WorldWideScience

Sample records for school relevant cognitive

  1. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The relation between cognitive and motor performance and their relevance for children's transition to school: a latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebers, Claudia M; Röthlisberger, Marianne; Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Michel, Eva; Jäger, Katja

    2014-02-01

    Both theoretically and empirically there is a continuous interest in understanding the specific relation between cognitive and motor development in childhood. In the present longitudinal study including three measurement points, this relation was targeted. At the beginning of the study, the participating children were 5-6-year-olds. By assessing participants' fine motor skills, their executive functioning, and their non-verbal intelligence, their cross-sectional and cross-lagged interrelations were examined. Additionally, performance in these three areas was used to predict early school achievement (in terms of mathematics, reading, and spelling) at the end of participants' first grade. Correlational analyses and structural equation modeling revealed that fine motor skills, non-verbal intelligence and executive functioning were significantly interrelated. Both fine motor skills and intelligence had significant links to later school achievement. However, when executive functioning was additionally included into the prediction of early academic achievement, fine motor skills and non-verbal intelligence were no longer significantly associated with later school performance suggesting that executive functioning plays an important role for the motor-cognitive performance link. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CONTEXT AND CONTENT : THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL-LEAVING AND SCHOOL-BASED HEALTH-EDUCATION ON AIDS-RELEVANT COGNITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ABRAMS, D; SHEERAN, P; ABRAHAM, C; SPEARS, R

    1992-01-01

    A survey examined health beliefs and intentions among 690 16-18 year-olds in Dundee. Respondents in the younger cohort (n = 363) were classified according to their educational situation (at school vs left) and self-reports of having received AIDS/HIV-relevant health education. Both remaining in

  4. Assessing Relevance of External Cognitive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairó, Osvaldo

    2017-01-01

    The arrival of modern brain imaging technologies has provided new opportunities for examining the biological essence of human intelligence as well as the relationship between brain size and cognition. Thanks to these advances, we can now state that the relationship between brain size and intelligence has never been well understood. This view is supported by findings showing that cognition is correlated more with brain tissues than sheer brain size. The complexity of cellular and molecular organization of neural connections actually determines the computational capacity of the brain. In this review article, we determine that while genotypes are responsible for defining the theoretical limits of intelligence, what is primarily responsible for determining whether those limits are reached or exceeded is experience (environmental influence). Therefore, we contend that the gene-environment interplay defines the intelligent quotient of an individual.

  5. Family influences on mania-relevant cognitions and beliefs: a cognitive model of mania and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Johnson, Sheri L

    2012-07-01

    The present study proposed and tested a cognitive model of mania and reward. Undergraduates (N = 284; 68.4% female; mean age = 20.99 years, standard deviation ± 3.37) completed measures of family goal setting and achievement values, personal reward-related beliefs, cognitive symptoms of mania, and risk for mania. Correlational analyses and structural equation modeling supported two distinct, but related facets of mania-relevant cognition: stably present reward-related beliefs and state-dependent cognitive symptoms in response to success and positive emotion. Results also indicated that family emphasis on achievement and highly ambitious extrinsic goals were associated with these mania-relevant cognitions. Finally, controlling for other factors, cognitive symptoms in response to success and positive emotion were uniquely associated with lifetime propensity towards mania symptoms. Results support the merit of distinguishing between facets of mania-relevant cognition and the importance of the family in shaping both aspects of cognition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cognitive abilities of functionally illiterate persons relevant to ICT use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, S. van; Cremers, A.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the proficiency levels of functionally illiterate persons regarding a number of cognitive skills (language processing skills (reading, writing, listening), visual organizational and visual memory skills, mental spatial orientation, speed of cognitive processing,

  7. Media and Attention, Cognition, and School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Marie Evans Schmidt and Elizabeth Vandewater review research on links between various types of electronic media and the cognitive skills of school-aged children and adolescents. One central finding of studies to date, they say, is that the content delivered by electronic media is far more influential than the media themselves. Most studies, they…

  8. The Relevant Factors in Promoting Reading Activities in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…

  9. Advancing science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this editorial to inform both readers and potential authors, the editor provides a few details relevant to the School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ) including: the mission, contemporary context, the new emphases of SPQ, the editorial board, and advice for authors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. State-dependent cognition and its relevance to cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel

    2018-02-05

    Individuals cope with their worlds by using information. In humans in particular, an important potential source of information is cultural tradition. Evolutionary models have examined when it is advantageous to use cultural information, and psychological studies have examined the cognitive biases and priorities that may transform cultural traditions over time. However, these studies have not generally incorporated the idea that individuals vary in state. I argue that variation in state is likely to influence the relative payoffs of using cultural information versus gathering personal information; and also that people in different states will have different cognitive biases and priorities, leading them to transform cultural information in different ways. I explore hunger as one example of state variable likely to have consequences for cultural evolution. Variation in state has the potential to explain why cultural traditions and dynamics are so variable between individuals and populations. It offers evolutionarily-grounded links between the ecology in which individuals live, individual-level cognitive processes, and patterns of culture. However, incorporating heterogeneity of state also makes the modelling of cultural evolution more complex, particularly if the distribution of states is itself influenced by the distribution of cultural beliefs and practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Challenged by cognition : toward optimal measurement and greater understanding of youth cognition in school refusal and cognitive behavioural therapy outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maric, Marija

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation was to highlight and address seven challenges related to the measurement of youth cognition, understanding the role of cognitive constructs in anxiety and school refusal, and the examination of cognitive mediators of cognitive-behavioural treatment outcomes. The

  12. Emotiogenic Cognitive Function of Modern School Teaching Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Любовь Васильевна Ерохина

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of emotional attractiveness of modern school educational texts and ecological/non-ecological influence upon pupils’ cognition in teaching communication. Reasoning is based on the thesis that - emotional attractiveness of modern school educational texts opposes their cognitive function. Emotional educational text profile and its components are under consideration. The article is concerned with ecological and cognitive and emotional asymmetry content. The material under focus is printed texts of some of modern school textbooks, teaching methodical aids, academic competitions, mass media information from the cognitive ecology point of view.

  13. Effects of self-schema elaboration on affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L E; Stahlberg, D; Dauenheimer, D

    2000-02-01

    The basic assumption of the integrative self-schema model (ISSM; L.-E. Petersen, 1994; L.-E. Petersen, D. Stahlberg, & D. Dauenheimer, 1996; D. Stahlberg, L.-E. Petersen, & D. Dauenheimer, 1994, 1999) is that self-schema elaboration (schematic vs. aschematic) affects reactions to self-relevant information. This assumption is based on the idea that schematic dimensions occupy a more central position in the cognitive system than aschematic dimensions. In the first study, this basic prediction could be clearly confirmed: The results showed that schematic dimensions possessed stronger cognitive associations with other self-relevant cognitions as well as a higher resistance to change than aschematic dimensions did. In the second study, the main assumptions of the ISSM concerning the affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant feedback were tested: The ISSM proposes that, on schematic dimensions, reactions to self-relevant feedback will most likely follow principles of self-consistency theory, whereas on aschematic dimensions positive feedback should elicit the most positive reactions that self-enhancement theory would predict. The experimental results clearly confirmed the hypotheses derived from the ISSM for affective reactions. Cognitive reactions, however, were in line with self-consistency principles and were not modified by the elaboration of the self-schema dimension involved.

  14. Sleep, Cognition, and Behavioral Problems in School-Age Children: A Century of Research Meta-Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astill, R.G.; van der Heijden, K.B.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Clear associations of sleep, cognitive performance, and behavioral problems have been demonstrated in meta-analyses of studies in adults. This meta-analysis is the first to systematically summarize all relevant studies reporting on sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in healthy school-age

  15. Characteristics of High School Students' and Science Teachers' Cognitive Frame about Effective Teaching Method for High School Science Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Park, Kyeong-Jin; Cho, Kyu Seong

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the cognitive frame of high school students and inservice high school science teachers about effective teaching method, and we also explored how they understood about the teaching methods suggested by the 2009 revised Science Curriculum. Data were collected from 275 high school science teachers and 275 high school students. We analyzed data in terms of the words and the cognitive frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The results were as follows. First, the teachers perceived that an activity oriented class was the effective science class that helped improve students'' problem-solving abilities and their inquiry skills. The students had the cognitive frame that their teacher had to present relevant and enough teaching materials to students, and that they should also receive assistance from teachers in science class to better prepare for college entrance exam. Second, both students and teachers retained the cognitive frame about the efficient science class that was not reflected 2009 revised Science Curriculum exactly. Especially, neither groups connected the elements of ''convergence'' as well as ''integration'' embedded across science subject areas to their cognitive frame nor cognized the fact that many science learning contents were closed related to one another. Therefore, various professional development opportunities should be offered so that teachers succinctly comprehend the essential features and the intents of the 2009 revised Science Curriculum and thereby implement it in their science lessons effectively. Keywords : semantic network analysis, cognitive frame, teaching method, science lesson

  16. Teacher beliefs about the aetiology of individual differences in cognitive ability, and the relevance of behavioural genetics to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosswaite, Madeline; Asbury, Kathryn

    2018-04-26

    Despite a large body of research that has explored the influence of genetic and environmental factors on educationally relevant traits, few studies have explored teachers' beliefs about, or knowledge of, developments in behavioural genetics related to education. This study aimed to describe the beliefs and knowledge of UK teachers about behavioural genetics and its relevance to education, and to test for differences between groups of teachers based on factors including years of experience and age of children taught. Data were gathered from n = 402 teachers from a representative sample of UK schools. Teachers from primary and secondary schools, and from across the state and independent sectors, were recruited. An online questionnaire was used to gather demographic data (gender, age, years of experience, age of children taught, and state vs. independent) and also data on beliefs about the relative influence of nature and nurture on cognitive ability; knowledge of behavioural genetics; openness to genetic research in education; and mindset. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, correlations, and multiple regression. Teachers perceived genetic and environmental factors as equally important influences on cognitive ability and tended towards a growth mindset. Knowledge about behavioural genetics was low, but openness to learning more about genetics was high. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups based on age of children taught (openness higher among primary teachers) and state versus independent (more growth-minded in state sector). Although teachers have a limited knowledge of behavioural genetics, they are keen to learn more. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Job Search and Social Cognitive Theory: The Role of Career-Relevant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikic, Jelena; Saks, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive theory was used to explain the relationships between career-relevant activities (environmental and self career exploration, career resources, and training), self-regulatory variables (job search self-efficacy and job search clarity), variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (job search attitude, subjective norm, job search…

  18. The potential relevance of cognitive neuroscience for the development and use of technology-enhanced learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating

  19. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  20. The NEWMEDS rodent touchscreen test battery for cognition relevant to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvoslef-Eide, M; Mar, A C; Nilsson, S R O; Alsiö, J; Heath, C J; Saksida, L M; Robbins, T W; Bussey, T J

    2015-11-01

    The NEWMEDS initiative (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia, http://www.newmeds-europe.com ) is a large industrial-academic collaborative project aimed at developing new methods for drug discovery for schizophrenia. As part of this project, Work package 2 (WP02) has developed and validated a comprehensive battery of novel touchscreen tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia. This article provides a review of the touchscreen battery of tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia and highlights validation data presented in several primary articles in this issue and elsewhere. The battery consists of the five-choice serial reaction time task and a novel rodent continuous performance task for measuring attention, a three-stimulus visual reversal and the serial visual reversal task for measuring cognitive flexibility, novel non-matching to sample-based tasks for measuring spatial working memory and paired-associates learning for measuring long-term memory. The rodent (i.e. both rats and mice) touchscreen operant chamber and battery has high translational value across species due to its emphasis on construct as well as face validity. In addition, it offers cognitive profiling of models of diseases with cognitive symptoms (not limited to schizophrenia) through a battery approach, whereby multiple cognitive constructs can be measured using the same apparatus, enabling comparisons of performance across tasks. This battery of tests constitutes an extensive tool package for both model characterisation and pre-clinical drug discovery.

  1. Cognitive Assessment Practices: A Survey of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Dixon, Shauna G.

    2014-01-01

    The present article describes an exploratory study regarding the preferred cognitive assessment practices of current school psychologists. Three hundred and twenty-three school psychologists participated in the survey. The results suggest that the majority of school psychologists endorsed that they base their assessment practices on an underlying…

  2. Family Background, School Characteristics, and Children's Cognitive Achievement in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Randrianarisoa, Jean Claude; Sahn, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses linked household, school, and test score data from Madagascar to investigate the relation of household characteristics and school factors to the cognitive skills of children ages 8-10 and 14-16. In contrast to most achievement test studies in developing countries, the study uses representative rather than school-based samples of…

  3. Clinical relevance of specific cognitive complaints in determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Avila Villanueva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective memory complaints in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ.Material and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI. The Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis and item response theory were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI.Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely forgetfulness of immediate information, executive functions and prospective memory proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10.Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints.

  4. Media and attention, cognition, and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Vandewater, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    Marie Evans Schmidt and Elizabeth Vandewater review research on links between various types of electronic media and the cognitive skills of school-aged children and adolescents. One central finding of studies to date, they say, is that the content delivered by electronic media is far more influential than the media themselves. Most studies, they point out, find a small negative link between the total hours a child spends viewing TV and that child's academic achievement. But when researchers take into account characteristics of the child, such as IQ or socioeconomic status, this link typically disappears. Content appears to be crucial. Viewing educational TV is linked positively with academic achievement; viewing entertainment TV is linked negatively with achievement. When it comes to particular cognitive skills, say the authors, researchers have found that electronic media, particularly video games, can enhance visual spatial skills, such as visual tracking, mental rotation, and target localization. Gaming may also improve problem-solving skills. Researchers have yet to understand fully the issue of transfer of learning from electronic media. Studies suggest that, under some circumstances, young people are able to transfer what they learn from electronic media to other applications, but analysts are uncertain how such transfer occurs. In response to growing public concern about possible links between electronic media use and attention problems in children and adolescents, say the authors, researchers have found evidence for small positive links between heavy electronic media use and mild attention problems among young people but have found only inconsistent evidence so far for a link between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and media use. The authors point out that although video games, interactive websites, and multimedia software programs appear to offer a variety of possible benefits for learning, there is as yet little empirical evidence to suggest that

  5. SOCIAL VIGILANCE OF SCHOOL JOURNALISTS: COGNITIVE ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vladimirovna Sidorova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article one of the stages and results of an ascertaining experiment aimed at identification of the level of high school students’ social vigilance formation are described. The scientific novelty of this work is to implement the pedagogical interpretation of the concept "social vigilance", and also in the selection and creation of valid methods for studying the phenomenon. Ascertaining experiment on cognitive criteria included a test on facts of social reality knowledge, the methods developed by the author "The analysis of the communicative situation," and “Continue the report”, content analysis of texts. The results show that teenagers’ social vigilance largely developed in respect of the microprocesses, but it’s low in respect of macroprocesses. The young journalists have little knowledge about the various social groups, social stratum. The obtained data show the directions of teaching activities to develop students’ social vigilance. Experimental results, methods and forms of research can be extrapolated to other types of educational activities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-49

  6. The influence of an introduction to cognitive education on school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paper will interest local and international readers because it highlights both essential content and the ... justification for engaging school leadership with the cognitive education movement. .... process of curricular innovation and change. The.

  7. Using music to study the evolution of cognitive mechanisms relevant to language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2017-02-01

    This article argues that music can be used in cross-species research to study the evolution of cognitive mechanisms relevant to spoken language. This is because music and language share certain cognitive processing mechanisms and because music offers specific advantages for cross-species research. Music has relatively simple building blocks (tones without semantic properties), yet these building blocks are combined into rich hierarchical structures that engage complex cognitive processing. I illustrate this point with regard to the processing of musical harmonic structure. Because the processing of musical harmonic structure has been shown to interact with linguistic syntactic processing in humans, it is of interest to know if other species can acquire implicit knowledge of harmonic structure through extended exposure to music during development (vs. through explicit training). I suggest that domestic dogs would be a good species to study in addressing this question.

  8. Relevance of brain lesion location to cognition in relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rossi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between cognition and brain white matter (WM lesion distribution and frequency in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR MS. METHODS: MRI-based T2 lesion probability map (LPM was used to assess the relevance of brain lesion location for cognitive impairment in a group of 142 consecutive patients with RRMS. Significance of voxelwise analyses was p<0.05, cluster-corrected for multiple comparisons. The Rao Brief Repeatable Battery was administered at the time of brain MRI to categorize the MS population into cognitively preserved (CP and cognitively impaired (CI. RESULTS: Out of 142 RRMS, 106 were classified as CP and 36 as CI. Although the CI group had greater WM lesion volume than the CP group (p = 0.001, T2 lesions tended to be less widespread across the WM. The peak of lesion frequency was almost twice higher in CI (61% in the forceps major than in CP patients (37% in the posterior corona radiata. The voxelwise analysis confirmed that lesion frequency was higher in CI than in CP patients with significant bilateral clusters in the forceps major and in the splenium of the corpus callosum (p<0.05, corrected. Low scores of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test correlated with higher lesion frequency in these WM regions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall these results suggest that in MS patients, areas relevant for cognition lie mostly in the commissural fiber tracts. This supports the notion of a functional (multiple disconnection between grey matter structures, secondary to damage located in specific WM areas, as one of the most important mechanisms leading to cognitive impairment in MS.

  9. The Relevance of Budget Preparation in School Administration | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It demands a periodic preparation of the school budget. This paper therefore examines the concept of budgeting, its advantages in our school system and suggests some accounting requirements which are aimed at making the preparation of a budget less cumbersome and more realistic. It highlights four types of budgets: ...

  10. Participants' Perceptions of a Violence Prevention Curriculum for Middle School Students: Was It Relevant and Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Mehari, Krista; Mays, Sally; Sullivan, Terri N; Le, Anh-Thuy

    2015-08-01

    School-based youth violence prevention programs, particularly those focused on middle school students, have generally had limited effects that are often not sustained over time. Although many interventions focus on teaching social-cognitive skills, few studies have explored the extent to which students master these skills, actually use them, and find them effective in dealing with problem situations. This study examined these issues based on interviews with 141 students attending one county and two urban middle schools in classrooms where the Second Step violence prevention program had been implemented. We coded interviews to assess participants' general reactions to the interventions, use of skills, and effectiveness of skills. We also asked participants to describe outcomes they experienced when they used specific skills taught in the intervention in response to problem situations. Participants had generally positive reactions to the intervention. Their suggestions for improving the intervention primarily concerned improving its relevance. Participants described changes they had made based on the intervention, particularly controlling anger and improving relations with others. Their responses indicated that they sometimes misunderstood or misused specific intervention skills, especially problem solving and empathy. Students' descriptions of the outcomes they experienced when using intervention skills were not uniformly positive. This was especially true for situations involving peers such as peer pressure and bullying. These results underscore the need for more intensive efforts to ensure that students master intervention skills and are able to use them correctly. In addition, interventions should address the broader social context (e.g., peers, school) to maximize the effectiveness of skills.

  11. Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and relevance in antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegoke O. Adefolalu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adherence in chronic disease conditions is described as the extent to which a person‘s behaviour corresponds to the prescribed medical advice of the healthcare provider. This is not limited to medication intake only but also includes acts such as following instructions regarding dietary or fluid restrictions and taking medicines at the prescribed times and intervals. Although adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART is a predictor of good clinical outcome among HIV-infected persons on ART, it is a major challenge and strict adherence is not very common. This article aims to examine the application and relevance of some cognitive-behavioural theories in antiretroviral therapy adherence Methods: After doing a thorough literature review, contemporary theories of health behaviour at the individual and interpersonal levels referred to as cognitive-behavioural theories were explored. This review highlights some aspects of the cognitive perspective of health behaviour theories as a good theoretical framework that could be used for organising thoughts about adherence and other health behaviours among patients on lifelong treatment such as ART. Results: Key concepts of these theories stipulate that behaviour is mediated by cognition i.e. knowledge and attitude affect the person’s action. In addition, cognitive-behavioural theories recognise knowledge alone as being insufficient to produce behavioural change; a person’s perception, motivation, skills and social environment are all influential in the process of behavioural change. Conclusion: Prediction of medication adherence is complex, and health-related knowledge and beliefs alone are insufficient to achieve behaviour change, especially in chronic conditions such as HIV/AIDS. However, people can control or influence the events affecting their lives by integrating cognitive, social, and behavioural sub-skills related to beliefs of personal efficacy in performing these skills.

  12. Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and relevance in antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefolalu, Adegoke O

    2018-01-01

    Adherence in chronic disease conditions is described as the extent to which a person's behaviour corresponds to the prescribed medical advice of the healthcare provider. This is not limited to medication intake only but also includes acts such as following instructions regarding dietary or fluid restrictions and taking medicines at the prescribed times and intervals. Although adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a predictor of good clinical outcome among HIV-infected persons on ART, it is a major challenge and strict adherence is not very common. This article aims to examine the application and relevance of some cognitive-behavioural theories in antiretroviral therapy adherence. After doing a thorough literature review, contemporary theories of health behaviour at the individual and interpersonal levels referred to as cognitive-behavioural theories were explored. This review highlights some aspects of the cognitive perspective of health behaviour theories as a good theoretical framework that could be used for organising thoughts about adherence and other health behaviours among patients on lifelong treatment such as ART. Key concepts of these theories stipulate that behaviour is mediated by cognition i.e. knowledge and attitude affect the person's action. In addition, cognitive-behavioural theories recognise knowledge alone as being insufficient to produce behavioural change; a person's perception, motivation, skills and social environment are all influential in the process of behavioural change. Prediction of medication adherence is complex, and health-related knowledge and beliefs alone are insufficient to achieve behaviour change, especially in chronic conditions such as HIV/AIDS. However, people can control or influence the events affecting their lives by integrating cognitive, social, and behavioural sub-skills related to beliefs of personal efficacy in performing these skills.

  13. Learning From Rudolf Steiner: The Relevance of Waldorf Education for Urban Public School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Ida

    2007-01-01

    The author of this paper investigates the relevance of Waldorf education for public urban school reform. Based on analysis of survey data from over 500 graduates of private U.S. Waldorf schools, review of documents from the Gates Foundation, and staff-interview and student-achievement data from four public Waldorf-methods schools, she develops…

  14. Topical review: sluggish cognitive tempo: research findings and relevance for pediatric psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P

    2013-11-01

    To summarize recent research on sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and consider the potential relevance of SCT for the field of pediatric psychology. Literature review. Recent empirical evidence shows SCT symptoms consisting of sluggish/sleepy and daydreamy behaviors to be distinct from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. SCT is associated with psychosocial functioning in children and adolescents, including internalizing symptoms, social withdrawal, and, possibly, academic impairment. The recent findings reviewed suggest that SCT is an important construct for pediatric psychologists to be aware of and may also be directly useful for the research and practice of pediatric psychology.

  15. The Effects of a Non-Cognitive versus Cognitive Admission Procedure within Cohorts in One Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Marieke; Fluit, Cornelia; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Laan, Roland

    2018-01-01

    In medical school selection, non-cognitive performance in particular correlates with performance in clinical practice. It is arguable, therefore, that selection should focus on non-cognitive aspects despite the predictive value of prior cognitive performance for early medical school performance. The aim of this study at Radboud University Medical…

  16. [Investigation of the cognition and behavior on drug safety in Beijing middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y C; Pan, Y P; Zhang, Y; Pan, Y T; Ding, C Y; Cao, Y; Zhuo, L; Fang, R F; Gao, A Y; Guo, J; Li, A J; Fu, Q; Ma, J; Zhan, S Y

    2017-12-18

    To understand the cognition and behavior of drug safety in Beijing middle school students and provide advice for relevant education. A cross-sectional survey using paper questionnaires was carried out on the student body of nine Beijing middle schools. Multi-stage proportionate stratified cluster sampling was adopted to enroll participants. In addition to demographic questions, the questionnaire included 17 questions assessing the cognition and behavior of safe drug use, prioritizing questions that aligned with the health education guideline for primary and secondary school students from Chinese Ministry of Education. Descriptive statistical methods were applied using the SAS 9.2 software. Of the 4 220 students investigated, 2 097(49.7%) were males and 2 123(50.3%) were females. The average age was (14.3±1.7) years. 2 030(48.1%) students were from downtown areas, 1 511(35.8%) were from urban-rural linking areas and 679(16.1%) were from rural areas. Half (51.5%) of the respondents were junior high school students, and the others were from senior high schools (34.2%) and vocational high schools (14.3%). Most of the students (89.6%) lived off campus. The awareness rate of drug safety knowledge was 74.4%, the median score of drug safety behavior was 4 points (full score was 5 points) and there was a statistically positive correlation between the two (Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.156, Pmiddle school students is good, but problems still exist in medication adherence, the management of expired drugs and the antibiotics cognition, which need to be fixed through specific, pointed way of education. And more efforts should be made to improve the cognition in rural regions, vocational high schools and on campus students.

  17. Schooling Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: One Story about Tension and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ann Mogush

    2013-01-01

    The need for multifaceted analyses of the relationship between how the United States acknowledges racism and how schooling can be structured to mitigate its negative impacts has never been greater, especially given the rising and often simplistic attention to the racial "achievement gap." In suburban, elite Pioneer City, a series of…

  18. Biometrics in the Medical School Curriculum: Making the Necessary Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James R.

    1980-01-01

    Because a student is more likely to learn and retain course content perceived as relevant, an attempt was made to change medical students' perceptions of a biometrics course by introducing statistical methods as a means of solving problems in the interpretation of clinical lab data. Retrospective analysis of student course evaluations indicates a…

  19. Social modulation of cognition: Lessons from rhesus macaques relevant to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Elisabetta; Reynaud, Amélie J; Prado, Jérôme; Meunier, Martine

    2017-11-01

    Any animal, human or non-human, lives in a world where there are others like itself. Individuals' behaviors are thus inevitably influenced by others, and cognition is no exception. Long acknowledged in psychology, social modulations of cognition have been neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, infusing this classic topic in psychology with brain science methodologies could yield valuable educational insights. In recent studies, we used a non-human primate model, the rhesus macaque, to identify social influences representing ancient biases rooted in evolution, and neuroimaging to shed light on underlying mechanisms. The behavioral and neural data garnered in humans and macaques are summarized, with a focus on two findings relevant to human education. First, peers' mistakes stand out as exceptional professors and seem to have devoted areas and neurons in the primates' brain. Second, peers' mere presence suffices to enhance performance in well-learned tasks, possibly by boosting activity in the brain network involved in the task at hand. These findings could be translated into concrete pedagogical interventions in the classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enriching science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2016-03-01

    This editorial provides a brief synthesis of the past, present, and future of School Psychology Quarterly, highlighting important contributions as an international resource to enrich, invigorate, enhance, and advance science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe. Information herein highlights (a) the value of high quality and timely reviews, (b) publishing manuscripts that address a breadth of important topics relevant to school psychology, and (c) the structure and contributions of the special topic sections featured in School Psychology Quarterly. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Schooling, Environment and Cognitive Development: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Harold W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the influence of schooling and environment on young children's memory and cognitive skills. Subjects were five- and six-year-old Mestizo and Quechua Indian children living in jungle villages or city slums in Peru. Samples of upper-middle-class children in Lima and poor children in Detroit were also tested. (JMB)

  2. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Cohen, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are ideal settings for identifying children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. They are also ideal for providing evidence-based mental health services, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, to students affected by childhood posttraumatic stress disorder and co-occurring mental health and behavioral…

  3. Working Memory Capacity in Preschool Children Contributes to the Acquisition of School Relevant Precursor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Anna-Lena; Krajewski, Kristin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether preschool children with limitations in the visual or phonological working memory are disadvantaged in the acquisition of school relevant precursor skills at school entry. A sample of 92 children was divided into three subgroups depending on their performance in visual and phonological working…

  4. The Roles of Cognitive and Motivational Predictors in Explaining School Achievement in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Heike S.; Lu, Liping; Shi, Jiannong; Spinath, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the roles of cognitive (working memory, intelligence) and motivational variables (self-perceived ability, intrinsic value) in explaining school achievement. The sample consisted of N = 320 German elementary school children in the fourth grade. Working memory and intelligence were assessed in the classroom.…

  5. Video Games vs. Reading and School/Cognitive Performances: A Study on 27000 Middle School Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieury, Alain; Lorant, Sonia; Trosseille, Bruno; Champault, Françoise; Vourc'h, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Video games are a very common leisure activity among teenagers and the aim of this study is to analyse their relations with cognitive and school performances. This study is part of a broad survey, conducted on 27,000 French teenagers (14.5 years old) in middle school (9th grade). The survey contained both a questionnaire on leisure activities…

  6. Predictors of cognitive impairment assessed by Mini Mental State Examination in community-dwelling older adults: relevance of the step test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, Antonio; Spiller, Ilaria; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Fabbri, Elisa; Forti, Paola; Magalotti, Donatella; Pandolfi, Paolo; Zoli, Marco

    2018-07-15

    Several predictors of cognitive impairment assessed by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) have previously been identified. However, which predictors are the most relevant and what is their effect on MMSE categories remains unclear. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study using data from 1116 older adults (72.6 ± 5.6 years, 579 female), 350 of whom were followed for 7 years. At baseline, the following variables were collected: personal data, marital status, occupation, anthropometric measures, risk factors, previous cardiovascular events, self-rated health and physical activity during the last week. Furthermore, routine laboratory tests, abdominal echography and a step test (with measurement of the time needed to ascend and descend two steps 20 times) were performed. The associations of these variables with cross-sectional cognitive deficit (MMSE cognitive decline (decrease of MMSE score over 7 years of follow-up) were investigated using logistic regression models. Cross-sectional cognitive deficit was independently associated with school education ≤ 5 years, prolonged step test duration, having been blue collar or housewife (P ≤ 0.0001 for all) and, with lower significance, with advanced age, previous stroke and poor recent physical activity (P cognitive decline was mainly associated with step test duration (P = 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.0002). The MMSE categories mostly associated with step test duration were orientation, attention, calculation and language, while memory appeared to be poorly or not affected. In our cohort of older adults, step test duration was the most relevant predictor of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 6. Perspectives Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  8. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614

  9. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.

  10. Autism-relevant social abnormalities and cognitive deficits in engrailed-2 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brielmaier

    Full Text Available ENGRAILED 2 (En2, a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders.

  11. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation contributes to novel object recognition: Relevance to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masanori; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2017-04-01

    Several atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have high affinity for the dopamine (DA) D 4 receptor, but the relevance to the efficacy for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D 4 receptor stimulation or blockade on novel object recognition (NOR) in normal rats and on the sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP)-induced novel object recognition deficit. The effect of the D 4 agonist, PD168077, and the D 4 antagonist, L-745,870, were studied alone, and in combination with clozapine and lurasidone. In normal rats, L-745,870 impaired novel object recognition, whereas PD168077 had no effect. PD168077 acutely reversed the sub-chronic phencyclidine-induced novel object recognition deficit. Co-administration of a sub-effective dose (SED) of PD168077 with a sub-effective dose of lurasidone also reversed this deficit, but a sub-effective dose of PD168077 with a sub-effective dose of clozapine, a more potent D 4 antagonist than lurasidone, did not reverse the sub-chronic phencyclidine-induced novel object recognition deficit. At a dose that did not induce a novel object recognition deficit, L-745,870 blocked the ability of clozapine, but not lurasidone, to reverse the novel object recognition deficit. D 4 receptor agonism has a beneficial effect on novel object recognition in sub-chronic PCP-treated rats and augments the cognitive enhancing efficacy of an atypical antipsychotic drug that lacks affinity for the D 4 receptor, lurasidone.

  12. Cognitive and behavioural effects of a school breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L M; Rose, C; Griesel, R D

    1997-01-01

    The cognitive and behavioural effects of a school breakfast were explored in a study of 55 children in Grade II and Standard 1 at a farm school outside Johannesburg. A previous study had confirmed widespread undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies among the children. For comparative purposes, 55 children at an inner-city school, among whom no signs of undernutrition were found, were assessed in the same way. Three different types of measures of attention, distractibility, short-term memory and activity level were used: psychometric testing of the children; teacher ratings of children's classroom behaviour, and coded video-recorded classroom behaviour. A pre- and post-test design was employed to assess the effects of a school breakfast, continually in place in the experimental school for a period of 6 weeks. The results indicated significant change from pre- to post-test assessment among the experimental children in respect of the psychometric measures, teacher-rated hyperactivity and video-recorded classroom behaviour. With regard to the latter measure, the children showed a decline in both the occurrence and duration of off-task and out-of-seat behaviour, and an increase in active participation in class and positive peer interaction. While the children in the comparison group also showed some changes from pre- to post-test, probably attributable to the effects of observation, familiarity with the test materials and developmental change, the changes were not generalised or consistent. The findings support the conclusion that a school breakfast programme had a beneficial effect on the cognitive and behavioural performance of socially disadvantaged, undernourished children in their first 2 years of school.

  13. Cognitive Skills among Children in Senegal: Disentangling the Roles of Schooling and Family Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Sahn, David E.

    2009-01-01

    We use unique data to estimate the determinants of cognitive ability among 14-17-year olds in Senegal. Unlike standard school-based samples, tests were administered to current students as well as to children no longer--or never--enrolled. Years of schooling strongly affects cognitive skills, but conditional on years of school, parental education…

  14. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  15. Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beineke, John A.

    2011-01-01

    "Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance" is an exploration of research, ideas, trends, and practices for educators who teach American history to adolescents from the middle grades through high school. Higher education faculty in history and professional education will also find the book germane to their work. Topics within the…

  16. British Literature: Increasing Relevancy for High School Seniors through Multicultural Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Nancy C.

    A practicum aimed to increase the relevancy (to the ethnically diverse students of contemporary classrooms) of the regular high school senior English course in British literature and composition by expanding the curriculum to include selections from countries (other than the United States) influenced by the British Colonial Empire. Using a…

  17. Relevance of Student and Contextual School Variables in Explaining a Student's Severity of Violence Experienced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating the role of different types of contextual school…

  18. The Perceived Relevance and Efficacy of a Graduate School Journal among Graduate Faculty and Training Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M.; Antonius, Daniel; Brown, Adam D.; Kriss, Alexander; Lehr, Evangeline Y. C.; Evans, Jason; Steele, Howard

    2012-01-01

    A total of 35 psychology department members from 21 universities assessed the relevance and efficacy of the "New School Psychology Bulletin" ("NSPB"), a graduate student journal, to training in psychology. Overall, a small sample of psychology department members viewed "NSPB" as an effective vehicle for student training. Perceptions among faculty…

  19. Refusing Relevance: School Administrator Resistance to Offering Professional Development Addressing LGBTQ Issues in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elizabethe C.; Smith, Melissa J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide insight to the multiple ways that school leaders resist, avoid, or block LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, queer, and questioning) professional development for their staff and, thus, resist the conversations around school responsibility to these students and families. Research…

  20. Postinfancy growth, schooling, and cognitive achievement: Young Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookston, Benjamin T; Schott, Whitney; Cueto, Santiago; Dearden, Kirk A; Engle, Patrice; Georgiadis, Andreas; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Penny, Mary E; Stein, Aryeh D; Behrman, Jere R

    2013-12-01

    Early life growth failure and resulting cognitive deficits are often assumed to be very difficult to reverse after infancy. We used data from Young Lives, which is an observational cohort of 8062 children in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam, to determine whether changes in growth after infancy are associated with schooling and cognitive achievement at age 8 y. We represented the growth by height-for-age z score at 1 y [HAZ(1)] and height-for-age z score at 8 y that was not predicted by the HAZ(1). We also characterized growth as recovered (stunted at age 1 y and not at age 8 y), faltered (not stunted at age 1 y and stunted at age 8 y), persistently stunted (stunted at ages 1 and 8 y), or never stunted (not stunted at ages 1 and 8 y). Outcome measures were assessed at age 8 y. The HAZ(1) was inversely associated with overage for grade and positively associated with mathematics achievement, reading comprehension, and receptive vocabulary. Unpredicted growth from 1 to 8 y of age was also inversely associated with overage for grade (OR range across countries: 0.80-0.84) and positively associated with mathematics achievement (effect-size range: 0.05-0.10), reading comprehension (0.02-0.10), and receptive vocabulary (0.04-0.08). Children who recovered in linear growth had better outcomes than did children who were persistently stunted but were not generally different from children who experienced growth faltering. Improvements in child growth after early faltering might have significant benefits on schooling and cognitive achievement. Hence, although early interventions remain critical, interventions to improve the nutrition of preprimary and early primary school-age children also merit consideration.

  1. Preliminary thoughts on the relevance of the research field of cognition for Practical Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi P. Kruger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research from the vantage point of Practical Theology, the author focusses on the importance and the possible value of the concept of cognition for further research. The philosophical roots of the concepts of knowledge and understanding are highlighted in a qualitative manner by means of a short selection from the insights of philosophers from the era of the Greek Philosophy to the nineteenth century. The insights of Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Descartes and Kant are utilised. The purpose was to indicate the importance of the concepts of knowing and cognition from an early stage. Research from the field of cognitive science also received attention in this research. The purpose of this discussion is to indicate that cognition is not a mere intellectual activity. Cognition is important in the processes of perspective-making and moral choices. Cognitive distortions could possibly endanger people�s ability to have the right cognition about people, events and life itself. The concept of phronesis, as the concept that comes the nearest to the essence of cognition, is also investigated from the vantage point of Philippians 2:5 and Romans 12:3. Wisdom thinking is really important in research on the acts of people from a practical theological vantage point. Cognition must be regarded as people�s attempt to make sense out what they already know and also out of what they are observing. In the final part of the article, fields for possible further investigation are highlighted in order to make the statement that practical theologians can consider the fact to reclaim the field of investigation on cognition in further research. The importance of cognition for liturgy, homiletics, pastoral care and youth ministry is indicated.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article is undertaken from a practical theological vantage point in order to highlight the importance of the concept of cognition for further research. In

  2. A Biblical-Theological Model of Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Relevance for Christian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Danny Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this content analysis research was to develop a biblical-theological model of Cognitive Dissonance Theory applicable to pedagogy. Evidence of cognitive dissonance found in Scripture was used to infer a purpose for the innate drive toward consonance. This inferred purpose was incorporated into a model that improves the descriptive…

  3. Cognitive development support of adolescents in the family and school environment

    OpenAIRE

    Šíchová, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The thesis introduces a theme of cognitive development support of adolescents in the school and family environment. The first part defines the age group of adolescents which is described with particular emphasis on cognitive abilities. The following section explains the basic prerequisite for the development of cognitive abilities, about the theory of structural cognitive modifiability. The second part describes selected methods of cognitive development promotion. It includes approaches used ...

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Gül Kapçı

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study examined the effectiveness of a school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT program for school aged children with high levels of anxiety symptoms. Method: The study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing CBT to a waitlist-control condition. A total of 61 children (37 girls and 24 boys; age range 8-13 with high scores on either self-report or parental reports of anxiety participated in the study. The treatment group received 10 weekly sessions over three months that was administered using the Cool Kids treatment manual (Lyneham 2003. Outcome measures included parent-rated scales of anxiety and anxiety interference, and child self-report scales of anxiety, anxiety interference, depression and self-esteem. Both study groups were comparable at baseline for clinical and demographic variables. A mixed design ANOVA with pre-post treatment as within and CBT vs waitlist groups as between group variable was used for statistical analysis. Results: At post-test, CBT group had lower scores on anxiety, interference of anxiety and depression scales and higher scores on self-esteem scales of scholastic competence, social acceptance and behavioral conduct, but not physical appearance and athletic ability compared to the waitlist control group. Conclusions: The study presents empirical evidence for the effectiveness of a school based CBT Cool Kids program for reducing anxiety symptoms and increasing self-esteem in elementary school children. Future studies may examine the durability of treatment gains

  5. A new cognitive evaluation battery for Down syndrome and its relevance for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana ede Sola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent prospect of pharmaceutical interventions for cognitive impairment of Down syndrome(DS has boosted a number of clinical trials in this population. However, running the trials has raised some methodological challenges and questioned the prevailing methodology used to evaluate cognitive functioning of DS individuals. This is usually achieved by comparing DS individuals to matched healthy controls of the same mental age. We propose a new tool, the TESDAD Battery that uses comparison with age-matched typically developed adults. This is an advantageous method for probing the clinical efficacy of DS therapies, allowing the interpretation and prediction of functional outcomes in clinical trials. In our DS population the TESDAD battery permitted a quantitative assessment of cognitive defects, which indicated language dysfunction and deficits in executive function, as the most important contributors to other cognitive and adaptive behavior outcomes as predictors of functional change in DS. Concretely, auditory comprehension and functional academics showed the highest potential as end-point measures of therapeutic intervention for clinical trials: the former as a cognitive key target for therapeutic intervention, and the latter as a primary functional outcome measure of clinical efficacy. Our results also emphasize the need to explore the modulating effects of IQ, gender and age on cognitive enhancing treatments. Noticeably, women performed significantly better than men of the same age and IQ in most cognitive tests, with the most consistent differences occurring in memory and executive functioning and negative trends rarely emerged on quality of life linked to the effect of age after adjusting for IQ and gender. In sum, the TESDAD battery is a useful neurocognitive tool for probing the clinical efficacy of experimental therapies in interventional studies in the DS population suggesting that age-matched controls are advantageous for determining

  6. Cognitive development through schooling and everyday life : A natural experiment among Kharwar children in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, S.A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Mishra, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The influences of schooling and everyday experiences on cognitive development are typically confounded. In the present study, we unraveled the influence of chronological age and years of schooling on the development of general cognitive competency in a two-wave longitudinal design with a three-year

  7. Examining Cognitive Predictors of Academic Cheating among Urban Middle School Students: The Role of Home-School Dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Academic cheating within the middle grades has become a prevalent schooling dilemma for teachers and administrators. Among the various contextual and cognitive factors that promote academic cheating is home-school dissonance, which has been shown to predict the phenomenon among high school students. The current study extends this line of research…

  8. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy Through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-04-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.

  9. The relevance of political prestudies for implementation studies of cognitive services in community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Søndergaard, Birthe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of cognitive services implementation in the pharmacy sector traditionally focus on individual and/or organizational factors to explain why some pharmacies are successful and others are not. The social and political context of the origins of these services is rarely part...... of the analysis. Researchers and practitioners in the field of pharmacy practice research are increasingly being encouraged to take into account the specific political and societal climate which often plays a defining role in the success or failure of cognitive services implementation in community pharmacies...

  10. Cognitive Contours: Recent Work on Cross-Cultural Psychology and Its Relevance for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, W. Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines new work in cross-cultural psychology largely drawn from Nisbett, Choi, and Smith ("Cognition," 65, 15-32, 1997); Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, "Psychological Review," 108(2), 291-310, 2001; Nisbett, "The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently...and Why." New…

  11. Language Teacher Cognition in Applied Linguistics Research: Revisiting the Territory, Redrawing the Boundaries, Reclaiming the Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanyiova, Magdalena; Feryok, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Understanding language teachers' "mental lives" (Walberg, 1972), and how these shape and are shaped by the activity of language teaching in diverse sociocultural contexts, has been at the forefront of the sub discipline of applied linguistics that has become known as "language teacher cognition." Although the collective…

  12. Decline in word-finding: The objective cognitive finding most relevant to patients after mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carla; de Oliveira Thais, Maria Emilia Rodrigues; Guarnieri, Ricardo; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Diaz, Alexandre Paim; Ben, Juliana; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Markowitsch, Hans Joachim; Wolf, Peter; Wiebe, Samuel; Lin, Katia; Walz, Roger

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the following: i) the objective impairment in neuropsychological tests that were associated with the subjective perception of cognitive function decline in Brazilian patients who underwent mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) surgery and ii) the predictive variables for those impaired objective neuropsychological tests. Forty-eight adults with MTLE (27 right HS and 23 male) were divided according to their perception of changes (Decline or No-decline) of cognitive function domain of the QOLIE-31 questionnaire applied before and 1year after the ATL. The mean (SD) of changes in the raw score difference of the neuropsychological tests before and after the ATL was compared between Decline and No-decline groups. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were used to assess the optimum cutoff points of neuropsychological test score changes to predict patient-reported subjective cognitive decline. Six (12.5%) patients reported a perception of cognitive function decline after ATL. Among the 25 cognitive tests analyzed, only changes in the Boston Naming Test (BNT) were associated with subjective cognitive decline reported by patients. A reduction of ≥8 points in the raw score of BNT after surgery had 91% of sensitivity and 45% specificity for predicting subjective perception of cognitive function decline by the patient. Left side surgery and age older than 40years were more associated with an important BNT reduction with overall accuracy of 91.7%, 95% predictive ability for no impairment, and 75% for impairment of cognitive function. Impairment in word-finding seems to be the objective cognitive finding most relevant to Brazilian patients after mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Similar to American patients, the side of surgery and age are good predictors for no decline in the BNT, but shows a lower accuracy to predict its decline. If replicated in other populations, the

  13. Relevance of the body mass index in the cognitive status of diabetic patients with different alcohol-drinking patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacramioara Serban Ionela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the general relevance of alcohol consumption in diabetes is extremely controversial. There are recent reports that alcohol consumption could result in a decreased incidence of diabetes, as well as other studies demonstrating a positive association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes; there are also reports arguing for an inverse association between the two or for no correlation at all. The different results obtained in these studies could be explained by the existence of several confounders that could influence the outcome of the aforementioned studies. In this paper, we studied the possible relevance of BMI as a confounder in the relationship between alcohol consumption in diabetes and cognitive function, by analyzing the correlations between BMI values in diabetic patients with different alcohol drinking patterns and the subdomains from some main psychometric tests, such as MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination and MOCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Our results provide evidence for BMI as a possible confounder of the relationship between alcohol consumption in diabetes and cognitive function. We found a significant increase (p<0.0001 in BMI values in patients with diabetes compared to our control group. Most importantly, significant correlations between BMI parameters in alcohol-consuming diabetic patients and most of the subdomains for psychometric testing.

