Under Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's education system embarked on a massive change effort, known as Children First, that produced significant results: new and better school options for families, more college-ready graduates, and renewed public confidence in New York City's schools. New York City's reform effort has also produced…
Wackett, Andrew; Daroowalla, Feroza; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Chandran, Latha
Concerns regarding the quality of training in the 4th year of medical school and preparation of graduates to enter residency education persist and are borne out in the literature. We reviewed the published literature regarding Year 4 concerns as well as institutional efforts to improve the 4th-year curriculum from several schools. Based on input from key stakeholders, we established 4 goals for our Year 4 curriculum reform: (a) standardize the curricular structure, (b) allow flexibility and individualization, (c) improve the preparation for residency, and (d) improve student satisfaction. After the reform, we evaluated the outcomes using results from the Association of American Medical Colleges Questionnaire, student focus groups, and program director surveys. This article describes the context, process, and outcomes of the reform of the Year 4 curriculum at Stony Brook University School of Medicine. We were able to achieve all four stated goals for the reform. The significant components of the change included a flexible adaptable curriculum based on individual needs and preferences, standardized learning objectives across the year, standardized competency-based evaluations regardless of discipline, reinforcement of clinical skills, and training for the transition to the workplace as an intern. The reform resulted in increased student satisfaction, increased elective time, and increased preparedness for residency training as perceived by the graduates. The Program Director survey showed significant changes in ability to perform a medical history and exam, management of common medical conditions and emergencies, clinical reasoning and problem-solving skills, working and communication with the healthcare team, and overall professionalism in meeting obligations inherent in the practice of medicine. Lessons learned from our 4th-year reform process are discussed. Listening to the needs of the stakeholders was an important step in ensuring buy-in, having an institutional
Carroll E. Bronson
Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.
Anderson, Lorin W.; Shirley, J. Robert
Summarizes a study examining the high school principal's role in providing the leadership needed to explore and implement Project Re:Learning. The 4-phase study initially included 15 schools and involved questionnaires, interviews, and shadowing. Identifies six types of administrators: the absent administrator, the pawn, the pragmatic principal,…
Caprio Jr, Gerard; Atiyas, Izak; Hanson, James
The argument in favor of gradual - but sustained - financial reform is based on two factors. First, the development of borrower net worth will determine the health of the real and, ultimately, the financial sector. Thus, speeding up reforms when borrower net worth is subject to positive shocks - or slowing them when it is subject to negative shocks - appears sensible and appears to have worked better in practice. Second, the initial conditions of the banking sector - not just its net worth bu...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Lessons from Early Medicaid Expansions Under Health Reform, Interviews with Medicaid Officials In a new study entitled Lessons from Early Medicaid Expansions Under...
The First Amendment Schools project holds rich lessons in how to change school cultures into "laboratories of democracy"--as well as in how to increase the odds of success for any school reform effort. School reform programs of any sort need to make sure to build in sustainability, to provide ways to spread their lessons beyond the…
Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J
Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ni Shuilleabhain, Aoibhinn; Seery, Aidan
Based in a time of major curriculum reform, this article reports on a qualitative case study of teacher professional development (PD) in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Five mathematics teachers in an Irish secondary school were introduced to and participated in successive cycles of school-based lesson study (LS) over the course of one academic…
In Uxbridge, Massachusetts, a small working-class mill town, free-market reform rhetoric has become reality. The tiny district has adopted controversial changes, such as giving vouchers to parents of Title I students, reimbursing home-schooling parents, lengthening the school day and year, adopting flexible scheduling, allowing credit for Internet…
Buras, Kristen L.
Louisiana Senator Mary Landrieu, co-chair of the Senate Public Charter School Caucus in Washington, DC, hosted a forum for education policymakers. It centered on "New Orleans-Style Education Reform: A Guide for Cities (Lessons Learned, 2004-2010)," a report published by the charter school incubator New Schools for New Orleans (NSNO).…
Duncan, GJ; Magnuson, K; Murnane, RJ
Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learni...
Argentina was one of the first countries in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector. Among developing countries only Chile has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces the history of the Argentine reform, which began in 1992, and assesses its progress and its lessons. We conclude that the reform was very successful prior to the collapse of the Argentine peso in early 2002. We suggest lessons for the generation, transmission and distribution (and retailing) sectors, as well as the economic regulation of electricity and the general institutional environment. We note that the achievements of the sector have been severely strained by the government's poor energy policy since the crisis
Pollitt, Michael [Judge Business School and ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
Argentina was one of the first countries in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector. Among developing countries only Chile has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces the history of the Argentine reform, which began in 1992, and assesses its progress and its lessons. We conclude that the reform was very successful prior to the collapse of the Argentine peso in early 2002. We suggest lessons for the generation, transmission and distribution (and retailing) sectors, as well as the economic regulation of electricity and the general institutional environment. We note that the achievements of the sector have been severely strained by the government's poor energy policy since the crisis. (author)
This presentation will be based on the World Energy Council's recently published report, Energy Market Reform: Lessons Learned and Next Steps with Special Emphasis on the Energy Access Problems of Developing Countries. The report draws on practical lessons from past studies carried out by the World Energy Council and on current experiences on the desirable architecture of market reforms in electricity and natural gas. The approach of the study was not to further deepen the analysis or to provide technical recommendations but rather, to build a debate guided by the common thread of energy security and end-user e mpowerment , highlighting the possible areas of conflict of interest and the broad solutions that might be chosen depending on the local circumstances for different parts of the energy chains. The ambition was to identify key concerns and to initiate a debate on possible answers.(author)
Kousholt, Kristine; Hamre, Bjørn
This chapter will focus on shared characteristics of the Danish national standardized testing in public school and the ideals of being a student according to the Danish School Reform of 2014. In the chapter we argue that both kinds of materials (documents regarding the newly implemented national ...... and that this intermingles with the explicated intentions of the Danish school reform as a more profound educational intervention....
Van Wyk, Llewellyn V
Full Text Available This paper analyses construction foresight studies and construction reform initiatives with a view to identifying lessons for developing countries. It notes the number of construction reform initiatives over the last 60 years, mostly...
Mathias, Melissa Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre
Over the past decades many countries have reformed their infrastructure industries. Although these reforms have been broadly similar for the most part, aiming at introducing competition in potentially competitive segments, the contexts in which they have been carried out differ. This is due to the past regulatory experience in each country, the maturity of the industry and/or the number of agents when the reform process started. The Brazilian natural gas reform stands out due to the country's singular conditions. The development of the natural gas industry in Brazil was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with neighboring nations (particularly Bolivia) and establishing a competitive environment by lowering the barriers hampering the arrival of new investors. However, natural gas is located at the crossroads of two main energy chains: oil and hydroelectricity. This article analyzes the Brazilian natural gas reform, and extracts lessons from this process. The low capillarity of transportation and distribution systems continues to be the main bottleneck of the country's natural gas industry. The challenges of the new legal framework are to encourage investments in networks and guarantee supply, to allow the industry to consolidate and mature, against a backdrop of rapid changes in the world market. (author)
This article provides a context for understanding how social networks among teachers support or constrain school improvement in terms of instructional practice, professional development, and educational reform. It comments on the articles in this special issue, summarizing their contributions to the field. This analysis reveals several important…
Berke, Joel S.; And Others
Research on legislative and electoral consideration of school finance reforms identifies three important elements; the art of compromise, the fiscal context, and political leadership. Adoption of new school finance formulas is far more likely through the legislative process than through a referendum. (Author/AM)
Green, Terrance L.
For decades, reform has been a persistent issue in urban schools. Research suggests that urban school reforms that are connected to equitable community development efforts are more sustainable, and that principals play a pivot role in leading such efforts. Yet, limited research has explored how urban school principals connect school reform with…
Canada is the only country with a broad public health system that does not include universal, nationwide coverage for pharmaceuticals. This omission causes real hardship to those Canadians who are not well-served by the existing patchwork of limited provincial plans and private insurance. It also represents significant forgone benefits in terms of governments' ability to negotiate drug prices, make expensive new drugs available to patients on an equitable basis, and provide integrated health services regardless of therapy type or location. This paper examines Canada's historical failure to adopt universal pharmaceutical insurance on a national basis, with particular emphasis on the role of public and elite ideas about its supposed lack of affordability. This legacy provides novel lessons about the barriers to reform and potential methods for overcoming them. The paper argues that reform is most likely to be successful if it explicitly addresses entrenched ideas about pharmacare's affordability and its place in the health system. Reform is also more likely to achieve universal coverage if it is radical, addressing various components of an effective pharmaceutical program simultaneously. In this case, an incremental approach is likely to fail because it will not allow governments to contain costs and realize the social benefits that come along with a universal program, and because it means forgoing the current promising conditions for achieving real change.
Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.
This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and its sustainability in light of concerns that movements in these directions might be politically unfeasible. To some degree, these concerns are substantiated by the developments we trace. However, it is important to note that the reform has changed the landscape of primary and secondary education in Qatar and that many reform principles, though diluted, have been retained. This paper highlights lessons learned - both hopeful and cautionary - in the first few years of reform and presents a methodology for evaluating progress along key dimensions that can be applied to school systems in many nations.
This article highlights three significant advances in schoolwide inclusive school reform and suggests three next steps to improve educational outcomes for "all" students, particularly for students for whom typical instruction is not effective. Significant advances are as follows: (a) a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) with embedded…
Californians are very concerned about funding for their K-12 public schools. They consistently say that K-12 education should be protected from spending cuts over and above any other area of the state budget. California's system of school finance is in trouble. Many studies have found it to be inequitable, with wide variation in per-pupil funding.…
Elshtain, Jean Bethke
Indicates that parents, teachers, and concerned citizens must become involved in the decision-making process regarding public education. Recommends that (1) schools be decentralized to allow for more parent participation and teacher responsiveness, (2) schools of education be phased out, (3) parents and students get involved in educational…
Matthews, Mark; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
This paper presents the results of a literature review on educational methodology reforms. The first section discusses five factors in broad-based school reforms: change theory; organizational theory; state/national politics; local politics/governance; and leadership theory. Five types of reforms for school-wide success are described in the second…
This essay reviews six competing positions on U.S. school reform: a speech from Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan; Diane Ravitch's "The Death and Life of the Great American School System"; Frederick Hess's "The Same Thing Over and Over"; Charles Payne's "So Much Reform, So Little Change"; Anthony Byrk and others' "Organizing School for…
Huang, Lei; Cheng, Liming; Cai, Qiaoling; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Yun; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Guo-Tong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen
Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools has attracted a lot of attention recently. Several leading medical schools in China have undergone exploratory reforms and in so doing, have accumulated significant experience and have made considerable progress. An analysis of the reforms conducted by 38 Chinese medical colleges that were targeted by the government for upgrade was performed. Drawing from both domestic and international literature, we designed a questionnaire to determine what types of curricular reforms have occurred at these institutions and how they were implemented. Major questions touched upon the purpose of the reforms, curricular patterns, improvements in teaching methods post-reform, changes made to evaluation systems post-reform, intra-university reform assessment, and what difficulties the schools faced when instituting the reforms. Besides the questionnaire, relevant administrators from each medical school were also interviewed to obtain more qualitative data. Out of the 38 included universities, twenty-five have undergone major curricular reforms. Among them, 60.0% adopted an organ system-based curriculum model, 32.0% adopted a problem-based curriculum model, and 8.0% adopted a hybrid curriculum model. About 60.0% of the schools' reforms involved both the "pre-clinical" and the "clinical" curricula, 32.0% of the schools' reforms were limited to the "pre-clinical" curricula, and 8.0% of the schools' reforms only involved the "clinical" curricula. Following curricular reform, 60.0% of medical schools experienced an overall reduction in teaching hours, 76.0% reported an increase in their students' clinical skills, and 60.0% reported an increase in their students' research skills. Medical curricular reform is still in its infancy in China. The republic's leading medical schools have engaged in various approaches to bring innovative teaching methods to their respective institutions. However, due to limited resources and the shackle of traditional
Saltman, Kenneth J.
In the United States, corporate school reform or neoliberal educational restructuring has overtaken educational policy, practice, curriculum, and nearly all aspects of educational reform. Although this movement began on the political right, the corporate school model has been heralded across the political spectrum and is aggressively embraced now…
Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2005
Viewpoints is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a brief, informative booklet. This volume of Viewpoints focuses on issues related to high school reform. This booklet offers background information explaining the issues surrounding high school reform with perspectives from research, policy, and practice. It also provides a list of…
Jorgensen, Robyn; Walsh, Lynne; Niesche, Richard
Reforming schools is a challenging aspect of contemporary education. The role of leadership within reform agendas is critical. This article presents a case study of one school that has been highly successful in the implementation of this reform. The processes employed by the school at various levels demonstrate the ways in which effective…
Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.
The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…
Yianwei, Wang; Jiyuan, Li
Literacy in China is mainly concerned with illiteracy in rural areas. Therefore, reforming literacy education is largely a problem of how to eliminate rural literacy within the general framework of reform in contemporary China. From 1949 to 1988, the illiteracy rate among the population decreased from 80 percent to 20 percent. There are still…
Global assessments of consumption and the Indonesian case show the relevance of non-household consumers of subsidized energy products. As shown in this study, understanding in more nuance how reforms affect them has the potential to improve the reforms that will be developed by policy-makers worldwide. Further study can reinforce the many benefits of successful reform for the countries and societies slowly turning away from these policies of the past. Estimates regarding the amount of public funds utilized to subsidize the production or consumption of fossil fuels are staggering. For 2011, they range from $83 billion in OECD member states, to nearly $4.1 trillion worldwide if environmental externalities are considered. Numerous studies have demonstrated that subsidies repress economic growth, undermine energy sector investment, increase public debt, benefit wealthy citizens over the poor, instigate a rise in illicit activities, and engender greater global and local pollution. The negative effects of fossil fuel subsidies have led numerous governments to reform their energy policies. There has also been a growing international consensus in favor of reform. While the components of successful reform programs have been identified through past case studies, the nature of reforms adopted by several governments that target non-households have not been systematically examined. Since the late 1990s, the Indonesian government has implemented numerous reforms of its fossil fuel subsidies, including measures targeting household as well as non-household energy consumption. In doing so, it has incurred significant fiscal savings. However, an innovative budgetary analysis reveals that households receive a minority, and a declining share, of fossil fuel subsidy funds. This is the case despite the fact that subsidies were implemented to ensure poor households have access to cheap energy. These findings demonstrate the need to consider non-household sectors in the design of fossil
Guthrie, James W.
Recommends the implementation of school-based management systems as one way to meet government demands for educational reform. Describes the functions of principals, school advisory councils, school-site budgeting and accounting, and annual planning and performance reports in successful school-based management systems. Presents examples of…
Green, Terrance L.
Purpose: Improving urban schools of color and the communities where they are located requires leadership that spans school and community boundaries. The purpose of this study is to understand how principal and community leader actions support urban school reform along with community development at two community schools in the urban Midwest and…
Bower, Heather Ann; Parsons, Eileen R. Carlton
In the era of school accountability, school reform programs aimed at shifting school culture are often implemented in an attempt to increase student achievement as measured by standardized test scores. This ethnographic case study was conducted in Hawk Elementary, a low-performing, high-poverty school. Quantitative and qualitative data collected…
Palmer, Douglas J.; Sadiq, Hissa M.; Lynch, Patricia; Parker, Dawn; Viruru, Radhika; Knight, Stephanie; Waxman, Hersh; Alford, Beverly; Brown, Danielle Bairrington; Rollins, Kayla; Stillisano, Jacqueline; Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M. Hamdan; Nasser, Ramzi; Allen, Nancy; Al-Binali, Hessa; Ellili, Maha; Al-Kateeb, Haithem; Al-Kubaisi, Huda
Qatar initiated a K-12 national educational reform in 2001. However, there is limited information on the instructional practices of the teachers in the reform schools. This project was an observational study of classrooms with a stratified random sample of the first six cohorts of reform schools. Specifically, 156 classrooms were observed in 29…
Kutzin, Joseph; Cashin, Cheryl; Jakab, Melitta
Since 1990, the social and economic policies of the transition countries of central and eastern Europe, the Caucasus and central Asia have diverged, including the way they have reformed the financing...
Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Malloy, Courtney L.; Chau, Derrick; Polhemus, Jennifer L.
Data from an evaluation of the Annenberg Challenge in Los Angeles, a reform effort that experimented with school networks as a vehicle for improving schools, revealed that when school networks created structures that decentralized power and distributed organizational resources throughout the network, they also enhanced school capacity for reform.…
Yavas, Pervin Ünlü; Çagan, Sultan
The aim of this study was to develop a Likert type attitude scale for high school students with regard to high school physics lessons. The research was carried out with high school students who were studying in Ankara. First, the opinions of 105 high school students about physics lessons were obtained and then 55 scale items were determined from…
Olson, James M.
The article describes how the German Social Democratic Party promoted educational reform in Germany before World War I. It demanded state support for a secularized school program, suggested curricular reforms to instill socialist values, and promoted adult education and socialist training in the home. (AV)
Swaminathan, Hariharan; Rogers, H. Jane
Statistical reform in school psychology research is discussed in terms of research designs, measurement issues, statistical modeling and analysis procedures, interpretation and reporting of statistical results, and finally statistics education.
North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.
Public schools across the country are aiming to improve student performance by engaging in comprehensive school reform (CSR). This guide was created to help school districts make CSR an integral part of their strategies for improving student achievement. Five components for CSR are described: (1) Strategizing, whereby the district supports CSR by…
Jwan, Julius; Anderson, Lesley; Bennett, Nigel
In this article we discuss students', teachers' and school principals' perceptions of democratic school leadership reforms in Kenya. The article is based on a study that was conducted in two phases. In phase one (conducted between September and December 2007), interviews were undertaken with 12 school principals in which understandings of…
Brinson, Dana; Boast, Lyria; Hassel, Bryan C.; Kingsland, Neerav
New Schools for New Orleans (NSNO) commissioned this guide, in collaboration with the Louisiana Recovery School District and the Tennessee Achievement School District, to meet the Investing in Innovation (i3) requirement that grantees disseminate the lessons of their work. To create this guide, NSNO worked with Public Impact to build on prior…
The study also confirms the need for a new constructive process so as to allow groups as well as individuals to participate in the development process. It is obvious from the study that the finalization of the process of review and restructuring of land reform will not be achieved without problems. To ensure a smooth process, ...
Hence the aim of this article is to create a historical review of the land and agrarian issues in developing countries in general, and in Africa in particular, as well as map up a landscape of the political economy of land and agrarian reform in the current millennium, and demonstrate how these relate to the issue of food security ...
Fauchald, Ole Kristian
This report focuses on the possibility of establishing a High Commissioner for the Environment and transforming the UNEP Governing Council into a Council for the Environment. For this purpose, it considers the parallels between human rights regimes and environmental regimes. It provides a short-list of functions to be covered by a reformed environmental governance regime, and discusses how the reform can be coordinated with UNEP, as well as with the current and future institutional framework for sustainable development. The report also discusses how the reform can be related to fifteen core multilateral environmental agreements. Finally, the report considers how the reform can be carried out through a discussion of five separate options: a decision by the UN General Assembly, by the ECOSOC, or by the UNEP Governing Council, as well as through agreements between conferences of parties of environmental agreements, or directly between states. A main purpose of the report, which has been commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment, is to provide input to the preparations for the Rio+20 Conference in 2012.(auth)
This examination of the New American Schools Development Corporation initiative in Bensenville (Illinois) details the controversy over the reform effort and argues that factors such as school governance, local control, and school finance played major roles in determining program outcomes. The importance of political influences in reform efforts is…
Health care systems often face competing goals and priorities, which make reforms challenging. This study analyzed factors influencing the success of a health care system based on urban health insurance reform evolution in China, and offers recommendations for improvement. Findings based on health insurance reform strategies and mechanisms that did or did not work can effectively inform improvement of health insurance system design and practice, and overall health care system performance, including equity, efficiency, effectiveness, cost, finance, access, and coverage, both in China and other countries. This study is the first to use historical comparison to examine the success and failure of China's health care system over time before and after the economic reform in the 1980s. This study is also among the first to analyze the determinants of Chinese health system effectiveness by relating its performance to both technical reasons within the health system and underlying nontechnical characteristics outside the health system, including socioeconomics, politics, culture, values, and beliefs. In conclusion, a health insurance system is successful when it fits its social environment, economic framework, and cultural context, which translates to congruent health care policies, strategies, organization, and delivery. No health system can survive without its deeply rooted socioeconomic environment and cultural context. That is why one society should be cautious not to radically switch from a successful model to an entirely different one over time. There is no perfect health system model suitable for every population-only appropriate ones for specific nations and specific populations at the right place and right time. (Population Health Management 2016;19:291-297).
The Australian Federal and state governments have been introducing neoliberal reforms to the governance of their education systems for a number of decades. One of the most recent programs of reform is the Western Australian Independent Public Schools (IPS) initiative. Similar to decentralizing reforms around the world, the IPS program seeks…
Zhao, Dongchen; Ma, Yunpeng
Through the qualitative interviews of five implementers of primary school mathematics curriculum, this study addresses the ways in which mathematics lessons are evaluated. Results show that each evaluator recognizes different aspects of a "good lesson," however, among all criteria, the design of the lesson plan, realization of the lesson…
Robelen, Erik W.
Photosynthesis may be an unlikely topic to inspire an opera or ballet, but in a 2nd grade classroom in Pikesville, Maryland, the children were asked to use dance to help them learn about that process. Small groups of pupils in this class at Fort Garrison Elementary School brainstormed to come up with dance movements to convey elements of…
Rossmiller, Richard A.; Geske, Terry G.
Reports the results of a case study of the political decision-making process in Wisconsin through which control over educational finance reform was exercised between January, 1972, and August, 1973. (Author)
Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu
Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study confirmed…
Zyburt, Gina M.
Within the past years of Comprehensive School Reform (CSR), educators have begun to be innovative and employ strategies to support teaching and learning by incorporating high standards and inspiring high performance. Unfortunately, student achievement is not increasing and the achievement gap is continuing to widen. The next step for schools is to…
Mills, Martin; Niesche, Richard
The issue of emotions in school leadership is one that has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper we present a case study of the emotional demands upon one principal as she undertakes a programme of school reform. This case study works against the common discourse of "emotional maturity" inherent in an individual…
This paper estimates the impact of the Michigan school finance reform, "Proposal A," on education inputs and test scores. Using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy, I find that school districts in Michigan used the increase in educational spending generated through "Proposal A" to increase teacher salaries and reduce…
Johnson, Amanda Walker
"Turnaround" strategies of educational reform promise that school closure, reconstitution, privatizing, and reopening them will bring miraculous results. Questioning the implications, this article situates "turnaround" strategies locally, following the closure of a predominantly minority high school in 2008, in Austin, Texas.…
This 2-year qualitative study explores the ironies of educational reform in the United States as experienced by three second language learners attending a school attempting to transform itself into a high-performance elementary school in California's Silicon Valley. Drawing on the concept of fast capitalism in a globalized economic work order…
Oliver, T R; Dowell, E B
We review the 1992 policy choices in California for expanding health insurance coverage, focusing on the rejection of an employer mandate by legislators and voters. We analyze how interest-group politics, gubernatorial politics, and national politics shaped those choices. Although public opinion and the shift of organized medicine showed considerable support for extending health insurance coverage, the opposition of liberal and conservative groups and a foundering economy prevented a significant change in public policy. The president's health reform plan appears to address many of the unresolved concerns in California, but overcoming resistance to any kind of mandate will require skilled leadership and negotiation.
King, Elizabeth A.
A qualitative research study of the beliefs of three science teachers about teaching and educational reform was carried out at a restructured high school belonging to the Coalition of Essential Schools (CES), a nationally prominent restructuring movement. One problem of educational reform is to sustain change in the science classroom. A new wave of reform is shifting the focus away from curriculum changes and towards professionalism of teachers empowered to restructure schools. The beliefs of the teachers are key to decisions made in the classroom. The teachers and staff of Metro High School adopted the Ten Common Principles of CES as their guide to restructuring and sustaining change. Changes included increased authority for teachers in shared decision making, increased staff time for professional development, grouping students heterogeneously, grouping students and faculty in teams for extended time periods, and organizing instruction around small group and individual student study (student-centered). The theoretical framework centers on the constructivist theory of learning, particularly Vygotsky's socio-cultural model, and Bakhtin's dialogic function of language. Nespor's belief system model was used to describe the four characteristic features of beliefs: episodic memories, alternativity, existential presumption, and evaluative loading. My research questions were: What memories of teaching have influenced the teachers? What are the teachers' beliefs about the learning environment? What are the teachers' beliefs about their students? What are the teachers' beliefs about student activities? Interviews were the primary data source for the case studies of the three teachers, with additional data from lesson plans, photo-voice, and other artifacts. The teachers shared many common beliefs including that strong peer support is necessary for reform. The teachers' beliefs allied themselves to the majority of the common principles of CES, especially personalization and
Cook, Nicole D.
This dissertation reports findings from two studies that investigated the relationship between professional development and teachers' instructional practices in Science,Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The first program, the Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) focused on K-8 teachers and their use of inquiry-based science instruction in conjunction with curricular modules provided by the ISI program. The second program, Research Goes to School (RGS), focused on high school STEM teachers and their use of problem-based learning (PBL) as they implemented curricular units that they developed themselves at the RGS summer workshop. In-service teachers were recruited from both programs. They were observed teaching their respective curricular materials and interviewed about their experiences in order to investigate the following research questions: 1. How do teachers implement the reform-oriented instructional strategies promoted by their professional development experiences with the ISI or RGS? 2. What are the challenges and supports that influence teachers' use of the reform-oriented instructional strategies promoted by their professional development experiences with the ISI or RGS? To investigate these questions the fidelity of implementation was it was conceptualized by Century, Rudnick, and Freeman (2010) was used as a theoretical framework. The study of the ISI program was conducted during the program's pilot year (2010-11). Five teachers of grades 3 through 6 were recruited from three different schools. Participants were observed as they taught lessons related to the modules and they were interviewed about their experiences. Based on analysis of the data from the observations, using a modified version of the Science Teacher Inquiry Rubric (STIR) (Bodzin & Beerer, 2003), the participants were found to exhibit partial fidelity of implementation to the model of inquiry-based instruction promoted by the ISI. Based on data from the interviews, the
Carol A. Mullen
Full Text Available This study should have immediate utility for the United States and beyond its borders. School-to-work approaches to comprehensive reform are increasingly expected of schools while legislative funding for this purpose gets pulled back. This multisite case study launches the first analysis of the New Millennium High School (NMHS model in Florida. This improvement program relies upon exemplary leadership for preparing students for postsecondary education
Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Cheng, Liming; Kosik, Russell; Mandell, Greg; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Xu, Guo-Tong; Fan, Angela P
A comprehensive search of the literature published between 2001 and 2010 was performed to gain a greater understanding of curricular reform practices at Chinese medical schools. There were 10,948 studies published between 2001 and 2010 that were retrieved from the database. Following preliminary screening, 76 publications from 49 different medical schools were selected. Thirty-one publications regarding clinical medicine curricular reforms were analyzed further. Of the 76 studies, 53 described curricular reforms that were instituted in theoretical courses, 22 described curricular reforms that were instituted in experimental courses, and 1 described curricular reforms that were instituted in a clinical skills training course. Of the 31 clinical medicine publications, 2 described reforms that were implemented for 3-year program medical students, 12 described reforms that were implemented for 5-year program medical students, 6 described reforms that were implemented for 7-year program medical students, and 2 described reforms that were implemented for 8-year program medical students. Currently, the majority of medical schools in China use the discipline-based curriculum model. Thirteen studies described transition to an organ-system-based curriculum model, 1 study described transition to a problem-based curriculum model, and 3 studies described transition to a clinical presentation-based curriculum model. In 7 studies educators decided to retain the discipline-based curriculum model while integrating 1 or several new courses to remedy the weaker aspects of the traditional curriculum, in 7 studies educators decided to integrate the preclinical courses with the clinical courses by using the systemic-integrating curricular system that dilutes classical disciplines and integrates material based on organ systems, and in 2 studies educators limited reforms to clinical courses only. Eight studies discussed the implementation of a formative evaluation system, 4 studies
This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change.
Brown, H.S.; Angel, D. [Clark University, Worcester, MA (USA). George Perkins Marsh Institute
This paper examines the environmental regulatory reform in Poland during the 1990s and uses the findings to consider the extent to which elements of successful regulatory systems are transferable across national boundaries. Drawing on five case studies of privatized firms, a mailed questionnaire, and policy and institutional analysis, it investigates how Poland developed an effective system for managing industrial pollution while also achieving considerable socioeconomic progress. The fundamental legitimacy of the regulators and regulatory process, the availability of information about firms and regulatory intents, and the capacity for case-specific decision-making are among the key explanatory factors. The study also shows how in Poland a good 'fit' between regulatory institutions and policies on one hand and their social context on the other hand has evolved, and how it contributes to the effectiveness of the regulatory system. Industrializing economies can indeed simultaneously pursue environmental protection and socioeconomic welfare, but elements of a proven regulatory system cannot be automatically adopted among countries and cultures. Learning from each other's experience must be sensitive to the cultural and institutional context of each regulatory system. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Thomas, David E.
This executive position paper proposes recommendations for designing reform models between public and private sectors dedicated to improving school reform work in low performing urban high schools. It reviews scholarly research about for-profit educational management organizations, high reliability organizations, American high school reform, and…
Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Tim M.
We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform implemented in 100 low achieving schools serving disadvantaged students in a Canadian province. The results show that while Struggling Schools had a statistically significant positive effect on Grade 3 Reading achievement, d = 0.48…
Jordan, Will J.; McPartland, James M.; Legters, Nettie E.; Balfanz, Robert
Discusses the need for comprehensive reforms in school organization, curriculum and instruction, and professional development to address the problems of large urban high schools. Describes the Talent Development High School with Career Academies model being developed to meet the needs of such schools. (SLD)
Evaluation plays a pivotal role in deciding what the learners learn and what the teachers teach in schools. The paper reports a study of English-language teaching conducted in Delhi State of India that sought to examine the assumption that a change in an evaluation pattern can trigger curricular reform. Did concomitant changes take place in the…
Sheldon, Kennon M.; Biddle, Bruce J.
Examines current debates about educational standards, accountability, and school reform from the perspective of Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory. Research reveals various perils associated with rigid standards, narrow accountability, and tangible sanctions that can debase student and teacher motivation and performance. Alternative…
Streams, Meg; Butler, J. S.; Cowen, Joshua; Fowles, Jacob; Toma, Eugenia F.
