS (mean age 14.8 ± 1.8 years; mean Cobb angle: 32.8°) and a control group of 65 sex and age-matched (mean age 14.6 ± 1.8 years). The manual laterality was defined by the modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The evaluation of the visual laterality is done using three tests (kaleidoscope test, hole-in-the-card test, distance-hole-in-the-card test). The group of right thoracic AIS presents a significantly higher frequency of crossed eye-hand laterality (63 %) than the control group (63 vs. 29.2 %; p laterality is "right hand dominant-left eye dominant" (82.9 %). There is no relationship with the Cobb angle. Those with right thoracic AIS show a higher occurrence of crossed eye-hand laterality. This could point physiopathological research of AIS towards functional abnormality of the optic chiasma through underuse of cross visual pathways, and in particular accessory optic pathways. It would be useful to explore this by carrying out research on AISs through neuroimaging and neurofunctional exploration.

  10. Use of the Universal Clamp in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales de Gauzy, Jérôme; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Ilharreborde, Brice; Blondel, Benjamin; Accadbled, Franck; Mazda, Keyvan

    2014-07-01

    The Universal Clamp (UC) equipped with a soft sublaminar band is a relatively new thoracic anchor that can be used in hybrid constructs. A dedicated reduction tool that applies traction to the sublaminar band permits gentle translation of the thoracic curve to the pre-contoured fusion rods, which have been previously anchored distally by pedicle screws and proximally by hooks in a claw configuration. A literature review concerning the use of UC in adolescent idiopathic Scoliosis was performed. The results confirm the efficacy with the UC hybrid constructs, the good correction (71-66%) of the main thoracic curve and low loss of correction at 2-year follow-up (3-4%). The thoracic curve correction achieved and maintained in the AIS patients appears to be substantially higher than that reported for all hook and hook hybrid techniques. Regardless of the deformity correcting method employed with all-screw constructs, the Cobb angle correction achieved is equivalent to that achieved with UC hybrid devices. Among the present AIS patients who had normal values of thoracic kyphosis pre-operatively, there was almost no change in average thoracic kyphosis at the latest follow-up. However, among the patients with low pre-operative values of T5-T12 kyphosis, the average T5-T12 kyphosis improved. Hybrid construct with UC is safe, with reduced operative time and blood loss. While achieving deformity correction in the coronal and axial planes equivalent to the best-reported results of all screw or previous hybrid constructs, the UC hybrid technique appears to provide superior correction in the sagittal plane. The excellent outcome is maintained at the 2-year follow-up.

  11. Lowest instrumented vertebra selection in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody; Zhang, Yanqun

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not post-op curve behaviour differs due to different choices of lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) with reference to lumbar apical vertebra (LAV) in Lenke 3C and 6C scoliosis. METHODS: We reviewed all the AIS cases surgically treated...... it can yield similar correction while preserving more lumbar mobility and growth potential....

  12. Anterior Overgrowth in Primary Curves, Compensatory Curves and Junctional Segments in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; van Stralen, M; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Ng, Bobby K W; Vincken, Koen L; Cheng, Jack C Y; Castelein, RM

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although much attention has been given to the global three-dimensional aspect of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the accurate three-dimensional morphology of the primary and compensatory curves, as well as the intervening junctional segments, in the scoliotic spine has not been

  13. The etiologic relevance of 3-d pathoanatomy of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, Tom; Brink, Rob; Castelein, René

    2017-01-01

    Despite many years of dedicated research into the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, there is still no single distinct cause for this puzzling condition. In this overview, we attempt to link knowledge on the complex three-dimensional pathoanatomy of AIS, based on our ongoing

  14. Numerical simulation of asymmetrically altered growth as initiation mechanism of scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plaats, A.; Veldhuizen, A.G.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The causes of idiopathic scoliosis are still uncertain; buckling is mentioned often, but never proven. The authors hypothesize another option: unilateral postponement of growth of MM Rotatores or of ligamentum flavum and intertransverse ligament. In this paper, both buckling and the two new theories

  15. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and spinal fusion do not substantially impact on postural balance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmel, J.J.; Groen, B.E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Kleuver, M. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The spinal curvature in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) causes an asymmetry of upper body postural alignment, which might affect postural balance. However, the currently available studies on balance in AIS patients are not consistent. Furthermore, it is not known

  16. Numerical simulation of asymmetrically altered growth as initiation mechanism of scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Plaats, A.; Veldhuizen, A. G.; Verkerke, G. J.

    The causes of idiopathic scoliosis are still uncertain; buckling is mentioned often, but never proven. The authors hypothesize another option: unilateral postponement of growth of MM Rotatores or of ligamentum flavum and intertransverse ligament. In this paper, both buckling and the two new theories

  17. Focused Molding Using Adhesive Pads in Mehta Casting for Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Roby; Sponseller, Paul D

    2014-11-01

    Prospective clinical series. To determine the effect of adhesive pads placed over the apex of scoliosis curves on curve correction 1) after the first cast and 2) after the final cast. Early-onset scoliosis is often effectively managed by serial casting. Properly localizing the apex of the molds with the cast in place is challenging. The authors explored the effectiveness of a novel technique: incorporation of adhesive pads placed over the major curve apex before Mehta casting. The 27 patients who received body casts (2000-2013) were divided into 2 groups: those without and with apical adhesive pads (5-6 layers of pads placed on the major curve's apex during casting): non-pad (NP) group (n = 12) and pad (P) group (n = 15), respectively. Groups were compared regarding the percentage of Cobb angle change from the first cast and curve correction to a Cobb angle of cast curve correction was 39% ± 18% and 56% ± 17% in the NP and P groups, respectively. Of the 26 patients out of a cast, 11 (42%) had a Cobb angle of casting were effective in increasing the amount of major curve correction from the first cast for idiopathic early-onset scoliosis and in decreasing curves to <25° at final follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of scoliosis implant design parameters on whole spine mechanical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.J.; Marangalou, J. Hazrati; Meijer, G.; Ito, K.; van Rietbergen, B.; Homminga, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Finite element (FE) models have become a standard pre-clinical tool to study biomechanics of spine and are used to simulate and evaluate different strategies in scoliosis treatment: examine their efficacy as well as the effect of different implant design parameters. The goal of this study

  19. Internet use by parents of children attending a dedicated scoliosis outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph F; Devitt, Brian M; Lynch, Sam; Green, Connor J; Byrne, Damien P; Kiely, Patrick J

    2012-10-01

    No information exists on the level of internet use among parents of pediatric patients with scoliosis. The internet may represent a medium through which to provide information to augment the outpatient consultation. The aim of this research was to establish the prevalence of internet use amongst a cohort of parents attending a pediatric scoliosis outpatient clinic. A previously used questionnaire (Baker et al., Eur Spine J, 19:1776-1779, 2010) was distributed to parents attending a dedicated scoliosis outpatient clinic with their children. Demographic data and details about use of the internet were collected. Fifty-eight percent of respondents had used the internet to search for information on scoliosis, and 94 % were interested in a local internet provided information provision. A positive history of corrective surgery and possession of health insurance were independent positive predictors of internet use. As surgeons we need to be aware of our patients' use of the internet, and there is the opportunity to use this medium to provide additional education.

  20. Imaging the human spine using ultrasound : a preliminary study to follow scoliosis progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnama, I Ketut Eddy

    2007-01-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformation of the spine which is recognized in the frontal view by the presence of a lateral curvature. This curvature is characterized by an axial rotation of the vertebrae. The axial rotation in the thoracic region will move and deform the attached ribs resulting

  1. Workflow of CAD / CAM Scoliosis Brace Adjustment in Preparation Using 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Tournavitis, Nicos; Nan, Xiaofeng; Borysov, Maksym; Paul, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    High correction bracing is the most effective conservative treatment for patients with scoliosis during growth. Still today braces for the treatment of scoliosis are made by casting patients while computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is available with all possibilities to standardize pattern specific brace treatment and improve wearing comfort. CAD / CAM brace production mainly relies on carving a polyurethane foam model which is the basis for vacuuming a polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) brace. Purpose of this short communication is to describe the workflow currently used and to outline future requirements with respect to 3D printing technology. Description of the steps of virtual brace adjustment as available today are content of this paper as well as an outline of the great potential there is for the future 3D printing technology. For 3D printing of scoliosis braces it is necessary to establish easy to use software plug-ins in order to allow adding 3D printing technology to the current workflow of virtual CAD / CAM brace adjustment. Textures and structures can be added to the brace models at certain well defined locations offering the potential of more wearing comfort without losing in-brace correction. Advances have to be made in the field of CAD / CAM software tools with respect to design and generation of individually structured brace models based on currently well established and standardized scoliosis brace libraries.

  2. Physical therapy intervention studies on idiopathic scoliosis-review with the focus on inclusion criteria1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies investigating the outcome of conservative scoliosis treatment differ widely with respect to the inclusion criteria used. This study has been performed to investigate the possibility to find useful inclusion criteria for future prospective studies on physiotherapy (PT). Materials and methods A PubMed search for outcome papers on PT was performed in order to detect study designs and inclusion criteria used. Results Real outcome papers (start of treatment in immature samples/end results after the end of growth; controlled studies in adults with scoliosis with a follow-up of more than 5 years) have not been found. Some papers investigated mid-term effects of exercises, most were retrospective, few prospective and many included patient samples with questionable treatment indications. Conclusion There is no outcome paper on PT in scoliosis with a patient sample at risk for being progressive in adults or in adolescents followed from premenarchial status until skeletal maturity. However, papers on bracing are more frequently found and bracing can be regarded as evidence-based in the conservative management and rehabilitation of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. PMID:22277541

  3. Physical therapy intervention studies on idiopathic scoliosis-review with the focus on inclusion criteria1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the outcome of conservative scoliosis treatment differ widely with respect to the inclusion criteria used. This study has been performed to investigate the possibility to find useful inclusion criteria for future prospective studies on physiotherapy (PT. Materials and methods A PubMed search for outcome papers on PT was performed in order to detect study designs and inclusion criteria used. Results Real outcome papers (start of treatment in immature samples/end results after the end of growth; controlled studies in adults with scoliosis with a follow-up of more than 5 years have not been found. Some papers investigated mid-term effects of exercises, most were retrospective, few prospective and many included patient samples with questionable treatment indications. Conclusion There is no outcome paper on PT in scoliosis with a patient sample at risk for being progressive in adults or in adolescents followed from premenarchial status until skeletal maturity. However, papers on bracing are more frequently found and bracing can be regarded as evidence-based in the conservative management and rehabilitation of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents.

  4. Conservative management of neuromuscular scoliosis: personal experience and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Jozwiak, Marek

    2008-01-01

    The principles of conservative management of neuromuscular scoliosis in childhood and adolescence are presented. Analysis of personal experience and literature review. The topic is discussed separately for patients with flaccid or spastic paresis. These demonstrate that conservative management might be proposed for patients with neuromuscular scoliosis in many clinical situations. In spastic disorders, it maintains the symmetry around the hip joints. Bracing is technically difficult and often is not tolerated well by cerebral palsy children. In patients with flaccid paresis, the fitting and the use of brace is easier than in spastic patients. The flexibility of the spinal curvature is more important. Functional benefits of conservative management of neuromuscular scoliosis comprise stable sitting, easier use of upper limbs, discharge of the abdomen from the collapsing trunk, increased diaphragm excursion, and, not always, prevention of curve progression. Specific natural history and multiple medical problems associated with the disease make the treatment of children with neuromuscular scoliosis an extremely complex issue, best addressed when a team approach is applied. Continuously improving techniques of conservative management, comprising bracing and physiotherapy, together with correctly timed surgery incorporated in the process of rehabilitation, provide the optimal care for patients.

  5. The potential role of brain asymmetry in the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesluchowski, W; Dabrowska, A; Kedzior, K; Zagrajek, T

    1999-10-01

    The size asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres may predispose to head tilt and asymmetric blocking of the zygapophysial joints, potentially leading to the development of compensatory curvatures in the lower segments of the spine. To analyze the effects of spinal manipulation, maintained by an exercise program, on the progression of idiopathic adolescent scoliosis in 2 children aged 6 and 10. The scoliosis found was 16 and 60 degrees. For diagnosis and monitoring of therapy, we recorded qualitative parameters of shoulder asymmetry, axillary line asymmetry, and scapular angle position. Manual treatment consisted of the examinations of all sliding motion in zygapophysial joints and both sacroiliac joints and removing the limitations of the sliding motions according to the method of Karel Lewit. The treatment procedure consisted of 3 or 4 manipulations within 17 months and an exercise program. The manipulation effects were maintained by the exercise program. The exercises were done in 2 or 3 sessions weekly for a year. In both patients we observed that scoliosis decompensation was successfully stopped and the effects of the correction persisted for 10 years. Brain and head asymmetry may be only a transient state, predisposing to asymmetric blocking at the atlanto-occipital level. Removal of blocking may prevent curve progression in children who had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The manipulative therapy may also have a promising effect on retarding curve progression when used in skeletally immature patient.