  14. Semivolatile compounds in schools and their influence on cognitive performance of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Haluza, Daniela; Piegler, Kathrin; Hohenblum, Philipp; Fröhlich, Marina; Scharf, Sigrid; Uhl, Maria; Damberger, Bernhard; Tappler, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Wallner, Peter; Moshammer, Hanns

    2013-08-01

    WHO's Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) focuses on improvements of indoor environments where children spend most of their time. To investigate the relationship between school indoor air pollutants and cognitive performance in elementary school children, a multidisciplinary study was planned in all-day schools in Austria. In a cross-sectional study (LuKi study: Air and Children) indoor air pollutants were monitored in nine elementary all-day schools in urban and rural regions of Austria. In addition, school dust and suspended particulates (PM10, PM2.5) were measured, focusing on semivolatile compounds (e.g. phthalates, phosphororganic compounds [POC]). Health status and environmental conditions were determined by parents' questionnaire, cognitive function was measured by Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). Overall, 596 children (6-8 years of age) were eligible for the study. Cognitive tests were performed in 436 children. Analysis showed significant correlations of tris(2-chlorethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) in PM10 and PM2.5 and school dust samples with cognitive performance. Cognitive performance decreased with increasing concentrations of TCEP. Furthermore, cognitive function decreased significantly with increasing CO2 levels. POC are widely used as plasticizers, flame retardants and floor sealing. This is the first report of a correlation between TCEP in indoor air samples and impairment of cognitive performance in school children. As a precautionary measure, it is recommended to prohibit the use of toxic chemicals and those suspected of a toxic potential in children's environments such as schools.

  15. Applying cognitive developmental psychology to middle school physics learning: The rule assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinen, Nicole R.; Chi, Min; Chin, Doris B.; Prempeh, Joe; Blair, Kristen P.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive developmental psychology often describes children's growing qualitative understanding of the physical world. Physics educators may be able to use the relevant methods to advantage for characterizing changes in students' qualitative reasoning. Siegler developed the "rule assessment" method for characterizing levels of qualitative understanding for two factor situations (e.g., volume and mass for density). The method assigns children to rule levels that correspond to the degree they notice and coordinate the two factors. Here, we provide a brief tutorial plus a demonstration of how we have used this method to evaluate instructional outcomes with middle-school students who learned about torque, projectile motion, and collisions using different instructional methods with simulations.

  16. Relevance of stress and female sex hormones for emotion and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, J P; de Kloet, E R; Schächinger, H; Oitzl, M S

    2012-07-01

    There are clear sex differences in incidence and onset of stress-related and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, rodent models for psychiatric disorders are predominantly based on male animals. The strongest argument for not using female rodents is their estrous cycle and the fluctuating sex hormones per phase which multiplies the number of animals to be tested. Here, we will discuss studies focused on sex differences in emotionality and cognitive abilities in experimental conditions with and without stress. First, female sex hormones such as estrogens and progesterone affect emotions and cognition, contributing to sex differences in behavior. Second, females respond differently to stress than males which might be related to the phase of the estrous cycle. For example, female rats and mice express less anxiety than males in a novel environment. Proestrus females are less anxious than females in the other estrous phases. Third, males perform in spatial tasks superior to females. However, while stress impairs spatial memory in males, females improve their spatial abilities, depending on the task and kind of stressor. We conclude that the differences in emotion, cognition and responses to stress between males and females over the different phases of the estrous cycle should be used in animal models for stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  17. The Importance of Accuracy, Stimulating writing, and Relevance in Middle School Science Textbook Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubisz, John

    2004-05-01

    While accuracy in Middle School science texts is most important, the texts should also read well, stimulating the student to want to go on, and the material must be relevant to the subject at hand as the typical student is not yet prepared to ignore that which is irrelevant. We know that children will read if the material is of interest (witness The Lord of the Rings and the Harry Potter book sales) and so we must write in a way that stimulates the student to want to examine the subject further and eliminate that which adds nothing to the discipline. Examples of the good and the bad will be presented.

  18. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  19. The Effects of Schooling and Cognitive Ability on Smoking and Marijuana Use by Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1998-01-01

    Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…

  20. Immigrant Students’ Emotional and Cognitive Engagement at School: A Multilevel Analysis of Students in 41 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Pong, Suet-ling; Mori, Izumi; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Central to student learning and academic success, the school engagement of immigrant children also reflects their adaptation to a primary institution in their new country. Analysis of questionnaire responses of 276,165 fifteen-year-olds (50 % female) and their 10,789 school principals in 41 countries showed that school engagement has distinct, weakly-linked cognitive and emotional components. Native students had weaker attitudes toward school (cognitive engagement) but greater sense of belonging at school (emotional engagement) than immigrant students or students who spoke a foreign language at home. Students with better teacher–student relationships, teacher support or a classroom disciplinary climate often had a greater sense of belonging at school and had better attitudes toward school than other students. While immigrant students often have solid attitudes toward school, teachers can help them feel a greater sense of belonging at school. PMID:22484548

  1. Using Confidence Interval-Based Estimation of Relevance to Select Social-Cognitive Determinants for Behavior Change Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik Crutzen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When developing an intervention aimed at behavior change, one of the crucial steps in the development process is to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants. These determinants can be seen as the buttons one needs to push to establish behavior change. Insight into these determinants is needed to select behavior change methods (i.e., general behavior change techniques that are applied in an intervention in the development process. Therefore, a study on determinants is often conducted as formative research in the intervention development process. Ideally, all relevant determinants identified in such a study are addressed by an intervention. However, when developing a behavior change intervention, there are limits in terms of, for example, resources available for intervention development and the amount of content that participants of an intervention can be exposed to. Hence, it is important to select those determinants that are most relevant to the target behavior as these determinants should be addressed in an intervention. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a novel approach to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants and use them in intervention development. This approach is based on visualization of confidence intervals for the means and correlation coefficients for all determinants simultaneously. This visualization facilitates comparison, which is necessary when making selections. By means of a case study on the determinants of using a high dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as ecstasy, we illustrate this approach. We provide a freely available tool to facilitate the analyses needed in this approach.

  2. Using Confidence Interval-Based Estimation of Relevance to Select Social-Cognitive Determinants for Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; Noijen, Judith

    2017-01-01

    When developing an intervention aimed at behavior change, one of the crucial steps in the development process is to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants. These determinants can be seen as the buttons one needs to push to establish behavior change. Insight into these determinants is needed to select behavior change methods (i.e., general behavior change techniques that are applied in an intervention) in the development process. Therefore, a study on determinants is often conducted as formative research in the intervention development process. Ideally, all relevant determinants identified in such a study are addressed by an intervention. However, when developing a behavior change intervention, there are limits in terms of, for example, resources available for intervention development and the amount of content that participants of an intervention can be exposed to. Hence, it is important to select those determinants that are most relevant to the target behavior as these determinants should be addressed in an intervention. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a novel approach to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants and use them in intervention development. This approach is based on visualization of confidence intervals for the means and correlation coefficients for all determinants simultaneously. This visualization facilitates comparison, which is necessary when making selections. By means of a case study on the determinants of using a high dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as ecstasy), we illustrate this approach. We provide a freely available tool to facilitate the analyses needed in this approach.

  3. [Relevant factors of early puberty timing in urban primary schools in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Liu, Qin; Wen, Yi; Liu, Shudan; Lei, Xun; Wang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the status of puberty timing and relevant factors of early puberty timing in children from grade one to four in urban primary schools of Chongqing. According to the purposive sample method, four urban primary schools in Chongqing were selected and of which 1471 children from grade one to four who have obtained informed consent were recruited. Questionnaire survey on social-demographic characteristics and family environment (e.g., age, parents' relationship, diet and lifestyle, etc), and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) survey and physical examination (measurements of height, weight, pubertal development status, etc) were conducted. P25, P50, P75 ages of each important pubertal event were calculated by probit regression. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze relevant factors. The detection rate of early puberty timing was 17.7%, and the median ages of the onset of breast and testicular development were 10.77 and 11.48 years old, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that early puberty timing occurred more likely in girls than in boys (OR = 0.561, 95% CI 0.406-0.774), and bad relationship between parents (OR = 1.320, 95% CI 1.007-1.729) and hair-products-use (OR = 1.685, 95%, CI 1.028-2.762) were risk factors of early puberty timing. Early onset of puberty in urban Chongqing is still exist. Gender, parents' relationship, and hair-products-use have an essential impact on early puberty timing.

  4. The Relevance of Vocational High School Curriculum with the Requirement of the Heavy Equipment Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfiyanur, E. P.; Sumardi, K.; Rahayu, Y.; Putra, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to determine the relevance of competencies developed by vocational high schools with the needs of workers in the industrial world. This is to answer the statement from the world of industry that the competencies possessed by vocational secondary education graduates are not in accordance with industry standards. This research is a qualitative research conducted by collecting data, presenting accurate and objective information. Respondents of this research are industrial institutions in the field of heavy equipment, vocational education institutions and government agencies in charge of manpower. Selection of informants / sources of information used is purposive sample technique, which aims to give consideration to select informants who meet the criteria in providing accurate information. The results of this study provide insight and input to vocational secondary education managers about various information in developing vocational secondary education curriculum, major issues include curriculum content relevance, technological advances in the heavy equipment industry, updating of school facilities and collaboration between educational institutions and labor institutions and the industrial world in the development of vocational secondary education.

  5. Cognitive functioning of educationaly deprived pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The research has included 96 Roma elementary-school pupils from the first grade, 7 years and 6 months old on average, and 78 pre-school children, (6 years and 1 month old on average, out of which number there were 37 Roma pupils and 41 non-Roma pupils. The cognitive functioning has been tested with a battery consisted of 5 tests, which was based on the (adapted Wechsler’s scales and the linguistic competence test. The results have shown a significant lagging of Roma children behind the control group and test norms. The Analyses of Covariance have pointed to a significant influence of the father’s educational background on the test score, but the difference between groups remained notable even when that variable was kept under control. However, the Item Analyses revealed a number of items that turned out to be evidently "unfair" toward Roma children, and their elimination contributed to the annulling of differences among groups in the Analyses of Covariance for a particular number of tests. The data has been interpreted by the authors as a proof of necessity and possibility to adapt tests for the needs of testing the educationally neglected children. The fact that the greatest differences have been noticed in the tests saturated with the factors of visual-motor coordination and memory has been justified by the authors with the Roma children’s lack of experience of manipulation with toys and possible attention deficit as a consequence of absence of stimulative environment.

  6. Teacher’s Instructional Behaviour in Instructional Management at Elementary School Reviewed from Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Eni Astuti Ni Putu

    2018-01-01

    This writing aimed at (1) describing the importance of teacher to review instructional management at elementary school based on Piaget’s cognitive development theory; and (2) describing teacher’s instructional behavior in managing instructional at elementary school reviewed from Piaget’s cognitive development theory. In general, Piaget’ cognitive development theory divides children’ cognitive development into four stages. In the elementary school ages of 7 to 11 or 12 years old, Piaget classi...

  7. Paediatric case mix in a rural clinical school is relevant to future practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Helen M; Maley, Moira A L; Playford, Denese E; Nicol, Pam; Evans, Sharon F

    2017-11-29

    Exposure to a representative case mix is essential for clinical learning, with logbooks established as a way of demonstrating patient contacts. Few studies have reported the paediatric case mix available to geographically distributed students within the same medical school. Given international interest in expanding medical teaching locations to rural contexts, equitable case exposure in rural relative to urban settings is topical. The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia locates students up to 3500 km from the urban university for an academic year. There is particular need to examine paediatric case mix as a study reported Australian graduates felt unprepared for paediatric rotations. We asked: Does a rural clinical school provide a paediatric case mix relevant to future practice? How does the paediatric case mix as logged by rural students compare with that by urban students? The 3745 logs of 76 urban and 76 rural consenting medical students were categorised by presenting symptoms and compared to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) database Major Diagnostic Categories (MDCs). Rural and urban students logged core paediatric cases, in similar order, despite the striking difference in geographic locations. The pattern of overall presenting problems closely corresponded to Australian paediatric hospital admissions. Rural students logged 91% of cases in secondary healthcare settings; urban students logged 90% of cases in tertiary settings. The top four presenting problems were ENT/respiratory, gastrointestinal/urogenital, neurodevelopmental and musculoskeletal; these made up 60% of all cases. Rural and urban students logged similar proportions of infants, children and adolescents, with a variety of case morbidity. Rural clinical school students logged a mix of core paediatric cases relevant to illnesses of Australian children admitted to public hospitals, with similar order and pattern by age group to urban students, despite major differences

  8. THE RELEVANCE OF TEACHING MATERIALS OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOL AND THEIR UTILIZATION IN KRETEK INDUSTRY IN KUDUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuraeningsih Nuraeningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, technology development demands candidates of employees to be highly qualified workers as companies or manufacturers make use of machinary. Therefore, they are supposed to to master English as the language of operation manual. With good English proficiency, workers are able to operate the machine in their workplace correctly and human errors could be eliminated. In other words, the companies will not get loss if all workers understand English in practical way. To answer this challange, vocational schools play an important role in providing ready-work graduates. Through curriculum design and appropriate teaching materials, students are taught to achieve the competence stated there. This research was conducted to describe the utility of English teaching materials of vocational schools to the application in work places, in this case, kretek industry in Kudus. A descriptive need analysis was used to analyze the data that was collected through a deep interview. The result of the research shows that emplyees perceived that vocabulary is the most important language component to learn. In addition, they considered skill mostly needed is reading comprehension. In other words, the materials are not very relevant to the need of kretek industry in Kudus. Hopefully, this research can assists English teachers of vocational schools to consider the students‘ need and develop the suitable materials for them.

  9. Research on the nutrition and cognition of high-risk stroke groups in community and the relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, N-N; Zeng, K-X; Wang, Y-L; Sheng, P-J; Tang, C-Z; Xiao, P; Liu, X-W

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate of nutritional risk in high-risk stroke groups in community, analyze its influencing factors, and analyze and compare the relationship between nutritional risk or malnutrition assessed by different nutritional evaluation methods and cognitive function, so as to provide the basis and guidance for clinical nutritional assessment and support. A cross-sectional survey was performed for 1196 cases in high-risk stroke groups in community from December 2015 to January 2017. At the same time, the nutritional status of patients was evaluated using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and MNA-short form (MNA-SF), and the cognitive status of patients was evaluated using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Moreover, the relevant influencing factors of nutritional risk and MMSE score were analyzed and compared. High-risk stroke groups in community suffered from a high risk of malnutrition. MNA-SF had a higher specificity and lower false positive rate than MNA. Nutritional risk occurred more easily in high-risk stroke groups in community with a history of diabetes mellitus, less physical exercise or light manual labor, daily use of multiple drugs, and higher age. Those with a higher nutritional risk were more prone to cognitive impairment. High-risk stroke groups in community, complicated with hyperhomocysteinemia, daily use of three or more kinds of prescription drugs, and a previous history of stroke, were accompanied by cognitive impairment easily. MNA-SF can be used for the nutritional screening of high-risk stroke groups in community. For the high-risk stroke groups in community, the rational nutritional diet should be publicized, blood sugar should be controlled in a scientific manner and physical exercise should be moderately increased.

  10. How Is Buddhism Relevant to Career Counseling in an International High School in Hong Kong? A Counsellor's Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Vinci; Yuen, Mantak

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects upon the relevance of Buddhism to counselling in general and to career counseling in particular by discussing a program implemented at an international school in Hong Kong. The authors provide an analysis of the pertinent literature related to relevant concepts within Buddhism. This topic has not yet been adequately researched…

  11. Culturally Relevant Teaching: Hip-Hop Pedagogy in Urban Schools. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prier, Darius D.

    2012-01-01

    "Culturally Relevant Teaching" centers hip-hop culture as a culturally relevant form of critical pedagogy in urban pre-service teacher education programs. In this important book, Darius D. Prier explores how hip-hop artists construct a sense of democratic education and pedagogy with transformative possibilities in their schools and communities. In…

  12. Designing instruction and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2013). Designing education and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(6), 597-613. doi:10.1080/13603116.2012.696727

  13. Psychological and psychobiological stress in the relationship between basic cognitive function and school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Fernández-Martín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the role played by daily stress, assessed through self-report and at the psychobiological level, in relation to basic cognitive function when predicting school performance. The sample comprised 100 schoolchildren (55 girls and 45 boys, age range 8 to 11 years from a state school in the city of Malaga (Spain. Daily stress was assessed through the Children's Daily Stress Inventory (IIEC m Spanish; Tnanes et al., 2009. Psychobiological stress was measured through the cortisol/DHEAS ratio, derived from saliva samples taken in the morning on two consecutive days. Basic cognitive skills were assessed by means of the Computerized Cognitive Assessment System (CDR battery; Wesnes et al., 2003, 2000. Finally, the measure of school performance was the mean value of the final grades recorded in the child's school report. In addition to descriptive and correlational statistical analyses, multiple regression analyses were conducted in order to assess the model. The results show that children's daily stress self-reported contributes to predict school performance, and has proven to be more influential than basic cognitive function when it comes to predict school performance. Therefore, in order to achieve good school performance, a pupil not only requires good basic cognitive function, but must also present low levels of self-reported daily stress. These findings suggest a new way of explaining and predicting school failure.

  14. Social Cognitive Career Theory and Middle School Student Career Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickinger, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of social cognitive career theory, social cognitive career variables, demographic variables, and the contextual variable, parent support, were examined to determine their predictive value for eighth-grade students' career exploration behavior. Results suggest that the social cognitive career variable, intentions/goals,…

  15. High school Physical Sciences teachers' competence in some basic cognitive skills

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaratnam, Mailoo

    2011-01-01

    The successful implementation of the national high school Physical Sciences curriculum in South Africa, which places strong emphasis on critical thinking and reasoning abilities of students, would need teachers who are competent in cognitive skills and strategies. The main objectives of this study were to test South African high school Physical Sciences teachers' competence in the cognitive skills and strategies needed for studying Physical Sciences effectively and also to identify possible r...

  16. Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Algorithms in a Computer Science Course for High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    Computer science for high school faces many challenging issues. One of these is whether the students possess the appropriate cognitive ability for learning the fundamentals of computer science. Online tests were created based on known cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms and were implemented among the second grade students in the…

  17. Cognitive Modification and Systematic Desensitization with Test Anxious High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Lois L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compares the relative effectiveness of cognitive modification and systematic desensitization with test anxious high school students (N=30). The systematic desensitization treatment appeared to be significantly more effective on the performance measure while cognitive modification was more effective on one of the self-report measures. (Author/JAC)

  18. Cognitive performance and academic achievement: How do family and school converge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipa Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Children enter the school system with different educational experiences, leaving also with different levels of learning and school results. In this study, we intend to understand the impact of family and school on children's cognitive performance and academic achievement during elementary education. The sample consists of 406 Portuguese children, from preschool and the 1st cycle of Basic Education, aged from 4 to 10 years old. Through full structural equation model, it was observed that the latent variable family (parents’ schooling and socioeconomic level and the latent variable school (community and type of school have a significant impact on academic achievement. However, only family presents a significant impact on cognitive performance. These data suggest that the impact of school on intelligence quotient is not expressive in early academic years, where family present higher explanation of the variance.

  19. Sex differences in anthropometric characteristics, motor and cognitive functioning in preschool children at the time of school enrolment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Gustav; Katić, Ratko

    2009-12-01

    The study included a sample of 333 preschool children (162 male and 171 female) at the time of school enrolment. Study subjects were recruited from the population of children in kindergartens in the cities of Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Backa Palanka (Province of Voivodina, Serbia). Eight anthropometric variables, seven motor variables and one cognitive variable were analyzed to identify quantitative and qualitative sex differences in anthropometric characteristics, motor and cognitive functioning. Study results showed statistically significant sex differences in anthropometric characteristics and motor abilities in favor of male children, whereas no such difference was recorded in cognitive functioning. Sex differences found in morphological and motor spaces contributed to structuring proper general factors according to space and sex. Somewhat stronger structures were observed in male children. The cognitive aspect of functioning yielded better correlation with motor functioning in female than in male children. Motor functioning correlated better with morphological growth and development in male children, whereas cognitive functioning was relatively independent. These results are not fully in accordance with the current concept of general conditions in preschool children, nor they fully confirm the theory of integral development of children, hence they should be re-examined in future studies. Although these study results cannot be applied to sports practice in general, since we believe that it is too early for preschool children to take up sports and sport competitions, they are relevant for pointing to the need of developing general motor ability and motor behavior in preschool children.

  20. A Case Study of Culturally Relevant School-Based Programming for First Nations Youth: Improved Relationships, Confidence and Leadership, and School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Burleigh, Dawn; Snowshoe, Angela; Lapp, Andrea; Hughes, Ray; Sisco, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Schools are expected to promote social and emotional learning skills among youth; however, there is a lack of culturally-relevant programming available. The Fourth R: Uniting Our Nations programs for Aboriginal youth include strengths-based programs designed to promote healthy relationships and cultural connectedness, and improve school success…

  1. FORMATION OF COGNITIVE INTEREST AT ENGLISH LANGUAGE LESSONS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL: TECHNOLOGIES, METHODS, TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotova, E.G.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of didactic and technological methods and techniques that shape and develop cognitive interest of primary school students in modern methodology of teaching foreign languages. The use of various forms of gaming interaction, problem assignments, information and communication technologies in the teaching of primary school students allows diversifying the teaching of a foreign language, contributes to the development of their creative and cognitive activity. The use of health-saving technologies ensures the creation of a psychologically and emotionally supportive atmosphere at the lesson, which is an essential condition for acquiring new knowledge and maintaining stable cognitive interest among students while learning a foreign language.

  2. Semivolatile compounds in schools and their influence on cognitive performance of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Hutter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: WHO's Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE focuses on improvements of indoor environments where children spend most of their time. To investigate the relationship between school indoor air pollutants and cognitive performance in elementary school children, a multidisciplinary study was planned in all-day schools in Austria. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study (LuKi study: Air and Children indoor air pollutants were monitored in nine elementary all-day schools in urban and rural regions of Austria. In addition, school dust and suspended particulates (PM10, PM2.5 were measured, focusing on semivolatile compounds (e.g. phthalates, phosphororganic compounds [POC]. Health status and environmental conditions were determined by parents' questionnaire, cognitive function was measured by Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM. Results: Overall, 596 children (6-8 years of age were eligible for the study. Cognitive tests were performed in 436 children. Analysis showed significant correlations of tris(2-chlorethyl-phosphate (TCEP in PM10 and PM2.5 and school dust samples with cognitive performance. Cognitive performance decreased with increasing concentrations of TCEP. Furthermore, cognitive function decreased significantly with increasing CO2 levels. Conclusions: POC are widely used as plasticizers, flame retardants and floor sealing. This is the first report of a correlation between TCEP in indoor air samples and impairment of cognitive performance in school children. As a precautionary measure, it is recommended to prohibit the use of toxic chemicals and those suspected of a toxic potential in children's environments such as schools.

  3. Children's attention to task-relevant information accounts for relations between language and spatial cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hilary E; Simmering, Vanessa R

    2018-08-01

    Children's spatial language reliably predicts their spatial skills, but the nature of this relation is a source of debate. This investigation examined whether the mechanisms accounting for such relations are specific to language use or reflect a domain-general mechanism of selective attention. Experiment 1 examined whether 4-year-olds' spatial skills were predicted by their selective attention or their adaptive language use. Children completed (a) an attention task assessing attention to task-relevant color, size, and location cues; (b) a description task assessing adaptive language use to describe scenes varying in color, size, and location; and (c) three spatial tasks. There was correspondence between the cue types that children attended to and produced across description and attention tasks. Adaptive language use was predicted by both children's attention and task-related language production, suggesting that selective attention underlies skills in using language adaptively. After controlling for age, gender, receptive vocabulary, and adaptive language use, spatial skills were predicted by children's selective attention. The attention score predicted variance in spatial performance previously accounted for by adaptive language use. Experiment 2 followed up on the attention task (Experiment 2a) and description task (Experiment 2b) from Experiment 1 to assess whether performance in the tasks related to selective attention or task-specific demands. Performance in Experiments 2a and 2b paralleled that in Experiment 1, suggesting that the effects in Experiment 1 reflected children's selective attention skills. These findings show that selective attention is a central factor supporting spatial skill development that could account for many effects previously attributed to children's language use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Mastery Learning on Senior Secondary School Students' Cognitive Learning Outcome in Quantitative Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitee, Telimoye Leesi; Obaitan, Georgina N.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive learning outcome of Senior Secondary School chemistry students has been poor over the years in Nigeria. Poor mathematical skills and inefficient teaching methods have been identified as some of the major reasons for this. Bloom's theory of school learning and philosophy of mastery learning assert that virtually all students are…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Children with Behavioural Difficulties in the Singapore Mainstream School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lay See; Choi, Pui Meng

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programme delivered by a school psychologist for children with behavioural difficulties in Singapore elementary school classrooms. It examined the impact of a 12-session, psychoeducational group intervention in helping misbehaving pupils to control their…

  6. Encountering Problems at Home and at School: Language and Cognition in Two Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This paper discusses cognitive communicative training in preschool and reports on a study of 11 Hawaiian preschoolers that examined how these children interacted with others, used language, manipulated objects, and solved problems at home and at school. The study observed the children at school and at home over a 5-month period, collecting…

  7. Cognitive Distortion as Predictor of In-School Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Academic Performance in South-South, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usen, Stella Anietie; Eneh, Grace Akaniyene; Udom, Inwang Etim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain how cognitive distortion could predict in-school adolescents' depressive symptoms and academic performance in the South-South Nigeria. The study adopted a correlation design with a sample of in-school adolescents who showed evidence of cognitive distortion (N = 798). In-School Adolescents' Cognitive…

  8. Schooling Effects on Cognitive Development in a Difficult Environment: The Case of Refugee Camps in the West Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabr, Dua; Cahan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Schooling is now considered the major factor underlying the development of cognitive abilities. However, most studies on the effect of schooling on cognitive development have been conducted in free and generally supportive western environments. The possible variability of schooling effects between educational systems differing in the quality of…

  9. Cognitive stimulation in children at social risk: its transference to school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Korzeniowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of a group cognitive intervention aimed at promoting executive functions in children at social risk. The quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design included a control group. The sample was made up of 178 children (52% boys, aged 6-10. The children were evaluated by means of a battery of neuropsychological EF tests and a teacher-rated behavioral EF scale. The intervention program included 30 group cognitive stimulation sessions that increased in difficulty and were embedded into school curr´ıcula. Trained children performed better in terms of cognitive flexibility, planning, metacognition and inhibitory control, as compared to their baseline values and to children in the control group. This study provides new evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive interventions for children and of children’s capability to transfer cognitive improvements to daily school activities.

  10. Immigrant and Native Children's Cognitive Outcomes and the Effect of Ethnic Concentration in Danish Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Wurtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    are still important factors in determining the child.s cognitive outcome. However, the negative effect of ethnic concentration in the school is only significant for the native Danish children. Finally, there is a strong positive effect on the children.s cognitive outcome of speaking Danish at home....... to the ethnic concentration in the schools they attend and their relatively low socioeconomic status. Instrumenting for ethnic concentration reveals that even after taking into consideration that individuals may sort across neighborhoods, ethnic concentration in the school and the child's own ethnicity...

  11. Social-cognitive and school factors in initiation of smoking among adolescents: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Siersma, Volkert

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between social-cognitive factors, school factors, and smoking initiation among adolescents who had never smoked. METHODS: The study was based on longitudinal data on Danish adolescents attending randomly selected public schools....... Adolescents enrolled in grade 7 (mean age, 13 years) who had never smoked (n = 912) were followed up for 6 months after baseline. Those who had still never smoked were followed up again 18 months after baseline, in grade 8 (n = 442). Social-cognitive factors were examined with five measures: self......-efficacy, social influence (norms), social influence (behavior), social influence (pressure), and attitude. We used multilevel analyses to estimate the associations between social-cognitive factors at baseline and smoking initiation as well as the random effects of school, school class, and gender group...

  12. Soil-transmitted Helminth Infection, Loss of Education and Cognitive Impairment in School-Aged Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; Bustinduy, Amaya L.; Nkwata, Allan K.; Martinez, Leonardo; Pabalan, Noel; Boivin, Michael J.; King, Charles H.

    2018-01-01

    Background By means of meta-analysis of information from all relevant epidemiologic studies, we examined the hypothesis that Schistosoma infection in school-aged children (SAC) is associated with educational loss and cognitive deficits. Methodology/Principal findings This review was prospectively registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42016040052). Medline, Biosis, and Web of Science were searched for studies published before August 2016 that evaluated associations between Schistosoma infect...

  13. Does school mobility place elementary school children at risk for lower math achievement? The mediating role of cognitive dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele

    2015-12-01

    Children growing up in poverty have a higher likelihood of exposure to multiple forms of adversity that jeopardize their chances of academic success. The current paper identifies school mobility, or changing schools, as 1 such poverty-related risk. Using a sample of low-income, predominantly ethnic-minority children (n = 381) in Chicago, this study tests the hypothesis that repeatedly changing schools during the 5-year period between Head Start (preschool) and third grade is a potent predictor of children's math achievement in fourth grade and that children's cognitive dysregulation serves as a mechanism through which school mobility may negatively affect children's math achievement. Hierarchical linear models controlling for baseline child and family characteristics (including children's early math and dysregulation measured during Head Start) revealed an inverse relation between the number of times low-income children changed schools between preschool and third grade and children's math achievement on state standardized tests in fourth grade. Furthermore, frequently changing schools (3 or 4 school changes over the same time period) was positively associated with teacher-reported cognitive dysregulation in third grade and negatively associated with children's math achievement in fourth grade. Evidence for the role of children's cognitive dysregulation as a partial statistical mediator was found for the relation between frequently changing schools and math achievement, even after accounting for baseline risk. Results are discussed in terms of school policies, practices, and intervention strategies to prevent the disruptive and potentially stressful experiences of school mobility for young, low-income children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Does School Mobility Place Elementary School Children at Risk for Lower Math Achievement? The Mediating Role of Cognitive Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele

    2015-01-01

    Children growing up in poverty have a higher likelihood of exposure to multiple forms of adversity that jeopardize their chances of academic success. The current paper identifies school mobility, or changing schools, as 1 such poverty-related risk. Using a sample of low-income, predominantly ethnic-minority children (n = 381) in Chicago, this study tests the hypothesis that repeatedly changing schools during the 5-year period between Head Start (preschool) and third grade is a potent predictor of children’s math achievement in fourth grade and that children’s cognitive dysregulation serves as a mechanism through which school mobility may negatively affect children’s math achievement. Hierarchical linear models controlling for baseline child and family characteristics (including children’s early math and dysregulation measured during Head Start) revealed an inverse relation between the number of times low-income children changed schools between preschool and third grade and children’s math achievement on state standardized tests in fourth grade. Furthermore, frequently changing schools (3 or 4 school changes over the same time period) was positively associated with teacher-reported cognitive dysregulation in third grade and negatively associated with children’s math achievement in fourth grade. Evidence for the role of children’s cognitive dysregulation as a partial statistical mediator was found for the relation between frequently changing schools and math achievement, even after accounting for baseline risk. Results are discussed in terms of school policies, practices, and intervention strategies to prevent the disruptive and potentially stressful experiences of school mobility for young, low-income children. PMID:26436870

  15. Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.

  16. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 8. High Tech High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  17. From Post-Colonial to Neoliberal Schooling in Somalia: The Need for Culturally Relevant School Leadership among Somaliland Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Muhammad A.; Bashir-Ali, Khadar; Abdi, Nimo; Witherspoon Arnold, Noelle

    2014-01-01

    This article examines school leadership behaviors and understandings of Somaliland school principals. By using postcolonial theory and critical phenomenology, we explore culturally responsive leadership in Northern Somalia; we expound on the unique ways that school leaders enact school leadership, and interact with the students, families, and…

  18. First aid training in driving schools - uselessness or relevant measure with considerable potential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zámečník

    2014-12-01

    of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. 1 What is the phone number emergency line; 2 How should you act when you arrive at the place of fresh traffic accident where has not been given any help yet? 3 How will you know that a person has internal bleeding in a car accident? 4 How will you know that a person has a spinal injury in a car accident? Answers were given into context with other parts of questionnaire. There were 370 respondents mostly at the age of eighteen and nineteen who were applying for "B" driving license in four regions from thirteen in the Czech Republic. Survey shows alarming results. Promising number of willing respondents - 92% of young drivers intend to provide first aid in traffic accidents - gives in the light of other responses reason for serious concern. Despite high willingness only 58% of respondents feel competent to provide first aid, fair idea of how to act have 23% of respondents and the most common life-threatening states in a car accident is able to identify only few individuals. Such bad results are probably due to the unsufficient first aid courses in driving schools, which are focused mainly on theory and are lacking of practical training. Therefore there is strong need for change in system of first aid courses in driving schools towards more relevant forms of training.

  19. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sunyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development.We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories via computerized tests (n = 10,112. Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm] was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor and inside the classroom (indoor simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability, superior working memory (three-back detectability, and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error. Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024. Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%. Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely

  20. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyer, Jordi; Esnaola, Mikel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Foraster, Maria; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Cirach, Marta; Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andrés; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development. We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories) via computerized tests (n = 10,112). Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm]) was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor) and inside the classroom (indoor) simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability), superior working memory (three-back detectability), and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error). Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024). Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%). Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely; however

  1. Speed of Language Comprehension at 18 Months Old Predicts School-Relevant Outcomes at 54 Months Old in Children Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Adams, Katherine A; Ashland, Melanie; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2018-04-01

    Identifying which preterm (PT) children are at increased risk of language and learning differences increases opportunities for participation in interventions that improve outcomes. Speed in spoken language comprehension at early stages of language development requires information processing skills that may form the foundation for later language and school-relevant skills. In children born full-term, speed of comprehending words in an eye-tracking task at 2 years old predicted language and nonverbal cognition at 8 years old. Here, we explore the extent to which speed of language comprehension at 1.5 years old predicts both verbal and nonverbal outcomes at 4.5 years old in children born PT. Participants were children born PT (n = 47; ≤32 weeks gestation). Children were tested in the "looking-while-listening" task at 18 months old, adjusted for prematurity, to generate a measure of speed of language comprehension. Parent report and direct assessments of language were also administered. Children were later retested on a test battery of school-relevant skills at 4.5 years old. Speed of language comprehension at 18 months old predicted significant unique variance (12%-31%) in receptive vocabulary, global language abilities, and nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) at 4.5 years, controlling for socioeconomic status, gestational age, and medical complications of PT birth. Speed of language comprehension remained uniquely predictive (5%-12%) when also controlling for children's language skills at 18 months old. Individual differences in speed of spoken language comprehension may serve as a marker for neuropsychological processes that are critical for the development of school-relevant linguistic skills and nonverbal IQ in children born PT.

  2. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 4. Boston Arts Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  3. Relationship between cognitive functions and prevalence of fatigue in elementary and junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-06-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance, we attempted to determine whether cognitive functions were associated with the prevalence of fatigue. Participants were 148 elementary school students from 4th- to 6th-grades and 152 junior high school students from 7th- to 9th-grades. Participants completed a questionnaire about fatigue (Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale) and paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests which could evaluate the abilities of motor processing, immediate, delayed and working memory, selective, divided and alternative attention, retrieve learned material, and spatial construction. We found that in multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, slow motor processing was positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue in the elementary school students and decreases in working memory and divided and alternative attention processing were positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue in the junior high school students. The grade-dependent development of cognitive function influences the severity of fatigue in elementary and junior high school students. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Appropriate school starting age: A focus on the cognitive and social development of a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahwish Ali Baber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The early years are the most important in the emotional, social, physical and cognitive development of a child.. A child’s early experiences have an immense impact on the development of his/ her physical, emotional and cognitive skills. Therefore, it is very important to understand the kind of environment children need in the early years for their healthy development and also to understand when it is appropriate to begin their schooling in order to optimize their social, cognitive and emotional well-being. It is observed that the number of formal pre-schools have increased drastically in the past few years. Children between the ages of one to five are attending these pre-schools. This paper attempts to look into the various researches conducted to find out how early childhood experiences affect children; how their emotional and cognitive development occurs; and most importantly, whether or not starting school at an age earlier than seven years, benefits their academic achievement in the long run. The findings of the various researches indicate that children in the early years need to spend time in free play rather than in structured and scheduled school environments. This will also help them in their future academic success. Thus, starting school earlier than seven years of age is not beneficial socially or academically in the long run.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in cognition-relevant brain areas of mice treated with a nootropic Amazonian herbal (Marapuama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró, M; Ilha, J; Pochmann, D; Porciúncula, L O; Xavier, L L; Achaval, M; Nunes, D S; Elisabetsky, E

    2010-10-01

    The goal of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) used to treat Alzheimer's patients is an improvement in cholinergic transmission. While currently available AChEIs have limited success, a huge impediment to the development of newer ones is access to the relevant brain areas. Promnesic, anti-amnesic and AChEI properties were identified in a standardized ethanol extract from Ptychopetalum olacoides (POEE), a medicinal plant favored by the elderly in Amazon communities. The purpose of this study was to provide conclusive evidence that orally given POEE induces AChE inhibition in brain areas relevant to cognition. Histochemistry experiments confirmed that the anticholinesterase compound(s) present in POEE are orally bioavailable, inducing meaningful AChE inhibition in the hippocampus CA1 (∼33%) and CA3 (∼20%), and striatum (∼17%). Ellman's colorimetric analysis revealed that G1 and G4 AChE isoforms activities were markedly inhibited (66 and 72%, respectively) in hippocampus and frontal cortex (50 and 63%, respectively), while G4 appeared to be selectively inhibited (72%) in the striatum. Western blotting showed that POEE did not induce significant changes in the AChE immunocontent suggesting that its synthesis is not extensively modified. This study provides definitive proof of meaningful anticholinesterase activity compatible with the observed promnesic and anti-amnesic effects of POEE in mice, reaffirming the potential of this extract for treating neurodegenerative conditions where a hypofunctioning cholinergic neurotransmission is prominent. Adequate assessment of the safety and efficacy of this extract and/or its isolated active compound(s) are warranted. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Culturally Relevant Contextualized Activities on Elementary and Middle School Students' Perceptions of Science: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espada, Wilson; Llerandi-Román, Pablo; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; Ortiz-Vega, Nicole; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Colón-Ramos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have argued that textbooks should be customized to local cultures and experiences, they rarely are. Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit group interested in promoting science literacy and education among Latino(a)s/Hispanics, identified a need to provide schools with culturally relevant materials. The result was the publication…

  7. Experiencing Socially Relevant Applications in the High School Mathematics Curriculum: Students' Perspectives on Mathematics as a Tool for Social Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelias, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of socially relevant mathematics applications in high school mathematics classrooms and students' views of mathematics in light of their experiences with these applications. Also, the study sought to determine whether inquiries afforded by these applications incorporated features that promoted…

  8. Relevance of student and contextual school variables in explaining a student’s severity of violence experienced

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating

  9. The Influence of Surface and Deep Cues on Primary and Secondary School Students' Assessment of Relevance in Web Menus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouet, Jean-Francois; Ros, Christine; Goumi, Antonine; Macedo-Rouet, Monica; Dinet, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigated primary and secondary school students' Web menu selection strategies using simulated Web search tasks. It was hypothesized that students' selections of websites depend on their perception and integration of multiple relevance cues. More specifically, students should be able to disentangle superficial cues (e.g.,…

  10. Task-relevant cognitive and motor functions are prioritized during prolonged speed-accuracy motor task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Satas, Andrius; Mickeviciene, Dalia; Cekanauskaite, Agne; Valanciene, Dovile; Majauskiene, Daiva; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of prolonged speed-accuracy motor task on the indicators of psychological, cognitive, psychomotor and motor function. Ten young men aged 21.1 ± 1.0 years performed a fast- and accurate-reaching movement task and a control task. Both tasks were performed for 2 h. Despite decreased motivation, and increased perception of effort as well as subjective feeling of fatigue, speed-accuracy motor task performance improved during the whole period of task execution. After the motor task, the increased working memory function and prefrontal cortex oxygenation at rest and during conflict detection, and the decreased efficiency of incorrect response inhibition and visuomotor tracking were observed. The speed-accuracy motor task increased the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials, while grip strength was not affected. These findings demonstrate that to sustain the performance of 2-h speed-accuracy task under conditions of self-reported fatigue, task-relevant functions are maintained or even improved, whereas less critical functions are impaired.

  11. The Effect of the Human Peptide GHK on Gene Expression Relevant to Nervous System Function and Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Pickart

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions. GHK, which declines with age, has health promoting effects on many tissues such as chondrocytes, liver cells and human fibroblasts, improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, boney tissue, increases collagen, decorin, angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pain and anti-anxiety effects, increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. Studies using the Broad Institute Connectivity Map show that GHK peptide modulates expression of multiple genes, resetting pathological gene expression patterns back to health. GHK has been recommended as a treatment for metastatic cancer, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, inflammation, acute lung injury, activating stem cells, pain, and anxiety. Here, we present GHK’s effects on gene expression relevant to the nervous system health and function.

  12. Changes in cognitive functions of students in the transitional period from elementary school to junior high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Sasabe, Tetsuya; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-05-01

    When students proceed to junior high school from elementary school, rapid changes in the environment occur, which may cause various behavioral and emotional problems. However, the changes in cognitive functions during this transitional period have rarely been studied. In 158 elementary school students from 4th- to 6th-grades and 159 junior high school students from 7th- to 9th-grades, we assessed various cognitive functions, including motor processing, spatial construction ability, semantic fluency, immediate memory, delayed memory, spatial and non-spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. Our findings showed that performance on spatial and non-spatial working memory, alternative attention, divided attention, and semantic fluency tasks improved from elementary to junior high school. In particular, performance on alternative and divided attention tasks improved during the transitional period from elementary to junior high school. Our finding suggests that development of alternative and divided attention is of crucial importance in the transitional period from elementary to junior high school. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metacognition, Theory of Mind, and Self-Control: The Relevance of High-Level Cognitive Processes in Development, Neuroscience, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodian, Beate; Frith, Uta

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive control of behavior is critical for success in school. The emergence of self-control in development has been linked to the ability to represent one's own and others' mental states (theory of mind and metacognition). Despite rapid progress in exploring the neural correlates of both mind reading and executive function in recent years,…

  14. Cognitive Processing about Classroom-Relevant Contexts: Teachers' Attention to and Utilization of Girls' Body Size, Ethnicity, Attractiveness, and Facial Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shirley S.; Treat, Teresa A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines 2 aspects of cognitive processing in person perception--attention and decision making--in classroom-relevant contexts. Teachers completed 2 implicit, performance-based tasks that characterized attention to and utilization of 4 student characteristics of interest: ethnicity, facial affect, body size, and attractiveness. Stimuli…

  15. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven C. Mueller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12–16 and 28 adults (25–35 completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition. Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back. By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions.

  16. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Cromheeke, Sofie; Siugzdaite, Roma; Nicolas Boehler, C

    2017-08-01

    In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12-16) and 28 adults (25-35) completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition) or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition). Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back). By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance) in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of Playing High School Football With Cognition and Mental Health Later in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sameer K; Hasegawa, Raiden B; Rabinowitz, Amanda R; Whyte, John; Roan, Carol L; Tabatabaei, Andrew; Baiocchi, Michael; Karlawish, Jason H; Master, Christina L; Small, Dylan S

    2017-08-01

    American football is the largest participation sport in US high schools and is a leading cause of concussion among adolescents. Little is known about the long-term cognitive and mental health consequences of exposure to football-related head trauma at the high school level. To estimate the association of playing high school football with cognitive impairment and depression at 65 years of age. A representative sample of male high school students who graduated from high school in Wisconsin in 1957 was studied. In this cohort study using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, football players were matched between March 1 and July 1, 2017, with controls along several baseline covariates such as adolescent IQ, family background, and educational level. For robustness, 3 versions of the control condition were considered: all controls, those who played a noncollision sport, and those who did not play any sport. Athletic participation in high school football. A composite cognition measure of verbal fluency and memory and attention constructed from results of cognitive assessments administered at 65 years of age. A modified Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale score was used to measure depression. Secondary outcomes include results of individual cognitive tests, anger, anxiety, hostility, and heavy use of alcohol. Among the 3904 men (mean [SD] age, 64.4 [0.8] years at time of primary outcome measurement) in the study, after matching and model-based covariate adjustment, compared with each control condition, there was no statistically significant harmful association of playing football with a reduced composite cognition score (-0.04 reduction in cognition vs all controls; 97.5% CI, -0.14 to 0.05) or an increased modified Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale depression score (-1.75 reduction vs all controls; 97.5% CI, -3.24 to -0.26). After adjustment for multiple testing, playing football did not have a significant adverse association with

  18. Effectiveness of cognitive restructuring technique to reduce academic pracrastination of vocational high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination is a serious problem among student. Academic procrastination refers to delaying in doing assignments and preparing for examinations until the last period of examination time and submission date of assignments. To solve this problem we could use cognitive restructuring technique. The purposes of this research are to gain the description of academic procrastination decrease by implementing the cognitive restructuring technique. This research used a single subject research as the research design. The type of the single subject research which used in this research is multiple baselines. The result of this research shows that academic procrastination had significant decrease by implementation the cognitive restructuring technique. This research gives advice for two parts. First, it will be better if counselor implement the cognitive restructuring technique to decreasing academic procrastination. Second, it will be better if stakeholder of school gives support to counselor for implementation the cognitive restructuring technique to decrease academic procrastination.

  19. Applying a Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective to Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Implications for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Patrick M; White, Stuart F; Thompson, Ronald W; Blair, R J R

    2018-02-12

    A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition. The potential implications for current and future classroom-based assessments and interventions for students with these deficits are discussed.

  20. Predictors of Teachers' Use of ICT in School--The Relevance of School Characteristics, Teachers' Attitudes and Teacher Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossel, Kerstin; Eickelmann, Birgit; Gerick, Julia

    2017-01-01

    This paper is based on the research question of what predictors (school characteristics, teachers' attitudes, teacher collaboration and background characteristics) determine secondary school teachers' frequency of computer use in class. The use of new technologies by secondary school teachers for educational purposes is an important factor…

  1. The Effect of Schooling on Basic Cognition in Selected Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Jonsson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated schooling effects on cognition. Cognitive data were collected as part of a research project (ProMeal that investigated school meals and measured the intake of school lunch in relation to children’s health, cognitive function, and classroom learning in four Nordic countries, among children between 10–11 years of age. It was found that Finnish pupils attending 4th grade were not, on any measure, outperformed by Norwegian and Icelandic pupils attending 5th and Swedish pupils attending 4th grade on a task measuring working memory capacity, processing speed, inhibition, and in a subsample on response- and attention control. Moreover, boys were found to perform superior to girls on tasks measuring processing speed. However, girls were found to perform better on tasks related to attention and self-control. The results are discussed in relation to the reciprocal association between cognition and schooling and whether these results reflect quality differences between schools in the four Nordic countries; most notably in comparison to Finland.