Kentucky is a poor, relatively rural state that contrasts greatly with the relatively urban and wealthy states typically the subject of education studies employing large-scale administrative data. For this reason, Kentucky's experience of major school finance and curricular reform is highly salient for understanding teacher labor market dynamics.…
While heads were spinning, policy watchers seemed genuinely perplexed by New York City's Mayor de Blasio's education opinions. De Blasio opposed many of Bloomberg's reform efforts despite the achievement gains realized by the nation's largest school district during the last 12 years. Yet on close reading, de Blasio's nine-page education plan…
Kelly, Thomas F.
After almost three decades of school reform, student achievement nationally is about where it was when it started, and student behavior has declined dramatically. Numbers of dropouts, especially in cities and among the poor and minorities, have gotten much higher. Yet many billions of dollars have been spent; countless professionals have carried…
Today's educational reform proposals are undermined by four dilemmas. First, the public may demand visible results before it will provide the funding needed to achieve them. Second, higher academic standards will increase failure rates, while more attainable standards will inadequately educate students. Third, the current focus on high schools may…
Borman, Geoffrey D.; Hewes, Gina M.; Overman, Laura T.; Brown, Shelly
This meta-analysis reviews research on the achievement effects of comprehensive school reform (CSR) and summarizes the specific effects of 29 widely implemented models. There are limitations on the overall quantity and quality of the research base, but the overall effects of CSR appear promising. The combined quantity, quality, and statistical…
Rousseau Anderson, Celia
While mathematics education research has often focused at the level of the classroom (Rousseau Anderson & Tate, 2008), there are emerging calls for attention to shift from individual classrooms to consider the process of reform at the school or district level. Investigating the role of the institution and conditions of the organization becomes…
The role of the teacher in the modern school system is increasingly important and complex. A teacher needs a high level of professional knowledge and autonomous decision making when faced with professional challenges. Educational reform in Ghana like any other parts of the world calls for the type of teacher who is ...
Štefančínová, Iveta; Valovičová, Ä½ubomíra
Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is one of the most outstanding approaches in foreign language teaching. This teaching method has promising prospects for the future of modern education as teaching subject and foreign languages are combined to offer a better preparation for life in Europe, especially when the mobility is becoming a highly significant factor of everyday life. We realized a project called Foreign languages in popularizing science at grammar school. Within the project five teachers with approbation subjects of English, French, German and Physics attended the methodological courses abroad. The teachers applied the gained experience in teaching and linking science teaching with the teaching of foreign languages. Outputs of the project (e.g. English-German-French-Slovak glossary of natural science terminology, student activity sheets, videos with natural science orientation in a foreign language, physical experiments in foreign languages, multimedia fairy tales with natural contents, posters of some scientists) are prepared for the CLIL-oriented lessons. We collected data of the questionnaire for students concerning attitude towards CLIL. The questionnaire for teachers showed data about the attitude, experience, and needs of teachers employing CLIL in their lessons.
Steen, Sam; Noguera, Pedro A.
This article describes a broader, bolder approach to education reform aimed at addressing the social and economic disadvantages that hinder student achievement. Central principles of this approach to reform include the provision of supports such as early childhood and preschool programs, after-school and summer enrichment programs, parent…
Barth, Roland S.
Describes the preoccupation of U.S. schools with "list logic": a conception of educational improvement that relies on the identification and prescription of a myriad of characteristics of effective schools, administrators, and teachers. Suggests reasons for this phenomenon and advocates the alternative of "communities of…
McDougall, Dennis; Saunders, William M.; Goldenberg, Claude
This article reports key findings from a process-focused external evaluation that compared a subset of "Getting Results" project schools and comparison schools in order to understand the dynamics of school-wide reform efforts at these primary schools. Findings shed light on the "black box" of school reform and illuminate the…
Guthrie, James W.
Article examined the remedies available to states in the wake of Serrano and its progeny. As well, it analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of "district power equalizing" and "full state assumption" as alternative methods of financing schools. (Editor/RK)
Teo, Tang Wee; Osborne, Margery
In this paper, we present a microanalysis of a specialized STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) high school teacher's experience of self-initiated science inquiry curriculum reform. We examine the meanings of these two constructs: inquiry curriculum and curriculum change through the process lens of interactions, actions, and interpretations. Symbolic interactionism is the theoretical framework we used to frame our analysis of how this teacher, Darren Daley (a pseudonym) and various stakeholders purposefully and strategically engaged in "face-work" and act out lines of actions to advocate or oppose curriculum change. Symbols are used in this world of face-to-face encounters to communicate, imply, and assert, meanings through socially flexible and adjustable processes. We scrutinize how Daley (un)consciously engaged all of these to defend his decisions, actions, and outcomes and "look" to others as doing inquiry reform. The meanings of such work are not intrinsically driven or reactions to psychological and extraneous factors and forces, but emergent through interactions. The data collection methods include interviews with Daley, school administrators, students, and parents, lesson observations in Daley's class, and gathering of school website pages, brochures, and curriculum materials. We represent data in narratives describing storied history, voices, interactions, anecdotal accounts from individuals' experiences, and interpretations. The analysis and findings illuminate the nature of teacher agency—how it is reclaimed, sustained, reinforced, contested, exercised, and modified in more nuanced ways, hence offering an alternative lens to theorizing and empirically analyzing this construct.
McEnroe, James D.
The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…
Sofo, Francesco; Fitzgerald, Robert; Jawas, Umiati
The paper reviews the research on instructional leadership and, through identifying problems emerging in Indonesian school reform, suggests some sustainable solutions. There are some discrepancies in the processes of Indonesia's school reform, and the objectives of the national education reform do not seem to have been reflected in the actual…
This paper is concerned with the management of health system changes aimed at substantially increasing the access to safe and effective health services. It argues that an effective health sector relies on trust-based relationships between users, providers and funders of health services, and that one of the major challenges governments face is to construct institutional arrangements within which these relationships can be embedded. It presents the case of China, which is implementing an ambitious health reform, drawing on a series of visits to rural counties by the author over a 10-year period. It illustrates how the development of reform strategies has been a response both to the challenges arising from the transition to a market economy and the result of actions by different actors, which have led to the gradual creation of increasingly complex institutions. The overall direction of change has been strongly influenced by the efforts made by the political leadership to manage a transition to a modern economy which provides at least some basic benefits to all. The paper concludes that the key lessons for other countries from China's experience with health system reform are less about the detailed design of specific interventions than about its approach to the management of institution-building in a context of complexity and rapid change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Although hospital reforms are being advocated internationally as part of a solution to hospital management problems in developing countries, studies have shown that they do give rise to some challenges. A study was undertaken that used in-depth interviews, focus group discussion and document review to examine hospital reforms. The article examines the effects of reforms on the management of Level II public hospitals in Tanzania and documents the related challenges and lessons Learnt. It is shown that hospital reforms have mixed effects in resource-strained hospitals, and that hospital reform actions may have replaced the bureaucratic inefficiencies associated with hospitals being managed from the central level (MoHSW) with the equally bureaucratic inefficiencies that characterize the management of these hospitals from a supposedly local level, the office of the Regional Administrative Secretary (RAS). Managing hospitals from this level seems to cause many hospital management problems to be left unattended.
This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…
This book's central thesis is that the relationship between school managers and teachers predicts the type of education offered children. That is, education can be seen as a handing down of information, or it can be viewed as a cooperative affair. The text is divided into two parts: 1895-1925 and 1961-1995. Chapter 1, which discusses America's…
Retna, Kala S.; Ng, Pak Tee
In Singapore, "decentralization" and "school-based reforms" are key words within the current education reform agenda. This article argues that a key success factor in this agenda is transformational leadership in school. With more autonomy given to the school, transformational leadership at the school level will facilitate the…
Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle
Background: In 2009, the Obama Administration announced its intention to rapidly "turn around" 5,000 of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To do so, it relied on the School Improvement Grant (SIG) program to provide temporary funding for states and schools, and to mandate drastic, school-level reforms. Most of these reforms require…
Full Text Available This paper is based on the premise that Islamic education plays a significant role in producing an integrated personality of young generation in order to fulfil the needs of present society. This study is important to address the key educational changes in pedagogy, curricular and teaching approach that relate directly to the effectiveness of the implementation of Islamic Education in Islamic schools. Questions raised in this writing is whether and how Muslim schools have transformed to meet the changes and challenges of the globalizing world and what should be done to ensure Islamic schools meet current needs. Thus, it argues that there is a need for reform in contemporary Islamic schools with particular reference to the changes in the curriculum, teaching style, role of Islamic schools and gender participation. The paper considers the possibility of integrating new perspectives across the curriculum and outlines the integrated approach to ensure the quality and excellence of their graduates.
Dittmar, Belinda Corazon; And Others
Charter schools incorporate the focus of magnet schools but often go beyond their academic specialization to more social goals. They can operate at both elementary and secondary levels, although they are always quite small. The greatest difference, however, between charter schools and other public schools is their status as a bridge between public…
Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.
Discusses the history of single-sex schools and analyzes the legal status of these schools, reviewing constitutional dimensions of gender-based discrimination and the leading cases that have been litigated on these issues. Offers reflections on why single-sex schools are not likely to hold a major place in the future of urban U.S. public schools.…
Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.
In this paper, we argue that teachers have an opportunity to take on leadership roles in technology-rich schools and districts. Based on data collected during a year-long project to investigate award-winning schools and districts, we used observations, interviews and focus groups, and document analysis to glean lessons learned from leaders and…
International Reading Association, Newark, DE.
The Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program is a new initiative that could affect International Reading Association members in the United States--but will benefit only those who take advantage of it. The purpose of the CSR initiative is to provide financial incentives for schools to develop comprehensive school reforms. Funding is available to…
Theoharis, George; Causton, Julie
It is of great importance to maximize access to general education for all students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders create inclusive schools for all students--inclusive school reform. Inclusive school reform can result in all students with disabilities being placed into general education settings (including students with…
Recent reforms of high school education in Korea have focused on transforming the uniform and standardized system into a deregulated and diversified system that has an emphasis on school choice and competition. Situating the high school diversification policy in the context of the recent controversy of the neoliberal educational reform, this study…
Hourigan, Ryan M.
Arts education and special education within public schools have faced similar challenges in the wake of school reform. Services and programming have been reduced, leaving a larger gap in resources and accessibility. Because of loopholes in policy, new reform initiatives such as vouchers and charter schools will continue to marginalize students…
Rollow, Sharon G.; Bennett, Michael
Most studies of the early implementation of Chicago (Illinois) school reform have focused on the creation and early functioning of the Local School Councils (LSCs). This study is concerned with understanding the resources that different school communities have to embrace the LSC reform, the time frame needed to promote educational change, and the…
David, Jane L.; Cuban, Larry
"Cutting Through the Hype: The Essential Guide to School Reform" is a revised, expanded, and updated version of the classic work by Jane L. David and Larry Cuban. It offers balanced analyses of 23 currently popular school reform strategies, from teacher performance pay and putting mayors in charge to turnaround schools and data-driven instruction.…
The widely accepted notion that the management of resources in schools involves merely strategic decisions about the deployment of finances, staff, and materials must be contested. The school effectiveness movement ignores the social and political context of schools and, through emphasis upon superficial managerial matters, teaches pupils to…
Full Text Available This study aims to describe and interpret the implementation of school-based lesson study in SDN I Kretek. This study uses the qualitative research. The data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation, field notes, and documentation. The data validity was determined through sources and techniques triangulation. The data were analyzed using the Interactive Analysis Model from Miles and Huberman. The results show: (1 the planning of school-based lesson study program at SDN 1 Kretek has been implemented from the beginning of the school year 2014/2015 by establishing school-based lesson study team. This team is responsible for planning, managing, and evaluating school-based lesson study program at SDN 1 Kretek, (2 school-based lesson study at SDN 1 Kretek is implemented in three phases, namely planning, implementation, and reflection, and (3 The evaluation of lesson study is conducted by each teacher who has conducted the open class and conducted thoroughly with a meeting by a team of school-based lesson study SDN 1 Kretek at the end of the school year.
Individual interest in school science lessons can be defined as a relatively stable and enduring personal emotion comprising affective and behavioural reactions to events in the regular science lessons at school. Little research has compared the importance of different factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons. The…
Bass, Lisa R.
The author discusses the boarding school model as a schooling alternative to improve life chances for disadvantaged youth, particularly African American youth, by positively meeting their social and educational needs. Bourdieu, Coleman, and other social scientists purported that these needs can be better met by exposing students to social and…
This article focuses on the school district's role in implementing Comprehensive School Reform (CSR). Research shows that effective district support for CSR varies from district to district. This is due, in part, to the fact that many prior models bypassed the district, operating under the belief that reform would be more effective if it targeted…
Dee, Thomas; Dizon-Ross, Elise
States that received federal waivers to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act were required to implement reforms in designated "Focus Schools" that contribute to achievement gaps. In this study, we examine the performance effects of such "differentiated accountability" reforms in the state of Louisiana. The Focus School reforms…
Chilton, Bradley; Chwialkowski, Paul
Is the U.S. Supreme Court inviting litigants to take aim at unraveling injunctions in institutional reform litigation--especially consent decrees in the schools? In "Horne v. Flores" (2009), the court remanded a 17-year-old school reform case to a federal judge with orders to look beyond consent decrees on financing, reducing class…
Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2005
The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement invited Ann Chafin to share her thoughts and ideas about sustaining school reform. Chafin, chief of Program Improvement and Family Support Branch of the Maryland State Department of Education, was a speaker at the annual Institute for CSR State Coordinators held May 9-10 in Washington,…
This study examined the influence of media framing on attitudes toward charter school reform. Participants in an Internet-based experiment were presented, at random, with one of three manipulated news articles framing charter school reform as (a) supportive of values such as freedom, choice, and innovation; (b) conflicting with values such as…
Activism has the potential for reform (Howard, 1976). Unlike previous studies on high school activism this study places a primary focus on underground newspapers and argues that underground newspapers allowed high school students to function as activists as well as educational reformers. In order to make this argument, this study examined over 150…
Legters, Nettie E.; Balfanz, Robert; Jordan, Will J.; McPartland, James M.
This book offers an alternative to current reform efforts, the talent development approach, detailing organizational, curricular, and instructional strategies that provide practitioners with a blueprint for whole school reform. The book presents the story of what happened in urban high schools when this approach was implemented. There are eight…
Carbonaro, William; Covay, Elizabeth
The authors examine whether standards based accountability reforms of the past two decades have closed the achievement gap among public and private high school students. They analyzed data from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS) to examine sector differences in high school achievement in the era of standards based reforms. The authors found…
Examines origins and potential effects of liberalizing reforms in Japanese secondary education in light of British experiences with policies such as local school management and school choice. Argues that Japanese reform involves necessary diversification of curriculum and pedagogic practices, but administrative shifts toward deregulation and…
Sommers, Benjamin D; Arntson, Emily; Kenney, Genevieve M; Epstein, Arnold M
Background The Affordable Care Act (ACA) dramatically expands Medicaid in 2014 in participating states. Meanwhile, six states have already expanded Medicaid since 2010 to some or all of the low-income adults targeted under health reform. We undertook an in-depth exploration of these six “early-expander” states—California, Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Washington—through interviews with high-ranking Medicaid officials. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 high-ranking Medicaid officials in six states and analyzed the interviews using qualitative methods. Interviews explored enrollment outreach, stakeholder involvement, impact on beneficiaries, utilization and costs, implementation challenges, and potential lessons for 2014. Two investigators independently analyzed interview transcripts and iteratively refined the codebook until reaching consensus. Results We identified several themes. First, these expansions built upon pre-existing state-funded insurance programs for the poor. Second, predictions about costs and enrollment were challenging, indicating the uncertainty in projections for 2014. Other themes included greater than anticipated need for behavioral health services in the expansion population, administrative challenges of expansions, and persistent barriers to enrollment and access after expanding eligibility—though officials overall felt the expansions increased access for beneficiaries. Finally, political context—support or opposition from stakeholders and voters—plays a critical role in shaping the success of Medicaid expansions. Conclusions Early Medicaid expansions under the ACA offer important lessons to federal and state policymakers as the 2014 expansions approach. While the context of each state’s expansion is unique, key shared experiences were significant implementation challenges and opportunities for expanding access to needed services. PMID:24834369
This study was undertaken to investigate leadership practices for Inclusive Education (IE) reform in primary schools in Bangladesh. Specifically, the study investigated leadership practice structures, views of school leaders about the accountability approach in primary schools, school leaders’ opinions on challenges to implementing IE and possible strategies to address the identified challenges. The study also explored the relationships between school variables, teachers’ demographic variabl...
Jones, Sally Ann
This article proposes a pedagogic innovation in teacher education by articulating a method for writing learning outcomes for English language lessons in multilingual school contexts. The argument for this approach is founded on curriculum studies; however, the practice also draws specifically on applied psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic…
Granger, David A.
This article discusses what David Berliner (2005) has called the perverse "spectacle of fear" (208) surrounding issues of teacher quality and accountability in contemporary school reform. Drawing principally on the critical semiotics of Roland Barthes' essay, "The World of Wrestling" (1957), it examines the way that this…
Fealy, Gerard M; McNamara, Martin S; Geraghty, Ruth
The aim was to examine, critically, 19th century hospital sanitary reform with reference to theories about infection and contagion. In the nineteenth century, measures to control epidemic diseases focused on providing clean water, removing waste and isolating infected cases. These measures were informed by the ideas of sanitary reformers like Chadwick and Nightingale, and hospitals were an important element of sanitary reform. Informed by the paradigmatic tradition of social history, the study design was a historical analysis of public health policy. Using the methods of historical research, documentary primary sources, including official reports and selected hospital archives and related secondary sources, were consulted. Emerging theories about infection were informing official bodies like the Board of Superintendence of Dublin Hospitals in their efforts to improve hospital sanitation. The Board secured important reforms in hospital sanitation, including the provision of technically efficient sanitary infrastructure. Public health measures to control epidemic infections are only as effective as the state of knowledge of infection and contagion and the infrastructure to support sanitary measures. Today, public mistrust about the safety of hospitals is reminiscent of that of 150 years ago, although the reasons are different and relate to a fear of contracting antimicrobial-resistant infections. A powerful historical lesson from this study is that resistance to new ideas can delay progress and improved sanitary standards can allay public mistrust. In reforming hospital sanitation, policies and regulations were established--including an inspection body to monitor and enforce standards--the benefits of which provide lessons that resonate today. Such practices, especially effective independent inspection, could be adapted for present-day contexts and re-instigated where they do not exist. History has much to offer contemporary policy development and practice reform and
These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. Presented are plans for teaching 23 probability lessons in the elementary grades at Hancock School, Lexington, Massachusetts. The discovery approach was utilized by the…
Ilkiw, Jan E; Nelson, Richard W; Watson, Johanna L; Conley, Alan J; Raybould, Helen E; Chigerwe, Munashe; Boudreaux, Karen
Beginning in 2005, the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program at the University of California underwent major curricular review and reform. To provide information for others that follow, we have documented our process and commented on factors that were critical to success, as well as factors we found surprising, difficult, or problematic. The review and reform were initiated by the Executive Committee, who led the process and commissioned the committees. The planning stage took 6 years and involved four faculty committees, while the implementation stage took 5 years and was led by the Curriculum Committee. We are now in year 2 of the institutionalizing stage and no longer refer to our reform as the "new curriculum." The change was driven by a desire to improve the curriculum and the learning environment of the students by aligning the delivery of information with current teaching methodologies and implementing adult learning strategies. We moved from a department- and discipline-based curriculum to a school-wide integrated block curriculum that emphasized student-centered, inquiry-based learning. A limit was placed on in-class time to allow students to apply classroom knowledge by solving problems and cases. We found the journey long and arduous, requiring tremendous commitment and effort. In the change process, we learned the importance of adequate planning, leadership, communication, and a reward structure for those doing the "heavy lifting." Specific to our curricular design, we learned the importance of the block leader role, of setting clear expectations for students, and of partnering with students on the journey.
Phaikhumnam, Wuttichai; Yuenyong, Chokchai
The study aimed to develop primary school science lesson plan based on inquiry cycle (5Es) through lesson study. The study focused on the development of 4 primary school science lesson plans of force and motion for Grade 3 students in KKU Demonstration Primary School (Suksasart), first semester of 2015 academic year. The methodology is mixed method. The Inthaprasitha (2010) lesson study cycle was implemented in group of KKU Demonstration Primary School. Instruments of reflection of lesson plan developing included participant observation, meeting and reflection report, lesson plan and other document. The instruments of examining students' learning include classroom observation and achievement test. Data was categorized from these instruments to find the issues of changing and improving the good lesson plan of Thai primary school science learning. The findings revealed that teachers could develop the lesson plans through lesson study. The issues of changing and improving were disused by considering on engaging students related to societal issues, students' prior knowledge, scientific concepts for primary school students, and what they learned from their changing. It indicated that the Lesson Study allowed primary school science teachers to share ideas and develop ideas to improve the lesson. The study may have implications for Thai science teacher education through Lesson Study.
Adnett, Nick; Davies, Peter
Economic analysis of the impact of recent schooling reforms in England designed to promote competition or cooperation between schools. Outlines the theoretical relationships between school competition and cooperation and school effectiveness. Briefly describes the development of policy in England and analyzes the interaction between the incentives…
Progressive education has been an article of educational faith in Papua New Guinea during the last 50 years but the best available evidence indicates that major reforms to formalistic curriculum and teaching in primary and secondary classrooms have failed during this period despite large-scale professional, administrative and financial support. In…
Shipps, Dorothy; Fowlkes, Elizabeth; Peltzman, Alissa
School reform involves the public: its expectation of participation and its support for a reform agenda. In theory, the press influences both. To explore this link, we compare education coverage in four press outlets, two each in Chicago and Cleveland. Articles and editors are interrogated for (1) style of journalism and (2) assumptions about the…
Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.
This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and…
Baker, Bruce D.; Welner, Kevin G.
Background/Context: School finance litigation has often prompted funding reforms, but what happens as a result is the subject of considerable dispute. Purpose: This article explores design problems encountered in studies examining the nature and effects of those reforms. Analysis: After describing the development and current status of school…
An educational reform effort to implement a comprehensive school act in British Columbia (Canada) is analyzed with a focus on some sociotechnical and political aspects. An overview of the content, background, and implementation of the reform effort is followed by identification of seven contradictions inherent in the plan. Contradictions are as…
Previous research in the area of resistance has inadequately described opposition to change within-school reform initiatives with a social justice orientation. A lack of attention to, and agreement on, the nature and causes of resistance may explain why so many equity-minded educational reforms fail to be sustained. This article highlights various…
Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork at a community-based organization (CBO) engaged in parent organizing for urban school reform, this paper examines how organizers engaged with the imperatives of neoliberal reform and the broader neoliberal policy context. It highlights organizers' agency but also shows how hegemonic discourse constrained their…
These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of The Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. Presented are plans for teaching 15 inequality lessons for above average first grade students. The discovery approach is utilized by the teacher in order to involve…
Johansen, Danielle Louise Nørager; Skovgaard, Thomas; Runge Larsen, Lisbeth
Introduction: In August 2014 the biggest reshaping of primary schools in forty years was implemented in Denmark. From the very early stages of the reform process, there was broad agreement among key stakeholders that children and young people should be more physically active during the school day....... Therefore, it is part of the reform program that physical activity (PA) form part of the syllabus for all year groups at primary schools corresponding on average to 45 minutes per day. Methods: The reform states, that the 45 minutes of daily, school-based PA must serve a pedagogical purpose – e.g. including...... to implement PA as part of the school day: How to include brain breaks in formal teaching sessions, making recess more active and using the physical school environment to promote PA are some of the initiatives currently in play in Denmark. Results: Available data indicates that Danish schools have acted...
Yudof, Mark G.; Morgan, Daniel C.
An historical account is given of movements toward educational finance reform in Texas, culminating in the Rodriquez v. San Antonio Independent School District case and its aftermath. The role of political pressures applied by various interest groups is traced and the prospects for future reform assessed. (EH)
Kaniuka, Theodore Stefan
As the concept of distributed leadership and its concomitant organizational structures become more prevalent in schools, studying how teacher capacity can be enhanced and can be used as a catalyst for reform is important. This article documents the nature of how the implementation of a research-validated reform influenced what teachers thought…
Superfine, Benjamin Michael
Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…
North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.
Comprehensive school reform (CSR) focuses on reorganizing and revitalizing entire schools, rather than on implementing individual programs. The idea behind CSR is that schools cannot educate all students to high levels unless all the education system's components work together toward a common goal. Choosing a CSR model can be difficult and…
Reyes, Vicente Chua, Jr.; Kheng, Catherine Chua Siew
Using qualitative research inquiry methods, this inquiry attempts to explore how school stakeholders cope with incessant and seemingly endless transformations in schools. The central phenomenon to be studied focuses on how school stakeholders "make sense" of educational reform. In order to do this, an exploratory case study of two target…
Keaveny, Stacy M.
Federal and state guidelines for school reform dominate the landscape of public education. Florida and its school districts, as a Race to the Top state, are in the process of fully implementing a value-added model of teacher evaluation. Effective school leaders are calling upon the theoretical framework of transformational, visionary and…
The author of this paper investigates the relevance of Waldorf education for public urban school reform. Based on analysis of survey data from over 500 graduates of private U.S. Waldorf schools, review of documents from the Gates Foundation, and staff-interview and student-achievement data from four public Waldorf-methods schools, she develops…
Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max
This study makes a comparison between what literature on Japanese Lesson Study suggests are key elements of a good mathematics lesson and what junior high school mathematics teachers in Japan value in planning their lessons. The teachers' strong consensus in their endorsements of these key elements explains why Japanese teachers strongly support…
David Daniel Meyer
Full Text Available This quantitative study examines the correlation between international student achievement test outcomes and national competitiveness rankings. Student achievement data are derived from a variation-adjusted, common-scale metric data set for 74 countries that have participated in any of the international mathematics and science achievement tests since 1964. National competitiveness data are taken from the 2014–15 Global Competitiveness Index (GCI published by the World Economic Forum. A Spearman’s rank-order correlation was run to assess the relationship between student performance on international achievement tests and the competitiveness of nations. For all nations, there was a moderate positive correlation between student performance on international achievement tests and the competitiveness of a nation, rs(98=0.688, p<0.001. However, this relationship disappeared among the 18 most competitive nations, the cohort to which the United States belongs. The relationship also disappeared among the 18 nations with the highest achievement scores on international tests. Student performance on international assessments appears to have no relationship to the competitiveness of the United States. This study has implications for legislators and public education leaders who want to maximize the return on investments in education. Education dollars and reform initiatives should be diverted toward addressing poverty, funding schools equitably, alleviating social stress and violence, and supporting young families and students of immigrant families.
This article presents findings from the School Reform and Student Diversity Study, a 4-year project to locate and analyze schools offering exemplary science and mathematics programs to middle school students with limited proficiency in English. In contrast to the vast majority of schools, the four schools described in this article give these students access to stimulating science and mathematics curricula by instructing them either in the students' primary language or in English using shelter...
Tienken, Christopher H.
Education reform policies harvested from neoliberalism, social Darwinism, consumerism, and free-market ideologies have begun to replace the pragmatic progressivism of the pre-World War II era. In this article, I use three federal and state education reform policies and programs--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards Initiative, and…
Sher, Jonathan P.
Self-interested political, corporate, and education leaders have undermined recent West Virginia court decisions mandating educational reform. Three implications are: (1) principals, teachers, parents, and students must be equal partners in the educaiton reform process; (2) a constituency for rural children is needed; and (3) rural educators must…
Wood, Geoffrey; Dow, Stephen
Despite operating a delivery programme for RES-E since 1990, UK targets and policy goals have not been achieved. In response, the Government reformed the RO. This article re-examines UK renewable energy policy by analysing the internal and external failures of the various mechanisms to determine if Government has learnt from previous experience in reforming the RO. Government did not learn from their own actions during the NFFO/RO transition, evidenced by high-levels of similarity in internal/external failures. The reformed-RO is expected to significantly increase deployment, has provided a 'renewables package' by comprehensively addressing both internal/external failures but major internal failures (price/financial risk) still remain, resulting in contiguous failures over two decades and two mechanism changes (NFFO, RO, RO/reformed-RO). Success will again be heavily dependent on a select few technologies and new/untested measures to combat external failures. Mechanism-extension to 2037 is probably the single most important factor underlying potential deployment increases. However, introducing a FIT-like system via the sheer number of 'bolt-on' reforms to counter policy failures indicates loss of direction and clarity. Overall, although Government appears to have learnt some of its lessons from the past two-decades, significant doubt remains whether renewable energy policy objectives will be met via the latest mechanism change. - Research highlights: → Review of UK renewable energy policy learning behaviour via the 2009 Renewable Obligation reform. → Applies key lessons and analysis of NFFO/RO, RO reform and possible FIT schemes. → Finds UK Government has learnt some lessons from the past but some failures remain contiguous over two decades. → In contrast to previous changes, 2009 reform provided a comprehensive reform package. → Significant doubt remains whether objectives will be met via latest mechanism change.
Shaw, Marta A.
This article investigates two competing explanations of why reforms associated with the Bologna process brought disappointing results in Ukraine. The lack of anticipated benefits from the reforms may stem either from a flawed implementation of the Bologna process, or from more fundamental differences between the models of higher education…
Sacks, Audrey; Rahman, Erman; Turkewitz, Joel; Buehler, Michael; Saleh, Imad
A central policy of the Government of Indonesia's strategy for enhancing its country's economic and social development is to develop infrastructure and expand service delivery. Public procurement reform is a key component of this policy. Despite the decentralization of financial responsibility and authority to relatively autonomous local level governments, procurement reform in Indonesia i...
The drive to improve quality in the education sector is similar to that in health care, and lessons from the schools system are relevant to nursing leadership. This article discusses these shared traits, and details how school improvement was achieved in London and how a model of learning-centred leadership helped to transform pupil attainment in schools that had been performing poorly. Parallels are drawn between the education inspection system undertaken by Ofsted and the hospital inspections undertaken by the Care Quality Commission, and between the practice discipline-based managerial roles of nurse directors and head teachers. The article suggests that a learning-centred approach to improving the quality of patient care is needed, with a focus on the education and continuing professional development of staff.