  6. Clinical Outcomes of Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion in the Treatment of Adult Degenerative Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Caputo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF and other lateral access surgery is rapidly increasing in popularity. However, limited data is available regarding its use in scoliosis surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of adults with degenerative lumbar scoliosis treated with XLIF. Methods. Thirty consecutive patients with adult degenerative scoliosis treated by a single surgeon at a major academic institution were followed for an average of 14.3 months. Interbody fusion was completed using the XLIF technique with supplemental posterior instrumentation. Validated clinical outcome scores were obtained on patients preoperatively and at most recent follow-up. Complications were recorded. Results. The study group demonstrated improvement in multiple clinical outcome scores. Oswestry Disability Index scores improved from 24.8 to 19.0 (P < 0.001. Short Form-12 scores improved, although the change was not significant. Visual analog scores for back pain decreased from 6.8 to 4.6 (P < 0.001 while scores for leg pain decreased from 5.4 to 2.8 (P < 0.001. A total of six minor complications (20% were recorded, and two patients (6.7% required additional surgery. Conclusions. Based on the significant improvement in validated clinical outcome scores, XLIF is effective in the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis.

  7. Lenke and King classification systems for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: interobserver agreement and postoperative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Feizi, Hojjat; Soleimanpour, Jafar; Sales, Jafar Ganjpour; Arzroumchilar, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and to compare the results of surgery performed based on classification of the scoliosis according to each of these classification systems. The study was conducted in Shohada Hospital in Tabriz, Iran, between 2009 and 2010. First, a reliability assessment was undertaken to assess interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Second, postoperative efficacy and safety of surgery performed based on the Lenke and King classifications were compared. Kappa coefficients of agreement were calculated to assess the agreement. Outcomes were compared using bivariate tests and repeated measures analysis of variance. A low to moderate interobserver agreement was observed for the King classification; the Lenke classification yielded mostly high agreement coefficients. The outcome of surgery was not found to be substantially different between the two systems. Based on the results, the Lenke classification method seems advantageous. This takes into consideration the Lenke classification's priority in providing details of curvatures in different anatomical surfaces to explain precise intensity of scoliosis, that it has higher interobserver agreement scores, and also that it leads to noninferior postoperative results compared with the King classification method.

  8. Flexibility Predicts Curve Progression in Providence Nighttime Bracing of Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Gehrchen, Poul Martin

    2016-01-01

    for adolescent idiopathic ccoliosis (AIS) have been inconsistent and further research is needed. The association between flexibility, as determined by pretreatment SLBR, and curve progression has not previously been examined. METHODS: All patients treated with the PB from 2006 to 2011 who met Scoliosis Research...

  9. A preliminary study on electromyographic analysis of the paraspinal musculature in idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, J.; Halbertsma, J.P.; Veldhuizen, A.G.; Sluiter, W.J.; Maurits, N.M.; Cool, J.C.; van Horn, J.R.

    The paraspinal muscles have been implicated as a major causative factor in the progression of idiopathic scoliosis. Therefore, the objectives of this preliminary study were to measure the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the paraspinal muscles to determine its relationship to progression of the

  10. Human upright spinopelvic alignment and the etio-pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a classic and intriguing orthopedic disorder in which the spine, usually during the pubertal growth spurt, collapses into a three-dimensional deformity without any known cause. Despite many anatomical similarities between the human spine and other spines in nature, idiopathic

  11. Altered head orientation patterns in children with idiopathic scoliosis in conditions with sensory conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijgelaar, P. N.; Wapstra, F. H.; Otten, E.; Veldhuizen, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is the most common spinal deformity in adolescents. Defective postural equilibrium may be a contributing factor. The information of the three sensory systems combined enables the formation of a central representation of head position and body posture. Comparison of head

  12. Selection of fusion levels in idiopathic adolescent scoliosis treated by Harrington-DDT instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, G R; Andersen, M O; Christensen, S B

    1995-01-01

    Clinical records and radiographs of 106 patients treated by Harrington-dorsal transverse traction (DDT) instrumentation for idiopathic adolescent thoracolumbar scoliosis were reviewed. Our strategy was to fuse from one vertebra above the measured curve to two vertebrae below the curve, but to avoid...

  13. Ball tip method for thoracic pedicle screw placement in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kota; Matsumoto, Morio; Iizuka, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ball tip method for thoracic pedicle screw placements in idiopathic scoliosis patients. 24 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Conventional method was performed in 12 patients. Ball tip method was performed in 12 patients. Accuracy of the pedicle screw placement was evaluated based on the postoperative CT. In the ball tip method, a probe which was consisted of ball tip with flexible shaft was used. After removing of cortical bone at a starting point, the probe was inserted manually or sometimes with gently tapping by hammer. During the maneuver, the probe will gradually progress into cancellous bone in the pedicle, without perforating cortical bone in the pedicle. Following expansion of the hole by a rigid gear shift probe, screw was placed in the pedicle. 65.1% of screws were located within pedicle in the conventional group and 86.5% in the ball tip group. 5.3% of screws were located out of pedicle within 2 mm in the conventional group and 8.2% in the ball tip group. 15.8% of screws were located out of pedicle beyond 2 mm and 1.8% in the ball tip group. The ball tip method enhanced the accuracy of thoracic pedicle screw placements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. The ball tip method may be effective for accurate pedicle screw placement in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. (author)

  14. Three-dimensional computed tomography in the assessment of congenital scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, C.H.; Kalen, V.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Patients with congenital vertebral anomalies frequently are afflicted with kyphoscoliosis, with the curvatures often being severe and progressive. Spinal fusion almost always is the treatment of choice in such patients. This report examines the use of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) in the preoperative investigation of patients with congenital scoliosis.Design and patients. Twelve spinal CT examinations on 11 pediatric patients with congenital scoliosis underwent image processing to produce 3D images. The 3D images were compared with both the axial sections from the CT examinations and multiplanar reformations with regard to the detection of malformations liable to cause progression of scoliosis (i. e., hemivertebrae and unsegmented bars).Results and conclusions. In six of the 12 cases, the 3D images provided improved depiction of the congenital anomalies and their interrelationships compared with planar CT images. This work suggests that 3D CT can be a useful tool in the assessment of patients with congenital scoliosis. (orig.)

  15. Scoliosis treatment using spinal manipulation and the Pettibon Weighting System™: a summary of 3 atypical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the relative lack of treatment options for mild to moderate scoliosis, when the Cobb angle measurements fall below the 25–30° range, conservative manual therapies for scoliosis treatment have been increasingly investigated in recent years. In this case series, we present 3 specific cases of scoliosis. Case presentation Patient presentation, examination, intervention and outcomes are detailed for each case. The types of scoliosis presented here are left thoracic, idiopathic scoliosis after Harrington rod instrumentation, and a left thoracic scoliosis secondary to Scheuermann's Kyphosis. Each case carries its own clinical significance, in relation to clinical presentation. The first patient presented for chiropractic treatment with a 35° thoracic dextroscoliosis 18 years following Harrington Rod instrumentation and fusion. The second patient presented with a 22° thoracic levoscoliosis and concomitant Scheuermann's Disease. Finally, the third case summarizes the treatment of a patient with a primary 37° idiopathic thoracic levoscoliosis. Each patient was treated with a novel active rehabilitation program for varying lengths of time, including spinal manipulation and a patented external head and body weighting system. Following a course of treatment, consisting of clinic and home care treatments, post-treatment radiographs and examinations were conducted. Improvement in symptoms and daily function was obtained in all 3 cases. Concerning Cobb angle measurements, there was an apparent reduction in Cobb angle of 13°, 8°, and 16° over a maximum of 12 weeks of treatment. Conclusion Although mild to moderate reductions in Cobb angle measurements were achieved in these cases, these improvements may not be related to the symptomatic and functional improvements. The lack of a control also includes the possibility of a placebo effect. However, this study adds to the growing body of literature investigating methods by which

  16. Non-Surgical Interventions for Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Objectives Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Design Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Methods Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute’s hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. Results From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Conclusions Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers

  17. Bone mineral density of girls with idiopathic scoliosis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameri E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have suggested higher incidence of osteoporosis in patients with idiopathic scoliosis in comparison with the normal population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of low bone mass among adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study performed in shafa Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2011-2012, we recruited fifty-seven 12- to-20-year old girls with idiopathic scoliosis and compared them with 100 age-matched healthy girls. The patients had no other diseases including neuromuscular disorders, congenital vertebral anomalies or a history of spinal surgery. Bone mineral densities (BMD of the hip and spine were evaluated and compared in all 157 participants using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Standard BMD (sBMD was also calculated at the lumbar spine. Results: Analysis of the data revealed that hip BMD was significantly (P=0.004 lower in patients with idiopathic scoliosis versus the controls. Moreover, BMD and sBMD of the Spine were also significantly lower in the patients (respectively, P=0.030 and P=0.030. Curve location had no effect on the values of hip BMD, spine BMD or spine sBMD (respectively, P=0.061 and P=0.274 and P=0.208.Finally, with more severe curves a lower bone mass was detected for sBMD and spine BMD (respectively, P=0.017 and P=0.016, but it was not significant for hip BMD (P=0.069.Conclusion: Adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis had lower bone mass compared with their healthy peers. The lower bone mass was correlated with the severity of the curve but not its location.

  18. Pulmonary function tests correlated with thoracic volumes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Rosenstein, Benjamin E; Johnston, Charles E; Regelmann, Warren E; Nuckley, David J; Polly, David W

    2017-01-01

    Scoliosis deformity has been linked with deleterious changes in the thoracic cavity that affect pulmonary function. The causal relationship between spinal deformity and pulmonary function has yet to be fully defined. It has been hypothesized that deformity correction improves pulmonary function by restoring both respiratory muscle efficiency and increasing the space available to the lungs. This research aims to correlate pulmonary function and thoracic volume before and after scoliosis correction. Retrospective correlational analysis between thoracic volume modeling from plain x-rays and pulmonary function tests was conducted. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients enrolled in a multicenter database were sorted by pre-operative Total Lung Capacities (TLC) % predicted values from their Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT). Ten patients with the best and ten patients with the worst TLC values were included. Modeled thoracic volume and TLC values were compared before and 2 years after surgery. Scoliosis correction resulted in an increase in the thoracic volume for patients with the worst initial TLCs (11.7%) and those with the best initial TLCs (12.5%). The adolescents with the most severe pulmonary restriction prior to surgery strongly correlated with post-operative change in total lung capacity and thoracic volume (r 2  = 0.839; p volume in this group was 373.1 cm 3 (11.7%) which correlated with a 21.2% improvement in TLC. Scoliosis correction in adolescents was found to increase thoracic volume and is strongly correlated with improved TLC in cases with severe restrictive pulmonary function, but no correlation was found in cases with normal pulmonary function. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:175-182, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prediction of Curve Progression in Idiopathic Scoliosis: Validation of the Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitoula, Prakash; Verma, Kushagra; Holmes, Laurens; Gabos, Peter G; Sanders, James O; Yorgova, Petya; Neiss, Geraldine; Rogers, Kenneth; Shah, Suken A

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective case series. This study aimed to validate the Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System and to assess its correlation to curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. The Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System has been used to predict curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. This study intended to validate that initial study with a larger sample size. We retrospectively reviewed 1100 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis between 2005 and 2011. Girls aged 8 to 14 years (skeletal age and scoliosis curve magnitude were followed to skeletal maturity (Risser stage 5 or fully capped Risser stage 4), curve progression to 50° or greater, or spinal fusion. Patients with nonidiopathic curves were excluded. There were 161 patients: 131 girls (12.3 ± 1.2 yr) and 30 boys (13.9 ± 1.1 yr). The distribution of patients within Sanders stage (SS) 1 through 7 was 7, 28, 41, 45, 7, 31, and 2 patients, respectively; modified Lenke curve types 1 to 6 were 26, 12, 63, 5, 38, and 17 patients, respectively. All patients in SS2 with initial Cobb angles of 25° or greater progressed, and patients in SS1 and SS3 with initial Cobb angles of 35° or greater progressed. Similarly, all patients with initial Cobb angles of 40° or greater progressed except those in SS7. Conversely, none of the patients with initial Cobb angles of 15° or less or those in SS5, SS6, and SS7 with initial Cobb angles of 30° or less progressed. Predictive progression of 67%, 50%, 43%, 27%, and 60% was observed for subgroups SS1/30°, SS2/20°, SS3/30°, SS4/30°, and SS6/35° respectively. This larger cohort shows a strong predictive correlation between SS and initial Cobb angle for probability of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. 3.

  20. Neuropathological aspects of conservative treatment of scoliosis. A theoretical view point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupryna, Krzysztof; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Nowotny, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    An upright body posture cannot be maintained passively for reasons including a high location of the centre of gravity (COG) and a small support area. Proper alignment of body parts is maintained automatically, tending towards a pattern encoded in the CNS. A particularly important role in posture regulation is played by the short muscles of the back, which respond to being stretched with a contraction. During the early phase of scoliosis, the CNS automatically corrects abnormalities, but over time habituation occurs and the CNS treats them as something normal. Any attempt to restore proper body alignment is treated as an error and CNS automatically restores this abnormal pattern. With a prolonged deviation in body part alignment, CNS treats it as a defect and runs compensatory mechanisms to restore the balance of the body as a whole. Balance is ensured by postural compensation, but this does not restore proper body part alignment. In the treatment of scoliosis, it is important both to slow down progression and to prevent the development of abnormal postural habits, which are part of a vicious circle even without progression. Secondary prevention is therefore needed in all patients. Passive observation limits the possibilities for prevention and contradicts the principle of early implementation of rehabilitation. Depending on the size of the angle of curvature, recommended treatments of scoliosis comprise observation, corset bracing, and surgery. Physiotherapy is often treated as an unconventional and ineffective treatment. Often, the biggest problem is transferring the resulting correction to automatic maintenance of a correct posture in the vertical position. The aim of this paper was to discuss the conservative treatment of scoliosis with regard to difficulties maintaining the correct alignment of the body parts in the vertical position that accompany scoliosis.