  2. Secondary School Mathematics in Perspective: Conceptions of its Nature and Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Sandra; White, Loren

    This study investigated the nature of secondary school students' and teachers' conceptions of what mathematics is, the purposes of school mathematics, and the outcomes of school mathematics. Interviews were conducted with a sample of grades 10, 11, and 12 students (n=40), teachers (n=19), counselors (n=2), and administrators (n=2) from a large…

  3. The influence of an introduction to cognitive education on school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process categories reflected several of the characteristics highlighted as important in the professional development and cognitive education literature. Discussion focuses on the importance of the active 'teaching of thinking' within the curriculum and on the urgent need to pay attention to how the curriculum is delivered ...

  4. Influence of schooling and age on cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V.O. Bento-Torres

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61–84 years of age. CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test, no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling and age (60–69 and ≥70 years. Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

  5. The role of socio-cognitive variables in predicting learning satisfaction in smart schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Firoozi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the role of Socio-Cognitive variables in predicting learning satisfaction in Smart Schools. The population was all the primary school students studying in smart schools in the city of Shiraz in the school year 2014-2015. The sample, randomly chosen through multi-stage cluster sampling, was 383 primary school students studying in smart schools in Shiraz. The instruments were the Computer Self-Efficiency Questionnaire developed by Torkzadeh (2003, Performance Expectation Questionnaire developed by Compeau and Higgins (1995, System Functionality and Content Feature Questionnaire developed by Pituch and Lee (2006, Interaction Questionnaire developed by Johnston, Killion and Oomen (2005, Learning Climate Questionnaire developed by Chou` and Liu (2005 and Learning Satisfaction Questionnaire developed by Chou and Liu (2005. In order to determine the possible relationship between variables and to predict the changes in the degree of satisfaction, we made use of correlational procedures and step-wise regression analysis. The results indicated that all the socio-cognitive variables have a positive and significant correlation with learning satisfaction. Out of the socio-cognitive variables in question, Computer Self-Efficiency, Performance Expectation and Learning Climate significantly explained 53% of the variance of learning satisfaction.

  6. The Role of Socio-Cognitive Variables in Predicting Learning Satisfaction in Smart Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza FIROOZI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the role of Socio-Cognitive variables in predicting learning satisfaction in Smart Schools. The population was all the primary school students studying in smart schools in the city of Shiraz in the school year 2014-2015. The sample, randomly chosen through multi-stage cluster sampling, was 383 primary school students studying in smart schools in Shiraz. The instruments were the Computer Self-Efficiency Questionnaire developed by Torkzadeh (2003, Performance Expectation Questionnaire developed by Compeau and Higgins (1995, System Functionality and Content Feature Questionnaire developed by Pituch and Lee (2006, Interaction Questionnaire developed by Johnston, Killion and Oomen (2005, Learning Climate Questionnaire developed by Chou` and Liu (2005 and Learning Satisfaction Questionnaire developed by Chou and Liu (2005. In order to determine the possible relationship between variables and to predict the changes in the degree of satisfaction, we made use of correlational procedures and step-wise regression analysis. The results indicated that all the socio-cognitive variables have a positive and significant correlation with learning satisfaction. Out of the socio-cognitive variables in question, Computer Self-Efficiency, Performance Expectation and Learning Climate significantly explained 53% of the variance of learning satisfaction.

  7. Recency or Relevance: A Quest for Pedagogical Framework in Teaching Philippine and World Literature in Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bañez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical questions on whether recency or relevance of literary texts, and the importance of generic academic over discipline-based learning objectives as the core of literature instruction are increasingly becoming the interest of debates in senior high school education. Hence, this study determined the degree of importance of literary instruction in preparation for college education and workplace challenges as assessed by 38 Grade 11 students at Malvar Senior High School, Philippines during the school year 2016-2017. By employing the survey type of descriptive research with a self-made questionnaire, it was found out that the respondents assessed both recency and relevance as important consideration in selecting literary texts. They also perceived that discipline-based/work-oriented learning objectives, especially those that focus on honing their human relation skills, were relevant in preparing themselves for college education and workplace responsibilities. Moreover, the respondents preferred language-based activities that tend to provide the former opportunities and develop other complex skills which are important in tertiary education and workplace challenges. With these, revitalizing the literature instruction in the senior high school is highly recommended in this study.

  8. LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Ostergaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study; LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion was to develop, document, and evaluate a multi-component physical activity (PA) intervention in public schools in Denmark. The primary outcome was cognitive function. Secondary outcomes were academic skills, body composi...

  9. Cognitive Abilities of Pre- and Primary School Children with Spina Bifida in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Fontaine, Johnny R. J.; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive abilities of pre/primary school children without and with spina bifida in Uganda. Qualitative semi structured interviews and quantitative functioning scales measurements were combined and conducted with 133 parents, 133 children with spina bifida, and 35 siblings. ANCOVA was used to test for differences in…

  10. Transforming Principles into Practice: Using Cognitive Active Learning Strategies in the High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    High school teachers who engage students through active learning in their classrooms can more fully understand this instructional practice by examining the theories and strategies underlying the cognitive perspective of educational psychology, which addresses the development of knowledge in the individual mind. Two theoretical explanations,…

  11. Assessing the Cognitive Functioning of Students with Intellectual Disabilities: Practices and Perceptions of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costner, Ashley Nicole

    2016-01-01

    School psychologists are faced with the task of conducting evaluations of students in order to determine special education eligibility. This often equates to administering a cognitive assessment measure to obtain information about skills or abilities. Although this may be a straightforward task when working with children of average or higher…

  12. Integrating Moral and Social Development within Middle School Social Studies: A Social Cognitive Domain Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Larry; Creane, Michael W.; Powers, Deborah W.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven teachers and 254 urban middle-school students comprised the sample of this study examining the social and moral development outcomes of the integration of social cognitive domain theory within regular classroom instruction. Participating teachers were trained to construct and implement history lessons that stimulated students' moral…

  13. Memory and Cognitive Strategies of High Ability Students in a Rural Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fuziana; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine language learning strategies employed by the high ability students in a rural secondary school. Memory and cognitive strategies employed by the high ability students were the main focus in this study. A survey design was used and data was collected using Oxford's questionnaires. Findings reveal that the high…

  14. Utilizing Computerized Cognitive Training to Improve Working Memory and Encoding: Piloting a School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Dudley J.; Wong, Eugene H.; Minero, Laura P.; Pumaccahua, Tessy T.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory has been well documented as a significant predictor of academic outcomes (e.g., reading and math achievement as well as general life outcomes). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training to improve both working memory and encoding abilities in a school setting. Thirty students…

  15. Enhancing the Educational Subject: Cognitive Capitalism, Positive Psychology and Well-Being Training in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…

  16. School Adjustment of Pupils with ADHD: Cognitive, Emotional and Temperament Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Perez, Noelia; Gonzalez-Salinas, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    From different research perspectives, the cognitive and emotional characteristics associated with ADHD in children have been identified as risk factors for the development of diverse adjustment problems in the school context. Research in nonclinical population can additionally help in understanding ADHD deficits, since children with specific…

  17. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  18. Cognitive Motor Coordination Training Improves Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stefanie; Böttcher, Caroline; Jansen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The long-term physical activity in specific sport activities can change the quality of mental rotation performance. This study investigates the influence of "Life Kinetik"--a motion program with tasks of cognition and motor coordination--on mental rotation performance of 44 primary school-aged children. While the experimental group…

  19. The Interaction of Selective Attention and Cognitive Development on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Namdi N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study tried to examine the interaction between two independent variables of selective attention and cognitive development on Achievement in Genetics at the Secondary School level. In looking at the problem of this study three null hypotheses were generated for testing at 0.05 level of significance. Factorial Analysis of Variance design with…

  20. The Beck Initiative: Training School-Based Mental Health Staff in Cognitive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Torrey A.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Pontoski, Kristin; Feinberg, Betsy; Rosenberg, Zachary; Evans, Arthur; Hurford, Matthew O.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature supports cognitive therapy (CT) as an efficacious treatment for youth struggling with emotional or behavioral problems. Recently, work in this area has extended the dissemination of CT to school-based settings. The current study has two aims: 1) to examine the development of therapists' knowledge and skills in CT, an…

  1. Relation of Home Chaos to Cognitive Performance and Behavioral Adjustment of Pakistani Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamama-tus-Sabah, Syeda; Gilani, Nighat; Wachs, Theodore D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings from Western developed countries have linked home chaos to children's cognitive performance and behavioral problems. In the present paper we test whether the same pattern of associations can be replicated in a non-Western developing country. Our sample was 203 Pakistani primary school children. To assess home chaos the Confusion,…

  2. Cognitive Attributes of Adequate and Inadequate Responders to Reading Intervention in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciak, Jeremy; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    No studies have investigated the cognitive attributes of middle school students who are adequate and inadequate responders to Tier 2 reading intervention. We compared students in Grades 6 and 7 representing groups of adequate responders (n = 77) and inadequate responders who fell below criteria in (a) comprehension (n = 54); (b) fluency (n = 45);…

  3. The Relevance among Mid-level leader & Principal's Leadership, School Climate and Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    米沢, 崇; 山崎, 茜; 栗原, 慎二

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of the leadership of school leader and organizational culture to the practice of school guidance. Single time questionnaire was taken, and 182 elementary school teachers participated in. The major findings were as follows : (a)challenging culture among teachers, principal breakthrough leadership, and mid-level leader's consideration effect on information sharing among teachers, (b) challenging culture among teachers, principal' s considerat...

  4. Children's cognition and aircraft noise exposure at home--the West London Schools Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T; Stansfeld, S; Haines, M; Head, J

    2004-01-01

    The association of aircraft noise exposure with cognitive performance was examined by means of a cross-sectional field survey. Two hundred thirty six children attending 10 primary schools around Heathrow Airport in west London were tested on reading comprehension, immediate/delayed recall and sustained attention. In order to obtain the information about their background, a questionnaire was delivered to the parents and 163 answers were collected. Logistic regression models were used to assess performance on the cognitive tests in relation to aircraft noise exposure at home and possible individual and school level confounding factors. A significant dose-response relationship was found between aircraft noise exposure at home and performance on memory tests of immediate/delayed recall. However there was no strong association with the other cognitive outcomes. These results suggest that aircraft noise exposure at home may affect children's memory.

  5. Cognitive component of psychomotor retardation in unipolar and bipolar depression: Is verbal fluency a relevant marker? Impact of repetitive transcranial stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Ollivier, Véronique; Foyer, Emmanuelle; Bulteau, Samuel; Pichot, Anne; Valriviere, Pierre; Sauvaget, Anne; Deschamps, Thibault

    2017-09-01

    In the literature, psychomotor retardation (PMR) is increasingly highlighted as a relevant marker for depression. Currently, we chose to focus on the fluency capacities as an evaluation of the frontal lobes functioning to reach a better understanding of cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms involved in PMR in depression. The aims of this study were: (i) to explore the cognitive component of PMR through the analysis of verbal fluency (VF) performance in unipolar and bipolar depression; and (ii) to examine whether a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment could improve concomitantly the PMR and VF capacities, as a relevant marker characteristic of the cognitive component of PMR. Fifteen unipolar and 15 bipolar patients were compared to 15 healthy adults. Before treatment, the results showed VF deficits, particularly marked in the bipolar group. The investigation of the interplay between PMR, VF performance, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores showed that the deficits in these various dimensions were not homogeneous. The absence of correlation between the psychomotor retardation scale (the French Retardation Rating Scale for Depression) and VF, and the correlation with MoCA raise the hypothesis of a more global cognitive impairment associated with PMR in the BD group. The repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment had a positive impact on depression, PMR, and fluency scores. Correlations between the Retardation Rating Scale for Depression and VF performances appeared after treatment, showing the cognitive role of psychomotor functioning in depression. Further analyses, including other cognitive measures in an objective evaluation of PMR, are required for a better understanding of these complex relationships. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Diagnosing dementia and normal aging: clinical relevance of brain ratios and cognitive performance in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves M.L.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value (clinical application of brain measures and cognitive function. Alzheimer and multiinfarct patients (N = 30 and normal subjects over the age of 50 (N = 40 were submitted to a medical, neurological and cognitive investigation. The cognitive tests applied were Mini-Mental, word span, digit span, logical memory, spatial recognition span, Boston naming test, praxis, and calculation tests. The brain ratios calculated were the ventricle-brain, bifrontal, bicaudate, third ventricle, and suprasellar cistern measures. These data were obtained from a brain computer tomography scan, and the cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curves. We analyzed the diagnostic parameters provided by these ratios and compared them to those obtained by cognitive evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity of cognitive tests were higher than brain measures, although dementia patients presented higher ratios, showing poorer cognitive performances than normal individuals. Normal controls over the age of 70 presented higher measures than younger groups, but similar cognitive performance. We found diffuse losses of tissue from the central nervous system related to distribution of cerebrospinal fluid in dementia patients. The likelihood of case identification by functional impairment was higher than when changes of the structure of the central nervous system were used. Cognitive evaluation still seems to be the best method to screen individuals from the community, especially for developing countries, where the cost of brain imaging precludes its use for screening and initial assessment of dementia.

  7. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F. C.; Spaan, Pauline E. J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Walstra, Gerard J. M.; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.; van Gool, Willem A.; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; Korkhov, Vladimir V.; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in

  8. Review of Selected Dissertations Relevant to the "Journal of School Public Relations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, DeAnn; McCue, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    The article provides summaries of doctoral dissertations completed between January 2008 and December 2011 addressing foci of the "Journal of School Public Relations". The five areas are public relations, communication, school and community relations, conflict management, and human resources management. The periodic summaries of these dissertations…

  9. Implementation of a Project-Based Engineering School: Increasing Student Motivation and Relevant Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón-López, María-José; García-García, María-José; Velasco-Quintana, Paloma-Julia; Ocampo, Jared; Vigil Montaño, María-Reyes; Gaya-López, María-Cruz

    2017-01-01

    The School of Engineering at Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM) implemented, starting in the 2012-2013 period, a unified academic model based on project-based learning as the methodology used throughout the entire School. This model expects that every year, in each grade, all the students should participate in a capstone project integrating the…

  10. Underachievers' Cognitive and Behavioral Strategies--Self-Handicapping at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two studies with a total of 153 junior and senior high-school students and vocational students in Finland investigated whether underachievers applied a self-handicapping or learned-helplessness strategy in achievement contexts. Underachievers seemed to apply a self-handicapping strategy rather than a learned-helplessness approach. (SLD)

  11. Cognitive functioning over 2 years after intracerebral hemorrhage in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lexa K; Compas, Bruce E; Gindville, Melissa C; Reeslund, Kristen L; Jordan, Lori C

    2017-11-01

    Previous research investigating outcomes after pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has generally been limited to global and sensorimotor outcomes. This study examined cognitive outcomes after spontaneous ICH in school-aged children with serial assessments over 2 years after stroke. Seven children (age range 6-16y, median 13; six males, one female; 57% white, 43% black) presenting with spontaneous ICH (six arteriovenous malformations) were assessed at 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months after stroke. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) quantified neurological outcome and Wechsler Intelligence Scales measured cognitive outcomes: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. PSOM scales showed improved neurological function over the first 12 months, with mild to no sensorimotor deficits and moderate overall deficits at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (median 2-year sensorimotor PSOM=0.5, total PSOM=1.5). Changes in cognitive function indicated a different trajectory; verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning improved over 24 months; low performance was sustained in processing speed and working memory. Age-normed centile scores decreased between 1- and 2-year follow-ups for working memory, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Early and serial cognitive testing in children with ICH is needed to assess cognitive functioning and support children in school as they age and cognitive deficits become more apparent and important for function. In children with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), motor function improved between 3 months and 24 months. Improvements in cognitive function were variable between 3 months and 24 months. Working memory centiles declined, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Processing speed improved but remained significantly below the 50th centile. Cognitive impact of ICH may increase with age in children. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B; Samuel, Priscilla

    2005-08-07

    The relationship between breakfast composition and cognitive performance was examined in elementary school children. Two experiments compared the effects of two common U.S. breakfast foods and no breakfast on children's cognition. Using a within-participant design, once a week for 3 weeks, children consumed one of two breakfasts or no breakfast and then completed a battery of cognitive tests. The two breakfasts were instant oatmeal and ready-to-eat cereal, which were similar in energy, but differed in macronutrient composition, processing characteristics, effects on digestion and metabolism, and glycemic score. Results with 9 to 11 year-olds replicated previous findings showing that breakfast intake enhances cognitive performance, particularly on tasks requiring processing of a complex visual display. The results extend previous findings by showing differential effects of breakfast type. Boys and girls showed enhanced spatial memory and girls showed improved short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Results with 6 to 8 year-olds also showed effects of breakfast type. Younger children had better spatial memory and better auditory attention and girls exhibited better short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Due to compositional differences in protein and fiber content, glycemic scores, and rate of digestion, oatmeal may provide a slower and more sustained energy source and consequently result in cognitive enhancement compared to low-fiber high glycemic ready-to-eat cereal. These results have important practical implications, suggesting the importance of what children consume for breakfast before school.

  13. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget's Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Badakar, Chandrashekhar; J Thakkar, Prachi; M Hugar, Shivayogi; Kukreja, Pratibha; G Assudani, Harsha; Gokhale, Niraj

    2017-01-01

    To determine and compare the relevance of Piaget's cognitive principles among 4- to 7-year-old parented and orphan children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India. This study was conducted on 240 children between the ages of 4 to 7 years who were equally divided into two groups of 120 parented and 120 orphan children. These were subdivided into four groups of 30 children each. Various characteristics like egocentrism, concept of cardinal numbers based on centration, lack of conservation, and reversibility were assessed, using experiments and comparison of their prevalence between two groups was carried out. There is a statistically significant difference in the cognitive development among parented and orphan children age 4 to 7 years. There is a significantly better cognitive development among parented children as compared with orphan children in Belagavi city. A child is not a miniature adult but rather can think and perceive the world differently from an adult. Understanding a child's intellectual level can enable a pedodontist to deliver improved quality care to children. According to Jean Piaget, in the preoperational period, children think symbolically and their reasoning is based more on appearance rather than logic. It is often rightly said that a child's behavior is a reflection of his parents. However, Piaget did not consider the effect of social setting and culture on the cognitive development. This study was carried out as there is not much literature available to describe the cognitive development of children in the Indian scenario and the influence of parental presence on the same. How to cite this article: Badakar CM, Thakkar PJ, Hugar SM, Kukreja P, Assudani HG, Gokhale N. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget's Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):346-350.

  14. Cognitive and Executive Functions in Colombian School Children with Conduct Disorder: Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urazán-Torres, Gina Rocío; Puche-Cabrera, Mario José; Caballero-Forero, Mangelli; Rey-Anacona, César Armando

    2013-12-01

    Most of the studies that have examined cognitive and executive functions in conduct disorders (CD) have been conducted on institutionalized male adolescents. In this research the cognitive and executive functions of non-institutionalized Colombian school children with CD were compared with normal school children, all between 6 and 12 years-old. We used a case-control design. The cases were participants who met the diagnostic criteria for CD (n=39) and controls who did not meet these criteria (n=39), according to reports of a professional of the participants' institution, and a structured interview for childhood psychiatric syndromes. The two groups were selected from educational institutions, and there were no differences in age, school grade, or socioeconomic level. The IQ was reviewed, as well as the presence of other mental disorders, serious physical illnesses, and more serious neurological signs. The cognitive and executive functions were evaluated using a child neuropsychological test battery. We found that participants with CD had significantly lower scores in construction abilities, perceptual abilities (tactile, visual and auditory), differed in verbal memory, differed in visual memory, language (repetition, expression and understanding), meta-linguistic abilities, spatial abilities, visual and auditory attention, conceptual abilities, verbal and graphic fluency, and cognitive flexibility. The same differences were found between males, except in repetition, whereas girls showed fewer differences, thus the cognitive and executive performance was poorer in males with CD than in females, especially in verbal and linguistic-related functions. Children with CD could show generalized cognitive and executive deficits. These deficits seem to be more frequent in boys than in girls with CD. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Transfer value of learning music on cognitive development of elementary school and high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Nevena J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining positive effects of music on cognitive development is often part of empirical researches within cognitive and general psychology of music. Starting from the studies conducted by the most modern technologies and methods of studying interconnectedness of mental processes and individual musical development, the conclusion is that active musical participation influences a large specter of enhancing the student's abilities even within other cognitive areas of his actions. Positive effects of music influence directly the development of student's verbal and visual-spatial abilities, abstract thinking, movement coordination, concentration and memory capacity, creativity in thinking and task solving, as well as the development of emotional, aesthetic and social intelligence of the individual. Some of them will be especially stressed in the paper. The paper informs about newer results of examining positive effects of music on non-musical cognitive abilities of students and indicates to positive implications that music and musical education can enhance overall cognitive development of personality.

  16. Variability of cognitive development in children with Down syndrome: relevance of good reasons for using the cluster procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, R; Kindelberger, C

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this cross-sectional study was to demonstrate that, in addition to a main change during childhood, the cognitive development of children with Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by interindividual variability in their cognitive functioning. Eighty-eight French children with DS took part in this experiment. They were divided into six chronological age groups: 6 years (N=9), 7 years (N=19), 8 years (N=18), 9 years (N=19), 10 years (N=14) and 11 years (N=9). They were assessed by means of the Differential Scales of Intellectual Efficiency. This test, composed of six independent scales, measures verbal abilities and nonverbal reasoning abilities. Initial analyses of the verbal and nonverbal subtest scores indicated a main change in cognitive skills. We then used a clustering approach to identify four cognitive profiles that distinguished the children with DS independently of age and gender. The results confirm that there is a growth in the cognitive skills of DS children. They also suggest that the cognitive functioning of DS children is characterized by different individual profiles. Implications for more fine-tuned research and intervention efforts are discussed.

  17. The Impact of Inattention and Emotional Problems on Cognitive Control in Primary School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Astri J

    2012-01-01

    by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and performance-based tests (i.e.,Color Trail Test and Digit Span Test). Symptoms of inattention and emotional problems were measured with parent and teacher reports on Swanson Nolan and Pelham-IV questionnaire and Strengths and Difficulties......Objective: The present study investigated the predictive value of parent/teacher reports of inattention and emotional problems on cognitive control function in 241 children in primary school. Method: Cognitive control was measured by functions of set-shifting and working memory as assessed...

  18. Effects of sanitation on cognitive development and school absence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, G D; Garn, J V; Penakalapati, G; Alexander, K T; Krauss, J; Freeman, M C; Boisson, S; Medlicott, K O; Clasen, T

    2017-08-01

    We undertook this systematic review to explore the relationship between sanitation and learning outcomes, specifically cognitive development and absence. We searched leading databases to identify experimental and observational studies that address the effect of sanitation on our outcomes of interest. We identified 17 studies that met the review's eligibility criteria, four reporting on measures of cognitive development, 12 on school absence (with two studies reporting on school and work absence), and one study that reported on both outcomes. We assessed the risk of bias of individual studies as well as the overall strength of evidence for each outcome. Because of fundamental differences among the studies in terms of sanitation exposure and outcome measurement, pooling results via meta-analysis was deemed inappropriate so a descriptive review is presented. Studies reported that access to household sanitation was associated with measures of improved cognitive ability in children. However, collectively these studies were rated by GRADE as poor methodological quality with significant potential for confounding and bias, including publication bias. Studies on the association between household, community or school sanitation and school absence yielded mixed results. Some sanitation studies reported lower absence while others reported higher absence. Only the two randomized controlled trials reported no overall effects on absence even when combining sanitation with water supply improvements and hygiene promotion. Study quality as assessed by GRADE was again generally poor. While studies to date provide some support for positive effects from sanitation on cognitive development, the effects on school absence are uncertain. Differences in effects may be due to differences in study settings, type of sanitation exposure and most notably in outcome definitions. Further research in multiple settings using rigorous study designs and measuring intermediate outcomes such as exposure

  19. Implementation of a project-based engineering school: increasing student motivation and relevant learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón-López, María-José; García-García, María-José; Velasco-Quintana, Paloma-Julia; Ocampo, Jared; Vigil Montaño, María-Reyes; Gaya-López, María-Cruz

    2017-11-01

    The School of Engineering at Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM) implemented, starting in the 2012-2013 period, a unified academic model based on project-based learning as the methodology used throughout the entire School. This model expects that every year, in each grade, all the students should participate in a capstone project integrating the contents and competencies of several courses. This paper presents the academic context under which this experience has been implemented, and a summary of the work done to design and implement the Project-Based Engineering School at the UEM. The steps followed, the structure used, some sample projects, as well as the difficulties and benefits of implementing the programme are discussed in this paper. The results are encouraging as students are more motivated and the initial set objectives were accomplished.

  20. Decrease of Bullying Behavior in Children Age School Based on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indah Iswanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The violence that occurs in education is known as bullying. Violence can occur in mild degrees such as cheating on exams, to fights or beatings that result in death. Bullying in children often leads to school phobias (ask for school change, reduced learning concentration, decreased learning achievement, and likes to carry certain items. Interventions that can be done include Problem Solving Therapy (PST, Behavior Modification (behavior modification, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT. The purpose of this study was to produce CBT modules in school-aged children that were useful for reducing bullying behavior, using a pre-post test with control group design. The subject of this research is 52 elementary school age children in Tembalang District Semarang selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using bullying behavior checklist, CBT module and workbook, then analyzed using T-Test. The results showed a decrease in bullying behavior in the intervention group after CBT Individual therapy was given.

  1. Autism-relevant traits interact with temporoparietal junction stimulation effects on social cognition: a high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation and electroencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Peter H; Kirkovski, Melissa; Rinehart, Nicole J; Enticott, Peter G

    2018-03-01

    The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is implicated in mental and emotional state attribution, processes associated with autism-relevant traits. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the TPJ can influence social-cognitive performance. However, associations with electrophysiology and autism-relevant traits remain relatively unexamined. This study had two aims: first, exploring links between Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores and social-cognitive performance; second, examining interactions between AQ scores and high-definition-tDCS (HD-tDCS) applied to the right TPJ in terms of mental/emotional state attribution and neurophysiological outcomes. Fifty-three participants completed mental/emotional state attribution tasks before and after HD-tDCS. Pre-stimulation mental state attribution accuracy was reduced in participants with higher AQ Switching scores. Cathodal stimulation was associated with reduced emotion attribution performance in participants with higher AQ Switching and AQ Social scores (the latter at trend-level). Anodal stimulation more frequently interacted with AQ Social scores in terms of neurophysiology, in particular regarding reduced delta power in the left compared to right TPJ, and trend-level positive interactions with P100 and P300 latencies during the emotion recognition task. Elements of attention/switching (AQ Switching) may subserve or underpin elements of social cognition (AQ Social), and cathodal and anodal stimulation may have differing effects depending on trait levels in these domains. This study makes an important and original contribution in terms of increasing understanding of how such trait-level variation might interact with the effects of tDCS and also extending previous studies with regard to understanding potential roles of the rTPJ in both attention and social cognition and how autism-relevant traits might influence TPJ function. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Relevance of Parents' Beliefs for Their Involvement in Children's School Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubic, Andreja; Tošic, Antonela

    2016-01-01

    Parents play a very important role in all aspects of children's experiences, and parental involvement in children's school lives is associated with numerous educational outcomes. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of several parents' demographic characteristics, parental self-efficacy, as well as beliefs regarding the value of…

  3. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyede GO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic

  4. Pediatric cognitive rehabilitation: effective treatments in a school-based environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the impact of pediatric Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy (CRT) upon intellectual functioning after traumatic brain injury; however, relatively few have identified efficacious treatment in a school setting. The purpose is to present a variety of CRT strategies that would be useful to a teacher or therapist working with students who are learning disabled or who have who have had a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This article investigates the particular challenges in learning which result from impaired cognition, and suggests techniques for improving memory and executive functioning. Students who are learning disabled or who have TBI face social and emotional issues that impact their learning. Special therapeutic interventions are necessary to assist with orienting to their setting, integrating with peers, and coping with distressing emotions. Students with TBI can adapt and flourish in a school based setting provided that therapies and learned strategies are targeted to their specific needs.

  5. The influence of schooling on working memory performance in elderly individuals without cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nery de Souza-Talarico

    Full Text Available Abstract Over recent decades, research on cognition has been developed rapidly toward better understanding the cognitive changes that usually occur during normal aging. There is evidence that elderly individuals have worse working memory performance than young adults. However, the effect of education on this cognitive function remains unclear. Objectives: To analyze the performance of healthy elderly subjects on working memory tasks and to verify the influence of educational level on this performance. Methods: Forty elderly individuals without cognitive impairment and fully independent, were randomly chosen from a group of subjects participating in cultural activities at the university campus. The Digit Span Forward (DSF test was used to evaluate attention performance. The working memory performance was assessed by the Digit Span Backward (DSB and the difference between DSF and DSB. The data were statistically analyzed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient to verify the correlation between the Digit Span (DS scores and the variables age and schooling, while the Multiple Linear Regression Model was used to verify the effect of these variables on the DS scores. Results: A significant positive correlation (r=0.41, p<0.01 as well as a significant association (b=0.506; p=0.001; CI 95%= 0.064/0.237 were found between years of schooling and DSB scores. It was not observed statistical correlation (r= -0.08, p=0.64 or association (b=0.41; p=0.775; CI 95%= -0.049/0.065 between age and DSB scores. Conclusion: In this study, higher levels of schooling were associated with better working memory performance in cognitively healthy elders.

  6. Cognitive Attributes of Adequate and Inadequate Responders to Reading Intervention in Middle School

    OpenAIRE

    Miciak, Jeremy; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Barth, Amy Elizabeth; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    No studies have investigated the cognitive attributes of middle school students who are adequate and inadequate responders to Tier 2 reading intervention. We compared students in Grades 6 and 7 representing groups of adequate responders (n = 77) and inadequate responders who fell below criteria in (a) comprehension (n = 54); (b) fluency (n = 45); and (c) decoding, fluency, and comprehension (DFC; n = 45). These students received measures of phonological awareness, listening comprehension, rap...

  7. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyede, Gbemisola O; Lesi, Foluso Ea; Ezeaka, Veronica C; Umeh, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6-15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget's staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6-11 years) and the formal operational stage (12-15 years). All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM). Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0-47.0) which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0-52.0) for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001). On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6-11 years), positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Younger age, poor socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education were factors apart from HIV infection that were significantly associated with low cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  9. Dimensions of physical punishment and their associations with children's cognitive performance and school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Cage, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how a range of physical punishment measures, ranging from mild corporal punishment to physical abuse, are associated with cognitive performance, school engagement, and peer isolation over a 3- year span among 658 children initially observed between the ages of 8 and 14. Physical punishment was captured in three groups: mild corporal punishment, harsh corporal punishment, and physical abuse, and both caregiver- and child-reported punishment measures were considered. After accounting for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, only Ninitial exposure to physical abuse was significantly associated with declines in cognitive performance. However, all forms of physical punishment were associated with declines in school engagement, and harsh corporal punishment was associated with increased peer isolation. Our findings were relatively consistent regardless of whether physical punishment was reported by the child or caregiver. Overall, our findings suggest that the prevention of physical abuse may enhance children's cognitive performance, but that alone may not be sufficient to ensure children are engaged and well-adjusted in school. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scaffolding Writing Using Feedback in Students' Graphic Organizers--Novice Writers' Relevance of Ideas and Cognitive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien Ching; Tan, Seng Chee

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to find out two outcomes of feedback in the novice writers' graphic organizers, which are the novice writers' ability to align their ideas to their writing goal, and their perceived germane, metacognitive, extraneous and intrinsic cognitive loads when generating and revising ideas based on the feedback. Data was gathered from the…

  11. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7–9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c) may significantly decrease negative affect and improve meta-cognition. PMID:26793145

  12. Investigation of social cognitive career theory for minority recruitment in school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Characterizing Design Cognition of High School Students: Initial Analyses Comparing Those with and without Pre-Engineering Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John; Lammi, Matthew; Gero, John; Grubbs, Michael E.; Paretti, Marie; Williams, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Reported in this article are initial results from of a longitudinal study to characterize the design cognition and cognitive design styles of high school students with and without pre-engineering course experience over a 2-year period, and to compare them with undergraduate engineering students. The research followed a verbal protocol analysis…

  14. Dissecting Sequences of Regulation and Cognition: Statistical Discourse Analysis of Primary School Children's Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Extending past research showing that regulative activities (metacognitive and relational) can aid learning, this study tests whether sequences of cognitive, metacognitive and relational activities affect subsequent cognition. Scaffolded by a computer avatar, 54 primary school students (working in 18 groups of 3) discussed writing a report about a…

  15. Fostering Non-Cognitive Development of Underrepresented Students through Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Recommendations for School Counselor Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Hale, Robyn W.

    2016-01-01

    The non-cognitive factors (NCFs) endorsed by Sedlacek (2004) appear to align with the core values of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). This article explores theoretical and empirical evidence that suggests REBT fosters the development of NCFs. School counselors can promote non-cognitive development by embedding REBT throughout direct and…

  16. Explaining the Links between Workload, Distress, and Work-Family Conflict among School Employees: Physical, Cognitive, and Emotional Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilies, Remus; Huth, Megan; Ryan, Ann Marie; Dimotakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intraindividual relationships among workload and affective distress; cognitive, physical, and emotional fatigue; and work-family conflict among school employees. Using a repeated-measure, within-person research design, the authors found that work demands and affective distress, as well as cognitive, emotional, and physical…

  17. Factor Analytic Study of Cognitive Processing and Self Perception of Learning Disabilities among the Elementary Inclusive School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was an attempt to explore the underlying construct of cognitive processing and self-perception of learning disabilities in elementary inclusive school children. A cognitive assessment test battery and self-perception of disabilities inventory was developed by the investigator and administered to 100 elementary sixth and…

  18. Effects of School Counselors' Cognitive Behavioral Consultation on Irrational and Efficacy Beliefs of Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Consultation is an indirect service frequently offered as part of comprehensive school counseling programs. This study explored the efficacy of a specific model of consultation, rational emotive-social behavior consultation (RE-SBC). Elementary school teachers participated in face-to-face and online consultation groups aimed at influencing…

  19. Mother's Happiness with Cognitive - Executive Functions and Facial Emotional Recognition in School Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Maryam; Seifenaraghi, Maryam; Farhud, Dariush D; Afrooz, G Ali; Khanahmadi, Mohammad

    2015-05-01

    According to the mother's key roles in bringing up emotional and cognitive abilities of mentally retarded children and respect to positive psychology in recent decades, this research is administered to assess the relation between mother's happiness level with cognitive- executive functions (i.e. attention, working memory, inhibition and planning) and facial emotional recognition ability as two factors in learning and adjustment skills in mentally retarded children with Down syndrome. This study was an applied research and data were analyzed by Pearson correlation procedure. Population is included all school children with Down syndrome (9-12 yr) that come from Tehran, Iran. Overall, 30 children were selected as an in access sample. After selection and agreement of parents, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) was performed to determine the student's IQ, and then mothers were invited to fill out the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). Cognitive-executive functions were evaluated by tests as followed: Continues Performance Test (CPT), N-Back, Stroop test (day and night version) and Tower of London. Ekman emotion facial expression test was also accomplished for assessing facial emotional recognition in children with Down syndrome, individually. Mother's happiness level had a positive relation with cognitive-executive functions (attention, working memory, inhibition and planning) and facial emotional recognition in her children with Down syndrome, significantly. Parents' happiness (especially mothers) is a powerful predictor for cognitive and emotional abilities of their children.

  20. Assessing therapy-relevant cognitive capacities in young people: development and psychometric evaluation of the self-reflection and insight scale for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Floor M; Heyne, David; Blöte, Anke W; van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2010-05-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive-behaviour therapy with young people may be influenced by a young person's capacity for self-reflection and insight. Clinicians who assess clients' proficiencies in these cognitive capacities can better tailor cognitive and behavioural techniques to the client, facilitating engagement and enhancing treatment outcome. It is therefore important that sound instruments for assessing self-reflection and insight in young people are available. The aim of the current study was to translate and adapt the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) for use with a child and adolescent population (Study 1), and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the resulting measure, the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale for Youth (SRIS-Y; Study 2). In Study 1 (n=145), the comprehensibility of the SRIS-Y was assessed in a community sample of children and adolescents. Study 2 (n=215) then explored the reliability and structural, convergent, and divergent validity of the SRIS-Y. The SRIS-Y was found to be comprehensible to young people, and had good reliability and structural validity. It appears that the SRIS-Y is a sound instrument for assessing therapy-relevant cognitive capacities in young people, of potential benefit in both research and clinical contexts. Future research foci include the predictive validity of the instrument.

  1. Advancing Lie Detection by Inducing Cognitive Load on Liars: A Review of Relevant Theories and Techniques Guided by Lessons from Polygraph-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Igou, Frank P.; Dixon, Alexa P.; Tcholakian, Talar

    2013-01-01

    This article critically reviews techniques and theories relevant to the emerging field of “lie detection by inducing cognitive load selectively on liars.” To help these techniques benefit from past mistakes, we start with a summary of the polygraph-based Controlled Question Technique (CQT) and the major criticisms of it made by the National Research Council (2003), including that it not based on a validated theory and administration procedures have not been standardized. Lessons from the more successful Guilty Knowledge Test are also considered. The critical review that follows starts with the presentation of models and theories offering insights for cognitive lie detection that can undergird theoretically load-inducing approaches. This is followed by evaluation of specific research-based, load-inducing proposals, especially for their susceptibility to rehearsal and other countermeasures. To help organize these proposals and suggest new direction for innovation and refinement, a theoretical taxonomy is presented based on the type of cognitive load induced in examinees (intrinsic or extraneous) and how open-ended the responses to test items are. Finally, four recommendations are proffered that can help researchers and practitioners to avert the corresponding mistakes with the CQT and yield new, valid cognitive lie detection technologies. PMID:23378840

  2. Middle School Girls' Science Motivation and Performance: Cognitive Effects of an Out-of-School Time Program with Nutrition and Fitness Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Middle school is a critical period in the cognitive and academic development of young women, and a time when their performance and interest in science may decline. After school programs play a key role in engaging youth in learning by providing opportunities to increase health and wellness, set goals, and strategize problem solving. Skills…

  3. The enhancement of students’ mathematical representation in junior high school using cognitive apprenticeship instruction (CAI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to get an in-depth understanding of the enhancement of students’ mathematical representation. This study is experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design. The subject of this study is the students’ of the eighth grade from junior high schools in Bandung: high-level and middle-level. In each school, two parallel groups were chosen as a control group and an experimental group. The experimental group was given cognitive apprenticeship instruction (CAI) treatment while the control group was given conventional learning. The results show that the enhancement of students’ mathematical representation who obtained CAI treatment was better than the conventional one, viewed which can be observed from the overall, mathematical prior knowledge (MPK), and school level. It can be concluded that CAI can be used as a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ mathematical representation.

  4. Promoting middle school students’ abstract-thinking ability through cognitive apprenticeship instruction in mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get an in-depth understanding of students’ abstract-thinking ability in mathematics learning. This study was an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. The subject of this study was eighth-grade students from two junior high schools in Bandung. In each schools, two parallel groups were selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was exposed to Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction (CAI) treatment, whereas the control group was exposed to conventional learning. The results showed that abstract-thinking ability of students in experimental group was better than that of those in control group in which it could be observed from the overall and school level. It could be concluded that CAI could be a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ abstract-thinking ability.

  5. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F C; Spaan, Pauline E J; Majoie, Charles B L M; Nederveen, Aart J; Walstra, Gerard J M; de Jonghe, Jos F M; van Gool, Willem A; Olabarriaga, Silvia D; Korkhov, Vladimir V; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in a memory clinic sample and its effect on the associations between hippocampal volume and memory performance. Eleven of 170 consecutive patients (6.5%; 13% of patients younger than 65 years) referred to memory clinics showed noncredible performance on symptom validity tests (SVTs, viz. Word Memory Test and Test of Memory Malingering). They were compared to a demographically matched group (n = 57) selected from the remaining patients. Hippocampal volume, measured by an automated volumetric method (Freesurfer), was correlated with scores on six verbal memory tests. The median correlation was r = .49 in the matched group. However, the relation was absent (median r = -.11) in patients who failed SVTs. Memory clinic samples may include patients who show noncredible performance, which invalidates their MCI diagnosis. This underscores the importance of applying SVTs in evaluating patients with cognitive complaints that may signify a predementia stage, especially when these patients are relatively young.

  6. The Relevance of Working Critical and Safe Internet Use in the School as a Key to Strengthen Digital Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakel GAMITO GOMEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the Internet have become indispensable means for the daily life of almost sectors of the population. Likewise, digital development has had a great impact on the younger population and, due to the frequent and continuous use of ICT, children are exposed daily to the multiple risks that exist in the network. This work has collected data, answers, attitudes and perceptions about the habits of use of ICT, the risks of the internet and the relevance of working this topic in the school. For this purpose, a training action has been designed and implemented with fifth year grade Primary Education students. The results have corroborated that the use of ICT and Internet connectivity are part of the day-to-day life of the adolescent population but they lack the necessary maturity to deal with the conflicting situations that they will have to face in the network. At the same time, the students have valued positively the formative action and that confirm the relevance of working on security aspects related to digital competence in the school.

  7. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  8. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development.

  9. Developmentally sensitive cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescent school refusal: rationale and case illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, David; Sauter, Floor M; Ollendick, Thomas H; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-06-01

    School refusal can be difficult to treat and the poorest treatment response is observed among older school refusers. This poor response may be explained, in part, by the impact of developmental transitions and tasks upon the young person, their family, and the treatment process. This paper describes and illustrates the @school program, a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) designed to promote developmental sensitivity when planning and delivering treatment for adolescent school refusal. Treatment is modularized and it incorporates progress reviews, fostering a planned yet flexible approach to CBT. The treatment is illustrated in the case of Allison, a 16-year-old female presenting with major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. A case formulation guided the selection, sequencing, and pacing of modules targeting predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and protective factors. Treatment comprised 16 sessions with Allison (interventions addressing depression, anxiety, and school attendance) and 15 concurrent sessions with her mother (strategies to facilitate an adolescent's school attendance), including two sessions with Allison and mother together (family communication and problem solving to reduce parent-adolescent conflict). Two treatment-related consultations were also conducted with Allison's homeroom teacher. Allison's school attendance improved during the course of treatment. By post-treatment, there was a decrease in internalizing behavior, an increase in self-efficacy, and remission of depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. Clinically significant treatment gains were maintained at 2-month follow-up. Factors influencing outcome may include those inherent to the @school program together with less specific factors. Special consideration is given to parents' use of both authoritative and autonomy-granting approaches when helping an adolescent to attend school.

  10. Smoking status and cognitive performance among vocational school students in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengjuan; Huang, Lili; Zhou, Shuang; Shi, Qiang; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Chen

    2018-02-01

    In countries where smoking is associated with lower socioeconomic status, smokers tend to perform worse on cognitive tasks than non-smokers. China is now undergoing a similar process with a recent study showing that there is a reduced cognitive performance in middle aged but not in elderly smokers. We examined the links between smoking status and cognitive functioning among vocational school students in Beijing, China. A total of 213 students aged 16-20 (98 smokers and 115 non-smokers) were recruited from three vocational schools in Beijing. Participants completed three subtests of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (information, arithmetic, digit span) and Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Smokers also completed a cigarette smoking questionnaire and Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Smokers performed worse than non-smokers in tests of arithmetic and digit span forward (t = 4.25, 2.05, both P < .05). Scores on digit span backward did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but among smokers, the performance on this subtest was related to the age of starting smoking (r = 0.26, p < .001). Cognitive performance in smokers was not related to tobacco dependence or intensity of smoking. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had a higher total DEX score and higher scores on three of its five subscales (Inhibition, Knowing-doing dissociation and Social regulation, all p < .05). Another subscale, In-resistance, did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but differentiated smokers with lower and higher levels of nicotine dependence (t = -2.12, p < .05). Smokers performed worse on some cognitive tasks than non-smokers and scored higher on a questionnaire assessing executive dysfunction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Scientific thinking in elementary school: Children's social cognition and their epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2017-03-01

    Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding the nature of science), and general information-processing skills (inhibition, intelligence, and language abilities) in a whole-class testing procedure. A multiple indicators multiple causes model revealed a significant influence of social cognition (AToM) on epistemological understanding, and a McNemar test suggested that children's development of AToM is an important precursor for the emergence of an advanced, mature epistemological understanding. Children's epistemological understanding, in turn, predicted their experimentation skills. Importantly, this relation was independent of the common influences of general information processing. Significant relations between experimentation skills and inhibition, and between epistemological understanding, intelligence, and language abilities emerged, suggesting that general information processing contributes to the conceptual development that is involved in scientific thinking. The model of scientific thinking that was tested in this study (social cognition and epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills) fitted the data significantly better than 2 alternative models, which assumed nonspecific, equally strong relations between all constructs under investigation. Our results support the conclusion that social cognition plays a foundational role in the emergence of children's epistemological understanding, which in turn is closely related to the development of experimentation skills. Our findings have significant implications for the teaching of scientific thinking in elementary school and they stress the importance of children's epistemological understanding in

  12. Survey of cognition on nuclear and radiation in Beijing high school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; He Jianrong; Zhu Xiayang; Yang Guoliang; Cong Huiling; Hu Qinfang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore cognition level on nuclear and radiation in Beijing high school students, which may provide evidence for promoting science popularization on nuclear and radiation. Methods: Questionnaire-based survey was conducted in Beijing high school students, randomized cluster sampling was used to recruit study participants. Demographic information was collected, and cognition level on nuclear and radiation was evaluated by questionnaire. Results: A total of 1029 pieces of eligible questionnaires were collected. The correct rate for answering common sense about nuclear and radiation was 58%, with score of boys significantly higher than that of girls (t = 4.131, P < 0.05). About subjective cognition of nuclear and radiation knowledge, 87 (8.5%) indicated 'quite clear', 779 (75.7%) indicated 'know a little', 163 (15.8%) indicated 'know nothing'. There was significant difference in score of common sense about nuclear and radiation among people with various subjective cognition level of nuclear and radiation (J-T = 8.279, P < 0.05). There was a linear correlation between support degree for nuclear power and subjective cognition level of nuclear and radiation (r = 0.161, P < 0.05). There was significant difference in score of common sense about nuclear and radiation among people with various support degree for nuclear power (J-T = 7.508, P < 0.05), whereas those who had got high scores tended to support nuclear power to a higher degree. Conclutions: Students knew little about knowledge on nuclear and radiation. It is necessary to strengthen propaganda and education on nuclear and radiation, which may help enhance the students' comprehensive quality, and sustainable expansion of nuclear power more support in the long run. (authors)

  13. Cognitive ability of preschool, primary and secondary school children in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Stiegmaier, Eva-Maria; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive abilities of children in Costa Rica and Austria were compared using three age groups (N = 385/366). Cognitive ability tests (mental speed, culture reduced/fluid intelligence, literacy/crystallized intelligence) were applied that differed in the extent to which they refer to school-related knowledge. Preschool children (kindergarten, 5-6 years old, N(CR) = 80, N(Au) = 51) were assessed with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM), primary school children (4th grade, 9-11 years old, N(CR) = 71, N(Au) = 71) with ZVT (a trail-making test), Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and items from PIRLS-Reading and TIMSS-Mathematics, and secondary school students (15-16 years old, N(CR) = 48, N(Au) = 48) with ZVT, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and items from PISA-Reading and PISA-Mathematics. Additionally, parents and pupils were given questionnaires covering family characteristics and instruction. Average cognitive abilities were higher in Austria (Greenwich-IQ M(CR) = 87 and M(Au) = 99, d(IQ) = 12 points) and differences were smaller in preschool than in secondary school (d(IQ) = 7 vs 20 points). Differences in crystallized intelligence were larger than in fluid intelligence (mental speed: d(IQ) = 12, Raven: d(IQ) = 10, student achievement tests: d(IQ) = 17 IQ points). Differences were larger in comparisons at the level of g-factors. Austrian children were also taller (6.80 cm, d = 1.07 SD), but had lower body mass index (BMI(CR) = 19.35 vs BMI(Au) = 17.59, d = -0.89 SD). Different causal hypotheses explaining these differences are compared.