Rees-Punia, Erika; Holloway, Alicia; Knauft, David; Schmidt, Michael D
Recess and physical education time continue to diminish, creating a need for additional physical activity opportunities within the school environment. The use of school gardens as a teaching tool in elementary science and math classes has the potential to increase the proportion of time spent active throughout the school day. Teachers from 4 elementary schools agreed to teach 1 math or science lesson per week in the school garden. Student physical activity time was measured with ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers on 3 garden days and 3 no-garden days at each school. Direct observation was used to quantify the specific garden-related tasks during class. The proportion of time spent active and sedentary was compared on garden and no-garden days. Seventy-four children wore accelerometers, and 75 were observed (86% participation). Children spent a significantly larger proportion of time active on garden days than no-garden days at 3 of the 4 schools. The proportion of time spent sedentary and active differed significantly across the 4 schools. Teaching lessons in the school garden may increase children's physical activity and decrease sedentary time throughout the school day and may be a strategy to promote both health and learning.
Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.
This paper discusses comprehensive school reform (CSR), which accepts the importance of standards and accountability but adds to these strategies for introducing innovations in curriculum, instruction, school organization, governance, parent interactions, and other core features of practice. The paper reviews research on the nature and quality of…
Morice, Linda C.
This paper examines the role of place in the reform efforts of two teachers who established Miss White's Home School in Concord, Massachusetts (USA). Flora and Mary White rebelled against the prevailing industrial model of instruction in tax-supported schools where they taught. As a solution, they moved to Concord--a nonconformist town with a…
Morse, Timothy E.
Four years following the decimation of the New Orleans Public Schools by Hurricane Katrina the city has been described as the center of a unique urban public school reform effort. This effort is a combination of events that transpired just before the storm and those that have occurred as a result of it. In particular some claim that the emerging…
Critiques the views of E.D. Hirsch, highlighting limitations of his book, "The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them." The paper acknowledges Hirsch's influence on public opinion about school reform, but details flaws and errors Hirsch makes, asking foundational scholars in teacher education to better prepare students to respond to…
Craig, Cheryl J.
In this article, a parallel is drawn between Steven Hawking's use of common and novel metaphors in his evolving explanation of the theory of the universe and the similar use of common and novel metaphors by educators in four school contexts attempting to illuminate their experiences of school reform storied and restoried over time. The epistemic…
Bu, Yuhua; Li, Jiacheng
Since the 1980s, China has entered an era of transformation which has extended its reach to education and school reforms. The "New Basic Education" (NBE) was born in this era and implemented by the East China Normal University together with schools around the country. NBE aims at nurturing the active, healthy development of a new…
Evans, Ronald W.
As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…
Mette, Ian M.; Scribner, Jay P.
This case was written for school leaders, specifically building-level principals and central office administrators attempting to implement school turnaround reform efforts. Often, leaders who embark on this type of organizational change work in intense environments that produce high levels of pressure to demonstrate improvement in student…
This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s,…
The renewed commitment to school autonomy reform in Australia is based on the view that it will drive up academic standards. There remains, however, little conclusive evidence to support this view. Simply instating the structural changes to bring about greater autonomy for schools within public education systems across the world has not led…
Porter, Kathleen; Soper, Stephanie
This report reviews efforts to reform urban schools, focusing on initiatives in Tennessee and California as examples from which distric leaders may draw useful lessons. The report suggests that comprehensive school reform (CSR) offers promise to struggling urban schools by focusing on transforming the academic climate, school culture, and…
Individual interest in school science lessons can be defined as a relatively stable and enduring personal emotion comprising affective and behavioural reactions to events in the regular science lessons at school. Little research has compared the importance of different factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons. The present study aimed to address this gap, using a mixed methods design. Qualitative interview data were collected from 60 Hong Kong junior secondary school students, who were asked to describe the nature of their interest in science lessons and the factors to which they attribute this. Teacher interviews, parent interviews, and classroom observations were conducted to triangulate student interview data. Five factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons were identified: situational influences in science lessons, individual interest in science, science self-concept, grade level, and gender. Quantitative data were then collected from 591 students using a questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was applied to test a hypothesised model, which provided an acceptable fit to the student data. The strongest factor affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons was science self-concept, followed by individual interest in science and situational influences in science lessons. Grade level and gender were found to be nonsignificant factors. These findings suggest that teachers should pay special attention to the association between academic self-concept and interest if they want to motivate students to learn science at school.
Moltke, A. von; McKee, C.; Morgan, T.
This book, which is based on the work carried out by the International Energy Agency and UNEP, explores the potential impacts of energy subsidies and provides guidelines for policy makers on how to implement reform of energy subsides. The background on energy subsidies is traced and an analytical framework is presented covering defining and measuring energy subsidies, the size of the subsidies, and analysis of the impact of subsidies and their reform. Energy subsidies in OECD countries, Czech and Slovak Republics, Russia, India, Indonesia, Korea, Iran and Senegal are examined along with the impact of removing energy subsidies in Chile, the findings of country case studies, and the design and implementation of energy subsidies reforms. Methodological approaches to analysing the economic, environmental and social effects of energy subsidy reform are considered in the Annex
Davis, Heather A.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Poirier, Ryan R.
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in students' relational engagement across the transition to high school in three schools reformed to improve the quality of student-teacher relationships. In order to analyze this data we employed latent growth curve (LGC) modeling techniques (n = 637). We ran three LGC models on three…
Jia CUI; Shaomin HUANG; Gerald RAMEY
Following China’s recent economic growth and healthcare reform, medical services quickly merged into the market economy. The burden of healthcare expense on the Chinese people has become a serious political issue. This research project reviews the changes in health expenditures made during the last two decades. This paper explores the cause of this rapid change in the healthcare sector and analyzes the corresponding statistics during the entire economic reform period. In addition, the paper a...
Free Trade and Tariffs: Level III, Unit 2, Lesson 1; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism: Lesson 2; Nationalism vs. Internationalism: Lesson 3. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.
Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.
This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Free Trade and Tariffs; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism; and Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)
Hort, Krishna; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Dayal, Prarthna
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how and to what extent the design and implementation of universal health coverage (UHC) reforms have been influenced by the governance arrangements of health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); and how governments in these countries have or have not responded to the challenges of governance for UHC. Design/methodology/approach Comparative case study analysis of three Asian countries with substantial experience of UHC reforms (Thailand, Vietnam and China) was undertaken using data from published studies and grey literature. Studies included were those which described the modifications and adaptations that occurred during design and implementation of the UHC programme, the actors and institutions involved and how these changes related to the governance of the health system. Findings Each country adapted the design of their UHC programmes to accommodate their specific institutional arrangements, and then made further modifications in response to issues arising during implementation. The authors found that these modifications were often related to the impacts on governance of the institutional changes inherent in UHC reforms. Governments varied in their response to these governance impacts, with Thailand prepared to adopt new governance modes (which the authors termed as an "adaptive" response), while China and Vietnam have tended to persist with traditional hierarchical governance modes ("reactive" responses). Originality/value This study addresses a gap in current knowledge on UHC reform, and finds evidence of a complex interaction between substantive health sector reform and governance reform in the LMIC context in Asia, confirming recent similar observations on health reforms in high-income countries.
Obermann, Konrad; Jowett, Matthew R; Taleon, Juanito D; Mercado, Melinda C
International technical and financial cooperation for health-sector reform is usually a one-way street: concepts, tools and experiences are transferred from more to less developed countries. Seldom, if ever, are experiences from less developed countries used to inform discussions on reforms in the developed world. There is, however, a case to be made for considering experiences in less developed countries. We report from the Philippines, a country with high population growth, slow economic development, a still immature democracy and alleged large-scale corruption, which has embarked on a long-term path of health care and health financing reforms. Based on qualitative health-related action research between 2002 and 2005, we have identified three crucial factors for achieving progress on reforms in a challenging political environment: (1) strive for local solutions, (2) make use of available technology and (3) work on the margins towards pragmatic solutions whilst having your ethical goals in mind. Some reflection on these factors might stimulate and inform the debate on how health care reforms could be pursued in developed countries.
Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio
This paper discusses the use of an explicit ethical and human rights framework to guide a reform intended to provide universal and comprehensive social protection in health for all Mexicans, independently of their socio-economic status or labor market condition. This reform was designed, implemented, and evaluated by making use of what Michael Reich has identified as the three pillars of public policy: technical, political, and ethical. The use of evidence and political strategies in the design and negotiation of the Mexican health reform is briefly discussed in the first part of this paper. The second part examines the ethical component of the reform, including the guiding concept and values, as well as the specific entitlements that gave operational meaning to the right to health care that was enshrined in Mexico's 1983 Constitution. The impact of this rights-based health reform, measured through an external evaluation, is discussed in the final section. The main message of this paper is that a clear ethical framework, combined with technical excellence and political skill, can deliver major policy results. Copyright © 2015 Frenk and Gómez-Dantés. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funk, Gary; Brown, David
The Storefront School, a collaboration between Springfield Public Schools and Southwest Missouri State University, provides at-risk students with a holistic, integrated curriculum. The school features decentralized decision making, interagency cooperation, a community orientation, and mandatory family involvement. (SK)
Zion, Shelley D.
The education system in the United States is under pressure from a variety of sources to reform and improve the delivery of educational services to students. Change across a system as complex and dynamic as the educational system requires a systemic approach and requires the participation or buy-in of all participants and stakeholders. This…
Usher, Alexandra; Kober, Nancy
This summary report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) pulls together findings from a wide array of studies on student motivation by scholars in a range of disciplines, as well as lessons from programs around the country intended to increase motivation. It is intended to start a conversation about the importance of motivation and the policies…
Because of its history from apartheid to democracy, the aspiration to reform schools is a recurrent theme in South African education. Efforts to reform education in schools based on the outcomes-based education (OBE) curriculum approach created major challenges for policy makers in South Africa. The purpose of this exploratory research was…
The aim in the study is to analyze how work with fiction is organized in six textbooks for senior high school in Sweden after the school reform 2011. Research into Swedish teaching materials has been neglected in recent years and there is a knowledge gap about how the work with fictions is affected by the reform in 2011. In the study quantitative…
Rativa Murillo Hollman Alejandro
Full Text Available Despite some school efforts to offer students the best second language learning, English language lessons are often taught with an overuse of the mother tongue. Hence, an action research project was conducted in order to discover how to adapt some features of the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP component: Lesson delivery, for the teaching of English in sixth grade at a public school in Bogotá, Colombia. Data collection included observation checklists, field notes, surveys and artifacts. The findings demonstrated that the overuse of Spanish–the students’ mother tongue–was reduced when in addition to implementing the lesson delivery component, the teacher developed vocabulary activities. Finally, it was suggested that teachers have SIOP training for teaching content andto focus more on students needs.A pesar de algunos esfuerzos para ofrecer a los estudiantes un mejor aprendizaje de una segunda lengua, a menudo se recurre al uso excesivo de la lengua materna en las clases de inglés. Con el objetivo de hallar la forma de adaptar algunas características del componente del protocolo deobservación SIOP para la instrucción ‘Sheltered’: Desarrollo de clase, para la enseñanza de inglés en grado séptimo, se realiz�� un proyecto de investigación acción en un colegio público en Bogotá, Colombia. En la recolección de datos se emplearon formatos de observación, notas de campo,cuestionarios y evidencias documentales. Los resultados demostraron que el uso excesivo de español –la lengua materna de los estudiantes– se redujo porque además de la implementación del componente Desarrollo de clase, se llevaron a cabo actividades de vocabulario. Con esta investigación se sugiere que los profesores adquieran conocimientos acerca del citado modelo para la enseñanza de contenidos, y que se enfoquen más en las necesidades de los estudiantes.
Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda
This paper provides a detailed account of the Queensland education system's engagement with reforming curriculum, pedagogies and assessment. In so doing, it responds to the University College London's Institute of Education report on "high-performing" jurisdictions, of which Queensland, Australia, was identified as one. In this report,…
Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus
As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…
Arani, Mohammad Reza Sarkar; Keisuke, Fukaya; Lassegard, James P.
This research examines "lesson study" as a traditional model of creating professional knowledge in schools. "Lesson study," typically defined as teachers' classroom based collaborative research, has a long history in Japan as a shared professional culture with potential for enhancing learning, enriching classroom activities and…
Bates, Rebecca C.
This article describes a three-part classroom guidance lesson that teaches middle school students the definition of sexual harassment, the difference between flirting and sexual harassment, and the harmful effects of sexual harassment. An action research study evaluated the effectiveness of the lessons in decreasing referrals for sexual harassment…
Betz, Natalie Christine
This qualitative, narrative inquiry, case study explored the philosophy of servant leadership through the lens of a new high school principal and its impact on the culture of a suburban high school in New Jersey. This case study examined the impact the philosophy of servant leadership had on the school's culture by examining to what extent a) the…
Manna, Paul, Ed.; McGuinn, Patrick, Ed.
America's fragmented, decentralized, politicized, and bureaucratic system of education governance is a major impediment to school reform. In this important new book, a number of leading education scholars, analysts, and practitioners show that understanding the impact of specific policy changes in areas such as standards, testing, teachers, or…
Subramanian, Vidya K.
The Teach for India (TFI) programme, an important offshoot of the Teach for All/Teach for America global education network, began as a public-private partnership in 2009 in poorly functioning municipal schools in Pune and Mumbai. Like its American counterpart, the programme in India has similar ideas of reform and recruits college graduates and…
How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…
In this article, the author discusses neoliberalism as an extension of settler colonialism. The article provides commentary on five recent articles on teacher education and the neoliberal agenda. The article presents an analysis of neoliberalism as despair, and as a form of nihilism. The author discusses an indigenous model of school reform and…
Internationally, over the last 20-30 years, changing the procedures and processes of assessment has come to be seen, by many educators as well as policy-makers, as a way to frame the curriculum and drive the reform of schooling. Such developments have often been manifested in large scale, high stakes testing programmes. At the same time…
Mazzoni, Tim L.; Clugston, Richard M., Jr.
The Minnesota Business Partnership (MBP) was studied as a policy innovator in state school reform (for kindergarten through grade 12) in relation to agenda setting, alternative formulation, and authoritative enactment. Focus is on the MBP's policy-making involvement during the 1985 state legislative session. Overall, the MBP's influence was…
Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Bradley-Levine, Jill
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the meaning of teacher leadership from teachers' perspectives. The authors examine teachers' practice of and talk about legitimate sources of power and influence in the context of an urban high school reform. Design: This is an interpretive study of teacher leadership situated in one small high…
Teo, Tang Wee; Osborne, Margery
In this paper, we present a microanalysis of a specialized STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) high school teacher's experience of self-initiated science inquiry curriculum reform. We examine the meanings of these two constructs: "inquiry curriculum" and "curriculum change" through the process lens of interactions, actions,…
Seong, David Ng Foo; Ho, Jeanne Marie
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the process of information communication technology (ICT) reform in a government school in Singapore. The focus is on the distributed leadership actions performed by various individuals, and how the multiple leaders and their leadership practices interacted with one another.…
Kajs, Lawrence T.
There is a need for educational reform of zero tolerance policies in school disciplinary management procedures. Zero tolerance policies are rigid mandates of predetermined consequences for specific student misconduct. Common sense and fairness are not necessarily served by the application of inflexible disciplinary rules that do not address the…
Sinclair, Craig; Makin, Jennifer K.
Tanning beds used according to the manufacturer?s instructions expose the user to health risks, including melanoma and other skin cancers. Applying the MPOWER model (monitor, protect, offer alternatives, warn, enforce, and raise taxes), which has been used in tobacco control, to tanning bed reform could reduce the number of people at risk of diseases associated with tanning bed use. Among the tactics available to government are restricting the use of tanning beds by people under age 18 and th...
Arredondo, A; Orozco, E; Recaman, A L
Health policies in Latin America are centered on the democratization of health. Since 2003, during the last generation of reforms, health systems in this region have promoted governance strategies for better agreements between governments, institutions, and civil society. In this context, we develop an evaluative research to identify trends and evidence of governance after health care reforms in six regions of Mexico. Evaluative research was developed with a retrospective design based on qualitative analysis. Primary data were obtained from 189 semi-structured interviews with purposively selected health care professionals and key informants. Secondary data were extracted from a selection of 95 official documents on results of the reform project at the national level, national health policies, and lines of action for good governance. Data processing and analysis were performed using ATLAS.ti and PolicyMaker. A list of main strengths and weaknesses is presented as evidence of health system governance. Accountability at the federal level remains prescriptive; in the regions, a system of accountability and transparency in the allocation of resources and in terms of health democratization strategies is still absent. Social protection and decentralization schemes are strategies that have allowed for improvements with a proactive role of users and civil society. Regarding challenges, there are still low levels of governance and difficulties in the effective conduct of programs and reform strategies together with a lack of precision in the rules and roles of the different actors of the health system. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cevik, Celalettin; Sozmen, Kaan; Kilic, Bulent
Turkish health reforms began in 2003 and brought some significant changes in primary care services. Few studies in Turkey compare the shift from health centres (HC) to family physicians (FP) approach, which was initiated by reforms. This study compares health status indicators during the HC period before reforms (2003-2007) and the FP period after reforms (2008-2012) in Turkey. This study encompasses time series data consisting of the results of a 10-year assessment (2003-2012) in Manisa district. All the data were obtained electronically and by month. The intersection points of the regression curves of these two periods and the beta coefficients were compared using segmented linear regression analysis. The mean number of follow-up per person/year during the HC period in infants (10.5), pregnant women (6.6) and women (1.8) was significantly higher than the mean number of follow-up during the FP period in infants (6.7), pregnant women (5.6) and women (0.9). Rates of BCG and measles vaccinations were significantly higher during the FP period; however, rates of HBV and DPT were same. The mean number of outpatient services per person/year during the FP period (3.3) was significantly higher than HC period (2.8). Within non-communicable diseases, no difference was detected for hypertension prevalence. Within communicable diseases, there was no difference for rabies suspected bites but acute haemorrhagic gastroenteritis significantly decreased. The infant mortality rate and under five-year child mortality rate significantly increased during the FP period. Primary care services should be reorganized and integrated with public health services.
Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Rispel, Laetitia C
Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions responsible for the leadership and governance of nursing in South Africa, which
Full Text Available Background: Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. Objective: We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. Design: We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results: The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. Conclusions: The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions
Between 1981 and 2008, 11 countries in Latin America structurally reformed their defined-benefit, Pay-As-You-Go, public pension systems, partially or totally replacing them with defined contribution, fully funded, privately managed schemes based on individual accounts. Initial failures in design and subsequent performance of the private systems led to partial corrections, but in 2008 two countries implemented far reaching “re-reforms”: Chile maintained and improved its system, whereas Argenti...
Caprio Jr., Gerard; Vittas, Dimitri
Among the lessons financial history offers: Macroeconomic stability - low inflation and sound public finance - is important for creating the right incentives for banks and for facilitating the development of securities markets. High inflation and large fiscal deficits distort economic behavior in favor of short-term speculative projects conducive to sustainable economic development. Central bank independence may contribute to economic stability. One way to increase it is by lengthening the te...
Early notions of life skills in Africa did not take into account the importance of a flexible and portable set of skills that would enable youth to adapt to changes in the world of work and lay the foundations for productive well-being and behaviour. Rather, life skills education in many secondary education curricula in Africa started with an emphasis on developing specific technical vocational skills considered essential for employability or self-employment. Using Ghana as an example, this paper shows how secondary education curriculum reformers recommended shifts that embraced a new interpretation of life skills focused on 21st-century skills. This gradual move also reflected the difficulty that secondary education in general has had in networking with the world of work to provide work experience that would lead to the development of work-related skills and enhance employability. The author's main argument is that although the reconceptualisation of life skills in secondary education to reflect 21st-century skills is a welcome shift in the African context, this needs to be accompanied by reforms in teacher education. Classroom teaching and learning need to be adapted in a fundamental way in order to ensure that youth fully benefit from the inclusion of 21st-century life skills in secondary education curricula. Such reforms must include pedagogical practices which nurture communication, collaboration, creativity and critical thinking skills.
Wood, Susan; Abracinskas, Lilián; Correa, Sonia; Pecheny, Mario
In October 2012, a new law was approved in Uruguay that allows abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, 14 weeks in the case of rape, and without a time limit when the woman's health is at risk or in the case of foetal anomalies. This paper analyses this legal reform. It is based on 27 individual and group interviews with key informants, and on review of primary documents and the literature. The factors explaining the reform include: secular values in society, favourable public opinion, a persistent feminist movement, effective coalition building, particular party politics, and a vocal public health sector. The content of the new law reflects the tensions between a feminist perspective of women's rights and public health arguments that stop short of fully recognizing women's autonomy. The Uruguayan reform shows that, even in Latin America, abortion can be addressed politically without electoral cost to the parties that promote it. On the other hand, the prevailing public health rationale and conditionalities built into the law during the negotiation process resulted in a law that cannot be interpreted as a full recognition of women's rights, but rather as a modified protectionist approach that circumscribes women's autonomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sherer, Renslow; Dong, Hongmei; Cong, Yali; Wan, Jing; Chen, Hua; Wang, Yanxia; Ma, Zhiying; Cooper, Brian; Jiang, Ivy; Roth, Hannah; Siegler, Mark
Ethics teaching is a relatively new area of medical education in China, with ethics curricula at different levels of development. This study examined ethics education at three medical schools in China to understand their curricular content, teaching and learning methods, forms of assessments, changes over time, and what changes are needed for further improvement. We used student and faculty surveys to obtain information about the ethics courses' content, teaching methods, and revisions over time. The surveys also included five realistic cases and asked participants whether each would be appropriate to use for discussion in ethics courses. Students rated the cases on a scale and gave written comments. Finally, participants were asked to indicate how much they would agree with the statement that medical professionalism is about putting the interests of patients and society above one's own. There were both similarities and differences among these schools with regard to course topics, teaching and assessment methods, and course faculty compositions, suggesting their courses are at different levels of development. Areas of improvement for the schools' courses were identified based on this study's findings and available literature. A model of the evolution of medical ethics education in China was proposed to guide reform in medical ethics instruction in China. Analysis identified characteristics of appropriate cases and participants' attitudes toward the ideal of professionalism. We conclude that the development of medical ethics education in China is promising while much improvement is needed. In addition, ethics education is not confined to the walls of medical schools; the society at large can have significant influence on the formation of students' professional values.
In the study students' affective entry characteristics related to Physical Education lessons were examined based on three dimensions: interest towards the lesson, level of motivation in the lesson and educational gains. The study further aimed to investigate how these three dimensions were affected by the gender factor.
Hewson, Peter W.; Butler Kahle, Jane; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Davies, Darleen
A central commitment of current reforms in science education is that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, and/ or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. The study Bridging the Gap: Equity in Systemic Reform assessed equity in systemic reform using a nested research design that drew on both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. As part of the study, case studies were conducted in two urban middle schools in large Ohio cities. The purpose of the case studies was to identify factors affecting equity in urban science education reform. Data were analyzed using Kahle's (1998) equity metric. That model allowed us to assess progress toward equity using a range of research-based indicators grouped into three categories critical for equitable education: access to, retention in, and achievement in quality science education. In addition, a fourth category was defined for systemic indicators of equity. Analyses indicated that the culture and climate of the case study schools differentially affected their progress toward equitable reform in science education.
Kaimal, Girija; Drescher, Jon; Fairbank, Holly; Gonzaga, Adele; White, George P.
This paper presents an analysis of how guided engagement with the arts can provide leadership lessons for school leaders and administrators. The study was conducted as part of two projects funded by the School Leadership Program (SLP) grants from the U.S. Department of Education. The principal interns and practicing school leaders participated in…
Numerous studies on the impact of interactive lessons on student learning have been conducted, but there has been a lack of professional development (PD) programs at a middle school focusing on ways to incorporate interactive lessons into the science classroom setting. The purpose of this case study was to examine the instructional practices of science teachers to determine whether the need for an interactive lessons approach to teaching students exists. This qualitative case study focused on teachers' perceptions and pedagogy to determine whether the need to use interactive lessons to meet the needs of all students is present. The research question focused on identifying current practices and determining whether a need for interactive lessons is present. Qualitative data were gathered from science teachers at the school through interviews, lesson plans, and observations, all of which were subsequently coded using an interpretative analysis. The results indicated the need for a professional development (PD) program centered on interactive science lessons. Upon completion of the qualitative study, a detailed PD program has been proposed to increase the instructional practices of science teachers to incorporate interactive lessons within the science classroom. Implications for positive social change include improved teaching strategies and lessons that are more student-centered resulting in better understanding and comprehension, as well as performance on state-mandated tests.
Tanning beds used according to the manufacturer’s instructions expose the user to health risks, including melanoma and other skin cancers. Applying the MPOWER model (monitor, protect, offer alternatives, warn, enforce, and raise taxes), which has been used in tobacco control, to tanning bed reform could reduce the number of people at risk of diseases associated with tanning bed use. Among the tactics available to government are restricting the use of tanning beds by people under age 18 and those with fair skin, increasing the price of tanning bed services through taxation, licensing tanning bed operators, and banning unsupervised tanning bed operations. PMID:23449282
Universities in African countries are widely considered to be a colonial relic that is in desperate need of reform. This article argues that useful lessons for such a reform may be drawn from the developed countries' own education institution policy debates and history, especially as those relate...... to development. In that history, innovation-oriented industrial employers that advocate adjustment and institutional change at universities often clash with the vested interests of the educated elite and its desire to buttress its privileged social position with restrictions on entry into various professions...... and continued as useful complements to the stock of the technically educated in later stages of development. It is therefore suggested that the proper basis for university reform in Africa is to ask first whether the range and quality of educational institutions is appropriate to the current state of private...
Blumenreich, Megan; Jaffe-Walter, Reva
Montclair Cares About Schools (MCAS) is a citizen-activist group in Montclair, New Jersey, that used Facebook, emails, and online petitions to inform and organize citizens on local educational policy issues. Emerging in response to a new superintendent's plans to reshape Montclair schools with new teacher evaluations, administrative hires, and…
Daniel, Julia; Snyder, Jon David
Research literature finds that community school models offering various agreed-upon features provide an excellent social return on investment and significant promise for providing opportunities for learning and promoting well-being in students and communities. Community schools show significant promise for addressing barriers to learning and…
Hawley, Willis D., Ed.
Working in tandem with the powerful National Education Association's KEYS initiative (Keys to Excellence in Your Schools), this second edition focuses on how to change a school's organizational structure and culture to improve the quality of teaching and learning. Each chapter, revised and updated to address continuous improvement and narrowing…
Wren, Maev-Ann; Connolly, Sheelah
The Irish health care system is unusual within Europe in not providing universal, equitable access to either primary or acute hospital care. The majority of the population pays out-of-pocket fees to access primary health care. Due to long waits for public hospital care, many purchase private health insurance, which facilitates faster access to public and private hospital services. The system has been the subject of much criticism and repeated reform attempts. Proposals in 2011 to develop a universal health care system, funded by Universal Health Insurance, were abandoned in 2015 largely due to cost concerns. Despite this experience, there remains strong political support for developing a universal health care system. By applying an historical institutionalist approach, the paper develops an understanding of why Ireland has been a European outlier. The aim of the paper is to identify and discuss issues that may arise in introducing a universal healthcare system to Ireland informed by an understanding of previous unsuccessful reform proposals. Challenges in system design faced by a late-starter country like Ireland, including overcoming stakeholder resistance, achieving clarity in the definition of universality and avoiding barriers to access, may be shared by countries whose universal systems have been compromised in the period of austerity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper discusses the way in which women’s health concerns were addressed in Mexico as part of a health system reform. Discussion The first part sets the context by examining the growing complexity that characterizes the global health field, where women’s needs occupy center stage. Part two briefly describes a critical conceptual evolution, i.e. from maternal to reproductive to women’s health. In the third and last section, the novel “women and health” (W&H approach and its translation into policies and programs in the context of a structural health reform in Mexico is discussed. W&H simultaneously focuses on women’s health needs and women’s critical roles as both formal and informal providers of health care, and the links between these two dimensions. Summary The most important message of this paper is that broad changes in health systems offer the opportunity to address women’s health needs through innovative approaches focused on promoting gender equality and empowering women as drivers of change.
Gómez, Eduardo J
In the United States (US) and Brazil, obesity has emerged as a health epidemic. This article is driven by the following research questions: how did the US and Brazil's federal institutions respond to obesity? And how did these responses affect policy implementation? The aim of this article is therefore to conduct a comparative case study analysis of how these nations' institutions responded in order to determine the key lessons learned. This study uses primary and secondary qualitative data to substantiate causal arguments and factual claims. Brazil shows that converting preexisting federal agencies working in primary healthcare to emphasize the provision of obesity prevention services can facilitate policy implementation, especially in rural areas. Brazil also reveals the importance of targeting federal grant support to the highest obesity prevalence areas and imposing grant conditionalities, while illustrating how the incorporation of social health movements into the bureaucracy facilitates the early adoption of nutrition and obesity policies. None of these reforms were pursued in the US. Brazil's government has engaged in innovative institutional conversion processes aiding its ability to sustain its centralized influence when implementing obesity policy. The US government's adoption of Brazil's institutional innovations may help to strengthen its policy response.
Lee, Jaekyung; Park, Daekwon
This study examines key school reform policies and outcomes of the USA and Korea over the past three decades from comparative perspectives. Since the two nations' unique educational problems brought divergent educational reform paths--standardization versus differentiation, high-stakes testing versus individualized assessment, and centralization…
Barnea, Nitza; Dori, Yehudit Judy; Hofstein, Avi
Reforms in science education in general and in chemistry education in particular have been introduced in many countries since the beginning of the 21st Century. Similarly, at this time in Israel both the content and pedagogy of the chemistry curriculum in high schools were reformed. New content and pedagogical standards emerged, fostering…
Current education reform in both the United States and China promotes a reformed inquiry-based approach based on the constructivist learning theory. This study contributes to the research literature by exploring the relationship between reformed science teaching and students' creativity. Chinese education is often criticized for a lack of creativity by some news media (Stack, 2011). This study was designed to explore the creativity of students and the extent to which inquiry instruction is used in the science classroom. The study used a convenience sample of two classes from a middle school located in Wuhu city, Anhui province, China. A total of 120 students and 3 science teachers participated. A mixed-methods research approach was adopted for integrated explanation. Student surveys, the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), Verbal, Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP), and semi-structured interview were utilized as research tools for collecting quantitative and qualitative data. The findings indicate that there was a positive relationship between reformed teaching and students' creativity (F (2, 117) = 19.760, pteaching but also revealed several challenges. The findings from the Verbal TTCT and classroom observation provided evidence of Chinese students' creativity. Directions for future research are provided.