  1. Manual Therapy in the Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis. Analysis of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaprowski, Dariusz

    2016-10-28

    Apart from the recommended specific physiotherapy, the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) also incorporates non-specific manual therapy (NMT). The aim of this paper is to assess the efficacy of NMT (manual therapy, chiropractic, osteopathy) used in the treatment of children and adolescents with IS. The study analysed systematic reviews (Analysis 1) and other recent scientific publications (Analysis 2). Analysis 1 encompassed papers on the use of NMT in patients with IS. Works concerning specific physiotherapy (SP) or bracing (B) and other types of scoliosis were excluded from the analysis. Inclusion criteria for Analysis 2 were: treatment with NMT; subjects aged 10-18 years with IS. The following types of papers were excluded: works analysing NMT combined with SP or B, reports concerning adult pa tients, analyses of single cases and publications included in Analysis 1. Analysis 1: six systematic reviews contained 6 papers on the efficacy of NMT in the treatment of IS. The results of these studies are contradictory, ranging from Cobb angle reduction to no treatment effects whatsoever. The papers analysed are characterised by poor methodological quality: small group sizes, incomplete descriptions of the study groups, no follow-up and no control groups. Analysis 2: in total, 217 papers were found. None of them met the criteria set for the analysis. 1. Few papers verifying the efficacy of manual therapy, chiropractic and osteopathy in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis have been published to date. 2. The majority are experimental studies with poor methodology or observational case studies. 3. At present, the efficacy of non-specific manual therapy in the treatment of patients with idiopathic scoliosis cannot be reliably evaluated. 4. It is necessary to conduct further research based on appropriate methods (prospective, rando mi s ed, controlled studies) in order to reliably assess the usefulness of non-specific manual therapy in the treatment of idiopathic

  2. The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) according to present evidence. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H-R; Goodall, D

    2008-06-01

    Traditionally, the treatment options for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common form of scoliosis, are exercises; in-patient rehabilitation; braces and surgery. The outcomes of treatments are usually compared with the natural history or observation (non-intervention). The aim of this paper was to provide a synopsis of all treatment options in the light of evidence based practice (EBP). A systematic review was carried out using the most encompassing databases available. Literature has been searched for the outcome parameter ''rate of progression'' and only prospective controlled studies that have considered the treatment versus the natural history have been included. The search strategy included the following terms: ''adolescent idiopathic scoliosis''; ''idiopathic scoliosis''; ''natural history''; ''observation''; ''physiotherapy''; ''physical therapy''; ''rehabilitation''; ''bracing''; ''orthotics'' and ''surgery''. Prospective short-term studies have been found to support outpatient physiotherapy. One prospective controlled study was found to support scoliosis in-patient rehabilitation (SIR). One prospective multi-centre study, a long-term prospective controlled study and a meta-analysis have been found to support bracing. No controlled study, neither short, mid nor long-term, was found to reveal any substantial evidence to support surgery as a treatment for this condition. There is some evidence supporting the conservative treatment for AIS. No substantial evidence has been found in terms of prospective controlled studies to support surgical intervention. In light of the unknown long-term effects of surgery, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) seems necessary. Due to the presence of evidence to support conservative treatments, a plan to compose a RCT for conservative treatment options seems unethical. But it is also important to conclude that the evidence for conservative treatments is weak in number and length.

  3. Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette

    2014-01-01

    Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute's hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers labeled as systematic reviews need to be considered in terms

  4. Posterior-only surgery with preoperative skeletal traction for management of severe scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Saeedreza; Sorbi, Reza; Rezaei, Reza; Mazda, Keyvan

    2017-04-01

    The surgical treatment of severe adolescent spinal deformities is challenging and carries substantial risks of mortality and morbidity. To mitigate this risk, surgeons have employed various methods as this study designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of preoperative halo-femoral or halo gravity traction (HGT) followed by posterior-only surgery in the management of severe scoliosis. A total number of 23 patients with severe scoliosis treated by preoperative skeletal traction (halo gravity or halo femoral) followed by posterior fusion and instrumentation in one stage. All patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years after surgery. The average age of the patients was 12.7 years at the time of surgery. Mean of the Cobb angle improved from 99.9° ± 8.2° preoperatively to 75.3° ± 8° post-traction and 49.5° ± 7.7° postoperatively. Kyphosis angle corrected from 56.4° ± 9.5° to 38.6° ± 5.8°. The preop-FVC% was 41 ± 6.1% and after 1 year follow-up FVC% was 45.7 ± 7.7%. No patients required an anterior release due to amount of their deformity. Despite the benefits of modern instrumentation procedures, the treatment of severe scoliosis can be very competing. We think that by applying preoperative halo femoral traction and halo-gravity traction, managing severe scoliosis will be in safe and easy manner and can lead to better deformity correction and less neurological complications and facilitate to avoid anterior operation for severe scoliosis and its related complications.

  5. Scoliosis and the Social Media: Facebook as a Means of Information Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jonathan P; Tarazi, Nadim; Byrne, Damien P; Baker, Joseph F; McCabe, John P

    2017-03-01

    Over the last decade, the emergence of social networking websites such as Facebook have revolutionized information dissemination and broadened opportunities to engage in discussions. In particular, having been widely adopted in the younger generation, the use of this medium has become more prevalent in health disorders such as scoliosis in the adolescent population. However, the quality of information on Facebook is unregulated and variable, which may mislead patients in their decision making. To document the various types of information available and assess the quality of information on Facebook discussion boards using recognized scoring systems. To evaluate the quality of information on the social network. A search for the keyword "scoliosis" on Facebook was performed and the first 100 pages generated were reviewed. SCSS and DISCERN score. Content analysis was performed on discussion boards and personal blogs. Two independent examiners evaluated each site according to scoliosis-specific content score (SCSS) and the DISCERN criteria, both previously used instruments to judge the quality of information on the Internet pertaining to scoliosis. The SCSS range from 0 to 32 (higher score better) and the DISCERN 16 to 80 (higher score better). Of the 100 sites reviewed, 33 were discussion boards and personal blogs. Of these, the overall average SCSS was 5.7 (SD 5.8, range 0-20) and the DISCERN was 22.5 (SD 7.6, range 16-45), indicating that using general scoring systems the quality of information provided was overall poor. Using recognized scoring systems to analyze Facebook pages used as discussion forums or blogs, we showed that the quality in general was poor. For modern practices to adapt to an era of information exchange via the social network, the orthopedic community should develop ways to incorporate the social media in future patient education. Copyright © 2016 Scoliosis Research Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion in surgeries for correction of idiopathic, neuromuscular or congenital scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fogaça Cristante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of clinical and demographic variables in patients requiring blood transfusion during elective surgery to treat scoliosis with the aim of identifying markers predictive of the need for blood transfusion. METHODS: Based on the review of medical charts at a public university hospital, this retrospective study evaluated whether the following variables were associated with the need for red blood cell transfusion (measured by the number of packs used during scoliosis surgery: scoliotic angle, extent of arthrodesis (number of fused levels, sex of the patient, surgery duration and type of scoliosis (neuromuscular, congenital or idiopathic. RESULTS: Of the 94 patients evaluated in a 55-month period, none required a massive blood transfusion (most patients needed less than two red blood cell packs. The number of packs was not significantly associated with sex or type of scoliosis. The extent of arthrodesis (r = 0.103, surgery duration (r = 0.144 and scoliotic angle (r = 0.004 were weakly correlated with the need for blood transfusion. Linear regression analysis showed an association between the number of spine levels submitted to arthrodesis and the volume of blood used in transfusions (p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: This study did not reveal any evidence of a significant association between the need for red blood cell transfusion and scoliotic angle, sex or surgery duration in scoliosis correction surgery. Submission of more spinal levels to arthrodesis was associated with the use of a greater number of blood packs.

  7. The effect of surgeon experience on outcomes of surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patrick J; Pahys, Joshua M; Asghar, Jahangir; Yaszay, Burt; Marks, Michelle C; Bastrom, Tracey P; Lonner, Baron S; Shah, Suken A; Shufflebarger, Harry L; Newton, Peter O; Betz, Randal R; Samdani, Amer F

    2014-08-20

    Single-surgeon series investigating the learning curve involved in surgery for spinal deformity may be confounded by changes in technology and techniques. Our objective with this multicenter, prospective study was to present a cross-sectional analysis of the impact of surgeon experience on surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All posterior-only surgical procedures for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis performed in the 2007 to 2008 academic year, with a minimum of two years of patient follow-up, were included. Two groups were created on the basis of surgeon experience: a young surgeons' group, which included patients of surgeons with less than five years of experience, and an experienced surgeons' group, which included patients of surgeons with five or more years of experience. Nine surgeons (four young and five experienced) operated on a total of one hundred and sixty-five patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The surgeons' experience ranged from less than one year to thirty-six years in practice. The two groups had similar preoperative curve-magnitude measurements, SRS-22 (Scoliosis Research Society-22) scores, and distribution by Lenke curve type. There were significant operative and postoperative differences. The young surgeons fused an average of 1.2 levels more than the experienced surgeons (p = 0.045). The mean intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL) of the young surgeons' group was more than twice that of the experienced surgeons' group (2042 mL compared with 1013 mL; p self-image (p = 0.008), and function (p adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were significantly and positively correlated with surgeon experience. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  8. Minimally invasive scoliosis surgery assisted by O-arm navigation for Lenke Type 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a comparison with standard open approach spinal instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiguo; Sun, Weixiang; Xu, Leilei; Sun, Xu; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Zezhang

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Recently, minimally invasive scoliosis surgery (MISS) was introduced for the correction of adult scoliosis. Multiple benefits including a good deformity correction rate and fewer complications have been demonstrated. However, few studies have reported on the use of MISS for the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of posterior MISS assisted by O-arm navigation for the correction of Lenke Type 5C AIS. METHODS The authors searched a database for all patients with AIS who had been treated with either MISS or PSF between November 2012 and January 2014. Levels of fusion, density of implants, operation time, and estimated blood loss (EBL) were recorded. Coronal and sagittal parameters were evaluated before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at the last follow-up. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was assessed according to postoperative axial CT images in both groups. The 22-item Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-22) results and complications were collected during follow-up. RESULTS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 45 patients with Lenke Type 5C AIS, 15 who underwent posterior MISS under O-arm navigation and 30 who underwent posterior spinal fusion (PSF). The 2 treatment groups were matched in terms of baseline characteristics. Comparison of radiographic parameters revealed no obvious difference between the 2 groups immediately after surgery or at the final follow-up; however, the MISS patients had significantly less EBL (p self-image using the SRS-22 showed significantly higher scores in the MISS group (p = 0.013 and 0.046, respectively) than in the PSF group. Postoperative CT showed high accuracy in pedicle placement in both groups. No deep wound infection, pseudarthrosis, additional surgery, implant failure, or neurological complications were recorded in either group. CONCLUSIONS Minimally invasive scoliosis surgery is an effective and safe

  9. The opportunistic screening of refractive errors in school-going children by pediatrician using enhanced Brückner test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Piyush; Kothari, Mihir T; Gode, Vaibhav

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of enhanced Brückner test (EBT) performed by a pediatrician and an experienced pediatric ophthalmologist. In this prospective double-masked cohort study, a pediatrician and a pediatric ophthalmologist performed the EBT in a classroom of a school in semi-dark lighting condition using a direct ophthalmoscope. The results of the test were compared using 2 × 2 Bayesian table and kappa statistics. The findings of the pediatric ophthalmologists were considered gold standard. Two hundred and thirty-six eyes of 118 subjects, mean age 6.8 ± 0.5 years (range, 5.4-7.8 years), were examined. The time taken to complete this test was ametropia in children.