  14. Probing High School Students' Cognitive Structures and Key Areas of Learning Difficulties on Ethanoic Acid Using the Flow Map Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Tingting; Zheng, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to explore high school students' cognitive structures and to identify their learning difficulties on ethanoic acid through the flow map method. The subjects of this study were 30 grade 1 students from Dong Yuan Road Senior High School in Xi'an, China. The interviews were conducted a week after the students…

  15. Reconstructionist Analysis on the Relevance of Secondary School Learning Opportunities in Promoting National Cohesion among Students in Machakos Town Sub-County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanzia, Ruth Mutunge; Mwangi, Simon Nyagah

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the relevance of secondary school learning opportunities in promoting national cohesion. The study was based on the ideals and principles of a school curriculum as advocated by Brameld Theodore on reconstructionism philosophy. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample size of four hundred and…

  16. The Relationship between Social and Motor Cognition in Primary School Age-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together. PMID:26941685

  17. Memory-rescuing effects of cannabidiol in an animal model of cognitive impairment relevant to neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagherazzi, Elen V; Garcia, Vanessa A; Maurmann, Natasha; Bervanger, Thielly; Halmenschlager, Luis H; Busato, Stefano B; Hallak, Jaime E; Zuardi, Antônio W; Crippa, José A; Schröder, Nadja

    2012-02-01

    Cannabidiol, the main nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa, possesses a large number of pharmacological effects including anticonvulsive, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective, as demonstrated in clinical and preclinical studies. Many neurodegenerative disorders involve cognitive deficits, and this has led to interest in whether cannabidiol could be useful in the treatment of memory impairment associated to these diseases. We used an animal model of cognitive impairment induced by iron overload in order to test the effects of cannabidiol in memory-impaired rats. Rats received vehicle or iron at postnatal days 12-14. At the age of 2 months, they received an acute intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or cannabidiol (5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) immediately after the training session of the novel object recognition task. In order to investigate the effects of chronic cannabidiol, iron-treated rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of cannabidiol for 14 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, they were submitted to object recognition training. Retention tests were performed 24 h after training. A single acute injection of cannabidiol at the highest dose was able to recover memory in iron-treated rats. Chronic cannabidiol improved recognition memory in iron-treated rats. Acute or chronic cannabidiol does not affect memory in control rats. The present findings provide evidence suggesting the potential use of cannabidiol for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Further studies, including clinical trials, are warranted to determine the usefulness of cannabidiol in humans suffering from neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Influence of Social Cognitive and Gender Variables on Technological Academic Interest among Spanish High-School Students: Testing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª

    2016-01-01

    This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…

  19. Moderate to heavy infections of Trichuris trichiura affect cognitive function in Jamaican school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, C; Grantham-McGregor, S M; Sawyer, A W; Cooper, E S; Robinson, B A; Bundy, D A

    1992-06-01

    A double-blind placebo trial was conducted to determine the effect of moderate to high loads of Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) infection on the cognitive functions of 159 school children (age 9-12 years) in Jamaica. Infected children were randomly assigned to Treatment or Placebo groups. A third group of randomly selected uninfected children were assigned to a Control for comparative purposes. The improvement in cognitive function was evaluated using a stepwise multiple linear regression, designed to control for any confounding variables. The expulsion of worms led to a significant improvement in tests of auditory short-term memory (P less than 0.02; P less than 0.01), and a highly significant improvement in the scanning and retrieval of long-term memory (P less than 0.001). After 9 weeks, treated children were no longer significantly different from an uninfected Control group in these three tests of cognitive function. The removal of T. trichiura was more important than Ascaris lumbricoides in determining this improvement. The results suggest that whipworm infection has an adverse effect on certain cognitive functions which is reversible by therapy.

  20. Social Cognitive Theory and Physical Activity Among Korean Male High-School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung Gun; Park, Seiyeong; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Ji-Won

    2018-02-01

    The most critical step in developing and implementing effective physical activity interventions is to understand the determinants and correlates of physical activity, and it is strongly suggested that such effort should be based on theories. The purpose of this study is to test the direct, indirect, and total effect of social cognitive theory constructs on physical activity among Korean male high-school students. Three-hundred and forty-one 10th-grade male students were recruited from a private single-sex high school located in Seoul, South Korea. Structural equation modeling was used to test the expected relationships among the latent variables. The proposed model accounted for 42% of the variance in physical activity. Self-efficacy had the strongest total effect on physical activity. Self-efficacy for being physically active was positively associated with physical activity ( p social cognitive theory is a useful framework to understand physical activity among Korean male adolescents. Physical activity interventions targeting Korean male high-school students should focus on the major sources of efficacy.

  1. Augmenting Cognitive Behavior Therapy for School Refusal with Fluoxetine: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Glenn A; Dudley, Amanda L; Gordon, Michael S; Klimkeit, Ester; Gullone, Eleonora; Taffe, John; Tonge, Bruce J

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates whether the augmentation of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with fluoxetine improves outcomes in anxious school refusing adolescents (11-16.5 years). Sixty-two participants were randomly allocated to CBT alone, CBT + fluoxetine or CBT + placebo. All treatments were well tolerated; with one suicide-attempt in the CBT + placebo group. All groups improved significantly on primary (school attendance) and secondary outcome measures (anxiety, depression, self-efficacy and clinician-rated global functioning); with gains largely maintained at 6-months and 1-year. Few participants were anxiety disorder free after acute treatment. During the follow-up period anxiety and depressive disorders continued to decline whilst school attendance remained stable, at around 54 %. The only significant between-group difference was greater adolescent-reported treatment satisfaction in the CBT + fluoxetine group than the CBT alone group. These results indicate the chronicity of school refusal, and the need for future research into how to best improve school attendance rates.

  2. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, COGNITION AND SCHOOL EDUCATION: REFLECTIONS BELOW THE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Alves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This text is fruit of studies, reflections and dialogues developed with graduate and post-graduate students inteaching and research coordinated by me, allocated in the research group: Human Development, Culture and Education, in rows : Language, Learning and Development and Imaginary Production and Creative Education. Over several years, the task of educational coordinating processes of teaching and research, allowed the construction of synthesis (always provisional, presented here. Having as a foundation the historic-cultural theory of Vygotsky and collaborators, the text reflects about human development, cognition and school education, pursuing the thesis that cognition is human development. To do this, search, in theoretical foundations of historical-cultural conception, the key elements that explain the process by which the biological becomes socio-historical, it takes up more carefully in the explicit about Vygotsky translates as plans or genetic fields of human development, increase the reflection articulating the categories: labor and language.

  3. Weekly brief phone support in self-help cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia disorder: Relevance to adherence and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Chung, Ka-Fai; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Ng, Tommy Ho-Yee; Cheng, Sammy Kin-Wing

    2014-12-01

    Self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an acceptable, low-intensity treatment in a stepped care model for insomnia. We tested the application of self-help CBT-I in a Chinese population. 312 participants with self-report of insomnia associated with distress or daytime impairment 3 or more nights per week for at least 3 months were randomized to self-help CBT-I with telephone support (SHS), self-help CBT-I (SH) and waiting-list (WL). The program was Internet-based with treatment materials delivered once per week, and lasted for 6 consecutive weeks, while the telephone support was limited to 15 min weekly. Mixed-effects analyses found significant group by time interaction in sleep and sleep-related cognitions at immediate and 4-week posttreatment. Post-hoc pairwise comparison with WL revealed that both SHS and SH had significantly higher sleep efficiency at immediate (p = .004 and p = .03, respectively) and 4-week posttreatment (p = .002 and p = .02, respectively) and lower insomnia and dysfunctional beliefs scores. The SHS group had additional improvements in sleep onset latency and sleep quality. Benefits with self-help CBT-I were maintained at 12-week posttreatment, but attrition rate was about 35%. Internet-based self-help CBT-I was effective and acceptable for treating insomnia in the Chinese population. A brief telephone support further enhanced the efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MUSIC CLASSES INFLUENCE ON THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Permiakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the influence of music classes on the cognitive functions formation in children of primary school age with regulatory development and children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods. The complex pediatric neuropsychological method by T. V. Akhutina is used in the presented study. This method was developed at the Laboratory of Neuropsychology in Moscow State University under the direction of T. V. Akhutina.Results. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results obtained during the neuropsychological research reveals that music classes within one year significantly influence on the increase in the rate of cognitive development of children with regulatory development. This is manifested in a more rapid formation of their kinetic and kinesthetic functions, hemispheric interaction and the ability to perceive and reproduce rhythmic structures. Research of influence of learning to play musical instruments within two years on the cognitive development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder showed significantly greater development of the programming functions and voluntary activity control, the kinetic functions, hemispheric interaction, the ability to perceive and reproduce rhythms per sample, verbal memory of children involved in music. This demonstrates more rapid flow of their compensatory processes and forming a number of cognitive functions.Scientific novelty. The statistically confirmed data on correctional-developing influence of music classes on cognitive development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are achieved.Practical significance. The research materials may be applied by practical psychologists in preparation of complex correctional care programs for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  5. Teacher’s Instructional Behaviour in Instructional Management at Elementary School Reviewed from Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Astuti Ni Putu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing aimed at (1 describing the importance of teacher to review instructional management at elementary school based on Piaget’s cognitive development theory; and (2 describing teacher’s instructional behavior in managing instructional at elementary school reviewed from Piaget’s cognitive development theory. In general, Piaget’ cognitive development theory divides children’ cognitive development into four stages. In the elementary school ages of 7 to 11 or 12 years old, Piaget classified the cognitive development into concrete operational marked by the use of clear and logic rules. The children implement logic thinking on concrete object, yet abstract or hypothetical. Although the intelligence of this step has been advanced, the way of thinking of the children is still limited because still based on concrete object. Therefore, teacher should comprehend the importance of concrete operational instructional at elementary school so the children could maximally achieve the learning goal in accordance to their thinking level that they acquire. The suggestion that can be proposed is that the teacher should synergize the characteristics of elementary school students in concrete operational stage with the instructional readiness in the steps of planning, implementation and evaluation.

  6. The Beck Initiative: Training School-Based Mental Health Staff in Cognitive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrey A. Creed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature supports cognitive therapy (CT as an efficacious treatment for youth struggling with emotional or behavioral problems. Recently, work in this area has extended the dissemination of CT to school-based settings. The current study has two aims: 1 to examine the development of therapists’ knowledge and skills in CT, an evidence-based approach to promoting student well-being, and 2 to examine patterns of narrative feedback provided to therapists participating in the program. As expected, school therapists trained in CT demonstrated significant gains in their knowledge of CT theory and in their demonstration of CT skills, with the majority of therapists surpassing the accepted threshold of competency in CT. In addition, an examination of feedback content suggested that narrative feedback provided to therapists most frequently consisted of positive feedback and instructions for future sessions. Suggestions for future research regarding dissemination of CT are discussed in light of increasing broad access to evidence based practices.

  7. Effect of breakfast timing on the cognitive functions of elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, N; Voet, H; Akivis, A; Vakil, E

    1996-10-01

    To study the effect of breakfast timing on selected cognitive functions of elementary school students. A 2-week randomized control intervention trial. Five elementary schools. The subjects comprised 569 children, 51% of them boys, aged 11 to 13 years; the children were in grades 5 through 6 (17 classes). The subjects lived in different areas and had different socioeconomic backgrounds. Each subject was tested twice, by 2 versions of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, 2 alternative forms of the logical memory subtest of the revised Wechsler Memory Scale, and 2 versions of the Benton Visual Retention Test. On the first test, before any nutritional intervention, the subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire about their food intake on the day of testing. Two thirds of the subjects received 200 ml of 3%-fat milk and 30 g of sugared cornflakes for the next 14 days, and all the subjects were reexamined on the 15th day. Scoring on the different tests was compared with baseline scores. After 15 days, children who ate breakfast at school scored notably higher on most of the test modules than did children who ate breakfast at home and children who did not at breakfast. Our results indicate that routinely eating breakfast 2 hours prior to being tested does not improve cognitive functions in 11- to 13-year-old elementary school students, but food supplementation 30 minutes prior to taking a test notably improves scoring. We suggest further studies on the relationship between meal content, feeding time, and scholastic performance.

  8. School-based cognitive behavioral interventions for anxious youth: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Raknes, Solfrid; Haaland, Aashild Tellefsen; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Baste, Valborg; Himle, Joe; Rapee, Ron; Hoffart, Asle

    2017-03-04

    Anxiety disorders are prevalent among adolescents and may have long-lasting negative consequences for the individual, the family and society. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment. However, many anxious youth do not seek treatment. Low-intensity CBT in schools may improve access to evidence-based services. We aim to investigate the efficacy of two CBT youth anxiety programs with different intensities (i.e., number and length of sessions), both group-based and administered as early interventions in a school setting. The objectives of the study are to examine the effects of school-based interventions for youth anxiety and to determine whether a less intensive intervention is non-inferior to a more intensive intervention. The present study is a randomized controlled trial comparing two CBT interventions to a waitlist control group. A total of 18 schools participate and we aim to recruit 323 adolescents (12-16 years). Youth who score above a cutoff on an anxiety symptom scale will be included in the study. School nurses recruit participants and deliver the interventions, with mental health workers as co-therapists and/or supervisors. Primary outcomes are level of anxiety symptoms and anxiety-related functional impairments. Secondary outcomes are level of depressive symptoms, quality of life and general psychosocial functioning. Non-inferiority between the two active interventions will be declared if a difference of 1.4 or less is found on the anxiety symptom measure post-intervention and a difference of 0.8 on the interference scale. Effects will be analyzed by mixed effect models, applying an intention to treat procedure. The present study extends previous research by comparing two programs with different intensity. A brief intervention, if effective, could more easily be subject to large-scale implementation in school health services. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02279251 . Registered on 15 October 2014. Retrospectively registered.

  9. The glycaemic potency of breakfast and cognitive function in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, R; Rogers, P J; Nelson, M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how the glycaemic potency (blood glucose (BG)-raising potential) of breakfast is associated with cognitive function (CF) in school children, taking into account important confounders, including iron status, underlying physiological adaptations and socio-economic status. Sixty children aged 11-14 years were selected on the basis of having breakfast habitually. Their breakfast and any snacks eaten on the morning of the study were recorded. They were categorized into four groups according to the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of the breakfast: low-GI, high-GL; high-GI, high-GL; low-GI, low-GL and high-GI, low-GL above or below the median for GI=61 and GL=27. BG levels were measured in finger-prick blood samples immediately before and immediately after the CF tests. A low-GI, high-GL breakfast was associated with better performance on a speed of information processing (Pbreakfast with better performance on an immediate word recall task (Pbreakfast with better performance on a Matrices task (Pperformance on the majority of the CF tests (4 of 7) used. This study describes the macronutrient composition of breakfast that could have a positive influence on the cognition of school children, proposes the use of both GI and GL to estimate exposure, and discusses future directions in this area of research.

  10. An Effects of Behavioral Assertiveness Training And Cognitive Assertiveness Training on Assertiveness Behavior of Elementary School Studennts in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    金, 奎卓; 野島, 一彦

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Behavioral Assertiveness Training (BAT), and those of Cognitive Assertiveness Training (CAT), also to compare the effects of these trainings accoiding to the distinction of sex. The subjects were thirty two elementary school students who voluntarily participated in this study. These thirty two subjects were randomly divided into two groups, behavioral assertiveness training group and cognitive assertiveness training group, and each group...

  11. Supporting Social and Cognitive Growth Among Disadvantaged Middle-Grades Students in TASC After-School Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Russell

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of after-school programming remains rife with unanswered questions. What constitutes quality in after-school programs? Are after-school opportunities valuable for participants regardless of their quality? Are differences in quality associated with differences in participant benefit? This sub-study of the longitudinal evaluation of The After-School Corporation (TASC looks at how after-school opportunities with varying features affect urban middle-grades (6-8 adolescents who live in impoverished circumstances. Supported by the William T. Grant Foundation, the study explores the associations between after-school project features and the social and cognitive outcomes of disadvantaged middle-grades participants in TASC programs. The study relies on data collected during the 2001-02 and 2002-03 school years in eight TASC projects serving middle-grades students.

  12. Relevancia e Inferencia: Procesos cognitivos propios de la comunicación humana Relevance and Inference: Cognitive Processes Typical of Human Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Moya Pardo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende mostrar los planteamientos cognitivos más representativos de la Teoría de la Relevancia propuesta por Spelber & Wilson con respecto al modelo ostensivo-inferencial. Este modelo plantea un mecanismo deductivo explícito que da cuenta de los procesos y estrategias que permiten el paso del significado literal a la interpretación pragmática de los mensajes en el proceso de comunicación humana.This paper aims to show the most representative cognitive tenets of the Theory of Relevance by Sperber and Wilson as to the ostensive-inferential model. This model posists an explicit deductive mechanism which accounts for processes and strategies allowing the transfer from literal meaning to pragmatic interpretation of messages in the human communicative process.

  13. Cognitive, physical and physiological responses of school boy cricketers to a 30-over batting simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, David; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how cognitive and physical performance are affected during a prolonged, fatigue-inducing cricket-batting simulation. Fifteen amateur batters from three Eastern Cape schools in South Africa were recruited (mean ± SD: age 17 ± 0.92 years; stature 1.75 ± 0.07 m; body mass 78.3 ± 13.2 kg). Participants completed a 6-stage, 30-over batting simulation (BATEX © ). During the protocol, there were five periods of cognitive assessment (CogState brief test battery, Melbourne, Australia). The primary outcome measures from each cognitive task were speed and accuracy/error rates. Physiological (heart rate) and physical (sprint times) responses were also recorded. Sprint times deteriorated (d = 0.84; P attention and vigilance (d = 0.56; P = 0.21) and attention and working memory (d = 0.61; P = 0.11), reducing task performance after 30 overs. Therefore, prolonged batting with repeated shuttle running fatigues amateur batters and adversely affects higher-order cognitive function. This will affect decision-making, response selection, response execution and other batting-related executive processes. We recommend that training should incorporate greater proportions of centre-wicket batting with repeated, high-intensity shuttle running. This will improve batting-related skills and information processing when fatigued, making practice more representative of competition.

  14. The Study of Factors Relevant to Skin Cancer Preventive Behavior in Female High School Students in Yazd Based on Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad hosein baghiyanimoghadam; soheila mohammadi; mohammad taghi norbala; seed saeed mazlomi

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Skin cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in Yazd, and childhood and adolescence are particularly important time for preventing later skin cancer risk. The goal of this study is to assess the factors relevant to skin cancer preventive behavior in female high school students in Yazd based on protection motivation theory. Methods: Participants in this cross- sectional study were 360 female students from 4 high schools in Yazd. Data were gathered through a self- report quest...

  15. Ways of incorporating photographic images in learning and assessing high school biology: A study of visual perception and visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Brenda Chaumont

    This study evaluated the cognitive benefits and costs of incorporating biology-textbook and student-generated photographic images into the learning and assessment processes within a 10th grade biology classroom. The study implemented Wandersee's (2000) 20-Q Model of Image-Based Biology Test-Item Design (20-Q Model) to explore the use of photographic images to assess students' understanding of complex biological processes. A thorough review of the students' textbook using ScaleMaster R with PC Interface was also conducted. The photographs, diagrams, and other representations found in the textbook were measured to determine the percentage of each graphic depicted in the book and comparisons were made to the text. The theoretical framework that guided the research included Human Constructivist tenets espoused by Mintzes, Wandersee and Novak (2000). Physiological and cognitive factors of images and image-based learning as described by Robin (1992), Solso (1997) and Wandersee (2000) were examined. Qualitative case study design presented by Yin (1994), Denzin and Lincoln (1994) was applied and data were collected through interviews, observations, student activities, student and school artifacts and Scale Master IIRTM measurements. The results of the study indicate that although 24% of the high school biology textbook is devoted to photographic images which contribute significantly to textbook cost, the teacher and students paid little attention to photographic images other than as aesthetic elements for creating biological ambiance, wasting valuable opportunities for learning. The analysis of the photographs corroborated findings published by the Association American Association for the Advancement of Science that indicated "While most of the books are lavishly illustrated, these representations are rarely helpful, because they are too abstract, needlessly complicated, or inadequately explained" (Roseman, 2000, p. 2). The findings also indicate that applying the 20-Q

  16. Using social cognitive theory to explain discretionary, "leisure-time" physical exercise among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Eric R; Petosa, Rick L; Charlton, Thomas E

    2003-06-01

    To examine whether knowledge of high school students' actions of self-regulation, and perceptions of self-efficacy to overcome exercise barriers, social situation, and outcome expectation will predict non-school related moderate and vigorous physical exercise. High school students enrolled in introductory Physical Education courses completed questionnaires that targeted selected Social Cognitive Theory variables. They also self-reported their typical "leisure-time" exercise participation using a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate correlation statistic and hierarchical regression were conducted on reports of moderate and vigorous exercise frequency. Each predictor variable was significantly associated with measures of moderate and vigorous exercise frequency. All predictor variables were significant in the final regression model used to explain vigorous exercise. After controlling for the effects of gender, the psychosocial variables explained 29% of variance in vigorous exercise frequency. Three of four predictor variables were significant in the final regression equation used to explain moderate exercise. The final regression equation accounted for 11% of variance in moderate exercise frequency. Professionals who attempt to increase the prevalence of physical exercise through educational methods should focus on the psychosocial variables utilized in this study.

  17. The Influence of Diet on Children’s Cognition and Performance in School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can affect school performance in children, yet evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In high-income countries the role of dietary quality, iron and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) are nutritional issues that may be of relevance...... activity and dietary intake. Moreover, we assessed student performance in d2-test of attention and Danish standard tests in reading and mathematics. Hemoglobin concentration, serum ferritin concentration and whole blood fatty acid composition were employed as biomarkers of iron and n-3 LCPUFA...... on household education level, sex and baseline reading skills of the child....

  18. LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Østergaard, Lars; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten

    2014-09-18

    The aim of the study; LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion was to develop, document, and evaluate a multi-component physical activity (PA) intervention in public schools in Denmark. The primary outcome was cognitive function. Secondary outcomes were academic skills, body composition, aerobic fitness and PA. The primary aim of the present paper was to describe the rationale, design and methods of the LCoMotion study. LCoMotion was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled study. Fourteen schools from all five regions in Denmark participated. All students from 6th and 7th grades were invited to participate (n = 869) and consent was obtained for 87% (n = 759). Baseline measurements were obtained in November/December 2013 and follow-up measurements in May/June 2014. The intervention lasted five months and consisted of a "package" of three main components: PA during academic lessons, PA during recess and PA homework. Furthermore a cycling campaign was conducted during the intervention period. Intervention schools should endeavor to ensure that students were physically active for at least 60 min every school day. Cognitive function was measured by a modified Eriksen flanker task and academic skills by a custom made mathematics test. PA was objectively measured by accelerometers (ActiGraph, GT3X and GT3X+) and aerobic fitness assessed by an intermittent shuttle-run test (the Andersen intermittent running test). Furthermore, compliance with the intervention was assessed by short message service (SMS)-tracking and questionnaires were delivered to students, parents and teachers. LCoMotion has ability to provide new insights on the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention on cognitive function and academic skills in 6th and 7th grade students. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02012881 (10/10/2013).

  19. Virtual Learning Simulations in High School: Effects on Cognitive and Non-cognitive Outcomes and Implications on the Development of STEM Academic and Career Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Thisgaard, Malene; Makransky, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increas...

  20. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Syväoja

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls, who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose

  1. New non-cognitive procedures for medical applicant selection: a qualitative analysis in one school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Sara; Vinker, Shlomo

    2014-11-07

    Recent data have called into question the reliability and predictive validity of standard admission procedures to medical schools. Eliciting non-cognitive attributes of medical school applicants using qualitative tools and methods has thus become a major challenge. 299 applicants aged 18-25 formed the research group. A set of six research tools was developed in addition to the two existing ones. These included: a portfolio task, an intuitive task, a cognitive task, a personal task, an open self-efficacy questionnaire and field-notes. The criteria-based methodology design used constant comparative analysis and grounded theory techniques to produce a personal attributes profile per participant, scored on a 5-point scale holistic rubric. Qualitative validity of data gathering was checked by comparing the profiles elicited from the existing interview against the profiles elicited from the other tools, and by comparing two profiles of each of the applicants who handed in two portfolio tasks. Qualitative validity of data analysis was checked by comparing researcher results with those of an external rater (n =10). Differences between aggregated profile groups were checked by the Npar Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and by Spearman Rank Order Correlation Test. All subjects gave written informed consent to their participation. Privacy was protected by using code numbers. A concept map of 12 personal attributes emerged, the core constructs of which were motivation, sociability and cognition. A personal profile was elicited. Inter-rater agreement was 83.3%. Differences between groups by aggregated profiles were found significant (p < .05, p < .01, p < .001).A random sample of sixth year students (n = 12) underwent the same admission procedure as the research group. Rank order was different; and arrogance was a new construct elicited in the sixth year group. This study suggests a broadening of the methodology for selecting medical school applicants. This methodology

  2. Use of mobile and cordless phones and change in cognitive function: a prospective cohort analysis of Australian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Benke, Geza; Smith, Catherine L; Redmayne, Mary; Dimitriadis, Christina; Dalecki, Anna; Macleod, Skye; Sim, Malcolm R; Croft, Rodney J; Wolfe, Rory; Kaufman, Jordy; Abramson, Michael J

    2017-06-19

    Some previous studies have suggested an association between children's use of mobile phones (MPs)/cordless phones (CPs) and development of cognitive function. We evaluated possible longitudinal associations between the use of MPs and CPs in a cohort of primary school children and effects on their cognitive function. Data on children's socio-demographics, use of MPs and CPs, and cognitive function were collected at baseline (2010-2012) and follow-up (2012-2013). Cognitive outcomes were evaluated with the CogHealth™ test battery and Stroop Color-Word test. The change in the number of MP/CP voice calls weekly from baseline to follow-up was dichotomized: "an increase in calls" or a "decrease/no change in calls". Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusting for confounders and clustering by school, were performed to evaluate the associations between the change in cognitive outcomes and change in MP and CP exposures. Of 412 children, a larger proportion of them used a CP (76% at baseline and follow-up), compared to a MP (31% at baseline and 43% at follow-up). Of 26 comparisons of changes in cognitive outcomes, four demonstrated significant associations. The increase in MP usage was associated with larger reduction in response time for response inhibition, smaller reduction in the number of total errors for spatial problem solving and larger increase in response time for a Stroop interference task. Except for the smaller reduction in detection task accuracy, the increase in CP usage had no effect on the changes in cognitive outcomes. Our study shows that a larger proportion of children used CPs compared to MPs. We found limited evidence that change in the use of MPs or CPs in primary school children was associated with change in cognitive function.

  3. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 5. Life Academy of Health and Bioscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  4. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 7. TechBoston Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  5. Structural Equation Modeling of the Effects of Family, Preschool, and Stunting on the Cognitive Development of School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Rachel Ajayi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent study based on a sample of 1,580 children from five adjacent geographical locations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, was carried out to examine the association of nutrition, family influence, preschool education, and disadvantages in geographical location with the cognitive development of school children. Data were collected on the children from 2009 to 2011 for this developmental study and included cognitive scores and information on the health and nutrition of the children. The current study analyzed the association of demographic variables (geographical location (site, child variables (sex, preschool education and socioeconomic status, parental level of education (maternal and paternal, child’s health (HIV status and hemoglobin level and anthropometric measures of nutritional status (height-for-age with children’s cognitive outcomes. The hypothesis is that the nutritional status of children is a pathway through which the indirect effects of the variables of interest exert influence on their cognitive outcomes. Factor analysis based on principal components was used to create a variable based on the cognitive measures, correlations were used to examine the bivariate association between the variables of interest in the preliminary analysis and a path analysis was constructed, which was used for the disaggregation of the direct and indirect effects of the predictors for each cognitive test in a structural equation model. The results revealed that nutritional status directly predicts cognitive test scores and is a path through which other variables indirectly influence children’s cognitive outcome and development.

  6. Sensory, cognitive, and linguistic factors in the early academic performance of elementary school children: The Benton-IU project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles S; Kidd, Gary R; Homer, Douglas G; Connell, Phil J; Lowther, Andrya; Eddins, David A; Krueger, Glenn; Goss, David A; Rainey, Bill B; Gospel, Mary D; Watson, Betty U

    2003-01-01

    Standardized sensory, perceptual, linguistic, intellectual, and cognitive tests were administered to 470 children, approximately 96% of the students entering the first grade in the four elementary schools of Benton County, Indiana, over a 3-year period (1995--1997). The results of 36 tests and subtests administered to entering first graders were well described by a 4-factor solution. These factors and the tests that loaded most heavily on them were reading-related skills (phonological awareness, letter and word identification); visual cognition (visual perceptual abilities, spatial perception, visual memory); verbal cognition (language development, vocabulary, verbal concepts); and speech processing (the ability to understand speech under difficult listening conditions). A cluster analysis identified 9 groups of children, each with a different profile of scores on the 4 factors. Within these groups, the proportion of students with unsatisfactory reading achievement in the first 2 years of elementary school (as reflected in teacher-assigned grades) varied from 3% to 40%. The profiles of factor scores demonstrated the primary influence of the reading-related skills factor on reading achievement and also on other areas of academic performance. The second strongest predictor of reading and mathematics grades was the visual cognition factor, followed by the verbal cognition factor. The speech processing factor was the weakest predictor of academic achievement, accounting for less than 1% of the variance in reading achievement. This project was a collaborative effort of the Benton Community School Corporation and a multidisciplinary group of investigators from Indiana University.

  7. Mothers' and Fathers' Well-being, Parenting Styles, and their Children's Cognitive and Behavioural Strategies at Primary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onatsu-Arvilommi, Tiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Aunola, Kaisa

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which parents' well-being and parenting styles provide a basis of the development of their children's cognitive and behavioral strategies in primary school. Reveals that maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with their children's use of maladaptive strategies, whereas maternal authoritative parenting styles…

  8. Does Food Insecurity at Home Affect Non-Cognitive Performance at School? A Longitudinal Analysis of Elementary Student Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates models of the transitional effects of food insecurity experiences on children's non-cognitive performance in school classrooms using a panel of 4710 elementary students enrolled in 1st, 3rd, and 5th grade (1999-2003). In addition to an extensive set of child and household-level characteristics, we use information on U.S.…

  9. A Case Study on Collective Cognition and Operation in Team-Based Computer Game Design by Middle-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fengfeng; Im, Tami

    2014-01-01

    This case study examined team-based computer-game design efforts by children with diverse abilities to explore the nature of their collective design actions and cognitive processes. Ten teams of middle-school children, with a high percentage of minority students, participated in a 6-weeks, computer-assisted math-game-design program. Essential…

  10. The Experiences of Counselors Who Use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Middle School Students Who Were Bullied: A Generic Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Gloria J.

    2016-01-01

    This generic qualitative study investigated the experiences of counselors who use cognitive behavioral therapy with middle school students who were bullied. Counselors can play a significant role in the life of an adolescent when tools are offered to help the adolescent recognize negative thought patterns and help them work towards attaining…

  11. Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Observed Autism Symptom Severity during School Recess: A Preliminary Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…

  12. Spelling Difficulties in School-Aged Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral, Psycholinguistic, Cognitive, and Graphomotor Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group…

  13. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  14. Direct and vicarious victimization at school and at home as risk factors for suicidal cognition among Italian youngsters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.; Winkel, F.W.

    2003-01-01

    Suicidal cognition is defined here as the combination of thinking about committing suicide and engaging in self-harm and is considered to indicate maladjustment following an extreme internalized reaction to negative life events. Victimization at home and at school might lead some youth to suicidal

  15. The Role of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities in Predicting Writing Achievement during the School-Age Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Damien C.; Bulut, Okan; McGrew, Kevin S.; Frison, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Writing is a complex academic task--it involves numerous mental processes. Given the necessity for developing writing skills from elementary to secondary school, this study aimed to investigate the role of broad cognitive abilities derived from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence in predicting skills associated with writing…

  16. Education and Health in Late-Life among High School Graduates: Cognitive versus Psychological Aspects of Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Just as postsecondary schooling serves as a dividing line between the advantaged and disadvantaged on outcomes like income and marital status, it also serves as a dividing line between the healthy and unhealthy. Why are the better educated healthier? Human capital theory posits that education makes one healthier via cognitive (skill improvements)…

  17. A Music Program for Training Head Start Teachers Using a Sequential, Cognitive, Developmental Process with Pre-school Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodhecker, Shirley G.

    This practicum report addresses the need to supply Head Start teachers with: (1) specific preschool music objectives; (2) a sequential preschool developmental program in music to match the child's cognitive level; (3) how to choose instructional material to encourage specific basic school readiness skills; and (4) workshops to accomplish these…

  18. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral characteristics and cognitive development among school age children born to women with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güveli, Betül T; Gürses, Candan; Ataklı, Dilek; Akça Kalem, Şükriye; Dirican, Ahmet; Bebek, Nerses; Baykan, Betül; Gökyiğit, Aysen

    2015-04-01

    Greater risks of congenital malformation as well as cognitive and behavioral development in later childhood occur as a result of in utero exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We examined the effects of AEDs on behavioral characteristics and cognitive development among school age children born to women with epilepsy. Children aged 6-15 years and born to women with epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Information was collected on the women's demographics and the details of their usage/non-usage of AEDs during pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for the Children-Revised (WICS-R) test was administered to the children. The Alexander IQ test and the Conner Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) were administered to the mothers. Comparisons were made between children who had been exposed and not exposed to AEDs in utero and if exposed, according to exposure to AED monotherapy or polytherapy. The mother's education level and IQ score and data from the same parent's siblings were evaluated with respect to consanguinity. Forty-one children born to 28 women with epilepsy were enrolled. Seven mothers had multiple pregnancies. Twenty-three pregnancies (56%) were exposed to monotherapy and five (12·1%) to polytherapy. The remaining 13 (31·7%) were not exposed to AEDs. Maternal education level was a significant major factor in child IQ development (P sibling assessment indicated a negative effect of valproate on IQ. It is important that the AED dosage be reduced to a minimum to maintain seizure control for healthy cognitive and behavioral development of a child.

  20. Elementary School Children’s Cheating Behavior and its Cognitive Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Omrin, Danielle S.; Evans, Angela D.; Fu, Genyue; Chen, Guopeng; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Elementary school children’s cheating behavior and its cognitive correlates were investigated using a guessing game. Children (N = 95) between 8 and 12 years of age were asked to guess which side of the screen a coin would appear on and received rewards based on their self-reported accuracy. Children’s cheating behavior was measured by examining whether children failed to adhere to the game rules by falsely reporting their accuracy. Children’s theory-of-mind understanding and executive functioning skills were also assessed. The majority of children cheated during the guessing game, and cheating behavior decreased with age. Children with better working memory and inhibitory control were less likely to cheat. However, among the cheaters, those with greater cognitive flexibility use more tactics while cheating. Results revealed the unique role that executive functioning plays in children’s cheating behavior: Like a double-edged sword, executive functioning can inhibit children’s cheating behavior on the one side, while it can promote the sophistication of children’s cheating tactics on the other. PMID:24464240

  1. Moving Beyond Concepts: Getting Urban High School Students Engaged in Science through Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Renu

    In order to maintain its global position, the United States needs to increase the number of students opting for science careers. Science teachers face a formidable challenge. Students are not choosing science because they do not think coursework is interesting or applies to their lives. These problems often compound for adolescents in urban areas. This action research investigated an innovation aimed at engaging a group of adolescents in the science learning process through cognitive processes and conceptual understanding. It was hoped that this combination would increase students' engagement in the classroom and proficiency in science. The study was conducted with 28 juniors and sophomores in an Environmental Science class in an urban high school with a student body of 97% minority students and 86% students receiving free and reduced lunch. The study used a mixed-methods design. Instruments included a pre- and post-test, Thinking Maps, transcripts of student discourse, and a two-part Engagement Observation Instrument. Data analysis included basic descriptives and a grounded theory approach. Findings show students became engaged in activities when cognitive processes were taught prior to content. Furthermore it was discovered that Thinking Maps were perceived to be an easy tool to use to organize students' thinking and processing. Finally there was a significant increase in student achievement. From these findings implications for future practice and research are offered.

  2. Physical activity, diet and other behavioural interventions for improving cognition and school achievement in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N; Laird, Yvonne; Sproule, John; Reilly, John J; Saunders, David H

    2018-01-01

    .35 to 0.61; 1 study, 67 children, low-quality evidence). Authors' conclusions Despite the large number of childhood and adolescent obesity treatment trials, we were only able to partially assess the impact of obesity treatment interventions on school achievement and cognitive abilities. School and community-based physical activity interventions as part of an obesity prevention or treatment programme can benefit executive functions of children with obesity or overweight specifically. Similarly, school-based dietary interventions may benefit general school achievement in children with obesity. These findings might assist health and education practitioners to make decisions related to promoting physical activity and healthy eating in schools. Future obesity treatment and prevention studies in clinical, school and community settings should consider assessing academic and cognitive as well as physical outcomes. Healthy weight interventions for improving thinking skills and school performance in children and teenagers with obesity What is the aim of this review? The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out if healthy weight interventions can improve thinking skills and school performance in children and teenagers with obesity. Cochrane researchers collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question. What are the key messages? This updated review provides some evidence that school programmes that encourage healthier child weight may also provide ‘co-benefits’ of thinking skills and school performance. However, we need more high-quality healthy-weight interventions that test thinking skills and school performance, as well as health outcomes. What was studied in this review? The number of children and teenagers with obesity is high worldwide. Some children and teenagers with obesity have health issues or are bullied because of their body weight. These experiences have been linked to problems in performing well in school, where they tend to perform less

  3. Does pre-school improve cognitive abilities among children with early-life stunting? A longitudinal study for Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; León, Juan; Miranda, Alejandra; Dearden, Kirk; Crookston, Benjamin T; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in developing countries have found that children who experience growth faltering in the first years of life show lower cognitive abilities than their peers. In this study, we use the Young Lives longitudinal dataset in Peru to analyze if attending pre-school affects cognitive abilities at age five years, and if there is an interaction with HAZ at age one year. Using instrumental variables we found, for receptive vocabulary, a positive effect of attending Jardines (formal) pre-schools; the effect of attending PRONOEI (community-based) pre-schools was not significant. More years attending Jardines was more beneficial for children who were better nourished. We suggest working to improve the quality of PRONOEI s, and with teachers on targeting children of lower nutritional status.

  4. What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention? Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heléne Zetterström Dahlqvist

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce. Objective: To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention. Design: Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288 included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15. Results: Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222. Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma. Conclusions: The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed.

  5. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  6. Collaborative Evaluation: Balancing Rigour and Relevance in a Research Study of Restorative Approaches in Schools in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jean; Lloyd, Gwynedd; McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    Restorative Practices (RPs) in schools developed out of growing interest in Restorative Justice in the community. Schools looking for strategies to address disaffection, behaviour difficulties and violence were attracted by the key ideas: the need to restore good relationships when there has been conflict or harm; and develop a school ethos,…

  7. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  8. Associations of Health-Risk Behaviors and Health Cognition With Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939

  9. Impact of commuting exposure to traffic-related air pollution on cognitive development in children walking to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Cirach, Marta; de Castro, Montserrat; Esnaola, Mikel; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-12-01

    A few studies have found associations between the exposure to traffic-related air pollution at school and/or home and cognitive development. The impact on cognitive development of the exposure to air pollutants during commuting has not been explored. We aimed to assess the role of the exposure to traffic-related air pollutants during walking commute to school on cognitive development of children. We performed a longitudinal study of children (n = 1,234, aged 7-10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) who commuted by foot to school. Children were tested four times during a 12-month follow-up to characterize their developmental trajectories of working memory (d' of the three-back numbers test) and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error of the Attention Network Test). Average particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), Black Carbon (BC) and NO 2 concentrations were estimated using Land Use Regression for the shortest walking route to school. Differences in cognitive growth were evaluated by linear mixed effects models with age-by-pollutant interaction terms. Exposure to PM 2.5 and BC from the commutes by foot was associated with a reduction in the growth of working memory (an interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 and BC concentrations decreased the annual growth of working memory by 5.4 (95% CI [-10.2, -0.6]) and 4.6 (95% CI [-9.0, -0.1]) points, respectively). The findings for NO 2 were not conclusive and none of the pollutants were associated with inattentiveness. Efforts should be made to implement pedestrian school pathways through low traffic streets in order to increase security and minimize children's exposure to air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing students’ cognitive skill in Nguyen Tat Thanh high school Hanoi Vietnam through scientific learning material of static electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanto, A.; Linuwih, S.; Aji, M. P.; Bich, D. D.

    2018-03-01

    Scientific learning material is still needed by students at Nguyen Tat Thanh High School (NTT), Hanoi Vietnam in order to enhance the students’ cognitive skill. Cognitive skill represents the level of students’ understanding to the particular material. Students’ cognitive skill can be improved by applying the learning material based on scientific approach as a treatment. The enhancement of students’ cognitive skill can be measured by analyzing the students’ test result collected before and after treatment. The analysis is focused to measure the enhancement or the sifted of cognitive aspects including remembering aspect (C1), understanding aspect (C2), applying aspect (C3), analyzing aspect (C4), and evaluating aspect (C5). According to the analysis the enhancement of cognitive aspects are 8.26% of remembering, 3.26% of understanding, 32.94% of applying, 21.74% of analyzing, and 21.74% of evaluating. The major enhancements are occured at applying, analyzing, and evaluating aspects. Therefore it can be concluded that students’ cognitive skill is enhanced by applying scientific learning material of static electricity.

  11. School breakfast and cognition among nutritionally at-risk children in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, E; Jacoby, E; Cueto, S

    1996-04-01

    In 1993, in Peru, the Institute of Nutritional Research conducted two studies in Huaraz in the Andean region to evaluate the educational and nutritional impact of the government's School Breakfast Program. The school breakfast included a small cake and a glass of Amilac (similar in taste and color to milk), which provided 30% of each child's energy requirements, 60% of recommended dietary allowances for minerals and vitamins, and 100% of dietary iron needs. A case control study examined the effects of breakfast on cognition among 54 elementary schoolchildren 9-11 years old. It found that the school breakfast did not have a significant effect on the children's performance in the Number Discrimination, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Raven Progressive Matrices, or Reaction Time tests. Children nutritionally at risk who received the placebo had significantly slower short-term memory scanning than their counterparts who received the breakfast. The no-risk placebo group exhibited more rapid discrimination between visual stimuli than the no-risk breakfast group. A field evaluation of the program in 10 rural schools, which were randomly assigned to a treatment or control condition, was conducted. In terms of energy, protein, and iron intake, the children in the case and control conditions were not significantly different. The children tended to be either very stunted or overweight. School attendance increased 0.58 points in the experimental group, while it decreased by 2.92 points in the control group (p 0.05). When both groups received the breakfast, attendance rates increased significantly in both groups (p 0.05). Vocabulary was sensitive to the effects of the breakfast. Specifically, the greater the child's weight, the higher his/her vocabulary test scores (p 0.05). These findings suggest that the brain is sensitive to decreases in the short-term availability of nutrients, and that an overnight and morning fast produces a physiological state accompanied by changes in

  12. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion—Learning, Cognition and Motion – A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten; Hillman, Charles H.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12–14 years old adolescents. Methods A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age: 12.9 (0.6) years) completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects). The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p’s>0.05) or mathematics skills (p>0.05). An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4–38.6) and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39–0.05). Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0–9). Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p’s>0.05). Conclusions No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing

  13. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion-Learning, Cognition and Motion - A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Tarp

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12-14 years old adolescents.A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD age: 12.9 (0.6 years completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects. The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness.No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p's>0.05 or mathematics skills (p>0.05. An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4-38.6 and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39-0.05. Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0-9. Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p's>0.05.No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing executive functioning or mathematics skills compared

  14. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion-Learning, Cognition and Motion - A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarp, Jakob; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten; Hillman, Charles H; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12-14 years old adolescents. A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age: 12.9 (0.6) years) completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects). The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p's>0.05) or mathematics skills (p>0.05). An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4-38.6) and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39-0.05). Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0-9). Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p's>0.05). No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing executive functioning or mathematics skills compared to a

  15. Comparison of Freshmen's Cognitive Frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon Taking the Earth Science 1 in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Park, Seon Ok

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1I in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science 1 fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth Science 1, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  16. A study of school adjustment related variables of young children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for identifying relevant variables that affect the school adjustment of young ... Keywords: cognitive ability; hot executive function; peer relationships; school ... tend to act independently and have fewer positive feelings about their ... cognition provides a basis for developing social ..... is associated with hot EF is not activated,.