Maheshwari, Sunil; Bhat, Ramesh; Saha, Somen
Commitment, competencies and skills of people working in the health sector can significantly impact the performance and its reform process. In this study we attempted to analyse the commitment of state health officials and its implications for human resource practices in Gujarat. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure commitment and its relationship with human resource (HR) variables. Employee's organizational commitment (OC) and professional commitment (PC) were measured using OC and PC scale. Fifty five medical officers from Gujarat participated in the study. Professional commitment of doctors (3.21 to 4.01) was found to be higher than their commitment to the organization (3.01 to 3.61). Doctors did not perceive greater fairness in the system on promotion (on the scale of 5, score: 2.55) and were of the view that the system still followed seniority based promotion (score: 3.42). Medical officers were upset about low autonomy in the department with regard to reward and recognition, accounting procedure, prioritization and synchronization of health programme and other administrative activities. Our study provided some support for positive effects of progressive HR practices on OC, specifically on affective and normative OC. Following initiatives were identified to foster a development climate among the health officials: providing opportunities for training, professional competency development, developing healthy relationship between superiors and subordinates, providing useful performance feedback, and recognising and rewarding performance. For reform process in the health sector to succeed, there is a need to promote high involvement of medical officers. There is a need to invest in developing leadership quality, supervision skills and developing autonomy in its public health institutions.
Gonzalez, Gabriella C.; Bozick, Robert; Daugherty, Lindsay; Scherer, Ethan; Singh, Reema; Suárez, Mónica Jacobo; Ryan, Sarah
In 2009, the City of New Haven and New Haven Public Schools (NHPS) announced a sweeping K-12 educational reform, New Haven School Change. The district had three primary goals for School Change: (1) close the gap between the performance of NHPS students' and Connecticut students' averages on state tests, (2) cut the high school dropout rate in…
Rosenblum, Warren; And Others
The purpose of this lesson packet is to raise issues about student rights of free expression in public schools. Included are preparatory reading material and two classroom simulation activities. The lessons are based on the U.S. Supreme Court case of Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier, in which a Missouri high school principal and school district were sued by…
Geske, Terry G.
This paper is primarily concerned with identifying and explicating the environmental forces and political factors responsible for legislative enactment of major school finance changes in Wisconsin in 1973. Easton's political systems theory serves as a conceptual framework for the study. In addition, Lindblom's leadership model, Truman's interest…
Salganik, Laura H.
Reductions in resources and increases in external demands place schools under pressure that can be relieved to some extent by organizational changes. When resources are sufficient, these changes may take the form of technical rationality--that is, decisions concerning policy and practices are made on the basis of neutral, measurable data rather…
Educational Leadership, 1984
Three principals, a publishing company marketing manager, a director of instruction, a teacher, and an assistant superintendent express their opinions on the past year's major reports on schooling. Issues addressed include the "Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education," vocational education, administrative leadership, and social responsibility…
The author participated in international experts' meeting held by IAEA on May 21, 2013 and presented the paper focusing on human and organizational aspects of the Fukushima nuclear accident. It clarified TEPCO's basic recognition: 'The cause of the accident should not be treated merely as a natural disaster due to an enormous tsunami being something difficult to anticipate and we believe it is necessary to seriously acknowledge the result that TEPCO failed to avoid an accident which might have been avoided if ample preparations had been made in advance with thorough use of human intellect' and then reconsidered the Fukushima nuclear accident: 'could we predict an enormous tsunami and take whatever countermeasures?' and 'could we respond to the accident better?' for the worldwide operators to avoid such an accident, which moved meeting's participants deeply. Presentation's contents followed 'Reassessment of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident and Nuclear Safety Reform Plan' published by TEPCO on March 29. This article described outline of the presentation. Though the only way to explore the possibility to save Unit 1 was that operators could bravely go up to the 4th floor of reactor building and open the isolation valves to start IC, it was given up without any clear communication among key decision makers for confirming the IC operational status. As for Unit 3, operators could not achieve thorough focus on ensuring core cooling such that proactive transfer from RCIC/HPCI to low pressure water injection was not challenged, mainly because of low trust on Diesel/Driven Fire Protection Pump (DDFP). During the design stage and afterward, ample consideration was not given to common cause failures originating in external events, which led to a severe situation where almost all the power supplies and safety system functions were lost. Continuous efforts to reduce risks were not ample, including the collection, analysis and utilization of information on safety enhancement
St. John, Edward P.; Loescher, Siri; Jacob, Stacy; Cekic, Osman; Kupersmith, Leigh; Musoba, Glenda Droogsma
A growing number of schools are exploring the prospect of applying for funding to implement a Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) model. But the process of selecting a CSR model can be complicated because it frequently involves self-study and a review of models to determine which models best meet the needs of the school. This study guide is intended…
Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.
Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…
Wallen, Michele; Chaney, Beth H.; Birch, David A.
Purpose: The researchers evaluated the efficacy of an advocacy lesson to assess change in intentions to advocate for school health education. This study also measured changes in participants' understanding the importance of school health education and perceived effectiveness in applying advocacy skills. Methods: A convenience sample of college…
Frömel, Karel; Svozil, Zbynek; Chmelík, František; Jakubec, Lukáš; Groffik, Dorota
Background: This study investigates school lifestyle among adolescents in terms of physical activity (PA) structure: (1) adolescents participating in a physical education lesson (PEL) versus (2) aggregate recess time exceeding 60 minutes. Methods: The research was conducted in 24 secondary schools in the Czech Republic (boys N = 208, girls N =…
In this study I set out to investigate why many students drop out from elective instrument programmes, particularly in lower secondary school. I examined the values and beliefs a sample of students in their first year in secondary school attach to learning an instrument, and the impact of the instrument lesson upon these values and beliefs.…
Cummins, Craig; Chance, Edward W.; Steinhoff, Carl
Passage in 1989 of Oklahoma's education reform bill, H.B. 1017, provided encouragement and financial rewards for use of consolidation as a reform strategy, but this approach is often met with anxiety and hostility from stakeholders. In an effort to identify strategies that facilitate consolidation, semistructured interviews were conducted with the…
Introduction This paper discusses the educational issues and societal changes that have led to proactive reforms in the education system of South Korea. Korean pupils achieve high academic levels, but there have been some criticisms relating to sociocultural issues. In addition, Korea is being transformed into a multicultural society. Here we consider two examples of Korea’s educational interventions, introduced in response to contextual demands and societal changes: firstly, the Schools for...
Pringle, Rose M.; Mesa, Jennifer; Hayes, Lynda
Preparing teachers to teach science consistent with current reforms in science education is a daunting enterprise given a lack of high-quality science professional development (PD) adaptable across various contexts (Wilson 2013). This study examines the impact of a comprehensive professional development program on middle school teachers' disciplinary content knowledge and instructional practices. In this mixed methods investigation, data sources included classroom observations, content knowledge assessments, surveys, and a range of interviews. The teachers in the program showed significant improvements in their disciplinary content knowledge and demonstrated through their enactment of a reform-based curriculum, a range of ability levels to translate their knowledge into instructional practices consistent with the principles espoused in the PD. We conclude that programs that attend to elements of effective PD identified in the literature can positively impact middle school science teachers' enactment of reform-based science teaching. Our findings extend these elements to include the strategic engagement of school and district leadership and the provision of a safe learning space for teachers to collectively engage in reciprocal learning and critical practice. This study has worldwide implications for designing PD for science teachers and for extending our understanding of the impact of each element.
Fischel, Janet E; Olvet, Doreen M; Iuli, Richard J; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Chandran, Latha
Curriculum reform in medical schools continues to be an ever-present and challenging activity in medical education. This paper describes one school's experiences with specific curricular innovations that were developed or adapted and targeted to meet a clear set of curricular goals during the curriculum reform process. Those goals included: (a) promoting active learning and learner engagement; (b) establishing early professional identity; and (c) developing physician competencies in an integrated and contextual manner while allowing for individualized learning experiences for the millennial student. Six specific innovations championed by the school are described in detail. These included Themes in Medical Education, Translational Pillars, Stony Brook Teaching Families, Transition Courses, Educational Continuous Quality Improvement Processes, and our Career Advising Program. Development of the ideas and design of the innovations were done by faculty and student teams. We discuss successes and ongoing challenges with these innovations which are currently in the fourth year of implementation. Our curriculum reform has emphasized the iterative process of curriculum building. Based on our experience, we discuss general and practical guidelines for curriculum innovation in its three phases: setting the stage, implementation, and monitoring for the achievement of intended goals.
Burdon Bailey, Jordana L; Gamble, Luke; Gibson, Andrew D; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Handel, Ian G; Mellanby, Richard J; Mazeri, Stella
Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed. Here, primary school children in Zomba, Malawi, were given a lesson on rabies biology and preventive healthcare. Subsequently, a mass dog vaccination programme was delivered in the same region. Knowledge and attitudes towards rabies were assessed by a questionnaire before the lesson, immediately after the lesson and 9 weeks later to assess the impact the lesson had on school children's knowledge and attitudes. This assessment was also undertaken in children who were exposed to the mass dog vaccination programme but did not receive the lesson. Knowledge of rabies and how to be safe around dogs increased following the lesson (both prabies and how to be safe around dogs was greater amongst school children who had received the lesson compared to school children who had not received the lesson, but had been exposed to a rabies vaccination campaign in their community (both prabies can improve short and medium-term rabies knowledge and attitudes of Malawian schoolchildren.
Burdon Bailey, Jordana L.; Gamble, Luke; Gibson, Andrew D.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Handel, Ian G.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Mazeri, Stella
Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed. Here, primary school children in Zomba, Malawi, were given a lesson on rabies biology and preventive healthcare. Subsequently, a mass dog vaccination programme was delivered in the same region. Knowledge and attitudes towards rabies were assessed by a questionnaire before the lesson, immediately after the lesson and 9 weeks later to assess the impact the lesson had on school children’s knowledge and attitudes. This assessment was also undertaken in children who were exposed to the mass dog vaccination programme but did not receive the lesson. Knowledge of rabies and how to be safe around dogs increased following the lesson (both prabies and how to be safe around dogs was greater amongst school children who had received the lesson compared to school children who had not received the lesson, but had been exposed to a rabies vaccination campaign in their community (both prabies can improve short and medium-term rabies knowledge and attitudes of Malawian schoolchildren. PMID:29522517
Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.
Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.
This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…
Nhlanhla C. Mbatha
Full Text Available Background: With reports of widespread failures in South Africa’s land reform programmes, the levels of policy uncertainty in the political rhetoric that influences land reform have been increasing. Since 1994 policy targets to transfer land to black farmers have not been met. Of the 2005 target to transfer about 25 million ha of commercial farmland to black farmers by 2014, less than 5 million ha. have been transferred for commercial use. Some studies report failure rates in resettlement projects of up to 90%. To account for the failures, revisions of policies and amendments to legislations have been proposed within a political environment that is becoming increasingly intolerant to slow progress in land transfers and to resettlement failures. Aim: Against this environment, this paper presents a typology for understanding and evaluating important elements of the land reform project in order to influence progress in the process. Setting: The study adopts a historical review of land reform processes in post-colonial Kenya and Zimbabwe in order to identify potential challenges and key lessons for South Africa. Methods: Hence, using institutional and historical analytical lenses in exploring different narratives, the paper reviews reported failures and successes in land reform policy cases from the selected countries. From an institutional framework, prevalent social institutions and key lessons from Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa, a typology for evaluating important elements of the land reform process in South Africa is developed and discussed. Additionally, a review of global data collected on average sizes of farms in different regions of the world is provided as evidence to support propositions of what would constitute efficient farmland size ranges for small to medium commercial farms in South Africa. Results and conclusion: A proposition is made on how to use the typology to guide policy and research interventions to reduce failures
Through a series of open-ended interviews, this study investigated the beliefs of six third year high school science teachers about how they implement science education reform ideals in their practice and the contextual challenges they face as they attempt to implement reform. The teachers argue that the lack of connection between their curricula and students' lives serves as a significant obstacle to them utilizing more inquiry-based and student-centered strategies. In their science classes that are not subject to a high stakes exam, the teachers shared instances where they engage students in inquiry by refraining the focus of their curricula away from the decontextualized factual information and onto how the information relates to human experience. In their science classes subject to a high stakes test, however, the teachers confessed to feeling no choice but to utilize more teacher-centered strategies focused on information transmission. This study provides an in depth analysis of how the presence of high stakes tests discourages teachers from utilizing reform based teaching strategies within high school science classrooms.
This case study presents the lessons learned from incorporating energy efficiency in the rebuilding and renovating of New Orleans K-12 schools after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Hurricane Katrina was the largest natural disaster in the United States, striking the Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, and flooding 80% of New Orleans; to make matters worse, the city was flooded again only three weeks later by the effects of Hurricane Rita. Many of the buildings, including schools, were heavily damaged. The devastation of schools in New Orleans from the hurricanes was exacerbated by many years of deferred school maintenance. This case study presents the lessons learned from incorporating energy efficiency in the rebuilding and renovating of New Orleans K-12 schools after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The experiences of four new schools-Langston Hughes Elementary School, Andrew H. Wilson Elementary School (which was 50% new construction and 50% major renovation), L.B. Landry High School, and Lake Area High School-and one major renovation, Joseph A. Craig Elementary School-are described to help other school districts and design teams with their in-progress and future school building projects in hot-humid climates. Before Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans had 128 public schools. As part of the recovery planning, New Orleans Public Schools underwent an assessment and planning process to determine how many schools were needed and in what locations. Following a series of public town hall meetings and a district-wide comprehensive facility assessment, a Master Plan was developed, which outlined the renovation or construction of 85 schools throughout the city, which are expected to be completed by 2017. New Orleans Public Schools expects to build or renovate approximately eight schools each year over a 10-year period to achieve 21st century schools district-wide. Reconstruction costs are estimated at nearly $2 billion.
Elizabeth Cristina Bañuelos Sánchez
Full Text Available The results of a research carried out in the state of Zacatecas, México, aiming at probing teachers perceptions about the Educative Reform (RE to elementary school education approved in 2013 in the country are presented. Structural reforms served as the research theoretical frame and are the starting point to analyze changes that reorganized educative institutions in general. The information gathering was conducted by an interview with open answers, focusing on the aspects which have direct effects on teachers: evaluation, entry requirements and the job continuity. The results show that most teachers do not oppose the evaluation, provided that it is used as a tool for improving their teaching practice. Yet they do mistrust the transparency of the system, since they consider that the RE is a hidden mechanism to fire teachers, instead of a mechanism to improve the quality of education.
In the context of the international exchange of school reform ideas and concepts, the new schools in Hamburg were recognised as exemplary instances of a revolutionary and forceful reform in the public elementary school systems. Based on studies of transfer and their premise that the transnational transfer of ideas, practices and objects does not…
Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III
This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated
Springer, Matthew G.; Liu, Keke; Guthrie, James W.
While there is a wealth of research on school finance equity and adequacy, and school finance theory clearly documents differences between the two concepts, no study has examined whether the reforms engendered by each approach actually differ in terms of resource distribution. The present study examines the issues using district-level data on…
VanderVen, Elizabeth R.
In the early 1900s, the Qing dynasty implemented a series of institutional reforms to shore up its power. The most important were a nationwide school system and the abolition of the centuries-old civil examinations. "A School in Every Village" recounts how villagers and local state officials in Haicheng County enacted orders to establish…
Boberg, John Eric
Transformational leadership has been shown to affect organizational commitment, capacity development, and performance. However, these relationships have received very little attention in schools, especially high schools in the United States that are experiencing educational reform initiatives under No Child Left Behind. Using a sample of 1403 high…
Di Biase, Rhonda
This paper explores active learning reform in the small state of the Maldives. Acknowledging the implementation challenges of active learning approaches globally, the study explored the policy-practice intersection by examining the experiences of one island school and its approach to promoting active learning pedagogy. The school was selected for…
Ana Paula Oliveira Rescia
Full Text Available This paper shows some of the results from a doctoral research on the educational and school managers training to the beginning of XXI century, in the context of decentralization and trends of educational reforms in Latin America at the end of 1980s and 1990s. Guided by a qualitative, bibliographic and documentary research, the methodological procedures had reference in studies conducted by international organizations, such as: UNESCO, ECLAC and ILPE as well as scholars from different management paradigms, considering the Latin-American education systems’ needs. In Brazil, we sought to understand the requirements of transformation of local competences in planning and educational management after implications and managers training initiatives within this new reality. Therefore, it was analyzed for comparative purposes, three educational and school managers training programs in public schools: Management Circuit Program; Distance Learning Program for School Managers and the Managers’ School Program of Public Basic Education. It was intended to identify the trends of each program for educational and school managers training, with a view to the changes occurred in our society and education and the requirements to acquire new skills and abilities. As conclusion, the research indicated that although the training programs have originated from different instances and explain various guidelines, everything converges to the same set of skills in educational and school managers training.
Fischman, Gustavo E.; Gandin, Luis Armando
The Citizen School Project (Escola Cidadã) was implemented from 1993 to 2004 in Porto Alegre, capital of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. This article presents the conception behind the Citizen School Project, the basic mechanisms created to implement and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses, and some of its contradictions. After contextualising the educational reforms in Brazil during the 1980s and 1990s, the authors demonstrate how the Citizen School Project's emphasis on participation and democratisation was a radical departure from Brazil's traditional public education system. Next, they present the three main goals and structures of the Citizen School Project - democratisation of access to schools, democratisation of schools' administration, and democratisation of access to knowledge. They conclude by discussing some pedagogic, social and political dynamics which appear to be strong legacies of this pedagogical project. The authors also argue that the Citizen School Project has both improved the quality of education in Porto Alegre and is an important contribution to our collective thinking about the politics of "successful" educational policies.
Leggett, Allison Gail Wilson
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 presented one of the most significant and comprehensive literacy reforms in many years (McDonnell, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). The era of school accountability and standards based reform has brought many challenges and changes to public schools. Increasingly, public officials and educational administrators are asked to use standards based assessments to make high-stakes decisions, such as whether a student will move on to the next grade level or receive a diploma (American Psychological Association, 2005). It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' perceptions and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement standards-based reform. This mixed-methods study was designed to assess teachers' perceptions of changes related to standards-based reform as supported by Fullan's (2001) change theory and transformational leadership theory. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated standards-based reform and began focusing on preparing students for the California Standards Test in Science (CSTS). Using descriptive statistical analysis and in-depth interviews, results show favorable insight towards standards-based reform. The survey was distributed to 30 middle school science teachers from 10 low-performing schools in Los Angeles, California. Results were analyzed using Spearman rank-ordered correlations. Interviews were conducted on middle school teachers represented by each grade level. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the CSTS as measured in this study. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.
Newman, Thomas R.
The lack of diversity in the technology workforce in the United States has proven to be a stubborn problem, resisting even the most well-funded reform efforts. With the absence of computer science education in the mainstream K-12 curriculum, only a narrow band of students in public schools go on to careers in technology. The problem persists…
Ting, Kan Lin; Siew, Nyet Moi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of outdoor school ground lessons on Year Five students' science process skills and scientific curiosity. A quasi-experimental design was employed in this study. The participants in the study were divided into two groups, one subjected to the experimental treatment, defined as…
Theron, Linda C.
Drawing on narrative data from a multiple case study, I recount the life stories of two resilient Black South African university students to theorize about the processes that encouraged these students, familiar with penury and parental illiteracy, to resile. I aimed to uncover lessons for school psychologists about resilience, and their role in…
The article examines the opportunities and prospects for the use of experience of project method during "technology lessons" in US secondary schools, since the value of project technology implementation experience into the educational process in the USA for ensuring holistic development of children, preparing them for adult life, in…
As science gets squeezed in the elementary curriculum, at least two Florida districts are trying a new approach to keeping hands-on lessons a part of pupils' experiences. This article reports how Broward and Palm Beach county districts have increased the number of science specialists working in their elementary schools--teachers who, like physical…
Pandya, Samta P.
Based on a one-year longitudinal experimental study with 3,782 kindergarten school children across 15 countries, this article examines the association between prayer and happiness. Results show that the post-test scores on the faces scale were higher for the participant group who had taken the prayer lessons vis-à-vis the comparison group.…
Presents the "Structured Reading Lesson" as one simple way to structure reading activities so that the before, during, and after phases of the reading experience are all touched upon. Considers how reading strategies that students have developed to comprehend fictional narratives do not always help them with textbooks. Presents…
The purpose of the study was to investigate the barriers preventing the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in secondary school geography lessons and to determine its effectiveness on students success. A workshop focusing on ways to implement GIS-based application in the classroom for 14 teachers from nine high schools was conducted in 2006. The teachers were given GIS software, digital data for an application, and the necessary written documents describing the application. Due to var...
Kindley, Mark M.
Uses Cherry County, Nebraska, to exemplify current experiences of learning and teaching in a one-room school--Nebraska has 350 of the nation's nearly 800 one-room schools. Interviews parents and teachers who cherish their one-room schools because they provide quality education, convenience (relative to consolidated schools), and support for rural…
Ward, Sophie C.; Bagley, Carl; Lumby, Jacky; Woods, Philip; Hamilton, Tom; Roberts, Amanda
Responding to Thrupp's [2003. "The School Leadership Literature in Managerialist Times: Exploring the Problem of Textual Apologism." "School Leadership & Management: Formerly School Organisation" 23 (2): 169] call for writers on school leadership to offer "analyses which provide more critical messages about social…
Research has demonstrated that a positive school climate is an essential part of violence prevention. Many factors influence the association between school climate and behavioral outcomes. Positive school climate alone cannot prevent all variables that may contribute to the expression of aggression. Nevertheless, positive school climates influence…
Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Carkhum, Rian; Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass
Over the past several decades, policymakers have sought to address the problem of school failure by exposing traditional public schools to competitive market forces. In this analysis, we examine how two traditional public schools in a "high pressure/high choice" urban school cluster in Texas responded to a number of overlapping choice…
The demand for investment in the electricity sector in the world between 2000 and 2030 is estimated to be USD9.8 trillion. Developing countries would require more than half of this investment. Given the limited fiscal space for public investment, a number of developing countries have undertaken policy initiatives to improve the investment climate for the private sector. The pace, scope, sequencing and outcome of reform process varies across countries. This paper undertakes a comparative evaluation of policy and regulatory reforms in Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, PRC and Thailand. The paper concludes that apart from macroeconomic stability, the pace and sequencing of reforms influences private investment in the power sector. Distribution reforms and setting up of an independent regulatory institution reduces risk for investors. A peace-meal approach to reform keeps uncertainties alive for investors and does not translate in significant investment in the sector. (auth)
Kishi, Noriko; Suzuki, Akiko; Takahashi, Miyoko
The objectives of this study were to clarify learners' understanding about household work and to see how the objectives of Home Economics lessons are achieved. Lessons about household work which were focused on relationships with one's family were given in a high school. 119 student descriptions on lesson worksheets were analyzed. From these data, the learners' understanding was categorized into four domains: feeling, utility, valuing, and social domains. These domains had a hierarchical stru...
At present there are many socialized microblog platforms.With powerful mobility,real-time information,fragment of information dissemination,and innovation of interaction,the microblog has become a socialized interaction mode in recent years.Since microblog is very popular with students of agricultural and forestry higher vocational schools,with the rising and development of network education,the microblog as a new information platform will be used by more and more teachers in education.From the perspective of microblog,this paper studied educational reform in management courses of agricultural and forestry higher vocational schools,in the hope of providing certain reference and help for current education practice of agricultural and forestry management courses.
Balfanz, Robert; Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Byrnes, Vaughan
This article reports on the first 4 years of an effort to develop comprehensive and sustainable mathematics education reforms in high poverty middle schools. In four related analyses, we examine the levels of implementation achieved and impact of the reforms on various measures of achievement in the first 3 schools to implement the Talent…
Squires, Frances H.
This science curriculum was written for teachers of children in junior high or middle school. It contains science activities for the following lessons: (1) Anemometers and Wind Speed; (2) Up! Up! and Away; (3) Jet Lag--Time Zones; (4) Inventors; (5) Model Rocketry; (6) Geometry and Kites; and (7) Super Savers. In lesson one, students construct an…
Shields, Regis Anne; Miles, Karen Hawley
Education Resource Strategies (ERS) works with school and district leaders to help them more strategically use resources--people, time, and money--to improve student performance. They have found that many school districts begin creating small high schools without a clear sense of how much they will spend or how to ensure that small schools…
Paine, Cathy Kennedy; Cowan, Katherine C.
April 20, 2009 marks the 10th anniversary of the Columbine High School tragedy that took the lives of 12 students, a teacher, and two teen killers in 1999. This school shooting affected people worldwide who watched on television as police circled the building and terrified students fled the school with hands raised over their heads. The Columbine…
Grove, Michael C.
Despite wave after wave of educational reform in the United States our students continue to lag behind their peers in other industrialized countries on virtually all measures of academic achievement. Effective professional development (PD) is seen as a key to improving instructional practice and therefore student learning, but traditional forms of PD have been wholly unsuccessful in changing teaching practice. Over the last two decades an emerging body of research has identified some key features of effective PD that seem to create meaningful change and improvement in instructional practice. Some of this research highlights the promise of adapting Japanese lesson study (LS) to the American context as a means of incrementally improving instruction. Much of the existing research around LS is descriptive in nature and offers little insight into if and how participation in LS impacts subsequent instructional practice. This study utilized case study methodology to examine the instructional practice of one group of four middle school science teachers before, during, and after participation in LS. The study attempted to identify specific learning outcomes of a LS process, to identify influences on teacher learning during LS, and to identify subsequent changes in the instructional practice of participants resulting from participation in LS. Key findings from the study include significant teacher learning derived from the LS process, the identification of influences that enhanced or inhibited teacher learning, and clear evidence that participants successfully integrated learning from the LS into subsequent instructional practice. Learning outcomes included deepening of subject matter knowledge, increased understanding of student thinking and abilities, clarity of expectations for student performance, recognition of the ineffectiveness of past instructional practice, specific instructional strategies, shared student learning goals, and an increased commitment to future
Dodman, Stephanie Lynn
There is a persistent and significant gap in the achievement of students who attend high-poverty schools and those who attend low-poverty schools. Students in high-poverty schools, the majority of whom are African American and Hispanic, are not achieving the same levels of academic success as their low-poverty or White counterparts. Retention…
Hammack, Floyd M.
This article addresses what schools that seek to promote social mobility as opposed to status maintenance among their students really ask of them. Focusing on several prominent charter school organizations, the article details the social and behavioral expectations of the schools and understands them through an application of Goffman's work on…
Manno, Jacqueline L.
Reform-oriented science teaching with a specific focus on evidence and explanation provides a student-centered learning environment which encourages children to question, seek answers to those questions, experience phenomena, share ideas, and develop explanations of science concepts based on evidence. One of the ways schools have risen to meet the challenge of ever-increasing demands for success in science and all other curricular areas has been in the development of professional development schools (PDSs). Dedicated to the simultaneous renewal of schools and teacher education programs, the structure of a PDS plays a significant role in the change process. The purpose of this research study was to investigate the nature of change in mentor teachers' beliefs and pedagogical practices toward science teaching in the elementary school as conveyed through their own "stories of practice". The major research questions that guided the study were: (1) How do mentor teachers describe their science teaching practices and how have they changed as a result of participation in PDS? (a) In what ways do PDS mentor teachers' descriptions of practice reflect contemporary reform ideas and practices in science education? (b) To what extent do their stories emphasize technical aspects of teaching versus epistemological changes in their thinking and knowledge? (c) How is student learning in science reflected in teachers' stories of practice? (2) What is the relationship between the levels and types of involvement in PDS to change in thinking about and practices of teaching science? (3) What is the depth of commitment that mentors convey about changes in science teaching practices? Using case study design, the research explored the ways experienced teachers, working within the context of a PDS community, described changes in the ways they think about and teach science. The connection to the issue of change in teaching practices grew out of interest in understanding the relationship
Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo
In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.
Full Text Available In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors. Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including “silent tutors” and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.
This study is a profile of the laboratory component of instruction in secondary school level chemistry. As one of several companion studies, the purpose of the study is to investigate present practices related to instruction as a means of producing reform that improve cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes. Five hundred-forty students, from 18 chemistry classes taught by 12 teachers in ten high schools were involved in this study. Three schools included public and private schools, urban school, suburban schools, and rural schools. Three levels or types of chemistry courses were offered in these schools: school regular chemistry for college bound students, Chemistry in the Community or "ChemCom" for non-college bound students, and a second year of chemistry or advanced placement chemistry. Laboratory sessions in each of these three levels of courses were observed, videotaped, and later analyzed using the Modified Revised Science Teachers Behaviors Inventory (MR-STBI). The 12 chemistry teachers, eight science supervisors, and selected students were interviewed to determine their professional backgrounds and other factors that might influence how they teach, how they think, and how they learn. The following conclusions developed from the research are: (1) The three levels of chemistry courses are offered across high schools of varying sizes and locations. (2) Teachers perceive that students come to chemistry classes poorly prepared to effectively carry out laboratory experiences and/or investigations. (3) While students indicated that they are able to effectively use math skills in analyzing the results of chemistry laboratory experiments, teachers, in general, are not satisfied with the level at which students are prepared to use these skills, or to use writing skills. (4) Students working in pairs, is the typical approach. Group cooperation is sometimes used in carrying out the laboratory component of chemistry instruction in the ChemCom and AP chemistry
Iara da Silva França
Full Text Available Abstract The article discusses the mathematical training of primary teachers in Paraná and aims to understand how elementary mathematical knowledge was included in the reform carried out by Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa, in the 1920’s and directed by Prieto Martinez for the modernization of the state’s primary education. Supported by theoretical and methodological framework of cultural history, this study is guided by the question: Considering the Reform of teaching school and thinking about the mathematics education of Paraná teachers, what has changed, why has it changed and what for? With the reform subjects more focused on practical teaching in primary school were introduced, and that favored the renewal of teaching methods and teaching resources, curriculum reorganization which reflected in the quality of Math education of future teachers in the state’s primary education. Keywords: Mathematics Teaching. Primary Education Teacher. History of Education.