  10. Screen time on school days and risks for psychiatric symptoms and self-harm in mainland Chinese adolescents: A multicenter cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate associations of television and of video game or non-educational computer use (VG/CU exposure volumes in a typical school day with psychiatric symptoms and suicidal ideation/self-injurious behavior (self-harm, in mainland Chinese adolescents.Methods Secondary school pupils (N = 13,659; mean age: 15.18 ± 1.89 from 10 urban areas sampled from different regions of mainland China were recruited. The subjects were divided into the follow four screen exposure volume groups for television and VG/CU respectively based on a self-administered questionnaire: 0 h/d, >0 to ≤1 h/d, >1 to ≤2 h/d, and >2 h/d. Demographic and psychiatric symptoms were recorded for each respondent. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for several types of psychological problems and self-harm were calculated.Results For television, >2 hours per school day was associated with greater risk of depression in both boys (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.02–1.73 and girls (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.19– 2.21, of anxiety in boys (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.05–1.95, of general emotional, behavioral, and social problems (GEBSPs in girls (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.01–2.39, and of oppositional defiant problems (ODPs in girls (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09–2.50, compared with the reference group. Conversely, television exposure of >0 to ≤1 hour per school day was associated with lower self-harm risk in boys (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.67–0.99 compared with the no television exposure group. For VG/CU, higher risks of anxiety (OR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06–1.86 and of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHPs (OR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02–2.38 were associated with excessive VG/CU time (>2 h per school day in boys compared with the no VG/CU exposure group. Higher risks of self-harm and all other psychiatric problems (including anxiety and ADHPs in girls were associated with any school-day VG/CU exposure, compared to no VG/CU exposure, in both genders.Conclusion For mainland Chinese

  11. Pilot Study of an Active Screen Time Game Correlates with Improved Physical Fitness in Minority Elementary School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Terrence C; Berry, Diane; Maloney, Ann E; Sikich, Linmarie

    2012-02-01

    The aim of our feasibility study was to examine the acceptability and utility of "Dance Dance Revolution" (DDR) (Konami of America, Redwood City, CA)) to increase physical fitness in 8-11-year-old black and Hispanic youth. Twenty-eight 4(th) and 5(th) grade children attending an afterschool program participated. Outcomes included physical activity, physical fitness, use of home DDR, survey of safety and acceptability, anthropometrics, and fasting metabolic profile measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 30 weeks. At 12 weeks, physical fitness (maximum O2 uptake [VO2max]) increased by 4.9±9.9 percent and was sustained through 30 weeks, when the VO2max was 105.0±9.9 percent (range, 93.0-133.9 percent) of baseline values. Absolute VO2max increased by 2.97±4.99 mL/kg/minute (95% confidence interval 0.75-5.19, P=0.013). Participants maintained an average of 1.12 hours/day of increased movement to music. Trends suggested increased total moderate-vigorous physical activity, decreased light activity, and a modest increase in sedentary screen time. There were no significant changes in body mass index, fasting lipids, or glucose. Participants and parents approved of the activity. DDR appears feasible and acceptable to minority youth. DDR may increase moderate-vigorous physical activity and improve physical fitness in at-risk populations.

  12. Comparison of Srs-24 And Srs-22 Scores in Thirty Eight Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Who Had Undergone Surgical Correction

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    CYW Chan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity that affects patients’ self image and confidence. Surgery is offered when the curvature is greater than 50 degrees based on the likelihood of curvature progression. Outcome measures for scoliosis correction can be described in terms of radiological improvement or improvement of health related quality of life scores. The Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22 and Scoliosis Research Society 24 (SRS-24 questionnaires are widely accepted and used to characterize clinical results. Therefore, this prospective study of 38 patients aims to investigate how the SRS-24 and SRS-22 questionnaires compare to each other in terms of scoring when the same group of patients is evaluated. The SRS-22 questionnaire tends to give an inflated value in the overall score, pain and self image domain compared to the SRS-24 questionnaire.

  13. Cortical somatosensory-evoked potentials during spine surgery in patients with neuromuscular and idiopathic scoliosis under propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns, H.; Lipfert, P.; Meier, S.; Jetzek-Zader, M.; Krauspe, R.; Stevens, M. F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative monitoring of the spinal cord via cortical somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP) is a routine during spinal surgery. However, especially in neuromuscular scoliosis, the reliability of cortical SSEP has been questioned. Therefore, we compared the feasibility of cortical

  14. Achados na triagem imitanciométrica e de processamento auditivo em escolares Acoustic immitance and auditory processing screening findings in school children

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    Camila Lucia Etges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar os achados da triagem imitanciométrica e dos testes da avaliação simplificada de processamento auditivo em escolares. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa alunos de 1ª a 4ª séries, de sete a dez anos de idade, de uma escola de ensino público de Porto Alegre. Foram avaliados 130 escolares na triagem imitanciométrica, que foi constituída por timpanometria e pesquisa do reflexo acústico ipsilateral e avaliação simplificada do processamento auditivo, incluindo testes de localização sonora, memória sequencial para sons verbais e memória sequencial para sons não verbais. RESULTADOS: na triagem imitanciométrica 43,08% dos escolares passaram, tendo a curva tipo A como mais frequente. O reflexo acústico em 4000 Hz teve percentual de presença inferior comparado com os demais. Passaram nos testes da avaliação simplificada do processamento auditivo 76,15% das crianças. Além disso, foi observado que o teste no qual os escolares obtiveram pior desempenho foi o de memória sequencial para sons verbais. Falharam na triagem imitanciométrica e na avaliação simplificada de processamento auditivo 12,3% dos escolares. CONCLUSÃO: a curva timpanométrica tipo A foi a mais frequente na população estudada. Na avaliação simplificada do processamento auditivo a maioria dos sujeitos passou, tendo maior frequência de acertos no teste de localização sonora. Não houve associação estatística entre o resultado da triagem imitanciométrica e o resultado da avaliação simplificada de processamento auditivo.PURPOSE: to check acoustic immittance screening findings and results of the simplified evaluation of auditory processing in school children. METHOD: the subjects under this study were students from the 1st to the 4th grade, with ages ranging from seven to ten year-old, from a public school in Porto Alegre. 130 students were evaluated in the immitance screening, which consisted of a tympanometry and an ipsilateral

  15. Parental Internet Use and Lifestyle Factors as Correlates of Prolonged Screen Time of Children in Japan: Results From the Super Shokuiku School Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masaaki; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2018-03-24

    Prolonged screen time (ST), which includes TV viewing and gaming on smartphones and computers, is linked to poor health. Our aim was to explore the associations between school children with prolonged ST and parental internet use (IU) and lifestyles in Japan. Children aged 6 to 13 years from the Super Shokuiku School Project, were surveyed using questionnaires in 2016. The survey assessed the grade, sex, and lifestyle of 1,659 children and parental internet use (IU) and lifestyle using Breslow's seven health behaviors. IU consisted of internet surfing and gaming on personal computers (PC), smartphones, or consoles. Three or more hours of ST was defined as prolonged ST, and its correlates were analyzed using logistic regression. Of all, 643 (38.8%) children spent ≥2 hours/day of ST on a week day, whilst 153 (9.2%) children spent ≥3 hours/day. Prolonged ST was significantly associated with children in higher grade (odds ratio [OR] 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.51), boys (OR 2.16; 95% CI, 1.49-3.14), skipping breakfast (OR 1.88; 95% CI, 1.05-3.35), late bedtime (OR 1.80; 95% CI, 1.15-2.82), physical inactivity (OR 1.79; 95% CI, 1.12-2.87), father's IU ≥2 hours/day (OR 2.35; 95% CI, 1.52-3.63), mother's prolonged IU ≥2 hours/day (OR 2.55; 95% CI, 1.43-4.52), mothers with unhealthy behaviors (OR 1.81; 95% CI, 1.05-3.13), no rule setting governing screen time (OR 2.41; 95% CI, 1.63-3.58), and mothers with full-time employment (OR 1.95; 95% CI, 1.06-3.64). Prolonged ST among Japanese children was strongly associated with parental IU, no set rules for ST, and mother's unhealthy lifestyles. To reduce children's ST, parental engagement is warranted in the intervention strategy.

  16. Country, age, and gender differences in the prevalence of screen-based behaviour and family-related factors among school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: New information and communication technologies have become an important part of adolescents' everyday lives. However, the sedentary behaviour of young people in Central Europe has become more similar to that found in Western European countries. This study can provide baseline data for a future comparison and investigation of lifestyle and health behaviours in this region in the future. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess country, age, and gender differences in the prevalence of sedentary behaviour activities and family-related factors among school-aged children. Methods: Using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study was performed in 2013, collecting data from 11- and 15-year-old Slovak (n = 488 and Czech (n = 418 children. The data was explored using c2 tests to determine statistical significance. Results: Two-thirds of the respondents watch television or use a computer for at least two hours a day. The older children (older vs. younger: 73.6% vs. 53.9%, c2 = 35.6, p < .001 spent excessive amounts of time watching television. More than half of the children have a television (51.9% or a computer (73.0% in their bedroom. More than half of their parents rarely or never apply rules about how long they can watch TV (63.9% or time spent on the computer (55.5%. The Slovak children reported watching television together with their parents every day significantly more frequently than their Czech peers (Slovak vs. Czech children 31.0% vs. 18.7%, c2 = 17.9, p < .001. Conclusions: The prevalence of screen-based behaviour is relatively high, as is screen time spent together with parents, especially among the Slovak children. Moreover, many children reported that their parents rarely or never applied rules about the length and content of their television watching or time spent on the computer.

  17. Evaluation of teachers' performance of vision screening in primary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Petronilla

    Evaluation of Teachers' Performance of Vision Screening in Primary. School Children in Port ... teachers can effectively perform vision screening in school children using ..... may be due to variations in methodology and definitions used, as this ...

  18. Trends in television and computer/videogame use and total screen time in high school students from Caruaru city, Pernambuco, Brazil: A repeated panel study between 2007 and 2012

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    Luis José Lagos Aros

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: to analyze the pattern and trends of use of screen-based devices and associated factors from two surveys conducted on public high school students in Caruaru-PE. Methods: two representative school-based cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2007 (n=600 and 2012 (n=715 on high school students (15-20 years old. The time of exposure to television (TV and computer/videogames PC/VG was obtained through a validated questionnaire, and ≥3 hours/day was considered as being excessive exposure. The independent variables were socioeconomic status, school related, and physical activity. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regression were employed to examine the factors associated with screen time. The statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: There was a significant reduction in TV time on weekdays and total weekly, but no change in the prevalence of excessive exposure. The proportion of exposure to PC/VG of ≥3 hours/day increased 182.5% on weekdays and 69.5% on weekends (p <0.05. In 2007, being physically active was the only protection factor for excessive exposure to total screen time. In 2012, girls presented less chance of excessive exposure to all screen-based devices and total screen time. Other protective factors were studying at night and being physically active (PC/VG time, while residing in an urban area [OR 5.03(2.77-7.41] and having higher family income [OR 1.55(1.04-2.30] were risk factors. Conclusion: Significant and important changes in the time trends and pattern of use PC/VG were observed during the interval of 5 years. This rapid increase could be associated with increased family income and improved access to these devices, driven by technological developments.

  19. Physical exercises in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at risk of brace treatment – SOSORT consensus paper 2005

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    Grivas Theodoros B

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a recognized need for research to examine the premise that nonsurgical approaches can be used effectively to treat signs and symptoms of scoliosis, a scientific society on scoliosis orthopaedic and rehabilitation treatment (SOSORT was established in Barcelona in 2004. SOSORT has a primary goal of implementing multidisciplinary research to develop quantitative, objective data to address the role of conservative therapies in the treatment of scoliosis. This international working group of clinicians and scientists specializing in treatment of scoliosis met in Milan, Italy in January 2005. Methods As a baseline for developing a consensus for language and goals for proposed multicenter clinical studies, we developed questionnaires to examine current beliefs, before and after the meeting, regarding (1 the aims of physical exercises; (2 standards of treatment; and (3 the impact of such treatment performed by specialists in the field. Results The responses to the questionnaires show that, in principle, specialists in scoliosis physiotherapy do not disagree and that several features can be regarded, currently, as standard features in the rehabilitation of scoliosis patients. These features include autocorrection in 3D, training in ADL, stabilizing the corrected posture, and patient education.

  20. Joint hypermobility in children with idiopathic scoliosis: SOSORT award 2011 winner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Generalized joint hypermobility (JHM) refers to increased joint mobility with simultaneous absence of any other systemic disease. JHM involves proprioception impairment, increased frequency of pain within joints and tendency to injure soft tissues while performing physical activities. Children with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) often undergo intensive physiotherapy requiring good physical capacities. Further, some physiotherapy methods apply techniques that increase joint mobility and thus may be contraindicated. The aim of this paper was to assess JHM prevalence in children with idiopathic scoliosis and to analyze the relationship between JHM prevalence and the clinical and radiological parameters of scoliosis. The methods of assessment of generalized joint hypermobility were also described. Materials and methods This case-control study included 70 subjects with IS, aged 9-18 years (mean 13.2 ± 2.2), Cobb angle range 10°-53° (mean 24.3 ± 11.7), 34 presenting single curve thoracic scoliosis and 36 double curve thoracic and lumbar scoliosis. The control group included 58 children and adolescents aged 9-18 years (mean 12.6 ± 2.1) selected at random. The presence of JHM was determined using Beighton scale complemented with the questionnaire by Hakim and Grahame. The relationship between JHM and the following variables was evaluated: curve severity, axial rotation of the apical vertebra, number of curvatures (single versus double), number of vertebrae within the curvature (long versus short curves), treatment type (physiotherapy versus bracing) and age. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistica 8.1 (StatSoft, USA). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, U Mann-Whitney test, Chi2 test, Pearson and Spermann correlation rank were conducted. The value p = 0.05 was adopted as the level of significance. Results JHM was diagnosed in more than half of the subjects with idiopathic scoliosis (51.4%), whilst in the control group it was diagnosed in only 19% of cases (p