  17. Effects of Water Provision and Hydration on Cognitive Function among Primary-School Pupils in Zambia: A Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Trinies

    Full Text Available There is a well-established link between hydration and improved cognitive performance among adults, with evidence of similar findings among children. No trials have investigated the impact of water provision on cognitive performance among schoolchildren in hot and arid low-resource settings. We conducted a randomized-controlled trial in five schools with limited water access in Chipata district in Eastern province, Zambia, to assess the efficacy of water provision on cognition. Pupils in grades 3-6 were randomly assigned to either receive a bottle of drinking water that they could refill throughout the day (water group, n = 149 or only have access to drinking water that was normally available at the school (control group, n = 143. Hydration was assessed in the morning before provision of water and in the afternoon through urine specific gravity (Usg measured with a portable refractometer. In the afternoon we administered six cognitive tests to assess short-term memory, concentration, visual attention, and visual motor skills. Morning prevalence of dehydration, defined as Usg≥1.020, was 42%. Afternoon dehydration increased to 67% among the control arm and dropped to 10% among the intervention arm. We did not find that provision of water or hydration impacted cognitive test scores, although there were suggestive relationships between both water provision and hydration and increased scores on tests measuring visual attention. We identified key improvements to the study design that are warranted to further investigate this relationship.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01924546.

  18. The Effects of Technical Illustrations on Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Kenneth N.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Outlines two theories of cognitive science that are relevant for instructional design, i.e., schema theory and cognitive load theory; and describes four experiments with Australian secondary school geography students that used these theories to examine the effects of splitting attention between technical illustrations and related text. (20…

  19. Undernutrition, fatty acid and micronutrient status in relation to cognitive performance in Indian school children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, Ans; Muthayya, Sumithra; van der Knaap, Henk; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Kok, Frans J; Kurpad, Anura V; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2010-04-01

    While undernutrition and anaemia have previously been linked to poor development of children, relatively little is known about the role of B-vitamins and fatty acids on cognition. The present study aims to explore the associations between indicators of body size, fatty acid and micronutrient status on cognitive performance in 598 Indian school children aged 6-10 years. Baseline data of a clinical study were used to assess these associations by analyses of variance adjusting for age, sex, school, maternal education and cognitive tester. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children II was used to measure four cognitive domains, including fluid reasoning, short-term memory, retrieval ability and cognitive speediness. Scores were combined into an overall measure, named mental processing index (MPI). Body size indicators and Hb concentrations were significantly positively related to cognitive domains and MPI, such that increases of 1 sd in height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores would each translate into a 0.09 sd increase in MPI, P = 0.0006 and 0.002, respectively. A 10 g/l increase in Hb concentrations would translate into a 0.08 sd increase in MPI, P = 0.0008. Log-transformed vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly inversely associated with short-term memory, retrieval ability and MPI (beta (95 % CI) = - 0.124 (- 0.224, - 0.023), P = 0.02). Other indicators of Fe, iodine, folate and fatty acid status were not significantly related to cognition. Our findings for body size, fatty acids and micronutrients were in agreement with previous observational studies. The inverse association of vitamin B12 with mental development was unexpected and needed further study.

  20. Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: Evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen; Sipos-Gug, Sebastian; Tocai, Ioana; Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of a class-based antibullying prevention program on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors was investigated. The program consists of a cognitive-behavioral (Rational Emotive Behavioral Education; REBE) and a behavioral (Viennese Social Competence; ViSC) component. The REBE program is based on rational emotive behavioral theory and contains 9 student lessons. The ViSC program is based on social learning theory and comprises 10 student lessons. The order of the programs was experimentally manipulated. The REBE-ViSC program was implemented in 5 schools (14 classes), the ViSC-REBE program was implemented in 3 schools (9 classes), and 3 schools (11 classes) served as an untreated control group. Data were collected during 1 school year at pretest, midpoint, and posttest. Emotions (overt and internalizing anger), cognitions (learning and entitlement), and behaviors (bullying perpetration and bullying victimization) were measured with self-assessments. To examine the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC/ViSC-REBE program, multilevel growth models were applied (time points at Level 1, individuals at Level 2, and classes at Level 3). The analyses revealed that the program effects differed depending on the order of the programs. The REBE-ViSC condition was more effective in changing negative emotions than the ViSC-REBE condition; both experimental conditions were effective in reducing dysfunctional cognitions, whereas no behavioral change was found in the 2 experimental groups when compared with the control group. To improve program effectiveness regarding behavioral changes, a multilevel whole-school approach including a teacher component is recommended. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The @school project : developmental considerations in the design and delivery of cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescent school refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, Floor Margriet

    2010-01-01

    School refusal is an attendance problem characterized by a young person’s difficulty in going to school, accompanied by emotional distress on the part of the young person and parental attempts to return the young person to regular school attendance. Prolonged absence from school has serious short-

  2. Strategic competence of senior secondary school students in solving mathematics problem based on cognitive style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syukriani, Andi; Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the strategic competence of senior secondary school students in solving mathematics problems. Terdapat dua subjek, satu bergaya kognitif field-independent dan satu bergaya kognitif field-dependent tetapi keduanya memiliki tingkat prestasi belajar matematika yang setara. There were two subjects, one field-independent cognitive style and one field-dependent cognitive style. They had an equivalent high level of mathematics achievement. Keduanya dipilih berdasarkan hasil tes kompetensi matematika dan GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Subjects were selected based on the test results of mathematics competence and GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Kompetensi strategis dapat merangsang perkembangan otonomi dan fleksibilitas dalam diri siswa karena merupakan keterampilan yang sangat dibutuhkan di sepanjang abad 21. Gaya kognitif merupakan kecenderungan siswa dalam mengolah informasi sangat mempengaruhi performance dalam menyelesaikan masalah matematika. Strategic competence can stimulate the development of autonomy and flexibility of students and they are skills which are needed in the 21st century. Cognitive style is the tendency of students in processing informations and it greatly affects the performance in solving mathematics problems. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa subjek FI cenderung analitis baik pada pembentukan bayangannya maupun pada gambar yang dibuatnya untuk memproses informasi berdasarkan dengan struktur pengetahuannya sendiri (Internally directed). The research result showed that subject FI tended to be analytical both in forming the mental imagination and the picture to process information in accordance with his own knowledge structure (internally directed). Subjek FD kurang analitis dan tidak dapat mengenal bentuk sederhana (konsep matematika) dari bentuk yang kompleks (Exeternally directed) sehingga menerima ide sebagaimana yang disajikan. Subject FD was less analytical and unable to recognize simple form

  3. Neurofeedback and cognitive attention training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Naomi J; Frenette, Elizabeth C; Rene, Kirsten M; Brennan, Robert T; Perrin, Ellen C

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of 2 computer attention training systems administered in school for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children in second and fourth grade with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 104) were randomly assigned to neurofeedback (NF) (n = 34), cognitive training (CT) (n = 34), or control (n = 36) conditions. A 2-point growth model assessed change from pre-post intervention on parent reports (Conners 3-Parent [Conners 3-P]; Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF] rating scale), teacher reports (Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham scale [SKAMP]; Conners 3-Teacher [Conners 3-T]), and systematic classroom observations (Behavioral Observation of Students in Schools [BOSS]). Paired t tests and an analysis of covariance assessed change in medication. Children who received NF showed significant improvement compared with those in the control condition on the Conners 3-P Attention, Executive Functioning and Global Index, on all BRIEF summary indices, and on BOSS motor/verbal off-task behavior. Children who received CT showed no improvement compared to the control condition. Children in the NF condition showed significant improvements compared to those in the CT condition on Conners 3-P Executive Functioning, all BRIEF summary indices, SKAMP Attention, and Conners 3-T Inattention subscales. Stimulant medication dosage in methylphenidate equivalencies significantly increased for children in the CT (8.54 mg) and control (7.05 mg) conditions but not for those in the NF condition (0.29 mg). Neurofeedback made greater improvements in ADHD symptoms compared to both the control and CT conditions. Thus, NF is a promising attention training treatment intervention for children with ADHD.

  4. Should Students Have a Gap Year? Motivation and Performance Factors Relevant to Time Out after Completing School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, school leavers are taking time out from study or formal work after completing high school--often referred to as a "gap year" (involving structured activities such as "volunteer tourism" and unstructured activities such as leisure). Although much opinion exists about the merits--or otherwise--of taking time out after completing…

  5. Strengthening Pennsylvania's Charter School Reform: Findings From the Statewide Evaluation and Discussion of Relevant Policy Issues. Year Five Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Gary; Nelson, Christopher; Risley, John

    In 2001, the Pennsylvania Department of Education contracted with Western Michigan University to evaluate Pennsylvania's charter schools and charter school initiative over two years. The study used site visits, work sample review, document review, focus groups, portfolios and surveys to gather data regarding the movement's effectiveness, progress,…

  6. Algebraic Thinking in Solving Linier Program at High School Level: Female Student’s Field Independent Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiani, N.; Budayasa, I. K.; Juniati, D.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe algebraic thinking of high school female student’s field independent cognitive style in solving linier program problem by revealing deeply the female students’ responses. Subjects in this study were 7 female students having field independent cognitive style in class 11. The type of this research was descriptive qualitative. The method of data collection used was observation, documentation, and interview. Data analysis technique was by reduction, presentation, and conclusion. The results of this study showed that the female students with field independent cognitive style in solving the linier program problem had the ability to represent algebraic ideas from the narrative question that had been read by manipulating symbols and variables presented in tabular form, creating and building mathematical models in two variables linear inequality system which represented algebraic ideas, and interpreting the solutions as variables obtained from the point of intersection in the solution area to obtain maximum benefit.

  7. Processes of change in a school-based mindfulness programme: cognitive reactivity and self-coldness as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Gucht, Katleen; Takano, Keisuke; Raes, Filip; Kuppens, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for emotional well-being remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the potential mediating effects of cognitive reactivity and self-compassion on symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress using data from an earlier randomised controlled school trial. A moderated time-lagged mediation model based on multilevel modelling was used to analyse the data. The findings showed that post-treatment changes in cognitive reactivity and self-coldness, an aspect of self-compassion, mediated subsequent changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. These results suggest that cognitive reactivity and self-coldness may be considered as transdiagnostic mechanisms of change of a mindfulness-based intervention programme for youth.

  8. Multiple Past Concussions in High School Football Players: Are There Differences in Cognitive Functioning and Symptom Reporting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L; Mannix, Rebekah; Maxwell, Bruce; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing concern about the possible long-term effects of multiple concussions, particularly on the developing adolescent brain. Whether the effect of multiple concussions is detectable in high school football players has not been well studied, although the public health implications are great in this population. To determine if there are measureable differences in cognitive functioning or symptom reporting in high school football players with a history of multiple concussions. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Participants included 5232 male adolescent football players (mean [±SD] age, 15.5 ± 1.2 years) who completed baseline testing between 2009 and 2014. On the basis of injury history, athletes were grouped into 0 (n = 4183), 1 (n = 733), 2 (n = 216), 3 (n = 67), or ≥4 (n = 33) prior concussions. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery, and symptom ratings were obtained from the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. There were no statistically significant differences between groups (based on the number of reported concussions) regarding cognitive functioning. Athletes with ≥3 prior concussions reported more symptoms than did athletes with 0 or 1 prior injury. In multivariate analyses, concussion history was independently related to symptom reporting but less so than developmental problems (eg, attention or learning problems) or other health problems (eg, past treatment for psychiatric problems, headaches, or migraines). In the largest study to date, high school football players with multiple past concussions performed the same on cognitive testing as those with no prior concussions. Concussion history was one of several factors that were independently related to symptom reporting. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Guided Inquiry with Cognitive Conflict Strategy: Drilling Indonesian High School Students’ Creative Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syadzili, A. F.; Soetjipto; Tukiran

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to produce physics learning materials in Indonesian high school using guided inquiry with cognitive conflict strategy to drill students’ creative thinking skills in a static fluid learning. This development research used 4D model with one group pre-test and post-test design implemented in the eleventh grade students in the second semester of 2016/2017 academic year. The data were collected by validation sheets, questionnaires, tests and observations, while data analysis techniques is descriptive quantitative analysis. This research obtained several findings, they are : the learning material developed had an average validity score with very valid category. The lesson plan can be implemented very well. The students’ responses toward the learning process were very possitive with the students’ interest to follow the learning. Creative thinking skills of student before the implementation of product was inadequate, then it is very creative after product was implemented. The impacts of the research suggest that guided inquiry may stimulate the students to think creatifly.

  10. Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Program on Pain and Fear in School-aged Children Undergoing Intravenous Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Cheng, Su-Fen; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Su, Wen-Jen; Cho, Yen-Hua; Chen, Chi-Wen

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral program on pain and medical fear in hospitalized school-aged children receiving intravenous (IV) placement. This study used an quasi-experimental design. Thirty-five participants were assigned to the experimental group and 33 to the control group in the acute internal medicine ward of a children's hospital. The cognitive-behavioral program entailed having the patients read an educational photo book about IV placement before the procedure and having them watch their favorite music video during the procedure. The outcome measures were numeric rating scales for pain intensity and fear during the procedure. After applying the cognitive-behavioral program, the mean scores on pain and fear decreased in the experimental group. However, the difference in pain intensity between these two groups was nonsignificant. The intensity of fear in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group. In this study, the cognitive-behavioral program used with school-aged hospitalized children promoted less fear during IV placement. The results of this study can serve as a reference for empirical nursing care and as care guidance for clinical IV injections involving children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Program on Pain and Fear in School-aged Children Undergoing Intravenous Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chuan Hsieh, RN, MSN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral program on pain and medical fear in hospitalized school-aged children receiving intravenous (IV placement. Methods: This study used an quasi-experimental design. Thirty-five participants were assigned to the experimental group and 33 to the control group in the acute internal medicine ward of a children's hospital. The cognitive-behavioral program entailed having the patients read an educational photo book about IV placement before the procedure and having them watch their favorite music video during the procedure. The outcome measures were numeric rating scales for pain intensity and fear during the procedure. Results: After applying the cognitive-behavioral program, the mean scores on pain and fear decreased in the experimental group. However, the difference in pain intensity between these two groups was nonsignificant. The intensity of fear in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the cognitive-behavioral program used with school-aged hospitalized children promoted less fear during IV placement. The results of this study can serve as a reference for empirical nursing care and as care guidance for clinical IV injections involving children. Keywords: children, fear, needle, pain

  12. Virtual Learning Simulations in High School: Effects on Cognitive and Non-cognitive Outcomes and Implications on the Development of STEM Academic and Career Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Thisgaard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increased knowledge of evolution significantly, compared to the traditional lesson. No significant differences between the simulation and lesson were found in their ability to increase the non-cognitive measures. Both interventions increased self-efficacy significantly, and none of them had a significant effect on motivation. In addition, the results showed that the simulation increased interest in biology related tasks, but not outcome expectations. The findings suggest that virtual learning simulations are at least as efficient in enhancing learning and self-efficacy as traditional lessons, and high schools can thus use them as supplementary educational methods. In addition, the findings indicate that virtual learning simulations may be a useful tool in enhancing student’s interest in and goals toward STEM related careers.

  13. Virtual Learning Simulations in High School: Effects on Cognitive and Non-cognitive Outcomes and Implications on the Development of STEM Academic and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thisgaard, Malene; Makransky, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increased knowledge of evolution significantly, compared to the traditional lesson. No significant differences between the simulation and lesson were found in their ability to increase the non-cognitive measures. Both interventions increased self-efficacy significantly, and none of them had a significant effect on motivation. In addition, the results showed that the simulation increased interest in biology related tasks, but not outcome expectations. The findings suggest that virtual learning simulations are at least as efficient in enhancing learning and self-efficacy as traditional lessons, and high schools can thus use them as supplementary educational methods. In addition, the findings indicate that virtual learning simulations may be a useful tool in enhancing student's interest in and goals toward STEM related careers.

  14. WWC Review of the Report "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A recent study, "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability," examined the effectiveness of "Solve It!," a program intended to improve the problem-solving skills of seventh-grade math students. During the program, students are taught cognitive strategies of…

  15. Mother’s Happiness with Cognitive - Executive Functions and Facial Emotional Recognition in School Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALMIR, Maryam; SEIFENARAGHI, Maryam; FARHUD, Dariush D.; AFROOZ, G.Ali; KHANAHMADI, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to the mother’s key roles in bringing up emotional and cognitive abilities of mentally retarded children and respect to positive psychology in recent decades, this research is administered to assess the relation between mother’s happiness level with cognitive- executive functions (i.e. attention, working memory, inhibition and planning) and facial emotional recognition ability as two factors in learning and adjustment skills in mentally retarded children with Down syndrome. Methods: This study was an applied research and data were analyzed by Pearson correlation procedure. Population is included all school children with Down syndrome (9–12 yr) that come from Tehran, Iran. Overall, 30 children were selected as an in access sample. After selection and agreement of parents, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) was performed to determine the student’s IQ, and then mothers were invited to fill out the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). Cognitive-executive functions were evaluated by tests as followed: Continues Performance Test (CPT), N-Back, Stroop test (day and night version) and Tower of London. Ekman emotion facial expression test was also accomplished for assessing facial emotional recognition in children with Down syndrome, individually. Results: Mother’s happiness level had a positive relation with cognitive-executive functions (attention, working memory, inhibition and planning) and facial emotional recognition in her children with Down syndrome, significantly. Conclusion: Parents’ happiness (especially mothers) is a powerful predictor for cognitive and emotional abilities of their children. PMID:26284205

  16. The relationship between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability in primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard; Hurry, Jane; Midouhas, Emily

    2018-06-01

    Three relationships between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability have been hypothesized: The educational hypothesis that learning mathematics develops general cognitive skills, the psychometric hypothesis that differences in general cognitive ability cause differences in mathematical attainment, and the reciprocal influence hypothesis that developments in mathematical ability and general cognitive ability influence each other. These hypotheses are assessed with a sample of 948 children from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed at 7, 9, and 10 years on mathematics, English, and general cognitive ability. A cross-lagged path analysis with mathematics and general cognitive ability measures supports the reciprocal influence hypothesis between 7 and 9 and between 9 and 10. A second analysis including English assessments only provides evidence of a reciprocal relationship between 7 and 9. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? The correlations between mathematical attainment, literacy, and measures of general cognitive skills are well established. The role of literacy in developing general cognitive skills is emerging. What the present study adds? Mathematics contributes to the development of general cognitive skills. General cognitive ability contributes to mathematical development between 7 and 10. These findings support the hypothesis of reciprocal influence between mathematics and general cognitive ability, at least between 7 and 9. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. "TV no longer commands our full attention": Effects of second-screen viewing and task relevance on cognitive load and learning from news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauwenberge, A.M.R. van; Schaap, G.J.; Roy, R. van

    2014-01-01

    Second-screen viewing the use of smartphones, tablets, and laptops while watching television has increased dramatically in the last few years. Using multiple resource theory and threaded cognition theory, this study investigated the effects of second-screen viewing on cognitive load, factual recall

  18. The relevance of the school socioeconomic composition and school proportion of repeaters on grade repetition in Brazil: a multilevel logistic model of PISA 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugénia Ferrão

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper extends the literature on grade repetition in Brazil by (a describing and synthesizing the main research findings and contributions since 1940, (b enlarging the understanding of the inequity mechanism in education, and (c providing new findings on the effects of the school socioeconomic composition and school proportion of repeaters on the individual probability of grade repetition. Based on the analyses of empirical distributions and multilevel logistic modelling of PISA 2012 data, the findings indicate that higher student socioeconomic status is associated with lower probability of repetition, there is a cumulative risk of repetition after an early repetition, the school socioeconomic composition is strongly correlated with the school proportion of repeaters, and both are related to the individual probability of repetition. The results suggest the existence of a pattern that cumulatively reinforces the effects of social disadvantage, in which the school plays a central role.

  19. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  20. Comprehension with Instructional Media for Middle School Science: Holistic Performative Design Strategy and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew Owen

    This study identifies three distinct levels of text-image integration in page design in a linear relationship of lesser to greater integration: prose primary, prose subsumed, and fully integrated strategies. Science textbook pages were redesigned according to these holistic design strategies for 158 7th-grade students. There were three separate treatment tests, as well as a pre-test and post-test, and pilot tests with both undergraduate students and the subjects themselves. Subjects found the fully integrated strategy to produce the most visually interesting designs and the prose primary strategy to produce the least interesting, with prose subsumed definitively in between (according to 95% confidence intervals). The strategy employed significantly altered interest in science subject matter in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0446), where a Student's t-test revealed that the prose subsumed strategy produced higher interest in subject matter than prose primary. The strategy employed significantly altered comprehension of abstract relationships in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0202), where a Student's t-test revealed that the fully integrated strategy resulted in greater comprehension than prose primary. For the same treatment condition significant differences were found through ANOVA for factual-level knowledge (P=0.0289) but not conceptual-level knowledge ( P=0.0586). For factual-level knowledge prose primary resulted in lesser comprehension than both prose subsumed and fully integrated. Comprehension is defined according to cognitive load theory. No strategy impact on perception of task difficulty was found. This study was approved by North Carolina State University's Institutional Review Board and Wake County Public School System's Research Review Committee.

  1. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  2. Demographic and Psychological Predictors of Grade Point Average (GPA) in North-Norway: A Particular Analysis of Cognitive/School-Related and Literacy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saele, Rannveig Grøm; Sørlie, Tore; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude; Ottosen, Karl-Ottar; Goll, Charlotte Bjørnskov; Friborg, Oddgeir

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30% of students drop out from Norwegian upper secondary schools. Academic achievement, as indexed by grade point average (GPA), is one of the strongest predictors of dropout. The present study aimed to examine the role of cognitive, school-related and affective/psychological predictors of GPA. In addition, we examined the…

  3. Developing and evaluating a relevant and feasible instrument for measuring health literacy of Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D; Begoray, Deborah L; Macdonald, Marjorie; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Frankish, Jim; Kwan, Brenda; Fung, Winny; Rootman, Irving

    2010-12-01

    Health literacy has come to play a critical role in health education and promotion, yet it is poorly understood in adolescents and few measurement tools exist. Standardized instruments to measure health literacy in adults assume it to be a derivative of general literacy. This paper reports on the development and the early-stage validation of a health literacy tool for high school students that measured skills to understand and evaluate health information. A systematic process was used to develop, score and validate items. Questionnaire data were collected from 275, primarily 10th grade students in three secondary schools in Vancouver, Canada that reflected variation in demographic profile. Forty-eight percent were male, and 69.1% spoke a language other than English. Bivariate correlations between background variables and the domain and overall health literacy scores were calculated. A regression model was developed using 15 explanatory variables. The R(2) value was 0.567. Key findings were that lower scores were achieved by males, students speaking a second language other than English, those who immigrated to Canada at a later age and those who skipped school more often. Unlike in general literacy where the family factors of mother's education and family affluence both played significant roles, these two factors failed to predict the health literacy of our school-aged sample. The most significant contributions of this work include the creation of an instrument for measuring adolescent health literacy and further emphasizing the distinction between health literacy and general literacy.

  4. Enhancing cognitive and social-emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Oberle, Eva; Lawlor, Molly Stewart; Abbott, David; Thomson, Kimberly; Oberlander, Tim F; Diamond, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th graders (N = 99) were randomly assigned to receive the SEL with mindfulness program versus a regular social responsibility program. Measures assessed executive functions (EFs), stress physiology via salivary cortisol, well-being (self-reports), prosociality and peer acceptance (peer reports), and math grades. Relative to children in the social responsibility program, children who received the SEL program with mindfulness (a) improved more in their cognitive control and stress physiology; (b) reported greater empathy, perspective-taking, emotional control, optimism, school self-concept, and mindfulness, (c) showed greater decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and peer-rated aggression, (d) were rated by peers as more prosocial, and (e) increased in peer acceptance (or sociometric popularity). The results of this investigation suggest the promise of this SEL intervention and address a lacuna in the scientific literature-identifying strategies not only to ameliorate children's problems but also to cultivate their well-being and thriving. Directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Motivation in Second Language Learning: A Historical Overview and Its Relevance in a Public High School in Pasto, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Motivation has a significant role in the process of language learning. It is important to understand its theoretical evolution in this field to be able to consider its relevance in the learning and teaching of a foreign language. Motivation is a term that is commonly used among language teachers and language learners but perhaps many are not aware…

  6. Relationship between SPECT regional cerebral blood flow imaging and cognitive function in school-age children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiangyan; Chen Xuehong; Wang Zhengjiang; Hu Jingui; Feng Jianzhong; Li Yimin; Lu Xiujuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feature of SPECT regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) imaging, the cognitive functions and the relationship between them in school-age children with primary epilepsy. Methods: 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain imaging was performed on 32 school-age children with primary generalized tonic and (or) clonic seizures(GTCS). Cognitive functions were also evaluated in all patients and normal children. Relationship between cognitive function and rCBF was compared. Results: (1) Thirty of 32 (93.8%) patients were abnormal on SPECT imaging. Fifty areas of 29 cases showed decreased rCBF, the percentage of decreased rCBF was (21.07 ± 7.09)%; 2 areas of 1 case showed increased rCBF, the percentage of increased rCBF was (32.22 ± 4.31)%. 92.3% of the epileptic foci were located in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortexes. (2) Verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) and full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) of children with epilepsy were significantly lower than those of the controls, and there were some cognitive skewnesses in children with epilepsy (VIQ >PIQ). (3)There was negative correlation between the number of foci and VIQ, PIQ, FIQ, the correlation coefficients were -0.543 (P=0.002), -0.469 (P=0.009), -0.578 (P=0.001); there was negative correlation between the extent of foci and VIQ, PIQ, FIQ, the correlation coefficients were -0.560 (P=0.003), -0.142 (P=0.016), -0.582 (P=0.001); there was no significant correlation between all the IQ of cognitive test and the percentage of changed rCBF. Conclusions: SPECT rCBF imaging may be useful for the localization of epileptic focus. Some of school-age children with epilepsy have impairment of the cognitive function, its magnitude is negative correlated with the number and extent of epileptic foci. (authors)

  7. HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTOR INVERSE AGONISTS ON COGNITIVE AND MOTOR PROCESSES: RELEVANCE TO ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE, ADHD, SCHIZOPHRENIA AND DRUG ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya eVohora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Histamine H3 receptor antagonists/ inverse agonists possess potential to treat diverse disease states of the central nervous system (CNS. Cognitive dysfunction and motor impairments are the hallmark of multifarious neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric disorders. This review presents the various neurobiological/ neurochemical evidences available so far following H3 receptor inverse agonists/ antagonists in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, schizophrenia and drug abuse each of which is accompanied by deficits of some aspects of cognitive and/or motor functions. Whether the H3 receptor inverse agonism modulates the neurochemical basis underlying the disease condition or affects only the cognitive/motor component of the disease process is discussed with the aim to provide a rationale for their use in diverse disease states that are interlinked and are accompanied by some common motor, cognitive and attentional deficits.

  8. Using a Word Association Test for the Assessment of High School Students' Cognitive Structures on Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Aysegul; Eilks, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding students' cognitive structures in a specific knowledge domain helps to determine the ''what, how and why'' features of such knowledge, so that we can take these structures into consideration in teaching. The purpose of the present study was to identify students' cognitive structures about solution and dissolution concepts. The study…

  9. Epilepsy in the School Aged Child: Cognitive-Behavioral Characteristics and Effects on Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kathryn C.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Children with epilepsy frequently display cognitive sequelae that are overlooked or misunderstood by educational personnel, yet may adversely impact academic performance. Reviews common cognitive-behavioral characteristics of children with epilepsy, typical effects of anticonvulsant medications, and various periictal phenomena and their relative…

  10. Circadian Rhythms in Cognitive Processes: Implications for School Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Pablo; Ramírez, Candelaria; García, Aída

    2014-01-01

    Circadian variations have been found in cognitive processes, such as attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. These cognitive processes improve during the day and decrease during the night and early hours of the morning. Sleep deprivation further decreases these cognitive…

  11. How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

  12. Effects of Absence and Cognitive Skills Index on Various Achievement Indicators. A Study of ISTEP Scores, Discrepancies, and School-Based Math and English Tests of 1997-1998 Seventh Grade Students at Sarah Scott Middle School, Terre Haute, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Holly S.

    This study examines the correlation between absence, cognitive skills index (CSI), and various achievement indicators such as the Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) test scores, discrepancies, and school-based English and mathematics tests for 64 seventh-grade students from one middle school. Scores for each of the subtests…

  13. Cognitive Development Considerations to Support Bereaved Students: Practical Applications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Jimerson, Shane R.; Comerchero, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the number of deaths that occur worldwide each year and their negative effects on school-aged children and teenagers, teachers and school psychologists report not being properly prepared to assist grieving students (Adamson and Peacock, "Psychology in the Schools," 44, 749-764, 2007; Pratt et al. "Education," 107,…

  14. Motivational beliefs, cognitive engagement, and achievement in language and mathematics in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallidou, Panagiota; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2007-02-01

    The contextual differences in the patterns of relations among various motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive components of self-regulated learning and performance in two key curriculum subject areas, language and mathematics, were examined in a sample of 263 Greek primary school children of fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms. Age and gender differences were also investigated. Students were asked to complete the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ), which comprised five factors: (a) Self-efficacy, (b) Intrinsic Value, (c) Test Anxiety, (d) Cognitive Strategy Use, and (e) Self-regulation Strategies. They responded to the statements of the questionnaire on a 7-point Likert scale in terms of their behaviour in mathematics and language classes, respectively. Moreover, their teachers were asked to evaluate each of their students' academic achievement in Greek language and mathematics on a 1- to 20-point comparative scale in relation to the rest of the class. The results of the study indicated very few differences in the pattern of relations among self-regulated components within and across the two subject areas and at the same time revealed a context-specific character of self-regulated components at a mean level differences. Further, the current study (a) confirmed the mediatory role of strategies in the motivation-performance relation, (b) stressed the differential role of cognitive and regulatory strategies in predicting performance in subject areas that differ in their structural characteristics of the content, and (c) pointed out the key motivational role of self-efficacy. In fact, self-efficacy proved the most significant predictor not only of performance but of cognitive and regulatory strategy use as well. Gender differences in motivation and strategy use were not reported, while motivation was found to vary mainly with age. The usefulness of these findings for promoting greater clarity among motivational and

  15. Differences in the effects of school meals on children's cognitive performance according to gender, household education and baseline reading skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L. B.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Petersen, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We previously found that the OPUS School Meal Study improved reading and increased errors related to inattention and impulsivity. This study explored whether the cognitive effects differed according to gender, household education and reading proficiency at baseline...... outcomes was stronger in boys, in children from households with academic education and in children with normal/good baseline reading proficiency. Overall, this resulted in increased socioeconomic inequality in reading performance and reduced inequality in impulsivity. Contrary to this, the gender...... difference decreased in reading and increased in impulsivity. Finally, the gap between poor and normal/good readers was increased in reading and decreased for d2-error%.CONCLUSIONS: The effects of healthy school meals on reading, impulsivity and inattention were modified by gender, household education...

  16. Correlation between corpus callosum sub-segmental area and cognitive processes in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Martha Beatriz; Concha, Luis; González-Santos, Leopoldo; Ortiz, Juan Jose; Barrios, Fernando Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between structural characteristics (area) and microstructure (apparent diffusion coefficient; ADC) of the corpus callosum (CC) in 57 healthy children aged 7.0 to 9.1 years, with diverse cognitive and academic abilities as well as executive functions evaluated with a neuropsychological battery for children. The CC was manually delineated and sub-segmented into six regions, and their ADC and area were measured. There were no significant differences between genders in the callosal region area or in ADC. The CC area and ADC, mainly of anterior regions, correlated with different cognitive abilities for each gender. Our results suggest that the relationship between cognitive abilities and CC characteristics is different between girls and boys and between the anterior and posterior regions of the CC. Furthermore, these findings strenghten the idea that regardless of the different interhemispheric connectivity schemes per gender, the results of cognitive tasks are very similar for girls and boys throughout childhood.

  17. Mother's Happiness with Cognitive - Executive Functions and Facial Emotional Recognition in School Children with Down Syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Malmir; Maryam Seifenaraghi; Dariush D Farhud; G Ali Afrooz; Mohammad Khanahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to the mother?s key roles in bringing up emotional and cognitive abilities of mentally retarded children and respect to positive psychology in recent decades, this research is administered to assess the relation between mother?s happiness level with cognitive- executive functions (i.e. attention, working memory, inhibition and planning) and facial emotional recognition ability as two factors in learning and adjustment skills in mentally retarded children with Down syndro...

  18. Variability and reduced performance of preschool- and early school-aged children on psychoacoustic tasks: What are the relevant factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Prudence

    2003-04-01

    Young children typically perform more poorly on psychoacoustic tasks than do adults, with large individual differences. When performance is averaged across children within age groups, the data suggest a gradual change in performance with increasing age. However, an examination of individual data suggests that the performance matures more rapidly, although at different times for different children. The mechanisms of development responsible for these changes are likely very complex, involving both sensory and cognitive processes. This paper will discuss some previously suggested mechanisms including attention and cue weighting, as well as possibilities suggested from more recent studies in which learning effects were examined. In one task, a simple frequency discrimination was required, while in another the listener was required to extract regularities in complex sequences of sounds that varied from trial to trial. Results suggested that the ability to select and consistently employ an effective listening strategy was especially important in the performance of the more complex task, while simple stimulus exposure and motivation contributed to the simpler task. These factors are important for understanding the perceptual development and for the subsequent application of psychoacoustic findings to clinical populations. [Work supported by the NSERC and the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network.

  19. Use of mobile and cordless phones and cognition in Australian primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary; Smith, Catherine L; Benke, Geza; Croft, Rodney J; Dalecki, Anna; Dimitriadis, Christina; Kaufman, Jordy; Macleod, Skye; Sim, Malcolm R; Wolfe, Rory; Abramson, Michael J

    2016-02-19

    Use of mobile (MP) and cordless phones (CP) is common among young children, but whether the resulting radiofrequency exposure affects development of cognitive skills is not known. Small changes have been found in older children. This study focused on children's exposures to MP and CP and cognitive development. The hypothesis was that children who used these phones would display differences in cognitive function compared to those who did not. We recruited 619 fourth-grade students (8-11 years) from 37 schools around Melbourne and Wollongong, Australia. Participants completed a short questionnaire, a computerised cognitive test battery, and the Stroop colour-word test. Parents completed exposure questionnaires on their child's behalf. Analysis used multiple linear regression. The principal exposure-metrics were the total number of reported MP and CP calls weekly categorised into no use ('None'); use less than or equal to the median amount ('Some'); and use more than the median ('More'). The median number of calls/week was 2.5 for MP and 2.0 for CP. MP and CP use for calls was low; and only 5 of 78 comparisons of phone use with cognitive measures were statistically significant. The reaction time to the response-inhibition task was slower in those who used an MP 'More' compared to the 'Some' use group and non-users. For CP use, the response time to the Stroop interference task was slower in the 'More' group versus the 'Some' group, and accuracy was worse in visual recognition and episodic memory tasks and the identification task. In an additional exploratory analysis, there was some evidence of a gender effect on mean reaction times. The highest users for both phone types were girls. Overall, there was little evidence cognitive function was associated with CP and MP use in this age group. Although there was some evidence that effects of MP and CP use on cognition may differ by gender, this needs further exploration. CP results may be more reliable as parents estimated

  20. The ability of 'non-cognitive' traits to predict undergraduate performance in medical schools: a national linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Gabrielle M; Mwandigha, Lazaro; Paton, Lewis W; Tiffin, Paul A

    2018-05-03

    In addition to the evaluation of educational attainment and intellectual ability there has been interest in the potential to select medical school applicants on non-academic qualities. Consequently, a battery of self-report measures concerned with assessing 'non-cognitive' traits was piloted as part of the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) administration to evaluate their potential to be used in selection. The four non-cognitive instruments piloted were: 1) the Libertarian-communitarian scale, (2) The NACE (narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) the MEARS (Managing emotions and resilience scale; self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness and faking, and (4) an abridged version of instruments (1) and (2) combined. Non-cognitive scores and sociodemographic characteristics were available for 14,387 applicants. A series of univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted in order to assess the ability of the non-cognitive scores to predict knowledge and skills-based performance, as well as the odds of passing each academic year at first attempt. Non-cognitive scores and medical performance were standardised within cohorts. The scores on the non-cognitive scales showed only very small (magnitude of standardised betas< 0.2), though sometimes statistically significant (p < 0.01) univariable associations with subsequent performance on knowledge or skills-based assessments. The only statistically significant association between the non-cognitive scores and the probability of passing an academic year at first attempt was the narcissism score from one the abridged tests (OR 0.84,95% confidence intervals 0.71 to 0.97, p = 0.02). Our findings are consistent with previously published research. The tests had a very limited ability to predict undergraduate academic performance, though further research on identifying narcissism in medical students may be warranted. However, the validity of such self-report tools in high

  1. Formative research on a teacher accompaniment model to promote youth mental health in Haiti: Relevance to mental health task-sharing in low-resource school settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, Eddy; Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Severe, Jennifer; Fils-Aimé, J. Reginald; Smith Fawzi, Mary C.; Raviola, Giuseppe J.; Darghouth, Sarah; Boyd, Kate; Thérosmé, Tatiana; Legha, Rupinder; Pierre, Ermaze L.; Affricot, Emmeline; Alcindor, Yoldie; Grelotti, David J.; Becker, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Task-sharing with teachers to promote youth mental health is a promising but underdeveloped strategy in improving care access in low-income countries. Aims To assess feasibility, acceptability, and utility of the teacher accompaniment phase of a school-based teacher accompagnateur pilot study (TAPS) in Haiti. Methods We assigned student participants, ages 18–22 (n=120) to a teacher participant (n=22) within four Haitian schools; we instructed participants to arrange meetings with their assigned counterparts to discuss mental health treatment, academic skills, and/or well-being. We measured student and teacher perceived feasibility, acceptability, and utility of meetings with self-report Likert-style questions. We examined overall program feasibility by the percentage of students with a documented meeting, acceptability by a composite measure of student satisfaction, and utility by the percentage with identified mental health need who discussed treatment with a teacher. Results Favorable ratings support feasibility, acceptability, and utility of teacher-accompagnateur meetings with students. The majority of students (54%) met with a teacher. Among students with an identified mental disorder, 43.2% discussed treatment during a meeting. Conclusions This accompaniment approach to mental health task-sharing with teachers provided a school-based opportunity for students with mental health need to discuss treatment and has potential relevance to other low-income settings. PMID:28367718

  2. Formative research on a teacher accompaniment model to promote youth mental health in Haiti: Relevance to mental health task-sharing in low-resource school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, Eddy; Gerbasi, Margaret E; Severe, Jennifer; Fils-Aimé, J Reginald; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Raviola, Giuseppe J; Darghouth, Sarah; Boyd, Kate; Thérosmé, Tatiana; Legha, Rupinder; Pierre, Ermaze L; Affricot, Emmeline; Alcindor, Yoldie; Grelotti, David J; Becker, Anne E

    2017-06-01

    Task-sharing with teachers to promote youth mental health is a promising but underdeveloped strategy in improving care access in low-income countries. To assess feasibility, acceptability and utility of the teacher accompaniment phase of a school-based Teacher- Accompagnateur Pilot Study (TAPS) in Haiti. We assigned student participants, aged 18-22 years ( n = 120), to teacher participants ( n = 22) within four Haitian schools; we instructed participants to arrange meetings with their assigned counterparts to discuss mental health treatment, academic skills, and/or well-being. We measured student and teacher perceived feasibility, acceptability and utility of meetings with self-report Likert-style questions. We examined overall program feasibility by the percentage of students with a documented meeting, acceptability by a composite measure of student satisfaction and utility by the percentage with identified mental health need who discussed treatment with a teacher. Favorable ratings support feasibility, acceptability and utility of teacher- accompagnateur meetings with students. The majority of students (54%) met with a teacher. Among students with an identified mental disorder, 43.2% discussed treatment during a meeting. This accompaniment approach to mental health task-sharing with teachers provided a school-based opportunity for students with mental health need to discuss treatment and has potential relevance to other low-income settings.

  3. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of breakfast predict cognitive function and mood in school children: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, Renata; Rogers, Peter J; Nelson, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The macronutrient composition of a breakfast that could facilitate performance after an overnight fast remains unclear. As glucose is the brain's major energy source, the interest is in investigating meals differing in their blood glucose-raising potential. Findings vary due to unaccounted differences in glucoregulation, arousal and cortisol secretion. We investigated the effects of meals differing in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) on cognition and mood in school children. A total of seventy-four school children were matched and randomly allocated either to the high-GL or low-GL group. Within each GL group, children received high-GI and low-GI breakfasts. Cognitive function (CF) and mood were measured 95-140 min after breakfast. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, before and after the CF tests. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to identify differences in CF, mood, glucose and cortisol levels between the breakfasts. Low-GI meals predicted feeling more alert and happy, and less nervous and thirsty (P breakfast, and high-GI meals increased cortisol levels (P breakfast may help to improve learning, and of potential value in informing government education policies relating to dietary recommendations and implementation concerning breakfast.

  4. [Deficits in reading acquisition in primary school: cognitive, social and behavioral factors studied in a sample of 1062 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, C; Fluss, J; Ducot, B; Bricout, L; Richard, G; Ecalle, J; Magnan, A; Warszawski, J; Ziegler, J

    2009-06-01

    Reading impairment is the major learning disability in children. While research on illiteracy has mainly been conducted from a sociological perspective, research on dyslexia has typically been studied from a cognitive-linguistic perspective. Studies that jointly investigate sociological, behavioral and cognitive factors in predicting reading outcome are rare and limited to English-speaking populations. The goal of the present study was to screen second grade children with reading impairment in French urban elementary schools and to pin down the factors that explain the various facets of reading failure and success. A total of 1062 children from 20 different schools in the city of Paris participated in the study. Different aspects of reading were assessed individually for children with a suspected impairment in reading acquisition. Subsequently, 131 poor readers and 50 typically developing readers were matched for sex, age, and school. For these children, medical, cognitive, behavioral and individual socioeconomic data were obtained. Group differences were examined and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine how much variance in reading was explained by the various variables. The prevalence of poor reading skills in grade 2 was highly influenced by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) (ranging from 3.3% in high SES to 20.5% in low SES areas). Among the SES variables, employment of the father was a significant predictor of poor reading. Among the cognitive variables, phonological awareness and rapid naming were the most significant factors, much more than verbal or nonverbal intelligence. Among the behavioral variables, attention was an important factor but not externalized symptoms. Multiple regression analyses showed that reading outcome was best predicted by phonological awareness skills and attention deficits. The majority of children with reading disability come from low SES areas. As in the English literature, the most robust predictor for

  5. Science anxiety and social cognitive factors predicting STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skells, Kristin Marie

    Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.

  6. The Effect of Two-dimensional and Stereoscopic Presentation on Middle School Students' Performance of Spatial Cognition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether and how student performance on three types of spatial cognition tasks differs when worked with two-dimensional or stereoscopic representations. We recruited nineteen middle school students visiting a planetarium in a large Midwestern American city and analyzed their performance on a series of spatial cognition tasks in terms of response accuracy and task completion time. Results show that response accuracy did not differ between the two types of representations while task completion time was significantly greater with the stereoscopic representations. The completion time increased as the number of mental manipulations of 3D objects increased in the tasks. Post-interviews provide evidence that some students continued to think of stereoscopic representations as two-dimensional. Based on cognitive load and cue theories, we interpret that, in the absence of pictorial depth cues, students may need more time to be familiar with stereoscopic representations for optimal performance. In light of these results, we discuss potential uses of stereoscopic representations for science learning.

  7. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe - A cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina; Madsen, Mads; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dvorak, Jiri; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have shown promising effects of physical activity on cognitive function, but there is a need to investigate this link in real-life settings such as schools. Hence, the objective of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe could improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children. The pilot study used an 11-week cluster-randomised intervention study design. School classes were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) (n = 93 children, age = 11.8, s = 0.2 years), which performed the obligatory daily school-based physical activity (5 × 45 minutes per week); or an intervention group (IG) (n = 838 children, age = 11.9, s = 0.4 years), which substituted 2 × 45 minutes per week of the daily school physical activity with the "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe programme. The programme combines small-sided football games, drills and health education. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and follow-up. The IG improved their cognitive performance compared to the CG for psychomotor function (56, s x -  = 22 ms, p school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt to disentangle the effects of "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe on cognitive performance by investigating the characteristics of the programme's physical activity.