The purpose of this study is to examine motivation of science high school students towards learning biology and their attitude towards biology lessons. The sample of the study consists of 564 high school students (308 females, 256 males) studying at two science high schools in Aksaray, Turkey. In the study, the relational scanning method, which is…
Full Text Available The teacher’s skills in conducting the lesson and choice of teaching methods play an essential role in creating students’ interest in biology. The aim of the research was to study the opinion of secondary school students and biology teachers regarding the most successful teaching methods used in biology lessons and viable options to make biology lessons more interesting. The research comprised polling students and biology teachers from several schools, namely: 2 secondary schools in Jelgava, 2 in Riga and 1 in Vecumnieki. The responses revealed that 58% of students find biology lessons interesting. 56% of students indicated that their ability to focus attention during biology lessons depends on the task presented to them. Most of all they prefer watching the teacher’s presentations, listening to their teacher telling about the actual topic as well as performing laboratory work and group-work. Many students like participating in discussions, whereas a far smaller number would do various exercises, individual tasks, fill out worksheets or complete projects. Least of all students wish to work with the textbook. The methods most frequently applied by teachers are as follows: lecture, explanation, demonstration, and discussion. Teachers believe that their students prefer laboratory work and discussions as well as listening to their teacher and watching presentations or films. They also indicate at the necessity to link theory with practice and to involve information technologies. While teaching their subject biology teachers try to establish relationship between theory and real life in order to develop their students’ interest in natural processes.
Sonu, Debbie; Benson, Jeremy
This paper argues that normative conceptions of the child, as a natural quasi-human being in need of guidance, enable current school reforms in the United States to directly link the child to neoliberal aims and objectives. In using Foucault's concept of governmentality and disciplinary power, we first present how the child is constructed as a…
In New York City in 2009, a new kind of public school opened its doors to its inaugural class of middle schoolers. Conceived by a team of game designers and progressive educational reformers and backed by prominent philanthropic foundations, it promised to reinvent the classroom for the digital age. Ethnographer Christo Sims documented the life of…
Hsiao, Hsi-Chi; Lee, Ming-Chao; Tu, Ya-Ling
Deregulation has formed the primary core of education reform in Taiwan in the past decade. The principal selection system was one of the specific recommendations in the deregulation of education. The method of designation of senior high school principals has changed from being "appointed" to being "selected." The issue as to…
Yu, Christina Wai Mui
From September 2009 onwards, a new business curriculum which focuses on three key business disciplines, namely management, accounting and finance, has been implemented in Hong Kong senior secondary schools. A new assessment guide has been also proposed in light of the new curriculum. Such business curriculum and assessment reform move in the…
This essay critiques the ideological assertions of corporate school reform and discusses how these logics perpetuate failure in urban education. Drawing on theories of neoliberal urbanism, the right to the city, and the commons, the essay argues that educational researchers and advocates need to reframe the values of urban education in line with a…
Imlig, Flavian; Ruoss, Thomas
This article investigates the use of evidence in educational policy and politics, and how this use has changed over time. Using an analytical framework that combines research approaches from both political and educational science, evidence-related arguments in two major school reforms in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland are described. In…
At a time when, in most countries, the profession of school psychology is experiencing a period of growth and expansion, many problems still remain. The origins of these problems are linked to the historical development of the profession which has provided school psychologists with a unique and distinctive role in administering IQ tests and using…
School librarians play numerous roles throughout a day. They are information specialists who keep up with the constant changes in information and technology. It is important for them to keep students up-to-date and teach them to use technology properly. Gaming and technology are both important concepts for 21st-century school librarians to…
Boas, Erica Misako
This dissertation responds to the question: How is sexuality organized in elementary schools? I argue that despite the absence of overt discussions on sexuality in elementary schools, sexuality is "organized" through social processes that are recursively linked to ideology. Due to the widely held belief that "children" and…
This feature has told stories of high school physical educators who have refused to accept the status quo of high school physical education programs. They have identified problems, initiated innovations in their own classes, implemented changes beyond their classes, and moved toward institutionalizing improvements throughout their programs and…
Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard
Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…
This article examines teaching practices and pedagogies shown in three Hollywood movies. Although some government reports and the media articles may assert that the quality of teaching in public schools is poor, by contrast mainstream movies of the "urban high school" genre often champion teachers who are able to make a difference in…
Pugh, Karen; Every, Danielle; Hattam, Robert
In recent years, there has been an increase in students with refugee experience in the UK, the US, Europe and Australia. These students face many barriers to education, and appropriately educating this diverse student population presents many challenges to schools and education departments. We argue that a whole of school approach that includes…
High school students in the United States are apathetic about science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and the workforce pipeline in these areas is collapsing. The lack of understanding of basic principles of biology means that students are unable to make educated decisions concerning their personal health. To address these issues, we have developed a simple, inquiry-based outreach lesson centered on a mouse dissection. Students learn key concepts in immunology and enhance their understanding of human organ systems. The experiment highlights aspects of the scientific method and authentic data collection and analysis. This hands-on activity stimulates interest in biology, personal health and careers in STEM fields. Here, we present all the information necessary to execute the lesson effectively with middle and high school students.
Full Text Available Lesson Study for Learning Community (LSLC contains two terminologies underpinning one another. There are many difficult challenges when the plan to create LSLC surfaces. Therefore, strong motivation and precise implementation strategies are of urgency. One of the ways is by developing networking of LSLC between universities and partner schools. The LSLC program will become powerful when it is done collaboratively in a form of strong partnership connected by networks. Writing this article aims to describe strategies for establishing networking with partner schools for implementing lesson study in Indonesia. This review article uses literature comparison study methods and use content analysis. In order for LSLC to manifest and become successful, resourcing and utilizing the partnership with schools are required. In a partnership with schools in order to implement LSLC, both parties must share the same need, which is facing the challenge with the willingness to cooperate for solving the problem. Cooperation with partner schools needs to be nurtured to become networking so that the benefits and the spirit of cooperation in solving problem double fold. Networking with partner schools can be implemented and can function well when the management of this networking conforms to shared needs, nurtures cooperation and mutual respect, gives and takes equally, and also promotes fair acceptance, support, independence, and discipline.
This article identifies the imperatives behind the need to move away from teaching based on the transmission of a lot of facts to teaching that enables students to become lifelong learners. It reminds us that the over-riding goal is an education process that maximizes the ability of teachers to teach well and of students to learn effectively. It argues that the necessary reform process can only be successful if the three components of an education programme--the curriculum, teaching strategies and assessment--are reformed simultaneously to ensure that each is designed to produce more effective teaching and learning. It points to the literature that tells us what we know about factors affecting student behaviour and, in particular, notes the crucial factor of student perception of the requirement of the assessment regime. It recommends that Biggs' model of constructive alignment is used as the organizing principle of continuing reform
This bachelor thesis deals with classroom communication during pedagogy and psychology lessons at high schools. The aim of the thesis is to describe classroom communication in the observed subjects in a complex way and to give the reader a realistic idea about the communication between the teachers and their students during instruction. The thesis is divided into a theoretical and an empirical part. The theoretical part focuses on pedagogical communication itself, which is a key term in class...
Hawkes, Corinna; Brazil, Bettina Gerken; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Jaime, Patricia Constante
OBJECTIVE: To provide insights for nutrition and public health practitioners on how to engage with other sectors to achieve public health goals. Specifically, this study provides lessons from the example of integrating family farming and a nutrition into a legal framework in Brazil on how to successfully shift other sectors toward nutrition goals.\\ud \\ud METHODS: The study analyzed policy processes that led to a Brazilian law linking family farming with the National School Feeding Program. Ma...
This paper reports an interpretive study that sought students' views about the role that practical work plays in their school science lessons. Twenty-nine students aged between 13 and 16 years were selected from three secondary schools in England. Data were collected from initial lesson observations and in-depth interviews in order to explore students' views about practical work. The findings suggest that students have three main reasons why practical work is important in their school science lessons: for interest and activity, including social and personal features such as participation and autonomy; as an alternative to other forms of science teaching involving a pedagogy of transmission, and as a way of learning, including memorizing and recall. The findings are discussed in the context of a critical view of previous work on the role of practical work, work on attitudes to science and on the student voice. The paper concludes that practical work is seen to provide opportunities for students to engage with and influence their own learning but that learning with practical work remains a complex issue that needs further research and evaluation about its use, effectiveness and of the role of scientific inquiry as a component of practical activity.
.... NAS's core premise was that all high-quality schools possess, de facto, a unifying design that enables all staff members to function to the best of their abilities and that integrates research-based...
Full Text Available There are a lot of didactic and technological methods and techniques that shape and develop cognitive interest of primary school students in modern methodology of teaching foreign languages. The use of various forms of gaming interaction, problem assignments, information and communication technologies in the teaching of primary school students allows diversifying the teaching of a foreign language, contributes to the development of their creative and cognitive activity. The use of health-saving technologies ensures the creation of a psychologically and emotionally supportive atmosphere at the lesson, which is an essential condition for acquiring new knowledge and maintaining stable cognitive interest among students while learning a foreign language.
Full Text Available The article covers the role of financial literacy in the country’s economic growth, reveals the essence of the notion and significance of financial literacy, highlights the main results of studies that determine the level of financial literacy of the population of Romania and Ukraine. The main steps to improve the level of financial literacy of the citizens of both countries are listed. The Ukrainian experience of developing financial literacy of high school students during mathematics lessons is underscored. The author suggests the recommendations and certain examples of tasks for raising the level of financial literacy of high school pupils in the process of teaching mathematics.
Conrad, Douglas A; Grembowski, David; Hernandez, Susan E; Lau, Bernard; Marcus-Smith, Miriam
In recent decades, practitioners and policymakers have turned to value-based payment initiatives to help contain spending on health care and to improve the quality of care. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded 7 grantees across the country to design and implement value-based, multistakeholder payment reform projects in 6 states and 3 regions of the United States. As the external evaluator of these projects, we reviewed documents, conducted Internet searches, interviewed key stakeholders, cross-validated factual and narrative interpretation, and performed qualitative analyses to derive cross-site themes and implications for policy and practice. The nature of payment reform and its momentum closely reflects the environmental context of each project. Federal legislation such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and federal and state support for the development of the patient-centered medical home and accountable care organizations encourage value-based payment innovation, as do local market conditions for payers and providers that combine a history of collaboration with independent innovation and experimentation by individual organizations. Multistakeholder coalitions offer a useful facilitating structure for galvanizing payment reform. But to achieve the objectives of reduced cost and improved quality, multistakeholder payment innovation must overcome such barriers as incompatible information systems, the technical difficulties and transaction costs of altering existing billing and payment systems, competing stakeholder priorities, insufficient scale to bear population health risk, providers' limited experience with risk-bearing payment models, and the failure to align care delivery models with the form of payment. From the evidence adduced in this article, multistakeholder, value-based payment reform requires a trusted, widely respected "honest broker" that can convene and maintain the ongoing commitment of health plans, providers, and purchasers
Full Text Available This article proposes intertextuality as a conceptual instrument for the deeper understanding of the phenomenon of equity in educational Reform in times of decentralization. This analysis starts from a dynamic vision of education reforms as interactions of texts. To illustrate the use of intertextual analysis of equity in education, this article introduces and discusses the analyzed examples of the educational national policy and of educational practice in the educational reform implemented in the 90?s and currently in force in the compulsory school in Sweden. It is argued that the meaning of equity is never a fixed one; it varies according to the interactions between political texts at a national level and texts of educational practice at communal and school levels. En este artículo se propone la intertextualidad como herramienta conceptual para lograr una mayor comprensión de la equidad en las reformas educativas en tiempos de descentralización. En este análisis se parte de una visión de reforma educativa como sistema dinámico de interacciones de textos. Para ilustrar la utilidad del análisis intertextual de la equidad educativa se presentan y discuten ejemplos de la política y de la práctica escolar en la reforma introducida en la década de los noventa y actualmente vigente en la escuela obligatoria sueca. Se argumenta que el significado de equidad nunca es fijo, sino que varía de acuerdo con las interacciones de los diferentes textos de la política educativa y de la práctica escolar.
McDonnell, Lorraine M.
In the face of fiscal crisis, today's education reform measures must be both cost-efficient and classroom effective. Experience shows that successful measures incorporate lessons gained from the growth years of the 1970's. New teaching practices, for example, can be transferred from site to site; schools can use to their advantage past efforts of…
Rohayati, E.; Diana, S. W.; Priyandoko, D.
Lesson plan have important role for biology teachers in teaching and learning process. The aim of this study was intended to gain an overview of lesson plan of biology teachers’ at Senior High Schools in Subang which were the members of biology teachers association in Subang. The research method was descriptive method. Data was collected from 30 biology teachers. The result of study showed that lesson plan profile in terms of subject’s identity had good category with 83.33 % of average score. Analysis on basic competence in fair category with 74.45 % of average score. The compatibility of method/strategy was in fair category with average score 72.22 %. The compatibility of instrument, media, and learning resources in fair category with 71.11 % of average score. Learning scenario was in good category with 77.00 % of average score. The compatibility of evaluation was in low category with 56.39 % of average score. It can be concluded that biology teachers in Subang were good enough in making lesson plan, however in terms of the compatibility of evaluation needed to be fixed. Furthermore, teachers’ training for biology teachers’ association was recommended to increasing teachers’ skill to be professional teachers.
Bridges, Terry James
This qualitative case study explores the use of lesson study over a ten-week period with six Ontario middle school science teachers. The research questions guiding this study were: (1) How does participation in science-based lesson study influence these teachers': (a) science subject matter knowledge (science SMK), (b) science pedagogical content knowledge (science PCK), and (c) confidence in teaching science?, and (2) What benefits and challenges do they associate with lesson study? Data sources for this study were: teacher questionnaires, surveys, reflections, pre- and post- interviews, and follow-up emails; researcher field notes and reflections; pre- and post- administration of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument; and audio recordings of group meetings. The teachers demonstrated limited gains in science SMK. There was evidence for an overall improvement in teacher knowledge of forces and simple machines, and two teachers demonstrated improvement in over half of the five scenarios assessing teacher science SMK. Modest gains in teacher science PCK were found. One teacher expressed more accurate understanding of students' knowledge of forces and a better knowledge of effective science teaching strategies. The majority of teachers reported that they would be using three-part lessons and hands-on activities more in their science teaching. Gains in teacher pedagogical knowledge (PK) were found in four areas: greater emphasis on anticipation of student thinking and responses, recognition of the importance of observing students, more intentional teaching, and anticipated future use of student video data. Most teachers reported feeling more confident in teaching structures and mechanisms, and attributed this increase in confidence to collaboration and seeing evidence of student learning and engagement during the lesson teachings. Teacher benefits included: learning how to increase student engagement and collaboration, observing students, including video data
Full Text Available The influence of computer on the formation of primary schoolchildren’s personality and their implementing into learning activity are considered in the article. Based on the materials of state standards and the Law of Ukraine on Higher Education the concepts “computer”, “information culture” are defined, modern understanding of the concept “basics of computer literacy” is identified. The main task of school propaedeutic course in Computer Studies is defined. Interactive methods of activity are singled out. They are didactic games, designing, research, collaboration in pairs, and group interaction, etc. The essential characteristics of didactic game technologies are distinguished, the peculiarities of their use at primary school in Computer Study lessons are analyzed. Positive and negative aspects of using these technologies in Computer Study lessons are defined. The expediency of using game technologies while organizing students’ educational and cognitive activity in Computer Studies is substantiated. The idea to create a school course “Computer Studies at primary school” is caused by the wide introduction of computer technics into the educational system. Today’s schoolchild has to be able to use a computer as freely and easily as he can use a pen, a pencil or a ruler. That’s why it is advisable to start studying basics of Computer Studies at the primary school age. This course is intended for the pupils of the 2nd-4th forms. Firstly, it provides mastering practical skills of computer work and, secondly, it anticipates the development of children’s logical and algorithmic thinking styles. At these lessons students acquire practical skills to work with information on the computer. Having mastered the computer skills at primary school, children will be able to use it successfully in their work. In senior classes they will be able to realize acquired knowledge of the methods of work with information, ways of problem solving
Fiddyment, Gail E.
Enrichment clusters offer a way for schools to encourage a high level of learning as students and adults work together to develop a product, service, or performance by applying advanced knowledge and authentic processes to real-world problems. This study utilized a qualitative research design to examine the perceptions and experiences of two…
Karolina Åsa Parding
Full Text Available Since the 1990s, governance changes, including customer choice agendas, have permeated the public sector and, consequently, welfare sector professionals’ work. One example is the education sector. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss avenues for further research when it comes to teachers’ working conditions in the light of current choice agendas. This is accomplished by presenting an overview of previous studies on implications of the reforms for teachers’ working conditions. How are these conditions described in relation to the current school choice agenda in Sweden? What directions should be applied to increase knowledge of these conditions? We conclude by identifying some avenues for further research: the issues of organization of work, temporal and spatial dimensions of working conditions, and finally comparative studies of various forms, are suggested as warranting further investigation to highlight the diversified labor market in which teachers find themselves today.Keywords: Competition, governance change, privatization, professional work, school choice, Sweden, teaching profession, working conditions
Kondratiuk, Oleksandra S.; Korshun, Maria M.; Garkavyi, Serhii I.; Garkavyi, Serhii S.
The mandatory swimming lesson in primary schools, equipped with swimming pools, was introduced without studying of its health-saving effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health status of pupils studying in schools with different organization of physical education lessons. Cross-sectional study was organized in two schools with different organization of physical education lessons. The experimental group (E) consisted of 408 children of 1‑4 year of study (210 girls and 198 boys) who during one of the lessons of physical education were engaged in swimming in the school basin. Control group (C) consisted of 279 primary school children (210 girls and 156 boys) from a neighboring educational institution where all physical education lessons were organized in the gym. The health status was evaluated using classical method of complex assessment of the state of health with the subsequent assignment of each child to one of the health groups. In result of evaluation of state of health there was established that among pupils from E group the proportion of boys with harmonious anthropometric parameters is higher (pprimary school has positive effect on health status of children.
Describes arts-based, anchored instruction at Fair Arts IMPACT Elementary School (Columbus, Ohio), a five-week program centered around "Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte" (Georges Seurat). Addresses unit objectives such as understanding social climate with respect to race/gender discrimination and examining why people…
Loeser, Helen; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Irby, David M
After successive Liaison Committee on Medical Education accreditation reports that criticized the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine for lack of instructional innovation and curriculum oversight, the dean issued a mandate for curriculum reform in 1997. Could a medical school that prided itself on innovation in research and health care do the same in education? The authors describe their five-phase curriculum change process and correlate this to an eight-step leadership model. The first phase of curricular change is to establish a compelling need for change; it requires leaders to create a sense of urgency and build a guiding coalition to achieve action. The second phase of curriculum reform is to envision a bold new curriculum; leaders must develop such a vision and communicate it broadly. The third phase is to design curriculum and obtain the necessary approvals; this requires leaders to empower broad-based action and generate short-term wins. In the fourth phase, specific courses are developed for the new curriculum, and leaders continue to empower broad-based action, generate short-term wins, consolidate gains, and produce more change. During the fifth phase of implementation and evaluation, leaders need to further consolidate gains, produce more change, and anchor new approaches in the institution. Arising from this experience and the correlation of curricular change phases with leadership steps, the authors identify 27 specific leadership strategies they employed in their curricular reform process.
Dolan, Anne M.; Waldron, Fionnuala; Pike, Susan; Greenwood, Richard
Teaching education is Ireland is currently undergoing significant structural and conceptual changes. School placement is at the centre of these reforms. This article reports the findings of an all-Ireland study which investigates student teachers' experiences of teaching geography during their school placements. Based on data collected from…
Iryna O. Taraba
Full Text Available The article deals with possible ways of the use of media education in the process of teaching foreign languages in elementary school, which corresponds to innovative educational trends. The task of the teacher is to build a learning process so that the children were interested. The author analyzes the concept of media education and suggests possible ways of formation of skills of using media education for primary school pupils. This will allow teachers to use self-made educational material based on the personal characteristics of the students, their level of preparation, the individual way of perception of information and work with it in order to develop their autonomy, the ability to analyze, synthesize and generalize information, to form a culture of communication with the media, creative, communicative abilities, critical thinking.
This commentary responds to "Lessons Learned From Leading an Anger Management Group Using the "Seeing Red" Curriculum in an Elementary School," E. L. Sportsman, J. S. Carlson, and K. M. Guthrie's (2010/this issue) account of an anger control intervention's implementation and effectiveness in an elementary school setting. The accompanying article…
The purpose of this study was to describe high school students' "physics", physics lesson" and "physics teacher" conceptions by using metaphors. 313 students participated in the study from different high school types in Siirt, Turkey. A metaphorical perception form constructed by researcher was individually conducted,…
Pérez-Rodrigo , C; Aranceta , J
Nutrition is a major environmental influence on physical and mental growth and development in early life. Food habits during infancy can influence preferences and practices in later life and some evidence suggests fair to moderate tracking of food habits from childhood to adolescence. Studies support that good nutrition contributes to improving the wellbeing of children and their potential learning ability, thus contributing to better school performance. Children and young people who learn healthy eating habits, are encouraged to be physically active, to avoid smoking and to learn to manage stress, have the potential for reduced impact of chronic diseases in adulthood. Nutrition education is a key element to promoting lifelong healthy eating and exercise behaviours and should start from the early stages of life; it should also address the specific nutritional needs associated with pregnancy, including reinforcing breastfeeding. Food habits are complex in nature and multiple conditioning factors interact in their development. Young children do not choose what they eat, but their parents decide and prepare the food for them. During infancy and early childhood the family is a key environment for children to learn and develop food preferences and eating habits. As they grow and start school, teachers, peers and other people at school, together with the media and social leaders, become more important. Progressively children become more independent and start making their own food choices. The peer group is very important for adolescents and has a major influence in developing both food habits and lifestyles. Community trials suggest that nutrition education is an accessible effective tool in health promotion programmes with a focus on the development of healthy eating practices.
Balfanz, Robert; Mac Iver, Doug
Two developers of the Talent Development Middle School model discuss 10 lessons from implementing, refining, and evaluating this model in 5 high-poverty middle schools in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and describe obstacles encountered and breakthroughs experienced in developing the knowledge base, materials, and infrastructure of the model. (SLD)
В. А. Щирба
Full Text Available The research objective is to study the factors that effect pupils’ interest in physical education and sports. Research methods: questionnaires and surveys, analysis of literary sources. The experiment took place at boarding school-lyceé No. 23 “Kadetskyi Korpus”. The participants were 100 high school students. Research results. The students’ low motivation for activity is conditioned by certain factors whose effect can vary in proportions depending on the youth’s living conditions, environment, and family upbringing. The analysis of reasons behind the high school students’ dissatisfaction with the forms of physical education allows to determine the incentives that help increase the students’ activity. Their answers reveal the need for physical load, active games, and presence of their favorite types of exercises at the lesson, background music, contests, etc.
Public Agenda, 2012
This is a report on how community stakeholders, including parents, teachers, community leaders and advocates, think about current efforts by Chicago Public Schools (CPS) to "turn around" Chicago's lowest-performing schools, and their expectations for future school reform actions. It was prepared by Public Agenda, with support from the…
Full Text Available This article includes evidence on equity, governance and health financing outcomes of the Mexican health system. An evaluative research with a cross-sectional design was oriented towards the qualitative and quantitative analysis of financing, governance and equity indicators. Taking into account feasibility, as well as political and technical criteria, seven Mexican states were selected as study populations and an evaluative research was conducted during 2002-2010. The data collection techniques were based on in-depth interviews with key personnel (providers, users and community leaders, consensus technique and document analysis. The qualitative analysis was done with ATLAS TI and POLICY MAKER softwares. The Mexican health system reform has modified dependence at the central level; there is a new equity equation for resources allocation, community leaders and users of services reported the need to improve an effective accountability system at both municipal and state levels. Strategies for equity, governance and financing do not have adequate mechanisms to promote participation from all social actors. Improving this situation is a very important goal in the Mexican health democratization process, in the context of health care reform. Inequality on resources allocation in some regions and catastrophic expenditure for users is unequal in all states, producing more negative effects on states with high social marginalization. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the main strengths and weaknesses, as relevant evidences for other Latin American countries which are designing, implementing and evaluating reform strategies in order to achieve equity, good governance and a greater financial protection in health.
Verseux, Cyprien; G Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos; Chizzolini, Fabio
In 2014, an international group of scholars from various fields analysed the "societal dimensions" of synthetic biology in an interdisciplinary summer school. Here, we report and discuss the biologists' observations on the general perception of synthetic biology by non-biologists who took part...... in this event. Most attendees mainly associated synthetic biology with contributions from the best-known public figures of the field, rarely mentioning other scientists. Media extrapolations of those contributions appeared to have created unrealistic expectations and irrelevant fears that were widely...... disconnected from the current research in synthetic biology. Another observation was that when debating developments in synthetic biology, semantics strongly mattered: depending on the terms used to present an application of synthetic biology, attendees reacted in radically different ways. For example, using...
O'Brien, Bridget C; Irby, David M
On the 100th anniversary of the Flexner Report, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching published a new study of medical education. This study, titled Educating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical Schools and Residency Programs, contained four primary recommendations intended to stimulate innovation and improvement in medical education. In this article, the authors examined the ways others have applied the four recommendations from Educating Physicians within and beyond medical education. In their review of 246 publications citing the Carnegie work, they found that the recommendation for integration was addressed most frequently, often through descriptions of integration of curricular content in undergraduate medical education. The recommendation to focus on professional identity formation was the second most frequently addressed, followed by standardization and individualization, then inquiry, innovation, and improvement. The publications related to these latter three recommendations tended to be conceptual rather than descriptive or empirical. Publications spanned the continuum of medical education (from medical school to residency to physicians in practice) and even into other fields, but undergraduate medical education received the most attention. The authors discuss common themes among the citing publications and highlight opportunities for further discussion and innovation. Many exciting developments have occurred in medical education and beyond since the publication of Educating Physicians in 2010. Thus far, most of the publications citing the Carnegie recommendations describe incremental changes in medical education, particularly in the area of integration. Some of the conceptual work around these recommendations, coupled with a variety of external factors such as changes in health care and accreditation systems, suggests the potential for changes that are more transformative in nature.
Halstead, Melissa A.
Secondary science teachers spend most of their time planning, collaborating, and teaching, but spend little time reflecting after teaching a single lesson. The theoretical framework of the adult learning theory and the transformative learning theory was the basis of this study. This qualitative research study was conducted to understand the reflective experiences of secondary science educators after teaching a single or several lessons. The collection of data consisted of interviews from a group of purposefully selected secondary science teachers who met the criteria set forth by the researcher. Through a qualitative analysis of interviews and field notes, the researcher determined that the secondary science teachers in this study shared similar as well as different experiences regarding collaborative and individual reflection after teaching a single or several lessons. The findings from this study also suggested that secondary science educators prefer to collaboratively reflect and then reflect alone to allow for further thought. Additionally, a supportive school culture increases the secondary science teacher’s desire to engage in collaborative as well as individual reflection. The information from this study could be used to close the gaps that exist in the teacher professional development programs.
Mette, Ian M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Lisa; Hvidston, David J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of one school's teacher-driven professional development effort to address culturally responsive teaching practices in a large district in a Midwestern state. During the 2011-2012 school year, a team of teachers and principals began a three-year long effort to provide job-embedded professional…
Full Text Available The paper analyses the role of Ernesto Codignola’s «Florence School of Pedagogy» in the renewal of Italian democratic and secular education after World War II, particularly its commitment to the diffusion of John Dewey’s educational thinking across Italy, previously dominated by the influence of traditional neo-idealism. Through a systematic analysis of the journal Scuola e Città, the group’s mouthpiece, the paper highlights the importance of Dewey’s ideas in the elaboration of educational policy proposals and potential legislative measures for school reform. It analyses the extent to which the «Deweyan laboratory» in Florence contributed to the emergence and foundation of the positions held by one of its exponents, Ernesto Codignola’s son Tristano – the Italian Socialist Party’s Education minister, in the parliamentary debate of the Sixties. The paper focuses on three main themes: (i assessment of the government’s primary school curricula, drawn up in the mid-fifties, characterized by an overhaul of the existing educational practices, which Scuola e città authors considered to be insufficient and contradictory; (ii universal access to a junior secondary education along the lines of the comprehensive school model to guide the active stimulation of students’ abilities and interests; and (iii school administration reform in response to the persistence of pre-war centralism and the authoritarian character of traditional Italian pedagogy.
Slater, Graham B.
Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…
The quality reform of higher education in Norway has generally recommended a substitution of classroom teaching with more active forms of learning in higher education. This study reveals that ignoring the student's personality type may be in conflict with the purpose of the reform. The student's personality type affects both the most effective…
Guarino, Cassandra M.; Galama, Titus; Constant, Louay; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Tanner, Jeffery C.; Goldman, Charles A.
Reform-minded leaders of Qatar, who have embarked on a sweeping reform of their nation's education system, asked RAND to evaluate the education finance system that has been adopted and to offer suggestions for improvements. The authors analyze the system's evolution and resource allocation patterns between 2004 and 2006 and develop analytic tools…
Verseux, Cyprien; Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Chizzolini, Fabio; Rothschild, Lynn J.
In 2014, an international group of scholars from various fields analysed the "societal dimensions" of synthetic biology in an interdisciplinary summer school. Here, we report and discuss the biologists' observations on the general perception of synthetic biology by non-biologists who took part in this event. Most attendees mainly associated synthetic biology with contributions from the best-known public figures of the field, rarely mentioning other scientists. Media extrapolations of those contributions appeared to have created unrealistic expectations and irrelevant fears that were widely disconnected from the current research in synthetic biology. Another observation was that when debating developments in synthetic biology, semantics strongly mattered: depending on the terms used to present an application of synthetic biology, attendees reacted in radically different ways. For example, using the term "GMOs" (genetically modified organisms) rather than the term "genetic engineering" led to very different reactions. Stimulating debates also happened with participants having unanticipated points of view, for instance biocentrist ethicists who argued that engineered microbes should not be used for human purposes. Another communication challenge emerged from the connotations and inaccuracies surrounding the word "life", which impaired constructive debates, thus leading to misconceptions about the abilities of scientists to engineer or even create living organisms. Finally, it appeared that synthetic biologists tend to overestimate the knowledge of non-biologists, further affecting communication. The motivation and ability of synthetic biologists to communicate their work outside their research field needs to be fostered, notably towards policymakers who need a more accurate and technical understanding of the field to make informed decisions. Interdisciplinary events gathering scholars working in and around synthetic biology are an effective tool in addressing those
Britain considers the energy-only EU Target Electricity Model (TEM) wanting in delivering the trilemma of reliability, sustainability and affordability and argues that a capacity auction with long-term contracts for new entrants is the least-cost solution compared to relying on expectations of future prices to deliver adequate generation and demand side response. The Energy Union argues against feed-in tariffs (FiTs) for renewables, pressing for premium FiTs (pFiTs), just as GB has abandoned PFiTs in favour of FiTs. This paper draws on the GB experience of Electricity Market Reform before and after the 2015 change of government, to highlight promising resolutions of the energy trilemma, and the problems that have arisen between the diagnosis of the problem and the delivery of solutions. It sets out the theory and practice of delivering capacity, energy and quality of supply, gives a brief history of GB electricity from the CEGB to its current unbundled, liberalized and privatized structure. That sheds light on the trilemma problem and discusses possible solutions. The island of Ireland Single Electricity Market reforms illustrate the problem and possible answer of how best to deliver quality of service with high intermittency. - Highlights: • The UK has introduced capacity payments and feed-in tariffs for renewables. • This contrasts with the energy-only target model and the Energy Union vision. • Transmission and distribution charges are critical in capacity auctions. • New flexibility services are needed for massive renewables penetration. • Britain and Ireland provide relevant evidence on addressing the energy trilemma.