  1. Joint hypermobility in children with idiopathic scoliosis: SOSORT award 2011 winner

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    Pawłowska Paulina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized joint hypermobility (JHM refers to increased joint mobility with simultaneous absence of any other systemic disease. JHM involves proprioception impairment, increased frequency of pain within joints and tendency to injure soft tissues while performing physical activities. Children with idiopathic scoliosis (IS often undergo intensive physiotherapy requiring good physical capacities. Further, some physiotherapy methods apply techniques that increase joint mobility and thus may be contraindicated. The aim of this paper was to assess JHM prevalence in children with idiopathic scoliosis and to analyze the relationship between JHM prevalence and the clinical and radiological parameters of scoliosis. The methods of assessment of generalized joint hypermobility were also described. Materials and methods This case-control study included 70 subjects with IS, aged 9-18 years (mean 13.2 ± 2.2, Cobb angle range 10°-53° (mean 24.3 ± 11.7, 34 presenting single curve thoracic scoliosis and 36 double curve thoracic and lumbar scoliosis. The control group included 58 children and adolescents aged 9-18 years (mean 12.6 ± 2.1 selected at random. The presence of JHM was determined using Beighton scale complemented with the questionnaire by Hakim and Grahame. The relationship between JHM and the following variables was evaluated: curve severity, axial rotation of the apical vertebra, number of curvatures (single versus double, number of vertebrae within the curvature (long versus short curves, treatment type (physiotherapy versus bracing and age. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistica 8.1 (StatSoft, USA. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, U Mann-Whitney test, Chi2 test, Pearson and Spermann correlation rank were conducted. The value p = 0.05 was adopted as the level of significance. Results JHM was diagnosed in more than half of the subjects with idiopathic scoliosis (51.4%, whilst in the control group it was diagnosed in

  2. Temporal Trends in Overweight and Obesity, Physical Activity and Screen Time among Czech Adolescents from 2002 to 2014: A National Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study

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    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5–16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p overweight/obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%2002–24.8%2014) and girls (8.3%2002–11.9%2014). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p overweight/obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents. PMID:26393638

  3. Temporal Trends in Overweight and Obesity, Physical Activity and Screen Time among Czech Adolescents from 2002 to 2014: A National Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan

    2015-09-18

    This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5-16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p overweight/obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%(2002)-24.8%(2014)) and girls (8.3%(2002)-11.9%(2014)). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p overweight/obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents.

  4. Introversion, the prevalent trait of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: an observational study

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    Elisabetta D’Agata

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of studies about adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis focus on health-related quality of life (HRQOL. However, only a few articles aim at evaluating the personality of these patients. Therefore, the purpose of the present research is to assess the personality traits of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and their relationship with HRQOL. Our hypothesis is that adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis present the principal personality trait of introversion, defined as self-reliance and inhibition in social relationships. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. The examined group consisted of 43 patients (only 4 boys, mean age = 14.3 (SD = 2.23. On the day of the visit, HRQOL tools (Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire (SRS-22 and Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS and a personality test (16 Personality Factors-Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (16PF-APQ were completed; in addition, a posterior-anterior radiography was performed. Correlations among demographic and medical data and HRQOL and personality tests were assessed. Results Results for SRS-22 were as follows: Function 4.5 (SD = .4, Pain 4.3 (SD = .5, Self-image 3.6 (SD = .7, Mental Health 3.8. (SD = .7, and Subtotal 4.2 (SD = .7. Mean TAPS was 3.5 (SD = .6. In personality, the lowest values were assessed for Extroversion (M = 29.4, SD = 24.7 and Self-reliance (M = 71, SD = 25.3. Independence was negatively related to Self-image (r = −.51, Mental Health (r = −.54, and Subtotal SRS-22 (r = −.60 (p < .01. Conclusions Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis presented a common style of personality, characterized by social inhibition (introversion, preference for staying alone, and being self-sufficient (self-reliance. Specific programs in promoting social abilities may help adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis in finding a way to express themselves and to become more sociable. Correlational studies

  5. Scoliosis short-term rehabilitation (SSTR according to 'Best Practice' standards - are the results repeatable?

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    Borysov Maksym

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Claims have been made in a pilot study that a new form of short-term rehabilitation according to 'Best Practice' standards would change signs and symptoms of patients with scoliosis in the short-term. Aim of this study is to repeat the study published 2010 with a larger sample of patients using the same protocol. Both authors have undergone training in this special approach to scoliosis rehabilitation in 2010. Materials and methods 34 patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS, 32 girls and 2 boys, average age 13.7 years and an average Cobb angle of 28.7 degrees (21-43 degrees underwent Scoliosis Short-Term Rehabilitation (SSTR of seven days. Two days with an intensity of 3 × 90 min sessions/day, and five days with an intensity of 2 × 60 min sessions/day. Angle of trunk rotation (ATR was measured before and after the time of treatment as well as the active correctability of the ATR after the programme as it has been done in the pilot investigation. Additionally to that, we also recorded the changes in Vital Capacity (VC before and after the programme. Results ATR was reduced significantly from 11,5 degrees to 8,4 degrees, the active correctability as measured with the Scoliometer (TM was also reduced significantly from the ATR after treatment 8,9 degrees to 6,5 degrees in the patients with thoracic curves. VC improved significantly (P Discussion The results achieved in the pilot investigation published previously are repeatable. The deformity of the trunk can be reduced significantly after SSTR. During the pilot study VC was not investigated. In our study VC improved significantly. Therefore, also shorter rehabilitation times with an appropriate programme seem to be able to change signs and symptoms of a patient with scoliosis. Like the out-patient Schroth programme as described in a study from Turkey, the SSTR provides benefits leading to an improvement of the condition. Conclusion Out-patient rehabilitation following the

  6. The impact of patient self assessment of deformity on HRQL in adults with scoliosis

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    Moss Nathan D

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body image and HRQL are significant issues for patients with scoliosis due to cosmetic deformity, physical and psychological symptoms, and treatment factors. A selective review of scoliosis literature revealed that self report measures of body image and HRQL share unreliable correlations with radiographic measures and clinician recommendations for surgery. However, current body image and HRQL measures do not indicate which aspects of scoliosis deformity are the most distressing for patients. The WRVAS is an instrument designed to evaluate patient self assessment of deformity, and may show some promise in identifying aspects of deformity most troubling to patients. Previous research on adolescents with scoliosis supports the use of the WRVAS as a clinical tool, as the instrument shares strong correlations with radiographic measures and quality of life instruments. There has been limited use of this instrument on adult populations. Methods The WRVAS and the SF-36v2, a HRQL measure, were administered to 71 adults with scoliosis, along with a form to report age and gender. Preliminary validation analyses were performed on the WRVAS (floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency and collinearity, correlations with the SF-36v2, and multiple regression with the WRVAS total score as the predictor, and SF-36v2 scores as outcomes. Results The psychometric properties of the WRVAS were acceptable. Older participants perceived their deformities as more severe than younger participants. More severe deformities were associated with lower scores on the Physical Component Summary Score of the SF-36v2. Total WRVAS score also predicted Physical Component Summary scores. Conclusion The results of the current study indicate that the WRVAS is a reliable tool to use with adult patients, and that patient self assessment of deformity shared a relationship with physical rather than psychological aspects of HRQL. The current and previous studies

  7. Improving excellence in scoliosis rehabilitation: a controlled study of matched pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H-R; Klein, R

    2006-01-01

    Physiotherapy programmes so far mainly address the lateral deformity of scoliosis, a few aim at the correction of rotation and only very few address the sagittal profile. Meanwhile, there is evidence that correction forces applied in the sagittal plane are also able to correct the scoliotic deformity in the coronal and frontal planes. So it should be possible to improve excellence in scoliosis rehabilitation by the implementation of exercises to correct the sagittal deformity in scoliosis patients. An exercise programme (physio-logic exercises) aiming at a physiologic sagittal profile was developed to add to the programme applied at the centre or to replace certain exercises or exercising positions. To test the hypothesis that physio-logic exercises improve the outcome of Scoliosis Intensive Rehabilitation (SIR), the following study design was chosen: Prospective controlled trial of pairs of patients with idiopathic scoliosis matched by sex, age, Cobb angle and curve pattern. There were 18 patients in the treatment group (SIR + physio-logic exercises) and 18 patients in the control group (SIR only), all in matched pairs. Average Cobb angle in the treatment group was 34.5 degrees (SD 7.8) Cobb angle in the control group was 31.6 degrees (SD 5.8). Age in the treatment group was at average 15.3 years (SD 1.1) and in the control group 14.7 years (SD 1.3). Thirteen of the 18 patients in either group had a brace. Outcome parameter: average lateral deviation (mm), average surface rotation ( degrees ) and maximum Kyphosis angle ( degrees ) as evaluated with the help of surface topography (Formetric-system). Lateral deviation (mm) decreased significantly after the performance of the physio-logic programme and highly significantly in the physio-logic ADL posture; however, it was not significant after completion of the whole rehabilitation programme (2.3 vs 0.3 mm in the controls). Surface rotation improved at average 1.2 degrees in the treatment group and 0.8 degrees in the

  8. Three-dimensional vertebral wedging in mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

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    Sophie-Anne Scherrer

    Full Text Available Vertebral wedging is associated with spinal deformity progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Reporting frontal and sagittal wedging separately could be misleading since these are projected values of a single three-dimensional deformation of the vertebral body. The objectives of this study were to determine if three-dimensional vertebral body wedging is present in mild scoliosis and if there are a preferential vertebral level, position and plane of deformation with increasing scoliotic severity.Twenty-seven adolescent idiopathic scoliotic girls with mild to moderate Cobb angles (10° to 50° participated in this study. All subjects had at least one set of bi-planar radiographs taken with the EOS® X-ray imaging system prior to any treatment. Subjects were divided into two groups, separating the mild (under 20° from the moderate (20° and over spinal scoliotic deformities. Wedging was calculated in three different geometric planes with respect to the smallest edge of the vertebral body.Factorial analyses of variance revealed a main effect for the scoliosis severity but no main effect of vertebral Levels (apex and each of the three vertebrae above and below it (F = 1.78, p = 0.101. Main effects of vertebral Positions (apex and above or below it (F = 4.20, p = 0.015 and wedging Planes (F = 34.36, p<0.001 were also noted. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated a greater wedging in the inferior group of vertebrae (3.6° than the superior group (2.9°, p = 0.019 and a significantly greater wedging (p≤0.03 along the sagittal plane (4.3°.Vertebral wedging was present in mild scoliosis and increased as the scoliosis progressed. The greater wedging of the inferior group of vertebrae could be important in estimating the most distal vertebral segment to be restrained by bracing or to be fused in surgery. Largest vertebral body wedging values obtained in the sagittal plane support the claim that scoliosis could be initiated

  9. Scoliosis corrective force estimation from the implanted rod deformation using 3D-FEM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Sudo, Hideki; Salmingo, Remel; Tadano, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of material property in spinal instrumentation has brought better deformity correction in scoliosis surgery in recent years. The increase of mechanical strength in instruments directly means the increase of force, which acts on bone-implant interface during scoliosis surgery. However, the actual correction force during the correction maneuver and safety margin of pull out force on each screw were not well known. In the present study, estimated corrective forces and pull out forces were analyzed using a novel method based on Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Twenty adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients (1 boy and 19 girls) who underwent reconstructive scoliosis surgery between June 2009 and Jun 2011 were included in this study. Scoliosis correction was performed with 6mm diameter titanium rod (Ti6Al7Nb) using the simultaneous double rod rotation technique (SDRRT) in all cases. The pre-maneuver and post-maneuver rod geometry was collected from intraoperative tracing and postoperative 3D-CT images, and 3D-FEA was performed with ANSYS. Cobb angle of major curve, correction rate and thoracic kyphosis were measured on X-ray images. Average age at surgery was 14.8, and average fusion length was 8.9 segments. Major curve was corrected from 63.1 to 18.1 degrees in average and correction rate was 71.4%. Rod geometry showed significant change on the concave side. Curvature of the rod on concave and convex sides decreased from 33.6 to 17.8 degrees, and from 25.9 to 23.8 degrees, respectively. Estimated pull out forces at apical vertebrae were 160.0N in the concave side screw and 35.6N in the convex side screw. Estimated push in force at LIV and UIV were 305.1N in the concave side screw and 86.4N in the convex side screw. Corrective force during scoliosis surgery was demonstrated to be about four times greater in the concave side than in convex side. Averaged pull out and push in force fell below previously reported safety margin. Therefore, the SDRRT maneuver was

  10. Immediate effects of scoliosis-specific corrective exercises on the Cobb angle after one week and after one year of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Zapata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are unaware of any studies describing the immediate effects of scoliosis-specific exercises on the Cobb angle measured by radiograph. This study aimed to describe the differences between radiographs obtained with and without corrective exercises after initial training and after one year. Methods A female with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was first seen at age 13 years, 0 months with a Risser 0. She had a 43o left lumbar, 15o right thoracic curve. She was seen again after 6, 18 and 30 months and performed exercises from 18 to 30 months. She performed Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School (BSPTS exercises for a four-curve type (lumbar dominant with pelvis deviation to the lumbar concave side. At 18 and 30 months, x-rays were obtained with and without performing corrective exercises. Results At 6 months, her lumbar and thoracic curves measured 41o and 28o, respectively. At 18 months, her lumbar and thoracic curves measured 47 o and 30o, respectively. Also at 18 months, immediately after her x-ray in the relaxed standing position, she performed her corrective exercises in standing with arms lowered for a second x-ray. Her lumbar and thoracic curves remained similar and measured 43o and 32o, respectively. At 30 months, she performed unsolicited corrective exercises during the x-ray. Her lumbar and thoracic curves measured 26o and 41o, respectively. Another x-ray in the relaxed position revealed lumbar and thoracic curves measuring 39o and 35o, respectively. The immediate effect of corrective exercises after a year of training was a 33 % improvement at the lumbar spine compared to only a 9 % improvement the previous year. Conclusion After initial training, corrective exercises during a standing x-ray did not significantly improve the Cobb angle for the major lumbar curve compared to the relaxed standing x-ray. However, a year after performing exercises, unsolicited corrective exercises resulted in a