  8. Is the concept of quality of life relevant for multiple sclerosis patients with cognitive impairment? Preliminary results of a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Baumstarck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment occurs in about 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, and the use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care among subjects with cognitive dysfunction has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcomes for use in this specific population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL instrument, the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQoL. METHODS: DESIGN: cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: MS patients of any disease subtype. DATA COLLECTION: sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, education level, and occupational activity and clinical data (MS subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration; QoL (MusiQoL and SF36; and neuropsychological performance (Stroop color-word test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: confirmatory factor analysis, item-dimension correlations, Cronbach's alpha coefficients, Rasch statistics, relationships between MusiQoL dimensions and other parameters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled. QoL scores did not differ between the 69 cognitively non-impaired patients and the 55 cognitively impaired patients, except for the symptoms dimension. The confirmatory factor analysis performed among the impaired subjects showed that the structure of the questionnaire matched with the initial structure of the MusiQoL. The unidimensionality of the MusiQoL dimensions was preserved, and the internal validity indices were satisfactory and close to those of the reference population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that executive dysfunction did not compromise the reliability and the validity of the self-reported QoL questionnaires.

  9. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes : Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a)

  10. Cognitive Development Effects of Teaching Probabilistic Decision Making to Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, James W.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.; Lindner, James R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the comprehension and effectiveness of teaching formal, probabilistic decision-making skills to middle school students. Two specific objectives were to determine (1) if middle school students can comprehend a probabilistic decision-making approach, and (2) if exposure to the modeling approaches improves middle school…

  11. Social Cognitive Career Theory as Applied to the School-to-Work Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    The school-to-work (STW) transition occurs when young adults leave education and enter the full-time workforce. Most high school students in the United States will not graduate from a 4-year college and instead transition into the world of work, many filling positions in sales and service. Supporters of the STW movement advocate for educational…

  12. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe - A cluster-randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina

    2018-01-01

    programme. The programme combines small-sided football games, drills and health education. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: The IG improved their cognitive performance compared to the CG for psychomotor function (56, sx- = 22 ms, p attention (39, sx- = 17 ms......, p = .012) and working memory (79, sx- = 35 ms, p = .020). CONCLUSION: This pilot study provides evidence that the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt...

  13. The effect of social influence on cognitive development and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, E; Eri, T J; Skinstad, A H

    1989-01-01

    Three months before school entrance a sample of 29 children and their mothers was tested for degree of decentred child educability and degree of decentred maternal teaching. Mother and child were tested in two different situations, thus preventing interdependency between the measures of mother and child. Four months after school entrance, teacher judgements of school performance were obtained. A strong correspondence between degree of decentred child educability and degree of decentred maternal teaching was demonstrated. Degree of decentred maternal teaching and degree of decentred child educability were found to be good predictors of school performance, accounting for respectively 45 and 33% of the variance in school performance. In contrast a test of school readiness only accounted for 2% of the variance. A test of intelligence given after the teacher judgement accounted for 31% of the variance. The fact that the mother seems to be a better predictor of her child's school performance than the child himself, supports the assumption that parents, particularly mothers, are important mediators between the child and the outer world.

  14. A pesquisa em cognição e as atividades escolares de leitura Research on cognition and reading activities in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Lopes Magela Gerhardt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo reúne pressupostos teóricos da Linguística Cognitiva e da Psicolinguística, em especial os estudos em metacognição, a fim de discutir problemas relacionados à leitura nas aulas de língua materna e estrangeira, principalmente no que tange à validação das questões de interpretação de textos. Para tanto, analisamos questões presentes em materiais didáticos de língua materna e estrangeira, a fim de sugerir formas de trabalhar a interpretação de textos, a partir da visão de que a cognição humana opera em basicamente dois planos de percepção/conceptualização. Conscientes da necessidade de abordar em várias frentes o problema da má qualidade de leitura do aluno brasileiro, apresentamos nossa proposta como parte de um projeto de pesquisa maior, que inclui o que o aluno pode aprender acerca do funcionamento de sua própria mente, e como pode utilizá-la satisfatoriamente para realizar as atividades de leitura que lhe são solicitadas, na escola e fora dela.This paper assembles theoretical assumptions on Cognitive Linguistics and Psycholinguistics, especially those related to studies on Metacognition, in order to discuss problems on reading in native and foreign languages, mainly reading comprehension activities. We analyze activities of native and foreign language textbooks, in order to suggest interesting and relevant ways to work with reading comprehension, considering that human cognition basically operates in two levels of perception/conceptualization. Due to the need to address the problem of low quality of reading in Brazilian school in several ways, we present our proposal as a part of a greater research project, which includes how students can learn about their mind's work and how they can use it to accomplish reading activities in school and beyond.

  15. Constructivist Practicies Through Guided Discovery Approach: The Effect on Students' Cognitive Achievements in Nigerian Senior Secondary School Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Akinbobola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated constructivist practices through guided discovery approach and the effect on students’ cognitive achievement in Nigerian senior secondary school Physics. The study adopted pretest-posttest control group design. A criterion sampling technique was used to select six schools out of nine schools that met the criteria. A total of 278 students took part in the study; this was made up of 141 male students and 137 female students in their respective intact classes. Physic Achievement Test (PAT with the internal consistency of 0.77 using Kuder-Richardson formula (21 was the instrument used in collecting data. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA and t-test. The results showed that guided discovery approaches was the most effective in facilitating students’ achievement in physics after being taught using a pictorial organizer. This was followed by demonstration while expository was found to be the least effective. Also, there exists no significant difference in the achievement of male and female physics students taught with guided discovery, demonstration and expository teaching approaches and corresponding exposure to a pictorial organizer. It is recommended that physics teachers should endeavor to use constructivist practices through guided discovery approach in order to engage students in problem solving activities, independent learning, critical thinking and understanding, and creative learning, rather than in rote learning and memorization.

  16. College-Level Choice of Latino High School Students: A Social-Cognitive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Latino students attend 2-year colleges more often than 4-year colleges. This has an impact on the rate of bachelor's degree attainment, because the transfer rate between the 2 levels is low. The author uses national data to identify predictors associated with college-level choice and then uses social-cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, &…

  17. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  18. Qualitative analysis of cognitive interviews with school children: A web-based food intake questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of computers to administer dietary assessment questionnaires has shown potential, particularly due to the variety of interactive features that can attract and sustain children's attention. Cognitive interviews can help researchers to gain insights into how children understand and elaborate t...

  19. Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Elementary School Children: Child Social-Cognitive Factors and Parenting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Oi Poon, Scarlet Fung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined child cognitive-behavioural factors and parenting factors related to childhood depressive symptoms. Results indicate that positive and negative attributional styles were protective and vulnerable factors of depression symptoms, respectively, and the attribution-depression link was mediated by self-esteem and coping responses.…

  20. Distraction versus Intensity: The Importance of Exercise Classes for Cognitive Performance in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollseiffen, Petra; Vogt, Tobias; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the influence of a class of aerobic exercise and an art class on brain cortical activity and possible effects on cognitive performance. Electroencephalography was used to record the electrocortical activity of 16 schoolchildren (8-10 years old) before and after an aerobic exercise class and an art class. Performance in a standardized test of educational attainment (VERA-3) was assessed following both classes. A significant decrease in cortical activity was detected in all 4 lobes after exercise but not after art classes (p < 0.05). No changes in cognitive performance were observed after exercise and art classes. In this study, cortical activity was reduced after an exercise class but no effect on cognitive performance was observed. Hence, the neurophysiological effect of exercise should be further evaluated regarding different kinds of cognitive performance: creativity, knowledge acquisition as well as the outlasting effects of exercise on academic achievement. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Muñoz Q

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites (OP in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Cognitive functioning was measured using the WISC-III intelligence test. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Results: 56% of the children had concentration levels above the detection limit for dimethylphosphate (DMP and dimethyltiophosphate (DMTP. Moreover, 92% of them had the metabolite diethylphosphate (DEP values on this limit. Regarding the WISC-III, the intelligence quotient (IQ values below the average (IQ ˃ 90 correspond to: Total IQ = 60% performance IQ = 64%, verbal IQ = 52%, perceptual organization IQ = 60%, processing speed IQ = 95%, and freedom from distractibility IQ = 64%. An inverse association was found between the processing speed factor and DMTP (rs = -0.44, p = 0.014. Conclusions: results indicate that the rural schoolchildren whose urine was measured with OP metabolite biomarkers had been exposed to OP pesticides. A relationship was observed between the presence of OP metabolites and the cognitive performance factor of the WISC-III test. We believe it is appropriate to evaluate the effects of the presence of OP metabolites on cognitive functioning in a larger sample, while considering other exposure variables.

  2. Spanish High School Students' Interests in Technology: Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda-Caro, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Menéndez, Carmen; Peña-Calvo, José-Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The authors have examined the relative contribution of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and barriers), and cognitive (self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations) variables to technological interests in a sample (N = 2,364) of 10th-grade Spanish students. The results of path analysis…

  3. Association of Cognitive Abilities and Brain Lateralization among Primary School Children in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Y. Al-Hashel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many studies have explored the cognitive variation between left- and right-handed individuals; however, the differences remain poorly understood. Aim of the Work. To assess the association between brain lateralization indicated by handedness and cognitive abilities. Material and Methods. A total of 217 students aged between 7 and 10 years of both genders were identified for the study. Males and females were equally distributed. All left-handed students were chosen. An equal group with right-handed students was randomly selected. Handedness was assessed using traditional writing hand approach as well as the WatHand Cabient Test and the Grooved Pegboard Test. Cognition was measured using Cambridge University’s CANTAB eclipse cognitive battery. Pearson Correlation Coefficient Test “r” was calculated to measure the strength of association between quantitative data. Results. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities (p=0.011, r=0.253, visual memory (p=0.034, r=0.205, and better scores in reaction time tests which incorporated elements of visual memory (p=0.004, r=-0.271. Left-handed children proved to have better simple reaction times (p=0.036, r=0.201. Conclusion. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities and left-handed children have better simple reaction times.

  4. How Need for Cognition Affects the Formation of Performance Expectancies at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with low Need for Cognition (NFC) have been found to process information using a peripheral route compared to individuals higher in NFC. These differences affect the formation of performance expectancies. Based on previous work demonstrating that the formation of performance expectancies can be understood as an information processing…

  5. Poverty, Physical Stature, and Cognitive Skills: Mechanisms Underlying Children's School Enrollment in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Fink, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Past research suggests robust positive associations between household socioeconomic status and children's early cognitive development in Western countries. Relatively little is known about these relations in low-income country settings characterized by economic adversity, high prevalence of malnutrition and infectious disease, and relatively lower…

  6. The Longitudinal Effect of Bilingual Immersion Schooling on Cognitive Control and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woumans, Evy; Surmont, Jill; Struys, Esli; Duyck, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the past century, the effects of bilingualism on general cognition have been extensively explored. Studies evolved from a negative to a more positive perspective, but longitudinal assessments of effects of bilingualism are scarce. This study investigated the long-term effect of becoming a bilingual on the development of general…

  7. Early Life Cognitive Abilities and Body Weight: Cross-Sectional Study of the Association of Inhibitory Control, Cognitive Flexibility, and Sustained Attention with BMI Percentiles in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Wirt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children’s body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm, a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education, family characteristics (parental body weight, and children’s lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children’s body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility are associated with children’s body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494.

  8. Early life cognitive abilities and body weight: cross-sectional study of the association of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention with BMI percentiles in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494.

  9. Increasing Children's Voluntary Physical Activity Outside of School Hours Through Targeting Social Cognitive Theory Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Walsh, Stephanie M; Greenwood, Brittney L

    2016-10-01

    Volume of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity completed during the elementary school day is insufficient, and associated with health risks. Improvements in theory-based psychosocial factors might facilitate increased out-of-school physical activity. A behaviorally based after-school care protocol, Youth Fit 4 Life, was tested for its association with increased voluntary, out-of-school physical activity and improvements in its theory-based psychosocial predictors in 9- to 12-year-olds. Increases over 12 weeks in out-of-school physical activity, and improvements in self-regulation for physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and mood, were significantly greater in the Youth Fit 4 Life group (n = 88) when contrasted with a typical care control group (n = 57). Changes in the 3 psychosocial variables significantly mediated the group-physical activity change relationship (R(2) = .31, P theory-based psychosocial changes within a structured after-school care physical activity program was associated with increases in children's overall time being physically active. After replication, large scale application will be warranted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Relevance of the serial position effect in the differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer-type dementia, and normal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M E; Sasson, Y; Crivelli, L; Roldán Gerschovich, E; Campos, J A; Calcagno, M L; Leiguarda, R; Sabe, L; Allegri, R F

    2013-05-01

    Serial position effects are observed when a person memorises a series of words exceeding his or her attention span. Cognitively normal individuals recall words at the beginning and end of the list more frequently than those in the middle, which reflects the way that short- and long-term episodic memory works. To study the serial position effect in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to subjects with Alzheimer-type dementia (AD) or normal ageing (NA). 30 AD, 25 MCI and 20 NA subjects underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) was used to study primacy, middle, and recency effects and delayed recall for each group. The general memory pattern of MCI subjects was very similar to that of AD subjects, and was characterised by reduced learning capacity, rapid forgetfulness and clear recency effect in learning. With regard to delayed recall, however, there were differences in performance; MCI subjects' ability to recall words at the beginning and middle of the list was similar to that of normal subjects, while their memory of words at the end of the list was poor, as in AD subjects. RAVLT is a tool permitting us to distinguish between MCI and NA subjects. The recency index for the delayed recall task is a valid indicator for distinguishing between MCI patients and patients with normal ageing. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Efeitos comportamentais, cognitivos e psicofisiológicos dos canabinoides: relevância para a psicose e a esquizofrenia Behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects of cannabinoids: relevance to psychosis and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Sewell

    2010-05-01

    that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Cannabinoids also produce some psychophysiological deficits also known to be present in schizophrenia. Also clear is that in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. Increasing evidence suggests that early and heavy cannabis exposure may increase the risk of developing a psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. The relationship between cannabis exposure and schizophrenia fulfills some, but not all, of the usual criteria for causality. However, most people who use cannabis do not develop schizophrenia, and many people diagnosed with schizophrenia have never used cannabis. Therefore, it is likely that cannabis exposure is a "component cause" that interacts with other factors to "cause" schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder, but is neither necessary nor sufficient to do so alone. In the absence of known causes of schizophrenia, however, and the implications for public health policy should such a link be established the role of component causes such as cannabinoid exposure should remain a focus of further study. Finally, further work is necessary to identify the factors that underlie individual vulnerability to cannabinoid-related psychosis and to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying this risk.

  12. A cognitive perspective on Singaporean primary school pupils' use of reading strategies in learning to read in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Gu, Peter Yongqi; Hu, Guangwei

    2008-06-01

    This study is conducted in Singapore, where learning to read in English is regarded as essential because it is offered as a First Language (L1) subject in the curriculum and is stipulated as the medium of instruction in the education system, and the mother tongues are offered as Second Language (L2) subjects, although the majority still learn English as an L2. The paper reports on the reading strategies used by Singaporean primary school pupils from a cognitive perspective, which is part of a larger study that aims to investigate these pupils' language learning strategies. The participants were 18 pupils from three neighbourhood primary schools, in grades Primary 4, 5 and 6. The data were collected from high- and low-proficiency pupils at each of the three grades in each school, who read two texts at each level. Grounded in an information-processing theory and based on successful experiences of scholars using think-aloud for data collection, we asked the pupils to read and report what they were thinking about while reading. The think-aloud protocols were recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed. The results suggest that participants' flexible and appropriate use of reading strategies varies according to language proficiency and grade level, with the high-proficiency group outperforming its lower-proficiency counterpart and the high-graders outnumbering the lower-graders in terms of the number of strategies that they used. These differences were also exemplified with qualitative findings from case studies. The use of reading strategies differs according to proficiency levels, and the quality of pupils' strategy-use patterns has more significant implications for understanding efficient reading among primary school pupils.

  13. Effect of gender and nutritional status on academic achievement and cognitive function among primary school children in a rural district in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Jan J M; Amal, Mitra K; Hasmiza, H; Pim, C D; Ng, L O; Wan, Manan W M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gender, birth weight, nutritional status, and iron status of children with their academic performance and cognitive function. Two hundred and forty-nine children, seven to nine years of age, were recruited by systematic sampling from six primary schools in a rural area in Malaysia. Cognitive function was assessed by using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (R-CPM). Academic performance of the children was recorded from their school final examination results in four subjects including Malay language, English, Mathematics, and Science. Birth weight was recorded from the birth certificate, and nutritional status was determined by weight-for-age z score and height-for-age z score. Girls had a significantly higher score in all the academic tests, but a lower cognitive score compared to boys. Nutritional status was found to be correlated significantly with academic performance. Academic and cognitive function scores were also found to be correlated significantly with birth weight, parents' education, and family income. In a multivariate analysis, gender remained the significant predictor of academic function, and iron status and haemoglobin were the significant predictors of cognitive function, after controlling for other variables. The study showed that girls performed better academically than boys in rural Malaysia. Nutritional status, parents' education and family income could be additional modifiable factors to improve academic performance of the children. More attention is needed to improve academic achievements of boys at their early school years.

  14. Education and dementing disorders : The role of schooling in dementia and cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    De Ronchi, Diana

    2005-01-01

    This doctoral thesis aimed to investigate the complex relationship between education, dementias, and cognitive impairment. Two different databases were used: the Faenza and the AIDS Projects. The Faenza Project is a longitudinal study on ageing and dementia, targeting 7,930 inhabitants of Faenza (including the village of Granarolo), Italy, aged 61 years and older in 1991. The study population derives from an area which has been one of the wealthiest in Italy since the beginn...

  15. Correlation between Corpus Callosum Sub-Segmental Area and Cognitive Processes in School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Martha Beatriz; Concha, Luis; González-Santos, Leopoldo; Ortiz, Juan Jose; Barrios, Fernando Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between structural characteristics (area) and microstructure (apparent diffusion coefficient; ADC) of the corpus callosum (CC) in 57 healthy children aged 7.0 to 9.1 years, with diverse cognitive and academic abilities as well as executive functions evaluated with a neuropsychological battery for children. The CC was manually delineated and sub-segmented into six regions, and their ADC and area were measured. There were no significant differences between genders i...

  16. Considering teacher cognitions in teacher professional development: studies involving Ecuadorian primary school teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero-Mareydt, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Four empirical studies contribute to the comprehensive understanding of teachers’ behavior and other related characteristics (i.e. their environment, beliefs, competencies, mission, and identity). The aim is also to promote a teacher professional development approach that takes into account what teachers do, think, and feel. In this sense, experiential learning, social learning, and reflection are useful to influence not only the cognitive but also the affective domain, which has been traditi...

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life and Cognitive Functioning from the Perspective of Parents of School-Aged Children with Asperger's Syndrome Utilizing the PedsQL[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbers, Christine A.; Heffer, Robert W.; Varni, James W.

    2009-01-01

    HRQOL as a multidimensional construct has not been previously investigated in children with Asperger's Syndrome. The objective of the present study was to examine the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of the PedsQL[TM] 4.0 Generic Core Scales and PedsQL[TM] Cognitive Functioning Scale parent proxy-report versions in school-aged…

  18. School Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Targeting Anxiety in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Quasi-Experimental Randomised Controlled Trail Incorporating a Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Chris; Hill, Vivian; Charman, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Children with a diagnosis of autism are more likely to experience anxiety than their typically developing peers. Research suggests that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) could offer a way to help children with autism manage their anxiety but most evidence is based on clinical trials. This study investigated a school-based CBT programme using a…

  19. Enhancing the Interpretive Reading and Analytical Writing of Mainstreamed English Learners in Secondary School: Results from a Randomized Field Trial Using a Cognitive Strategies Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Kim, James S.; Scarcella, Robin; Kramer, Jason; Pearson, Matthew; van Dyk, David A.; Collins, Penny; Land, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 72 secondary English teachers from the Santa Ana Unified School District were randomly assigned to participate in the Pathway Project, a cognitive strategies approach to teaching interpretive reading and analytical writing, or to a control condition involving typical district training focusing on teaching content from the textbook.…

  20. Clinic Attenders with Autism or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Cognitive Profile at School Age and Its Relationship to Preschool Indicators of Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S.; Miniscalco, Carmela; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have had early indicators of language delay. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive profile of school age children referred to a specialist clinic for ASD, ADHD, or both, and relate this profile…

  1. Determining the Effects of Cognitive Style, Problem Complexity, and Hypothesis Generation on the Problem Solving Ability of School-Based Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…

  2. Education and Self-Reported Health: Evidence from 23 Countries on the Role of Years of Schooling, Cognitive Skills and Social Capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Borgonovi

    Full Text Available We examine the contribution of human capital to health in 23 countries worldwide using the OECD Survey of Adult Skills, a unique large-scale international assessment of 16-65 year olds that contains information about self-reported health, schooling, cognitive skills and indicators of interpersonal trust, which represents the cognitive dimension of social capital. We identify cross-national differences in education, skill and social capital gradients in self-reported health and explore the interaction between human capital and social capital to examine if and where social capital is a mediator or a moderator of years of schooling and cognitive abilities. We find large education gaps in self-reported health across all countries in our sample and a strong positive relationship between self-reported health and both literacy and trust in the majority of countries. Education and skill gradients in self-reported health appear to be largest in the United States and smallest in Italy, France, Sweden and Finland. On average around 5.5% of both the schooling gap in self-reported health and the literacy gap in self-reported health can be explained by the higher levels of interpersonal trust that better educated/more skilled individuals have, although the mediating role of trust varies considerably across countries. We find no evidence of a moderation effect: the relationships between health and years of schooling and health and cognitive skills are similar among individuals with different levels of trust.

  3. Motor development in 3-month-old healthy term-born infants is associated with cognitive and behavioural outcomes at early school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit; Roze, Elise; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.

    AIM To determine whether motor development at 3 months of age is associated with cognitive, motor, and behavioural outcomes in healthy children at early school age. METHOD In this cohort study, we included 74 term-born, healthy children (44 males, 30 females; median gestational age 40.1wks, range

  4. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Knowledge of Math Problem-Solving Processes of Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia; Montague, Marjorie; Kressler, Benikia; de Alba, Amanda Melia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of "Solve It!" instruction on students' knowledge of math problem-solving strategies. "Solve It!" is a cognitive strategy intervention designed to improve the math problem solving of middle school students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants included seventh- and eighth-grade…

  5. Bilingual (German-English) Molecular Biology Courses in an Out-of-School Lab on a University Campus: Cognitive and Affective Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenhauser, Annika; Preisfeld, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Taking into account (German) students' deficiencies in scientific literacy as well as reading competence and the "mother tongue + 2" objective of the European commission, a bilingual course on molecular biology was developed. It combines CLIL fundamentals and practical experimentation in an out-of-school lab. Cognitive and affective…

  6. Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA), Community School District 2 Special Alternative Instruction Program. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joanne

    Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Project CALLA) was a federally funded program serving 960 limited-English-proficient students in 10 Manhattan (New York) elementary schools in 1992-93 its third year of operation. The project provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), mathematics, science, and social studies in…

  7. Absence of Widespread Psychosocial and Cognitive Effects of School-Based Music Instruction in 10-13-Year-Old Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Bambrick, Caroline J.; Gill, Anneliese

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that private music training has benefits which may transfer to other domains, including verbal memory, intelligence and self-esteem. The current paper reports on the impact of an increase in school-based music training on a range of cognitive and psychosocial measures for 10-13-year-olds in two independent studies. In…

  8. Relationship between Reading/Writing Skills and Cognitive Abilities among Japanese Primary-School Children: Normal Readers versus Poor Readers (Dyslexics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Akira; Wydell, Taeko N.; Haruhara, Noriko; Kaneko, Masato; Shinya, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-five Japanese primary-school children aged from 8 (Grade-2) to 12 (Grade-6) were tested for their abilities to read/write in Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji, for their size of vocabulary and for other cognitive abilities including arithmetic, visuo-spatial and phonological processing. Percentages of the children whose…

  9. Mathematical visualization process of junior high school students in solving a contextual problem based on cognitive style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utomo, Edy Setiyo; Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research was to describe the mathematical visualization process of Junior High School students in solving contextual problems based on cognitive style. Mathematical visualization process in this research was seen from aspects of image generation, image inspection, image scanning, and image transformation. The research subject was the students in the eighth grade based on GEFT test (Group Embedded Figures Test) adopted from Within to determining the category of cognitive style owned by the students namely field independent or field dependent and communicative. The data collection was through visualization test in contextual problem and interview. The validity was seen through time triangulation. The data analysis referred to the aspect of mathematical visualization through steps of categorization, reduction, discussion, and conclusion. The results showed that field-independent and field-dependent subjects were difference in responding to contextual problems. The field-independent subject presented in the form of 2D and 3D, while the field-dependent subject presented in the form of 3D. Both of the subjects had different perception to see the swimming pool. The field-independent subject saw from the top, while the field-dependent subject from the side. The field-independent subject chose to use partition-object strategy, while the field-dependent subject chose to use general-object strategy. Both the subjects did transformation in an object rotation to get the solution. This research is reference to mathematical curriculum developers of Junior High School in Indonesia. Besides, teacher could develop the students' mathematical visualization by using technology media or software, such as geogebra, portable cabri in learning.

  10. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (pmathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Productive extension of semantic memory in school-aged children: Relations with reading comprehension and deployment of cognitive resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Blue, Shala N; Xu, Aoxiang; Esposito, Alena G

    2016-07-01

    We investigated 7- to 10-year-old children's productive extension of semantic memory through self-generation of new factual knowledge derived through integration of separate yet related facts learned through instruction or through reading. In Experiment 1, an experimenter read the to-be-integrated facts. Children successfully learned and integrated the information and used it to further extend their semantic knowledge, as evidenced by high levels of correct responses in open-ended and forced-choice testing. In Experiment 2, on half of the trials, the to-be-integrated facts were read by an experimenter (as in Experiment 1) and on half of the trials, children read the facts themselves. Self-generation performance was high in both conditions (experimenter- and self-read); in both conditions, self-generation of new semantic knowledge was related to an independent measure of children's reading comprehension. In Experiment 3, the way children deployed cognitive resources during reading was predictive of their subsequent recall of newly learned information derived through integration. These findings indicate self-generation of new semantic knowledge through integration in school-age children as well as relations between this productive means of extension of semantic memory and cognitive processes engaged during reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Alcohol and tobacco use and cognitive-motivational variables in school settings: effects on academic performance in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglés, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; García del Castillo, José A; Gázquez, José J; García-Fernández, José M; Delgado, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze: (a) the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and academic performance, and (b) the predictive role of psycho-educational factors and alcohol and tobacco abuse on academic performance in a sample of 352 Spanish adolescents from grades 8 to 10 of Compulsory Secondary Education. The Self-Description Questionnaire-II, the Sydney Attribution Scale, and the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire were administered in order to analyze cognitive-motivational variables. Alcohol and tobacco abuse, sex, and grade retention were also measured using self-reported questions. Academic performance was measured by school records. Frequency analyses and logistic regression analyses were used. Frequency analyses revealed that students who abuse of tobacco and alcohol show a higher rate of poor academic performance. Logistic regression analyses showed that health behaviours, and educational and cognitive-motivational variables exert a different effect on academic performance depending on the academic area analyzed. These results point out that not only academic, but also health variables should be address to improve academic performance in adolescence.

  13. The Use of Prescription Drugs, Recreational Drugs, and "Soft Enhancers" for Cognitive Enhancement among Swiss Secondary School Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Liakoni

    Full Text Available The use of prescription or recreational drugs for cognitive enhancement (CE is prevalent among students. However, the prevalence of CE among Swiss school students is unknown. We therefore performed a cross-sectional online survey including ≥ 16-year-old students from bridge-year schools (10th grade, vocational schools, and upper secondary schools (10th-12th grade in the Canton of Zurich to investigate the prevalence of and motives for the use of prescription drugs, recreational drugs, and/or freely available soft enhancers for CE. A total of 1,139 students were included. Of these, 54.5% reported the use of prescription drugs (9.2%, recreational drugs including alcohol (6.2%, or soft enhancers (51.3% explicitly for CE at least once in their lives. The last-year and last-month prevalence for CE considering all substances was 45.5% and 39.5%, respectively. Soft enhancers were the substances that were most commonly used (ever, last-year, and last-month, respectively, including energy drinks (33.3%, 28.4%, and 24.6%, coffee (29.8%, 25.1%, and 21.9%, and tobacco (12.6%, 9.3%, and 8.3%. CE with methylphenidate was less prevalent (4.0%, 2.8%, and 2.0%. However, the use of prescription drugs, alcohol, or illegal drugs for CE was reported by 13.3% of the participants. The most common motives for use were to stay awake and improve concentration. CE was more prevalent among students who reported higher levels of stress or performance pressure and students with psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, half of the school students had used a substance at least once in their lives to improve school performance. Soft enhancers were most commonly used. Prevalence rates were similar to those reported by Swiss university students, indicating that the use of prescription or recreational drugs for CE already occurs before starting higher education. Performance pressure, stress, and psychiatric disorders may be associated with CE.

  14. Cognitive and Affective Orientations of Elementary School Children Toward Air, Water, and Soil Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Mildred Azelle Evans

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information about children's knowledge of and attitudes toward problems of environmental pollution. It sought to determine whether or not fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in selected elementary schools, one in the United States and one in Mexico, differed in their knowledge of and their attitudes…

  15. The Effect of Bullying and Victimization on Cognitive Empathy Development during the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron J.; Forrest-Bank, Shandra S.; Bender, Kimberly A.; Dieterich, William A.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interventions aimed at reducing bullying behavior commonly target the development of empathy. Yet, few longitudinal studies have investigated how empathy levels vary with bullying and victimization over time, especially during the transition to middle school. Objective: To that end, the purpose of the present study was to: (1) examine…

  16. Early lexical development and risk of verbal and nonverbal cognitive delay at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Rescorla, L.; Henrichs, J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterise the relationship between preschool lexical delay and language comprehension and nonverbal intelligence at school age. Methods The mothers of 2724 children completed the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory when their child reached 1.5 years and the Language Development

  17. Investigation of Social Cognitive Career Theory for Minority Recruitment in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Cappaert, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less…

  18. Cognitive and Stylistic Features of Reporting and Classificatory Writing by Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Barry

    Differences between reporting and classificatory functions in writing were examined in the responses of grade 10 and grade 12 students: 60 who were successful English students, and 60 on the borderline of passing in each of the grades. The reporting tasks required students to write compositions describing their first day in a high school or some…

  19. Heuristic Principles and Cognitive Bias in Decision Making: Implications for Assessment in School Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidow, Joseph; Levinson, Edward M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes factors that may bias psychoeducational decision making and discusses three heuristic principles that affect decision making. Discusses means by which school psychologists can be made aware of these heuristic principles and encouraged to consider them when making psychoeducational decisions. Also discusses methods by which bias in…

  20. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Filho, José A; Novaes, Cristiane de O; Moreira, Josino C; Sarcinelli, Paula N; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that excess manganese (Mn) in children is associated with neurobehavioral impairments. In Brazil, elevated hair Mn concentrations were reported in children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant. We investigated these children's and caregivers' cognitive function in relation to bioindicators of Mn exposure. In this cross-sectional study, the WISC-III was administered to 83 children aged between 6 and 12 years; the Raven Progressive Matrix was administered to the primary caregivers (94% mothers), who likewise responded to a questionnaire on socio demographics and birth history. Mn in hair (MnH) and blood (MnB) and blood lead (PbB) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Children's mean MnB and MnH were 8.2 μg/L (2.7-23.4) and 5.83 μg/g (0.1-86.68), respectively. Mean maternal MnH was 3.50 μg/g (0.10-77.45) and correlated to children's MnH (rho=0.294, p=0.010). Children's MnH was negatively related to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Verbal IQ; β coefficients for MnH were -5.78 (95% CI -10.71 to -0.21) and -6.72 (-11.81 to -0.63), adjusted for maternal education and nutritional status. Maternal MnH was negatively associated with performance on the Raven's (β=-2.69, 95% CI -5.43 to 0.05), adjusted for education years, family income and age. These findings confirm that high MnH in children is associated with poorer cognitive performance, especially in the verbal domain. Primary caregiver's IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children's cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes-Filho, Jose A.; Novaes, Cristiane de O.; Moreira, Josino C.; Sarcinelli, Paula N.; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that excess manganese (Mn) in children is associated with neurobehavioral impairments. In Brazil, elevated hair Mn concentrations were reported in children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant. Objectives: We investigated these children's and caregivers' cognitive function in relation to bioindicators of Mn exposure. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the WISC-III was administered to 83 children aged between 6 and 12 years; the Raven Progressive Matrix was administered to the primary caregivers (94% mothers), who likewise responded to a questionnaire on socio demographics and birth history. Mn in hair (MnH) and blood (MnB) and blood lead (PbB) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results: Children's mean MnB and MnH were 8.2 μg/L (2.7-23.4) and 5.83 μg/g (0.1-86.68), respectively. Mean maternal MnH was 3.50 μg/g (0.10-77.45) and correlated to children's MnH (rho=0.294, p=0.010). Children's MnH was negatively related to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Verbal IQ; β coefficients for MnH were -5.78 (95% CI -10.71 to -0.21) and -6.72 (-11.81 to -0.63), adjusted for maternal education and nutritional status. Maternal MnH was negatively associated with performance on the Raven's (β=-2.69, 95% CI -5.43 to 0.05), adjusted for education years, family income and age. Conclusions: These findings confirm that high MnH in children is associated with poorer cognitive performance, especially in the verbal domain. Primary caregiver's IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children's cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure.

  2. Sluggish cognitive tempo and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention in the home and school contexts: Parent and teacher invariance and cross-setting validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P; Servera, Mateu; Bernad, Maria Del Mar; García-Banda, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention (IN) symptoms demonstrated cross-setting invariance and unique associations with symptom and impairment dimensions across settings (i.e., home SCT and ADHD-IN uniquely predicting school symptom and impairment dimensions, and vice versa). Mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, academic impairment, social impairment, and peer rejection dimensions for 585 Spanish 3rd-grade children (53% boys). Within-setting (i.e., mothers, fathers; primary, secondary teachers) and cross-settings (i.e., home, school) invariance was found for both SCT and ADHD-IN. From home to school, higher levels of home SCT predicted lower levels of school ADHD-HI and higher levels of school academic impairment after controlling for home ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of home ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of school ADHD-HI, ODD, anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and peer rejection after controlling for home SCT. From school to home, higher levels of school SCT predicted lower levels of home ADHD-HI and ODD and higher levels of home anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment after controlling for school ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of school ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of home ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment after controlling for school SCT. Although SCT at home and school was able to uniquely predict symptom and impairment dimensions in the other setting, SCT at school was a better predictor than ADHD-IN at school of psychopathology and impairment at home. Findings provide additional support for SCT's validity relative to ADHD-IN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, reduction of intestinal parasite load, and cognitive test score improvements in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara E Ezeamama

    Full Text Available To determine whether treatment of intestinal parasitic infections improves cognitive function in school-aged children, we examined changes in cognitive testscores over 18 months in relation to: (i treatment-related Schistosoma japonicum intensity decline, (ii spontaneous reduction of single soil-transmitted helminth (STH species, and (iii ≥2 STH infections among 253 S. japonicum-infected children.Helminth infections were assessed at baseline and quarterly by the Kato-Katz method. S. japonicum infection was treated at baseline using praziquantel. An intensity-based indicator of lower vs. no change/higher infection was defined separately for each helminth species and joint intensity declines of ≥2 STH species. In addition, S. japonicum infection-free duration was defined in four categories based on time of schistosome re-infection: >18 (i.e. cured, >12 to ≤18, 6 to ≤12 and ≤6 (persistently infected months. There was no baseline treatment for STHs but their intensity varied possibly due to spontaneous infection clearance/acquisition. Four cognitive tests were administered at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following S. japonicum treatment: learning and memory domains of Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML, verbal fluency (VF, and Philippine nonverbal intelligence test (PNIT. Linear regression models were used to relate changes in respective infections to test performance with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders and coincident helminth infections.Children cured (β = 5.8; P = 0.02 and those schistosome-free for >12 months (β = 1.5; P = 0.03 scored higher in WRAML memory and VF tests compared to persistently infected children independent of STH infections. A decline vs. no change/increase of any individual STH species (β:11.5-14.5; all P12 months post-treatment and those who experienced declines of ≥2 STH species scored higher in three of four cognitive tests. Our result suggests that sustained

  4. Computer-Based Training in Math and Working Memory Improves Cognitive Skills and Academic Achievement in Primary School Children: Behavioral Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Sánchez-Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Student academic achievement has been positively related to further development outcomes, such as the attainment of higher educational, employment, and socioeconomic aspirations. Among all the academic competences, mathematics has been identified as an essential skill in the field of international leadership as well as for those seeking positions in disciplines related to science, technology, and engineering. Given its positive consequences, studies have designed trainings to enhance children's mathematical skills. Additionally, the ability to regulate and control actions and cognitions, i.e., executive functions (EF, has been associated with school success, which has resulted in a strong effort to develop EF training programs to improve students' EF and academic achievement. The present study examined the efficacy of a school computer-based training composed of two components, namely, working memory and mathematics tasks. Among the advantages of using a computer-based training program is the ease with which it can be implemented in school settings and the ease by which the difficulty of the tasks can be adapted to fit the child's ability level. To test the effects of the training, children's cognitive skills (EF and IQ and their school achievement (math and language grades and abilities were evaluated. The results revealed a significant improvement in cognitive skills, such as non-verbal IQ and inhibition, and better school performance in math and reading among the children who participated in the training compared to those children who did not. Most of the improvements were related to training on WM tasks. These findings confirmed the efficacy of a computer-based training that combined WM and mathematics activities as part of the school routines based on the training's impact on children's academic competences and cognitive skills.

  5. Computer-Based Training in Math and Working Memory Improves Cognitive Skills and Academic Achievement in Primary School Children: Behavioral Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Castillo, Alejandro; López-López, José A; Pina, Violeta; Puga, Jorge L; Campoy, Guillermo; González-Salinas, Carmen; Fuentes, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    Student academic achievement has been positively related to further development outcomes, such as the attainment of higher educational, employment, and socioeconomic aspirations. Among all the academic competences, mathematics has been identified as an essential skill in the field of international leadership as well as for those seeking positions in disciplines related to science, technology, and engineering. Given its positive consequences, studies have designed trainings to enhance children's mathematical skills. Additionally, the ability to regulate and control actions and cognitions, i.e., executive functions (EF), has been associated with school success, which has resulted in a strong effort to develop EF training programs to improve students' EF and academic achievement. The present study examined the efficacy of a school computer-based training composed of two components, namely, working memory and mathematics tasks. Among the advantages of using a computer-based training program is the ease with which it can be implemented in school settings and the ease by which the difficulty of the tasks can be adapted to fit the child's ability level. To test the effects of the training, children's cognitive skills (EF and IQ) and their school achievement (math and language grades and abilities) were evaluated. The results revealed a significant improvement in cognitive skills, such as non-verbal IQ and inhibition, and better school performance in math and reading among the children who participated in the training compared to those children who did not. Most of the improvements were related to training on WM tasks. These findings confirmed the efficacy of a computer-based training that combined WM and mathematics activities as part of the school routines based on the training's impact on children's academic competences and cognitive skills.

  6. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  7. Cognitive precursors of arithmetic development in primary school children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooijen, M; Verhoeven, L; Smits, D W; Dallmeijer, A J; Becher, J G; Steenbergen, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of arithmetic performance and its cognitive precursors in children with CP from 7 till 9 years of age. Previous research has shown that children with CP are generally delayed in arithmetic performance compared to their typically developing peers. In children with CP, the developmental trajectory of the ability to solve addition- and subtraction tasks has, however, rarely been studied, as well as the cognitive factors affecting this trajectory. Sixty children (M=7.2 years, SD=.23 months at study entry) with CP participated in this study. Standardized tests were administered to assess arithmetic performance, word decoding skills, non-verbal intelligence, and working memory. The results showed that the ability to solve addition- and subtraction tasks increased over a two year period. Word decoding skills were positively related to the initial status of arithmetic performance. In addition, non-verbal intelligence and working memory were associated with the initial status and growth rate of arithmetic performance from 7 till 9 years of age. The current study highlights the importance of non-verbal intelligence and working memory to the development of arithmetic performance of children with CP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mediators and Moderators of a School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Mylien T; Kelly, Brynn M; Haaland, Wren L; Matsumiya, Brandon; Huey, Stanley J; McCarty, Carolyn A

    2016-10-01

    This study tested potential moderators and mediators of an indicated depression prevention program for middle school students, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA). Participants were 120 students randomly assigned to PTA, or a brief, individually administered supportive intervention (Individual Support Program, or ISP). Youths completed measures of depressive symptoms at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-month follow-up. Hierarchical regression was used to test three moderators-ethnic minority status, gender, and baseline depressive symptoms-and three mediators representing functional outcomes targeted by PTA-parent-child communication, attitude towards school, and health behavior. Ethnic minority status did not moderate PTA effects at post-intervention but did moderate PTA effects at 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, PTA appeared to be more effective for White participants than ethnic minority youth. Follow-up analyses suggested this moderation effect was due to the tendency of ethnic minority youth, especially those with fewer symptoms at baseline, to drop out by 12 months. Neither gender nor baseline depressive symptoms moderated the effects of PTA. Although PTA improved health behavior and attitudes toward school, there was no evidence that any of these functional outcomes measured mediated the impact of PTA on depressive symptoms. Future directions are discussed.

  9. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.11-0.95). A single unit change of age resulted 3.23 unit change in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 3.23; 95 % CI: 1.20-5.27). Nutritional status (height for age Z score) and wealth could be modifiable factors to improve academic performance of school age children. Moreover, interventions to improve nutrition for mothers and children may be

  10. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes-Filho, Jose A., E-mail: antomen@ufba.br [College of Pharmacy, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Public and Environmental Health Program, National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Brazil); Novaes, Cristiane de O.; Moreira, Josino C.; Sarcinelli, Paula N. [Public and Environmental Health Program, National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre de Recherche Interdisciplinaire sur la Biologie, la Sante, la Societe et l' Environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that excess manganese (Mn) in children is associated with neurobehavioral impairments. In Brazil, elevated hair Mn concentrations were reported in children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant. Objectives: We investigated these children's and caregivers' cognitive function in relation to bioindicators of Mn exposure. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the WISC-III was administered to 83 children aged between 6 and 12 years; the Raven Progressive Matrix was administered to the primary caregivers (94% mothers), who likewise responded to a questionnaire on socio demographics and birth history. Mn in hair (MnH) and blood (MnB) and blood lead (PbB) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results: Children's mean MnB and MnH were 8.2 {mu}g/L (2.7-23.4) and 5.83 {mu}g/g (0.1-86.68), respectively. Mean maternal MnH was 3.50 {mu}g/g (0.10-77.45) and correlated to children's MnH (rho=0.294, p=0.010). Children's MnH was negatively related to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Verbal IQ; {beta} coefficients for MnH were -5.78 (95% CI -10.71 to -0.21) and -6.72 (-11.81 to -0.63), adjusted for maternal education and nutritional status. Maternal MnH was negatively associated with performance on the Raven's ({beta}=-2.69, 95% CI -5.43 to 0.05), adjusted for education years, family income and age. Conclusions: These findings confirm that high MnH in children is associated with poorer cognitive performance, especially in the verbal domain. Primary caregiver's IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children's cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure.

  11. Motor development in 3-month-old healthy term-born infants is associated with cognitive and behavioural outcomes at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzert, Marrit M; Roze, Elise; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Bos, Arend F

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether motor development at 3 months of age is associated with cognitive, motor, and behavioural outcomes in healthy children at early school age. In this cohort study, we included 74 term-born, healthy children (44 males, 30 females; median gestational age 40.1 wks, range 38.0-42.6 wks). From video recordings (median 12.9 wks, range 9.3-18.6 wks), we assessed the quality of fidgety movements, and calculated a motor optimality score. At school age (median 5 y 11 mo, range 5 y 8 mo-7 y 6 mo), we performed detailed cognitive, motor, and behavioural assessments. We examined whether aspects of motor development were associated with functional outcomes. An age-adequate motor repertoire, in particular the presence of antigravity, midline leg, and manipulation movements, was related to poorer cognition, whereas variable finger postures was related to better cognition. Children with a monotonous concurrent motor repertoire had better ball skills but experienced more behavioural problems. The presence of antigravity movements tended to be associated with abnormal recognition (odds ratio [OR] 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-21; R(2) =0.17; p=0.070), where the absence of variable finger postures was associated with borderline and abnormal visual-spatial perception (OR 20, 95% CI, 1.7-238; R(2) =0.39; p=0.018). Detailed aspects of motor development at 3 months of age are associated with cognition and behaviour, but not with motor outcome, in healthy children at early school age. Our findings suggest that early motor development may be the basis for later cognitive and behavioural performance. Since the associations were only moderate, possible environmental influences should be acknowledged. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  12. In-utero exposure to DDT and cognitive development among infants and school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for control of infectious diseases in several countries. In-utero exposure to DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been associated with developmental and cognitive impairment among children. We examined this association in an historical cohort in which the level of exposure was greater than in previous studies. Methods The association of in-utero DDT and DDE exposure with infant and child neurodevelopment was examined in approximately 1100 subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective birth cohort enrolling pregnant women from 12 study centers in the U.S. from 1959 to 1965. Maternal DDT and DDE concentrations were measured in archived serum specimens. Infant mental and motor development was assessed at age 8 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and child cognitive development was assessed at age 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results Although levels of both DDT and DDE were relatively high in this population (median DDT concentration, 8.9 µg/L; DDE, 24.5 µg/L), neither was related to Mental or Psychomotor Development scores on the Bayley Scales or to Full-Scale IQ at 7 years of age. Categorical analyses showed no evidence of dose-response for either maternal DDT or DDE, and estimates of the association between continuous measures of exposure and neurodevelopment were indistinguishable from 0. Conclusions Adverse associations were not observed between maternal serum DDT and DDE concentrations and offspring neurodevelopment at 8 months or 7 years of age in this cohort. PMID:22766752

  13. Does consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA enhance cognitive performance in healthy school-aged children and throughout adulthood? Evidence from clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-07-22

    Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human's capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA.

  14. Does Consumption of LC Omega-3 PUFA Enhance Cognitive Performance in Healthy School-Aged Children and throughout Adulthood? Evidence from Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welma Stonehouse

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain (LC omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human’s capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA.