Hawkes, Corinna; Brazil, Bettina Gerken; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Jaime, Patricia Constante
To provide insights for nutrition and public health practitioners on how to engage with other sectors to achieve public health goals. Specifically, this study provides lessons from the example of integrating family farming and a nutrition into a legal framework in Brazil on how to successfully shift other sectors toward nutrition goals. The study analyzed policy processes that led to a Brazilian law linking family farming with the National School Feeding Program. Main actors involved with the development of the law were interviewed and their narratives were analyzed using a well-established theoretical framework. The study provides five key lessons for promoting intersectorality. First, nutrition and health practitioners can afford to embrace bold ideas when working with other sectors. Second, they should engage with more powerful sectors (or subsectors) and position nutrition goals as providing solutions that meet the interests of these sector. Third is the need to focus on a common goal - which may not be explicitly nutrition-related - as the focus of the intersectoral action. Fourth, philosophical, political, and governance spaces are needed to bring together different sectors. Fifth, evidence on the success of the intersectoral approach increases the acceptance of the process. This study on policy processes shows how a convergence of factors enabled a link between family farming and school feeding in Brazil. It highlights that there are strategies to engage other sectors toward nutrition goals which provides benefits for all sectors involved.
Just a few days before my career as a fledgling science teacher began in a large public high school in New York City, a mentor suggested I might get some ideas about how to run a classroom from a book called The First Days Of School by Harry Wong. Although the book seemed to concentrate more on elementary students, I found that many of the principles in the book worked well for high school students. Even as I have begun to teach at the university level, many of Wong’s themes have persisted in my teaching style. Wong’s central thesis is that for learning to occur, a teacher must create the proper environment. In education jargon, a good climate for learning is generated via classroom management, an array of methods used by elementary and secondary school teachers to provide structure and routine to a class period via a seamless flow of complementary activities. Many college professors would likely consider classroom management to be chiefly a set of rules to maintain discipline and order among an otherwise unruly herd of schoolchildren, and therefore not a useful concept for mature university students. However, classroom management is much deeper than mere rules for behavior; it is an approach to instructional design that considers the classroom experience holistically. A typical professorial management style is to lecture for an hour or so and ask students to demonstrate learning via examinations several times in a semester. In contrast, a good high school teacher will manage a class from bell-to-bell to create a natural order and flow to a given lesson. In this presentation, I will argue for an approach to college lesson design similar to the classroom management style commonly employed by high school and elementary school teachers. I will suggest some simple, practical techniques learned during my high school experience that work just as well in college: warm-up and practice problems, time management, group activities, bulletin boards, learning environment
Howat, Holly; Curtis, Nikki; Landry, Shauna; Farmer, Kara; Kroll, Tobias; Douglass, Jill
This article examines school and school district-level efforts to reopen schools after significant damage from hurricanes. Through an empirical, qualitative research design, four themes emerged as critical to the hurricane recovery process: the importance of communication, resolving tension, coordinating with other services and learning from the…
This paper describes how English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in Indonesia have implemented the recent character education policy within an era of school-based curriculum reform. The character education policy required all teachers, EFL teachers included, to instil certain values in every lesson whilst the school-based curriculum reform…
.... One way that these efforts differ from earlier reforms is that they involve the adoption of content and student performance standards--explicit benchmarks of what students should know and be able...
Sportsman, Emily L.; Carlson, John S.; Guthrie, Kelly M.
Four fourth-grade boys participated in an anger management group using "Seeing Red: An Anger Management and Peacemaking Curriculum for Kids" facilitated by a school psychology intern and her supervisor (J. Simmonds, 2003). The group met for 30 min weekly for a total of 14 sessions. Lessons consisted of practicing skills and strategies related to…
de Greeff, Johannes W; Hartman, Esther; Wijnsma, Marijke; Bosker, Roelof J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Christiaan
Integrating physical activity into the curriculum has potential health and cognitive benefits in primary school children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physically active academic lessons on cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness and executive functions. In the current
Baskin, Monica L.; Zunker, Christie; Worley, Courtney B.; Dial, Brenda; Kimbrough, Linda
Purpose: This paper seeks to describe the design, implementation, and lessons learned from an obesity prevention pilot program delivered in a low resource school in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: A planned program evaluation was conducted to: document explicitly the process of designing and implementing the program; and assess the…
Chedzoy, Susan; Burden, Robert
The thoughts and feelings of preadolescent children attending three primary schools in the West of England about reasons for doing well or not doing well in Physical Education lessons were explored by means of an open-ended set of questions drawn from attribution theory. A further aim was to seek suggestions from the children of ways in which…
Gravesen, David Thore; Ringskou, Lea Thomsen
for effectiveness contributes to increasing amounts of discipline techniques and new requirements in relation to the pedagogues’ skills in classroom management. Seemingly, the enhanced encounter between time and pedagogy both provide potentials and pitfalls, triggering different, often ambivalent, emotional......, Denmark. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Research topic/aim: In 2014, the Danish Primary School was reformed. A reform that meant longer school days, emphasizing varied learning environments and better results for each pupil regardless of social background. In general, the reform matches other educational reforms...... effectiveness and academic outcomes. In our presentation, launching the concept of timeagogy, we analyze and discuss the encounter between time and pedagogy. Which strategies, techniques and action evolve when time challenges pedagogy? How do pedagogues handle time demands and in which way does time constitute...
Fairclough, Stuart J; Weaver, R Glenn; Johnson, Siobhan; Rawlinson, Jack
SOFIT+ is an observation tool to measure teacher practices related to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) promotion during physical education (PE). The objective of the study was to examine the validity of SOFIT+ during high school PE lessons. This cross-sectional, observational study tested the construct validity of SOFIT+ in boys' and girls' high school PE lessons. Twenty-one PE lessons were video-recorded and retrospectively coded using SOFIT+. Students wore hip-mounted accelerometers during lessons as an objective measure of MVPA. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of students engaging in MVPA during different teacher practices represented by observed individual codes and a combined SOFIT+ index-score. Fourteen individual SOFIT+ variables demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with girls' and boys' MVPA. Observed lesson segments identified as high MVPA-promoting were related to an increased likelihood of girls engaging in 5-10 (OR=2.86 [95% CI 2.41-3.40]), 15-25 (OR=7.41 [95% CI 6.05-9.06]), and 30-40 (OR=22.70 [95% CI 16.97-30.37])s of MVPA. For boys, observed high-MVPA promoting segments were related to an increased likelihood of engaging in 5-10 (OR=1.71 [95% CI 1.45-2.01]), 15-25 (OR=2.69 [95% CI 2.31-3.13]) and 30-40 (OR=4.26 [95% CI 3.44-5.29])s of MVPA. Teacher practices during high school PE lessons are significantly related to students' participation in MVPA. SOFIT+ is a valid and reliable tool to examine relationships between PE teacher practices and student MVPA during PE. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asen, Robert; Gurke, Deb; Conners, Pamela; Solomon, Ryan; Gumm, Elsa
This article analyzes the use of research evidence in school-board deliberations in three school districts in Wisconsin. In these settings, the circulation, meaning, and function of research depended importantly on the interests and backgrounds of advocates, the composition of audiences, and the values and contexts of decision-making. Board…
Polland, Scott; Rosenburg, Steve
A tragic school shooting occurred in Brazil on April 7, 2011. A young adult male returned to the school that he had previously attended, Tasso da Silveira in Realengo, and shot and killed 13 and wounded another 20 students or teachers. Realengo, a suburb of Rio de Janeiro, is composed of hard working lower and middle class families with strong…
Park, Jisun; Song, Jinwoong; Abrahams, Ian
This study explored, from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Michael Polanyi, the unintended learning that occurred in primary practical science lessons. We use the term `unintended' learning to distinguish it from `intended' learning that appears in teachers' learning objectives. Data were collected using video and audio recordings of a sample of twenty-four whole class practical science lessons, taught by five teachers, in Korean primary schools with 10- to 12-year-old students. In addition, video and audio recordings were made for each small group of students working together in order to capture their activities and intra-group discourse. Pre-lesson interviews with the teachers were undertaken and audio-recorded to ascertain their intended learning objectives. Selected key vignettes, including unintended learning, were analysed from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Polanyi. What we found in this study is that unintended learning could occur when students got interested in something in the first place and could maintain their interest. In addition, students could get conceptual knowledge when they tried to connect their experience to their related prior knowledge. It was also found that the processes of intended learning and of unintended learning were different. Intended learning was characterized by having been planned by the teacher who then sought to generate students' interest in it. In contrast, unintended learning originated from students' spontaneous interest and curiosity as a result of unplanned opportunities. Whilst teachers' persuasive passion comes first in the process of intended learning, students' heuristic passion comes first in the process of unintended learning. Based on these findings, we argue that teachers need to be more aware that unintended learning, on the part of individual students, can occur during their lesson and to be able to better use this opportunity so that this unintended learning can be
Meredith K D Hawking
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School visits to farms are a positive educational experience but pose risks due to the spread of zoonotic infections. A lesson plan to raise awareness about microbes on the farm and preventative behaviours was developed in response to the Griffin Investigation into the E. coli outbreak associated with Godstone Farm in 2009. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the delivery of the lesson plan in increasing knowledge about the spread of infection on the farm, amongst school students. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-five 9-11 year old students from seven junior schools in England participated. Two hundred and ten students filled in identical questionnaires covering microbes, hand hygiene, and farm hygiene before and after the lesson. Statistical analysis assessed knowledge change using difference in percentage correct answers. RESULTS: Significant knowledge improvement was observed for all sections. In the 'Farm Hygiene' section, girls and boys demonstrated 18% (p<0.001 and 11% (p<0.001 improvement, respectively (girls vs. boys p<0.004. As girls had lower baseline knowledge the greater percentage improvement resulted in similar post intervention knowledge scores between genders (girls 80%, boys 83%. CONCLUSIONS: The lesson plan was successful at increasing awareness of microbes on the farm and infection prevention measures and should be used by teachers in preparation for a farm visit.
Rosenda M. Wamelda
Full Text Available This phenomenological study was designed to determine the experiences of pregnant secondary school students aged 12-19 students who were descendants of unwed mothers. In-depth-interview and focus group discussion were applied with 14 pregnant students who were utilized in selecting the participants of the study. The participants revealed that their experiences were on humiliation and disdain remorse fear and insecurity escape and remediation support and love financial constraints and acquiescence. Their coping mechanisms were being positive about the situation having the aid and support of the family faith and hope to the divine God and the wisdom of the family. Importantly the teenage mothers valued the lessons learned from the experience the values of resilience and elasticity resolution and repentance for what they have done and hopes and dreams for the future.
Kocken, P.L.; Kesteren, N.M.C. van; Buijs, G.; Snel, J.; Dusseldorp, E.
Objective To study the effects of school lessons about healthy food on adolescents’ self-reported beliefs and behaviour regarding the purchase and consumption of soft drinks, water and extra foods, including sweets and snacks. The lessons were combined with the introduction of lower-calorie foods,
Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana
This article discusses insights from an ethnographic study of local governance practices in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, under changing policy conditions. Recent reforms introduced and strengthened the position of head teachers, enhanced the responsibility of the municipalities and introduced new quality management procedures in local…
New York City's new mayor, Bill de Blasio, represents a dramatic shift from his predecessor Michael Bloomberg in the area of education. Bloomberg was a national trendsetter on market reforms focused on privatization, testing, and competition. De Blasio was elected on an agenda of classroom investments, student supports, parent and community…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of principals in light of public management reforms taking place in the German educational system and in reference to the empirical patterns uncovered by the papers contained in the Special Issue. Policy makers have created new expectations and new technologies that seem to suggest to…
Full Text Available The 1921 agrarian reform aimed to be a significant step towards Romania’s agricultural development. The main motive of this reform – at least on a declarative level – was a socially oriented one: to expropriate a part of the big landowners’ estates, and to distribute in among the poverty-stricken people, with a special concern towards the First World War veterans, or their widows. At the same time, the agrarian reform recognised the differences in development between the different regions of the newly-formed Greater Romania, and as such there were two different laws regulating the reform processes in the Old Kingdom and in the newly annexed territories. The members of the Bucharest School of Sociology, based on the scarce data available to them to the time, approached the economically questionable results of this reform in a critical manner. József Venczel, who had acquired the bases of his professional knowledge at the same school, also proves, with regard to the Transylvanian land reform, that this had a second, national policy oriented goal, and its implementation was also ethnically biased.
This paper considers the impact of the Beacon schools initiative on the social and academic characteristics of secondary schools in England. The Beacon schools programme ran from 1998 to 2004 and epitomised the (then) Labour government's focus on school improvement through diversity, collaboration and partnership. This paper looks at variation in…
Governor Jerry Brown has called for a major overhaul of California's school finance policies. His proposal for a weighted pupil funding system would simplify the rules that govern the distribution of funds to schools and school districts, while targeting a larger share of available resources to the schools and students with the greatest needs. In…
Naylor, Patti-Jean; Macdonald, Heather M; Zebedee, Janelle A; Reed, Katherine E; McKay, Heather A
The 'active school' model offers promise for promoting school-based physical activity (PA); however, few intervention trials have evaluated its effectiveness. Thus, our purpose was to: (1) describe Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) and its implementation (fidelity and feasibility) and (2) evaluate the impact of AS! BC on school provision of PA. Ten elementary schools were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions: Usual Practice (UP, three schools), Liaison (LS, four schools) or Champion (CS, three schools). Teachers in LS and CS schools received AS! BC training and resources but differed on the level of facilitation provided. UP schools continued with regular PA. Delivery of PA during the 11-month intervention was assessed with weekly Activity Logs and intervention fidelity and feasibility were assessed using Action Plans, workshop evaluations, teacher surveys and focus groups with administrators, teachers, parents and students. Physical activity delivered was significantly greater in LS (+67.4 min/week; 95% CI: 18.7-116.1) and CS (+55.2 min/week; 95% CI: 26.4-83.9) schools than UP schools. Analysis of Action Plans and Activity Logs showed fidelity to the model and moderate levels of compliance (75%). Teachers were highly satisfied with training and support. Benefits of AS! BC included positive changes in the children and school climate, including provision of resources, improved communication and program flexibility. These results support the use of the 'active school' model to positively alter the school environment. The AS! BC model was effective, providing more opportunities for "more children to be more active more often" and as such has the potential to provide health benefits to elementary school children.
Jacobo, A. C.; Collay, R.; Harris, R. N.; de Silva, L.
We have formed a link between the Increasing Diversity in Earth Sciences (IDES) program with the Science and Math Investigative Learning Experiences (SMILE) program, both at Oregon State University. The IDES mission is to strengthen the understanding of Earth Sciences and their relevance to society among broad and diverse segments of the population and the SMILE mission is to provide science and math enrichment for underrepresented and other educationally underserved students in grades 4-12. Traditionally, underserved schools do not have enough time or resources to spend on science and mathematics. Furthermore, numerous budget cuts in many Oregon school districts have negatively impacted math and science cirriculum. To combat this trend we have designed suitcase lessons in climate change that can be carried to a number of classrooms. These lesson plans are scientifically rich and economically attractive. These lessons are designed to engage students in math and science through climate change presentations, group discussions, and hands-on activities. Over the past year we have familiarized ourselves with the academic ability of sixth and seventh graders through in-class observation in Salem Oregon. One of the suit case lessons we developed focuses on climate change by exploring the plight of polar bears in the face of diminishing sea ice. Our presentation will report the results of this activity.
This case describes the experience of a new school board member in Miami-Dade County Public Schools, Marta Perez, as she discovers a wide range of ethical and management problems in the school district and attempts to deal with them. Layered throughout the case are challenges pertaining to the school board's roles and responsibilities,…
The response of medical students, young physicians, and other health professionals to the February 2010 earthquake and tsunami in Chile provides important lessons about health care delivery during disasters and about the development of professionalism. Tertiary and secondary care of victims of these disasters was possible because local and national resources were available and field hospitals provided by Chile's armed forces and foreign countries replaced damaged hospitals. However, primary care of persons living on the outskirts of towns and in small villages and coves that were destroyed and isolated by the disaster required the involvement of volunteer groups that were largely composed of students and other young members of the health professions, all of whom were motivated by solidarity, compassion, and social commitment. This experience, similar to previous catastrophes in Chile and elsewhere, reinforces that medical and other health professional schools must instill in graduates an understanding that the privileges of being a health professional come with responsibilities to society. Beyond providing high-quality scientific and technological education, curricula in these schools should include training that enables graduates to meaningfully contribute in the setting of unexpected disasters and that nurtures a sense of responsibility to do so.
Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle
Sleep duration and quality are associated with negative neuropsychological and psychosocial outcomes in children and adolescents. However, community awareness of this is low and sleep education programs in schools are attempting to address this issue. Several studies now exist assessing the efficacy of these sleep education programs for improving sleep knowledge, sleep hygiene and sleep patterns. This paper presents these sleep education programs, most particularly, it presents the strengths and weaknesses of the current available studies in the hope that this can identify areas where future sleep education programs can improve. A systematic search of all school-based sleep education studies in adolescents was undertaken. Studies were scrutinized for author, teacher and participant comment regarding strengths and limitations of each study, which were then extracted and summarized. Two specific types of sleep education programs emerged from the review, those that sought to change sleep behavior and those that sought simply to disseminate information. Issues that dictated the strength or weakness of a particular study including who delivers the program, the theoretical basis, the tools utilized to measure sleep patterns, the content, and their capacity to engage students were assessed. Sleep education was considered important by teachers, students and parents alike. Future sleep education programs need to take into account lessons learned from previous sleep education efforts in order to maximize the potential for sleep education programs to improve the sleep health of our young people. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 595. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Hodge, Emily M.
This study uses the example of the Emergency School Aid Act of 1972, a federal desegregation incentive program, to discuss the benefits and challenges of equity-oriented incentives. This study applies theories of policy instruments and the social construction of target populations to congressional records, archival program materials, and other…
Honig, Meredith I.; Rainey, Lydia R.
New "autonomy initiatives" aim to increase schools' decision-making authority as a strategy to leverage school improvement. These policies build on lessons of previous reforms such as site-based management in ways that bode well for their success. However, how are these policies actually faring in implementation? The authors addressed that…
Christensen, Heidi Klakk; Andersen, Lars B; Heidemann, Malene Søborg
to estimate effect of intervention taking the hierarchical structure of data into account. Individual, class and school were considered random effects. Intra class correlation (ICC) was calculated. Results: Intervention significantly lowered mean of composite risk score with 0.17 SD (95% CI: -0.34 to -0.......01). Six PE lessons per week had a beneficial effect on triglycerides (TG) levels (-0.18 SD, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.00), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-0.22 SD, 95% CI: -0.42 to -0.02) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0.17 SD, 95% CI: -0.34 to 0.01). Conclusions: Six PE lessons at school can reduce children...
Prabowo, A.; Asih; Jumardi
The purpose of this research is to find the most appropriate learning media of multiplication and division for the 2nd graders of elementary school. The study used the steps in the lesson study, Plan-Do-See. Data were taken using observation instruments, video documentation, and learning evaluation tools. Initially, teachers used gravel as media of multiplication and division. Students can solve numeracy problems when they learn by those media. In test, 80% of students were failure when the teacher evaluates them. By involving experts and partner teachers at school, classroom teachers can solve problems by discover multiplication and division media with the drawing media created by the students themselves. At the end of the lesson, 100% of students have mastered multiplication and division with the media.
Krejsler, John B.
The article argues that Early Childhood Education & Care (ECEC) is being redesigned based on quality reform discourse with references to global knowledge economy across Nordic countries and the EU. This takes place in policy processes that extend from transnational agents like the OECD and EU...... to national governments, local municipalities and ECEC institutions. Drawing on theoretical insights from Foucauldian genealogy, Laclau and others, the article explores how these policy processes reconfigure what counts as quality in ECEC in a Danish context. It is substantiated how the Danish government...... promotes governance structures among municipalities and professionals that pull ECEC into comprehensive educational strategies. This process draws on policy advice from the OECD and EU. Quality reform thus changes in fundamental ways the organisation and content in ECEC. In discourse, learning displaces...
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of using a Wimmelbuch as visual teaching aids for forming foreign language communication skills at English lessons at primary school. Nowadays much attention is given to the problem of forming and improving foreign language communication skills of primary schoolchildren in scholarly works and case studies. The aim of the article is to analyze the problem of implementing visual teaching aids, in particular a Wimmelbuch while forming foreign language communication skills at English lessons at primary school. The aim involves the following tasks: to define the factors that influence forming primary schoolchildren’s communicative competence; to find out the pedagogical conditions of the problem of using visual aids (a Wimmelbuch in teaching a foreign language at primary school. Such methods as analysis, synthesis, and systematization are used to achieve the aim of the article. They help to get to the essence of the outlined problem and pass from a less general idea to more general one logically. Much attention is given to the factors that influence forming primary schoolchildren’s communicative competence. The pedagogical conditions of the problem of using a Wimmelbuch in learning a foreign language at primary school are determined. It is found out that the current labor market conditions require from the organization of the educational process at secondary school to lay the strong foundation for the formation of primary professional skills of an individual. Therefore, teaching English should have both the communicative-oriented character and professionally-directed one that promotes developing consciousness; expanding students’ outlook, their creative development, personal culture and competence; forms recognizing a multicultural world. Nowadays there are the following features of the communicative approach in learning a foreign language: a a language is examined as a means of communication, preference is
Hawkes, C.; Jaime, P. C.; Rugani, I. C.; Brasil, B. G.
OBJECTIVE:\\ud To provide insights for nutrition and public health practitioners on how to engage with other sectors to achieve public health goals. Specifically, this study provides lessons from the example of integrating family farming and a nutrition into a legal framework in Brazil on how to successfully shift other sectors toward nutrition goals. \\ud METHODS: \\ud The study analyzed policy processes that led to a Brazilian law linking family farming with the National School Feeding Program...
Michigan radically altered its school finance system in 1994. The new plan, called Proposal A, significantly increased state aid to the lowest-spending school districts and limited future increases in spending in the highest-spending ones, abolishing local discretion over school spending. I investigate the impact of Proposal A on the distribution…
Ciolino, Max S.; Kirylo, James D.; Mirón, Luis; Frazier, Kelly
In the post-Katrina education landscape in New Orleans, teachers in charter schools and district-run schools in the Recovery School District are uniquely situated to provide a direct eyewitness account of the successes and failures of the city's new direction in public education. This narrative presents the opinions of teachers in a critical…
Salmonowicz, Michael J.; Levy, Melissa K.
This case was written for use in courses dealing with school administration, specifically those related to organizational change, school improvement/turnaround, and the principalship. It explores a veteran principal's first year as a "turnaround specialist" in a low-performing middle school, where she works with a sense of urgency to achieve an…
Schlechty, Phillip C.
If schools are not changed in dramatic ways very soon, public schools will lose their place as a vital component of the American education system. The first three chapters of this book describe the crisis in American education, arguing that what the schools were designed to do no longer serves the needs of American society. The presence of…
Context: Collaboration within school teams is considered to be important to build the capacity school teams need to work in a data-based way. In a school characterized by a strong collaborative culture, teachers may have more access to the knowledge and skills for analyzing data, teachers have more opportunity to discuss the performance goals to…
Keuning, Trynke; Geel, Marieke Van; Visscher, Adrie; Fox, Jean Paul; Moolenaar, Nienke M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304352802
Context: Collaboration within school teams is considered to be important to build the capacity school teams need to work in a data-based way. In a school characterized by a strong collaborative culture, teachers may have more access to the knowledge and skills for analyzing data, teachers have more
This article roughly retrospects the idea of school voucher program proposed by Milton Friedman, lately developed by Peacock, Wiseman and Jencks. The reasons like privatization in education, deterioration of public schooling and school choice promote this program. Then taking a simple look at the ramification of voucher program and its value…
Woodside-Jiron, Haley; Gehsmann, Kristin M.
This article explores the complex process of school change over a six-year period in one high-poverty, urban elementary school in a northeastern city of the United States. The school included in this instrumental case study was identified by its State Department of Education as "being in need of improvement" in March 2000. Findings…
Hawking, Meredith K. D.; Lecky, Donna M.; Verlander, Neville Q.; McNulty, Cliodna A. M.
Background School visits to farms are a positive educational experience but pose risks due to the spread of zoonotic infections. A lesson plan to raise awareness about microbes on the farm and preventative behaviours was developed in response to the Griffin Investigation into the E. coli outbreak associated with Godstone Farm in 2009. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the delivery of the lesson plan in increasing knowledge about the spread of infection on the farm, amongst school students. Methods Two hundred and twenty-five 9–11 year old students from seven junior schools in England participated. Two hundred and ten students filled in identical questionnaires covering microbes, hand hygiene, and farm hygiene before and after the lesson. Statistical analysis assessed knowledge change using difference in percentage correct answers. Results Significant knowledge improvement was observed for all sections. In the ‘Farm Hygiene’ section, girls and boys demonstrated 18% (plesson plan was successful at increasing awareness of microbes on the farm and infection prevention measures and should be used by teachers in preparation for a farm visit. PMID:24146765
The politics of the later part of the twentieth century have been marked by the emergence of neoliberalism, which has consequently impregnated the global policy climate with neoliberal technologies of government. It is within this political scenario of hegemonic neoliberal discourse that I explore one aspect of school reform in Malta--contrived…
Berryman, Mere; Egan, Margaret; Ford, Therese
This paper discusses expectations, policies and practices that currently underpin education within the New Zealand context. It acknowledges the ongoing failure of this policy framework to positively influence reform for Indigenous Maori students in regular, state-funded schools and highlights the need for extensive change in the positioning and…
Bracun Sova, Rajka; Kemperl, Metoda
One of the important positions of the last curricular reform in Slovenia, which included systemic issues of education (White Paper on Education, 2011) and curricula for compulsory subjects in primary school, is the fact that Slovenia has been integrated into Europe, and thus education should also include the development of core European…
Full Text Available En este artículo se ilustra, con la reciente reforma al sistema mexicano de salud, el potencial del conocimiento en el diseño e implantación de las políticas públicas. En primer lugar se discute la relación entre conocimiento y salud. En una segunda parte se describen los esfuerzos que se llevaron a cabo en México para generar evidencias que eventualmente nutrieron el diseño e implantación de las políticas locales de salud. En seguida se analizan los contenidos de la reforma del sistema mexicano de salud y su concepto rector, La democratización de la atención a la salud. El artículo concluye con una discusión de las lecciones globales de esta experiencia de reforma.This paper illustrates, using as an example the recent reform of the Mexican health system, the potential of knowledge in the design and implementation of public policies. In the first part the relationship between knowledge and health is described. In part two, the efforts in Mexico to generate evidence that would eventually nourish the design and implementation of health policies are discussed. In the following sections the content and the guiding concept of the reform, the democratization of health, are analyzed. The paper concludes with the discussion of the main global lessons of this reform experience.
Marsh, Julie A.; Strunk, Katharine O.; Bush, Susan
Purpose: Despite the popularity of school "turnaround" and "portfolio district" management as solutions to low performance, there has been limited research on these strategies. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the strategic case of Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice…
Dittrich, T. M.
I will present the accumulation of over 10 years of experience teaching STEM subjects to students ranging from 1st grade to graduate school. I was fortunate to gain a lot of valuable teaching experience while in graduate school in Boulder, CO and so many of my experiences center on opportunities for connecting with students in the field in CO. 3rd-5th grade field hikes - While helping at Jamestown Elementary School, I led hikes with a 3-5th grade class to an abandoned flourospar mine where the students were able to pick up beautiful purple fluorite crystals from the ground while discussing how mining works. During the hike back, we used field meters to measure the pH and conductivity of the stream and discussed the need to balance society's need for metals with the harmful effects of acid mine drainage. 9th, 10th grade STEM Academy at Skyline High School - During an NSF-sponsored fellowship, I had the opportunity to teach a STEM class to 9th and 10th graders where we used the engineering design process to a) design a tool to help a handicapped 3rd grader use the drinking fountain by herself and b) design a treatment system for cleaning up acid mine drainage. Undergraduate and Graduate Environmental Water Chemistry Field Trip - Students had the opportunity to tour two local mine sites to collect contaminated water that would be used in class for alkalinity titrations and pH, sulfate, and hardness measurements. They also collected water samples upstream and at multiple points downstream of a wastewater treatment plan and measured and graphed the dissolved oxygen "sag" in the river. My main teaching philosophy has two parts: 1) assume the students know nothing and 2) assume the students are even smarter than you think you are. This informs my approach to field trips by always starting from the beginning, but also not oversimplifying the topic. 1st graders on their best day can be very similar to graduate students on their worst.
Full Text Available The problems of physical education of primary school children at the present stage in Ukraine. The question of development of new approaches, related to the differentiated programming of development of motive capabilities of students of first class in the process of the fixed from which will be instrumental in the improvement of decision tasks of physical education at school. We mark the back strength of children from experimental group (boys and girls. Scientific evidence of the elaborated innovative technology of using tennis in physical training lessons.
María Luisa de Lázaro y Torres
Full Text Available School on the Cloud es un Proyecto europeo Acción Clave 3 del programa de Aprendizaje Permanente de la UE. En sus tres años de andadura ha evidenciado la potencialidad del empleo de la nube para el aprendizaje en todos los niveles educativos con la finalidad de llamar la atención a los agentes responsables de la educación en Europa sobre ello. Diversas actividades y resultados de investigación han permitido llegar a esa conclusión, para cuya consecución se proponen algunas medidas concretas, como por ejemplo, una estrategia europea para la educación en la nube.School on the Cloud is a European Erasmus+ project Key Action 3 of the EU Lifelong Learning program. The experience of three years has proven the potential use of the cloud for learning at all educational levels. We aim to draw stakeholders’ attention to the subject of education in Europe. A number of activities and research results have made it possible to reach this conclusion. Concrete measures to improve this type of learning have been proposed, such as a European strategy for education on the cloud.