  11. Postoperative perceived health status in adolescent following idiopathic scoliosis surgical treatment: results using the adapted French version of Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes questionnaire (SRS-22).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Y; Bachy, M; Zakine, S; Mary, P; Khouri, N; Vialle, R

    2013-06-01

    Assessing functional outcome from patient-based outcomes questionnaires are essential to the evaluation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgical treatment At the minimum follow-up of 2 years, 45 operated on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients were mailed the French version of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument (SRS-22) questionnaires containing items on pain, activities of daily living, and satisfaction. Mean values of the SRS-22 domains were 3,66 for the Pain domain, 3,85 for the Self-perceived image domain, 4,32 for the Function domain, 3,52 for the Mental health domain and 4,12 for the Global satisfaction with management domain. Mean value of the global SRS-22 score was 3,88. We showed no differences in functional SRS-22 health status in patients according to the type of curve (Lenke classification). We showed statistically significant correlations between the gain of Cobb angle and Patients self-image and function domain scores. There was a statistically significant correlation between preoperative Cobb angle and patient satisfaction with management. Even if Function and Self-image scores in our patients are close to control group values, indicating good short to mid-term outcome of surgical treatment, scores for pain and mental health status were significantly lower in patients than controls. Long-term follow-up studies conducted by multiple surgeons over successive generations are mandatory to assess clinical significance of these differences. Level IV. Retrospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Video-game-assisted physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for idiopathic scoliosis: case series and introduction of a new tool to increase motivation and precision of exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Christine; Groebl, Petra; Nischelwitzer, Alexander; Salchinger, Beate; Sperl, Matthias; Wegmann, Helmut; Holzer, Hans-Peter; Saraph, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    It is important to monitor how patients with juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis comply with their physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE). Physiogame, a newly developed video game using the Game-Trak 3D interactive game controller, combines correct PSSE performance with gaming. It tracks the position of the working limb in 3D space during the exercises as participants aim to hit certain targets and avoid others, and gives direct feedback by stopping the game if the working limb leaves the target 3D space, which is chosen to secure the corrective position according to the Schroth method. Physiogame records the quality and frequency of the exercises performed. We aimed to investigate the influence of this tool on motivation to perform regularly and, correctly, and with self-assessment of performance quality. This case series included 8 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis (thoracolumbar 7, lumbar 1), ages 7-13 years, all female and treated according to SOSORT guidelines; the COBB angle of primary curve at the start of brace therapy was 22-34°. In addition to Full Time Rigid Bracing (FTRB, Cheneau) and PSSE (Schroth), the participants were to perform two standardized Schroth exercises (muscle cylinder in standing position, mainly addressing the thoracic curve, and in side-lying position, mainly addressing the lumbar curve) with video game assistance every day for 6 months. The development (first to last month) of the following parameters was analyzed with descriptive methods: the actual training time to assess motivation, the ratio of the actual playing time versus total playing time to assess exercise improvement, and self-assessment of quality of performance. The average number of sessions with Physiogame was 217 per study participant (range 24 to 572, the study protocol targeted at least 180); actual training time decreased from 79 to 52 min (first to last month). Actual playing time increased from 73% of the total playing time

  13. An experience of qualified preventive screening: shiraz smart screening software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Zare, Hashem; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Computerized preventive screening software is a cost effective intervention tool to address non-communicable chronic diseases. Shiraz Smart Screening Software (SSSS) was developed as an innovative tool for qualified screening. It allows simultaneous smart screening of several high-burden chronic diseases and supports reminder notification functionality. The extent in which SSSS affects screening quality is also described. Following software development, preventive screening and annual health examinations of 261 school staff (Medical School of Shiraz, Iran) was carried out in a software-assisted manner. To evaluate the quality of the software-assisted screening, we used quasi-experimental study design and determined coverage, irregular attendance and inappropriateness proportions in relation with the manual and software-assisted screening as well as the corresponding number of requested tests. In manual screening method, 27% of employees were covered (with 94% irregular attendance) while by software-assisted screening, the coverage proportion was 79% (attendance status will clear after the specified time). The frequency of inappropriate screening test requests, before the software implementation, was 41.37% for fasting plasma glucose, 41.37% for lipid profile, 0.84% for occult blood, 0.19% for flexible sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy, 35.29% for Pap smear, 19.20% for mammography and 11.2% for prostate specific antigen. All of the above were corrected by the software application. In total, 366 manual screening and 334 software-assisted screening tests were requested. SSSS is an innovative tool to improve the quality of preventive screening plans in terms of increased screening coverage, reduction in inappropriateness and the total number of requested tests.

  14. Social Media and Pediatric Scoliosis: An Analysis of Patient and Surgeon Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberle, Heather S; Egger, Anthony C; Navarro, Sergio M; Cornaghie, Mary M; Ramkumar, Prem N; Goodwin, Ryan C; Mont, Michael A

    2017-10-12

    The purpose of this observational study was to investigate and analyze the social media presence of both patients and surgeons in relation to pediatric scoliosis. First, patient Instagram (Instagram, Inc., San Francisco, California) posts were evaluated for 1) media format; 2) timing in relation to surgery; 3) tone; 4) perspective; 5) content; and 6) subject reference. To analyze reciprocal engagement, the presence and activity of pediatric scoliosis surgeons at five major academic centers were subsequently analyzed on Instagram, Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California), and LinkedIn (LinkedIn Corporation, Sunnyvale, California). A search of public Instagram profiles was performed over a one-year period from February 2016 to February 2017. Posts related to pediatric scoliosis were selected for analysis using a hashtag search with 30 related terms. A total of 982 posts were retrieved, with 669 posts meeting the inclusion criteria. Each post was then evaluated for timing, tone, perspective, and content using a categorical scoring system. An additional analysis was performed using academic orthopaedic hospitals' websites, in which the names of scoliosis surgeons were found and searched for on Instagram, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Their profiles were analyzed for level and length of activity, number of followers or connections, and references to clinical practice. A total of 669 posts related to scoliosis were analyzed, the majority of which were temporally related to non-operative (74.7%) or post-operative (21.8%) settings. Patients (33.3%), friends and family (34.4%), and professional organizations (23.8%) were the most active contributors. The vast majority of posts were positive in nature (88.9 %) and highlighted the patient experience (79.2%), specifically related to bracing (33.1%), activities of daily living (31.7%), and surgical site or x-rays (25.5%). Of the social media sites analyzed, surgeons were found to have the highest presence on LinkedIn (55

  15. The EOS imaging system: Workflow and radiation dose in scoliosis examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo; Torfing, Trine; Jespersen, Stig

    Introduction The EOS imaging system is a biplane slot beam scanner capable of full body scans at low radiation dose and without geometrical distortion. It was implemented in our department primo 2012 and all scoliosis examinations are now performed in EOS. The system offers improved possibility...... to measure rotation of individual vertebrae and vertebral curves can be assessed in 3D. Leg length Discrepancy measurements are performed in one exposure without geometrical distortion and no stitching. Full body scans for sagittal balance are also performed with the equipment after spine surgery. Purpose...... The purpose of the study was to evaluate workflow defined as scheduled time pr. examination and radiation dose in scoliosis examinations in EOS compared to conventional x-ray evaluation. Materials and Methods: The Dose Area Product (DAP) was measured with a dosimeter and a comparison between conventional X...

  16. Biomechanical analysis of scoliosis and back muscles using CT evaluation and finite element method

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    Saka, K

    1987-03-01

    The CT observation of back muscles of an idiopathic scoliosis patient showed increased muscle volume and high CT value on the convex side. Following these muscles by digitizer showed that convex muscle volume increased as the vertebra shifted to convexity. These back muscles were suggested to be transversospinalis muscles. Biomechanical analysis using finite element method (FEM) was done to further investigate this increasing volume of back muscles. A Risser experiment using FEM revealed that initial lordosis configuration model only produces rotation to the convex side by unilateral loading. We, therefore, made the model adding posterior element, regarding contraction of M. transversospinalis. In a normal case, the upper vertebra is rotated over the lower towards the side opposite the muscle contraction. The scoliosis model, however, showed rotation towards the side of muscle contraction. M. transversospinalis can be considered as the agent of this rotation force. In a rib cage model, M. transversospinalis also affected the rib cage deformity.

  17. Biomechanical analysis of scoliosis and back muscles using CT evaluation and finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    The CT observation of back muscles of an idiopathic scoliosis patient showed increased muscle volume and high CT value on the convex side. Following these muscles by digitizer showed that convex muscle volume increased as the vertebra shifted to convexity. These back muscles were suggested to be transversospinalis muscles. Biomechanical analysis using finite element method (FEM) was done to further investigate this increasing volume of back muscles. A Risser experiment using FEM revealed that initial lordosis configuration model only produces rotation to the convex side by unilateral loading. We, therefore, made the model adding posterior element, regarding contraction of M. transversospinalis. In a normal case, the upper vertebra is rotated over the lower towards the side opposite the muscle contraction. The scoliosis model, however, showed rotation towards the side of muscle contraction. M. transversospinalis can be considered as the agent of this rotation force. In a rib cage model, M. transversospinalis also affected the rib cage deformity. (author)

  18. Visual-Simulation-Based Personalized Garment Block Design Method for Physically Disabled People with Scoliosis (PDPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presented a novel method using 3D simulation methods to design customized garments for physically disabled people with scoliosis (PDPS. The proposed method is based on the virtual human model created from 3D scanning, permitting to simulate the consumer’s morphological shape with atypical physical deformations. Next, customized 2D and 3D virtual garment prototyping tools will be used to create products through interactions. The proposed 3D garment design method is based on the concept of knowledge-based design, using the design knowledge and process already applied to normal body shapes successfully. The characters of the PDPS and the relationship between human body and garment are considered in the prototyping process. As a visualized collaborative design process, the communication between designer and consumer is ensured, permitting to adapt the finished product to disabled people afflicted with severe scoliosis.

  19. The surgical management of scoliosis: a scoping review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Evaniew, Nathan; Devji, Tahira; Drew, Brian; Peterson, Devin; Ghert, Michelle; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background Scoping reviews are innovative studies that can map a range of evidence to convey the breadth and depth of a large field. An evidence-based approach to the wide spectrum of surgical interventions for scoliosis is paramount to enhance clinical outcomes. The objectives of this scoping review were to identify critical knowledge gaps and direct future research. Methods This study was completed according to the methodology of Arksey and O?Malley. Two reviewers performed duplicate system...

  20. A review of the trunk surface metrics used as Scoliosis and other deformities evaluation indices

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    Aggouris Costas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although scoliosis is characterized by lateral deviation of the spine, a 3D deformation actually is responsible for geometric and morphologic changes in the trunk and rib cage. In a vast related medical literature, one can find quite a few scoliosis evaluation indices, which are based on back surface data and are generally measured along three planes. Regardless the large number of such indices, the literature is lacking a coherent presentation of the underlying metrics, the involved anatomic surface landmarks, the definition of planes and the definition of the related body axes. In addition, the long list of proposed scoliotic indices is rarely presented in cross-reference to each other. This creates a possibility of misunderstandings and sometimes irrational or even wrong use of these indices by the medical society. Materials and methods It is hoped that the current work contributes in clearing up the issue and gives rise to innovative ideas on how to assess the surface metrics in scoliosis. In particular, this paper presents a thorough study on the scoliosis evaluation indices, proposed by the medical society. Results More specifically, the referred indices are classified, according to the type of asymmetry they measure, according to the plane they refer to, according to the importance, and relevance or the level of scientific consensus they enjoy. Conclusions Surface metrics have very little correlation to Cobb angle measurements. Indices measured on different planes do not correlate to each other. Different indices exhibit quite diverging characteristics in terms of observer-induced errors, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Complicated positioning of the patient and ambiguous anatomical landmarks are the major error sources, which cause observer variations. Principles that should be followed when an index is proposed are presented.