  15. Influence of having breakfast on cognitive performance and mood in 13- to 20-year-old high school students: results of a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widenhorn-Müller, Katharina; Hille, Katrin; Klenk, Jochen; Weiland, Ulrike

    2008-08-01

    The goal was to determine whether breakfast had effects on the cognitive performance and mood of high school students. A crossover trial was performed in boarding schools, involving 104 students between 13 and 20 years of age. The participants were randomly assigned to 2 equal-size groups on the morning of the first testing day. One half of the total sample received a standardized breakfast, whereas the other half received no breakfast. Seven days later, the treatment order was reversed. Measurements of cognitive function included standardized tests of attention and concentration, as well as tests of verbal and spatial memory. In addition, mood was rated with a self-administered questionnaire covering the dimensions of positive and negative affect, information uptake, arousal, and alertness. Statistical analysis consisted of repeated-measures analysis of variance. Breakfast had no effect on sustained attention among high school students. Visuospatial memory was improved in male students. Self-reported alertness improved significantly in the entire study population. Male students reported feeling more positive after consuming breakfast, compared with the fasting condition. This crossover trial demonstrated positive short-term effects of breakfast on cognitive functioning and self-reported alertness in high school students.

  16. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Shmigirilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features. The paper emphasizes the importance of cognitive competence as an adaptive mechanism in situations of uncertainty and instability.Scientific novelty: The author clarifies the concept of cognitive competence regarding it as a multi-component and systematic characteristic of a personality.Practical significance: The research findings can be used by specialists in didactics developing the teaching techniques of cognitive competence formation for schoolchildren.

  17. [Economic evaluation of a manual-based, multimodal cognitive behavioural therapy for school avoiding children with psychiatric disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschenfelder, Ann-Kathrin; Reissner, Volker; Knollmann, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Wasem, Jürgen; Neumann, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Untreated school refusal increases the risk of a premature discontinuation of the educational career. The aim of this study is the economic evaluation of a manual-based treatment for school refusal in comparison to the standard treatment. Within the cost-minimisation analysis, resource use is measured retrospectively for six months using the CSSRI questionnaire. Unit costs for most health care services are derived from published standard prices. Costs are calculated from the societal perspective based on prices compiled in 2011. The cost comparison during the one-year intervention period applies a difference in differences Approach. The most common diagnoses among the 112 participants are phobic and emotional disorders. The average cost per patient during the intervention period amounts to 7197 € (95 %-CI: 4746 € – 10 079 €) for the manual group and 9294 € (95 %-CI: 6313 € – 12 878 €) for the control group. The difference in adjusted costs of 1453 € in favour of the manual group is not statistically relevant. The manual-based treatment is equivalent if not slightly advantageous compared to the standard treatment considering the clinical outcomes and cost of illness.

  18. Feeding the brain - The effects of micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance among school-aged children: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long Fung; Lawlis, Tanya R

    2017-08-01

    Micronutrients are essential for brain development with deficiencies in specific nutrients linked to impaired cognitive function. Interventions are shown to be beneficial to children's mental development, particularly in subjects who were micronutrient-deficient at baseline but results on healthy subjects remain inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of micronutrient inventions on different cognitive domains. Studies conducted in both developing and developed countries, and trials that investigate the effect of both single and multiple micronutrient intervention were reviewed. Systematic searches of Medline, CINAHL Plus and Academic Search database were undertaken to identify trials published after year 2000. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate the effect of micronutrients on cognitive performance or academic performance among children aged 4-18 years were included. 19 trials were identified from 18 articles. The major cognitive outcomes assessed included fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, short-term memory, long-term memory, cognitive processing speed, attention and concentration, and school performance. Eight of ten trials assessing fluid intelligence reported significant positive effects of micronutrient supplementation among micronutrient-deficient children, especially those who were iron-deficient or iodine-deficient at baseline. The effects of micronutrient interventions on other domains were inconsistent. Improvement in fluid intelligence among micronutrient-deficient children was consistently reported. Further research is needed to provide more definite evidence on the beneficial effects of micronutrient inventions on other cognitive domains and the effects in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive constraints on high school students' representations of real environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ervin Kenneth

    One class of juniors and seniors was studied through one semester in the investigation of how students think about, learn from, and solve real environmental problems. The intention was to listen to student voices while researching the features of their representations of these problems, the beliefs they held (tenets), the cognitive processes they employed, and the principles of science, ecology, problem solving, and ethics they held as tenets. The focus was upon two self-selected groups as they perceived, engaged, analyzed, and proposed solutions for problems. Analysis of the student representations involved interpretation of the features to include both the perspective tenets and the envisioning processes. These processes included the intentive and attentive constraints as tenet acquisition and volitive and agential constraints as tenet affirmation. The perspective tenets included a variety of conceptual (basic science, ecological, ethical, and problem-solving) constraints as well as ontological, epistemological, and other cultural (role, status, power, and community) constraints. The perspective tenets were interpreted thematically including the ways populations of people cause and care about environmental problems, the magnitude of environmental problems and the science involved, the expectations and limitations students perceive for themselves, and the importance of community awareness and cooperation to addressing these problems. Some of these tenets were interpreted to be principles in that they were rules that were accepted by some people as true. The perspective tenets, along with the envisioning processes, were perceived to be the constraints that determined the environmental problems and limited the solution possibilities. The students thought about environmental problems in mature and principled ways using a repertoire of cognitive processes. They learned from them as they acquired and affirmed tenets. They solved them through personal choices and

  20. A systematic review of the effect of dietary exposure that could be achieved through normal dietary intake on learning and performance of school-aged children of relevance to UK schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Louisa J; Hillier, Frances C; Shucksmith, Janet; Crawley, Helen; Harbige, Laurence; Shield, Julian; Wiggins, Andy; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present review was to perform a systematic in-depth review of the best evidence from controlled trial studies that have investigated the effects of nutrition, diet and dietary change on learning, education and performance in school-aged children (4-18 years) from the UK and other developed countries. The twenty-nine studies identified for the review examined the effects of breakfast consumption, sugar intake, fish oil and vitamin supplementation and 'good diets'. In summary, the studies included in the present review suggest there is insufficient evidence to identify any effect of nutrition, diet and dietary change on learning, education or performance of school-aged children from the developed world. However, there is emerging evidence for the effects of certain fatty acids which appear to be a function of dose and time. Further research is required in settings of relevance to the UK and must be of high quality, representative of all populations, undertaken for longer durations and use universal validated measures of educational attainment. However, challenges in terms of interpreting the results of such studies within the context of factors such as family and community context, poverty, disease and the rate of individual maturation and neurodevelopment will remain. Whilst the importance of diet in educational attainment remains under investigation, the evidence for promotion of lower-fat, -salt and -sugar diets, high in fruits, vegetables and complex carbohydrates, as well as promotion of physical activity remains unequivocal in terms of health outcomes for all schoolchildren.

  1. Some strategies to improve performance in school chemistry, based on two cognitive factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danili, Eleni; Reid, Norman

    2004-02-01

    The background to this study are the difficulties facing the majority of Greek pupils in understanding chemistry concepts and, therefore, performing well in the National Examinations. The aim was to explore the problems and to suggest ways in which the situation might be improved. Working with 105 Greek pupils aged 15 to 16, the first stage of the enquiry confirmed that both working memory space and extent of field dependency were two psychological factors affecting performance. This is at least part of the nature of the problem. In the second stage, an attempt was made to explore how the problems might be reduced. New teaching materials were constructed to minimize any limitations to learning caused by working memory space and problems associated with being field dependent. The use of the new materials was compared to the normal teaching process working with 210 Greek pupils aged 15 to16. It was found that there was a significant difference in the average improvement of the experimental group and the control group, in favour of the experimental group. This result was independent of the effect of the teacher, and of the interaction of teaching method and teacher. It is suggested that approaches to learning must take into account cognitive factors in the learners in the context of information processing understandings of learning. If this is done, learning is much more effective.

  2. Emotional and cognitive effects of peer tutoring among secondary school mathematics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre Ansuategui, Francisco José; Moliner Miravet, Lidón

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes an experience of same-age peer tutoring conducted with 19 eighth-grade mathematics students in a secondary school in Castellon de la Plana (Spain). Three constructs were analysed before and after launching the program: academic performance, mathematics self-concept and attitude of solidarity. Students' perceptions of the method were also analysed. The quantitative data was gathered by means of a mathematics self-concept questionnaire, an attitude of solidarity questionnaire and the students' numerical ratings. A statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. The qualitative information was gathered by means of discussion groups and a field diary. This information was analysed using descriptive analysis and by categorizing the information. Results show statistically significant improvements in all the variables and the positive assessment of the experience and the interactions that took place between the students.

  3. Improving Physical Fitness and Cognitive Functions in Middle School Students: Study Protocol for the Chinese Childhood Health, Activity and Motor Performance Study (Chinese CHAMPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhixiong; Dong, Shanshan; Yin, Jun; Fu, Quan; Ren, Hong; Yin, Zenong

    2018-05-14

    Background : Sedentary lifestyles and their associated harmful consequences are public health concerns that impact more than half of the world's youth population in both developed and developing countries. Methods : The Chinese Childhood Health; Activity and Motor Performance Study (Chinese CHAMPS) was a cluster randomized controlled trial to modify school physical activity policies and the physical education (PE) curriculum; using teacher training and parent engagement to increase opportunities and support students' physical activity and healthy eating. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, the study tested the incremental effects of increasing the amount and intensity of physical activity, alongside adding support for healthy eating, on health-related and cognitive function outcomes in Chinese middle school students. Results : The intervention was implemented by PE teachers in 12 middle schools in three Chinese cities, with a targeted enrollment of 650 students from August 2015⁻June 2016. The assessment of the outcomes involved a test battery of physical fitness and cognitive functioning at both baseline and at the end of the intervention. Process information on implementation was also collected. Discussion : The Chinese CHAMPS is a multi-level intervention that is designed to test the influences of policy and environmental modifications on the physical activity and eating behaviors of middle school students. It also addresses some key weaknesses in school-based physical activity interventions.

  4. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  5. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2018-01-01

    , p = .012) and working memory (79, sx– = 35 ms, p = .020). Conclusion: This pilot study provides evidence that the school-based physical activity programme “FIFA 11 for Health” for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt...... programme. The programme combines small-sided football games, drills and health education. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Results: The IG improved their cognitive performance compared to the CG for psychomotor function (56, sx– = 22 ms, p attention (39, sx– = 17 ms...

  6. Longitudinal analysis of cognitive constructs fostered by STEM activities for middle school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda Christensen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the changes found to occur pre- to post intervention in students' cognitive structures continued to persist two years later. Major findings were: 1 higher-order STEM-related constructs established during the treatment year tended to persist two years later, even as component dispositions varied, and 2 gender differences in level of persistence emerged in only one of the four higher-order constructs identified. For the participants taken as a whole, perceptions of science and STEM as a career became more aligned with interest in being a scientist, from pretest to posttest time during the treatment year and continued to be aligned two years later. Perception of engineering moved from alignment with science and STEM as a career at time 1, to alignment with perception of technology and creative tendencies after the treatment year, at time 2, and remained aligned with technology two years later, at time 3. Perception of mathematics was separated from the other constructs during the pre-post treatment year and remained largely separated two years later. One subscale of the career interest survey focusing on working with others to make the world a better place through science, separated from other career interest subscales and became its own higher-order construct at time 2, and still remained on its own at time 3. Data mining techniques as well as higher-order factor analysis were used to identify changes in relationships among these and other constructs over time.

  7. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE OF STUNTED PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN UNDERGOING NUTRITIONAL RECOVERY TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thaíse Morais; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Azevedo, Maria de Lourdes da Silva Gomes de; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo

    2018-01-01

    To determine if the treatment of stunted children offered at a specialized center influences their cognitive performance. Two groups of children from vulnerable families were selected, one consisting of stunted children being treated at the Nutrition Education and Recovery Center (CREN), and the other group of eutrophic children from a local, public day care center. At CREN, children are treated in a day-hospital system (9 hours/day, 5 days/week), receiving medical, nutritional and psycho-pedagogical support. All children were submitted to the Denver-II Development Screening Test and had their development and the height-for-age index assessed at 3 moments: at the beginning of the follow-up, and after 6 and 12 months. The socioeconomic status, according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria, was assessed at the beginning of the follow-up. Data were treated by prevalence ratios for cross-sectional baseline analysis, using the Poisson regression, and by pooled prevalence ratios for longitudinal analysis, using a generalized equation estimation model, both adjusted by age, sex and economic status. Seventy-four children were included, 37 for each group. There were no differences in age, sex and socioeconomic status between groups. In the longitudinal analysis, the CREN group showed better performance in the personal-social domain (pooled prevalence ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval - 95%IC 0.82-0.95), with no differences in the other domains. The treatment offered at CREN satisfactorily improved the social skills of the treated children, without changing other domains.

  8. Brief Report: Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Parent-Reported Autism Symptoms in School-Age Children with High-Functioning Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Dyke, Marilyn; Decker, Kelly; Fujii, Cori; Bahng, Christie; Renno, Patricia; Hwang, Wei-Chin; Spiker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7?11?years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and school consultation to promote social communication and emotion regulation skills. Parents completed a standardized autism symptom checklist at baselin...

  9. Physical activity in the school setting: cognitive performance is not affected by three different types of acute exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chin A Paw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediatepositive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, thetype of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents isnot fully understood. Therefore, this controlled

  10. The effects of laboratory inquire-based experiments and computer simulations on high school students‘ performance and cognitive load in physics teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Branka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to examine the extent to which different teaching instructions focused on the application of laboratory inquire-based experiments (LIBEs and interactive computer based simulations (ICBSs improved understanding of physical contents in high school students, compared to traditional teaching approach. Additionally, the study examined how the applied instructions influenced students’ assessment of invested cognitive load. A convenience sample of this research included 187 high school students. A multiple-choice test of knowledge was used as a measuring instrument for the students’ performance. Each task in the test was followed by the five-point Likert-type scale for the evaluation of invested cognitive load. In addition to descriptive statistics, determination of significant differences in performance and cognitive load as well as the calculation of instructional efficiency of applied instructional design, computed one-factor analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc test. The findings indicate that teaching instructions based on the use of LIBEs and ICBSs equally contribute to an increase in students’ performance and the reduction of cognitive load unlike traditional teaching of Physics. The results obtained by the students from the LIBEs and ICBSs groups for calculated instructional efficiency suggest that the applied teaching strategies represent effective teaching instructions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179010: The Quality of Education System in Serbia from European Perspective

  11. [Breastfeeding and its influence into the cognitive process of Spanish school-children (6 years old), measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Miranda León, María Teresa; Peinado Herreros, José María; Iribar Ibabe, María Concepción

    2013-09-01

    Some scientific evidence support that a better cognitive development during the school age is related with breastfeeding. In this study, the potential benefit of breastfeeding duration is evaluated, related to Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory and Processing Speed. A total of 103 children, first year of Primary School, six-year-old, (47 boys and 56 girls), were included from different schools in the province of Granada (Spain) at urban, semi-urban and rural areas. The global cognitive capability, as well as some specific intelligence domains which permit a more precise and deeper analysis of the cognitive processes, was evaluated through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--version IV. The results prove an association, statistically signnificative, between the best values of IQ and the other four WISC-IV indexes and a longer breastfeeding. There is a highly significant (p = 0.000) association between the best scores and those children who were breastfed during 6 months, which validates our hypothesis. The advice of breastfeeding during at least the first six months of life should be reinforced to reduce learning difficulties.

  12. The Dutch version of the Child Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory: validation in a clinical sample and a school sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehle, Julia; de Roos, Carlijn; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the inclusion of trauma-related cognitions in the DSM-5 criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the assessment of these cognitions has become essential. Therefore, valid tools for the assessment of these cognitions are warranted. Objective: The current study aimed at

  13. The effect of CBT national examination policy in terms of senior high school students’ cognitive readiness and anxiety facing mathematics tests in DIY Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningsih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of CBT and PBT national examination in terms of students’ cognitive readiness and anxiety facing mathematics national examination in DIY province, the influence of major in terms of students’ cognitive readiness and anxiety facing mathematics national examination in DIY Province, and the interaction between national examination and major. This research was descriptive explorative and the method was ex-post facto. The population was all of natural and social science high school students in grade XII in DIY province. The number of sample used was 654 students The results showed that there was influence of national examination in terms of students’ cognitive readiness and anxiety facing national examination. CBT and PBT national examination did not influence the cognitive readiness facing national examination, CBT and PBT national examination influence in national examinations in terms of students’ anxiety facing national examination. The average score of the students’ anxiety facing CBT national exam was greater than that of the students’ anxiety facing PBT national examination. There was no effect caused by differences in majoring in terms of cognitive readiness and national examination math anxiety; and there was no interaction between the different types of national examinations and majors.

  14. Study of Meta-Cognitive Beliefs and Learning Methods and Their Relationship with Exam Anxiety in High School Students Bandar Abbas City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazal Motazed Keyvani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, one of the principal difficulties faced by educational systems worldwide is anxiety, a mental problem, which is evidently difficult to be endured by many students and leads to various types of mental and physical disorders or reduction of educational efficiency, and has gained attention of sociologists for its consequent psychological, social, and economical impacts. Objectives The current study aimed at predicting exam anxiety based on meta-cognitive beliefs and learning methods among high school students of Bandar Abbas. Methods The study population included 351 students (197 males and 154 females, who were selected randomly by the cluster approach and answered the research tools including Meta-Cognitive Beliefs Questionnaires (MCQ-30, Learning methods questionnaires of Marton and Saljoo (1996 and also test anxiety questionnaire of Alpert and Haber (1960. The study plan was correlative-descriptive. Pearson simple correlation coefficient, multi variable regression, and multi variable variance analysis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results The study results indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between meta-cognitive beliefs and exam anxiety, a negative significant relationship between profound learning and learning methods and exam anxiety, and a positive significant relationship between smattering learning method and exam anxiety. The regression exam results also revealed that meta-cognitive beliefs and smattering learning methods could positively predict and determine exam anxiety in students. A significant relationship was observed between meta-cognitive beliefs in females and males, and female students showed greater intention and interest toward meta-cognitive beliefs than males, however, no significant difference was observed between learning methods and exam anxiety in females and males. Conclusions It was concluded from the study results that profound learning methods lead to the

  15. Effects of gestational age on brain volume and cognitive functions in generally healthy very preterm born children during school-age: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Lemola

    Full Text Available To determine whether the relationship of gestational age (GA with brain volumes and cognitive functions is linear or whether it follows a threshold model in preterm and term born children during school-age.We studied 106 children (M = 10 years 1 month, SD = 16 months; 40 females enrolled in primary school: 57 were healthy very preterm children (10 children born 24-27 completed weeks' gestation (extremely preterm, 14 children born 28-29 completed weeks' gestation, 19 children born 30-31 completed weeks' gestation (very preterm, and 14 born 32 completed weeks' gestation (moderately preterm all born appropriate for GA (AGA and 49 term-born children. Neuroimaging involved voxel-based morphometry with the statistical parametric mapping software. Cognitive functions were assessed with the WISC-IV. General Linear Models and multiple regressions were conducted controlling age, sex, and maternal education.Compared to groups of children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later, children born <28 completed weeks' gestation had less gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV and poorer cognitive functions including decreased full scale IQ, and processing speed. Differences in GMV partially mediated the relationship between GA and full scale IQ in preterm born children.In preterm children who are born AGA and without major complications GA is associated with brain volume and cognitive functions. In particular, decreased brain volume becomes evident in the extremely preterm group (born <28 completed weeks' gestation. In preterm children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later the relationship of GA with brain volume and cognitive functions may be less strong as previously thought.

  16. Examining social-cognitive predictors of parenting skills among mothers with preschool and early elementary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Saiideh; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Norouzi, Ali; Jafari, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Identification of parenting skills determinants among mothers is an ongoing field of research. The aim of this study was to identify the social cognitive predictors of parenting skills among mothers. Previous studies have demonstrated the health action process approach (HAPA) as a credible frame for predicting behavior, but the number of studies considering the predictive value of parenting skills determinants among mothers is rare. An 8 months prospective design was applied. Participants were mothers with preschool and early elementary school-aged children. At the 1(st) time, 120 participants completed self-report questionnaires regarding their risk perception, outcome expectancies, task self-efficacy, and intentions toward parenting skills. At the 2(nd) time, they returned a follow-up questionnaire, which measured planning, coping self-efficacy, and recovery self-efficacy and finally, 8 months later as the 3(rd) time, parenting skills were measured. Path analysis was used for analysis. Path analysis indicated that, in the motivational phase, there was no relationship between parenting skills intention and risk perception, outcome expectancies, and task self-efficacy. Furthermore, no relationship was found between parenting skills intention and planning. In the volitional phase, coping self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy, and planning were statistically significant predictors of parenting skills. The results of this study confirm that volitional phase of the HAPA model is useful in determining parenting skills. However, the role motivational variables seem to be unimportant in performing these behaviors. It was concluded that everybody intended to apply parenting skills, in nature, and intervention strategies should be focused on turning intentions into behavior.

  17. Effect of a micronutrient-fortified beverage on cognition and nutritional status of primary school children / C. Taljaard.

    OpenAIRE

    Taljaard, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Childhood micronutrient deficiencies have negative effects on cognition. Little is known about the effects of combined consumption of micronutrients and sugar on growth and cognitive function. The aim of this thesis was to 1) investigate the effects of micronutrients and sugar, alone and in combination, in a beverage, on growth and cognition in South African children and 2) review recent evidence on iron status and anaemia prevalence in South African children since the National Food Consu...

  18. The effects of using screencasting as a multimedia pre-training tool to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, Ramsey

    Chemistry is a complex knowledge domain. Specifically, research notes that Chemical Equilibrium presents greater cognitive challenges than other topics in chemistry. Cognitive Load Theory describes the impact a subject, and the learning environment, have on working memory. Intrinsic load is the facet of Cognitive Load Theory that explains the complexity innate to complex subjects. The purpose of this study was to build on the limited research into intrinsic cognitive load, by examining the effects of using multimedia screencasts as a pre-training technique to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students. A convenience sample of 62 fourth-year high school students enrolled in an advanced chemistry course from a co-ed high school in urban San Francisco were given a chemical equilibrium concept pre-test. Upon conclusion of the pre-test, students were randomly assigned to two groups: pre-training and no pre-training. The pre-training group received a 10 minute and 52 second pre-training screencast that provided definitions, concepts and an overview of chemical equilibrium. After pre-training both group received the same 50-minute instructional lecture. After instruction, all students were given a chemical equilibrium concept post-test. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to examine differences in performance and intrinsic load. No significant differences in performance or intrinsic load, as measured by ratings of mental effort, were observed on the pre-test. Significant differences in performance, t(60)=3.70, p=.0005, and intrinsic load, t(60)=5.34, p=.0001, were observed on the post-test. A significant correlation between total performance scores and total mental effort ratings was also observed, r(60)=-0.44, p=.0003. Because no significant differences in prior knowledge were observed, it can be concluded that pre-training was successful at reducing intrinsic load. Moreover, a significant

  19. School meal provision, health, and cognitive function in a Nordic setting - the ProMeal-study: description of methodology and the Nordic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waling, Maria; Olafsdottir, Anna S; Lagström, Hanna; Wergedahl, Hege; Jonsson, Bert; Olsson, Cecilia; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Holthe, Asle; Talvia, Sanna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    School meals, if both nutritious and attractive, provide a unique opportunity to improve health equality and public health. To describe the study rationale, data collection, and background of participants in the study 'Prospects for promoting health and performance by school meals in Nordic countries' (ProMeal). The general aim was to determine whether overall healthiness of the diet and learning conditions in children can be improved by school lunches, and to capture the main concerns regarding school lunches among children in a Nordic context. A cross-sectional, multidisciplinary study was performed in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden on pupils (n=837) born in 2003. In total 3,928 pictures of school lunches were taken to capture pupils' school lunch intake. A mean of 85% of all parents responded to a questionnaire about socioeconomic background, dietary intake, and habitual physical activity at home. Cognitive function was measured on one occasion on 93% of the pupils during optimal conditions with a Stroop and a Child Operation Span test. A mean of 169 pupils also did an Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test after lunch over 3 days. In total, 37,413 10-sec observations of classroom learning behavior were performed. In addition, 753 empathy-based stories were written and 78 focus groups were conducted. The pupils had high socioeconomic status. This study will give new insights into which future interventions are needed to improve pupils' school lunch intake and learning. The study will provide valuable information for policy making, not least in countries where the history of school meals is shorter than in some of the Nordic countries.

  20. The development of macros program-based cognitive evaluation model via e-learning course mathematics in senior high school based on curriculum 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Purnomo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The specific purpose of this research is: The implementation of the application of the learning tool with a form cognitive learning evaluation model based macros program via E-learning at High School grade X at july-december based on 2013 curriculum. The method used in this research followed the procedures is research and development by Borg and Gall [2]. In second year, population analysis has conducted at several universities in Semarang. The results of the research and application development of macro program-based cognitive evaluation model is effective which can be seen from (1 the student learning result is over KKM, (2 The student independency affects learning result positively, (3 the student learning a result by using macros program-based cognitive evaluation model is better than students class control. Based on the results above, the development of macros program-based cognitive evaluation model that have been tested have met quality standards according to Akker (1999. Large-scale testing includes operational phase of field testing and final product revision, i.e trials in the wider class that includes students in mathematics education major in several universities, they are the Universitas PGRI Semarang, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung and the Universitas Islam NegeriWalisongo Semarang. The positive responses is given by students at the Universitas PGRI Semarang, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung and the Universitas Islam NegeriWalisongo Semarang.

  1. Comparing the cognitive, personality and moral characteristics of high school and graduate medical entrants to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjat, Saharnaz; Bore, Miles; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Munro, Don; Powis, David; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    Tehran University of Medical Sciences has two streams of medical student admission: an established high school entry (HSE) route and an experimental graduate entry (GE) route. To compare the cognitive skills, personality traits and moral characteristics of HSE and GE students admitted to this university. The personal qualities assessment tool (PQA; www.pqa.net.au ) was translated from English to Persian and then back-translated. Afterwards 35 individuals from the GE and 109 individuals from the 2007 to 2008 HSE completed the test. The results were compared by t-test and Chi-square. The HSE students showed significantly higher ability in the cognitive skills tests (p libertarian (p = 0.022), but had lower ability to confront stress and unpleasant events (p < 0.001), and had lower self-awareness and self-control (p < 0.001). On the basis of their personal qualities, the GE students had more self-control and strength when coping with stress than the HSE students, but the latter had superior cognitive abilities. Hence it may be useful to include cognitive tests in GE students' entry exam and include tests of personal qualities to exclude those with unsuitable characteristics.

  2. A Randomized, Double-Blind Study Assessing Changes in Cognitive Function in Indian School Children Receiving a Combination of Bacopa monnieri and Micronutrient Supplementation vs. Placebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tora Mitra-Ganguli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a chronic cognitive enhancing effect of Bacopa monnieri across different ages and cognitive impairment associated with vitamin and mineral deficiencies in children. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 4-month supplementation with a combination of B. monnieri extract and multiple micronutrients on cognitive functions in Indian school children aged 7–12 years. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel design, single-center study in which 300 children were randomized to receive a beverage either fortified with B. monnieri and multiple micronutrients (“fortified” or a non-fortified isocaloric equivalent (“control” twice-daily for 4 months. Cognitive function was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery (CANTAB administered at baseline, Day 60 and Day 121. The primary endpoint was change in short-term memory (working memory from baseline in subjects receiving “fortified” vs. “control” beverages after 4 months. Secondary endpoints included sustained attention, episodic memory, and executive function. The “fortified” beverage did not significantly improve short-term memory or any of the secondary outcomes tested relative to the “control” beverage. However, the spatial working memory “strategy” score showed significant improvement on Day 60 (difference between groups in change from baseline: −0.55; p < 0.05, but not on Day 121 due to the active intervention. Study products were well-tolerated. Reasons for these unexpected findings are discussed.

  3. Are the results of questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics during the selection procedure for medical school application biased by social desirability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Katrin U; Brüheim, Linda; Westermann, Jürgen; Katalinic, Alexander; Kötter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A stronger consideration of non-cognitive characteristics in Medical School application procedures is desirable. Psychometric tests could be used as an economic supplement to face-to-face interviews which are frequently conducted during university internal procedures for Medical School applications (AdH, Auswahlverfahren der Hochschulen). This study investigates whether the results of psychometric questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics such as personality traits, empathy, and resilience towards stress are vulnerable to distortions of social desirability when used in the context of selection procedures at Medical Schools. Methods: This study took place during the AdH of Lübeck University in August 2015. The following questionnaires have been included: NEO-FFI, SPF, and AVEM. In a 2x1 between-subject experiment we compared the answers from an alleged application condition and a control condition. In the alleged application condition we told applicants that these questionnaires were part of the application procedure. In the control condition applicants were informed about the study prior to completing the questionnaires. Results: All included questionnaires showed differences which can be regarded as social-desirability effects. These differences did not affect the entire scales but, rather, single subscales. Conclusion: These results challenge the informative value of these questionnaires when used for Medical School application procedures. Future studies may investigate the extent to which the differences influence the actual selection of applicants and what implications can be drawn from them for the use of psychometric questionnaires as part of study-place allocation procedures at Medical Schools.

  4. Developing a situational judgment test blueprint for assessing the non-cognitive skills of applicants to the University of Utah School of Medicine, the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorie M. Colbert-Getz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The situational judgment test (SJT shows promise for assessing the non-cognitive skills of medical school applicants, but has only been used in Europe. Since the admissions processes and education levels of applicants to medical school are different in the United States and in Europe, it is necessary to obtain validity evidence of the SJT based on a sample of United States applicants. Methods: Ninety SJT items were developed and Kane’s validity framework was used to create a test blueprint. A total of 489 applicants selected for assessment/interview day at the University of Utah School of Medicine during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle completed one of five SJTs, which assessed professionalism, coping with pressure, communication, patient focus, and teamwork. Item difficulty, each item’s discrimination index, internal consistency, and the categorization of items by two experts were used to create the test blueprint. Results: The majority of item scores were within an acceptable range of difficulty, as measured by the difficulty index (0.50-0.85 and had fair to good discrimination. However, internal consistency was low for each domain, and 63% of items appeared to assess multiple domains. The concordance of categorization between the two educational experts ranged from 24% to 76% across the five domains. Conclusion: The results of this study will help medical school admissions departments determine how to begin constructing a SJT. Further testing with a more representative sample is needed to determine if the SJT is a useful assessment tool for measuring the non-cognitive skills of medical school applicants.

  5. Are the results of questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics during the selection procedure for medical school application biased by social desirability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obst, Katrin U.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A stronger consideration of non-cognitive characteristics in Medical School application procedures is desirable. Psychometric tests could be used as an economic supplement to face-to-face interviews which are frequently conducted during university internal procedures for Medical School applications (AdH, Auswahlverfahren der Hochschulen. This study investigates whether the results of psychometric questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics such as personality traits, empathy, and resilience towards stress are vulnerable to distortions of social desirability when used in the context of selection procedures at Medical Schools.Methods: This study took place during the AdH of Lübeck University in August 2015. The following questionnaires have been included: NEO-FFI, SPF, and AVEM. In a 2x1 between-subject experiment we compared the answers from an alleged application condition and a control condition. In the alleged application condition we told applicants that these questionnaires were part of the application procedure. In the control condition applicants were informed about the study prior to completing the questionnaires.Results: All included questionnaires showed differences which can be regarded as social-desirability effects. These differences did not affect the entire scales but, rather, single subscales.Conclusion: These results challenge the informative value of these questionnaires when used for Medical School application procedures. Future studies may investigate the extent to which the differences influence the actual selection of applicants and what implications can be drawn from them for the use of psychometric questionnaires as part of study-place allocation procedures at Medical Schools.

  6. Relational Analysis of High School Students' Cognitive Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Conceptions of Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between students' cognitive learning strategies and conceptions of learning biology. The two scales, "Cognitive Learning Strategies" and "Conceptions of Learning Biology", were revised and adapted to biology in order to measure the students' learning strategies and…

  7. Cognitive Training for Children: Effects on Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning, and Mathematics Achievement in an Australian School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkl, Sophie; Porter, Amy; Ginns, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Inductive reasoning is a core cognitive process of fluid intelligence, predicting a variety of educational outcomes. The Cognitive Training for Children (CTC) program is an educational intervention designed to develop children's inductive reasoning skills, with previous investigations finding substantial effects of the program on both inductive…

  8. Parents' Cognitions and Expectations about Their Pre-School Children: The Contribution of Parental Anxiety and Child Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatcroft, Rebecca; Creswell, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relative associations between parent and child anxiety and parents' cognitions about their children. One hundred and four parents of children aged 3-5 years completed questionnaires regarding their own anxiety level, their child's anxiety level and their cognitions about the child, specifically parents' expectations…

  9. Predicting the Job and Life Satisfaction of Italian Teachers: Test of a Social Cognitive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ginevra, Maria C.; Duffy, Ryan D.; Brown, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a social cognitive model of work and life satisfaction (Lent & Brown, 2006, 2008) in a sample of 235 Italian school teachers. The model offered good overall fit to the data, though not all individual path coefficients were significant. Three of five predictors (favorable work conditions, efficacy-relevant supports, and…

  10. Investigation of basic cognitive predictors of reading and spelling abilities in Tunisian third-grade primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batnini, Soulef; Uno, Akira

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated first the main cognitive abilities; phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary in predicting reading and spelling abilities in Arabic. Second, we compared good/poor readers and spellers to detect the characteristics of cognitive predictors which contribute to identifying reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic speaking children. A sample of 116 Tunisian third-grade children was tested on their abilities to read and spell, phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary. For reading, phonological processing and automatization uniquely predicted Arabic word reading and paragraph reading abilities. Automatization uniquely predicted Arabic non-word reading ability. For spelling, phonological processing was a unique predictor for Arabic word spelling ability. Furthermore, poor readers had significantly lower scores on the phonological processing test and slower reading times on the automatization test as compared with good readers. Additionally, poor spellers showed lower scores on the phonological processing test as compared with good spellers. Visual cognitive processing and receptive vocabulary were not significant cognitive predictors of Arabic reading and spelling abilities for Tunisian third grade children in this study. Our results are consistent with previous studies in alphabetic orthographies and demonstrate that phonological processing and automatization are the best cognitive predictors in detecting early literacy problems. We suggest including phonological processing and automatization tasks in screening tests and in intervention programs may help Tunisian children with poor literacy skills overcome reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity, diet and other behavioural interventions for improving cognition and school achievement in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N; Laird, Yvonne; Sproule, John; Reilly, John J; Saunders, David H

    2018-03-02

    The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions. To assess whether lifestyle interventions (in the areas of diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and behavioural therapy) improve school achievement, cognitive function (e.g. executive functions) and/or future success in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight, compared with standard care, waiting-list control, no treatment, or an attention placebo control group. In February 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and 15 other databases. We also searched two trials registries, reference lists, and handsearched one journal from inception. We also contacted researchers in the field to obtain unpublished data. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for weight management in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. We excluded studies in children and adolescents with medical conditions known to affect weight status, school achievement and cognitive function. We also excluded self- and parent-reported outcomes. Four review authors independently selected studies for inclusion. Two review authors extracted data, assessed quality and risks of bias, and evaluated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We contacted study authors to obtain additional information. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Where the same outcome was assessed across different intervention types, we reported standardised effect sizes for findings from single

  12. Soil-transmitted helminth infection, loss of education and cognitive impairment in school-aged children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Pabalan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of an adverse influence of soil transmitted helminth (STH infections on cognitive function and educational loss is equivocal. Prior meta-analyses have focused on randomized controlled trials only and have not sufficiently explored the potential for disparate influence of STH infection by cognitive domain. We re-examine the hypothesis that STH infection is associated with cognitive deficit and educational loss using data from all primary epidemiologic studies published between 1992 and 2016.Medline, Biosis and Web of Science were searched for original studies published in the English language. Cognitive function was defined in four domains (learning, memory, reaction time and innate intelligence and educational loss in two domains (attendance and scholastic achievement. Pooled effect across studies were calculated as standardized mean differences (SMD to compare cognitive and educational measures for STH infected/non-dewormed children versus STH uninfected /dewormed children using Review Manager 5.3. Sub-group analyses were implemented by study design, risk of bias (ROB and co-prevalence of Schistosoma species infection. Influential studies were excluded in sensitivity analysis to examine stability of pooled estimates.We included 36 studies of 12,920 children. STH infected/non-dewormed children had small to moderate deficits in three domains-learning, memory and intelligence (SMD: -0.44 to -0.27, P<0.01-0.03 compared to STH-uninfected/dewormed children. There were no differences by infection/treatment status for reaction time, school attendance and scholastic achievement (SMD: -0.26 to -0.16, P = 0.06-0.19. Heterogeneity of the pooled effects in all six domains was high (P<0.01; I2 = 66-99%. Application of outlier treatment reduced heterogeneity in learning domain (P = 0.12; I2 = 33% and strengthened STH-related associations in all domains but intelligence (SMD: -0.20, P = 0.09. Results varied by study design and ROB. Among experimental

  13. The Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Techniques Training on Procrastination, Stress, Anxiety and Depression of High School Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sA hasar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: training of cognitive-behavioral techniques reduced procrastination, anxiety and stress in experimental group in comparison with control group but it did not have meaningful effect on control group depression

  14. Relevance of cognitive dissonance, activation and involvement to branding: An overview / Relevancia de la disonancia cognitiva, la activación y el implicación en el branding: un resumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Elfering

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines consumer behavior from the perspective of cognitive psychology. It focuses on a set of cognitive psychological determinants of buyer behavior and analyzes how cognitive dissonance, activation and involvement influence consumer behavior. The literature indicates that a deeper insight into the cognitive processes underlying purchase behavior is essential for brand managers to create and communicate interventions that may have a stronger impact on the buyer such that their brand occupies a special position in the consumer’s mind. Up to now, the conflict between presenting a brand in a both favorable light and completely accurately has been rarely addressed in the literature.

  15. The Experience of a Highly Skilled Student during Handball Lessons in Physical Education: A Relevant Pointer to the Gap between School and Sports Contexts of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Marie-Cecile; Trohel, Jean; Saury, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the experience of a highly skilled student during a handball physical education unit in a French high school. More specifically, the analysis describes the nature of his involvement during two lessons that follow a pedagogical model close to the principles of Sport Education. The present case study of a…

  16. Towards the Reform of Science Teaching in Spain: The Social and Personal Relevance of Junior Secondary School Science Projects for a Socially Responsible Understanding of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Pedro

    1999-01-01

    Discusses aspects of more than a decade of research and implementation of cross-curriculum themes as part of the curriculum for secondary school students in Spain. Comments on theoretical and practical issues encountered in developing similar projects. Contains 45 references. (Author/WRM)

  17. The effect of ventilation on cognitive performance of pupils in a primary school; Het effect van ventilatie op cognitieve prestaties van leerlingen op een basisschool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gids, W.F.; Phaff, J.C. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Van Oel, C.J. [Real Estate and Housing, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); De Vries, J.; Kalkman, A. [Cauberg-Huygen Raadgevend Ingenieurs, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    The objective of this study was to examine if students from primary school have better cognitive performances under demand-controlled ventilation circumstances than under standard ventilation circumstances. The standard ventilation circumstances correspond to common ventilation conditions with strongly increasing CO2 concentrations in the class room as the morning or afternoon progresses, resulting from the fact that manual ventilation provisions are insufficiently used in a conscious manner. This study examined if the cognitive performances of primary school students from group 7 and 8 for a number of neuro-psychological tasks decreased less quickly with demand-controlled ventilation than with standard ventilation with increasing CO2 concentrations. [mk]. [Dutch] Doel van het hier beschreven onderzoek was om na te gaan of basisschoolleerlingen betere cognitieve prestaties leveren bij vraaggestuurde ventilatie dan bij standaard ventilatieomstandigheden. De genoemde standaard ventilatieomstandigheden komen overeen met gangbare ventilatiecondities waarbij de CO2 concentraties in een klaslokaal sterk oplopen naarmate de ochtend of middag vordert, omdat de handmatige ventilatievoorzieningen onvoldoende bewust worden gebruikt. Onderzocht is of bij basisschoolleerlingen uit groep 7 en 8 de cognitieve prestaties op een aantal neuropsychologische taken gedurende de dag minder sterk afnemen bij vraaggestuurde ventilatie dan bij standaard ventilatie met oplopende CO2 concentraties.

  18. I Can Stand Learning: A Controlled Pilot Intervention Study on the Effects of Increased Standing Time on Cognitive Function in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Wick

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sedentarism is considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of employing standing desks in classrooms on cognitive function. The intervention class (IG; n = 19 was supplied with standing desks and balance pads for 11 weeks. The control class (CG; n = 19 received lessons as usual. Standing time was assessed objectively (accelerometers and subjectively (self-report sheets, external classroom observers. The impact of standing on the digit span task and Eriksen flanker task was analysed. The standing time of the IG was higher during the school day in comparison to the CG (lesson: p = 0.004; break: p = 0.003. The intra-class correlation coefficient between self-reports and external observation was high (ICC = 0.94. The IG improved slightly on the Digit Span Task compared to CG. Employing standing desks for at least 1 h per school day serves as a feasible and effective opportunity to improve cognitive function.

  19. Implications of the cognitive dimension of art in artistic scenic education. Some contributions for the teacher in scenic arts at the high school level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Merchan Price

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we explore the contributions proposed by Arthur Efland (especially those of his book Art and Cognition, with the aim of broadening the statements of the academic programmes in performing arts as a curriculum area in the scholar plan, and also within the frame of teacher training. In this perspective, we consider the concept of cognition towards those experiences and subsequent learning in which the body plays a central role as mediator in the process of understanding of the world itself. We also discuss during the analysis the role of the emotions in thought processes. In this sense, we propose to use this new perspective of complementary interaction between the emotional and intellectual dimensions to discuss the concepts of creation, appreciation and understanding, typical of artistic fields and their teaching. We propose this complementary interaction as a fundamental process of the encounter of arts, in the dynamics of development in the school. In the conclusions, we open the possibility of a need to redefine the conceptual axes to train teachers in performing arts, articulating specific disciplinary knowledge of performing arts with the needs of the scholar project itself, particularly those linked to the social and individual development of the person in the frame of basic and intermediate school.

  20. Can Touch Screen Tablets be Used to Assess Cognitive and Motor Skills in Early Years Primary School Children? A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Outhwaite, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive and motor functions is fundamental for developmental and neuropsychological profiling. Assessments are usually conducted on an individual basis, with a trained examiner, using standardized paper and pencil tests, and can take up to an hour or more to complete, depending on the nature of the test. This makes traditional standardized assessments of child development largely unsuitable for use in low-income countries. Touch screen tablets afford the opportunity to assess cognitive functions in groups of participants, with untrained administrators, with precision recording of responses, thus automating the assessment process. In turn, this enables cognitive profiling to be conducted in contexts where access to qualified examiners and standardized assessments are rarely available. As such, touch screen assessments could provide a means of assessing child development in both low- and high-income countries, which would afford cross-cultural comparisons to be made with the same assessment tool. However, before touch screen tablet assessments can be used for cognitive profiling in low-to-high-income countries they need to be shown to provide reliable and valid measures of performance. We report the development of a new touch screen tablet assessment of basic cognitive and motor functions for use with early years primary school children in low- and high-income countries. Measures of spatial intelligence, visual attention, short-term memory, working memory, manual processing speed, and manual coordination are included as well as mathematical knowledge. To investigate if this new touch screen assessment tool can be used for cross-cultural comparisons we administered it to a sample of children ( N = 283) spanning standards 1-3 in a low-income country, Malawi, and a smaller sample of children ( N = 70) from first year of formal schooling from a high-income country, the UK. Split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, face validity, convergent

  1. Can touch screen tablets be used to assess cognitive and motor skills in early years primary school children? A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pitchford

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of cognitive and motor functions is fundamental for developmental and neuropsychological profiling. Assessments are usually conducted on an individual basis, with a trained examiner, using standardised paper and pencil tests, and can take up to an hour or more to complete, depending on the nature of the test. This makes traditional standardised assessments of child development largely unsuitable for use in low-income countries. Touch screen tablets afford the opportunity to assess cognitive functions in groups of participants, with untrained administrators, with precision recording of responses, thus automating the assessment process. In turn, this enables cognitive profiling to be conducted in contexts where access to qualified examiners and standardised assessments are rarely available. As such, touch screen assessments could provide a means of assessing child development in both low- and high-income countries, which would afford cross-cultural comparisons to be made with the same assessment tool. However, before touch screen tablet assessments can be used for cognitive profiling in low-to-high-income countries they need to be shown to provide reliable and valid measures of performance. We report the development of a new touch screen tablet assessment of basic cognitive and motor functions for use with early years primary school children in low- and high-income countries. Measures of spatial intelligence, visual attention, short-term memory, working memory, manual processing speed, and manual coordination are included as well as mathematical knowledge. To investigate if this new touch screen assessment tool can be used for cross-cultural comparisons we administered it to a sample of children (N=283 spanning standards 1-3 in a low-income country, Malawi, and a smaller sample of children (N=70 from first year of formal schooling from a high-income country, the UK. Split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, face validity

  2. Does Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Context of a Rural School Mental Health Programme Have an Impact on Academic Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Kurt D.; Albright, Abby; Jameson, John Paul; Sale, Rafaella; Massey, Cameron; Kirk, Alex; Egan, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Given the prevalence of mental health difficulties among children and adolescents, schools have become a suitable context for providing psychological services to those who may otherwise go untreated. The co-occurrence of mental health impairments and academic problems has been widely cited, and many school mental health (SMH) programmes have begun…

  3. Beyond School Records: The Value of Cognitive and Affective Engagement in Predicting Dropout and On-Time Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Matthew D.; Reschly, Amy L.; Appleton, James J.