Schneider, Rebecca M.
For curriculum materials to succeed in promoting large-scale science education reform, teacher learning must be supported. Materials were designed to reflect desired reforms and to be educative by including detailed lesson descriptions that addressed necessary content, pedagogy, and pedagogical content knowledge for teachers. The goal of this research was to describe how such materials contributed to classroom practices. As part of an urban systemic reform effort, four middle school teachers' initial enactment of an inquiry-based science unit on force and motion were videotaped. Enactments focused on five lesson sequences containing experiences with phenomena, investigation, technology use, or artifact development. Each sequence spanned three to five days across the 10-week unit. For each lesson sequence, intended and actual enactment were compared using ratings of (1) accuracy and completeness of science ideas presented, (2) amount student learning opportunities, similarity of learning opportunities with those intended, and quality of adaptations , and (3) amount of instructional supports offered, appropriateness of instructional supports and source of ideas for instructional supports. Ratings indicated two teachers' enactments were consistent with intentions and two teachers' enactments were not. The first two were in school contexts supportive of the reform. They purposefully used the materials to guide enactment, which tended to be consistent with standards-based reform. They provided students opportunities to use technology tools, design investigations, and discuss ideas. However, enactment ratings were less reflective of curriculum intent when challenges were greatest, such as when teachers attempted to present challenging science ideas, respond to students' ideas, structure investigations, guide small-group discussions, or make adaptations. Moreover, enactment ratings were less consistent in parts of lessons where materials did not include lesson specific
Shymansky, James A.; Yore, Larry D.; Anderson, John O.
This article is about one school district's effort to reform its elementary science curriculum through a program of professional development called Science, Parents, Activities and Literature (Science PALs). The differential exposure of the district's K-6 teachers to Science PALs and differences in how well teachers implemented Science PALs-type inquiry strategies allowed us to conduct a quasi-experimental study of the impact of Science PALs on student achievement and attitudes. We measured achievement with an instrument based on items taken from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS; International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, ) and selected attitudes about science with the Student Perceptions of Classroom Climate (SPOCC; Yore et al., ), an instrument that we designed. Our analyses of student attitude scores as a function of years of teacher participation in Science PALs and supervisor's rating of a teacher's implementation of the project's instructional approaches showed a significant overall positive impact on student attitudes toward school science. Student TIMSS scores on multiple-choice items or constructed-response items did not improve significantly when analyzed by the number of years a student's teacher was involved in the Science PALs effort or by the supervisor's rating of that implementation. We found no significant differences in attitude or achievement scores among students taught by a series of teachers rated high, medium, or low in quality of implementation by the district's science supervisor. We discuss possible explanations for the lack of clear and positive connections between Science PALs and student performance in light of the increased focus on accountability in reform projects.
Natalia Danzer; Victor Lavy
This paper investigates the question whether long-term human capital outcomes are affected by the duration of maternity leave, i.e. by the time mothers spend at home with their newborn before returning to work. Employing RD and difference-in-difference approaches, this paper exploits an unanticipated reform in Austria which extended the maximum duration of paid and job protected parental leave from 12 to 24 months for children born on July 1, 1990 or later. We use test scores from the Austria...
Sabau Remus Mircea
Full Text Available Between the elements which mark the global processes, we can include educational issues, the management of processes in pre-university education. Therefore, the synthetic approach to educational problems in Romania, studied in terms of the processes and the phenomena of social development, but also due to the need for submiting the pre-university Romanian educational process to the European Union requirements, appears to be current and important. This analysis focuses on the decentralization of education. This theme is a true significant of the stage and of the the changing potential of the management practice in the public area. Its actuality is also hard to contest under the conditions in which changes in this area have been slow compared to those of the other countries that joined the European Union (Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, contradictory and inconsistent (Herczynski and Levitas, 2001: 1-2. The legislative changes, training facilities, as well as the constant institutional reorganization of pre-university education show the presence of an active interest in this matter. However, the real reform of university education still requires essential improvements. This study analyzes the social perception of performers in pre-university system, establishes positive and negative aspects of the reform in pre-university education, all from the perspective of teachers. The research was conducted between March 1st, 2011 and April 1st, 2011. During this time the questionnaire was applied and the data interpreted. The data obtained from the questionnaire interpretation were introduced into the SPSS program. For the analysis and interpretation of data we used SPSS 15.0. under Windows license. My investigation efforts were directed towards the impact of decentralization on the performers in pre-university education system and on their perception. The main purpose of the experimental study was to determine the essential perceptions of the performers
Although traditional departments of anatomy are vanishing from medical school rosters, anatomical education still remains an important part of the professional training of physicians. It is of some interest to examine whether history can teach us anything about how to reform modern anatomy. Are there lessons to be learned from the history of…
Grytten, Jostein; Skau, Irene
The aim of the present study was to estimate the causal effect of education on the probability of receiving periodontal treatment in the adult Norwegian population. In Norway, a substantial part of the cost of periodontal treatment is subsidized by the National Insurance Scheme. In that case, one might expect that the influence of individual resources, such as education, on receiving treatment would be reduced or eliminated. Causal effects were estimated by using data on a school reform in Norway. During the period 1960-1972, all municipalities in Norway were required to increase the number of compulsory years of schooling from seven to nine years. The education reform was used to create exogenous variation in the education variable. The education data were combined with large sets of data from the Norwegian Health Economics Administration and Statistics Norway. Since municipalities implemented the reform at different times, we have both cross-sectional and time-series variation in the reform instrument. Thus we were able to estimate the effect of education on the probability of receiving periodontal treatment by controlling for municipality fixed effects and trend variables. The probability of receiving periodontal treatment increased by 1.4-1.8 percentage points per additional year of schooling. This is a reasonably strong effect, which indicates that policies to increase the level of education in the population can be an effective tool to improve oral health, including periodontal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asada, Yuka; Ziemann, Margaret; Zatz, Lara; Chriqui, Jamie
Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to…
Purpose: Educational leadership is key to addressing the persistent inequities in low-income urban schools, but most principals struggle to work with parents and communities around those schools to create socially just learning environments. This article describes the conditions and experiences that enabled principals to share leadership with…
Chicago's city leaders, unlike other city leaders, are going after fundamental and radical restructuring of the nation's third largest school system, but have found that it is hard to achieve. This paper provides a snapshot of the growing political involvement of Chicago's business leadership with the city's troubled school system. The need for…
Hazle Bussey, Leslie; Welch, Jennie C.; Mohammed, Meca B.
A growing number of organisations--universities, non-profits, independent consultants--are emerging as partners to school systems pursuing systemic improvement. This proliferation invites questions probing the interaction between school systems and their consulting partners. Drawing on a cross-disciplinary review of literature, this theoretical…
Schlechty, Phillip C.; Whitford, Betty Lou
Public schools must play a more central role in teacher education than they do now. What is needed is an organization separate from public schools, the university, and the teachers' organizations that can act as an effective force for teacher professionalization. (Author)
Rittenmeyer, Dennis C.
Using the schools to achieve racial balance, eliminate poverty, fight drug abuse, prevent pregnancy, and reduce youth suicide is too large a task. Teachers and principals should address educational issues, not unmet social needs. To improve the educational performance of the schools, the quality of life for youth must first be improved. (MSE)
Cheung, Alan C. K.; Yuen, Timothy W. W.
In an effort to enhance the quality of teachers and teaching, and to lead internal curriculum development in primary schools, the Hong Kong Education Bureau created a new curriculum leader post entitled primary school master/mistress (curriculum development) or PSMCD for short. The main purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions of these…
Focuses on behaviors and activities of three high school principals as they respond to district's decision to implement a shared decision-making model designed to give teachers and parents a larger voice. Describes these administrators' varying responses, along with varied ways democratic leadership was multilaterally defined in each school by…
For decades, when California's state leaders have wanted to see local school districts respond to shifts in policy and expectations they relied on the state-controlled school finance system to leverage local change. Through the use of categorical programs and earmarked funding, they created incentives for districts that complied and penalties for…
The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effects of physical education lessons planned in accordance with cooperative learning approach on secondary school students' problem solving skills. The research was conducted on 48 students studying at Konya/Selçuklu Sehit Mustafa Çuhadar Secondary School in fall semester of 2015-2016…
Klakk, Heidi; Chinapaw, Mai; Heidemann, Malene
Strategies for combating increasing childhood obesity is called for. School settings have been pointed out as potentially effective settings for prevention. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of four additional Physical Education (PE) lessons/week in primary schools on body...
Asada, Yuka; Ziemann, Margaret; Zatz, Lara; Chriqui, Jamie
The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to gain insight into successful implementation strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with FSDs (N = 9) from high schools that had achieved HealthierUS Schools Challenge: Smarter Lunchrooms (HUSSC: SL) status. Qualitative interview data were team coded in Atlas.ti v7 and analyzed with principles of constant comparative analysis. FSDs reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and its potential impacts, as well as improved fruit and vegetable consumption, despite initial challenges with plate waste, procurement of whole grain-rich products, and fast paced sodium targets. Implementation was described as complex, ongoing processes; with time and in-service trainings, student acceptance to these changes improved. These findings are directly relevant to future reauthorization of the Child Nutrition Act and to revisions to the implementation time line for the federal school meal standards related to sodium, whole grains, and flavored milk. Insights into FSDs' strategies suggest that more time and targeted technical assistance at federal, state, and local levels is warranted. © 2017, American School Health Association.
In his text published in Edukacja, 141(2), 2017 („Education reform and inequality: fifteen years of new lower secondary schools in Poland”), Zbigniew Sawiński analyses data from the 2000 to 2012 editions of the OECD PISA study and argues that lower secondary school reform has not reduced educational inequalities in Poland. The importance of students’ social origin remained at the same level as before the reform, the impact of social origin on the choice of type of secondary school remained th...
Pope, Lizzy; Garnett, Bernice; Dibble, Marguerite
To encourage high school students to meet physical activity goals using a newly developed game, and to document the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of using an electronic gaming application to promote physical activity in high school students. Working with youth and game designers an electronic game, Camp Conquer, was developed to motivate high school students to meet physical activity goals. One-hundred-five high school students were recruited to participate in a 12-week pilot test of the game and randomly assigned to a Game Condition or Control Condition. Students in both conditions received a FitBit to track their activity, and participants in the Game Condition received access to Camp Conquer. Number of steps and active minutes each day were tracked for all participants. FitBit use, game logins, and qualitative feedback from researchers, school personnel, and participants were used to determine intervention engagement. The majority of study participants did not consistently wear their FitBit or engage with the gaming intervention. Numerous design challenges and barriers to successful implementation such as the randomized design, absence of a true school-based champion, ease of use, and game glitches were identified. Developing games is an exciting technique for motivating the completion of a variety of health behaviors. Although the present intervention was not successful in increasing physical activity in high school students, important lessons were learned regarding how to best structure a gaming intervention for the high school population.
Basch, Charles E
This article provides an introduction to the October 2011 special issue of the Journal of School Health on "Healthier Students Are Better Learners." Literature was reviewed and synthesized to identify health problems affecting school-aged youth that are highly prevalent, disproportionately affect urban minority youth, directly and indirectly causally affect academic achievement, and can be feasibly and effectively addressed through school health programs and services. Based on these criteria, 7 educationally relevant health disparities were selected as strategic priorities to help close the achievement gap: (1) vision, (2) asthma, (3) teen pregnancy, (4) aggression and violence, (5) physical activity, (6) breakfast, and (7) inattention and hyperactivity. Research clearly shows that these health problems influence students' motivation and ability to learn. Disparities among urban minority youth are outlined, along with the causal pathways through which each adversely affects academic achievement, including sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out. Evidence-based approaches that schools can implement to address these problems are presented. These health problems and the causal pathways they influence have interactive and a synergistic effect, which is why they must be addressed collectively using a coordinated approach. No matter how well teachers are prepared to teach, no matter what accountability measures are put in place, no matter what governing structures are established for schools, educational progress will be profoundly limited if students are not motivated and able to learn. Particular health problems play a major role in limiting the motivation and ability to learn of urban minority youth. This is why reducing these disparities through a coordinated approach warrants validation as a cohesive school improvement initiative to close the achievement gap. Local, state, and national policies for implementing this
Robelen, Erik W.
Kicked off the week of April 10, 2006 with a big plug on "The Oprah Winfrey Show," a new campaign spearheaded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is aiming to drum up public action to address what its organizers see as a crisis in America's public high schools. The Stand Up campaign comes as high schools have emerged as a focus of public-policy…
Bolden, Marsha Gail
Some schools fall short of the high demand to increase science scores on state exams because low-performing students enter high school unprepared for high school science. Low-performing students are not successful in high school for many reasons. However, using inquiry methods have improved students' understanding of science concepts. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to investigate the teachers' lived experiences with using inquiry methods to motivate low-performing high school science students in an inquiry-based program called Xtreem Science. Fifteen teachers were selected from the Xtreem Science program, a program designed to assist teachers in motivating struggling science students. The research questions involved understanding (a) teachers' experiences in using inquiry methods, (b) challenges teachers face in using inquiry methods, and (c) how teachers describe student's response to inquiry methods. Strategy of data collection and analysis included capturing and understanding the teachers' feelings, perceptions, and attitudes in their lived experience of teaching using inquiry method and their experience in motivating struggling students. Analysis of interview responses revealed teachers had some good experiences with inquiry and expressed that inquiry impacted their teaching style and approach to topics, and students felt that using inquiry methods impacted student learning for the better. Inquiry gave low-performing students opportunities to catch up and learn information that moved them to the next level of science courses. Implications for positive social change include providing teachers and school district leaders with information to help improve performance of the low performing science students.
Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara
Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…
Oleksik, Ireneusz; Lorek, Grzegorz; Dacy-Ignatiuk, Katarzyna
We are a group of teachers from Poland who think that classroom lessons are not enough for our pupils to understand the world. We had a dream to take our students and show them the most beautiful places and phenomena on the Earth. But how to do it? Though today's travelling is so easy as never before, there are still some problems for young Poles - not only funding but also philosophy of travelling. It looks that we found a solution a few years ago - why not to organise quite independent school scientific expeditions? Without travel agencies and agents we can reduce costs of travelling 2-3 times! And we did it! We buy cheap flight tickets, fly to our destination and then... we must manage with all problems ourselves. We sleep in tents or budget hostels, use local means of transport and eat food from cheap markets or street eating places. Our motto is: "To see as much as possible for the minimum money". There are many more advantages - we decide where to go and how much time we spend in one area, we can change our route in every moment if something appears worth seeing. Our small groups are very mobile, sometimes local people invite us to visit their houses (like in Iran or Morocco). Expeditions allow students to watch, feel, touch, taste and smell phenomena, places and organisms which they could only read about in a classroom and to understand people from other cultures and religions. The list of nature and culture jewels that we have already seen is still growing - sands and oasis of Sahara, snow peaks of Himalayas, salt waters of Caspian Sea in Iran, geysers, volcanoes and glaciers of Iceland, the biggest sea birds colonies and whales in the North Atlantic, ancient cities - Fez, Marrakesh, Esfahan, Varanasi and Yazd.
Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Shamir-Inbal, Tamar
The Ministry of Education in Israel has, over the past two years, been running an education program designed to lead the implementation of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) in schools. Implementation of the program is accompanied by training and support of teachers selected to be ICT leaders. The role of the ICT leader is divided to…
Liu, Xiaolai; Li, Qun; Gao, Jiangtao
For the students who have just entered colleges, learning university physics would be a challenge. This paper discusses how to make students who have just finished senior high school physics won't feel difficult in learning university physics and how to guide and cultivate the students' interest in the study of physics so to stimulate the…
Laguardia, Armando; Pearl, Arthur
We offer a theoretical and ecological argument for the preparation of citizens in U.S. public schools. This democratic education draws legitimacy from the concern of the nations founders for a populace educated to govern itself. We also emphasize the need for new democratic skills and knowledge in the face of today's challenges, and our…
Alexander, Karl L.; Pallas, Aaron M.
This report examines whether a high school curriculum organized around the five "new basics" suggested by the National Commission on Excellence in Education is likely to enhance student achievement. Data from the ETS Growth Study reveals that completion of the core curriculum has sizable effects on senior-year test performance, even when…
Fretz, Joan R.
Understanding what motivates people to put forth effort, persevere in the face of obstacles, and choose their behaviors is key to creating an optimal learning environment--the type of school that policy makers desire, but are unknowingly sabotaging (Dweck, 2000). Many motivation and self-concept theories provide important insight with regard to…
The historical origins and development of comprehensive schooling have seldom been analyzed systematically and comparatively. However, there is a rich comparative and historically grounded literature on the development of welfare states, which focuses on many relevant policies, but ignores the education system. In particular, the power resources…
Wagner, Tony; Sconyers, Nancy
This report is part of a multi-year project conducted by the Institute for Responsive Education (IRE) and Boston University components of the Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning. The report draws on results of a series of focus groups and interviews conducted in 1994 and 1995 to explore how policymakers and parents,…
Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.
The research herein uses a mixed methods approach to examine how organizational phenomena at the macro level of analysis translate into phenomena at the micro level. Specifically, the research attempts to explain how cultural institutions may translate into individual attitudes and actions, such as public school teachers' decisions about using…
Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Hughes, Roxanne M.; Brooks, Melanie C.
This article reports findings from a two-year case study of teachers in a single public high school. Data were gathered and analyzed using a conceptual framework that conceived of alienation as a set of five sub-constructs: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, and estrangement. Findings suggested that teachers experienced each…
Full Text Available Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has funded fifty-nine state, urban, and rural systemic initiatives. The purpose of the initiatives is to promote achievement in math, science, and technology among all students, and to encourage schools and communities to secure the resources needed to maintain such outcomes. The Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI is a six-state consortium which focuses these efforts on low-income, rural schools. The primary means of accomplishing ARSI's aims is a one-day-one-school site visit, called a Program Improvement Review, done by an ARSI math or science expert. The centrally important Program Improvement Reviews, however, seem to be premised on unsubstantiated assumptions as to the static, easy-to-understand, easy-to-evaluate nature of educational achievement in rural Appalachian schools. As a result, the Reviews resemble exercises in early-twentieth century scientific management, and are unlikely to enhance achievement in science or math. Consequently, even if there is merit to the commonsense human capital approach to economic growth and development on which systemic initiatives are tacitly premised, this first- person account makes a case that desired payoffs are unlikely to follow from the work of ARSI.
Rajka Bračun Sova
Full Text Available One of the important positions of the last curricular reform in Slovenia, which included systemic issues of education (White Paper on Education, 2011 and curricula for compulsory subjects in primary school, is the fact that Slovenia has been integrated into Europe, and thus education should also include the development of core European competences. One such competence is cultural awareness and expression, which until now has been an issue more in the context of cultural policies than school policies in Slovenia. The purpose of the present article is to critically analyse the curricular reform of art education (i.e., visual art education, through which, in terms of certain components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression, it is foreseen that the student will gain a knowledge of art, develop an ability to experience works of art and develop a creative attitude towards art and heritage. Because the starting point and goal of curricular change is the curriculum, our analysis is derived from curriculum theories, and not from the art theories and pedagogical theories that have predominantly framed previous attempts at curriculum analysis. Critical consideration of the curricular reform of art education in primary school in terms of certain components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression was undertaken by comparing curricula in the field of aesthetic education. We compared art education with music education and literature within the Slovenian language curriculum. Qualitative analysis showed that, despite the reform, the curriculum for arts education does not realise selected components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression, largely due to the curriculum’s conceptual structure. Art education is centred principally on art-making activities, with an obvious neglect of appreciation. The integration of arts subjects at school, as proposed by the White Paper, is therefore not possible, due to the existing
Bulach, Cletus R.; Lunenberg, Fred C.; Potter, Les
A high-performing school is described as one where student achievement is high and student and teacher absenteeism is low. Student behavior is such that teachers seldom have to control them or tell them what to do. This results in greater time on task, higher teacher morale, low teacher absenteeism, and improved parental support. One other…
Hollis, Jenna L; Sutherland, Rachel; Williams, Amanda J; Campbell, Elizabeth; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John
Schools play an important role in physical activity promotion for adolescents. The systematic review aimed to determine the proportion of secondary (middle and high) school physical education (PE) lesson time that students spend in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and to assess if MVPA was moderated by school level (middle and high school), type of physical activity measurement and type of PE activities. A systematic search of nine electronic databases was conducted (PROSPERO2014:CRD42014009649). Studies were eligible if they were published between 2005 and 2014; written in English; assessed MVPA in PE lessons of secondary (middle and high) school students; and used a quantitative MVPA measure (i.e., accelerometry, heart rate monitoring, pedometers or observational measures). Two reviewers examined the retrieved articles, assessed risk of bias, and performed data extraction. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled estimate of the percent of PE lesson time spent in MVPA and to assess moderator effects where data allowed. The search yielded 5,132 potentially relevant articles; 28 articles representing 25 studies (7 middle and 18 high school) from seven countries were included. Twelve studies measured MVPA through observational measures, seven used accelerometers, five used heart rate monitors and four used pedometers (including three studies using a mix of measures). Meta-analysis of 15 studies found that overall, students spent a mean (95% CI) of 40.5% (34.8-46.2%) of PE in MVPA. Middle school students spent 48.6% (41.3-55.9%) of the lesson in MVPA (n = 5 studies) and high school students 35.9% (28.3-43.6%) (n = 10 studies). Studies measuring MVPA using accelerometers (n = 5) showed that students spent 34.7% (25.1-44.4%) of the lesson in MVPA, while 44.4% (38.3-50.5%) was found for lessons assessed via observation (n = 9), 43.1% (24.3-61.9%) of the lesson for a heart rate based study, and 35.9% (31.0-40.8%) for a
Toke, N.; Johnson, A.; Nelson, K.
Earthquakes are one of the most widely covered geologic processes by the media. As a result students, even at the middle school level, arrive in the classroom with preconceptions about the importance and hazards posed by earthquakes. Therefore earthquakes represent not only an attractive topic to engage students when introducing tectonics, but also a means to help students understand the relationships between geologic processes, society, and engineering solutions. Facilitating understanding of the fundamental connections between science and society is important for the preparation of future scientists and engineers as well as informed citizens. Here, we present a week-long lesson designed to be implemented in five one hour sessions with classes of ~30 students. It consists of two inquiry-based mapping investigations, motivational presentations, and short readings that describe fundamental models of plate tectonics, faults, and earthquakes. The readings also provide examples of engineering solutions such as the Alaskan oil pipeline which withstood multi-meter surface offset in the 2002 Denali Earthquake. The first inquiry-based investigation is a lesson on tectonic plates. Working in small groups, each group receives a different world map plotting both topography and one of the following data sets: GPS plate motion vectors, the locations and types of volcanoes, the location of types of earthquakes. Using these maps and an accompanying explanation of the data each group’s task is to map plate boundary locations. Each group then presents a ~10 minute summary of the type of data they used and their interpretation of the tectonic plates with a poster and their mapping results. Finally, the instructor will facilitate a class discussion about how the data types could be combined to understand more about plate boundaries. Using student interpretations of real data allows student misconceptions to become apparent. Throughout the exercise we record student preconceptions
A growing body of research concludes that teacher knowledge is critical for high levels of student achievement. One mechanism for improving teacher knowledge is the development of "professional communities" of teachers at a school site. Indeed, many policy-makers and educators have placed considerable faith in these communities without a detailed understanding of the efficacy or dynamics of teacher interaction in the workplace. This research study examined teacher professional interactions at...
Mangiante, Elaine Silva
The intent of national efforts to frame science education standards is to promote students' development of scientific practices and conceptual understanding for their future role as scientifically literate citizens (NRC 2012). A guiding principle of science education reform is that all students receive equitable opportunities to engage in rigorous science learning. Yet, implementation of science education reform depends on teachers' instructional decisions. In urban schools serving students primarily from poor, diverse communities, teachers typically face obstacles in providing reform-based science due to limited resources and accountability pressures, as well as a culture of teacher-directed pedagogy, and deficit views of students. The purpose of this qualitative research was to study two white, fourth grade teachers from high-poverty urban schools, who were identified as transforming their science teaching and to investigate how their beliefs, knowledge bases, and resources shaped their planning for reform-based science. Using the Shavelson and Stern's decision model for teacher planning to analyze evidence gathered from interviews, documents, planning meetings, and lesson observations, the findings indicated their planning for scientific practices was influenced by the type and extent of professional development each received, each teacher's beliefs about their students and their background, and the mission and learning environment each teacher envisioned for the reform to serve their students. The results provided specific insights into factors that impacted their planning in high-poverty urban schools and indicated considerations for those in similar contexts to promote teachers' planning for equitable science learning opportunities by all students.
Reviews Website: Online Graphing Calculator Video Clip: Learning From the News Phone App: Graphing Calculator Book: Challenge and Change: A History of the Nuffield A-Level Physics Project Book: SEP Sound Book: Reinventing Schools, Reforming Teaching Book: Physics and Technology for Future Presidents iPhone App: iSeismometer Web Watch
WE RECOMMEND Online Graphing Calculator Calculator plots online graphs Challenge and Change: A History of the Nuffield A-Level Physics Project Book delves deep into the history of Nuffield physics SEP Sound Booklet has ideas for teaching sound but lacks some basics Reinventing Schools, Reforming Teaching Fascinating book shows how politics impacts on the classroom Physics and Technology for Future Presidents A great book for teaching physics for the modern world iSeismometer iPhone app teaches students about seismic waves WORTH A LOOK Teachers TV Video Clip Lesson plan uses video clip to explore new galaxies Graphing Calculator App A phone app that handles formulae and graphs WEB WATCH Physics.org competition finds the best websites
Steve R. Entrich
Full Text Available Considering the great impact the first PISA-results caused in Germany and Japan, this study seeks to provide an explanation for the continuous higher achievement rates of students in the PISA-winner country Japan compared to their German peers. Another great difference between the two participants that was detected in PISA is the correlation between students’ social origin and educational achievement, which is still very strong in Germany but not in Japan. The author assumes the reason for these differences lay outside the formal school system, in the sector of shadow education. The so called juku-industry in Japan provides out-of-school lessons that seem to enable all Japanese students to achieve top results regardless of their social origin. In Germany the increased use of Nachhilfe is seen as an indicator for the downfall of the compulsory school system and a problem that seem to widen the gap in education levels all the more. If in Japan almost every household regardless of its social status sends its children to out-of-school classes, the assumption that people do invest in further education in terms of extra classes at juku believing this will have a neutralizing effect on disadvantaged family background suggests itself. Consequently the author intends to refute the prevailing assumption of researchers in Germany and Japan stating that out-ofschool lessons just contribute to the reproduction of class structure. Using secondary data as well as PISA-data the author wants to show that shadow education helps to counteract educational disadvantages through the provision of various educational opportunities.
James, Marlon C.; Rupley, William H.; Hall, Kristin Kistner; Nichols, Janet Alys; Rasinski, Timothy V.; Harmon, Willie C.
This article examines the efficacy of the implementation of a program titled Consensus Initiative [pseudonym] in an urban school district that served 20,000 linguistically, economically, and racially diverse students situated in the northeast region of the United States. Using a research derived ecological framework from the school reform…
Paul-Binyamin, Ilana; Gindi, Shahar
This study investigated the tension that exists between promoting an educational agenda and practising an educational approach which emphasises autonomy within the framework of religious education. Our main thesis is that every educational deed contains a dialectical tension between endorsing an educational agenda and the promotion of autonomy.…
Könings, Karen D; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Elen, Jan
Students' perspective on education is of crucial importance for its effectivity, but students' opinions are seldom acknowledged by teachers and designers. Student participation in the educational design process could be a suitable tool to better take students' preferences into account. However, for effective participatory design, it is necessary to know whether students have stable preferences for the design of their education. Changeability of preferences would require a more continuing design process allowing continuous adaptations. This longitudinal survey study aimed to determine the changeability over time of students' preferences for different aspects of a learning environment. Additionally, causes of possible changes in preferences are investigated. The participants were 1,335 high school students of five schools for secondary education in the Netherlands, joining this study during a period of 2 years. Data about students' preferences were collected at three moments, using the Inventory of Perceived Study Environment Extended. Learning-related student characteristics, such as processing strategies and motivational orientations, were measured with the Inventory of Learning Styles. Additionally, data on learning performances were collected. The results showed stability on preferences for almost all studied characteristics of the learning environment. Particularly remarkable was a drop in desirability for student autonomy. This was larger for students with a certificate-oriented motivation and smaller for self-regulated students. Additionally, poorly performing students had a larger decrease in preference for autonomy. The stability on most aspects supports that participatory design might result in fairly stable instructional designs, although caution is needed with respect to student autonomy. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Platco, Nicholas L.., Jr.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of "Star Show" and the "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" (POP) instructional programs in a middle school Starlab setting. The Star Show is a planetarium program that relies heavily on an audiovisual/lecture format to impart information, while the POP method of instruction is an inquiry, activity-based approach to teaching astronomy. All Star Show and POP lessons were conducted in a Starlab planetarium. This study examined the effectiveness of the two methods on the attainment of astronomy knowledge, changes in student attitudes toward astronomy, retention of knowledge, and gender differences. A pilot study (N = 69) was conducted at a middle school near King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. The main study (N = 295) was conducted at a middle school near Reading, Pennsylvania. All students were pretested and posttested in both studies. The testing instruments included a 60-question paper-and-pencil content test and a 22-item Likert-style science attitude test. The content test was judged to be valid and reliable by a panel of science educators. The attitude test is a field-tested attitude survey developed by Michael Zeilik. The topics included in the Star Show and POP lessons were seasons, moon phases, eclipses, stars, and constellations. The Star Show programs used in this study are professionally prepared planetarium programs from Jeff Bowen Productions. Several planetarium educators who have been involved with planetarium training workshops throughout the United States developed the POP lessons used in this study. The Star Show was clearly the more effective method for improving student knowledge in both the pilot and main studies. Both methods were equally effective for improving student attitudes toward astronomy. The POP method was the more effective method of instruction when retention of knowledge was examined four weeks after the treatments ended. Gender did not have any significant effect on this study
Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Maling, Samuel; Rukundo, Godfrey; Kagawa, Mike; Kitara, David Lagoro; Kiguli, Sarah
Introduction Health professions education is gradually moving away from the more traditional approaches to new innovative ways of training aimed at producing professionals with the necessary competencies to address the community health needs. In response to these emerging trends, Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans (MESAU), a consortium of Ugandan medical schools developed key competencies desirable of graduates and successfully implemented Competency Based Education (CBE) for undergraduate medical students. Objectives To examine the current situation and establish whether assessment methods of the competencies are standardized across MESAU schools as well as establish the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from the MESAU consortium. Methods It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving faculty of the medical schools in Uganda. Data was collected using focus group discussions and document reviews. Findings were presented in form of themes. Results Although the MESAU schools have implemented the developed competencies within their curricular, the assessment methods are still not standardized with each institution having its own assessment procedures. Lack of knowledge and skills regarding assessment of the competencies was evident amongst the faculty. The fear for change amongst lecturers was also noted as a major challenge. However, the institutional collaboration created while developing competencies was identified as key strength. Conclusion Findings demonstrated that despite having common competencies, there is no standardized assessment blue print applicable to all MESAU schools. Continued collaboration and faculty development in assessment is strongly recommended. PMID:25995778
Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Maling, Samuel; Rukundo, Godfrey; Kagawa, Mike; Kitara, David Lagoro; Kiguli, Sarah
Health professions education is gradually moving away from the more traditional approaches to new innovative ways of training aimed at producing professionals with the necessary competencies to address the community health needs. In response to these emerging trends, Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans (MESAU), a consortium of Ugandan medical schools developed key competencies desirable of graduates and successfully implemented Competency Based Education (CBE) for undergraduate medical students. To examine the current situation and establish whether assessment methods of the competencies are standardized across MESAU schools as well as establish the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from the MESAU consortium. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving faculty of the medical schools in Uganda. Data was collected using focus group discussions and document reviews. Findings were presented in form of themes. Although the MESAU schools have implemented the developed competencies within their curricular, the assessment methods are still not standardized with each institution having its own assessment procedures. Lack of knowledge and skills regarding assessment of the competencies was evident amongst the faculty. The fear for change amongst lecturers was also noted as a major challenge. However, the institutional collaboration created while developing competencies was identified as key strength. Findings demonstrated that despite having common competencies, there is no standardized assessment blue print applicable to all MESAU schools. Continued collaboration and faculty development in assessment is strongly recommended.