  1. Casting for infantile scoliosis: the pitfall of increased peak inspiratory pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawale, Arjun A; Shah, Suken A; Reichard, Samantha; Holmes, Laurens; Brislin, Robert; Rogers, Kenneth; Mackenzie, William G

    2013-01-01

    Serial cast correction is a popular treatment option for progressive infantile scoliosis. Body casting can lead to chest and abdominal expansion restriction and result in decreased chest wall compliance. There are no studies evaluating the effects of casting on ventilation in infantile scoliosis. This study examines changes in peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) during serial casting for infantile scoliosis. We retrospectively reviewed data obtained from 37 serial Cotrel elongation, derotation, and flexion cast corrections in patients with infantile scoliosis. Patient demographics, radiographic measurements, and anesthesia data were recorded. Anesthesia technique was standardized: children were intubated with rigid endotracheal tubes (ETTs); tidal volume was held constant at 8 to 10 cm(3)/kg using volume control ventilation; and PIP was recorded at baseline, after cast application before window cutout, and after window cutout before extubation. Any complications were documented. We assessed the PIP changes with a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean age at first casting was 21.8 months (range, 12 to 42 mo) and mean follow-up since first casting was 22.4 months (range, 13 to 40 mo) with mean major Cobb angle of 53±15 degrees. The mean PIP was 15.5±4.9 cm H(2)O before casting, 31.9±7.9 cm H(2)O after cast application, and 20.4±5.6 cm H2O after making windows. There was a 106% increase after casting and 32% increase after window cutout from the baseline PIP levels. There was a significant difference in PIP on repeated measures ANOVA (Pcasting and another had delayed difficulty in breathing. Casting resulted in an increased PIP due to transient restrictive pulmonary process; after windows were cut out, the PIP reduced but not to baseline. In patients with underlying pulmonary disease, the casting process may induce respiratory complications, and a proper period of observation after casting is necessary. Case series, level 4.

  2. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Treatment by a Korean Neurosurgeon: The Changing Role for Neurosurgeons

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Woong-Beom; Park, Young-Seop; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Yongjung J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiographic/clinical outcomes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated by a Korean neurosurgeon. Methods Ten AIS patients were treated by a single neurosurgeon between January 2011 and September 2013 utilizing segmental instrumentation with pedicle screws. Basic demographic information, curve pattern by Lenke classification, number of levels treated, amount of correction achieved, radiographic/clinical outcomes [by Scolisis...

  3. The Brazilian version of the SRS-22r questionnaire for idiopathic scoliosis

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    Paula M. F. Camarini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SRS-22r questionnaire is a well-accepted instrument used to measure health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. No validated tool exists in Brazil for idiopathic scoliosis, and the use of the SRS-22r in non-English Laguage contries requires its transcultural adaptation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to culturally adapt the translated Brazilian version of the SRS-22r questionnaire and to determine its reliability using statistical tests for internal consistency and test-retest reliability. METHOD: The transcultural adaptation process was carried out according to the recommendations of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. The pre-final version was administered to 44 patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The mean age of the participants was 18.93 years and the mean curve magnitude was 54.6°. A subgroup of 30 volunteers completed the questionnaire a second time one week later to determine the scale's reproducibility. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the test-retest reliability was determined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC. RESULTS: No floor effects were observed using the Brazilian version of the SRS-22r. Ceiling effects were observed in the Pain and Satisfaction with Management domains. The internal consistency values were very good for 3 domains and good for 2 domains. The ICC values were excellent for all domains. CONCLUSIONS: The high values of internal consistency and ICC reproducibility suggest that this version of the questionnaire can be used in Brazilian patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

  4. PARAMETERS FOR THE EVALUATION OF CERVICAL SAGITTAL BALANCE IN IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS

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    MAURICIO COELHO LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: There are no values defined as standard in the literature for the parameters of assessment of cervical sagittal balance in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. This study describes the sagittal cervical parameters in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Methods: Study carried out in a tertiary public hospital in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, through the evaluation of panoramic radiographs in lateral view. The Cobb method was used to evaluate cervical lordosis from C2 to C7, distance from the center of gravity (COG of the skull to C7, measurement of T1 slope, thoracic inlet angle (TIA, neck tilt, and plumb line from C7 to S1 (SVA C7-S1. A statistical analysis was performed, to demonstrate the relationship between the alignment of the thoracic spine in the sagittal plane and the cervical sagittal balance of patients with scoliosis. Results: Thirty-four patients were female (69.4% and 15 male (30.6%. The mean values for COG-C7 were 0.71 mm (median 0.8 mm/standard deviation [SD]= 0.51 mm. For Cobb C2-C7, the mean was -11.7° (median -10°/SD= 20.4°. The mean slope of T1 was 23.5° (median 25°/SD= 9.5°. The mean cervical version was 58.8° (median 60°/DP= 15.4°. The mean TIA was 81.8° (median 85°/SD= 16.7°. The mean plumb line C7-S1 was -0.28 (-0.3/SD= 1.0. Conclusion: The analysis of the results showed that the mean values for the cervical lordosis are lower than the values described as normal in the literature, suggesting a loss of sagittal cervical balance in these patients.

  5. Manual therapy as a conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review

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    Negrini Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is contingent upon many variables. Simple observation is enough for less serious curvatures, but for very serious cases surgical intervention could be proposed. Between these there is a wide range of different treatments. Manual therapy is commonly used: the aim of this paper is to verify the data existing in the literature on the efficacy of this approach. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature published internationally has been performed. We have included in the term manual therapy all the manipulative and generally passive techniques performed by an external operator. In a more specific meaning, osteopathic, chiropractic and massage techniques have been considered as manipulative therapeutic methods. We performed our systematic research in Medline, Embase, Cinhal, Cochrane Library, Pedro with the following terms: idiopathic scoliosis combined with chiropractic; manipulation; mobilization; manual therapy; massage; osteopathy; and therapeutic manipulation. The criteria for inclusion were as follows: Any kind of research; diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; patients treated exclusively by one of the procedures established as a standard for this review (chiropractic manipulation, osteopathic techniques, massage; and outcome in Cobb degrees. Results We founded 145 texts, but only three papers were relevant to our study. However, no one of the three satisfied all the required inclusion criteria because they were characterized by a combination of manual techniques and other therapeutic approaches. Conclusion The lack of any kind of serious scientific data does not allow us to draw any conclusion on the efficacy of manual therapy as an efficacious technique for the treatment of Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  6. THE EFFECT OF CORRECTIVE SURGERY OF SCOLIOSIS ON CERVICAL LORDOTIC AXIS

    OpenAIRE

    CALADO, ALDO; SANTOS, JULIANO RODRIGUES DOS; BAPTISTA, JOSE ALEXANDRE CUNHA; BRACONI, ANTONIO CARLOS MONTEIRO; HENRIQUES, GUILHERME GALITO; ROZINDO, DANUSA DE MELO; LEAL, JEFFERSON SOARES

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To quantify the changes in cervical sagittal alignment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who underwent surgical treatment. Methods: Retrospective study of radiographic data analysis. Data were collected from 25 radiographs of patients with AIS, and 18 cases were included. The mean age was 15.2 years (13-17 years); all subjects were female, operated from March 2010 to October 2015. Pre and postoperatively, cervical lordosis (C2-C7), thoracic kyphos...

  7. Does Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Treatment in Adolescence Alter Adult Quality of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Cieśliński, Igor; Kowalski, Paweł; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Nowobilski, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women) aged 30.10 (25–39) years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women) able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38) years, who 16.5 (12–26) years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS) were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood. PMID:25436225

  8. Does Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Treatment in Adolescence Alter Adult Quality of Life?

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    Maciej Płaszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women aged 30.10 (25–39 years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38 years, who 16.5 (12–26 years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood.

  9. An inquiry into chiropractors' intention to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feise, R J

    2001-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to (1) determine the clinical management approach of practicing chiropractors with regard to patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and (2) measure the response rate of a telephone survey. A survey instrument was developed and pretested, and a case-specific clinical vignette was generated for a hypothetical typical 12-year-old girl with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The instrument addressed 3 domains: the specific management of idiopathic scoliosis, elements guiding the general selection of treatment recommendations, and demographics of respondents. The sample frame consisted of 62,000 US chiropractors, of whom 165 were randomly selected for the survey sample. Interviews were conducted by telephone through use of the tested survey instrument. The response rate was 69% (114/165). Of the 51 nonrespondents, 15 did not have a listed business telephone number and 24 were not in active practice. The response rate of those who met the inclusion criteria (practicing chiropractor with a listed telephone number) was 90% (114/126). The gender, chiropractic college, and years in practice of respondents in this survey were similar to those of respondents in 3 other national surveys. In general, the respondents would provide 6 months of "intensive" chiropractic therapy, then follow the patient for 4 years (near skeletal maturity). Eighty-two percent of respondents named diversified technique as their primary adjustive treatment, 87% would use exercise, and 30% would use electric muscle stimulation as an adjunct to manual therapy. Most surveyed chiropractors would use similar methods (frequency and length of treatment, manipulation technique, and exercise) in the treatment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A high response rate to a national survey can be achieved through use of telephone contact.

  10. Manual therapy as a conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Michele; Negrini, Stefano

    2008-01-22

    The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is contingent upon many variables. Simple observation is enough for less serious curvatures, but for very serious cases surgical intervention could be proposed. Between these there is a wide range of different treatments. Manual therapy is commonly used: the aim of this paper is to verify the data existing in the literature on the efficacy of this approach. A systematic review of the scientific literature published internationally has been performed. We have included in the term manual therapy all the manipulative and generally passive techniques performed by an external operator. In a more specific meaning, osteopathic, chiropractic and massage techniques have been considered as manipulative therapeutic methods. We performed our systematic research in Medline, Embase, Cinhal, Cochrane Library, Pedro with the following terms: idiopathic scoliosis combined with chiropractic; manipulation; mobilization; manual therapy; massage; osteopathy; and therapeutic manipulation. The criteria for inclusion were as follows: Any kind of research; diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; patients treated exclusively by one of the procedures established as a standard for this review (chiropractic manipulation, osteopathic techniques, massage); and outcome in Cobb degrees. We founded 145 texts, but only three papers were relevant to our study. However, no one of the three satisfied all the required inclusion criteria because they were characterized by a combination of manual techniques and other therapeutic approaches. The lack of any kind of serious scientific data does not allow us to draw any conclusion on the efficacy of manual therapy as an efficacious technique for the treatment of Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  11. Manual therapy as a conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Michele; Negrini, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is contingent upon many variables. Simple observation is enough for less serious curvatures, but for very serious cases surgical intervention could be proposed. Between these there is a wide range of different treatments. Manual therapy is commonly used: the aim of this paper is to verify the data existing in the literature on the efficacy of this approach. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature published i...

  12. Improved chest expansion in idiopathic scoliosis after intensive, multiple-modality, nonsurgical treatment in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M C; Brooks, W J

    2001-08-01

    This case report documents a substantial increase in chest wall expansion in a middle-aged woman with stable right thoracic spinal curvature due to idiopathic scoliosis. Treatment involved intensive psychological and mobilization therapies, including comprehensive manipulative medicine treatments and daily manual traction. Over an 8-year period, a 6-cm increase in resting chest circumference (in the absence of weight gain) and a 7.5-cm increase in chest expansion were correlated with a substantial reduction of incidence of respiratory infections.

  13. Whole-body MRI in neurofibromatosis: incidental findings and prevalence of scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, Jacob L.; MacMahon, Peter J.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A.; Merker, Vanessa L.; Plotkin, Scott R.; Mautner, Victor F.

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate incidental findings and scoliosis on whole-body MRI (WBMRI) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 (NF1 and NF2, respectively), and schwannomatosis. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 247 subjects (141 with NF1, 55 with NF2, 51 with schwannomatosis; 132 women (53.5%); mean age, 41 years, range, 18-97 years) underwent WBMRI using coronal STIR (TR/TE: 4190/111 ms, TI: 150 ms) and T1-weighted images (TR/TE: 454/10 ms), 10-mm slice thickness, imaging time ∝40 min. Images were reviewed for the presence of incidental findings, outside of nerve sheath tumors. The presence of scoliosis was recorded and curve morphology was assessed and quantified. Incidental findings other than scoliosis were recorded in 104/247 (42%) patients, most often affecting the musculoskeletal system (65/247 patients, 26%). We found 16/247 (6.5%) significant incidental findings likely to affect clinical management, including avascular necrosis of bone in eight patients (five with NF2), eight insufficiency fractures, and four non-neurogenic neoplasms (Hodgkin's lymphoma, liposarcoma, dermoid cyst, large uterine myoma requiring excision). Scoliosis was seen in 50/247 patients (20%), including 8/55 with NF2 (15%) and 11/51 with schwannomatosis (22%). Incidental findings in the neurofibromatoses frequently involve the skeleton. Given the relatively high incidence of unsuspected osteonecrosis and stress fractures, close attention to the skeleton on WBMRI is advised. In addition, knowledge of common incidental findings can help clinicians prepare patients who undergo WBMRI for potential unexpected findings. (orig.)

  14. A correlational study of scoliosis and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation.

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    Shuncheng Zhou

    Full Text Available Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an "S" type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p1°, while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01. The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation.