    2018-01-01

    Early warning systems use school record data--such as attendance rate, behavior records, and course performance--to identify students at risk of dropping out. These are useful predictors of graduation-related outcomes, in large part because they indicate a student's level of engagement with school. However, these data do not indicate how invested…

  4. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  5. Effects of oily fish intake on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive function, and behavior in school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hauger, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Most children in Western populations do not meet recommendations for fish consumption. Oily fish is an important source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), which reduce blood pressure and plasma triacylglycerol in adults and may affect cognitive development...... and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential effects of oily fish on cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, and behavior in children have not been investigated. The aim of the FiSK Junior study is to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive...... function, and behavior in healthy children. Methods/design We are conducting a randomized controlled trial with 8- to 9-year-old Danish children, comparing the effect of consuming 300 g/week of oily fish with poultry (control) for 12 weeks between August 2016 and June 2017. The primary outcomes are blood...

  6. Development Scaffolding for Construction of Evaluation Instrument Training Program on The Cognitive Domain For Senior High School Physics Teachers and The Same Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, W.; Suhandi, A.; Kaniawati, I.; Setiawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    The development of scaffolding for evaluation instrument construction training program on the cognitive domain for senior high school physics teacher and the same level that is specified in the test instrument has been done. This development was motivated by the low ability of the majority of physics teachers in constructing the physics learning achievement test. This situation not in accordance with the demands of Permendiknas RI no. 16 tahun 2007 concerning the standard of academic qualifications and competence of teachers, stating that teachers should have a good ability to develop instruments for assessment and evaluation of process and learning outcomes. Based on the preliminary study results, it can be seen that the main cause of the inability of teachers in developing physics achievement test is because they do not good understand of the indicators for each aspect of cognitive domains. Scaffolding development is done by using the research and development methods formulated by Thiagarajan which includes define, design and develope steps. Develop step includes build the scaffolding, validation of scaffolding by experts and the limited pilot implementations on the training activities. From the build scaffolding step, resulted the scaffolding for the construction of test instruments training program which include the process steps; description of indicators, operationalization of indicators, construction the itemsframework (items scenarios), construction the items stem, construction the items and checking the items. The results of the validation by three validator indicates that the built scaffolding are suitable for use in the construction of physics achievement test training program, especially for novice. The limited pilot implementation of the built scaffolding conducted in training activities attended by 10 senior high school physics teachers in Garut district. The results of the limited pilot implementation shows that the built scaffolding have a medium

  7. Cognitive deficits and educational loss in children with schistosome infection-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeamama, AE; Bustinduy, AL; Nkwata, AK; Martinez, L; Pabalan, N; Boivin, MJ; King, CH

    2018-01-01

    By means of meta-analysis of information from all relevant epidemiologic studies, we examined the hypothesis that Schistosoma infection in school-aged children (SAC) is associated with educational loss and cognitive deficits. This review was prospectively registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42016040052). Medline, Biosis, and Web of Science were searched for studies published before August 2016 that evaluated associations between Schistosoma infection and cognitive or educational outcomes....

  8. Preventing anxiety and depression in adolescents: A randomised controlled trial of two school based Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to 1 establish the efficacy of two Internet-based prevention programmes to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents; and 2 investigate the distribution of psychological symptoms in a large sample of Australian adolescents prior to the implementation of the intervention. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 976 Year 9–10 students from twelve Australian secondary schools in 2009. Four schools were randomly allocated to the Anxiety Internet-based prevention programme (n = 372, five schools to the Depression Internet-based prevention programme (n = 380 and three to their usual health classes (n = 224. The Thiswayup Schools for Anxiety and Depression prevention courses were presented over the Internet and consist of 6–7 evidence-based, curriculum consistent lessons to improve the ability to manage anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Data analysis was constrained by both study attrition and data corruption. Thus post-intervention data were only available for 265/976 students. Compared to the control group, students in the depression intervention group showed a significant improvement in anxiety and depressive symptoms at the end of the course, whilst students in the anxiety intervention demonstrated a reduction in symptoms of anxiety. No significant differences were found in psychological distress. The Thiswayup Schools Depression and Anxiety interventions appear to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents using a curriculum based, blended online and offline cognitive behavioural therapy programme that was implemented by classroom teachers. Given the study limitations, particularly the loss of post-intervention data, these findings can only be considered preliminary and need to be replicated in future research.

  9. Sampling in the Snow: High School Winter Field Experiences Provide Relevant, Real World Connections Between Scientific Practices and Disciplinary Core Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. W.; Burakowski, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    For much of the northern United States, the months surrounding the winter solstice are times of increased darkness, low temperatures, and frozen landscapes. It's a time when many high school science educators, who otherwise would venture outside with their classes, hunker down and are wary of the outdoors. However, a plethora of learning opportunities lies just beyond the classroom. Working collaboratively, a high school science teacher and a snow scientist have developed multiple activities to engage students in the scientific process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting the winter world using snow data to (1) learn about the insulative properties of snow, and (2) to learn about the role of snow cover on winter climate through its reflective properties while participating in a volunteer network that collects snow depth, albedo (reflectivity), and density data. These outdoor field-based snow investigations incorporate Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and disciplinary core ideas, including ESS2.C: The roles of water in Earth's surface processes and ESS2.D: Weather and Climate. Additionally, the lesson plans presented address Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics, including the creation and analysis of bar graphs and time series plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.A.1) and xy scatter plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.B.6). High school students participating in the 2013/2014 snow sampling season described their outdoor learning experience as "authentic" and "hands-on" as compared to traditional class indoors. They emphasized that learning outdoors was essential to their understanding of underlying content and concepts because they "learn through actual experience."

  10. Teasing Out Cognitive Development from Cognitive Style: A Training Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globerson, Tamar; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested whether or not cognitive development (as measured by mental capacity) and cognitive style (as measured by field-dependence/independence) are different dimensions. Results are discussed with regard to Pascual-Leone's model of cognitive development, relevance to stylistic dimension of reflection/impulsivity, and educational implications.…

  11. Perceived Demands of Schooling, Stress and Mental Health: Changes from Grade 6 to Grade 9 as a Function of Gender and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giota, Joanna; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2017-08-01

    The link between perceived demands of school, stress and mental health in relation to gender is complex. The study examined, with two waves of longitudinal data at age 13 and age 16, how changes in perceived academic demands relate to changes in perceived stress, taking into account gender and cognitive ability, and to investigate how these factors affect the level of psychosomatic and depressive symptoms at the age of 16. A nationally representative sample including about 9000 individuals from the Swedish longitudinal Evaluation Through Follow up database born in 1998 was included. A growth modelling approach was applied to examine relations over time. The results show girls to have a considerably higher self-reported level of mental health problems at the end of compulsory school than boys. This gender difference is entirely accounted for by perceived school demands and stress in grades 6 and 9. Students who were stronger in inductive than vocabulary ability reported lower levels of perceived academic demands and less stress in grade 6. There is a need to develop interventions for minimizing the consequences of stress among adolescents and modify those particular aspects of academic demands which cause stress and poor mental health, especially among girls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Developing Partnerships in the Provision of Youth Mental Health Services and Clinical Education: A School-Based Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Targeting Anxiety Symptoms in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Groth, Trisha A; Sanders, Mary; O'Brien, Rosanne; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical scientists are calling for strong partnerships in the provision of evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems in real-world contexts. In the present study, we describe the implementation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to address grade 5 children's anxiety symptoms. The CBI arose from a long-standing partnership between University and Education Department stakeholders. The partnership integrates school-based, evidence-informed treatment delivery with clinical education, and also supports a school-based psychology clinic to provide assessment and treatment services to children attending schools within the catchment area and clinical training for university graduate students. Children in the active condition (N=74) completed the CBI during regular class time, while children in the control condition (N=77) received the standard classroom curriculum. Children's anxiety and depressive symptoms, threat interpretation biases (perceived danger and coping ability), and perceptions of their social skills were assessed before and after condition. Children in the active condition reported significant improvements in self-reported anxiety symptoms, and perceptions of their social skills and coping ability, whereas no significant differences were observed for children in the control condition from pre- to post-assessment. For a subset of children assessed 12 months after the CBI (n=76), symptom improvement remained stable over time and estimates of danger and coping ability showed even greater improvement. Results demonstrate the value of strong stakeholder partnerships in innovative youth mental health services, positive child outcomes, and clinical education. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A Social Cognitive Approach to Understanding Engineering Career Interest and Expectations among Underrepresented Students in School-Based Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dika, Sandra L.; Alvarez, Jaquelina; Santos, Jeannette; Suárez, Oscar Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Interest in engineering at early stages of the educational career is one important precursor to choosing to study engineering in college, and engineering-related clubs are designed to foster such interest and diversify the engineering pipeline. In this study, the researchers employed a social cognitive career theory framework to examine level of…

  14. Adoption and Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Adopted and Nonadopted Children's IQ and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Poelhuis, Caroline W. Klein

    2005-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 62 studies (N=17,767 adopted children) examined whether the cognitive development of adopted children differed from that of (a) children who remained in institutional care or in the birth family and (b) their current (environmental) nonadopted siblings or peers. Adopted children scored higher on IQ tests than their nonadopted…

  15. Using Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Promote Recall of Multiplication Facts by Middle School Students with Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shaila; Mallow, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of simultaneous prompting system in teaching students with cognitive impairment to automate recall of multiplication facts. A multiple probes design with multiple sets of math facts and replicated across multiple subjects was used to assess effectiveness of simultaneous prompting on recall of basic multiplication…

  16. Does Staff Development in Cognitively Guided Instructional Theory Change Middle School Teachers' Mental Models about Teaching and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Judith R.

    This practicum was designed to increase middle-level teaching teams' understanding of cognitively guided instructional strategies or brain-based learning theories and to promote the incorporation of these strategies into the teaching of cross-curriculum thematic units. Twelve staff development modules based on a new perspective of learning which…

  17. Undernutrition, fatty acid and micronutrient status in relation to cognitive performance in Indian school children: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, A.; Muthayya, S.; Knaap, van der H.; Srinivasan, K.; Thomas, T.; Kok, F.J.; Kurpad, A.V.; Osendarp, S.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    While undernutrition and anaemia have previously been linked to poor development of children, relatively little is known about the role of B-vitamins and fatty acids on cognition. The present study aims to explore the associations between indicators of body size, fatty acid and micronutrient status

  18. A Case Study on Pre-Service Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Cognitive-Metacognitive Behaviours in Mathematical Modelling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagirli, Meryem Özturan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate pre-service secondary mathematics teachers' cognitive-metacognitive behaviours during the mathematical problem-solving process considering class level. The study, in which the case study methodology was employed, was carried out with eight pre-service mathematics teachers, enrolled at a university in…

  19. Analysis of the most relevant anthropometric dimensions for school furniture selection based on a study with students from one Chilean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Molenbroek, J F M

    2015-01-01

    Most of the worldwide standards used for furniture selection suggest the use of the Stature of the school children, assuming that all the other anthropometric characteristics will also be appropriate. However, it is important to consider that students' growth differ with age. The aim of this study is to determine if Popliteal Height can be used as a better, or more adequate, measure for classroom furniture selection when comparing with Stature. This study involved a representative group of 3046 students from the Valparaíso Region, in Chile. Regarding the methodology, eight anthropometric measures were gathered, as well as six furniture dimensions from the Chilean standard. After assigning the level of school furniture using Stature and Popliteal Height to each of the students, six mismatch equations were applied. The results show that when using Popliteal Height, higher levels of match were obtained for the two more important furniture dimensions. Additionally, it also presents a better cumulative fit than Stature. In conclusion, it seems that Popliteal Height can be the most accurate anthropometric measure for classroom furniture selection purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive Architectures for Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Stephen K.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a tutorial overview of cognitive architectures that can form a theoretical foundation for designing multimedia instruction. Cognitive architectures include a description of memory stores, memory codes, and cognitive operations. Architectures that are relevant to multimedia learning include Paivio's dual coding theory,…

  1. A Study on The Effectiveness of a Pilot Inquiry-Based Middle School Science Program on Non- Cognitive Outcomes and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Rui Meira

    The randomized research study assessed the effect of an inquiry-based science (IBS) program on non-cognitive outcomes and academic achievement. The study was the result of a grant that was awarded by Professional Resources in Science and Mathematics (PRISM), a program affiliated with Montclair State University in conjunction with Bristol-Myers Squibb, and part of the New Jersey Statewide Systemic Initiative (NJSSI). The NJSSI is a partnership of schools, districts, colleges and universities, science centers, businesses, and museums dedicated to improving the teaching and learning of science, mathematics, and technology in New Jersey. The quantitative research study utilized an IBS instructional program titled Science and Technology Concepts for Middle Schools (STC/MS) and was implemented in two middle schools within the same suburban school district. This study examined the effect of IBS classrooms on learning outcomes specifically related to gender and special education. Evaluation of student learning outcomes was conducted through the administration of three instruments: the Academic Self-Concept (ASC) scale, unit assessments, and NJASK 8 Science. The ASC scale and unit assessments were administered as a pretest and posttest in IBS classrooms. NJASK 8 Science scale scores were obtained through reporting of student performance data from the New Jersey Department of Education to the district. The quantitative analysis in this study provided evidence that IBS classrooms had a positive effect on academic achievement. Overall, students in IBS classrooms performed better than students in traditional classrooms on unit assessments. Additionally, male students and special education students in IBS classrooms outperformed students in traditional classrooms on unit assessments.

  2. Cognitive Learning and Motivation of First Year Secondary School Students Using an Interactive and Multimedia-enhanced e-Book made with iBooks Author

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh O'Mahony

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, multimedia and interactive e-book content was explored to determine the impact on 1st year Irish secondary school students, specifically looking at cognitive learning and student motivation. To achieve this, a controlled experiment was undertaken using a comparison between a test group and a control group. The test group was given an interactive and multimedia enhanced e-book, developed with interactive widgets of the iBooks Author for the iPad. The control group was presented with the same material, but the widgets were replaced with static materials. The study found that some widgets were more successful for learning than others, and that the ibook format indicates a high level of motivation in students.

  3. Outside school time: an examination of science achievement and non-cognitive characteristics of 15-year olds in several countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Larry E.

    2016-03-01

    Elementary and secondary students spend more hours outside of class than in formal school and thus have more time for interaction with everyday science. However, evidence from a large international survey, Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) (OECD 2012), found a negative relationship between number of hours attending after-school science and science assessment scores in many countries, raising questions about why. The secondary analysis of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 PISA surveys found that in most Western countries the longer students attended after-school science programs (in a typical week), the lower their PISA standardized science test score, but the higher their positive attitudes toward future science careers, interest in science, and self-confidence in science. Several potential hypotheses for this relationship are examined and rejected. Further analysis of a causal relationship between frequent attendance in after-school programs and student achievement and attitudes should clearly identify the content of the program so that the analysis could distinguish experiences closely related to regular school curricula from the informal science activities that are not. A new analysis also should include carefully designed longitudinal surveys to test the effectiveness of informal experiences on later life choices in career and study. Revision of a Paper prepared for AERA meetings in Chicago, 19 April 2015.

  4. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Warthon-Medina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe or multiple micronutrients (MMN including zinc (451 in each group. The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation.

  5. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation. PMID:26262642

  6. Effects of Home and School Computer Use on School Readiness and Cognitive Development among Head Start Children: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Atkins, Melissa S.; Stanton, Bonita

    2006-01-01

    Data from 122 Head Start children were analyzed to examine the impact of computer use on school readiness and psychomotor skills. Children in the experimental group were given the opportunity to work on a computer for 15-20 minutes per day with their choice of developmentally appropriate educational software, while the control group received a…

  7. Socio-Cognitive Correlates to School Achievement Using the TEMAS (Tell-Me-A-Story) Culturally Sensitive Test with Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grades At Risk Puerto Rican Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardalda, Elsa B.; Costantino, Giuseppe

    The Tell-Me-A-Story (TEMAS) Culturally Sensitive Test was administered to 74 Puerto Rican students in a New York City school in order to measure such personality resources as conflict resolution skills and cognitive structuring of narratives. The resulting data was used to examine the degree to which these early adolescents' personality resources…

  8. Relationships among Prior Conceptual Knowledge, Metacognitive Awareness, Metacognitive Self-Management, Cognitive Style, Perception-Judgment Style, Attitude toward School Science, Self-Regulation, and Science Achievement in Grades 6-7 Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Trudy G.; Yore, Larry D.

    This study explores the learner dimension in learning biological science topics in five elementary school classrooms instructed by different teachers using a common course of study and outcome measures. Specifically, the study addressed the associations among conceptual, metacognitive, cognitive, stylistic, and affective characteristics and…

  9. Diagnosing the Quality of High School Students' and Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Cognitive Structures in Organic Chemistry by Using Students' Generated Systemic Synthesis Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrin, Tamara; Milenkovic, Dušica; Segedinac, Mirjana

    2018-01-01

    The importance of well elaborated cognitive structures in a science knowledge domain has been noted in many studies. Therefore, the main aim of this particular study was to employ a new diagrammatic assessment approach, students' generated systemic synthesis questions (SSynQs), to evaluate and compare the quality of high school students' and…

  10. Computer simulations in the high school: students' cognitive stages, science process skills and academic achievement in microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, J.; Michal Lomask, S.; Lazarowitz, R.

    2002-08-01

    Computer-assisted learning, including simulated experiments, has great potential to address the problem solving process which is a complex activity. It requires a highly structured approach in order to understand the use of simulations as an instructional device. This study is based on a computer simulation program, 'The Growth Curve of Microorganisms', which required tenth grade biology students to use problem solving skills whilst simultaneously manipulating three independent variables in one simulated experiment. The aims were to investigate the computer simulation's impact on students' academic achievement and on their mastery of science process skills in relation to their cognitive stages. The results indicate that the concrete and transition operational students in the experimental group achieved significantly higher academic achievement than their counterparts in the control group. The higher the cognitive operational stage, the higher students' achievement was, except in the control group where students in the concrete and transition operational stages did not differ. Girls achieved equally with the boys in the experimental group. Students' academic achievement may indicate the potential impact a computer simulation program can have, enabling students with low reasoning abilities to cope successfully with learning concepts and principles in science which require high cognitive skills.

  11. A Study of Social Cognitive Theory: The Relationship between Professional Learning Communities and Collective Teacher Efficacy in International School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    In "Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control" (1997), Albert Bandura writes, "Teachers operate collectively within an interactive social system rather than as isolates" (p. 243). Bandura's attention to the existence of the communal systems that exist in schools is an appreciation shared by many educational reformers, especially those who advocate…

  12. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for an Adolescent Presenting with ADHD and Explosive Anger: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Janise; Zaboski, Brian; Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana

    2016-01-01

    This case demonstrates the efficacy of utilizing an intensive, multi-faceted behavioral intervention paradigm. A comprehensive, integrative, school-based service model was applied to address attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptomology, oppositional behaviors, and explosive anger at the secondary level. The case reviews a multi-modal…

  13. The Role of Social Cognitive Theory in Farm-to-School-Related Activities: Implications for Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Linda; Norris, Kimberly; Kolodinsky, Jane; Nelson, Abbie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Farm-to-school (FTS) programs are gaining attention for many reasons, one of which is the recognition that they could help stem the increase in childhood overweight and obesity. Most FTS programs that have been evaluated have increased students' selection or intake of fruits and vegetables following the incorporation of FTS…

  14. The more it changes; the more it remains the same: a Foucauldian analysis of Canadian policy documents relevant to student selection for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Saleem; Lessard, David; Hodges, Brian D; Maguire, Mary H; Steinert, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Calls to increase the demographic representativeness of medical classes to better reflect the diversity of society are part of a growing international trend. Despite this, entry into medical school remains highly competitive and exclusive of marginalized groups. To address these questions, we conducted a Foucauldian discourse analysis of 15 publically available policy documents from the websites of Canadian medical education regulatory bodies, using the concepts of "excellence" (institutional or in an applicant), "diversity," and "equity" to frame the analysis. In most documents, there were appeals to broaden definitions of institutional excellence to include concerns for greater social accountability. Equity concerns tended to be represented as needing to be dealt with by people in positions of authority in order to counter a "hidden curriculum." Diversity was represented as an object of value, situated within a discontinuous history. As a rhetorical strategy, documents invoked complex societal shifts to promote change toward a more humanistic medical education system and profession. "Social accountability" was reified as an all-encompassing solution to most issues of representation. Although the policy documents proclaimed rootedness in an ethos of improving the societal responsiveness of the medical profession, our analysis takes a more critical stance towards the discourses identified. On the basis of our research findings, we question whether these calls may contribute to the maintenance of the specific power relations they seek to address. These conclusions lead us to consider the possibility that the discourses represented in the documents might be reframed to take into account issues of power distribution and its productive and reproductive features. A reframing of discourses could potentially generate greater inclusiveness in policy development processes, and afford disadvantaged and marginalized groups more participatory roles in the discussion.

  15. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  16. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal Kapil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16. The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28 which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023 had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628

  17. Embodied social cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Lindblom, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This book clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the last decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world. This book presents a theoretical framework for the relational nature of embodied social cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. It includes work in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, phenomenology, ethology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, social psychology, linguistics, communication, and gesture studies. The theoretical framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous s...

  18. School-Based Nutrition Education Intervention Using Social Cognitive Theory for Overweight and Obese Iranian Adolescent Girls: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi Darani, Firoozeh; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Safarian, Mohammad; Allipour Birgani, Ramesh; Bitarafan, Vida; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2017-10-01

    Background Nowadays childhood obesity has become one the most challenging issue which is considered as a principle public health problem all around the world. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the impact of a 7-month school-based nutrition education intervention using social cognitive theory (SCT) to prevent obesity among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Method In this cluster randomized community trial after choosing schools, a total of 172 overweight and obese girl students participated in the study (87 in the intervention and 85 in the control group). A 7-month intervention based on SCT for students, their parents, and teachers was conducted. At baseline and end of the study, body mass index (BMI), waist circumstances (WCs), dietary intake, and psychological questionnaires regarding the SCT constructs were obtained. Results After 7 months, the mean of BMI and WCs reduced in the intervention group from 29.47 (4.05) to 28.5 (4.35) and from 89.65 (8.15) to 86.54 (9.76), respectively, but in comparison to the control group, they were not statistically significant ( p values .127 and .504, respectively). In the intervention group, nutritional behaviors and most of the psychological variables (self-efficacy, social support, intention, and situation) were improved in favor of the study and they were significant in comparison to the control group ( p < .05). Conclusion Although school-based nutrition education intervention using SCT did not change significantly BMI and WCs among the targeted population in this study, dietary habits as well as psychological factors improved significantly in the intervention group. This trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, www.irct.ir (IRCT2013103115211N1).

  19. Ciência, Tecnologia e Sociedade: a relevância do enfoque CTS para o contexto do Ensino Médio Science, Technology and Society: the importance of the STS view to high school context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilcéia Aparecida Maciel Pinheiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Ressalta-se a importância do enfoque Ciência, Tecnologia e Sociedade (CTS perante os questionamentos críticos e reflexivos acerca do contexto científico-tecnológico e social e, em especial, sua relevância para o Ensino Médio. Os pressupostos do movimento CTS têm se ampliado em toda sociedade brasileira, principalmente na área educacional. Dentro da proposta da Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional (LDB, configurada nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCNEMs, percebe-se a relevância de aproximar o aluno da interação com a ciência e a tecnologia em todas as dimensões da sociedade, oportunizando a ele uma concepção ampla e social do contexto científico-tecnológico.We aim to highlight the importance of the STS view as a driving force of critical and reflexive questions about scientific, technological and social contexts, and also, to emphasize its relevance to High School. The STS movement has spread throughout our society and, specially, has gained more and more followers in the educational area. Inside the Guidelines Law of the National Education (LDB proposal, designed in the National Curriculum Parameters for Secondary Education (PCNEMS, we noticed the importance of bringing the student closer to the interaction between science and technology in societal dimensions, considering their reciprocal relation, giving the students a wide and social conception of the scientific and technological context.

  20. Scaffolding scientific discussion using socially relevant representations in networked multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Christopher M.

    1999-11-01

    How do students make use of social cues when learning on the computer? This work examines how students in a middle-school science course learned through on-line peer discussion. Cognitive accounts of collaboration stress interacting with ideas, while socially situated accounts stress the interpersonal context. The design of electronic environments allows investigation into the interrelation of cognitive and social dimensions. I use on-line peer discussion to investigate how socially relevant representations in interfaces can aid learning. First, I identify some of the variables that affect individual participation in on-line discussion, including interface features. Individual participation is predicted by student attitudes towards learning from peers. Second, I describe the range of group outcomes for these on-line discussions. There is a large effect of discussion group on learning outcomes which is not reducible to group composition or gross measures of group process. Third, I characterize how students (individually) construct understanding from these group discussions. Learning in the on-line discussions is shown to be a result of sustained interaction over time, not merely encountering or expressing ideas. Experimental manipulations in the types of social cues available to students suggest that many students do use socially relevant representations to support their understanding of multiple viewpoints and science reasoning. Personalizing scientific disputes can afford reflection on the nature of scientific discovery and advance. While there are many individual differences in how social representations are used by students in learning, overall learning benefits for certain social representations can be shown. This work has profound implications for design of collaborative instructional methods, equitable access to science learning, design of instructional technology, and understanding of learning and cognition in social settings.

  1. Study protocol: the Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX) study - a randomized controlled trial of the impact of school-based physical activity programs on children's physical activity, cognitive function, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Catherine M; Duquesnay, Paula J; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Chomitz, Virginia R; Chui, Kenneth; Economos, Christina D; Langevin, Elizabeth G; Nelson, Miriam E; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2016-10-13

    Physical activity (PA) is critical to preventing childhood obesity and contributes to children's overall physical and cognitive health, yet fewer than half of all children achieve the recommended 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Schools are an ideal setting to meeting PA guidelines, but competing demands and limited resources have impacted PA opportunities. The Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX) Study is a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the impact of two innovative school-based PA programs on children's MVPA, cognitive function, and academic outcomes. Twenty-four public elementary schools from low-income, ethnically diverse communities around Massachusetts were recruited and randomized to receive either 100 Mile Club® (walking/running program) or Just Move™ (classroom-based PA program) intervention, or control. Schoolchildren (grades 3-4, approximately 50 per school) were recruited to participate in evaluation. Primary outcome measures include PA via 7-day accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X+ and wGT3X-BT), cognitive assessments, and academic achievement via state standardized test scores. Additional measures include height and weight, surveys assessing psycho-social factors related to PA, and dietary intake. School-level surveys assess PA infrastructure and resources and intervention implementation. Data are collected at baseline, mid-point (5-6 months post-baseline), and post-intervention (approximately 1.5 years post-baseline). Demographic data were collected by parents/caregivers at baseline. Mixed-effect models will test the short- and long-term effects of both programs on minutes spent in MVPA, as well as secondary outcomes including cognitive and academic outcomes. The FLEX study will evaluate strategies for increasing children's MVPA through two innovative, low-cost, school-based PA programs as well as their impact on children's cognitive functioning and academic success. Demonstration of a relationship

  2. Study protocol: the Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX study – a randomized controlled trial of the impact of school-based physical activity programs on children’s physical activity, cognitive function, and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Wright

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is critical to preventing childhood obesity and contributes to children’s overall physical and cognitive health, yet fewer than half of all children achieve the recommended 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Schools are an ideal setting to meeting PA guidelines, but competing demands and limited resources have impacted PA opportunities. The Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX Study is a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the impact of two innovative school-based PA programs on children’s MVPA, cognitive function, and academic outcomes. Methods Twenty-four public elementary schools from low-income, ethnically diverse communities around Massachusetts were recruited and randomized to receive either 100 Mile Club® (walking/running program or Just Move™ (classroom-based PA program intervention, or control. Schoolchildren (grades 3–4, approximately 50 per school were recruited to participate in evaluation. Primary outcome measures include PA via 7-day accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X+ and wGT3X-BT, cognitive assessments, and academic achievement via state standardized test scores. Additional measures include height and weight, surveys assessing psycho-social factors related to PA, and dietary intake. School-level surveys assess PA infrastructure and resources and intervention implementation. Data are collected at baseline, mid-point (5–6 months post-baseline, and post-intervention (approximately 1.5 years post-baseline. Demographic data were collected by parents/caregivers at baseline. Mixed-effect models will test the short- and long-term effects of both programs on minutes spent in MVPA, as well as secondary outcomes including cognitive and academic outcomes. Discussion The FLEX study will evaluate strategies for increasing children’s MVPA through two innovative, low-cost, school-based PA programs as well as their impact on children’s cognitive

  3. Predicting bicycle helmet stage-of-change among middle school, high school, and college cyclists from demographic, cognitive, and motivational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey; Okun, Morris; Quay, Nancy

    2004-09-01

    To apply Prochaska's Transtheoretical model of behavior change to bicycle helmet use among middle school, high school, and college students. A battery of questionnaires was administered to cyclists in the seventh and ninth grades and to college students in Phoenix, Arizona (N=797). The battery included: (1) a question to determine respondent's stage of behavior change in Prochaska's Transtheoretical model; (2) items assessing the perceived pros and cons of helmet use; (3) a bicycle safety knowledge test; and (4) demographic information. Forty-three percent of the students were in "Precontemplation," 17% were in either "Contemplation" or "Preparation," 16% were in either "Action" or "Maintenance," and 24% were in the "Relapse" stage of change. Grade, Sex, Knowledge, Pros, and Cons, and the Grade by sex and the Grade by knowledge interactions were significant predictors of helmet use stages. Compared with students in Precontemplation, students in the Contemplation stage were disproportionately younger and had higher Pro scores, lower Con scores, and more knowledge (except in the ninth grade). The Transtheoretical model of behavior change is a viable theoretical framework for designing interventions aimed at increasing bicycle helmet use in children and adolescents.

  4. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Reflection and Re-structurization on Career Decision Making of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagimin Wagimin

    2015-03-01

    Key Words: career decision making, CIP model, reflection, cognitive restructuring Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji keefektifan  refleksi dan penstrukturan ulang kognitif guna meningkatkan pengambilan keputusan karier siswa SMA berdasarkan model PIK. Penelitian eksperimen ini menggunakan rancangan RCTs, dan subjek 40 orang siswa sebagai kelompok eksperi-men dan 40 sebagai kelompok kontrol. Sub-kemampuan pengambilan keputusan karier model PIK yang dikembangkan meliputi: memahami diri, memahami pilihan pekerjaan, komunikasi, analisis, sinte-sis, penilaian, pelaksanaan, dan proses pelaksanaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada perbeda-an kemampuan pengambilan keputusan karier antara siswa kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kon-trol di mana kelompok eksperimen memiliki nilai rata-rata yang lebih tinggi. Informasi controlled trials menguatkan juga bahwa refleksi dan penstrukturan ulang kognitif  efektif untuk  meningkatkan kemampuan pengambilan keputusan karier siswa SMA. Kata kunci: pengambilan keputusan karier, model PIK, refleksi, penstrukturan ulang kognitif

  5. Translational aspects of the novel object recognition task in rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with phencyclidine (PCP: effects of modafinil and relevance to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Redrobe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phencyclidine (PCP induces a behavioural syndrome in rodents that bears remarkable similarities to some of the core symptoms observed in schizophrenic patients, among those cognitive deficits. The successful alleviation of cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia (CIAS has become a major focus of research efforts as they remain largely untreated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selected antipsychotic and cognition enhancing drugs, namely haloperidol, risperidone, donepezil, and modafinil in an animal model widely used in preclinical schizophrenia research. To this end, the novel object recognition (NOR task was applied to rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with PCP. Rats were administered either PCP (5 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle twice a day for 7 days, followed by a 7-day washout period, before testing in NOR. Upon testing, vehicle-treated rats successfully discriminated between novel and familiar objects, an effect abolished in rats that had previously been exposed to PCP-treatment. Acute treatment with modafinil (64 mg/kg, p.o. ameliorated the PCP-induced deficit in novel object exploration, whereas haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., risperidone (0.2 mg/kg, i.p. and donepezil (3 mg/kg, p.o. were without significant effect. Given the negligible efficacy of haloperidol and risperidone, and the contradictory data with donepezil to treat CIAS in the clinic, together with the promising preliminary pro-cognitive effects of modafinil in certain subsets of schizophrenic patients, the sub-chronic PCP-NOR abstinence paradigm may represent an attractive option for the identification of potential novel treatments for CIAS.

  6. Question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira A. Baranova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s questions are an indicator of active cognitive perception of reality. Questions but not answers are relevant in revealing a child’s mental life, consciousness and thinking. The lack of question-asking skills can hinder learning, searching and exploration in children. To determine in 7- and 8-year-old school children the common and variable peculiarities of designing a search process for necessary information concerning an unknown object by volitionally formulated questions, as well as the dynamics of the questioning process throughout a school year. The study was based on an experimental methodology, codenamed Guess what there is in the box, and was conducted in four schools in Cheboksary. The sample comprised 158 primary school first-graders who took part in a confirmatory experiment twice, once in September and once in May. The research showed that 96.3% of the questions asked were search questions. Only 30% of the first-graders initiated their searching activities of their own will without having to resort to the given search algorithm, while 70% did not begin asking questions without outside stimulation. The analysis of the dynamics of children’s question-asking behavior exhibited a tendency to decrease in a number of questions asked over the course of the school year. Primary school children need psychological and pedagogical scaffolding aimed at developing a question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity to achieve a possible age potential in development.

  7. [The cognitive development of triplets in school age and its impact on the quality of family life--a follow-up study from a perinatal centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannfeld, S; Strauss, A; Schulze, A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the developmental outcome of 7- to 9-year-old triplets and to determine parenting stress and quality of family life. Cognitive development (Wechsler intelligence scales for children III, WISC III) and quality of family life (Kansas family life satisfaction scale, KFLSS; parenting stress index, PSI) of 48 triplets born between 1996 and 1998 at a perinatal centre were compared with controls born at a gestational age ≥37 weeks. Index and control children/mothers were matched by age (birthday: ±14 days/maternal age±2 years). Triplets and their families showed a mean IQ score and parenting satisfaction and stress within the normal range. Full IQ score (97 SD 16) as well as verbal and performance IQs (102 SD 16; 92 SD 19) were significantly lower than the controls' corresponding data (full IQ 111 SD 15, pParents of triplets tended to show a higher total PSI score (222 SD 39) than the parents of the controls (205 SD 47). The differences reached statistical significance only in the parent domain (triplets 125 SD 24; controls 111 SD 27; pSatisfaction with family life was good in triplet families and did not differ significantly in any of the subscales from control parents' satisfaction. This study demonstrates a favourable outcome of triplets with respect to their cognitive development and the quality of their families' lives at school age. The difference in children's IQ was statistically, but perhaps not clinically, significant, because the triplets' data were within the normal range. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenigro, Philip H; Alosco, Michael L; Martin, Brett M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Mez, Jesse; Chaisson, Christine E; Nowinski, Christopher J; Au, Rhoda; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; McClean, Michael D; Stern, Robert A; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2017-01-15

    The term "repetitive head impacts" (RHI) refers to the cumulative exposure to concussive and subconcussive events. Although RHI are believed to increase risk for later-life neurological consequences (including chronic traumatic encephalopathy), quantitative analysis of this relationship has not yet been examined because of the lack of validated tools to quantify lifetime RHI exposure. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a metric to quantify cumulative RHI exposure from football, which we term the "cumulative head impact index" (CHII); 2) to use the CHII to examine the association between RHI exposure and long-term clinical outcomes; and 3) to evaluate its predictive properties relative to other exposure metrics (i.e., duration of play, age of first exposure, concussion history). Participants included 93 former high school and collegiate football players who completed objective cognitive and self-reported behavioral/mood tests as part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study. Using established cutoff scores, we transformed continuous outcomes into dichotomous variables (normal vs. impaired). The CHII was computed for each participant and derived from a combination of self-reported athletic history (i.e., number of seasons, position[s], levels played), and impact frequencies reported in helmet accelerometer studies. A bivariate probit, instrumental variable model revealed a threshold dose-response relationship between the CHII and risk for later-life cognitive impairment (p < 0.0001), self-reported executive dysfunction (p < 0.0001), depression (p < 0.0001), apathy (p = 0.0161), and behavioral dysregulation (p < 0.0001). Ultimately, the CHII demonstrated greater predictive validity than other individual exposure metrics.

  9. Bioinformatics Education in High School: Implications for Promoting Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Dina N.; Patterson, Davis G.; Cohen, Carolyn; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, Karen A.; Porter, Sandra G.; Chowning, Jeanne Ting

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of our Bio-ITEST teacher professional development model and bioinformatics curricula on cognitive traits (awareness, engagement, self-efficacy, and relevance) in high school teachers and students that are known to accompany a developing interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. The…

  10. The relationship of attitudes toward science, cognitive style, and self-concept to achievement in chemistry at the secondary school level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Gerald Richard

    There is currently a crisis in science education in the United States. This statement is based on the National Science Foundation's report stating that the nation's students, on average, still rank near the bottom in science and math achievement internationally. This crisis is the background of the problem for this study. This investigation studied learner variables that were thought to play a role in teaching chemistry at the secondary school level, and related them to achievement in the chemistry classroom. Among these, cognitive style (field dependence/independence), attitudes toward science, and self-concept had been given considerable attention by researchers in recent years. These variables were related to different competencies that could be used to measure the various types of achievement in the chemistry classroom at the secondary school level. These different competencies were called academic, laboratory, and problem solving achievement. Each of these chemistry achievement components may be related to a different set of learner variables, and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of these relationships. Three instruments to determine attitudes toward science, cognitive style, and self-concept were used for data collection. Teacher grades were used to determine chemistry achievement for each student. Research questions were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients and t-tests. Results indicated that field independence was significantly correlated with problem solving, academic, and laboratory achievement. Educational researchers should therefore investigate how to teach students to be more field independent so they can achieve at higher levels in chemistry. It was also true that better attitudes toward the social benefits and problems that accompany scientific progress were significantly correlated with higher achievement on all three academic measures in chemistry. This suggests that educational researchers

  11. COGNITIVE-STYLE APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF THE GIFTED PUPILS MOUNTAIN SCHOOLS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Paliy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The differential-cognitological point of view, giftedness is “a systemic quality of a personality that develops throughout life and determines their abilities to achieve exceptionally high results in one or more activities compared to those of other people”. Herewith, it is the fundamental concept of general aptitude, under which “the level of general abilities development that determines the range of activities in which a person can achieve great success” is understood. Within the structure of general aptitude intellectual giftedness is singled out as the level of development, as well as the type of organization of individual mental experience, which ensure an opportunity of creative intellectual activity, i. e. an activity, related to the creation of subjectively and objectively new ideas, to the use of innovative approaches to solving problems and openness to controversial aspects of the situation and so on. In order to identify talented children and adults the value of intellectual quotient (IQ is still most commonly used. Psychometric approach (the measurement of psychic phenomena with the help of standardized IQ tests to the diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, which is dominant in psychological diagnostics today, by definition, cannot “measure” the phenomena of an individual psyche, since the modern level of psychological science does not allow to proceed to psychological diagnosis, let alone prediction of a certain person`s behavior, on the basis of individual results in performing a psychological test (psychometric test of intelligence, personality questionnaire, projective methods etc. In our opinion, many problems in psychological and pedagogical support of gifted children could be avoided by making use of cognitive-style approach to diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, creative abilities, propensities and peculiar mental traits of a separate individuality. Objectivity of such an approach is corroborated by the results

  12. Geometry Skill Analysis In Problem Solving Reviewed From The Difference Of Cognitive Style Students Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Saparuddin Nur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the geometry skills in solving problems in terms of cognitive styles differences in the students of SMP Negeri Urumb. The type of this research is descriptive research that is qualitative with case study approach. The subject of this research is all students of SMP Negeri Urumb. Subject selection is done by using snowball sampling technique. The main instrument in this study is the researchers themselves and accompanied by supporting instruments such as diagnostic tests, geometry solving test, and interview guides. Validity and reliability of data is done through credibility test, transferability test, dependability test, and confirmability test. Data analysis consists of data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and conclusions. The results of this study were (1 reflective FI subjects showing visual, verbal, drawing, and logic skills with level of geometry thinking at level 2 (informal deduction; (2 impulsive FI subjects exhibiting visual, verbal, and drawing skills with geometric thinking level at level 1 (analysis, (3 reflective FD subjects exhibit visual skills, and draw with level of geometric thinking at level 0 (visualization, and (4 impulsive FD subjects exhibit visual, verbal skills with geometric level thinking at level 0 (visualization.

  13. Effects of irrelevant speech and traffic noise on speech perception and cognitive performance in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Maria; Meis, Markus; Sukowski, Helga; Schick, August

    2007-01-01

    The effects of background noise of moderate intensity on short-term storage and processing of verbal information were analyzed in 6 to 8 year old children. In line with adult studies on "irrelevant sound effect" (ISE), serial recall of visually presented digits was severely disrupted by background speech that the children did not understand. Train noises of equal Intensity however, had no effect. Similar results were demonstrated with tasks requiring storage and processing of heard information. Memory for nonwords, execution of oral instructions and categorizing speech sounds were significantly disrupted by irrelevant speech. The affected functions play a fundamental role in the acquisition of spoken and written language. Implications concerning current models of the ISE and the acoustic conditions in schools and kindergardens are discussed.

  14. Examining the Affordances of Dual Cognitive Processing to Explain the Development of High School Students' Nature of Science Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke M.

    This mixed method study was aimed at examining the influence of dual processing (Type 1 and Type 2 thinking) on the development of high school students' nature of science (NOS) views. Type 1 thinking is intuitive, experiential, and heuristic. Type 2 thinking is rational, analytical, and explicit. Three research questions were asked: (1) Do the experiential process (Type 1) and the logical process (Type 2) influence the development of students' NOS views? (2) If there is an influence on students' NOS views, then what is the nature of relationship between the experiential process (Type 1) and the development of NOS views? (3) What is the nature of relationship between the logical process (Type 2) and the development of NOS views? The Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire C (VNOS-C; Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, Bell, & Schwartz, 2002) was administered to 29 high school students at the beginning and at the end of an explicit-reflective NOS intervention offered in an Advanced Placement environmental science course. Changes in students' NOS views were calculated through a chi-square test and examining the percentage of students holding NOS views at various levels of sophistication. With the chi-square goodness of fit test performed, the relationship between pre and post NOS scores was not significant, X2(3, 29) = 4.78, p <.05. The informed and preinformed NOS views increased (14%, 17%) in frequency while the mixed and uninformed NOS views decreased (i.e. improved 26%, 24%) in frequency from pre to posttest. The reading discussions were coded based on the EBR framework (Furtak et al., 2010) to analyze the use of dual processing. Type1 and Type 2 thinking were both used during the intervention and reading reflections. Type 2 thinking was more prominent when analyzing a problem, formulating a hypothesis, or stating logical claims. The association of NOS education and Type 1 and Type 2 thinking in scientific literacy was examined, and implications and future research are

  15. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzannah K Helps

    Full Text Available Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR, auditory white noise (WN can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability.Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25; normal- (N = 29 and sub-attentive (N = 36 children (aged 8 to 10 years. Two non-executive function (EF tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations.There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group.The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  16. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Suzannah K; Bamford, Susan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Söderlund, Göran B W

    2014-01-01

    Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), auditory white noise (WN) can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA) model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability. Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25); normal- (N = 29) and sub-attentive (N = 36) children (aged 8 to 10 years). Two non-executive function (EF) tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task) and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task) were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations. There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group. The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  17. Classroom relationship qualities and social-cognitive correlates of defending and passive bystanding in school bullying in Sweden: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Wänström, Linda; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2017-08-01

    Using the social-ecological and social cognitive theories as integrated guiding frameworks, the present study examined whether moral disengagement and defender self-efficacy at the individual level, and moral disengagement, quality of teacher-student relationships and quality of student-student relationships at the classroom level were associated with passive bystanding and defending in bullying situations. Participants were 900 Swedish students from 43 classrooms, ranging in age from 9 to 13years. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that passive reactions by bystanders were associated with greater moral disengagement and less defender self-efficacy. Defending, in turn, was associated with less moral disengagement and greater defender self-efficacy and classroom student-student relationship quality. Furthermore, students who scored high in moral disengagement were even less prone to defend victims when the classroom student-student relationship quality was low, but more prone to act as defenders when the classroom student-student relationship quality was high. In addition, the negative association between defender self-efficacy and passive bystanding was stronger both in classrooms with higher student-student relationship quality and in those with lower class moral disengagement. Implications for prevention are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home › Non-Movement Symptoms › Cognitive Changes Cognitive Changes Some people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience mild cognitive impairment. Feelings of distraction or disorganization can accompany ...

  19. The effects of computer game elements in physics instruction software for middle schools: A study of cognitive and affective gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, David Alan

    Can the educational effectiveness of physics instruction software for middle schoolers be improved by employing "game elements" commonly found in recreational computer games? This study utilized a selected set of game elements to contextualize and embellish physics word problems with the aim of making such problems more engaging. Game elements used included: (1) a fantasy-story context with developed characters; and (2) high-end graphics and visual effects. The primary purpose of the study was to find out if the added production cost of using such game elements was justified by proportionate gains in physics learning. The theoretical framework for the study was a modified version of Lepper and Malone's "intrinsically-motivating game elements" model. A key design issue in this model is the concept of "endogeneity", or the degree to which the game elements used in educational software are integrated with its learning content. Two competing courseware treatments were custom-designed and produced for the study; both dealt with Newton's first law. The first treatment (T1) was a 45 minute interactive tutorial that featured cartoon characters, color animations, hypertext, audio narration, and realistic motion simulations using the Interactive PhysicsspTM software. The second treatment (T2) was similar to the first except for the addition of approximately three minutes of cinema-like sequences where characters, game objectives, and a science-fiction story premise were described and portrayed with high-end graphics and visual effects. The sample of 47 middle school students was evenly divided between eighth and ninth graders and between boys and girls. Using a pretest/posttest experimental design, the independent variables for the study were: (1) two levels of treatment; (2) gender; and (3) two schools. The dependent variables were scores on a written posttest for both: (1) physics learning, and (2) attitude toward physics learning. Findings indicated that, although

  20. Cognitive Psychology and Mathematical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brian

    1981-01-01

    This review illustrates aspects of cognitive psychology relevant to the understanding of how people think mathematically. Developments in memory research, artificial intelligence, visually mediated processes, and problem-solving research are discussed. (MP)