Šlahova, Aleksandra; Volonte, Ilze; Cacka, Maris
Creative imagination is a psychic process of creating a new original image, idea or art work based on the acquired knowledge, skills, and abilities as well as on the experience of creative activity. The best of all primary school learners' creative imagination develops at the lessons of visual art, aimed at teaching them to understand what is…
Crance, Marie-Cecile; Trohel, Jean; Saury, Jacques
Introduction: This study investigated the experience of a highly skilled student during a handball physical education unit in a French high school. More specifically, the analysis describes the nature of his involvement during two lessons that follow a pedagogical model close to the principles of Sport Education. The present case study of a…
Thirty lessons, including 60 illustrations of maps and charts, provide a study framework for candidates preparing for their naturalization examinations as applicants for U. S. citizenship. Representative government is described in terms of group associations, comparing family, community, church, school, city, state, and national organization. The…
Modipane, Mpho; Themane, Mahlapahlapana
This paper reports on lessons learnt in the use of teachers' social capital as a resource for curriculum development, in the implementation of the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) programme in South Africa. The researchers in this study were amongst the trainers. The study followed a qualitative research approach, where a descriptive research design…
Park, Jisun; Song, Jinwoong; Abrahams, Ian
This study explored, from the perspective of intellectual passion developed by Michael Polanyi, the unintended learning that occurred in primary practical science lessons. We use the term "unintended" learning to distinguish it from "intended" learning that appears in teachers' learning objectives. Data were collected using…
Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa
A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…
Jun 17, 2014 ... It is furthermore our contention that the notion of culture and African worldviews was always perceived negatively ..... dean of the South East Asia Graduate School of Theology. He later .... Another Reformed church for Indian.
Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health
Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y.; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E.
Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health
This paper explores school reform in England under the Conservative-led Coalition government, elected in 2010, through a focus on the changing roles and status of Local Authorities (LAs). The Coalition's stated aim was the development of a "self-improving, school-led" system in which LAs should become "champions for children."…
Sondergeld, Toni A.
This dissertation examines the efficacy of a bottom-up comprehensive school reform (CSR) program by evaluating its impact on student achievement, attendance, and behavior outcomes through an explanatory mixed methods design. The CSR program (Gear Up) was implemented in an urban junior high school over the course of seven years allowing for…
Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.
Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2010
Follow-through visits are a well-established part of the process of HMIE inspection of schools. Since 2003 HMIE staff and faculty have revised the arrangements for follow-through to achieve an increasingly proportionate approach. From then, their engagement with a school following inspection has been directly related to the school's overall…
Adapting Features from the SIOP Component: Lesson Delivery to English Lessons in a Colombian Public School (Adaptación de las características del componente de SIOP: Desarrollo de clase, en las clases de inglés en un colegio público colombiano)
Rativa Murillo, Hollman Alejandro
Despite some school efforts to offer students the best second language learning, English language lessons are often taught with an overuse of the mother tongue. Hence, an action research project was conducted in order to discover how to adapt some features of the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) component: Lesson delivery, for the…
Mendes, Pietro A.S.; Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno
We propose reforming the Brazilian regulatory safety framework (BRSF) for offshore oil and gas production and drilling operations. Brazil has emerged as a leading offshore producer with extensive proven reserves yet to be exploited. However, the BRSF has not been updated since 2007, and there are now major concerns about the industry's safety, particularly after the BP Deepwater Horizon accident, along with the technical challenges due to extreme conditions under which Brazil's resources are located. Drawing on experiences from three leading offshore oil and gas producers (Norway, the UK, and the US), we recommend the adoption of three best practices: the UK's ‘safety case’ approach (where operators are expected to provide convincing and valid arguments that a system is sufficiently safe for a given application in a specific environment), Norway's ‘barrier management’ (evidence that there are at least two tested and independent barriers to avoid accidents) and greater investment in safety research and development, as suggested by the US's National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling. We discuss implications for policy reform and how best practices can be applied within the Brazilian context. - Highlights: • Description of the Brazilian regulatory safety framework (BRSF). • Comparison between BRSF and regulatory frameworks of leading offshore oil and gas jurisdictions (Norway, UK and US). • Recommendations for BRSF to include the safety case, barrier management and increased investment in safety technology
Yanicet Rodríguez Marrero
Full Text Available This article deals with the treatment of sexual education for adolescents from the Spanish-Literature lessons in pr euniversity. It is based on contents that have become of paramount importance at the time of having a responsible sexuality, and in preventing risky behaviour on the STD (Sexual Transmitted Diseases. In its modelling various up-to-date concepts and appro aches that deal with this theme for its contextualization and enrichment of the educative models existing in Cuba were taken into consideration. It is considered that the formation of adolescents should be dealt with in the pedagogical context where the role of the teachers is of great significance from the point of view of the lesson.
Caskey, Rachel N; Macario, Everly; Johnson, Daniel C; Hamlish, Tamara; Alexander, Kenneth A
Many adolescents underutilize preventive services and are underimmunized. To promote medical homes and increase immunization rates, we conceptualized and implemented a 3-year, 8-school pilot school-located vaccination collaborative program. We sought community, parent, and school nurse input the year prior to implementation. We selected schools with predominantly Medicaid-enrolled or Medicaid-eligible students to receive Vaccines For Children stock vaccines. Nurses employed by a mass immunizer delivered these vaccines at participating schools 3 times a year. Over 3 years, we delivered approximately 1800 vaccines at schools. School administrators, health centers, and neighboring private physicians generally welcomed the program. Parents did not express overt concerns about school-located vaccination. School nurses were not able to participate because of multiple school assignments. Obtaining parental consent via backpack mail was an inefficient process, and classroom incentives did not increase consent form return rate. The influenza vaccine had the most prolific uptake. The optimal time for administering vaccines was during regular school hours. Although school-located vaccination for adolescents is feasible, this is a paradigm shift for community members and thus accompanies challenges in implementation. High principal or school personnel turnover led to a consequent lack of institutional memory. It was difficult to communicate directly with parents. Because we were uncertain about the proportion of parents who received consent forms, we are exploring Internet-based and back-to-school registration options for making the consent form distribution and return process more rigorous. Securing an immunization champion at each school helped the immunization processes. Identifying a financially sustainable school-located vaccination model is critical for national expansion of school-located vaccination. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of
Timme, Nicholas; Baird, Michael; Bennett, Jake; Fry, Jason; Garrison, Lance; Maltese, Adam
For the past two years, the Foundations in Physics and Mathematics (FPM) summer program has been held at Indiana University in order to fulfill two goals: provide additional physics and mathematics instruction at the high school level, and provide physics graduate students with experience and autonomy in designing curricula and teaching courses. In this paper we will detail changes made to the program for its second year and the motivation for these changes, as well as implications for future iterations of the program. We gauge the impact of the changes on student performance using pre-/post-test scores, student evaluations, and anecdotal evidence. These data show that the program has a positive impact on student knowledge and this impact was greater in magnitude in the second year of the program. We attribute this improvement primarily to the inclusion of more inquiry-driven activities. All activities, worksheets, and lesson plans used in the program are available online.
This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…
Crime and Criminal Law as a Theme in Education. Paper on the Starting Points, Objectives, and Teaching Matter of a Series of Lessons Called "Crime and Criminal Law," as a Theme for the School Subject of Social and Political Studies.
This series of lessons is intended to help high school students in the Netherlands consider how they look at, react to, and judge criminal events. The first part of the publication discusses different teaching approaches used in the lessons. These include: (1) a business analysis--study of the organization and structure of the criminal…
Shields, Regis Anne; Miles, Karen Hawley
Education Resource Strategies (ERS) works with school and district leaders to help them more strategically use resources--people, time, and money--to improve student performance. They have found that many school districts begin creating small high schools without a clear sense of how much they will spend or how to ensure that small schools…
One of the prevalent concerns in educational leadership practices in urban schools in the United States relates to diversity issues, especially the disengagement among students of certain ethnic groups with regard to succeeding in school. In this ethnographic study, educators who once served in U.S. public schools were invited to reflect on this…
Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.
The purpose of this research was to understand ways exemplary award winning secondary school leaders have transformed their schools for twenty-first-century education and student achievement. This article presents three diverse case studies and identifies ways that each school's leader and leadership team reconfigured its culture and expectations,…
Bhengu, Thamsanqa Thulani; Myende, Phumlani Erasmus
This paper explores what, from school principals' perspectives, constitutes leadership for coping with and adapting to policy change within deprived school contexts. Using qualitative interpretive research, we drew from the practices of five principals that were purposively selected from a broader study, which focused on school principals'…
Hansen, Britt Blaabjerg; Højholdt, Andy; Arndal, Lars Stubbe
educators, both initiatives of which support the subject-oriented education at school. These changes have challenged the way [education/school] professionals work and how they see their own and each other's roles in the school system (EVA 2013). The changes have also increased the need for collaborative...... in the classroom.4. Changing teaching methods: Students with weak school affiliation or special needs would benefit from a change in teaching methods that takes some of the competencies possessed by child and youth educators and uses them in the classroom. As a further step, it is relevant to open up students......Recent political reforms in the Danish school system have lengthened the school day and integrated child and youth educators into aspects of the teaching programme as part of a common European strategy of inclusion. The school day now contains homework cafes and lessons with child and youth...
Nadeem, Erum; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Kataoka, Sheryl H; Chang, Vickie Y; Stein, Bradley D
Schools across the nation are increasingly implementing suicide prevention programs that involve training school staff and connecting students and their families to appropriate services. However, little is known about how parents are engaged in such efforts. This qualitative study examined school staff perspectives on parent involvement in the implementation of a district-wide suicide prevention program by analyzing focus group and interview data gathered on the program implementation processes. Participants included middle school teachers, administrators, and other school personnel. Study results revealed that in the immediate wake of a crisis or concern about suicide, school staff routinely contacted parents. However, substantial barriers prevent some students from receiving needed follow-up care (eg, lack of consistent follow-up, financial strain, parental stress, availability of appropriate services). Despite these challenges, school staff identified strategies that could better support parents before, during, and after the crisis. In particular, school-based services increased the success of mental health referrals. Our study suggests that systematic postcrisis follow-up procedures are needed to improve the likelihood that students and families receive ongoing support. In particular, school-based services and home visits, training and outreach for parents, and formal training for school mental health staff on parent engagement may be beneficial in this context. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Nadeem, Erum; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Chang, Vickie Y.; Stein, Bradley D.
BACKGROUND Schools across the nation are increasingly implementing suicide prevention programs that involve training school staff and connecting students and their families to appropriate services. However, little is known about how parents are engaged in such efforts. METHODS This qualitative study examined school staff perspectives on parent involvement in the implementation of a district-wide suicide prevention program by analyzing focus group and interview data gathered on the program implementation processes. Participants included middle school teachers, administrators, and other school personnel. RESULTS Study results revealed that in the immediate wake of a crisis or concern about suicide, school staff routinely contacted parents. However, substantial barriers prevent some students from receiving needed follow-up care (eg, lack of consistent follow-up, financial strain, parental stress, availability of appropriate services). Despite these challenges, school staff identified strategies that could better support parents before, during, and after the crisis. In particular, school-based services increased the success of mental health referrals. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that systematic post-crisis follow-up procedures are needed to improve the likelihood that students and families receive ongoing support. In particular, school-based services and home visits, training and outreach for parents, and formal training for school mental health staff on parent engagement may be beneficial in this context. PMID:26645415
Bager, Ann; Mølholm, Martin; Horsbøl, Anders
studies. As a point of departure we study the discourse formations that emerge in specific media texts applying a Foucauldian archive analytical strategy. Concurrently, we study processes of how political ideas and discourses are translated through plurivocal dialogue (Bakhtin) and translation processes...
Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...
F. O. Ezeokoli
Full Text Available The study determined the methods adopted by teachers in prose literature-in-English classrooms, activities of teachers and students, teachers’ perceived effectiveness of techniques used. It also examined the objectives of teaching prose literature that teachers should address and the extent teachers believe in student-identified difficulties of studying prose literature. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 85 schools in Owerri metropolis and in each school, all literature teachers of senior secondary I and II were involved. In all, 246 literature teachers participated out of which 15 were purposively selected for observation. The two instruments were: Teachers’ Questionnaire (r = 0.87 and Classroom Observation Schedule (r = 0.73. Data were analysed using frequency counts and percentages. Results revealed that teachers adopted lecture (28.4%, reading (10.9% and discussion (7.3% methods. Teacher’s activities during the lesson include: giving background information, summarizing, dictating notes, reading aloud and explaining and asking questions. The adopted techniques include: questioning, oral reading, silent reading and discussion. Teachers’ perceived questioning as the most effective technique followed by debating and summarizing. Teachers identified development of students’ critical faculties and analytical skills, literary appreciation and language skills to be of utmost concern. It was concluded that the methods adopted by teachers are not diverse enough to cater for the needs and backgrounds of students. Keywords: Methods, Techniques, Perceived Effectiveness, Objectives, Literature-in-English
Full Text Available The Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science has funded a five years program to encourage the use, creation and sharing of Open Educational Resources (OER by teachers from various types of education. This program is known as Wikiwijs. Ultimo 2013, the program has come to an end. As some of the assumptions at the start of Wikiwijs proved to work out in unexpected ways the lessons learned could fuel the next steps in developing Wikiwijs. Besides, other national initiatives on opening up education may also benefit from the lessons learned reported here. The main conclusion from five years Wikiwijs was that to accomplish mainstreaming OER, the Wikiwijs program should go along with other interventions that are more oriented toward prescriptive policies and regulations. In particular: the Dutch government should be more directive in persuading executive boards and teachers on schools to adopt OER as an important part of educational reform and the acquisition of 21st century skills.
Full Text Available In his text published in Edukacja, 141(2, 2017 („Education reform and inequality: fifteen years of new lower secondary schools in Poland”, Zbigniew Sawiński analyses data from the 2000 to 2012 editions of the OECD PISA study and argues that lower secondary school reform has not reduced educational inequalities in Poland. The importance of students’ social origin remained at the same level as before the reform, the impact of social origin on the choice of type of secondary school remained the same, and an increasing differentiation of lower secondary schools did not lead to an increase in educational inequalities. I present methodological arguments and the results of a re-analysis of PISA data, indicating changes in wider educational inequalities. Between 2000 and 2012: (a the strength of association in the performance of 15-year-olds with the socio-economic status of students’ families did not change, but (b the variation of results decreased, which was mainly due to the improved performance of the lowest performing students, (c the differences between students of high and low socio-economic status decreased, (d the influence of social origin on the choice of the type of upper secondary school decreased. The effects of socio-economic status on upper secondary school choice is largely direct: it is not mediated by the educational achievements of students. The commentary also highlights the complexity of lower secondary school reform, which was not limited to the introduction of such schools. I indicate the role of factors that make it difficult to interpret the results of the reform in causal terms – particularly the role of unobserved variables related to the changes in the learning environments of subsequent cohorts of students.
Townrow, Carly S.; Laurence, Nick; Blythe, Charlotte; Long, Jenny; Harré, Niki
The Maui's Dolphin Challenge was a litter reduction project that was run twice at a secondary school in Aotearoa New Zealand. The project drew on a theoretical framework encompassing four psycho-social principles: values, embodied learning, efficacy, and perceived social norms. It challenged students to reduce the litter at the school by offering…
Muhingi, Wilkins Ndege; Mutavi, Teresia; Kokonya, Donald; Simiyu, Violet Nekesa; Musungu, Ben; Obondo, Anne; Kuria, Mary Wangari
Given the known positive and negative effects of uncontrolled social networking among secondary school students worldwide, it is necessary to establish the relationship between social network sites and academic performances among secondary school students. This study, therefore, aimed at establishing the relationship between secondary school…
ten Brummelhuis, A.C.A.; Plomp, T.
The systematic introduction of computers in schools for general secondary education in The Netherlands started in the early 1980s. Initially, the Dutch government experimented in 1983 with a project in 100 lower general secondary schools limited in scope to gain experience with educational computer
Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Meisalo, Veijo
How to make learning more interesting is a basic challenge for school education. In this Finnish study, the international ROSE questionnaire was used to survey, during spring of 2003, the relationship between interest in biology and out-of-school experiences for 3626 ninth-grade pupils. Interest and experience factors were extracted by using the…
Stachowski, Christopher Allen
In New Zealand, private language schools, although controversial, are popular for international travellers who want to study and travel simultaneously. These alternative schools are run in a business-like fashion and their educational administrators have embraced the use of marketing as part of their everyday educational management practice. Even…
Rasberry, Catherine N.; Slade, Sean; Lohrmann, David K.; Valois, Robert F.
Background: The new Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model, designed to depict links between health and learning, is founded on concepts of coordinated school health (CSH) and a whole child approach to education. Methods: The existing literature, including scientific articles and key publications from national agencies and…
K.M. Stegers-Jager (Karen)
textabstractContext: Thirty years ago, it was suggested in the Edinburgh Declaration that medical school applicants should be selected not only on academic, but also on non-academic, attributes. The main rationale behind extending medical school selection procedures with the evaluation of
Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Sievering, Kathryn S.; Armstrong, Charlotte; Stonis, Julie
This article describes a crisis response framework based on the authors' first-hand experience following three Colorado school shootings. During each crisis response, one or more of the authors joined school and/or district crisis teams, providing direct assistance and leadership. The authors' experiences helped guide subsequent responses and…
Santizo Rodall, Claudia A.; Martin, Christopher James
This article analyses changes that have occurred in the elementary education system in Mexico since 1992 when an administrative de-concentration process took place. This process was accompanied by legal modifications that created opportunities for social participation in public elementary schools affairs. As a result, some school communities in…
Pei, Wang; Guoli, Zhang
Based on the measuring instruments used by scholars in China and abroad, we devised a questionnaire to study occupational stress of 500 secondary and elementary school teachers in Tacheng municipality in Xinjiang and examined its negative effects on teachers. They found that the occupational stress of secondary and elementary school teachers are…
Reyes, Pedro, Ed.; Scribner, Jay D., Ed.; Scribner, Alicia Paredes, Ed.
The current poor condition of education for Hispanic students need not exist. This book reports on high-performing schools along the Texas-Mexico border that have achieved schoolwide success by creating communities of learners. Three elementary, three middle, and two high schools in the border region were selected for study based on the following…
Morgan, Peter J.; Pontines, Victor
The purpose of this study is to better understand the likely impact on Asian economies and financial institutions of various recent global financial reforms, including Basel III capital adequacy and liquidity rules. Part one reviews the lessons of the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2007â€“09 and their relevance for Asian economies. Part two describes the major regulatory reforms that have been announced and possible concerns about their impacts on emerging economies. Part three reviews the ...
Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne
This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…
Gottlob, Brian J.
As a large body of high-quality research has emerged in the past few years showing that school choice benefits the students who use it, much of the debate has shifted to the "public" or "social" effects of school choice. This study examines how school choice in Missouri would raise high school graduation rates, and measures the…
Gottlob, Brian J.
This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…
Gottlob, Brian J.
Research has documented a crisis in Texas high school graduation rates. Only 67 percent of Texas students graduate from high school, and some large urban districts have graduation rates of 50 percent or lower. This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Texas and examines how school choice could provide large public benefits…
Vula, Eda; Berisha, Fatlume; Saqipi, Blerim
This study examined the lessons learned from the introduction of a teacher mentoring culture within a teacher professional development program in selected pilot schools in Kosovo. Four mentor teachers and four mentee focus groups were involved in the open interviews, and their portfolios were examined. The important themes in terms of developing a school mentoring culture in a system that had lacked mentoring practices and is embarking on an ambitious curricular reform were identified. The st...
Manalo, Jaime A; Balmeo, Katherine P; Berto, Jayson C; Saludez, Fredierick M; Villaflor, Jennifer D; Pagdanganan, Argie M
Climate change (CC) is an urgent and highly relevant topic that must be integrated into the school curriculum. Literature on CC integration, however, is scarce, let alone literature on integrating climate-smart rice agriculture (CSRA). Bringing CSRA lessons into the classroom means the chance is higher that climate-smart technologies on rice will reach even the most far-flung areas of the Philippines, which stand to be among the most vulnerable as regards the negative impacts of CC. This paper shares experiences drawn from three high schools in the Philippines on integrating CSRA into their curriculum. The research centers on appropriate teaching tools/strategies, push and exogenous factors in CSRA integration, and the types of information that are likely to be shared by the students with their farmer-parents or other farmers in their communities. Surveys among participating students (n = 155) and three focus group discussions among key school officials were conducted. Different teaching methods and/or tools were found to be generally useful in various contexts. Photos and videos, however, emerged as the most effective tools across sites. The livelihood source of the students does have a bearing on the complexity of messages that they can convey. Students from rice-farming households can competently discuss even highly complex adaptation and mitigation information with their farmer-parents or other farmers. Thorough message-framing is necessary to maximize student involvement as well as to increase production of education-entertainment (edutainment) materials to be utilized in teaching. This study, in general, contributes to CC education by bringing in best-fit practices in teaching tools and strategies to mobilize students to act on urgent matters relating to the impacts of CC. It also advises on considering exogenous factors that might affect CC education by taking into account those that are equally capable of shaping students' perception and knowledge.
Thompson, Hannah R; Haguewood, Robin; Tantoco, Nicole; Madsen, Kristine A
Physical education (PE) can help to achieve important public health goals, but is often under-prioritized and lacking in schools. To detail the actions, impact, and successes of a strategic alliance formed by three collaborating organizations to improve PE in a large California school district. Semistructured interviews with alliance members, principals, and teachers in 20 elementary schools, 3 years after the alliance formation. Interviewees reported district-level increases in priority and funding for PE and attributed improvements to the alliance's collection and dissemination of local data on the status of PE. Common goals, trust, and open communication within the alliance were seen as critical to the alliance's success. However, changes in district- or school-level accountability measures for PE were not reported. This strategic alliance succeeded in promoting district-level priority and funding for PE. Ongoing alliance work will focus on increasing accountability measures for PE, which may take longer to implement.
Kocken, Paul L; van Kesteren, Nicole M C; Buijs, Goof; Snel, Jeltje; Dusseldorp, Elise
To study the effects of school lessons about healthy food on adolescents' self-reported beliefs and behaviour regarding the purchase and consumption of soft drinks, water and extra foods, including sweets and snacks. The lessons were combined with the introduction of lower-calorie foods, food labelling and price reductions in school vending machines. A cluster-randomized controlled design was used to allocate schools to an experimental group (i.e. lessons and changes to school vending machines) and a control group (i.e. 'care as usual'). Questionnaires were used pre-test and post-test to assess students' self-reported purchase of extra products and their knowledge and beliefs regarding the consumption of low-calorie products. Secondary schools in the Netherlands. Twelve schools participated in the experimental group (303 students) and fourteen in the control group (311 students). The students' mean age was 13.6 years, 71.5% were of native Dutch origin and mean BMI was 18.9 kg/m(2). At post-test, the experimental group knew significantly more about healthy food than the control group. Fewer students in the experimental group (43%) than in the control group (56%) reported bringing soft drinks from home. There was no significant effect on attitude, social norm, perceived behavioural control and intention regarding the consumption of low-calorie extra products. The intervention had limited effects on students' knowledge and self-reported behaviour, and no effect on their beliefs regarding low-calorie beverages, sweets or snacks. We recommend a combined educational and environmental intervention of longer duration and engaging parents. More research into the effects of such interventions is needed.
Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.; Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Kapral, A.; Dominey, W.; Ramsey, J.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.
The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning. This paper will describe the development of a detailed set of new 5E lesson plans to
Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon
This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…
Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Daelmans, Hester E; Horrevoets, Anton; de Haan, Marian; van der Meijde, Margreeth; Croiset, Gerda
At VUmc School of Medical Sciences, major curricular reforms occurred in 2005 and 2015, related to the introduction of a Bachelor-Master structure, a new legislation from the Ministry of Education, the changing societal context, and taking note of students' and teachers' needs. Summary of work: Along with the introduction of the Bachelor-Master system, the period between 2005 and 2009 saw the movement from traditional lecture-based teaching to small group teaching in a competency-based curriculum, in which the students were responsible for their learning. Student engagement grew through students' designing learning modules and conducting some of the teaching. In the Bachelor program, an elective "Minor", was designed to broaden and deepen the knowledge of our students beyond the core learning outcomes, in a discipline of their choice. The examination board (EB), responsible for maintaining the quality of assessment, was split into the General EB, which handled overall strategy issues, and the Executive EB, which handled student requests and monitored the quality of assessments. Students develop a sense of what education is about if they are provided opportunities in designing teaching and conducting it. A Minor elective in the medical study can provide the students with an opportunity to learn outside the medical field. Collaborative working between different stakeholders in a medical school is crucial for safeguarding the quality of assessments. Curricular reforms need time to be accepted and integrated into the culture of the medical school. The educational vision needs to be refreshed regularly in alignment with the changing societal context.
Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary
The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement
The extant literature on 20th and 21st century public policy in Brazil makes clear that the private sector and social elite have long had an interest and influence in government across all sectors, that they have at many times brought in reforms from outside of Brazil, and that for the last several decades that international influence has been neoliberal in both policy and ideology. More to the point, the current literature argues that neoliberal ideology is commonly reflected in contemporary...
Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...
Monteith, Dianne S.
A recent study (Cook, 1989) involving 58 randomly selected South Carolina elementary schools indicated that none of these schools could be characterized as having an "open climate." This paper suggests that this situation may have its origins in the educational reform movement of the 1980s, first ignited by the publication of "A…
Full Text Available The evidence of the huge challenges of literacy development faced by South African learners is primarily gleaned from the results of learners’ external assessments. There is little research which explores, in-depth, the strategies used by teachers to teach reading literacy and reading comprehension specifically. Questions remain about what is going wrong and, most importantly,what can be changed to rectify the poor outcomes of learners. To gain insight into the poor achievement of Grade 4 learners, in South Africa in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS 2006, six case studies were undertaken. Each school case had a different class average achievement profile ranging from low to high on the PIRLS achievement scale.This article presents findings from the observation of Grade 4 reading comprehension lessons in six schools. The comparison of observations of teaching practices aligned to higher achieving schools, against those of lower performing schools, indicates the discrepancies in the quality of teaching reading comprehension across the schools, and reveals potential foci for teacher development. The value of comparative lesson observation for these purposes is highlighted.
Three sources of data were used to inform the intervention development process: the existing research literature on school-based physical activity interventions, teacher interviews (N=12 and pupil focus groups (N=18 and an experimental feasibility study (N=85; Norris, Shelton, Dunsmuir, Duke-Williams, & Stamatakis, 2015b. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used as a framework to guide synthesis of evidence into the resulting intervention. Potential appropriate Behaviour Change Techniques were reviewed and embedded within the intervention. Conclusions The resulting 6-week Virtual Traveller programme with a 3-month follow-up period is currently in its final stages of evaluation in ten Greater London primary schools. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Techniques allows development of replicable health interventions in applied settings such as schools.
White, Bradford R.
Charter schools are publicly-funded educational entities that operate independently from local school districts and are exempt from certain state and local requirements, particularly with regard to teacher personnel policy. In exchange for this flexibility, charter schools are held more accountable for results and may be shut down if they fail to…
Kapucu, Naim; Kösecik, Muhammet
This article begins with the examination of models of analyzing the process of policy transfer, lesson drawing and policy streams with regard to initiating and directing factors and dynamics of the process. The paper continues with the assessment of administrative reform transferring by evaluating the necessity, major themes and transferability of administrative reform. Strategies for successful administrative reform transferring are emphasized. Special reference is given to New Public Manage...
Brandt, Carol B.
In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.
Zakirova, Venera G.; Kamalova, Lera A.
In this article, the authors begin by outlining the basic principles of teaching children-migrants at the elementary school level. These principles include: (1) Learning Russian is focused on the development of children's ability to communicate; (2) Language is learned by migrant children as a mean of communication; (3) Students can see the…
This policy brief describes how the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) has approached the objectives of educational equity and adequacy over the past decade and a half, and reveals how their current finance research has begun to explicitly link the level and use of resources with strategies that districts and schools can deploy to…
Khuziakhmetova, Anvar N.; Naumova, Marina V.
The relevance of diagnostic meta-subject competence measures in secondary schools is caused by the fact that the importance of a meta-subject competence formation was officially defined in educational standards, but there are still no qualitative and informative diagnostic tools for this competence development. The purpose of the article is to…
Matto, Elizabeth C.; Vercellotti, Timothy
With the growing size of the "Millennial Generation" and its potential impact on American democracy, the civic education of this cohort deserves study. Using news media and discussion of politics at home and in the classroom at four public high schools in New Jersey, we conducted an experiment to measure changes in media use, political…