  15. Whole-body MRI in neurofibromatosis: incidental findings and prevalence of scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, Jacob L.; MacMahon, Peter J.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Merker, Vanessa L.; Plotkin, Scott R. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology and Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To demonstrate incidental findings and scoliosis on whole-body MRI (WBMRI) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 (NF1 and NF2, respectively), and schwannomatosis. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 247 subjects (141 with NF1, 55 with NF2, 51 with schwannomatosis; 132 women (53.5%); mean age, 41 years, range, 18-97 years) underwent WBMRI using coronal STIR (TR/TE: 4190/111 ms, TI: 150 ms) and T1-weighted images (TR/TE: 454/10 ms), 10-mm slice thickness, imaging time {proportional_to}40 min. Images were reviewed for the presence of incidental findings, outside of nerve sheath tumors. The presence of scoliosis was recorded and curve morphology was assessed and quantified. Incidental findings other than scoliosis were recorded in 104/247 (42%) patients, most often affecting the musculoskeletal system (65/247 patients, 26%). We found 16/247 (6.5%) significant incidental findings likely to affect clinical management, including avascular necrosis of bone in eight patients (five with NF2), eight insufficiency fractures, and four non-neurogenic neoplasms (Hodgkin's lymphoma, liposarcoma, dermoid cyst, large uterine myoma requiring excision). Scoliosis was seen in 50/247 patients (20%), including 8/55 with NF2 (15%) and 11/51 with schwannomatosis (22%). Incidental findings in the neurofibromatoses frequently involve the skeleton. Given the relatively high incidence of unsuspected osteonecrosis and stress fractures, close attention to the skeleton on WBMRI is advised. In addition, knowledge of common incidental findings can help clinicians prepare patients who undergo WBMRI for potential unexpected findings. (orig.)

  16. [Scoliosis in the children: the new approaches to the treatment and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, T N; Kulikov, A G; Yarustovskaya, O V

    Scoliosis is the most widespread orthopaedic condition affecting both the children and the adolescents. The electrostatic field is known to promote the development of vibrations of varying strength in the biological tissues and their penetration rather deep into their interior. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the possibilities and practicability of the application of a low-frequency electrostatic field for the conservative treatment of grade I and II scoliosis in the children and to develop the scientifically sound substantiation for the use of this technique in the clinical practice. We examined and treated 94 children randomly divided into two groups (main and control) matched for the age and major clinical manifestation of the disease. All the patients received basic therapy. Those in the study group were additionally given low-frequency electrostatic therapy. The comparative analysis of the results of the treatment gave evidence that the application of a low-frequency electrostatic field for the conservative treatment of grade I and II scoliosis in the children resulted in the well apparent positive changes in their health status. These changes manifested themselves in the favourable dynamics of both the clinical symptoms of the disease and as the improvement of the topographic and thermographic characteristics. Of special importance is the alleviation of the symptoms of scoliotic deformation of the vertebral column under effect of the low-frequency electrostatic field. The present study has demonstrated that the application of the low-frequency electrostatic field significantly increases the effectiveness of the treatment of grade I and II scoliosis in the children and adolescents and promotes regression of this pathological condition.

  17. Relationship of forces acting on implant rods and degree of scoliosis correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmingo, Remel Alingalan; Tadano, Shigeru; Fujisaki, Kazuhiro; Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a complex spinal pathology characterized as a three-dimensional spine deformity combined with vertebral rotation. Various surgical techniques for correction of severe scoliotic deformity have evolved and became more advanced in applying the corrective forces. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between corrective forces acting on deformed rods and degree of scoliosis correction. Implant rod geometries of six adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients were measured before and after surgery. An elasto-plastic finite element model of the implant rod before surgery was reconstructed for each patient. An inverse method based on Finite Element Analysis was used to apply forces to the implant rod model such that it was deformed the same after surgery. Relationship between the magnitude of corrective forces and degree of correction expressed as change of Cobb angle was evaluated. The effects of screw configuration on the corrective forces were also investigated. Corrective forces acting on rods and degree of correction were not correlated. Increase in number of implant screws tended to decrease the magnitude of corrective forces but did not provide higher degree of correction. Although greater correction was achieved with higher screw density, the forces increased at some level. The biomechanics of scoliosis correction is not only dependent to the corrective forces acting on implant rods but also associated with various parameters such as screw placement configuration and spine stiffness. Considering the magnitude of forces, increasing screw density is not guaranteed as the safest surgical strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new corrective technique for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (Ucar′s convex rod rotation

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    Bekir Yavuz Ucar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: Prospective single-center study. Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of a new technique of global vertebral correction with convex rod rotation performed on the patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Summary of Background Data: Surgical goal is to obtain an optimal curve correction in scoliosis surgery. There are various correction techniques. This report describes a new technique of global vertebral correction with convex rod rotation. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 consecutive patients with Lenke type I adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and managed by convex rod rotation technique between years 2012 and 2013 having more than 1 year follow-up were included. Mean age was 14.5 (range = 13-17 years years at the time of operation. The hospital charts were reviewed for demographic data. Measurements of curve magnitude and balance were made on 36-inch standing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs taken before surgery and at most recent follow up to assess deformity correction, spinal balance, and complications related to the instrumentation. Results: Preoperative coronal plane major curve of 62° (range = 50°-72° with flexibility of less than 30% was corrected to 11.5°(range = 10°-14° showing a 81% scoliosis correction at the final follow-up. Coronal imbalance was improved 72% at the most recent follow-up assessment. No complications were found. Conclusion: The new technique of global vertebral correction with Ucar′s convex rod rotation is an effective technique. This method is a vertebral rotation procedure from convex side and it allows to put screws easily to the concave side.

  19. Cell saver filtering of extravasated rhBMP-2 after degenerative scoliosis reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Liu, MBBCh, MSc, FRCS, FAMS (Orth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RhBMP-2 is a bone fusion enhancer commonly used in scoliosis reconstruction surgery. It is delivered via an absorbable collagen sponge but has been known to migrate away from its delivery site. RhBMP-2 extravasation in surgical drainage has been noted during first two days post-surgery. Cell savers are widely used in scoliosis reconstruction to limit transfusion requirements and are commonly deployed in cases where rhBMP-2 is used for fusion augmentation. It is not known whether rhBMP-2 is present in salvaged blood or filtered away during cell saver recycling. Through this case series of four patients who underwent scoliosis reconstruction, we assess cell saver efficacy in filtering rhBMP-2 molecules by quantifying the amount of rhBMP-2 present in salvaged blood obtained after postoperative drainage recycling by OrthoPAT® cell saver and comparing it to rhBMP-2 leakage in postoperative drainage without cell saver recycling. We report an almost 10-fold reduction of rhBMP-2 concentration in salvaged blood obtained after cell saver recycling of postoperative drainage, suggesting cell saver effectiveness in filtering rhBMP-2 molecules.

  20. Reliability and validity of the photogrammetry for scoliosis evaluation: a cross-sectional prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Karen Ruggeri; Colombo, Alexandra S; João, Silvia M Amado

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of photogrammetry in measuring the lateral spinal inclination angles. Forty subjects (32 female and 8 males) with a mean age of 23.4 +/- 11.2 years had their scoliosis evaluated by radiographs of their trunk, determined by the Cobb angle method, and by photogrammetry. The statistical methods used included Cronbach alpha, Pearson/Spearman correlation coefficients, and regression analyses. The Cronbach alpha values showed that the photogrammetric measures showed high internal consistency, which indicated that the sample was bias free. The radiograph method showed to be more precise with intrarater reliabilities of 0.936, 0.975, and 0.945 for the thoracic, lumbar, and thoracolumbar curves, respectively, and interrater reliabilities of 0.942 and 0.879 for the angular measures of the thoracic and thoracolumbar segments, respectively. The regression analyses revealed a high determination coefficient although limited to the adjusted linear model between the radiographic and photographic measures. It was found that with more severe scoliosis, the lateral curve measures obtained with the photogrammetry were for the thoracic and lumbar regions (R = 0.619 and 0.551). The photogrammetric measures were found to be reproducible in this study and could be used as supplementary information to decrease the number of radiographs necessary for the monitoring of scoliosis.

  1. The Effect of Corrective Exercises on Flexibility and Strength in Postural Scoliosis of Adolescent Girls

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    Mahboube Karbalaaie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of corrective exercises on flexibility and strength in Postural Scoliosis of adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: This quasi experimental research was applied as a clinical trial and had done on 40 girls with postural scoliosis those were selected by convenient sampling and assigned to control (n=20 and experimental (n=20 group by simple randomized method. The experimental group received corrective exercises for 30 days and the control group was given no intervention. Flexibility and strength was measured before and after 30 days in all subjects. Data were analyzed by use of Paired T and Independent T tests. Results: There was statistically significant difference in Flexibility and Strength of experimental group between before and after intervention (P<0/001, but There was no significant difference between groups after intervention (P=0.6. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that corrective exercises can lead to improvement of flexibility and strength in scoliosis girls.

  2. Fully automatic measurements of axial vertebral rotation for assessment of spinal deformity in idiopathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Andersson, Mats; Knutsson, Hans; Lundström, Claes; Vavruch, Ludvig; Tropp, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Reliable measurements of spinal deformities in idiopathic scoliosis are vital, since they are used for assessing the degree of scoliosis, deciding upon treatment and monitoring the progression of the disease. However, commonly used two dimensional methods (e.g. the Cobb angle) do not fully capture the three dimensional deformity at hand in scoliosis, of which axial vertebral rotation (AVR) is considered to be of great importance. There are manual methods for measuring the AVR, but they are often time-consuming and related with a high intra- and inter-observer variability. In this paper, we present a fully automatic method for estimating the AVR in images from computed tomography. The proposed method is evaluated on four scoliotic patients with 17 vertebrae each and compared with manual measurements performed by three observers using the standard method by Aaro–Dahlborn. The comparison shows that the difference in measured AVR between automatic and manual measurements are on the same level as the inter-observer difference. This is further supported by a high intraclass correlation coefficient (0.971–0.979), obtained when comparing the automatic measurements with the manual measurements of each observer. Hence, the provided results and the computational performance, only requiring approximately 10 to 15 s for processing an entire volume, demonstrate the potential clinical value of the proposed method. (paper)

  3. Improvement in Scoliosis Top View: Evaluation of Vertebrae Localization in Scoliotic Spine-Spine Axial Presentation

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    Paweł Główka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis of the scoliotic spine is based on two-dimensional X-rays: coronal and sagittal. The three-dimensional character of scoliosis has raised the necessity for analyzing scoliosis in three planes. We proposed a new user-friendly method of graphical presentation of the spine in the third plane–the Spine Axial Presentation (SAP. Eighty-five vertebrae of patients with scoliosis were analyzed. Due to different positions during X-rays (standing and computer tomography (CT (supine, the corresponding measurements cannot be directly compared. As a solution, a software creating Digital Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs from CT scans was developed to replace regular X-rays with DRRs. Based on the measurements performed on DRRs, the coordinates of vertebral bodies central points were defined. Next, the geometrical centers of vertebral bodies were determined on CT scans. The reproducibility of measurements was tested with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, using p = 0.05. The intra-observer reproducibility and inter-observer reliability for vertebral body central point’s coordinates (x, y, z were high for results obtained based on DRRs and CT scans, as well as for comparison results obtained based on DRR and CT scans. Based on two standard radiographs, it is possible to localize vertebral bodies in 3D space. The position of vertebral bodies can be present in the Spine Axial Presentation.

  4. Serial elongation derotation flexion (EDF) casting for patients with infantile and juvenile scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavese, Federico; Rousset, Marie; Mansour, Mounira; Samba, Antoine; Dimeglio, Alain

    2016-02-01

    Infantile and juvenile scoliosis, among different types of spinal deformity, is still a challenge for pediatric orthopedic surgeons. The ideal treatment of infantile and juvenile scoliosis has not yet been identified as both clinicians and surgeons still face multiple challenges, including preservation of the thoracic spine, thoracic cage, lung growth and cardiac function without reducing spinal motion. Elongation, derotation, flexion (EDF) casting technique is a custom-made thoracolumbar cast based on a three dimensional correction concept. This cast offers three-dimensional correction and can control the evolution of the deformity in some cases. Spinal growth can be guided by EDF casting as it can influence the initially curved spine to grow straighter. This article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of how infantile and juvenile scoliosis can affect normal spine and thorax and how these deformities can be treated with serial EDF casting technique. A current literature review is mandatory in order to understand the principles of the serial EDF casting technique and the effectiveness of conservative treatment in young and very young patients.

  5. Serial Casting for Infantile Idiopathic Scoliosis: Radiographic Outcomes and Factors Associated With Response to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Justin; Orlando, Giuseppe; Diefenbach, Chris; Gaughan, John P; Samdani, Amer F; Pahys, Joshua M; Betz, Randal R; Cahill, Patrick J

    Serial casting for early-onset scoliosis has been shown to improve curve deformity. Our goal was to define clinical and radiographic features that determine response to treatment. We retrospectively reviewed patients with idiopathic infantile scoliosis with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were: progressive idiopathic infantile scoliosis and initial casting before 6 years of age. Two groups were analyzed and compared: group 1 (≥10-degree improvement in Cobb angle from baseline) and group 2 (no improvement). Twenty-one patients with an average Cobb angle of 48 degrees (range, 24 to 72 degrees) underwent initial casting at an average age of 2.1 years (range, 0.7 to 5.4 y). Average follow-up was 3.5 years (range, 2 to 6.9 y). Sex, age at initial casting, magnitude of spinal deformity, and curve flexibility (defined as change in Cobb angle from pretreatment to first in-cast radiograph) were not significantly different between groups (P>0.05). Group 1 had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) than group 2 at the onset of treatment (17.6 vs. 14.8, Pcasted at less than 1.8 years of age had a Cobb angle casting does not confirm treatment success. Key aspects of treatment that may determine success include age of less than 1.8 years at initiation of casting and derotation of the spine to correct rib vertebral angle difference of <20 degrees. Level IV-Therapeutic.